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Sample records for isolated systolic hypertension

  1. Isolated Systolic Hypertension: A Health Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... based blood pressure guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: Report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311:507. Duprez D. ... hypertension in the elderly. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy. ...

  2. Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2016-11-01

    Young and middle-aged adults (ages ≤50 years) are increasingly prone to stroke, kidney disease, and worsening cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. An alarming increase in the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) may underlie the adverse trend. However, there is often uncertainty in BP management for young and middle-aged adults. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is one such example. Whether ISH in young and middle-aged adults represents "pseudo" or "spurious" hypertension is still being debated. ISH in young and middle-aged adults is a heterogeneous entity; some individuals appear to have increased stroke volume, whereas others have stiffened aortae, or both. One size does not seem to fit all in the clinical management of ISH in young and middle-aged adults. Rather than treating ISH as a monolithic condition, detailed phenotyping of ISH based on (patho)physiology and in the context of individual global cardiovascular risks would seem to be most useful to assess an individual expected net benefit from therapy. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of ISH in young and middle-aged adults, including the prevalence, pathophysiology, and treatment.

  3. Significance of White-Coat Hypertension in Older Persons With Isolated Systolic Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Stanley S.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W.; Li, Yan; Boggia, José; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    The significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension remains poorly understood. We analyzed subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes database who had daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP; ABP) and conventional BP (CBP) measurements. After excluding persons with diastolic hypertension by CBP (≥90 mm Hg) or by daytime ABP (≥85 mm Hg), a history of cardiovascular disease, and persons <18 years of age, the present analysis totaled 7295 persons, of whom 1593 had isolated systolic hypertension. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years, there was a total of 655 fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. The analyses were stratified by treatment status. In untreated subjects, those with white-coat hypertension (CBP ≥140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) and subjects with normal BP (CBP <140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) were at similar risk (adjusted hazard rate: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.87–1.57]; P=0.29). Furthermore, in treated subjects with isolated systolic hypertension, the cardiovascular risk was similar in elevated conventional and normal daytime systolic BP as compared with those with normal conventional and normal daytime BPs (adjusted hazard rate: 1.10 [95% CI: 0.79–1.53]; P=0.57). However, both treated isolated systolic hypertension subjects with white-coat hypertension (adjusted hazard rate: 2.00; [95% CI: 1.43–2.79]; P<0.0001) and treated subjects with normal BP (adjusted hazard rate: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.49–2.62]; P<0.0001) were at higher risk as compared with untreated normotensive subjects. In conclusion, subjects with sustained hypertension who have their ABP normalized on antihypertensive therapy but with residual white-coat effect by CBP measurement have an entity that we have termed, “treated normalized hypertension.” Therefore, one should be cautious in applying the term

  4. Pulse Wave Velocity Predicts Response to Renal Denervation in Isolated Systolic Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fengler, Karl; Rommel, Karl-Philipp; Hoellriegel, Robert; Blazek, Stephan; Besler, Christian; Desch, Steffen; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; Lurz, Philipp

    2017-05-17

    Renal sympathetic denervation seems to be less effective as a treatment for hypertension in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, a condition associated with elevated central arterial stiffness. Because isolated systolic hypertension can also be caused by wave reflection or increased cardiac output, a more differentiated approach might improve patient preselection for renal sympathetic denervation. We sought to evaluate the additional predictive value of invasive pulse wave velocity for response to renal sympathetic denervation in patients with combined versus isolated systolic hypertension. Patients scheduled for renal sympathetic denervation underwent additional invasive measurement of pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure before denervation. Blood pressure was assessed via ambulatory measurement at baseline and after 3 months. In total 109 patients (40 patients with isolated systolic hypertension) were included in our analysis. After 3 months, blood pressure reduction was more pronounced among patients with combined hypertension compared with patients with isolated systolic hypertension (systolic 24-hour average 9.3±10.5 versus 5.0±11.5 mm Hg, P=0.046). However, when stratifying patients with isolated systolic hypertension by invasive pulse wave velocity, patients in the lowest tertile of pulse wave velocity had comparable blood pressure reduction (12.1±12.6 mm Hg, P=0.006) despite lower baseline blood pressure than patients with combined hypertension (systolic 24-hour average 154.8±12.5 mm Hg in combined hypertension versus 141.2±8.1, 148.4±10.9, and 150.5±12.7 mm Hg, respectively, by tertiles of pulse wave velocity, P=0.002). Extended assessment of arterial stiffness can help improve patient preselection for renal sympathetic denervation and identify a subgroup of isolated systolic hypertension patients who benefit from sympathetic modulation. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Crossover comparison of atenolol, enalapril, hydrochlorothiazide and isradipine for isolated systolic systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Silagy, C A; McNeil, J J; McGrath, B P

    1992-11-15

    The benefit of antihypertensive therapy in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with isolated systolic hypertension has now been established by the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. However, there is little information about the relative effectiveness of different drug regimens in this condition. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of 50 mg of atenolol, 10 mg of enalapril, 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide and 2.5 mg of isradipine in the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension. After a 3-week placebo run-in phase, 24 subjects were randomized into a 4-period double-blind crossover study by use of an orthogonal latin square design. Treatment periods were of 6 weeks' duration with titration to a higher dose after 4 weeks in those not reaching goal blood pressure (BP). Each active treatment was followed by a 3-week placebo washout. Casual clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BP (Accutracker II) were measured at the end of each treatment phase. Routine biochemistry was also performed after the placebo run-in, at the end of each active treatment phase, and after the placebo run-out. Of the 24 subjects entered (mean age 72.3 years, 38% men) 20 completed the whole study. Mean +/- standard deviation of supine clinic and daytime ambulatory BP on entry were 181/79 +/- 21/9 mm Hg and 165/82 +/- 23/15 mm Hg, respectively. All drugs reduced mean casual and ambulatory BP significantly relative to placebo but only hydrochlorothiazide and enalapril produced a consistent hypotensive effect throughout the entire 24-hour period. Isradipine and enalapril exhibited a relatively greater effect on reducing systolic BP than either hydrochlorothiazide or atenolol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Comparison of the effects of antihypertensive agents on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in isolated systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Isla S; McEniery, Carmel M; Dhakam, Zahid; Brown, Morris J; Cockcroft, John R; Wilkinson, Ian B

    2009-08-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and results primarily from elastic artery stiffening. Although various drug therapies are used to lower peripheral blood pressure (BP) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, the effects of the 4 major classes of antihypertensive agents on central BP, pulse pressure (PP) amplification, and arterial stiffness in this condition are not clear. Fifty-nine patients over the age of 60 years with untreated isolated systolic hypertension (systolic BP > or =140 mm Hg and diastolic BP systolic BP and peripheral PP were reduced similarly after treatment with all 4 classes of drug. However, central PP was only reduced significantly by perindopril, lercanidipine, and bendrofluazide, whereas atenolol had no effect. Lercanidipine reduced the augmentation index, whereas atenolol increased it. Aortic pulse wave velocity was not changed by any of the drugs. In summary, despite similar reductions in peripheral systolic and PPs with the 4 classes of drug, changes in central pressure and augmentation index varied. Because central PP and increased wave reflections are considered important risk factors in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, the choice of therapy may be influenced by these findings in the future.

  7. Isolated systolic hypertension in Dutch middle aged and all-cause mortality: a 25-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    van den Ban, G C; Kampman, E; Schouten, E G; Kok, F J; van der Heide, R M; van der Heide-Wessel, C

    1989-03-01

    In the early 1950s, the blood pressure of 3901 Dutch civil servants and their spouses aged 40-65 years was measured in a general health survey. Isolated systolic hypertension (systolic pressure greater than 160 mmHg, diastolic pressure less than 90 mmHg) was observed in 6.3% of the women and 3.0% of the men. The prevalence increased with age and it was more common in women in all age groups. Using logistic regression, with adjustment for potential confounders (age, smoking, serum cholesterol, Quetelet index, alcohol consumption, haemoglobin level, pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure) the association of 15- and 25-year total mortality with isolated systolic hypertension was determined. Compared to normotensive people (systolic pressure less than or equal to 135 mmHg, diastolic pressure less than 90 mmHg), the risk of death from all causes was significantly higher for men with isolated systolic hypertension after 15 and 25 years of follow-up (odds ratio OR = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.8 and OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-8.0). For women 15-years mortality risk was strongly associated with isolated systolic hypertension (OR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.4-9.7). The increased risk was less pronounced after 25 years of follow-up (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.96-3.0). Our results support those of other studies and indicate that isolated systolic hypertension is an important independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. Since isolated systolic hypertension may be an indicator for the early onset of ageing, it is important to study its determinants and to pay more attention to its diagnosis and treatment in middle-aged populations.

  8. Reduced effect of percutaneous renal denervation on blood pressure in patients with isolated systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Sebastian; Ukena, Christian; Linz, Dominik; Kindermann, Ingrid; Cremers, Bodo; Laufs, Ulrich; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schmieder, Roland E; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Renal denervation can reduce blood pressure in certain patients with resistant hypertension. The effect in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, ≥140/<90 mm Hg) is unknown. This study investigated the effects of renal denervation in 126 patients divided into 63 patients with ISH and 63 patients with combined hypertension (CH, ≥140/≥90 mm Hg) defined as baseline office systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg despite treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive agents. Renal denervation significantly reduced office SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 3, 6, and 12 months by 17/18/17 and 5/4/4 mm Hg in ISH and by 28/27/30 and 13/16/18 mm Hg in CH, respectively. The reduction in SBP and DBP in ISH was lower compared with patients with CH at all observed time points (P<0.05 for SBP/DBP intergroup comparison). The nonresponder rate (change in office SBP <10 mm Hg) after 6 months was 37% in ISH and 21% in CH (P<0.001). Mean 24-hour ambulatory SBP and DBP after 3, 6, and 12 months were significantly reduced by 10/13/15 and 6/6/9 mm Hg in CH, respectively. In patients with ISH the reduction in systolic ambulatory blood pressure was 4/8/7 mm Hg (P=0.032/P<0.001/P=0.009) and 3/4/2 mm Hg (P=0.08/P<0.001/P=0.130) in diastolic ambulatory blood pressure after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. The ambulatory blood pressure reduction was significantly lower after 3 and 12 months in SBP and after 12 months in ambulatory DBP, respectively. In conclusion, renal denervation reduces office and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with ISH. However, this reduction is less pronounced compared with patients with CH.

  9. On-Treatment Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Older Adults With Isolated Systolic Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi; Bakris, George L; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Oparil, Suzanne; Saruta, Takao; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Imai, Yutaka; Ogihara, Toshio

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to assess optimal on-treatment blood pressure (BP) at which cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality risks are minimized in Japanese older adults with isolated systolic hypertension. We used data from the VALISH study (Valsartan in Elderly Isolated Systolic Hypertension) that recruited older adults (n=3035; mean age, 76 years) with systolic BP (SBP) of ≥160 mm Hg and diastolic BP of <90 mm Hg. Patients were treated by valsartan. Patients were also categorized into 3 groups based on achieved on-treatment SBP of <130 mm Hg (n=317), 130 to <145 mm Hg (n=2025), or ≥145 mm Hg (n=693). The primary outcome was composite CVD (coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, cardiovascular deaths, other vascular diseases, and kidney diseases) with secondary outcome being all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the CVD risk for each group. Over a median 3-year follow-up (8022 person-years), 93 CVD events and 52 deaths occurred. Using the on-treatment SBP of 130 to <145 mm Hg as reference stratum, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of CVD and all-cause mortality risks for those with SBP<130 mm Hg were 2.08 (1.12-3.83) and 2.09 (0.93-4.71) and for those with SBP≥145 mm Hg were 2.29 (1.44-3.62) and 2.51 (1.35-4.66), respectively. On-treatment diastolic BP yielded no relationships with CVD or all-cause mortality risk. In conclusion, among Japanese older adults with isolated systolic hypertension, SBP in the range between 130 and 144 mm Hg was associated with minimal adverse outcomes and a reduction in CVD and all-cause mortality. The BP range will need to be confirmed in randomized controlled trials. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00151229. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide for the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension: a subgroup analysis of the INCLUSIVE trial.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G; Neutel, Joel M; Ferdinand, Keith C

    2009-04-01

    This post hoc analysis of the Irbesartan/Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) Blood Pressure Reductions in Diverse Patient Populations (INCLUSIVE) trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose irbesartan/HCTZ in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Adults with uncontrolled systolic blood pressure (SBP) (140-179 mm Hg; 130-179 mm Hg in type 2 diabetes) after 4 weeks or more of antihypertensive monotherapy once-daily treatment with placebo for 4-5 weeks, followed by HCTZ 12.5 mg for 2 weeks, irbesartan/HCTZ 150/12.5 mg for 8 weeks, and then irbesartan/HCTZ 300/25 mg for 8 weeks, in a prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm study. In patients with isolated systolic hypertension (n = 443) and the total study population (n = 736), irbesartan/HCTZ treatment for 16 weeks provided comparable mean blood pressure (BP) reductions from baseline (21.4/10.1 mm Hg vs 21.5/10.4 mm Hg; p < .001 vs baseline) and high SBP control rates (74% vs 77%). Patients with isolated systolic hypertension and concomitant type 2 diabetes experienced smaller BP reductions (17.9/8.7 mm Hg vs 22.9/10.7 mm Hg) and lower rates of SBP control (< 130 mm Hg, 47%) than those without diabetes (< 140 mm Hg, 87%). BP reductions from baseline and SBP control rates were similar across isolated systolic hypertension subgroups (> or = 65 vs < 65 years, sex, race, and metabolic syndrome status). Irbesartan/HCTZ was well tolerated, with drug-related adverse events (dizziness, < or = 3%; upper respiratory tract infection, < or = 2%) occurring with similar rates in the isolated systolic hypertension and total population. Fixed-dose irbesartan/HCTZ combination treatment provided effective and well-tolerated BP lowering in a diverse population of patients with isolated systolic hypertension.

  11. Older Women with Controlled Isolated Systolic Hypertension: Exercise and Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Ubolsakka-Jones, Chulee; Sangthong, Benjarat; Aueyingsak, Sahachat; Jones, David A

    2016-06-01

    Exercise is generally regarded as beneficial for health, but the consequent increases in blood pressure might pose a risk for hypertensive subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine blood pressure responses to dynamic exercise and sustained handgrip in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) who were stable on medication. Nineteen female ISH patients (66 ± 5 yr) and 19 age-matched normotensive (NT) female controls undertook a 5-min cycle exercise (60% heart rate reserve [HRR]) and a 2-min handgrip exercise (30% maximum voluntary contraction). Blood pressure responses were measured using an oscillometric cuff, together with heart rate and resting brachial pulse transit times. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels after cycle exercise were 194 ± 18 and 153 ± 19 mm Hg for ISH and NT, respectively, with the increase above resting being greater for ISH (P < 0.001), and only small changes were found in diastolic blood pressure (DBP). During handgrip exercise, SBP rose to 168 ± 19 and 140 ± 8 mm Hg for ISH and NT, respectively. The increases above baseline were greater for ISH both during the exercise and postexercise circulatory occlusion (P = 0.017). The increase in DBP levels during exercise and postexercise occlusion were similar in ISH and NT, suggesting little difference in metaboreflex sensitivity. Pulse transit time was shorter for ISH compared with NT (166 ± 6 ms and 242 ± 24 ms, respectively, P < 0.001), indicating stiffer arteries, which would increase SBP but not DBP. Despite being well controlled and normotensive control subjects at rest, ISH patients had high SBP responses to both dynamic and static exercises, which may constitute a risk for cardiovascular incidents.

  12. Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Young and Middle-Aged Adults and 31-Year Risk for Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Yuichiro; Stamler, Jeremiah; Garside, Daniel B.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Franklin, Stanley S.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mm Hg, in younger and middle-aged adults is increasing in prevalence. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) with ISH in younger and middle-aged adults. METHODS CVD risks were explored in 15,868 men and 11,213 women 18 to 49 years of age (mean age 34 years) at baseline, 85% non-Hispanic white, free of coronary heart disease (CHD) and antihypertensive therapy, from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study. Participant classifications were as follows: 1) optimal-normal blood pressure (BP) (SBP <130 mm Hg and DBP <85 mm Hg); 2) high-normal BP (130 to 139/85 to 89 mm Hg); 3) ISH; 4) isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg); and 5) systolic diastolic hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg). RESULTS During a 31-year average follow-up period (842,600 person-years), there were 1,728 deaths from CVD, 1,168 from CHD, and 223 from stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, race, education, body mass index, current smoking, total cholesterol, and diabetes. In men, with optimal-normal BP as the reference stratum, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk for those with ISH were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 1.46) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.58), respectively. ISH risks were similar to those with high-normal BP and less than those associated with isolated diastolic hypertension and systolic diastolic hypertension. In women with ISH, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.18 to 2.05) and 2.12 (95% CI: 1.49 to 3.01), respectively. ISH risks were higher than in those with high-normal BP or isolated diastolic hypertension and less than those associated with systolic diastolic hypertension. CONCLUSIONS Over long-term follow-up, younger and middle-aged adults with ISH

  13. [Case-control study on bone-setting manipulation for the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension combined with cervical spondylosis].

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-li; Mu, Xin; Wen, Jian-min

    2015-12-01

    To investigate clinical effect and safety of bone-setting manipulation in treating isolated systolic hypertension combined with cervical spondylosis. From January 2012 to January 2015, 320 patients suffered from isolated systolic hypertension combined with cervical spondylosis were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. In treatment group, there were 160 patients including 84 males and 76 females with an average age of (39.82 ± 10.33) years old, average blood pressure was (149.61 ± 10.75)/(81.01± 8.25) mmHg, NPQ score was 24.61 ± 8.14; treated with flexion top spin and lock bone-setting manipulation of cervical spine, once every two days for 20 days. While in control group, there were 160 patients including 90 males and 70 females with an average age of(41.37 ± 9.42) years old, average blood pressure was (151.48 ± 11.32)/ (79.65 ± 9.32) mmHg, NPQ score was 25.78 ± 9.53; treated with manipulation of reposition cervical spine by rotation, once every two days for 20 days. Blood pressure and NPQ score were tested and compared for evaluating clinical effects. Before and after a period treatment, systolic pressure in treatment group was (149.61 ± 10.75) mmHg and (129.67 ± 12.26) mmHg; (151.48 ± 11.32) mmHg and (132.02 ± 11.73) mmHg in control group. After treatment, systolic pressure in both two groups was obviously decreased, and treatment group was better than control group. Before and after a period treatment, diastolic pressure in treatment group was (80.01 ± 8.25) mmHg and (78.15 ± 10.34) mmHg, (79.65 ± 9.32) mmHg and (76.89 ± 9.79) mmHg in control group, and there was no significant difference between two groups. NPQ score in treatment group was 24.61 ± 8.14 before treatment, 12.46 ± 7.94 after treatment, while in control group was 25.78 ± 9.53, 14.17 ± 8.86; NPQ score of the two groups after treatment was better than before treatment, while there was no obviously significance between two groups after treatment. The whole

  14. Prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension in the population over 55 years old. Results from a national study.

    PubMed

    Clara, J Gorjão; De Macedo, Mário Espiga; Pego, Mariano

    2007-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and stroke) and premature mortality, particularly in the elderly population. Among this population, it is an even better predictor of morbidity and mortality than diastolic blood pressure (BP). This cooperative survey was promoted by the World Hypertension League, Associação Portuguesa de Hipertensão, Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia Preventiva, Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia, Sociedade Portuguesa de Geriatria, Sociedade Portuguesa de Medicina Intema, and Direcção Geral de Saúde, with the collaboration of Servier Portugal. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of ISH within the Portuguese elderly population (aged 55+) during the year 2000, compared and together with other countries, in order to estimate its worldwide prevalence. Secondary objectives were to investigate demographic factors related to ISH (age, gender and other cardiovascular risk factors) and to analyze the effects of repeated blood pressure measurements on prevalence and on postural variations in blood pressure. We performed a survey including 108 primary care centers. General practitioners were invited to include the first consecutive 15 patients aged over 55 years. Subjects were be selected over a period of one week and had to agree to attend three visits. All blood pressure measurements were to be performed in accordance with the standards of the 7th Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). 1031 subjects were included in this survey. We concluded that ISH prevalence ranges between 20.3% in primary" care patients and 35% in the community, using mean values of both systolic and diastolic BP. ISH prevalence is higher among women; it increases with age, decreasing slightly after the age of 70. Risk factors include gender, age and family history of hypertension. The predictive value for ISH

  15. Isolated systolic hypertension in young and middle-aged adults and 31-year risk for cardiovascular mortality: the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Stamler, Jeremiah; Garside, Daniel B; Daviglus, Martha L; Franklin, Stanley S; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2015-02-03

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mm Hg, in younger and middle-aged adults is increasing in prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) with ISH in younger and middle-aged adults. CVD risks were explored in 15,868 men and 11,213 women 18 to 49 years of age (mean age 34 years) at baseline, 85% non-Hispanic white, free of coronary heart disease (CHD) and antihypertensive therapy, from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study. Participant classifications were as follows: 1) optimal-normal blood pressure (BP) (SBP <130 mm Hg and DBP <85 mm Hg); 2) high-normal BP (130 to 139/85 to 89 mm Hg); 3) ISH; 4) isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg); and 5) systolic diastolic hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg). During a 31-year average follow-up period (842,600 person-years), there were 1,728 deaths from CVD, 1,168 from CHD, and 223 from stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, race, education, body mass index, current smoking, total cholesterol, and diabetes. In men, with optimal-normal BP as the reference stratum, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk for those with ISH were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 1.46) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.58), respectively. ISH risks were similar to those with high-normal BP and less than those associated with isolated diastolic hypertension and systolic diastolic hypertension. In women with ISH, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.18 to 2.05) and 2.12 (95% CI: 1.49 to 3.01), respectively. ISH risks were higher than in those with high-normal BP or isolated diastolic hypertension and less than those associated with systolic diastolic hypertension. Over long-term follow-up, younger and middle-aged adults with ISH had higher relative risk for CVD and CHD mortality

  16. Hemodynamic and Mechanical Properties of the Proximal Aorta in Young and Middle-Aged Adults With Isolated Systolic Hypertension: The Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuichiro; Neeland, Ian J; Ayers, Colby; Peshock, Ronald; Berry, Jarett D; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Greenland, Philip; Mitchell, Gary F; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess characteristic impedance (Zc) of the proximal aorta in young and middle-aged individuals with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). Zc is an index of aortic stiffness relative to aortic size. In the Dallas Heart Study, 2001 untreated participants 18 to 64 years of age (mean age: 42.3 years; 44% black race) were divided into the following groups based on office blood pressure (BP) measurements: (1) optimal BP (systolic BP [SBP] <120 mm Hg and diastolic BP [DBP] <80 mm Hg; n=837); (2) prehypertension (SBP 120-139 mm Hg and DBP 80-89 mm Hg; n=821); (3) ISH (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg; n=121); (4) isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg; n=44); and (5) systolic-diastolic hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg; n=178). Zc, aortic arch pulse wave velocity, and minimum ascending aortic size were quantified using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, Zc was highest in the ISH group compared with the optimal BP, isolated diastolic hypertension, or systolic-diastolic hypertension groups (103.2±4.0 versus 68.3±2.1, 75.4±6.0, and 88.9±4.8 dyne*seconds/cm(5), respectively; all P<0.05). The Zc-ISH association did not differ by race. Aortic pulse wave velocity was highest in the ISH group compared with the optimal BP, isolated diastolic hypertension, or systolic-diastolic hypertension groups (6.3±0.3 versus 4.3±0.1, 4.4±0.4 and 5.5±0.3 m/s, respectively; all P<0.05), whereas aortic size was similar across groups (all P>0.2). Results were similar in a subgroup of 1551 participants 18 to 49 years of age. In a multiracial population-based sample, we found evidence of a mismatch between proximal aortic stiffness and diameter in young and middle-aged adults with ISH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Antihypertensive efficacy and safety of manidipine versus amlodipine in elderly subjects with isolated systolic hypertension: MAISH study.

    PubMed

    Payeras, Antonio Coca; Sladek, Krzysztof; Lembo, Giuseppe; Alberici, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) affects 10-20% of the elderly population and is strongly related to the risk of cardiovascular events. Elevated systolic BP values are primarily caused by reduced large vessel compliance with a consequent increase in total peripheral resistance. Vasodilating drugs, such as calcium channel antagonists, have proven to be effective in controlling ISH in elderly patients. This study set out to compare the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of two different calcium channel antagonists, manidipine and amlodipine, administered once daily in elderly subjects with ISH. In a European, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group study, after a 2-week placebo run-in period, 195 patients aged >or=60 years with ISH received manidipine 10-20 mg once daily or amlodipine 5-10 mg once daily. Chlortalidone 25mg once daily could be added to the high dose of test drug in the event of insufficient antihypertensive control. The primary efficacy parameter was the proportion of patients with a reduction in office sitting systolic BP (SBP) >or=15 mm Hg, measured at trough, at the final visit. Secondary efficacy parameters included: the proportion of patients with a normal sitting SBP value (<140 mm Hg) at the final visit; a change from baseline to the final visit in mean office trough sitting SBP; a change from baseline to the final visit in the cardiovascular risk score as measured by the INDANA (INdividual Data ANalysis of Antihypertensive intervention trials) project score; the proportion of patients with at least a two-point reduction in the cardiovascular risk score; the percentage of patients requiring upward dose titration and diuretic add-on treatment and the investigator's final judgement. Safety and tolerability evaluations were based on adverse events, ECG and laboratory tests, and clinically relevant reports of abnormalities. In the intention-to-treat population (n = 189), 76% and 72% of patients in the manidipine and amlodipine

  18. Significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis using the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes population.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2012-03-01

    The significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension remains poorly understood. We analyzed subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes database who had daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP; ABP) and conventional BP (CBP) measurements. After excluding persons with diastolic hypertension by CBP (≥90 mm Hg) or by daytime ABP (≥85 mm Hg), a history of cardiovascular disease, and persons <18 years of age, the present analysis totaled 7295 persons, of whom 1593 had isolated systolic hypertension. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years, there was a total of 655 fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. The analyses were stratified by treatment status. In untreated subjects, those with white-coat hypertension (CBP ≥140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) and subjects with normal BP (CBP <140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) were at similar risk (adjusted hazard rate: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.87-1.57]; P=0.29). Furthermore, in treated subjects with isolated systolic hypertension, the cardiovascular risk was similar in elevated conventional and normal daytime systolic BP as compared with those with normal conventional and normal daytime BPs (adjusted hazard rate: 1.10 [95% CI: 0.79-1.53]; P=0.57). However, both treated isolated systolic hypertension subjects with white-coat hypertension (adjusted hazard rate: 2.00; [95% CI: 1.43-2.79]; P<0.0001) and treated subjects with normal BP (adjusted hazard rate: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.49-2.62]; P<0.0001) were at higher risk as compared with untreated normotensive subjects. In conclusion, subjects with sustained hypertension who have their ABP normalized on antihypertensive therapy but with residual white-coat effect by CBP measurement have an entity that we have termed, "treated normalized hypertension." Therefore, one should be cautious in applying the term "white-coat hypertension" to persons

  19. Evaluation of intima-media thickness and vascular elasticity of the common carotid artery in patients with isolated systolic hypertension using ultrasound radiofrequency-data technology.

    PubMed

    Dan, Hai-Jun; Wang, Yan; Zeng, Min-Xia; Luan, Yan-Yan; Hu, Bing

    2011-07-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) data technology is a newly developed method to evaluate vascular disease, especially subclinical atherosclerotic change. Data regarding predictors of intima-media thickness (IMT) and vascular elasticity of the common carotid artery (CCA) in subjects with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) using ultrasound RF-data technology are scarce. We evaluated the change in IMT and vascular elasticity of the CCA in patients with ISH at an early phase using US RF-data technology. Thirty-nine patients with ISH and 41 age-matched control subjects were the study population. The common carotid arterial systolic diameter (Ds), diastolic diameter (Dd), IMT, carotid distensibility (CD), local pulse wave velocity (PWVβ) and stiffness (β) were compared between the two groups, as were correlations between pulse pressure (PP) and parameters of vascular stiffness. Common carotid arterial Ds, Dd, IMT, PWVβ and β increased whereas CD decreased more significantly in the ISH group than in age-matched controls. The level of PP in the ISH group had significant positive correlations with PWVβ (r = 0·298, P<0·05) and β (r = 0·291, P<0·05), whereas significant correlations with CD were not observed. US RF-data technology could be used to accurately and quantitatively evaluate increased IMT and decreased arterial elasticity of the CCA in patients with ISH compared with normal subjects. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  20. Reduced blood pressure-lowering effect of catheter-based renal denervation in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: data from SYMPLICITY HTN-3 and the Global SYMPLICITY Registry

    PubMed Central

    Bakris, George; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Esler, Murray; Ewen, Sebastian; Fahy, Martin; Kandzari, David; Kario, Kazuomi; Mancia, Giuseppe; Weber, Michael; Böhm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Aims Catheter-based renal artery denervation (RDN) has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) (systolic BP [SBP] ≥140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg), characterized by increased vascular stiffness, is the predominant hypertensive phenotype in elderly patients. This study compared baseline characteristics and SBP change at 6 months between patients with ISH and combined systolic–diastolic hypertension (CH). Methods and results This study pooled data from 1103 patients from SYMPLICITY HTN-3 and the Global SYMPLICITY Registry. A total of 429 patients had ISH, and 674 had CH. Patients with ISH were significantly older than those with CH (66 vs. 55 years), had more type 2 diabetes mellitus (52.9 vs. 34.6%), and a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (71.8 vs. 78.6 mL/min/1.73 m2); all P < 0.001. At 6 months, the SBP drop for CH patients was −18.7 ± 23.7 mmHg compared with a reduction of −10.9 ± 21.7 mmHg for ISH patients −7.8 mmHg, 95% confidence interval, CI, −10.5, −5.1, P < 0.001). The change in 24-h SBP at 6 months was −8.8 ± 16.2 mmHg in patients with CH vs. −5.8 ± 15.4 mmHg in ISH (−3.0 mmHg, 95% CI −5.4, −0.6, P = 0.015). Presence of ISH at baseline but not age was associated with less pronounced BP changes following the procedure. The strongest predictor of office SBP reduction at 6 months was CH, followed by aldosterone antagonist use and non-use of vasodilators. Conclusion The reduction in BP among patients with ISH following RDN was less pronounced than the reduction in patients with CH. Clinical.Trials.gov identifiers NCT01534299 and NCT01418261. PMID:28158510

  1. Systolic hypertension: an increasing clinical challenge in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Bae; Kario, Kazuomi; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Systolic hypertension, the predominant form of hypertension in patients aged over 50–60 years, is a growing health issue as the Asian population ages. Elevated systolic blood pressure is mainly caused by arterial stiffening, resulting from age-related vascular changes. Elevated systolic pressure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, mortality and renal function decline, and this risk may increase at lower systolic pressure levels in Asian than Western subjects. Hence, effective systolic pressure lowering is particularly important in Asians yet blood pressure control remains inadequate despite the availability of numerous antihypertensive medications. Reasons for poor blood pressure control include low awareness of hypertension among health-care professionals and patients, under-treatment, and tolerability problems with antihypertensive drugs. Current antihypertensive treatments also lack effects on the underlying vascular pathology of systolic hypertension, so novel drugs that address the pathophysiology of arterial stiffening are needed for optimal management of systolic hypertension and its cardiovascular complications. PMID:25503845

  2. Effect of oral nitrates on pulse pressure and arterial elasticity in patients aged over 65 years with refractory isolated systolic hypertension: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Isolated systolic hypertension is a highly prevalent disease among the elderly. The little available evidence on the efficacy of nitrates for treating the disease is based on small experimental studies. Methods/design We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase III, placebo-controlled trial in 154 patients aged over 65 years with refractory isolated systolic hypertension. Patients were randomized to placebo or 40 mg/day of extended-release isosorbide mononitrate added to standard therapy and titrated to 60 mg/day at week 6 if blood pressure exceeded 140/90 mmHg. The primary objective was to assess the effect on clinical pulse pressure of extended-release isosorbide mononitrate added to standard therapy in patients aged over 65 years with refractory isolated systolic hypertension after 3 months of treatment. The secondary objectives were as follows: to quantify the effect of adding the study drug on central blood pressure and vascular compliance using the augmentation index and pulse wave velocity; to evaluate the safety profile by recording adverse effects (frequency, type, severity) and the percentage of patients who had to withdraw from the trial because of adverse events; to quantify the percentage of patients who reach a clinical systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg or <130 mmHg measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; and to quantify the change in pulse pressure measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Discussion Few clinical trials have been carried out to test the effect of oral nitrates on isolated systolic hypertension, even though these agents seem to be effective. Treatment with extended-release isosorbide mononitrate could improve control of systolic blood pressure without severe side effects, thus helping to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Trial registration EUDRACT Number: 2012-002988-10 PMID:24228894

  3. Central Systolic Hypertension in Patients with Well-Controlled Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Potočárová, Mária; Murín, Ján; Kozlíková, Katarína; Luha, Ján; Čaprnda, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) has prognostic significance and simplified devices for its estimation have been introduced recently. The aim of this study was to assess the achievement of the target CSBP in treated hypertensive patients. Subjects and Methods. One hundred patients with well-controlled hypertension were analysed. For CSBP estimation, we used the Arteriograph (TensioMed Ltd.), which uses one cuff for all measurements, the “single-point measurement” approach. Results. We found that 62% of patients had CSBP ≥ 130 mmHg, the suggested cut-off value for hypertension. When sex-specific classification was employed (CSBP ≥ 137 mmHg for female and CSBP ≥ 133 mmHg for male), only 13% of patients (mainly women) remained in the hypertensive range. We also found that 55% of patients had a CSBP higher than brachial pressure. Multiple analyses showed that CSBP was significantly associated with sex, height, and return time. Conclusions. A high proportion of treated hypertensive patients had CSBP levels that exceeded their brachial BP. CSBP positively correlated with lower height and shorter return time of the reflected pressure wave and was significantly higher in females compared to males. These findings suggest that, for CSBP classification, it is important to take height and sex-specific differences into account. PMID:28127560

  4. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Rates Between Systolic and Diastolic Hypertension in Young Adults: A Multi-Disciplinary Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Heather M.; Bartels, Christie M.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.; Schumacher, Jessica R.; Pandhi, Nancy; Smith, Maureen A.

    2015-01-01

    Differential rates of diagnosis and treatment by hypertension type may contribute to poor hypertension control in young adults. Our objective was to compare rates of receiving a hypertension diagnosis and antihypertensive among young adults with 1) isolated systolic, 2) isolated diastolic, and 3) combined systolic/diastolic. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 18-39 year-olds (n=3003) with incident hypertension. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed. Only 56% with isolated systolic received a diagnosis compared to 63% (systolic/diastolic); 32% with isolated systolic received an initial antihypertensive compared to 52% (systolic/diastolic). Compared to systolic/diastolic, isolated systolic had a 50% slower diagnosis rate (HR 0.50; 0.41–0.60) and isolated diastolic had a 26% slower rate (HR 0.74; 0.60–0.92). Isolated systolic had 58% slower medication initiation (HR 0.42; 0.34–0.51); isolated diastolic had 31% slower rates (HR 0.69; 0.55–0.86). Young adults with isolated systolic hypertension have lower diagnosis and treatment rates. PMID:26073687

  5. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Rates Between Systolic and Diastolic Hypertension in Young Adults: A Multidisciplinary Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Heather M; Bartels, Christie M; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Schumacher, Jessica R; Pandhi, Nancy; Smith, Maureen A

    2015-11-01

    Differential rates of diagnosis and treatment by hypertension (HTN) type may contribute to poor HTN control in young adults. The objective of this study was to compare rates of receiving a hypertension diagnosis and antihypertensive agent among young adults with (1) isolated systolic, (2) isolated diastolic, and (3) combined systolic/diastolic HTN. A retrospective analysis was conducted in patients aged 18 to 39 years (n=3003) with incident HTN. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed. Only 56% with isolated systolic HTN received a diagnosis compared with 63% (systolic/diastolic); 32% with isolated systolic HTN received an initial antihypertensive compared with 52% (systolic/diastolic). Compared with patients with systolic/diastolic HTN, those with isolated systolic HTN had a 50% slower diagnosis rate (hazard ratio [HR], 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.60) and those with isolated diastolic HTN had a 26% slower rate (HR, 0.74; CI, 0.60-0.92). Patients with isolated systolic HTN had 58% slower medication initiation (HR, 0.42; CI, 0.34-0.51) and those with isolated diastolic HTN had 31% slower rates (HR, 0.69; CI, 0.55-0.86). Young adults with isolated systolic HTN have lower diagnosis and treatment rates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Systolic blood pressure and systolic hypertension in adolescence of atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2007-11-01

    Annual medical examinations were conducted during adolescence for the in utero clinical study sample subjects exposed prenatally to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Systolic blood pressure and several anthropometric measurements were recorded during these examinations. For 1014 persons exposed in utero, two types of longitudinal analyses were performed, for a total of 7029 observations (6.93 observations per subject) of systolic blood pressure (continuous data) and systolic hypertension (binary data) for persons aged 9 to 19 years. Body mass index (BMI) and/or body weight were considered in the analyses as potential confounders. For the measurements of systolic blood pressure, the common dose effect was 2.09 mmHg per Gy and was significant (P = 0.017). The dose by trimester interaction was suggestive (P = 0.060). A significant radiation dose effect was found in the second trimester (P = 0.001), with an estimated 4.17 mmHg per Gy, but in the first and third trimesters, radiation dose effects were not significant (P > 0.50). For prevalence of systolic hypertension, the radiation dose effect was significant (P = 0.009); the odds ratio at 1 Gy was 2.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 4.04], and the dose by trimester interaction was not significant (P = 0.778). The dose response of systolic hypertension had no dose threshold, with a threshold point estimate of 0 Gy (95% CI: <0.0, 1.1 Gy). The dose response for systolic blood pressure was most pronounced in the second trimester, the most active organogenesis period for the organs relevant to blood pressure.

  7. Severe systolic hypertension and the search for safer motherhood.

    PubMed

    Martin, James N

    2016-03-01

    Timely and appropriate response to severe hypertension during gestation is an important component of quality, safe care for pregnant or puerperal mothers regardless of causation. The reduction of severe maternal morbidity and maternal mortality in the hypertensive mother is clearly enhanced by the addition of standard protocols for provider response to severe hypertension, particularly severe systolic hypertension. The program developed in New York State via the Safe Motherhood Initiative promotes the implementation of unit-specific safety bundles, especially one that is focused upon a standardized approach to handling the obstetric emergency of severe hypertension usually associated with preeclampsia/eclampsia. The comprehensive preeclampsia/eclampsia safety bundle as summarized by Drs. Moroz and colleagues is reviewed especially from the perspective of its focus on the timely and specific responses for health care providers to make when severe hypertension is detected in the pregnant patient. Evidence-based guidance to practice considerations and clinical care of patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia is embedded within the program outlined for New York State by Moroz and her District II ACOG colleagues. There is a central focus on timely and appropriate antepartum/postpartum management of severe hypertension, a core concept to lessen maternal risk for cerebral hemorrhage. Ten considerations for further integration into the New York program are suggested. Beyond blood pressure control, there is a need for systematic review of interventions and outcomes over time, attention to possible future variations of the protocol for racial/ethnic patient groups at highest risk for maternal morbidity and mortality, and the identification of biomarker(s) that further specify and quantify risk to the maternal brain and other organ systems when severe hypertension develops. Safer motherhood will happen when evidence for best practice is integrated into systems of care for all

  8. Is Isolated Nocturnal Hypertension A Reproducible Phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Jeff; Muntner, Paul; Diaz, Keith M.; Reynolds, Kristi; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH), defined as nocturnal without daytime hypertension on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM), has been observed to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term reproducibility of INH. METHODS The Improving the Detection of Hypertension Study enrolled a community-based sample of adults (N = 282) in upper Manhattan without CVD, renal failure, or treated hypertension. Each participant completed two 24-hour ABPM recordings (ABPM1: first recording and ABPM2: second recording) with a mean ± SD time interval of 33±17 days between recordings. Daytime hypertension was defined as mean awake systolic/diastolic BP ≥ 135/85mm Hg; nocturnal hypertension as mean sleep systolic/diastolic BP ≥ 120/70mm Hg; INH as nocturnal without daytime hypertension; isolated daytime hypertension (IDH) as daytime without nocturnal hypertension; day and night hypertension (DNH) as daytime and nocturnal hypertension, and any ambulatory hypertension as having daytime and/or nocturnal hypertension. RESULTS On ABPM1, 26 (9.2%), 21 (7.4%), and 50 (17.7%) participants had INH, IDH, and DNH, respectively. On ABPM2, 24 (8.5%), 19 (6.7%), and 54 (19.1%) had INH, IDH, and DNH, respectively. The kappa statistics were 0.21 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04–0.38), 0.25 (95% CI 0.06–0.44), and 0.65 (95% CI 0.53–0.77) for INH, IDH, and DNH respectively; and 0.72 (95% CI 0.63–0.81) for having any ambulatory hypertension. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that INH and IDH are poorly reproducible phenotypes, and that ABPM should be primarily used to identify individuals with daytime hypertension and/or nocturnal hypertension. PMID:25904648

  9. Endothelial function in postmenopausal women with nighttime systolic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, Faye S.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; McFetridge-Durdle, Judith; Blumenthal, James A.; Paine, Nicola J.; Sherwood, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypertension becomes more prevalent in women during their postmenopausal years. Nighttime systolic blood pressure (SBP) is especially predictive of adverse cardiac events and the relationship between rising nighttime SBP and cardiovascular risk increases more rapidly in women compared to men. The reasons for the prognostic significance of nighttime SBP are not completely known, but may involve vascular endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of nighttime SBP and endothelial function, assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and to determine whether postmenopausal women with nighttime hypertension (SBP≥120 mm Hg) evidenced greater endothelial dysfunction compared to women with normal nighttime SBP. Methods One-hundred postmenopausal women (mean age: 65.8 ± 7.5 years, body mass index: 28.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2, hypertension: 47%, coronary artery disease: 51%, mean clinic BP 137 ± 17/67 ± 11 mm Hg, 34 with nighttime hypertension) underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, actigraphy, and brachial artery FMD assessments. Results Multivariate regression models showed that higher nighttime SBP and larger baseline artery diameter were inversely related to FMD. Nighttime SBP and baseline artery diameter accounted for 23% of the variance in FMD. After adjusting for baseline artery diameter, women with nighttime hypertension had lower FMD than women with normal nighttime SBP (2.95%±0.65 vs 5.52%±0.46, p = .002). Conclusions In postmenopausal women, nighttime hypertension was associated with reduced endothelial function. Research examining the therapeutic benefits of treating nighttime hypertension on endothelial function and future cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women is warranted. PMID:25563797

  10. Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and Target Systolic Blood Pressure in Future Hypertension Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wagner, C Shaun

    2016-08-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, mm Hg) Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that targeting SBP <120 mm Hg (intensive treatment, mean SBP: 121.5 mm Hg) versus <140 (standard treatment, mean SBP: 134.6 mm Hg) reduced cardiovascular events 25%. SPRINT has 2 implicit assumptions that could impact future US hypertension guidelines: (1) standard therapy controlled SBP similarly to that in adults with treated hypertension and (2) intensive therapy produced a lower mean SBP than in adults with treated hypertension and SBP <140 mm Hg. To examine these assumptions, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2012 data were analyzed on 3 groups of adults with treated hypertension: group 1 consisted of SPRINT-like participants aged ≥50 years; group 2 consisted of participants all aged ≥18 years; and group 3 consisted of participants aged ≥18 years excluding group 1 but otherwise similar to SPRINT-like participants except high cardiovascular risk. Mean SBPs in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 133.0, 130.1, and 124.6, with 66.2%, 72.2%, and 81.9%, respectively, controlled to SBP <140; 68.3%, 74.8%, and 83.4% of the controlled subset had SBP <130. Mean SBPs in those controlled to <140 were 123.3, 120.9, and 118.9, respectively. Among US adults with treated hypertension, (1) the SPRINT-like group had higher mean SBP than comparison groups, yet lower than SPRINT standard treatment group and (2) among groups 1 to 3 with SBP <140, SBP values were within <3 mm Hg of SPRINT intensive treatment. SPRINT results suggest that treatment should be continued and not reduced when treated SBP is <130, especially for the SPRINT-like subset. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of treated adults with SBP <140 could approximate SPRINT intensive treatment SBP without lowering treatment goals. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Prevalence of systolic hypertension in cats with chronic renal failure at initial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Syme, Harriet M; Barber, Penney J; Markwell, Peter J; Elliott, Jonathan

    2002-06-15

    To determine prevalence of systolic hypertension and associated risk factors in cats with chronic renal failure evaluated in first-opinion practice. Prospective study. 103 cats with chronic renal failure. Systolic arterial blood pressure (SABP) was measured with a noninvasive Doppler technique, and cats that had SABP > 175 mm Hg on 2 occasions or that had SABP > 175 mm Hg and compatible ocular lesions were classified as hypertensive. Information from the history (previous treatment for hyperthyroidism, age), physical examination (sex, body weight), routine plasma biochemical analyses (creatinine, cholesterol, potassium, sodium, chloride, and calcium concentrations), and thyroid status were evaluated as potential risk factors for systolic hypertension. Variables associated with systolic hypertension were evaluated by use of logistic regression. 20 (19.4%; 95% confidence interval, 13 to 28%) cats had systolic hypertension. Plasma potassium concentration was significantly and inversely associated with systolic hypertension. Prevalence of systolic hypertension, although clinically important, was lower than that reported previously. The cause of the inverse association between systolic hypertension and plasma potassium concentration is not yet known.

  12. Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction: Contemporary Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ravi V.; Semigran, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction is often a poor prognostic marker in chronic heart failure. In this article, we review evidence supporting modern strategies addressing pulmonary hypertension in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, including right-sided heart catheterization with vasoreactivity testing and subsequent parenteral, oral, and inhaled therapy. We delineate a diagnostic approach to secondary pulmonary hypertension and outline evidence-based therapeutic strategies for management in acute and chronic heart failure. PMID:19032918

  13. [The influence of citoflavin on molecular mechanisms of hypertensive encephalopathy development in patients with systolic arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kartashova, E A; Romantsov, M G; Sarvilina, I V

    2014-01-01

    The molecular pharmacological effects of cytoflavin in patients with hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) and isolated systolic arterial hypertension (ISAH) have been investigated using the following methods: assessment of complaints, 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring, ultrasound diagnostics including echocardiography, measurement of lipid profiles and coagulograms, and molecular phenotyping by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. A combination of cytoflavin administration with standard therapy of HE and ISAH led to the most expressed return development of clinical symptoms, restoration of the hemodynamic, structural, and geometrical parameters of cardiovascular system, and normalization of the indices of lipid profiles and coagulograms in comparison to patients with HE and ISAH, which accepted only standard therapy. Molecular mechanisms of cytoflavin action have been revealed, which include control of the activity of cellular signaling pathways by means of intermolecular interactions. The optimized therapy of HE and ISAH is recommended for clinical application, which assumes a combined use of standard therapy and cytoflavin and provides a geroprotective action upon the cardiovascular system.

  14. Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension: Mendelian randomization study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal. Design: Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable...

  15. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  16. Nighttime blood pressure, systolic blood pressure variability, and left ventricular mass index in children with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajay P; Mohammed, Javed; Thomas, Benson; Lansdell, Nathan; Norozi, Kambiz; Filler, Guido

    2013-08-01

    Nighttime blood pressure (BP) and systolic BP variability on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) have been strongly associated with target-organ damage in hypertensive adults. The clinical relevance of these variables in children with hypertension remains under-studied. The study group included children aged 5-18 years old referred to the outpatient nephrology clinic for an elevated casual BP who underwent an ABPM and echocardiography (ECHO) study and did not have secondary hypertension. The interpretation of ABPM parameters and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was based on normative references. Seventy-two children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The association of various potential predictors including age, BMI z-score, casual BP z-score and ABPM parameters (BP z-score, BP load, nocturnal dipping and BP variability- within-subject standard deviation (SD) of BP) with LVMI was analyzed. On adjusted regression analysis, nighttime systolic BP load [standardized regression coefficient (β) 0.23; p < 0.05] and daytime systolic BP variability (β 0.37; p < 0.05) had significant association with LVMI. In children with primary hypertension, nighttime systolic BP load and daytime systolic BP variability had a stronger association with LVMI than casual BP and other ABPM parameters. Future longitudinal studies are needed to establish the causality among these variables.

  17. Systolic hypertension in the elderly: long-term lacidipine treatment. Objective, protocol, and organization. SHELL Study Group.

    PubMed

    Malacco, E; Gnemmi, A E; Romagnoli, A; Coppini, A

    1994-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is a definite risk factor for cardiovascular complications (i.e., cardiac failure, coronary artery disease, and stroke) independent of diastolic elevation. The prevalence of ISH is estimated to be approximately 15-20% in the population above the age of 60 years, and increases with advancing age. The Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly (SHELL) study is planned to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of lacidipine, matched with the diuretic chlorthalidone, in treatment of ISH in elderly hypertensive patients (EHP). One hundred fifteen Italian centers will participate in the study. Fifty centers are associated with the Società Italiana di Geriatria Ospedaliera and 65 centers are departments of internal medicine or outpatient clinics for management of hypertension. A total of 4,800 patients will be enrolled in the trial. Two subprojects will consist of periodical echocardiographic evaluation and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The primary end point of the SHELL study is the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in EHP with ISH, treated with either lacidipine or chlorthalidone. In particular, the SHELL trial is intended to determine whether lacidipine treatment will significantly reduce fatal myocardial events and total cardiovascular mortality.

  18. Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension: Mendelian randomization study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal. A Mendelian randomization study was employed, using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental var...

  19. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction detected by speckle tracking in hypertensive patients with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Susana; Cortez-Dias, Nuno; Nunes, Ana; Belo, Adriana; Zimbarra Cabrita, Inês; Sousa, Catarina; Pinto, Fausto J

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of hypertensive heart disease is wide, and can include left ventricular dysfunction. The development of echocardiographic parameters to improve patient stratification and to identify early adverse changes could be clinically useful. Aim To identify subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in hypertensive subjects with preserved ejection fraction (>55%), identified by global parameters of myocardial strain on speckle tracking imaging. This was a comparative observational study of two groups of individuals: normotensive (n=20, age 59 ± 7 years, 55% male) and hypertensive (n=229, age 62 ± 12 years, 57% male). Left ventricular function was assessed by various conventional clinical and echocardiographic parameters and global longitudinal and circumferential myocardial strain. Cut-off values to detect subclinical left ventricular dysfunction were established and applied in the hypertensive group. The Student's t test, Mann-Whitney test and chi-square test were used for the comparative statistical analysis. Most hypertensive subjects (53.7%) had grade I hypertension; blood pressure was controlled in 64.9%, and 54.8% showed left ventricular structural changes. Comparison between the normotensive and hypertensive groups showed no significant differences in parameters of global longitudinal or circumferential systolic strain. Application of the cut-offs to the hypertensive group identified 35 individuals (15.3%) as having subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction as assessed by global longitudinal myocardial strain parameters. In this group of hypertensive patients, global myocardial strain parameters identified a group of individuals with subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction despite preserved ejection fraction. The clinical relevance of these findings needs to be assessed in long-term follow-up studies. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in blacks with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Ayodele, Olugbenga E.; Alebiosu, C. Olutayo; Salako, Babatunde L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The risk of cardiovascular and renal diseases has been shown to be higher for systolic blood pressure than diastolic blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the differential control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in Nigerians with primary hypertension. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a prospective observational study carried out at the Medical Outpatient Department of the State Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital. METHODOLOGY: The study population consisted of 185 consecutive patients (65 males, 120 females), aged 35-85 years with primary hypertension who had been on drugs one- to 25 years prior to the onset of the study. Clinic blood pressure control was assessed during a year period. Six consecutive clinic blood pressure readings were recorded for each patient and the average calculated (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure separately). Patients were classified into subgroups based on the pattern of blood pressure control. RESULTS: Clinic systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was controlled in 58 patients (31.4%). Systolic blood pressure control was less frequent than diastolic blood pressure control (35.7% versus 51.4%, p<0.05). Patients with uncontrolled systolic blood pressure were significantly older than patients with only uncontrolled diastolic blood pressure (66.7+/-7.4 versus 52.9+/-8.7 years, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Systolic blood pressure is less frequently controlled than diastolic blood pressure in Nigerians treated for primary hypertension. This may increase the patient's risk of developing stroke, and cardiovascular and renal complications. PMID:15040512

  1. [24-hour systolic wave increment index monitoring in patients with low-renin arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Valieva, Z S; Chikhladze, N M; Rogoza, A N; Iarovaia, E B; Bosykh, E G; Chazova, I E

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) and daily reflected wave values in patients with low-renin hypertension with normal and elevated aldosterone production. The investigation included 66 patients. 24-hour BP monitoring was carried out and arterial wall rigidity and reflected wave values were assessed in all the patients. The patients with hyperaldosteronemia were found to have not only statistically significant severer hypertension, impaired circadian rhythms of BP, but also impaired augmentation index (Aix)--mainly its nocturnal increase. A positive correlation was found between nocturnal Aix and resting plasma aldosterone concentrations (r = -0.31; p = 0.002). The findings suggest the expediency of 24-hour systolic wave increment index monitoring in hypertensive patients ofthis category.

  2. 2014 Hypertension Guideline: Recommendation for a Change in Goal Systolic Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Handler, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Kaiser Permanente Care Management Institute National Hypertension Guideline was developed to assist primary care physicians and other health care professionals in the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated hypertension in adult men and nonpregnant women aged 18 years and older. The new guideline reflects general acceptance, with minor modifications, of the “Evidence-Based Guideline” report by the panel members appointed to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 8th Joint National Committee. A major practice change is the recommendation for goal systolic blood pressure less than 150 mmHg in patients aged 60 years and older who are treated for hypertension in the absence of diabetes or chronic kidney disease. This article describes the reasons for, evidence for, and consequences of the change, and is followed by the National Guidelines handout. PMID:26057683

  3. Very high central aortic systolic pressures in a young hypertensive patient on telmisartan: Is central aortic systolic pressure associated with white coat hypertension?

    PubMed

    Sule, Ashish Anil; Hwang, Teong Hui; Chin, Tay Jam

    2010-01-01

    Central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) is a very well-recognized tool to assess the end organ damage in patients with hypertension. It is known that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers reduce CASP more than some antihypertensives such as beta-blockers. White coat hypertension with CASP has not been described and validated. The present report describes a very anxious 24-year-old patient on telmisartan (an angiotensin receptor blocker), with a very high CASP compared with his peripheral blood pressure (BP). He had a strong family history of hypertension, and was fairly well controlled on 80 mg/day telmisartan, with his BP ranging from 125/80 mmHg to 130/85 mmHg (home BP monitoring). In May 2009, he underwent routine CASP at Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore), and ambulatory BP measurements using a BPro watch (HealthSTATS, Singapore). The patient had a CASP of 132 mmHg at the hospital, but his calculated CASP by ambulatory BP measurement at 1 pm was 120 mmHg. His ambulatory BPs were 137/94 mmHg; thus, hydrochlorothiazide was added for further control. He was advised to repeat CASP measurements on follow-up in six weeks. He followed up on June 18, 2009, and July 30, 2009, and his CASPs were 139 mmHg and 137 mmHg, respectively. He underwent a magnetic resonance aortogram to exclude any obstructive cause for very high CASPs. His magnetic resonance aortogram revealed no evidence of coarctation of the aorta. CASP may have significant variations due to white coat phenomenon. Further 24 h CASP studies are needed to observe whether CASP is subject to white coat phenomenon.

  4. Systolic hypertension mechanisms: effect of global and local proximal aorta stiffening on pulse pressure.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Philippe; Westerhof, Nico; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2012-03-01

    Decrease in arterial compliance leads to an increased pulse pressure, as explained by the Windkessel effect. Pressure waveform is the sum of a forward running and a backward running or reflected pressure wave. When the arterial system stiffens, as a result of aging or disease, both the forward and reflected waves are altered and contribute to a greater or lesser degree to the increase in aortic pulse pressure. Two mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to explain systolic hypertension upon arterial stiffening. The most popular one is based on the augmentation and earlier arrival of reflected waves. The second mechanism is based on the augmentation of the forward wave, as a result of an increase of the characteristic impedance of the proximal aorta. The aim of this study is to analyze the two aforementioned mechanisms using a 1-D model of the entire systemic arterial tree. A validated 1-D model of the systemic circulation, representative of a young healthy adult was used to simulate arterial pressure and flow under control conditions and in presence of arterial stiffening. To help elucidate the differences in the two mechanisms contributing to systolic hypertension, the arterial tree was stiffened either locally with compliance being reduced only in the region of the aortic arch, or globally, with a uniform decrease in compliance in all arterial segments. The pulse pressure increased by 58% when proximal aorta was stiffened and the compliance decreased by 43%. Same pulse pressure increase was achieved when compliance of the globally stiffened arterial tree decreased by 47%. In presence of local stiffening in the aortic arch, characteristic impedance increased to 0.10 mmHg s/mL vs. 0.034 mmHg s/mL in control and this led to a substantial increase (91%) in the amplitude of the forward wave, which attained 42 mmHg vs. 22 mmHg in control. Under global stiffening, the pulse pressure of the forward wave increased by 41% and the amplitude of the reflected wave by

  5. Chronic pulmonary hypertension shortens the duration of mitral annular systolic and diastolic tissue Doppler signals.

    PubMed

    López-Candales, Angel; Edelman, Kathy; Gulyasy, Beth; Candales, Maria Dolores

    2012-03-01

    Some data suggests that both left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function are impaired in patients with chronic pulmonary hypertension (cPH); however, a clear understanding of these specific abnormalities remains poorly characterized. LV systolic and diastolic function as well as LV myocardial performance index (MPI) were obtained and compared to total duration of mitral annular (MA) TDI systolic (MASTDId) and diastolic (MADTDId) measurements, corrected for heart rate, in 20 controls (Group I: mean 53 ± 18 years) and 30 patients (Group II: mean 55 ± 14 years) with cPH. Group II patients had relatively faster heart rates (75 ± 14 bpm vs. 63 ± 12 bpm; P < 0.003), higher LV ejection fraction (78 ± 10% vs. 68 ± 6%; P < 0.0004), similar MA systolic excursion (1.4 ± 0.2), unchanged MA TDI Ea/Aa ratios (0.86 ± 0.46 vs. 1.05 ± 0.41; P = 0.15), significantly higher LV MPI (0.98 ± 0.56 vs. 0.60 ± 0.11; P < 0.004), with a significantly shorter heart rate corrected MASTDId (251 ± 66 ms vs. 305 ± 30 ms; P < 0.001) and MADTDId (378 ± 87 ms vs. 497 ± 114 ms; P < 0.0001) than Group I. It appears that cPH shortens the total duration of both MA systolic and diastolic TDI intervals. Whether this is a result of altered LV geometry and/or confounded by the presence of relatively faster heart rates in cPH patients will require further study.

  6. Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension: Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Huang, Tao; Bergholdt, Helle Km; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ellervik, Christina; Qi, Lu

    2017-03-16

    Objective To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal.Design Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable.Setting CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium.Participants Data from 22 studies with 171 213 participants, and an additional 10 published prospective studies with 26 119 participants included in the observational analysis.Main outcome measures The instrumental variable estimation was conducted using the ratio of coefficients approach. Using meta-analysis, an additional eight published randomized clinical trials on the association of dairy consumption with systolic blood pressure were summarized.Results Compared with the CC genotype (CC is associated with complete lactase deficiency), the CT/TT genotype (TT is associated with lactose persistence, and CT is associated with certain lactase deficiency) of LCT-13910 (lactase persistence gene) rs4988235 was associated with higher dairy consumption (0.23 (about 55 g/day), 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.29) serving/day; P<0.001) and was not associated with systolic blood pressure (0.31, 95% confidence interval -0.05 to 0.68 mm Hg; P=0.09) or risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 1.05; P=0.27). Using LCT-13910 rs4988235 as the instrumental variable, genetically determined dairy consumption was not associated with systolic blood pressure (β=1.35, 95% confidence interval -0.28 to 2.97 mm Hg for each serving/day) or risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.04, 0.88 to 1.24). Moreover, meta-analysis of the published clinical trials showed that higher dairy intake has no significant effect on change in systolic blood pressure for interventions over one month to 12 months (intervention compared with control groups: β=-0.21, 95% confidence interval -0

  7. Hypertension Treatment and Concern About Falling: Baseline Data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Berlowitz, Dan R; Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya; Foy, Capri G; Gren, Lisa H; Kazis, Lewis; Lerner, Alan J; Newman, Jill C; Powell, James R; Riley, William T; Rosman, Robert; Wadley, Virginia G; Williams, Julie A

    2016-11-01

    To determine the extent of concern about falling in older adults with hypertension, whether lower blood pressure (BP) and greater use of antihypertensive medications are associated with greater concern about falling, and whether lower BP has a greater effect on concern about falling in older and more functionally impaired individuals. Secondary analysis involving cross-sectional study of baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Approximately 100 outpatient sites. SPRINT enrollees aged 50 and older (mean age 69) diagnosed with hypertension (N = 2,299). Concern about falling was determined using the shortened version of the Falls Efficacy Scale International as measured at the baseline examination. Mild concern about falling was present in 29.3% of participants and moderate to severe concern in 17.9%. Neither low BP (systolic BP<120 mmHg, diastolic BP <70 mmHg) nor orthostatic hypotension was associated with concern about falling (P > .10). Participants with moderate to severe concern about falling were taking significantly more antihypertensive medications than those with mild or no concern. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, no associations were evident between BP, medications, and concern about falling. Results were similar in older and younger participants; interactions between BP and age and functional status were not significantly associated with concern about falling. Although concern about falling is common in older adults with hypertension, it was not found to be associated with low BP or use of more antihypertensive medications in baseline data from SPRINT. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Pulse pressure is inversely related to aortic root diameter implications for the pathogenesis of systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Farasat, S Morteza; Morrell, Christopher H; Scuteri, Angelo; Ting, Chih-Tai; Yin, Frank C P; Spurgeon, Harold A; Chen, Chen-Huan; Lakatta, Edward G; Najjar, Samer S

    2008-02-01

    Hypertension accelerates the age-associated increase in aortic root diameter (AoD), likely because of chronically elevated distending pressures. However, the pulsatile component of blood pressure may have a different relationship with AoD. We sought to assess the relationship between AoD and pulse pressure (PP) while accounting for left ventricular and central arterial structural and functional properties, which are known to influence PP. The study population was composed of 1256 individuals, aged 30 to 79 years (48% women and 48% hypertensive), none of whom were on antihypertensive medications. Blood pressure was measured in the sitting position with conventional sphygmomanometry. PP was calculated as the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressures. AoD was measured at end diastole at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva with echocardiography. The relationship between AoD and PP was evaluated with multiple regression analyses. PP was 50+/-14 mm Hg in men and 54+/-18 mm Hg in women, and AoD was 31.9+/-3.5 mm in men and 28.9+/-3.5 mm in women. After adjusting for age, age(2), height, weight, and mean arterial pressure, AoD was independently and inversely associated with PP in both sexes. After further adjustments for central arterial stiffness and wall thickness, reflected waves, and left ventricular geometry, AoD remained inversely associated with PP in both men (coefficient=-0.48; P=0.0003; model R(2)=0.51) and women (coefficient=-0.40; P=0.01; model R(2)=0.61). Thus, AoD is inversely associated with PP, suggesting that a small AoD may contribute to the pathogenesis of systolic hypertension. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine this possibility.

  9. Portal Hypertension Secondary to Isolated Liver Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mojtahedzadeh, Mona; Otoukesh, Salman; Shahsafi, Mohammad R.; Tahbaz, Mohammad O.; Rahvari, Seyed K.; Poorabdollah, Mihan; Sajadi, Mohammad M.

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we present a case of isolated liver tuberculosis (TB) as a cause of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension leading to bleeding esophageal varices. Although TB has been known to cause portal hypertension in a variety of ways, this case was notable for the presence of periportal inflammation and granulomas, also seen in hepatic schistosomiasis. Herein, we discuss isolated liver TB and the differential diagnosis of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. In endemic areas, TB should be considered in the differential diagnosis of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. PMID:22764308

  10. Ambulatory Hypertension Subtypes and 24-Hour Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure as Distinct Outcome Predictors in 8341 Untreated People Recruited From 12 Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José; Asayama, Kei; Hansen, Tine W.; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Gu, Yu-Mei; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Liu, Yan-Ping; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Mena, Luis; Maestre, Gladys E.; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; O’Brien, Eoin; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) versus systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce. Methods and Results We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12 populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24≥80 mm Hg) did not increase the risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke (HRs≤1.54; P≥0.18), but was associated with a higher risk of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary events (HRs≥1.75; P≤0.0054). Isolated systolic hypertension (SBP24≥130 mm Hg) and mixed diastolic plus systolic hypertension were associated with increased risks of all aforementioned end points (P≤0.0012). Below age 50, DBP24 was the main driver of risk, reaching significance for total (HR for 1-SD increase, 2.05; P=0.0039) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.07; P=0.0032) and for all cardiovascular end points combined (HR, 1.74; P=0.039) with a nonsignificant contribution of SBP24 (HR≤0.92; P≥0.068); above age 50, SBP24 predicted all end points (HR≥1.19; P≤0.0002) with a nonsignificant contribution of DBP24 (0.96≤HR≤1.14; P≥0.10). The interactions of age with SBP24 and DBP24 were significant for all cardiovascular and coronary events (P≤0.043). Conclusions The risks conferred by DBP24 and SBP24 are age dependent. DBP24 and isolated diastolic hypertension drive coronary complications below age 50, whereas above age 50 SBP24 and isolated systolic and mixed hypertension are the predominant risk factors. PMID:24906822

  11. Chlorthalidone Plus Amiloride Reduces the Central Systolic Blood Pressure in Stage 1 Hypertension Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Leticia Aparecida Barufi; Cestario, Elizabeth do Espirito Santo; Cosenso-Martin, Luciana Neves; Vilela-Martin, Jose Fernando; Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos; Fuchs, Flavio Danni

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension reduction strategies use blood pressure in the brachial artery as the primary endpoint. Individuals who achieve the target blood pressure reduction with antihypertensive treatment have residual cardiovascular risk attributed to the difference in pressure between the aorta and brachial artery. Antihypertensive treatment affects the intrinsic properties of the vascular wall and arterial stiffness markers and consequently the central pressure. Recent publications stress the importance of adequate control of the central compared to peripheral blood pressure. Related clinical implications suggest that individuals with normal peripheral but high central blood pressure should not receive antihypertensive drugs that act on the central pressure. Therefore, they are at greater cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with a thiazide diuretic versus losartan on the central blood pressure in stage 1 hypertensive patients. Methods Twenty-five patients were randomized to the chlorthalidone 25 mg/amiloride 5 mg group (q.d.) and 25 patients received losartan 50 mg (b.i.d). The central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) and augmentation index (AIx 75) were assessed using applanation tonometry. The paired t-test was used to compare the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP), CSBP and AIx 75 between the thiazide and losartan groups at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Results Significant reductions in CSBP (123.3 ± 14.2 vs. 113.4 ± 111.4, P = 0.0103) and AIx 75 (87.7 ± 9.6 vs. 83.8 ± 8.9, P = 0.0289) were observed after 6 months of drug treatment with chlorthalidone 25 mg/amiloride 5 mg (q.d.). The administration of losartan 50 mg (b.i.d) did not reduce the CSBP and there were insignificant changes in the AIx 75. Conclusions Six-month treatment of chlorthalidone/amiloride but not losartan reduces the CSBP and AIx 75 in adults with stage 1

  12. Systolic blood pressure, arterial rigidity, and risk of stroke. The Framingham study.

    PubMed

    Kannel, W B; Wolf, P A; McGee, D L; Dawber, T R; McNamara, P; Castelli, W P

    1981-03-27

    Based on prospective data from the Framingham study relating systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, age, and pulse-wave configuration to future stroke incidence, it would appear that isolated systolic hypertension predisposes to stroke independent of arterial rigidity. The prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension increased with age and with the degree of blunting of the dicrotic notch in the pulse wave. Subjects with isolated systolic hypertension experienced two to four times as many strokes as did normotensive persons. While diastolic pressure is related to stroke incidence, in the subject with systolic hypertension, the diastolic component adds little to risk assessment and in men, in this subgroup, appears unrelated to stroke incidence.

  13. Impairment of pulmonary vascular reserve and right ventricular systolic reserve in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise capacity is impaired in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that cardiovascular reserve abnormalities would be associated with impaired hemodynamic response to pharmacological stress and worse outcome in PAH. Methods Eighteen PAH patients (p) group 1 NYHA class II/III and ten controls underwent simultaneous right cardiac catheterization and intravascular ultrasound at rest and during low dose-dobutamine (10 mcg/kg/min) with trendelenburg (DST). We estimated cardiac output (CO), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and capacitance (PC), and PA elastic modulus (EM). We concomitantly measured tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), RV myocardial peak systolic velocity (Sm) and isovolumic myocardial acceleration (IVA) in PAH patients. Based on the rounded mean + 2 SD of the increase in mPAP in our healthy control group during DST (2.8 + 1.8 mm Hg), PAH p were divided into two groups according to mean PA pressure (mPAP) response during DST, 1: ΔmPAP > 5 mm Hg and 2: ΔmPAP ≤ 5 mm Hg. Cardiovascular reserve was estimated as the change (delta, Δ) during DST compared with rest, including ΔmPAP with respect to ΔCO (ΔmPAP/ΔCO). All patients were prospectively followed up for 2 years. Results PAH p showed significant lower heart rate and CO increase than controls during DST, with a significant mPAP and pulse PAP increase and higher ΔmPAP/ΔCO (p < 0.05). Neither hemodynamic, IVUS and echocardiographic data were different between both PAH groups at rest. In group 1, DST caused a higher ΔEM, ΔmPAP/ΔCO, ΔPVR, and ΔTAPSE than group 2, with a lower IVA increase and a negative ΔSV (p < 0.05). TAPSE correlated with mPAP and RVP (p < 0.05) and, IVA and Sm correlated with CO (p < 0.05). ΔEM correlated with ΔmPAP and ΔIVA with ΔCO (p < 0.05). There were two deaths/pulmonary transplantations in group 1 and one death in group 2 during the follow-up (p > 0.05). Conclusions

  14. Chronic N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension : novel molecular adaptation to systolic load in absence of hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartunek, J.; Weinberg, E. O.; Tajima, M.; Rohrbach, S.; Katz, S. E.; Douglas, P. S.; Lorell, B. H.; Schneider, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which inhibits nitric oxide synthesis, causes hypertension and would therefore be expected to induce robust cardiac hypertrophy. However, L-NAME has negative metabolic effects on protein synthesis that suppress the increase in left ventricular (LV) mass in response to sustained pressure overload. In the present study, we used L-NAME-induced hypertension to test the hypothesis that adaptation to pressure overload occurs even when hypertrophy is suppressed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male rats received L-NAME (50 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)) or no drug for 6 weeks. Rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension had levels of systolic wall stress similar to those of rats with aortic stenosis (85+/-19 versus 92+/-16 kdyne/cm). Rats with aortic stenosis developed a nearly 2-fold increase in LV mass compared with controls. In contrast, in the L-NAME rats, no increase in LV mass (1. 00+/-0.03 versus 1.04+/-0.04 g) or hypertrophy of isolated myocytes occurred (3586+/-129 versus 3756+/-135 microm(2)) compared with controls. Nevertheless, chronic pressure overload was not accompanied by the development of heart failure. LV systolic performance was maintained by mechanisms of concentric remodeling (decrease of in vivo LV chamber dimension relative to wall thickness) and augmented myocardial calcium-dependent contractile reserve associated with preserved expression of alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain isoforms and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA-2). CONCLUSIONS: When the expected compensatory hypertrophic response is suppressed during L-NAME-induced hypertension, severe chronic pressure overload is associated with a successful adaptation to maintain systolic performance; this adaptation depends on both LV remodeling and enhanced contractility in response to calcium.

  15. Chronic N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension : novel molecular adaptation to systolic load in absence of hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartunek, J.; Weinberg, E. O.; Tajima, M.; Rohrbach, S.; Katz, S. E.; Douglas, P. S.; Lorell, B. H.; Schneider, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which inhibits nitric oxide synthesis, causes hypertension and would therefore be expected to induce robust cardiac hypertrophy. However, L-NAME has negative metabolic effects on protein synthesis that suppress the increase in left ventricular (LV) mass in response to sustained pressure overload. In the present study, we used L-NAME-induced hypertension to test the hypothesis that adaptation to pressure overload occurs even when hypertrophy is suppressed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male rats received L-NAME (50 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)) or no drug for 6 weeks. Rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension had levels of systolic wall stress similar to those of rats with aortic stenosis (85+/-19 versus 92+/-16 kdyne/cm). Rats with aortic stenosis developed a nearly 2-fold increase in LV mass compared with controls. In contrast, in the L-NAME rats, no increase in LV mass (1. 00+/-0.03 versus 1.04+/-0.04 g) or hypertrophy of isolated myocytes occurred (3586+/-129 versus 3756+/-135 microm(2)) compared with controls. Nevertheless, chronic pressure overload was not accompanied by the development of heart failure. LV systolic performance was maintained by mechanisms of concentric remodeling (decrease of in vivo LV chamber dimension relative to wall thickness) and augmented myocardial calcium-dependent contractile reserve associated with preserved expression of alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain isoforms and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA-2). CONCLUSIONS: When the expected compensatory hypertrophic response is suppressed during L-NAME-induced hypertension, severe chronic pressure overload is associated with a successful adaptation to maintain systolic performance; this adaptation depends on both LV remodeling and enhanced contractility in response to calcium.

  16. Prognostic value of exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients without coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Prada-Delgado, Oscar; Barge-Caballero, Eduardo; Peteiro, Jesús; Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Estévez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Barge-Caballero, Gonzalo; López-Pérez, Manuel; Vázquez-González, Nicolás; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso

    2015-02-01

    We sought to assess the prognostic value of exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients with normal resting echocardiography and absence of coronary artery disease. From our database of patients referred for treadmill exercise echocardiography, we identified 93 hypertensive patients with preserved resting left ventricular ejection fraction (≥ 50%), no evidence of structural heart disease, and absence of coronary artery disease on angiography. Overall, 39 patients developed exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction (defined as a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction below 50% at peak exercise) and 54 exhibited a normal left ventricular ejection fraction response to exercise. The mean follow-up was 6.1 (3.7) years. End points were all-cause mortality, cardiac death, heart failure, and the composite event of cardiac death or heart failure. Patients who developed exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction were at higher risk of death from any cause (hazard ratio=3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-10.3), cardiac death (hazard ratio=5.6; 95%CI, 1.1-29.4), heart failure (hazard ratio=8.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-44.2), and the composite end point (hazard ratio=5.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-19.0). In the multivariate analysis, exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction remained an independent predictor of both heart failure (hazard ratio=6.9; 95% CI, 1.3-37.4) and the composite event of cardiac death or heart failure (hazard ratio=4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-16.0). In hypertensive patients with preserved resting left ventricular ejection fraction and absence of coronary artery disease, exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction is a strong predictor of cardiac events and may represent early hypertensive heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Resistance training alone reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals: meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Evitom Corrêa; Abrahin, Odilon; Ferreira, Ana Lorena Lima; Rodrigues, Rejane Pequeno; Alves, Erik Artur Cortinhas; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula

    2017-08-03

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training alone on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Our meta-analysis, followed the guidelines of PRISMA. The search for articles was realized by November 2016 using the following electronic databases: BIREME, PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS and SciELO and a search strategy that included the combination of titles of medical affairs and terms of free text to the key concepts: 'hypertension' 'hypertensive', 'prehypertensive', 'resistance training', 'strength training', and 'weight-lifting'. These terms were combined with a search strategy to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and identified a total of 1608 articles: 644 articles BIREME, 53 SciELO, 722 PubMed, 122 Cochrane Library and 67 LILACS. Of these, five RCTs met the inclusion criteria and provided data on 201 individuals. The results showed significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (-8.2 mm Hg CI -10.9 to -5.5;I(2): 22.5% P valor for heterogeneity=0.271 and effect size=-0.97) and diastolic blood pressure (-4.1 mm Hg CI -6.3 to -1.9; I(2): 46.5% P valor for heterogeneity=0.113 and effect size=-0.60) when compared to group control. In conclusion, resistance training alone reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. The RCTs studies that investigated the effects of resistance training alone in prehypertensive and hypertensive patients support the recommendation of resistance training as a tool for management of systemic hypertension.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 3 August 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2017.69.

  18. Right Heart End-Systolic Remodeling Index Strongly Predicts Outcomes in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Comparison With Validated Models.

    PubMed

    Amsallem, Myriam; Sweatt, Andrew J; Aymami, Marie C; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Selej, Mona; Lu, HongQuan; Mercier, Olaf; Fadel, Elie; Schnittger, Ingela; McConnell, Michael V; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Zamanian, Roham T; Haddad, Francois

    2017-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) end-systolic dimensions provide information on both size and function. We investigated whether an internally scaled index of end-systolic dimension is incremental to well-validated prognostic scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension. From 2005 to 2014, 228 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were prospectively enrolled. RV end-systolic remodeling index (RVESRI) was defined by lateral length divided by septal height. The incremental values of RV free wall longitudinal strain and RVESRI to risk scores were determined. Mean age was 49±14 years, 78% were female, 33% had connective tissue disease, 52% were in New York Heart Association class ≥III, and mean pulmonary vascular resistance was 11.2±6.4 WU. RVESRI and right atrial area were strongly connected to the other right heart metrics. Three zones of adaptation (adapted, maladapted, and severely maladapted) were identified based on the RVESRI to RV systolic pressure relationship. During a mean follow-up of 3.9±2.4 years, the primary end point of death, transplant, or admission for heart failure was reached in 88 patients. RVESRI was incremental to risk prediction scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension, including the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management score, the Pulmonary Hypertension Connection equation, and the Mayo Clinic model. Using multivariable analysis, New York Heart Association class III/IV, RVESRI, and log NT-proBNP (N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide) were retained (χ(2), 62.2; P<0.0001). Changes in RVESRI at 1 year (n=203) were predictive of outcome; patients initiated on prostanoid therapy showed the greatest improvement in RVESRI. Among right heart metrics, RVESRI demonstrated the best test-retest characteristics. RVESRI is a simple reproducible prognostic marker in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Systolic blood pressure reactions to acute stress are associated with future hypertension status in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Painter, Rebecca C; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2012-08-01

    These analyses examined the association between blood pressure reactions to acute psychological stress and subsequent hypertension status in a substantial Dutch cohort. Blood pressure was recorded during a resting baseline and during three acute stress tasks, Stroop colour word, mirror tracing and speech. Five years later, diagnosed hypertension status was determined by questionnaire. Participants were 453 (237 women) members of the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort. In analysis adjusting for a number of potential confounders, systolic blood pressure reactivity was positively related to future hypertension. This was the case irrespective of whether reactivity was calculated as the peak or the average response to the stress tasks. The association was strongest for reactions to the speech and Stroop tasks. Diastolic blood pressure reactivity was not significantly associated with hypertension. The results provide support for the reactivity hypothesis.

  20. Ambulatory monitoring of systolic hypertension in the elderly: Eprosartan/hydrochlorothiazide compared with losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (INSIST trial).

    PubMed

    Ambrosioni, Ettore; Bombelli, Michele; Cerasola, Giovanni; Cipollone, Francesco; Ferri, Claudio; Grazioli, Irene; Leprotti, Cristiana; Mancia, Giuseppe; Melzi, Gabriella; Mugellini, Amedeo; Mulè, Giuseppe; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Salvetti, Antonio; Trimarco, Bruno

    2010-06-01

    Systolic hypertension is very common in the elderly and is strongly associated with the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The control of systolic hypertension is difficult and most patients require combination antihypertensive therapy. Few data are available regarding the efficacy of angiotensin II receptor antagonists on systolic hypertension of the elderly. The aim of this double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter study was to assess the efficacy of eprosartan 600 mg in combination with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg in comparison with losartan 50 mg in combination with HCTZ 12.5 mg, in reducing blood pressure in elderly patients with grade 2 systolic hypertension who did not optimally respond to eprosartan or losartan monotherapy. After a 3-week placebo wash-out, 155 patients with an Office trough sitting systolic blood pressure (Office sitSBP) >or=160 mmHg and <180 mmHg were randomized to eprosartan 600 mg (n=78) or losartan 50 mg (n=77) once daily for 6 weeks. In patients not optimally responding to monotherapy (Office sitSBP>or=130 mmHg) 12.5 mg HCTZ was added as fixed combination once daily for 6 weeks. A 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed at the end of wash-out and at the end of the fixed-combination period. No statistically significant difference was found between eprosartan/HCTZ and losartan/HCTZ on the primary endpoint (24-hour ABPM SBP) with an adjusted mean difference between treatments of 3.1 mmHg (95% CI: -0.32-6.59). However, the mean 24-hour ABPM SBP significantly decreased by 16.7 mmHg with eprosartan/HCTZ and 20.3 mmHg with losartan/HCTZ (P<0.001 vs. baseline). The mean Office sitSBP significantly decreased by 28.7 mmHg and 29.6 mmHg respectively, with eprosartan/HCTZ and losartan/HCTZ (P<0.001 vs.baseline and vs. monotherapy). In this study, eprosartan/HCTZ did not demonstrate to be superior to losartan/HCTZ in reducing ABPM systolic hypertension in the elderly.

  1. Plasma L-arginine levels distinguish pulmonary arterial hypertension from left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sandqvist, Anna; Schneede, Jörn; Kylhammar, David; Henrohn, Dan; Lundgren, Jakob; Hedeland, Mikael; Bondesson, Ulf; Rådegran, Göran; Wikström, Gerhard

    2017-10-03

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening condition, characterized by an imbalance of vasoactive substances and remodeling of pulmonary vasculature. Nitric oxide, formed from L-arginine, is essential for homeostasis and smooth muscle cell relaxation in PAH. Our aim was to compare plasma concentrations of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in PAH compared to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and healthy subjects. This was an observational, multicenter study comparing 21 patients with PAH to 14 patients with LVSD and 27 healthy subjects. Physical examinations were obtained and blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of ADMA, SDMA, L-arginine, L-ornithine, and L-citrulline were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plasma levels of ADMA and SDMA were higher, whereas L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio were lower in PAH patients compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Patients with PAH also had lower levels of L-arginine than patients with LVSD (p < 0.05). L-Arginine correlated to 6 min walking distance (6MWD) (r s = 0.58, p = 0.006) and L-arginine/ADMA correlated to WHO functional class (r s = -0.46, p = 0.043) in PAH. In conclusion, L-arginine levels were significantly lower in treatment naïve PAH patients compared to patients with LVSD. Furthermore, L-arginine correlated with 6MWD in PAH. L-arginine may provide useful information in differentiating PAH from LVSD.

  2. More accurate systolic blood pressure measurement is required for improved hypertension management: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Nitzan, Meir; Slotki, Itzchak; Shavit, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The commonly used techniques for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurement are the auscultatory Korotkoff-based sphygmomanometry and oscillometry. The former technique is relatively accurate but is limited to a physician's office because its automatic variant is subject to noise artifacts. Consequently, the Korotkoff-based measurement overestimates the blood pressure in some patients due to white coat effect, and because it is a single measurement, it cannot properly represent the variable blood pressure. Automatic oscillometry can be used at home by the patient and is preferred even in clinics. However, the technique's accuracy is low and errors of 10-15 mmHg are common. Recently, we have developed an automatic technique for SBP measurement, based on an arm pressure cuff and a finger photoplethysmographic probe. The technique was found to be significantly more accurate than oscillometry, and comparable to the Korotkoff-based technique, the reference-standard for non-invasive blood pressure measurements. The measurement of SBP is a mainstay for the diagnosis and follow-up of hypertension, which is a major risk factor for several adverse events, mainly cardiovascular. Lowering blood pressure evidently reduces the risk, but excessive lowering can result in hypotension and consequently hypoperfusion to vital organs, since blood pressure is the driving force for blood flow. Erroneous measurement by 10 mmHg can lead to a similar unintended reduction of SBP and may adversely affect patients treated to an SBP of 120-130 mmHg. In particular, in elderly patients, unintended excessive reduction of blood pressure due to inaccurate SBP measurement can result in cerebral hypoperfusion and consequent cognitive decline. By using a more accurate technique for automatic SBP measurement (such as the photoplethysmographic-based technique), the optimal blood pressure target can be achieved with lower risk for hypotension and its adverse events.

  3. Zofenopril and ramipril and acetylsalicylic acid in postmyocardial infarction patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a retrospective analysis in hypertensive patients of the SMILE-4 study.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Claudio; Ambrosioni, Ettore; Omboni, Stefano; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Bacchelli, Stefano; Esposti, Daniela D; Vinereanu, Dragos; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Zava, Dario

    2013-06-01

    Antecedent hypertension represents a risk factor for adverse outcomes in survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Prognosis of such patients might be greatly improved by drugs enhancing blood pressure control. In the present retrospective analysis of the randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, SMILE-4 study we compared the efficacy of zofenopril 60 mg and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 100 mg versus ramipril 10 mg and ASA in patients with AMI complicated by left ventricular dysfunction, classified according to a history of hypertension. The primary study end-point was 1-year combined occurrence of death or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. Hypertension was defined according to medical history and current blood pressure values at entry and could be determined in 682 of 716 patients of the intention-to-treat analysis. One hundred and fifty-seven patients (23%) were normotensives and 525 (77%) hypertensives. In the normotensive population the primary end-point occurred in 19 of 76 zofenopril-treated patients (25%) and in 23 of 81 ramipril-treated patients (28%) [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.84 (0.41-1.71), P = 0.631]. In the hypertensive population, major cardiovascular outcomes were reported in 84 of 273 zofenopril-treated patients (31%) and in 99 of 252 ramipril-treated patients (39%), with a 31% significantly (P = 0.041) lower risk with zofenopril [0.69 (0.48-0.99)]. The superiority of zofenopril versus ramipril was particularly evident in patients with isolated systolic hypertension [n = 131, 0.48 (0.23-0.99), P = 0.045]. This retrospective analysis of the SMILE-4 study confirmed the good efficacy of zofenopril and ASA in the prevention of long-term cardiovascular outcomes also in the subgroup of patients with hypertension.

  4. Effect of home blood pressure telemonitoring with self-care support on uncontrolled systolic hypertension in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alexander G; Irvine, M Jane; McIsaac, Warren J; Tisler, Andras; Rossos, Peter G; Easty, Anthony; Feig, Denice S; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2012-07-01

    Lowering blood pressure reduces cardiovascular risk, yet hypertension is poorly controlled in diabetic patients. In a pilot study we demonstrated that a home blood pressure telemonitoring system, which provided self-care messages on the smartphone of hypertensive diabetic patients immediately after each reading, improved blood pressure control. Messages were based on care paths defined by running averages of transmitted readings. The present study tests the system's effectiveness in a randomized, controlled trial in diabetic patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension. Of 244 subjects screened for eligibility, 110 (45%) were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 55) or control (n = 55) group, and 105 (95.5%) completed the 1-year outcome visit. In the intention-to-treat analysis, mean daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure, the primary end point, decreased significantly only in the intervention group by 9.1 ± 15.6 mmHg (SD; P < 0.0001), and the mean between-group difference was 7.1 ± 2.3 mmHg (SE; P < 0.005). Furthermore, 51% of intervention subjects achieved the guideline recommended target of <130/80 mmHg compared with 31% of control subjects (P < 0.05). These improvements were obtained without the use of more or different antihypertensive medications or additional clinic visits to physicians. Providing self-care support did not affect anxiety but worsened depression on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (baseline, 4.1 ± 3.76; exit, 5.2 ± 4.30; P = 0.014). This study demonstrated that home blood pressure telemonitoring combined with automated self-care support reduced the blood pressure of diabetic patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension and improved hypertension control. Home blood pressure monitoring alone had no effect on blood pressure. Promoting patient self-care may have negative psychological effects.

  5. Quantitative Doppler-echocardiographic imaging and clinical outcomes with left ventricular systolic dysfunction: independent effect of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Miller, Wayne L; Mahoney, Douglas W; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2014-03-01

    Doppler-echocardiography provides quantitative imaging of systolic and diastolic left ventricular (LV) function, functional mitral regurgitation (FMR), and pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with LV systolic dysfunction. Whether PH is linked to survival independently of LV features and FMR in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients is unknown. Patients with LV ejection fraction ≤40% and quantitative Doppler-echocardiography assessment of FMR and PH were studied. Patients were frequency matched for those with Doppler-echocardiography estimated pulmonary systolic pressure ≥45 mm Hg (n=692) and those without PH (n=692; pulmonary systolic pressure, <45 mm Hg) for age, sex, LV ejection fraction, and quantified FMR severity and analyzed for long-term survival after diagnosis. During follow-up (median, 8.9 years), 885 deaths (63.5%) occurred, with PH being associated with higher 5-year mortality: 51±2% versus 37±2%, P<0.001. In multivariate analysis, PH demonstrated increased mortality risk independent of age, sex, severity of diastolic and systolic LV dysfunction, FMR, comorbidities, and symptom (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence limit, 1.17-1.53; P<0.001). Subgroup analysis, stratified by symptoms, degree of FMR, and severity of LV dysfunction, demonstrated that PH was associated with excess mortality in all subgroups. In this large cohort of patients with LV systolic dysfunction, in whom FMR and LV characteristics were quantified and matched between those with and without PH, the presence of PH was an independent factor for excess mortality and not a surrogate for the severity of LV systolic dysfunction or FMR. In asymptomatic or symptomatic patients with or without FMR, PH is a critical marker for poor outcomes.

  6. Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Olmesartan on Central Hemodynamics in the Elderly With Systolic Hypertension: The PARAMETER Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan; Cockcroft, John R; Kario, Kazuomi; Zappe, Dion H; Brunel, Patrick C; Wang, Qian; Guo, Weinong

    2017-03-01

    Effective treatment of systolic hypertension in elderly patients remains a major therapeutic challenge. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial with sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696), a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, was conducted to determine its effects versus olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) on central aortic pressures, in elderly patients (aged ≥60 years) with systolic hypertension and pulse pressure >60 mm Hg, indicative of arterial stiffness. Patients (n=454; mean age, 67.7 years; mean seated systolic blood pressure, 158.6 mm Hg; mean seated pulse pressure, 69.7 mm Hg) were randomized to receive once-daily sacubitril/valsartan 200 mg or olmesartan 20 mg, force titrated to double the initial doses after 4 weeks, before primary assessment at 12 weeks. The study extended double-blind treatment for 12 to 52 weeks, during which amlodipine (2.5-5 mg) and subsequently hydrochlorothiazide (6.25-25 mg) were added-on for patients not achieving blood pressure target (<140/90). At week 12, sacubitril/valsartan reduced central aortic systolic pressure (primary assessment) greater than olmesartan by -3.7 mm Hg (P=0.010), further corroborated by secondary assessments at week 12 (central aortic pulse pressure, -2.4 mm Hg, P<0.012; mean 24-hour ambulatory brachial systolic blood pressure and central aortic systolic pressure, -4.1 mm Hg and -3.6 mm Hg, respectively, both P<0.001). Differences in 24-hour ambulatory pressures were pronounced during sleep. After 52 weeks, blood pressure parameters were similar between treatments (P<0.002); however, more patients required add-on antihypertensive therapy with olmesartan (47%) versus sacubitril/valsartan (32%; P<0.002). Both treatments were equally well tolerated. The PARAMETER study (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Measuring Arterial Stiffness in the Elderly), for the first time, demonstrated

  7. Diastolic, systolic and sarcoplasmic reticulum [Ca2+] during inotropic interventions in isolated rat myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, J E; Orchard, C H; Boyett, M R

    1991-01-01

    1. The fluorescent indicator Fura-2 has been used to monitor intracellular [Ca2+] (Ca2+i) in myocytes isolated from the ventricles of rat hearts. 2. The relationships between diastolic Ca2+i, systolic Ca2+i and the Ca2+ content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR; assayed using caffeine) have been studied during changes of stimulation rate and bathing [Ca2+] (Ca2+o). 3. When stimulation rate was increased, there were increases in diastolic Ca2+i, systolic Ca2+i and the Ca2+ content of the SR. 4. The SR inhibitor ryanodine (1 mumol l-1) decreased the size of the Ca2+i transient, and abolished the increase of Ca2+i produced by caffeine (10 mmol l-1). In the presence of ryanodine, increasing stimulation rate increased diastolic Ca2+i but not systolic Ca2+i. 5. Increasing Ca2+o led to increases of diastolic Ca2+i, systolic Ca2+i and SR Ca2+ content similar to those observed during changes in stimulation rate. 6. Ryanodine altered the relationship between systolic and diastolic Ca2+i during changes of Ca2+o. 7. These results are consistent with a change of diastolic Ca2+i leading to an increase in the Ca2+ content of the SR, and hence an increase in the size of the Ca2+i transient during changes in stimulation rate and Ca2+o. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 10 PMID:1890639

  8. [Modeling of systolic blood pressure reaction to antihypertensive agents in people with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Li, Yi-Shi; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Gueyffier, François

    2011-04-01

    We used the individual patient data from clinical trials, pooled in the INDANA data set, to explore whether blood pressure reduction was related to the baseline individual characteristics, and quantify the potential associations. We used the data from 31 140 patients with essential hypertension recruited in four randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, MRC35-64, MRC65-74, STEP and SYST-EU. Thiazide diuretics, β-blocker, and calcium channel blocker, three of six major BP lowering drugs were analyzed. Patients were all with the same first dosage of the drug in each trial. Age, body weight, height, level of total cholesterin (TC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) when initialed and at first visit of follow-up, pharmacological treatment, gender, status of smoking, history of myocardium infarction were factors taken into model. Data were managed by software SAS(®). Statistical analyses were performed with SAS(®) and R. Model was developed to evaluate the relationship between decrease of SBP and characteristics of patients. Initial SBP is the only modifier of treatment effect on SBP response in the 3 BP lowering drug classes (β = 0.09, 0.37 and 0.18, respectively). Age and initial DBP were factors significantly correlated with SBP fall for diuretic (β = 0.17 and 0.14), and age was one of factors significantly correlated with SBP fall for β-blocker (β = -0.17). Smokers would receive less SBP fall compare to non-smokers in β-blocker active treated group (β = -2.07). There is converse effect of age between the diuretic and β-blocker; older people seem sensitive to diuretic, while young people are sensitive to β-blocker. As to calcium channel antagonist class, body weight is another modifier (β = 0.06) (All P value are 0.000 except 0.050 for body weight in calcium channel antagonist class). We identified 5 significant modifiers (baseline SBP and DBP, age, smoking status and body weight) for SBP response to treatment effect

  9. Relationship between 24-h urine sodium/potassium ratio and central aortic systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Nah, Deuk-Young; Kim, Byong-Kyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Cho, Eun-Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Lee, Sim-Yeol; Kim, Kwang-Il

    2016-11-24

    Studies evaluating the relationship between measured 24-h urine sodium (24HUNa), potassium (24HUK) and aortic blood pressure (BP) are rare, and no such study has been performed with an Asian population. We evaluated the relationship between 24HUNa, 24HUK, casual BP, 24-h ambulatory BP and aortic BP by analyzing data from 524 participants with valid 24-h urine collection, 24-h ambulatory BP and central BP measurements (mean age 48.1±9.8 years, 193 men). Hypertension was defined as a 24-h ambulatory BP ⩾130/80 mm Hg or current treatment for hypertension (n=219). The participants with hypertension and high 24HUNa (mean 210.5±52.0 mmol  per day, range 151.0-432.0) showed higher 24-h systolic (P=0.037) and diastolic BP (P=0.037) and aortic systolic BP (AoSBP, P=0.038) than the participants with hypertension and low 24HUNa (mean 115.7±25.0 mmol per day, range 45.6-150.0), adjusted for confounders. The participants with hypertension and a high ratio of 24HUNa and 24HUK (24HUNa/24HUK, mean 4.03±1.00, range 2.93-7.96) had higher AoSBP than the participants with hypertension and a low 24HUNa/24HUK ratio (mean 2.13±0.54, range 0.53-2.91), adjusted for confounders (P=0.026). The participants with hypertension demonstrated a significant linear relationship between AoSBP and 24HUNa/24HUK ratio that was independent of 24HUNa, according to the multiple regression analysis (P=0.047). In hypertensive patients, 24HUNa/24HUK was positively and more strongly related to AoSBP compared with 24HUNa alone. The result indicates that high sodium and low potassium intake may increase the subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease by elevating AoSBP.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 24 November 2016; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.161.

  10. The relationship between currently recommended ambulatory systolic blood pressure measures and left ventricular mass index in pediatric hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bjelakovic, Bojko; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Vukomanovic, Vladislav; Lukic, Stevo; Prijic, Sergej; Krstic, Milos; Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Saranac, Ljiljana; Velickovic, Ana

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between currently recommended ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) measures used to classify pediatric hypertension and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in children with true ambulatory hypertension. We performed a cross-sectional survey among 94 children who were consecutively referred for suspected hypertension. The calculated ABP measures were average 24-h systolic blood pressure (24-h aSBP) and 24-h SBP load. The LVMI was estimated by M-mode echocardiography using Devereux's formula and indexed by height(2,7). A total of 35 children fulfilled the criteria for true ambulatory hypertension (elevated office blood pressure, 24-h SBP load >25 %, and 24-h aSBP >95th percentile). Compared with children not fulfilling these criteria, those with true ambulatory hypertension had significantly higher values of 24-h aSBP, 24-h SBP load, and LVMI, as well as body mass index (BMI; P < 0.0001). In a separate analysis of both groups, none of the examined ABP measures adjusted for age, sex, and BMI correlated with LVMI. In those with true hypertension, only BMI was significantly associated with increased LVMI (F = 9.651; P = 0.004; adjusted R (2) = 0.203). The results of our study suggest that pediatric hypertension, as determined by currently recommended ABP (SBP) measures, is not associated with subclinical end-organ damage as defined by the increased left ventricular mass. Therefore, additional factors associated with BMI increase must be considered as risk factors for the development of end-organ damage in hypertensive children.

  11. Isolated diastolic hypertension and incident heart failure in community-dwelling older adults: Insights from the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Helen M; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Valentova, Miroslava; Anker, Markus S; Deedwania, Prakash; Banach, Maciej; Morgan, Charity J; Blackman, Marc R; Fonarow, Gregg C; White, Michel; Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Allman, Richard M; Aronow, Wilbert S; Anker, Stefan D; Ahmed, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension and isolated diastolic hypotension are common in older adults and associated with a higher risk of incident heart failure (HF). However, little is known about the prevalence and impact of isolated diastolic hypertension in this population. In the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), of the 5776 community-dwelling older adults ≥65years who had data on baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), 28 had isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP ≥90mmHg and SBP <140mmHg). From the 5748 without isolated diastolic hypertension, we excluded those with SBP ≥120mmHg (n=4451), DBP 80-89mmHg (n=20), DBP <60mmHg (n=425), normal BP taking anti-hypertensive medications (n=311), normal BP taking no anti-hypertensive medications but with history of hypertension (n=38), and baseline HF (n=5). The final cohort of 524 participants included 27 with isolated diastolic hypertension. Patients (n=524) had a mean (±SD) age of 71 (±5) years, 58% were women and 9% African American. There were no significant between-group age or sex differences; 37% of those with isolated diastolic hypertension (versus 7% without) were African American. Incident HF occurred in 19% and 7% of participants with and without isolated diastolic hypertension, respectively (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio {HR}, 4.65; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.09-19.90; p=0.038). There was a trend toward higher cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.59; 95% CI, 0.92-23.88; p=0.063). Among community-dwelling older adults, isolated diastolic hypertension is rare and is associated with higher risk for incident HF and cardiovascular mortality. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Isolated Diastolic Hypertension Associated Risk Factors among Chinese in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanchun; Xing, Fengjun; Liu, Rongjuan; Liu, Li; Zhu, Yu; Wen, Yufeng; Sun, Wenjie; Song, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore potential risk factors of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) among young and middle-aged Chinese. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 338 subjects, aged 25 years and above, using random sampling technique. There were 68 cases of IDH, 46 cases of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), 89 cases of systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH), and 135 of subjects with normal blood pressure. Cases and controls were matched on sex by frequency matching. Demographic characteristics, blood pressure and other relevant information were collected.Results: Compared with controls, patients with IDH and ISH had significant higher level of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05); while patients with SDH had significantly higher level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and BMI (p < 0.05). Linear mixed effects model showed that drinking tea, family history of hypertension (FHH), higher blood glucose, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein were related with elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.01); HFH, blood glucose, creatinine and BMI have positive effect on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Drinking tea, FHH, high levels of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, blood glucose and BMI are associated with IDH among young and middle-aged Chinese. PMID:25913184

  13. Effect of Intensive Versus Standard Clinic-Based Hypertension Management on Ambulatory Blood Pressure: Results From the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) Ambulatory Blood Pressure Study.

    PubMed

    Drawz, Paul E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Bates, Jeffrey T; Bello, Natalie A; Cushman, William C; Dwyer, Jamie P; Fine, Lawrence J; Goff, David C; Haley, William E; Krousel-Wood, Marie; McWilliams, Andrew; Rifkin, Dena E; Slinin, Yelena; Taylor, Addison; Townsend, Raymond; Wall, Barry; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2017-01-01

    The effect of clinic-based intensive hypertension treatment on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) is unknown. The goal of the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) ambulatory BP ancillary study was to evaluate the effect of intensive versus standard clinic-based BP targets on ambulatory BP. Ambulatory BP was obtained within 3 weeks of the 27-month study visit in 897 SPRINT participants. Intensive treatment resulted in lower clinic systolic BP (mean difference between groups=16.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 14.1-17.8 mm Hg), nighttime systolic BP (mean difference=9.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 7.7-11.5 mm Hg), daytime systolic BP (mean difference=12.3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 10.6-13.9 mm Hg), and 24-hour systolic BP (mean difference=11.2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 9.7-12.8 mm Hg). The night/day systolic BP ratio was similar between the intensive (0.92±0.09) and standard-treatment groups (0.91±0.09). There was considerable lack of agreement within participants between clinic systolic BP and daytime ambulatory systolic BP with wide limits of agreement on Bland-Altman plots. In conclusion, targeting a systolic BP of <120 mm Hg, when compared with <140 mm Hg, resulted in lower nighttime, daytime, and 24-hour systolic BP, but did not change the night/day systolic BP ratio. Ambulatory BP monitoring may be required to assess the effect of targeted hypertension therapy on out of office BP. Further studies are needed to assess whether targeting hypertension therapy based on ambulatory BP improves clinical outcomes.

  14. White matter disease in midlife is heritable, related to hypertension, and shares some genetic influence with systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Fennema-Notestine, Christine; McEvoy, Linda K; Notestine, Randy; Panizzon, Matthew S; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Franz, Carol E; Lyons, Michael J; Eyler, Lisa T; Neale, Michael C; Xian, Hong; McKenzie, Ruth E; Kremen, William S

    2016-01-01

    White matter disease in the brain increases with age and cardiovascular disease, emerging in midlife, and these associations may be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. We examined the frequency, distribution, and heritability of abnormal white matter and its association with hypertension in 395 middle-aged male twins (61.9 ± 2.6 years) from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, 67% of whom were hypertensive. A multi-channel segmentation approach estimated abnormal regions within the white matter. Using multivariable regression models, we characterized the frequency distribution of abnormal white matter in midlife and investigated associations with hypertension and Apolipoprotein E-ε4 status and the impact of duration and control of hypertension. Then, using the classical twin design, we estimated abnormal white matter heritability and the extent of shared genetic overlap with blood pressure. Abnormal white matter was predominantly located in periventricular and deep parietal and frontal regions; associated with age (t = 1.9, p = 0.05) and hypertension (t = 2.9, p = 0.004), but not Apolipoprotein ε4 status; and was greater in those with uncontrolled hypertension relative to controlled (t = 3.0, p = 0.003) and normotensive (t = 4.0, p = 0.0001) groups, suggesting that abnormal white matter may reflect currently active cerebrovascular effects. Abnormal white matter was highly heritable (a(2) = 0.81) and shared some genetic influences with systolic blood pressure (rA = 0.26), although there was evidence for distinct genetic contributions and unique environmental influences. Future longitudinal research will shed light on factors impacting white matter disease presentation, progression, and potential recovery.

  15. Systolic hypertension and progression of aortic valve calcification in patients with aortic stenosis: results from the PROGRESSA study.

    PubMed

    Tastet, Lionel; Capoulade, Romain; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Larose, Éric; Shen, Mylène; Dahou, Abdellaziz; Arsenault, Marie; Mathieu, Patrick; Bédard, Élisabeth; Dumesnil, Jean G; Tremblay, Alexe; Bossé, Yohan; Després, Jean-Pierre; Pibarot, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and is associated with worse outcomes. The current prospective study assessed the impact of systolic hypertension (SHPT) on the progression of aortic valve calcification (AVC) measured by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with AS. The present analysis includes the first series of 101 patients with AS prospectively recruited in the PROGRESSA study. Patients underwent comprehensive Doppler echocardiography and MDCT exams at baseline and after 2-year follow-up. AVC and coronary artery calcification (CAC) were measured using the Agatston method. Patients with SHPT at baseline (i.e. systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg; n = 37, 37%) had faster 2-year AVC progression compared with those without SHPT (i.e. systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg) (AVC median [25th percentile-75th percentile]: +370 [126-824] vs. +157 [58-303] AU; P = 0.007, respectively). Similar results were obtained with the analysis of AVC progression divided by the cross-sectional area of the aortic annulus (AVCdensity: +96 [34-218] vs. +45 [14-82] AU/cm(2), P = 0.01, respectively). In multivariable analysis, SHPT remained significantly associated with faster progression of AVC or AVCdensity (all P = 0.001). There was no significant difference between groups with respect to progression of CAC (+39 [3-199] vs. +41 [0-156] AU, P = 0.88). This prospective study shows for the first time that SHPT is associated with faster AVC progression but not with CAC progression in AS patients. These findings provide further support for the elaboration of randomized clinical trials to assess the efficacy of antihypertensive medication to slow the stenosis progression in patients with AS. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Randomised Double-Blind Comparison of Placebo and Active Drugs for Effects on Risks Associated with Blood Pressure Variability in the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Azusa; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Jacobs, Lotte; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Systolic Hypertension in Europe trial (NCT02088450), we investigated whether systolic blood pressure variability determines prognosis over and beyond level. Methods Using a computerised random function and a double-blind design, we randomly allocated 4695 patients (≥60 years) with isolated systolic hypertension (160–219/<95 mm Hg) to active treatment or matching placebo. Active treatment consisted of nitrendipine (10–40 mg/day) with possible addition of enalapril (5–20 mg/day) and/or hydrochlorothiazide (12.5–25.0 mg/day). We assessed whether on-treatment systolic blood pressure level (SBP), visit-to-visit variability independent of the mean (VIM) or within-visit variability (WVV) predicted total (n = 286) or cardiovascular (n = 150) mortality or cardiovascular (n = 347), cerebrovascular (n = 133) or cardiac (n = 217) endpoints. Findings At 2 years, mean between-group differences were 10.5 mm Hg (p<0.0001) for SBP, 0.29 units (p = 0.20) for VIM, and 0.07 mm Hg (p = 0.47) for WVV. Active treatment reduced (p≤0.048) cardiovascular (−28%), cerebrovascular (−40%) and cardiac (−24%) endpoints. In analyses dichotomised by the median, patients with low vs. high VIM had similar event rates (p≥0.14). Low vs. high WVV was not associated with event rates (p≥0.095), except for total and cardiovascular mortality on active treatment, which were higher with low WVV (p≤0.0003). In multivariable-adjusted Cox models, SBP predicted all endpoints (p≤0.0043), whereas VIM did not predict any (p≥0.058). Except for an inverse association with total mortality (p = 0.042), WVV was not predictive (p≥0.15). Sensitivity analyses, from which we excluded blood pressure readings within 6 months after randomisation, 6 months prior to an event or both were confirmatory. Conclusions The double-blind placebo-controlled Syst-Eur trial demonstrated that blood-pressure lowering treatment reduces cardiovascular complications

  17. Comparison of subclinical left and right ventricular systolic dysfunction in non-dipper and dipper hypertensives: impact of isovolumic acceleration.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Mehmet; Buturak, Ali; Pusuroglu, Hamdi; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Gurdogan, Muhammet; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Akgul, Ozgur; Aksu, Hale Unal; Uzun, Fatih; Uslu, Nevzat

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate subclinical left ventricular and right ventricular systolic impairment in dipper and non-dipper hypertensives by using isovolumic acceleration. About 45 normotensive healthy volunteers (20 men, mean age 43 ± 9 years), 45 dipper (27 men, mean age 45 ± 9 years) and 45 non-dipper (25 men, 47 ± 7 years) hypertensives were enrolled. Isovolumic acceleration was measured by dividing the peak myocardial isovolumic contraction velocity by isovolumic acceleration time. Non-dippers indicated lower left ventricular (2.2 ± 0.4 m/s(2) versus 2.8 ± 1.0 m/s(2), p < 0.01) and right ventricular isovolumic acceleration values (2.8 ± 0.8 m/s(2) versus 3.5 ± 1.0 m/s(2), p = 0.012) compared with dippers. Left ventricular mass index (p = 0.001), interventricular septal thickness (p = 0.002) and myocardial performance index (p < 0.001) were negatively correlated with left ventricular isovolumic acceleration. Left ventricular septal thickness (p = 0.002), mass index (p = 0.001) and right ventricular myocardial performance index (p < 0.001) were negatively correlated with right ventricular isovolumic acceleration. The present study demonstrates that non-dipper hypertensives have increased left and right ventricular subclinical systolic dysfunction compared with dippers. Isovolumic acceleration is the only echocardiographic parameter in predicting this subtle impairment.

  18. Long-term impact of systolic blood pressure and glycemia on the development of microalbuminuria in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Gonzalez, Carmen; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Redon, Josep

    2005-06-01

    The objective was to assess the temporal impact of factors related to the development of microalbuminuria during the follow-up of young adult normoalbuminurics with high-normal blood pressure or at stage 1 of essential hypertension. Prospective follow-up was conducted on 245 normoalbuminuric hypertensive subjects (mean age 40.9 years; 134 men; blood pressure 139.7/88.6 mm Hg; body mass index 28.5 kg/m2) never treated previously with antihypertensive drugs, with yearly urinary albumin excretion measurements, until the development of microalbuminuria. After enrollment, patients were placed on usual care including nonpharmacological treatment or with an antihypertensive drug regime to achieve a blood pressure of <135/85 mm Hg. Thirty subjects (12.2%) developed microalbuminuria after a mean follow-up of 29.9 months (range 12 to 144 months), 2.5 per 100 patients per year. Baseline urinary albumin excretion (hazard ratio, 1.07; P=0.006) and systolic blood pressure during the follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.03; P=0.008) were independent factors related to the follow-up urinary albumin excretion in a Cox proportional hazard model. A significant increase in the risk of developing microalbuminuria for urinary albumin excretion at baseline >15 mg per 24-hour systolic blood pressure >139 mm Hg and a positive trend in fasting glucose were observed in the univariate analyses. However, in the multivariate analysis, only the baseline urinary albumin excretion and the trend of fasting glucose were independently related to the risk of developing microalbuminuria. In mild hypertensives, the development of microalbuminuria was linked to insufficient blood pressure control and to a progressive increment of glucose values.

  19. Elevated diastolic but not systolic blood pressure increases mortality risk in hypertensive but not normotensive patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Giampatzis, Vasilios; Bouziana, Stella D; Spanou, Marianna; Papadopoulou, Maria; Kostaki, Stavroula; Dourliou, Vasiliki; Papagianni, Marianthi; Savopoulos, Christos; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between blood pressure (BP) at admission for acute ischemic stroke and outcome is controversial. We aimed to assess whether only systolic BP (SBP), only diastolic BP (DBP), both or neither predict outcome and whether these associations differ between patients with and without a history of hypertension. We prospectively studied all patients who were admitted with acute ischemic stroke (n = 415; 39.5% males, age 78.8 ± 6.6 years). The severity of stroke was assessed at admission with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The outcome was evaluated with dependency at discharge (modified Rankin scale between 2 and 5) and in-hospital mortality. In the total study population, independent predictors of dependency at discharge were age, history of prior ischemic stroke, and NIHSS score at admission. Independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were DBP at admission and NIHSS score at admission. In patients with a history of hypertension (n = 343), independent predictors of dependency at discharge were age and NIHSS score at admission whereas independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were DBP at admission and NIHSS score at admission. In patients without a history of hypertension (n = 72), the only independent predictor of dependency at discharge and in-hospital mortality was the NIHSS score at admission. Higher DBP at admission predict in-hospital mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke whereas SBP in the acute phase is not associated with short-term outcome. The relationship between DBP at admission and outcome appears to be more prominent in hypertensive patients. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Hyperglycemia and nocturnal systolic blood pressure are associatedwith left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Felício, João S; Pacheco, Juliana T; Ferreira, Sandra R; Plavnik, Frida; Moisés, Valdir A; Kohlmann, Oswaldo; Ribeiro, Artur B; Zanella, Maria T

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine if hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients, when compared to patients with essential hypertension have an increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and a worse diastolic function, and if this fact would be related to 24-h pressoric levels changes. Methods Ninety-one hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (group-1 [G1]), 59 essential hypertensive patients (group-2 [G2]) and 26 healthy controls (group-3 [G3]) were submitted to 24-h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) and echocardiography (ECHO) with Doppler. We calculated an average of fasting blood glucose (AFBG) values of G1 from the previous 4.2 years and a glycemic control index (GCI) (percentual of FBG above 200 mg/dl). Results G1 and G2 did not differ on average of diurnal systolic and diastolic BP. However, G1 presented worse diastolic function and a higher average of nocturnal systolic BP (NSBP) and LVMI (NSBP = 132 ± 18 vs 124 ± 14 mmHg; P < 0.05 and LVMI = 103 ± 27 vs 89 ± 17 g/m2; P < 0.05, respectively). In G1, LVMI correlated with NSBP (r = 0.37; P < 0.001) and GCI (r = 0.29; P < 0.05) while NSBP correlated with GCI (r = 0.27; P < 0.05) and AFBG (r = 0.30; P < 0.01). When G1 was divided in tertiles according to NSBP, the subgroup with NSBP≥140 mmHg showed a higher risk of LVH. Diabetics with NSBP≥140 mmHg and AFBG>165 mg/dl showed an additional risk of LVH (P < 0.05; odds ratio = 11). In multivariate regression, both GCI and NSBP were independent predictors of LVMI in G1. Conclusion This study suggests that hyperglycemia and higher NSBP levels should be responsible for an increased prevalence of LVH in hypertensive patients with Type 2 DM. PMID:16968545

  1. Mean arterial pressure and systolic blood pressure for detection of hypotension during hemapheresis: implications for patients with baseline hypertension.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew C; Rosales, Lazaro G; Kelly, Karen C; Henry, John Bernard

    2005-10-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) has been characterized as a more sensitive and physiologically appropriate hemodynamic parameter in the detection of hemapheresis-related hypotension, resulting in a much closer correlation with the presence of symptomatic hypotension. Patients were enrolled over a 12-month period and data collected on any previous diagnosis of hypertension, antihypertensive therapy used, indication for apheresis, age decile, and gender. Baseline vital signs, any hypotensive signs or symptoms observed, and the patient's vital signs at the time of any hypotensive episode were recorded. Patients were assigned to a subgroup, sensitivity and specificity analysis performed, positive likelihood ratios calculated, receiver operating characteristic curves constructed, and ideal cutoff values identified. The incidence of hypotension among our study population was found to be 6.8%. Over all procedures, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was determined to be a "poor" test for detecting hypotension, while MAP demonstrated a "fair" capacity. A downward normalization was evident in the ideal cutoff value based upon a patient's hypertensive history. The currently accepted SBP less than 80 mmHg cutoff failed to detect hypotensive episodes among baseline hypertensive patients, raising questions about its sensitivity. Based upon physiologic principles and study findings, a MAP-based criterion is preferable in the diagnosis of hypotension during hemapheresis. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  2. Effect of Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering on Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Patients With Hypertension: SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial).

    PubMed

    Soliman, Elsayed Z; Ambrosius, Walter T; Cushman, William C; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Bates, Jeffrey T; Neyra, Javier A; Carson, Thaddeus Y; Tamariz, Leonardo; Ghazi, Lama; Cho, Monique E; Shapiro, Brian P; He, Jiang; Fine, Lawrence J; Lewis, Cora E

    2017-08-01

    It is currently unknown whether intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering beyond that recommended would lead to more lowering of the risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with hypertension and whether reducing the risk of LVH explains the reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) benefits of intensive BP lowering in this population. This analysis included 8164 participants (mean age, 67.9 years; 35.3% women; 31.2% blacks) with hypertension but no diabetes mellitus from the SPRINT trial (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial): 4086 randomly assigned to intensive BP lowering (target SBP <120 mm Hg) and 4078 assigned to standard BP lowering (target SBP <140 mm Hg). Progression and regression of LVH as defined by Cornell voltage criteria derived from standard 12-lead ECGs recorded at baseline and biannually were compared between treatment arms during a median follow-up of 3.81 years. The effect of intensive (versus standard) BP lowering on the SPRINT primary CVD outcome (a composite of myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, heart failure, and CVD death) was compared before and after adjustment for LVH as a time-varying covariate. Among SPRINT participants without baseline LVH (n=7559), intensive (versus standard) BP lowering was associated with a 46% lower risk of developing LVH (hazard ratio=0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.68). Similarly, among SPRINT participants with baseline LVH (n=605, 7.4%), those assigned to the intensive (versus standard) BP lowering were 66% more likely to regress/improve their LVH (hazard ratio=1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-2.11). Adjustment for LVH as a time-varying covariate did not substantially attenuate the effect of intensive BP therapy on CVD events (hazard ratio of intensive versus standard BP lowering on CVD, 0.76 [95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.90] and 0.77 [95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.91] before and after adjustment for LVH as a time-varying covariate, respectively). Among

  3. Assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function by tissue Doppler analysis in patients with hypertension with or without hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Tavil, Yusuf; Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Sen, Nihat; Tacoy, Gulten; Okyay, Kaan; Yazici, Huseyin Ugur; Yalcin, Mehmet Ridvan; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-04-01

    Hyperuricemia (HU) is a well-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The independence of this association from other confounding factors has remained controversial. The possible contributory effect of HU to myocardial impairment produced by hypertension (HT), however, has not been clarified yet. The study was designed to assess the left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in patients with HT with or without HU. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) was used for detailed analysis as this method was superior to other conventional echocardiographic techniques. The study participants consisted of 27 patients (men 56%, mean age+/-SD; 55+/-10 years) with HT without HU, and 27 patients with HT with HU (men 62%, mean age+/-SD; 56+/-9 years), and 27 age-matched healthy control participants (men 57%, mean age+/-SD; 53+/-11 years). Cardiac functions were determined using echocardiography, comprising standard two-dimensional and conventional Doppler and TDI. Peak systolic myocardial velocity at mitral annulus (Sm), mitral inflow velocities and early diastolic mitral annular velocity (Em), late diastolic mitral annular velocity (Am), peak systolic mitral annular velocity, Em/Am, and myocardial performance index were calculated by TDI. Mitral inflow velocities and tissue Doppler-derived mitral annular diastolic velocities were significantly different in the patient groups (HT without HU and HT with HU) compared with the control cases. Tissue Doppler-derived myocardial performance index (LV-MPI) was significantly impaired in the patient groups compared with those of the control's (0.48+/-0.09, 0.53+/-0.07, and 0.39+/-0.07, respectively, P<0.001). Significant differences were also observed between the patients who had HT without HU and the patients who had HT with HU regarding LV-MPI. Significant correlations were observed between the serum uric acid levels and LV function parameters.

  4. Conventional versus automated measurement of blood pressure in primary care patients with systolic hypertension: randomised parallel design controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; Dawes, Martin; Kiss, Alexander; Tobe, Sheldon W; Grant, F Curry; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the quality and accuracy of manual office blood pressure and automated office blood pressure using the awake ambulatory blood pressure as a gold standard. Design Multi-site cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care practices in five cities in eastern Canada. Participants 555 patients with systolic hypertension and no serious comorbidities under the care of 88 primary care physicians in 67 practices in the community. Interventions Practices were randomly allocated to either ongoing use of manual office blood pressure (control group) or automated office blood pressure (intervention group) using the BpTRU device. The last routine manual office blood pressure (mm Hg) was obtained from each patient’s medical record before enrolment. Office blood pressure readings were compared before and after enrolment in the intervention and control groups; all readings were also compared with the awake ambulatory blood pressure. Main outcome measure Difference in systolic blood pressure between awake ambulatory blood pressure minus automated office blood pressure and awake ambulatory blood pressure minus manual office blood pressure. Results Cluster randomisation allocated 31 practices (252 patients) to manual office blood pressure and 36 practices (303 patients) to automated office blood pressure measurement. The most recent routine manual office blood pressure (149.5 (SD 10.8)/81.4 (8.3)) was higher than automated office blood pressure (135.6 (17.3)/77.7 (10.9)) (P<0.001). In the control group, routine manual office blood pressure before enrolment (149.9 (10.7)/81.8 (8.5)) was reduced to 141.4 (14.6)/80.2 (9.5) after enrolment (P<0.001/P=0.01), but the reduction in the intervention group from manual office to automated office blood pressure was significantly greater (P<0.001/P=0.02). On the first study visit after enrolment, the estimated mean difference for the intervention group between the awake ambulatory systolic/diastolic blood pressure

  5. Azilsartan medoxomil plus chlorthalidone reduces blood pressure more effectively than olmesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide in stage 2 systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cushman, William C; Bakris, George L; White, William B; Weber, Michael A; Sica, Domenic; Roberts, Andrew; Lloyd, Eric; Kupfer, Stuart

    2012-08-01

    Azilsartan medoxomil, an effective, long-acting angiotensin II receptor blocker, is a new treatment for hypertension that is also being developed in fixed-dose combinations with chlorthalidone, a potent, long-acting thiazide-like diuretic. We compared once-daily fixed-dose combinations of azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone force titrated to a high dose of either 40/25 mg or 80/25 mg with a fixed-dose combination of the angiotensin II receptor blocker olmesartan medoxomil plus the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide force titrated to 40/25 mg. The design was a randomized, 3-arm, double-blind, 12-week study of 1071 participants with baseline clinic systolic blood pressure 160 to 190 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ≤119 mm Hg. Patients had a mean age of 57 years; 59% were men, 73% were white, and 22% were black. At baseline, mean clinic blood pressure was 165/96 mm Hg and 24-hour mean blood pressure was 150/88 mm Hg. Changes in clinic (primary end point) and ambulatory systolic blood pressures at week 12 were significantly greater in both azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone arms than in the olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide arm (P<0.001). Changes in clinic systolic blood pressure (mean±SE) were -42.5±0.8, -44.0±0.8, and -37.1±0.8 mm Hg, respectively. Changes in 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure were -33.9±0.8, -36.3±0.8, and -27.5±0.8 mm Hg, respectively. Adverse events leading to permanent drug discontinuation occurred in 7.9%, 14.5%, and 7.1% of the groups given azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone 40/25 mg, azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone 80/25 mg, and olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide 40/25 mg, respectively. This large, forced-titration study has demonstrated superior antihypertensive efficacy of azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone fixed-dose combinations compared with the maximum approved dose of olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide.

  6. Effects of aliskiren- and ramipril-based treatment on central aortic blood pressure in elderly with systolic hypertension: a substudy of AGELESS

    PubMed Central

    Baschiera, Fabio; Chang, William; Brunel, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background Systolic hypertension is the most common form of hypertension in elderly patients. There is increasing evidence that measurement of central aortic pressure (CAP) better accounts for cardiovascular risk than brachial blood pressure (BP). The Aliskiren for GEriatric LowEring of SyStolic hypertension (AGELESS) study in elderly patients with systolic hypertension showed that aliskiren-based therapy provided greater reductions in peripheral BP than ramipril-based therapy over 12 and 36 weeks of treatment. Here, we present CAP results in a substudy of elderly patients from the AGELESS study. Methods This was a post hoc analysis of a 36-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled, optional-titration study in patients ≥65 years of age with systolic BP ≥140 mmHg. Changes in both central and peripheral BP and pulse pressure (PP) and changes in systolic and PP amplification ratios from baseline to the week 36 end point with aliskiren-based versus ramipril-based therapy were analyzed. Results Of the 901 patients randomized in the overall study, 154 patients (aliskiren, n=78; ramipril, n=76) had CAP data. Numerically comparable reductions were seen for central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) in aliskiren-based therapy (baseline: 143.7±15.0; week 36: −20.3±16.2) compared with ramipril-based therapy (baseline: 147.9±11.9; week 36: −20.7±14.6). However, for the change in central aortic diastolic pressure, the least squares mean between-treatment difference (−3.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval, −6.76, −0.43; P=0.0263]) was in favor of aliskiren, while the other changes were comparable between the two groups with a trend in favor of aliskiren for CASP as well (−2.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval, −7.38, 2.19; P=0.2855)]. Correlation coefficients for change from baseline between CASP and systolic BP and between central aortic pulse pressure and PP (r=0.8, P<0.0001) were highly significant. Conclusion Aliskiren-based therapy

  7. Effects of aliskiren- and ramipril-based treatment on central aortic blood pressure in elderly with systolic hypertension: a substudy of AGELESS.

    PubMed

    Baschiera, Fabio; Chang, William; Brunel, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Systolic hypertension is the most common form of hypertension in elderly patients. There is increasing evidence that measurement of central aortic pressure (CAP) better accounts for cardiovascular risk than brachial blood pressure (BP). The Aliskiren for GEriatric LowEring of SyStolic hypertension (AGELESS) study in elderly patients with systolic hypertension showed that aliskiren-based therapy provided greater reductions in peripheral BP than ramipril-based therapy over 12 and 36 weeks of treatment. Here, we present CAP results in a substudy of elderly patients from the AGELESS study. This was a post hoc analysis of a 36-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled, optional-titration study in patients ≥65 years of age with systolic BP ≥140 mmHg. Changes in both central and peripheral BP and pulse pressure (PP) and changes in systolic and PP amplification ratios from baseline to the week 36 end point with aliskiren-based versus ramipril-based therapy were analyzed. Of the 901 patients randomized in the overall study, 154 patients (aliskiren, n=78; ramipril, n=76) had CAP data. Numerically comparable reductions were seen for central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) in aliskiren-based therapy (baseline: 143.7±15.0; week 36: -20.3±16.2) compared with ramipril-based therapy (baseline: 147.9±11.9; week 36: -20.7±14.6). However, for the change in central aortic diastolic pressure, the least squares mean between-treatment difference (-3.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval, -6.76, -0.43; P=0.0263]) was in favor of aliskiren, while the other changes were comparable between the two groups with a trend in favor of aliskiren for CASP as well (-2.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval, -7.38, 2.19; P=0.2855)]. Correlation coefficients for change from baseline between CASP and systolic BP and between central aortic pulse pressure and PP (r=0.8, P<0.0001) were highly significant. Aliskiren-based therapy provides comparable reductions in CASP to ramipril

  8. Uncontrolled blood pressure as an independent risk factor of early impaired left ventricular systolic function in treated hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jing; Sun, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Qing; Gao, Xi-Lian; Liang, Yu-Jia; Jiang, Jing; Kang, Yu; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Zeng, Zhi; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2016-10-01

    Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) is commonly observed in patients receiving antihypertensive agents. However, its relationship with early left ventricular (LV) dysfunction has not been elucidated. This study enrolled 276 patients with treated hypertension and 85 healthy controls. The 140/90 mm Hg was used to define controlled (HT1 group, n=145) or uncontrolled BP (HT2 group, n=131) according to the concurrent guidelines. LV myocardial function was assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging, and the circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS)-corrected mid-wall fraction shortening (MWFS), systolic longitudinal (εLs-18), circumferential (εCs-18), and radial (εRs-18) strain were measured. Despite similar ejection fraction, the HT1 and HT2 groups displayed an overall reduction in the cESS-corrected MWFS (13.4±2.7 vs 11.7±1.7 vs 15.5±1.2), εLs-18 (15.6±2.8 vs 13.0±2.2 vs 17.4±2.8), εCs-18 (17.3±3.4 vs 14.1±2.7 vs 18.9±3.3), and εRs-18 (18.4±4.0 vs 14.8±3.1 vs 20.5±4.5) %·cm(2) /kdyne·10(-2) when compared with the control group (all P<.001). The changes were more obvious in the HT2 group, regardless of LV hypertrophy. Reductions in the cESS-corrected MWFS and εLs-18 were seen in 68 (25%) and 52 (19%) patients, respectively. Uncontrolled BP were 4.365 times (95% CI 2.203-8.648, P<.001) and 3.928 times (1.851-8.337, P<.001) more likely to be associated with the changes. Uncontrolled BP in hypertensive patients is associated with further reduction in LV myocardial function detected by advanced echocardiographic techniques, which cannot be explained by the increase in afterload. It might be regarded as a composite risk factor for earlier and faster development of clinical heart failure, therefore, a simplified treatment target. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prehospital Systolic Hypertension and Outcomes in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Connie; Govindarajan, Prasanthi

    2017-01-01

    Background It is well known that hematoma volume and expansion is associated with poor outcomes in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). The factors associated with hematoma volume and possible expansion include the use of anticoagulant medications, autoimmune or bacterial diseases that reduce platelet production, and genetic defects of Von Willebrand factor causing inhibition or reduction of platelet aggregation. However, little is known about the role of elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) on hematoma volume and its ultimate role on sICH when identified in the prehospital setting. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of elevated SBP among diagnosed sICH patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS), and to explore possible associations between prehospital elevated SBP and hematoma volume. Methods This is a hypothesis-generating study for which we used a retrospective observational design. The subjects included 243 adult patients who were seen and treated for sICH in an emergency department serving a county hospital in a large metropolitan city. Elevated SBP in the setting of sICH was defined as ≥140 mm Hg. A univariate analysis was performed to investigate associations between patient demographics, elevated SBP, and sICH characteristics with the pre-determined outcome of hematoma volume. We then performed a multivariable logistic regression model to determine if elevated prehospital SBP remained associated with hematoma volume. Results The number of subjects with a hospital-based diagnosis of sICH was 243. Of those, 193 (79%) were transported by an ambulance. Among those transported by ambulance, 180 (93%) had a documented prehospital SBP; out of those patients with a documented SBP, 173 (96%) showed an elevated SBP of ≥140 mm Hg, and 82 (46%) had a hematoma volume of ≥30 mL. Our univariate analysis showed that sICH patients with an elevated prehospital SBP of ≥140 mm Hg were associated with hematoma volume

  10. Isolated brainstem involvement in a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Osman, Y; Imam, Y Z; Salem, K; Al-Hail, H; Uthman, B; Deleu, D

    2013-01-01

    Hypertensive encephalopathy typically presents with headache, confusion, and bilateral parietooccipital vasogenic edema. Brainstem edema in hypertensive encephalopathy usually occurs in association with typical supratentorial parieto-occipital changes and is usually asymptomatic. We report here a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy, with isolated brain stem involvement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rapid treatment of hypertension resulted in clinical and radiological improvement. Prompt recognition of the condition and aggressive treatment of hypertension in such patients is crucial to relieve edema and prevent life-threatening progression.

  11. Hypertensive encephalopathy presenting with isolated brain stem and cerebellar edema.

    PubMed

    Bhagavati, Satyakam; Chum, Florence; Choi, Jai

    2008-10-01

    Hypertensive encephalopathy typically presents with headache and confusion and bilateral parietooccipital vasogenic edema. Brain stem and cerebellar edema in hypertensive encephalopathy usually occurs in association with these typical supratentorial changes and is usually asymptomatic. We report here an uncommon hypertensive patient with isolated, severe, and symptomatic brain stem and cerebellar edema with fourth ventricular obstruction and mild hydrocephalus. Rapid treatment of hypertension resulted in clinical and radiological improvement. Prompt recognition of the cause and aggressive treatment of hypertension in such patients are crucial to relieve edema and prevent life-threatening progression.

  12. Excessive pulse pressure response to standing in community population with orthostatic systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingsong; Zhou, Yueying; Cao, Kaiwu; Li, Juxiang; Tao, Xuehua; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Xin; Liu, Jiaqi; Su, Hai

    2014-03-01

    The postural change of pulse pressure (PP) in the persons with orthostatic hypertension (OHT) is unclear. This study included 2849 (65.0 ± 9.3 years) community participants. Blood pressures (BPs) in supine and standing positions were measured. The differences between upright and supine BP and PP were recorded as ΔBP and ΔPP. The criteria for OHT was ΔBP ≥10 mm Hg, for orthostatic hypotension (OH) was ≤-10 mm Hg and for orthostatic normotension (ONT) was -9 to 9 mm Hg. Fasting blood lipids and glucose were measured. The supine SBP of the sOHT group were similar to that of sONT group (140.9 ± 20.2 mm Hg vs 138.2 ± 19.7 mm Hg), but significantly lower than that of sOH group (151.9 ± 19.2 mm Hg; P < .05). Their PPs were 65.3 ± 15.9, 62.8 ± 14.7, and 71.1 ± 15.1 mm Hg, respectively, and with the similar group difference like SBP. When the position changed from supine to standing, the sOHT group showed PP rise, while sOH and sONT groups showed PP reduction (3.8 ± 7.1 mm Hg vs -17.0 ± 8.5 mm Hg and -5.8 ± 6.6 mm Hg; both P < .05). Thus, the standing PP in the sOHT group was significantly higher than in the sONT (69.1 ± 18.0 mm Hg vs 57.0 ± 15.8 mm Hg; P < .05) and in the sOH (54.2 ± 15.2 mm Hg; P < .05) groups. The postural PP profile varies with the postural responses of SBP. The sOHT group has obviously increased PP and significantly higher standing PP compared with the sONT group.

  13. Alterations in plasma semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in hypertensive heart disease with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Cláudia; Arduíno, Daniela; Falcão, Luiz Menezes; Bicho, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is found in various mammalian tissues, particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells, but also in plasma. It has been suggested that it plays an important role in vascular endothelial damage and in progression of atherosclerosis through conversion of endogenous amines into cytotoxic aldehydes, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. In patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic heart failure, plasma activity appears to rise in parallel with disease severity. Plasma SSAO and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was measured in 39 patients with hypertensive heart disease and left ventricular systolic dysfunction, in NYHA heart failure class II-IV, and compared to values in 89 controls. SSAO was found to be elevated in patients compared to controls (2.781 +/- 1.599 vs. 1.627 +/- 0.751 micromol/l/h; p = 0.000). Plasma MAO was also significantly increased in the patient group (3.837 +/- 1.899 vs. 3.077 +/- 1.559 (micromol/l/h; p = 0.018). No significant differences were seen between different NYHA classes, but class IV patients presented the highest SSAO activity. SSAO and MAO activity showed a trend for a positive correlation (R = 0.265; p = 0.092). The finding of elevated plasma SSAO and MAO activity in congestive heart failure supports the hypothesis that amine oxidases may be involved in the pathogenesis of vascular endothelial damage.

  14. Comparative efficacy of aliskiren monotherapy and ramipril monotherapy in patients with stage 2 systolic hypertension: subgroup analysis of a double-blind, active comparator trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Karl; Weinberger, Myron H; Egan, Brent; Constance, Christian M; Wright, Melanie; Lukashevich, Valentina; Keefe, Deborah L

    2010-12-01

    Aliskiren is the first direct renin inhibitor approved for the treatment of hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) control in stage 2 hypertension with aliskiren monotherapy has not been reported. This was a post hoc analysis of the subgroup of patients with stage 2 systolic hypertension (baseline mean sitting systolic BP [msSBP]≥160 mmHg) who completed the 12-week monotherapy phase of a 6-month, double-blind, randomized study. A total of 175 patients were randomized to aliskiren 150 mg (n = 88) or ramipril 5 mg (n = 87) with optional up-titration to aliskiren 300 mg or ramipril 10 mg, respectively, at weeks 6 and 12. In the subgroup of patients with stage 2 systolic hypertension, aliskiren lowered msSBP and mean sitting diastolic BP (msDBP) by 22.3/12.7 mmHg from baseline to week 12; compared with a reduction of 18.1/10.2 mmHg with ramipril. The maximum BP reductions achieved with aliskiren were 60.0/34.0 mmHg (from a baseline of 172.7/107.3 mmHg). Aliskiren was noninferior (P < 0.0001) to ramipril for SBP reduction with nonsignificant superiority (P = 0.052), and superior (P = 0.043) to ramipril for DBP reduction. The proportion of patients who achieved BP control (<140/90 mmHg) after 12 weeks of monotherapy was larger with aliskiren (34/88, 38.6%) than with ramipril (22/87, 25.3%; P = 0.038). In this post hoc analysis, 12 weeks of monotherapy with aliskiren 150-300 mg provided effective mean BP reductions (22/13 mmHg) and was superior to ramipril 5-10 mg in controlling BP in patients with stage 2 systolic hypertension. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Blood Pressure, Sexual Activity, and Dysfunction in Women With Hypertension: Baseline Findings From the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT).

    PubMed

    Foy, Capri G; Newman, Jill C; Berlowitz, Dan R; Russell, Laurie P; Kimmel, Paul L; Wadley, Virginia G; Thomas, Holly N; Lerner, Alan J; Riley, William T

    2016-09-01

    Sexual function, an important component of quality of life, is gaining increased research and clinical attention in older women with hypertension. To assess the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and other variables, and sexual activity and sexual dysfunction in hypertensive women. Baseline analysis of 635 women participants of a larger randomized clinical trial of 9361 men and women. Self-reported sexual activity (yes/no), and sexual function using the Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI). 452 participants (71.2%) reported having no sexual activity during the previous 4 weeks. The mean (SD) FSFI score for sexually active participants was 25.3 (6.0), and 52.6% of the sample reported a FSFI score ≤26.55 designating sexual dysfunction. In logistic regression models, SBP was not significantly associated with sexual activity (AOR = 1.002; P > .05). Older age (AOR = 0.95, P < .05), and lower education (AOR for < high school vs college degree = 0.29, P < .05) were associated with lower odds of being sexually active, as was living alone versus living with others (AOR = 0.56, P < .05). Higher weekly alcohol consumption was associated with increased odds of being sexually active (AOR = 1.39; P < .05). In logistic regression models among sexually active participants, SBP was not associated with sexual dysfunction (AOR = 1.01; P > .05). Higher depressive symptoms from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was associated with higher odds of sexual dysfunction (AOR = 1.24, P < .05), as was increased number of physical comorbidities (AOR = 1.25, P < .05). Diuretic use was associated with lower odds of being sexually active in participants with chronic kidney disease (AOR = 0.33, P < .05). Younger age, higher education, living with others, and higher weekly alcohol consumption were significantly associated with higher odds of being sexually active in a sample of middle-aged and older women with hypertension. Increased depressive symptoms and

  16. [Twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring and condition of microcirculation in geriatric patients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Odintsova, N F

    2005-01-01

    Features of a daily structure of blood pressure elderly patients with isolated systolic or systolo-diastolic essential hypertension are shown, features of microcirculation in conjunctivae vessels are revealed depending on essential hypertension from, attempt to estimate daily average parameters of blood pressure elderly patients with isolated systolic or systolo-diastolic essential hypertension is made.

  17. Exhaled and arterial levels of endothelin-1 are increased and correlate with pulmonary systolic pressure in COPD with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Carratu, Pierluigi; Scoditti, Cristina; Maniscalco, Mauro; Seccia, Teresa Maria; Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Gadaleta, Felice; Cardone, Rosa Angela; Dragonieri, Silvano; Pierucci, Paola; Spanevello, Antonio; Resta, Onofrio

    2008-01-01

    Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and Nitric Oxide (NO) are crucial mediators for establishing pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). We tested the hypothesis that their imbalance might also occur in COPD patients with PAH. Methods The aims of the study were to measure exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and circulating levels of ET-1, as well as exhaled NO (FENO) levels by, respectively, a specific enzyme immunoassay kit, and by chemiluminescence analysis in 3 groups of subjects: COPD with PAH (12), COPD only (36), and healthy individuals (15). In order to evaluate pulmonary-artery systolic pressure (PaPs), all COPD patients underwent Echo-Doppler assessment. Results Significantly increased exhaled and circulating levels of ET-1 were found in COPD with PAH compared to both COPD (p < 0.0001) only, and healthy controls (p < 0.0001). In COPD with PAH, linear regression analysis showed good correlation between ET-1 in EBC and PaPs (r = 0.621; p = 0.031), and between arterial levels of ET-1 and PaPs (r = 0.648; p = 0.022), while arterial levels of ET-1 inversely correlated with FEV1%, (r = -0.59, p = 0.043), and PaPs negatively correlated to PaO2 (r = -0.618; p = 0.032). Significantly reduced levels of FENO were found in COPD associated with PAH, compared to COPD only (22.92 ± 11.38 vs.35.07 ± 17.53 ppb; p = 0.03). Thus, we observed an imbalanced output in the breath between ET-1 and NO, as expression of pulmonary endothelium and epithelium impairment, in COPD with PAH compared to COPD only. Whether this imbalance is an early cause or result of PAH due to COPD is still unknown and deserves further investigations. PMID:18822124

  18. Optimal systolic blood pressure target, time to intensification, and time to follow-up in treatment of hypertension: population based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenxin; Goldberg, Saveli I; Shubina, Maria; Turchin, Alexander

    2015-02-05

    To investigate the optimal systolic blood pressure goal above which new antihypertensive medications should be added or doses of existing medications increased ("systolic intensification threshold") and to determine the relation between delays in medication intensification and follow-up and the risk of cardiovascular events or death. Retrospective cohort study. Primary care practices in the United Kingdom, 1986-2010. 88 756 adults with hypertension from The Health Improvement Network nationwide primary care research database. Rates of acute cardiovascular events or death from any cause for patients with different hypertension treatment strategies (defined by systolic intensification threshold, time to intensification, and time to follow-up over the course of a 10 year treatment strategy assessment period) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socioeconomic deprivation, history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease, Charlson comorbidity index, body mass index, medication possession ratio, and baseline blood pressure. During a median follow-up of 37.4 months after the treatment strategy assessment period, 9985 (11.3%) participants had an acute cardiovascular event or died. No difference in risk of the outcome was seen between systolic intensification thresholds of 130-150 mm Hg, whereas systolic intensification thresholds greater than 150 mm Hg were associated with progressively greater risk (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.30; P<0.001 for intensification threshold of 160 mm Hg). Outcome risk increased progressively from the lowest (0-1.4 months) to the highest fifth of time to medication intensification (hazard ratio 1.12, 1.05 to 1.20; P=0.009 for intensification between 1.4 and 4.7 months after detection of elevated blood pressure). The highest fifth of time to follow-up (>2.7 months) was also associated with increased outcome risk (hazard ratio 1.18, 1.11 to 1.25; P<0.001). Systolic intensification

  19. Optimal systolic blood pressure target, time to intensification, and time to follow-up in treatment of hypertension: population based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenxin; Goldberg, Saveli I; Shubina, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the optimal systolic blood pressure goal above which new antihypertensive medications should be added or doses of existing medications increased (“systolic intensification threshold”) and to determine the relation between delays in medication intensification and follow-up and the risk of cardiovascular events or death. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Primary care practices in the United Kingdom, 1986-2010. Participants 88 756 adults with hypertension from The Health Improvement Network nationwide primary care research database. Main outcome measures Rates of acute cardiovascular events or death from any cause for patients with different hypertension treatment strategies (defined by systolic intensification threshold, time to intensification, and time to follow-up over the course of a 10 year treatment strategy assessment period) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socioeconomic deprivation, history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease, Charlson comorbidity index, body mass index, medication possession ratio, and baseline blood pressure. Results During a median follow-up of 37.4 months after the treatment strategy assessment period, 9985 (11.3%) participants had an acute cardiovascular event or died. No difference in risk of the outcome was seen between systolic intensification thresholds of 130-150 mm Hg, whereas systolic intensification thresholds greater than 150 mm Hg were associated with progressively greater risk (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.30; P<0.001 for intensification threshold of 160 mm Hg). Outcome risk increased progressively from the lowest (0-1.4 months) to the highest fifth of time to medication intensification (hazard ratio 1.12, 1.05 to 1.20; P=0.009 for intensification between 1.4 and 4.7 months after detection of elevated blood pressure). The highest fifth of time to follow-up (>2.7 months) was also associated with increased outcome risk

  20. Isolated brainstem involvement in a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Yang; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chang, Tzu-Pu

    2010-03-01

    Hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is one of the acknowledged hypertensive emergencies. Isolated hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy (HBE) without concomitant typical parietooccipital lesion is unusual. Patients with HBE may or may not present with symptoms attributable to brainstem and the diagnosis is challenging in an emergency setting. The most important differential diagnosis in HBE is brainstem infarction, because the goals of blood pressure treatment are different. Evidence of vasogenic edema on magnetic resonance image, i.e. absence of high signal lesions on diffusion weighted images and increased value of apparent diffusion coefficient are diagnostic indicators of HBE, but not brainstem infarction. Prompt recognition of HBE and adequately lowering blood pressure offer the best outcomes.

  1. Job Strain, Occupational Category, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Hypertension Prevalence: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Landsbergis, Paul A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Fujishiro, Kaori; Baron, Sherry; Kaufman, Joel D; Meyer, John D; Koutsouras, George; Shimbo, Daichi; Shrager, Sandi; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Szklo, Moyses

    2015-11-01

    To assess associations of occupational categories and job characteristics with prevalent hypertension. We analyzed 2517 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants, working 20+ hours per week, in 2002 to 2004. Higher job decision latitude was associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension, prevalence ratio = 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.91) for the top versus bottom quartile of job decision latitude. Associations, however, differed by occupation: decision latitude was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension in health care support occupations (interaction P = 0.02). Occupation modified associations of sex with hypertension: a higher prevalence of hypertension in women (vs men) was observed in health care support and in blue-collar occupations (interaction P = 0.03). Lower job decision latitude is associated with hypertension prevalence in many occupations. Further research is needed to determine reasons for differential impact of decision latitude and sex on hypertension across occupations.

  2. Angiotensinase C mRNA and Protein Downregulations Are Involved in Ethanol-Deteriorated Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyao; Hakucho, Ayako; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    The influences of angiotensinase C on ethanol-induced left ventricular (LV) systolic function were assessed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). SHRs were fed by a liquid diet with or without ethanol for 49 days. The normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were fed by the liquid diet without ethanol and used as control. We evaluated LV systolic function, angiotensinase C mRNA and protein expressions, activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and the gene expressions of LV collagen (Col) III a1 and matrix metalloproteinases- (MMP-) 9. Compared to the WKY, LV systolic dysfunction (expressed by decreased fractional shortening and ejection fraction) was observed in the SHRs before ethanol treatment and further deteriorated by ethanol treatment. In the ethanol-treated SHRs, the following were observed: downregulations of angiotensinase C mRNA and protein, increased RAS activity with low collagen production as evidenced by angiotensin II and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) protein upregulation, AT1aR mRNA downregulation, and an MMP-9 mRNA expression upregulation trend with the downregulation of Col III a1 mRNA expression in LV. We conclude that chronic ethanol regimen is sufficient to promote the enhanced RAS activity-induced decrease in the production of cardiac collagen via downregulated angiotensinase C, leading to the further deterioration of LV systolic dysfunction in SHRs. PMID:26509155

  3. Angiotensinase C mRNA and Protein Downregulations Are Involved in Ethanol-Deteriorated Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyao; Hakucho, Ayako; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    The influences of angiotensinase C on ethanol-induced left ventricular (LV) systolic function were assessed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). SHRs were fed by a liquid diet with or without ethanol for 49 days. The normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were fed by the liquid diet without ethanol and used as control. We evaluated LV systolic function, angiotensinase C mRNA and protein expressions, activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and the gene expressions of LV collagen (Col) III a1 and matrix metalloproteinases- (MMP-) 9. Compared to the WKY, LV systolic dysfunction (expressed by decreased fractional shortening and ejection fraction) was observed in the SHRs before ethanol treatment and further deteriorated by ethanol treatment. In the ethanol-treated SHRs, the following were observed: downregulations of angiotensinase C mRNA and protein, increased RAS activity with low collagen production as evidenced by angiotensin II and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) protein upregulation, AT1aR mRNA downregulation, and an MMP-9 mRNA expression upregulation trend with the downregulation of Col III a1 mRNA expression in LV. We conclude that chronic ethanol regimen is sufficient to promote the enhanced RAS activity-induced decrease in the production of cardiac collagen via downregulated angiotensinase C, leading to the further deterioration of LV systolic dysfunction in SHRs.

  4. Inflammation and oxidative stress caused by nitric oxide synthase uncoupling might lead to left ventricular diastolic and systolic dysfunction in patients with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Szelényi, Zsuzsanna; Fazakas, Ádám; Szénási, Gábor; Kiss, Melinda; Tegze, Narcis; Fekete, Bertalan Csaba; Nagy, Eszter; Bodó, Imre; Nagy, Bálint; Molvarec, Attila; Patócs, Attila; Pepó, Lilla; Prohászka, Zoltán; Vereckei, András

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of oxidative stress, inflammation, hypercoagulability and neuroendocrine activation in the transition of hypertensive heart disease to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). Methods We performed echocardiography for 112 patients (≥ 60 years old) with normal EF (18 controls and 94 with hypertension), and determined protein carbonylation (PC), and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-I (PAI-I), von Willebrand factor, chromogranin A (cGA) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels from their blood samples. Results We found that 40% (38/94) of the patients with hypertension (HT) had no diastolic dysfunction (HTDD−), and 60% (56/94) had diastolic dysfunction (HTDD+). Compared to the controls, both patient groups had increased PC and BH4, TNF-α, PAI-I and BNP levels, while the HTDD+ group had elevated cGA and CRP levels. Decreased atrial and longitudinal left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic myocardial deformation (strain and strain rate) was demonstrated in both patient groups versus the control. Patients whose LV diastolic function deteriorated during the follow-up had elevated PC and IL-6 level compared to their own baseline values, and to the respective values of patients whose LV diastolic function remained unchanged. Oxidative stress, inflammation, BNP and PAI-I levels inversely correlated with LV systolic, diastolic and atrial function. Conclusions In patients with HT and normal EF, the most common HFPEF precursor condition, oxidative stress and inflammation may be responsible for LV systolic, diastolic and atrial dysfunction, which are important determinants of the transition of HT to HFPEF. PMID:25678898

  5. Systolic blood pressure: it's time to take control.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Stanley S

    2004-12-01

    Once considered an inconsequential part of the aging process, an age-associated rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP) occurs as a consequence of increased arterial stiffness and contributes to a high prevalence of systolic hypertension after middle-age. Elevated SBP imparts a predilection toward the onset of vascular events, highlighting the importance of its control. Current philosophy ranks systolic pressure as the most relevant component of blood pressure (BP) for determining risk for cardiovascular and other events in hypertensive patients, particularly those >50 years of age. Despite its prognostic role, SBP remains more difficult to control than diastolic BP (DBP), and most middle-age and older hypertensive patients fail to achieve recommended targets. In part, the lack of strict control of SBP in the more aged population lies in the physiology of hypertension. Younger persons tend toward isolated diastolic hypertension or combined systolic-diastolic hypertension, primarily driven by increased peripheral resistance and more effectively treated by antihypertensive medications; whereas older persons develop isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) associated with increased arterial stiffness that appears to be less amenable to current therapies. Thus, diastolic pressure in hypertensive patients often plateaus as patients reach middle-age and subsequently declines, whereas systolic pressure consistently rises through the ensuing decades. Treatment approaches favoring control of DBP frequently result in residual high SBP, putting patients at greater risk for vascular complications. Improving patient outcomes relies on antihypertensive therapy that appropriately addresses control of SBP and pulse pressure, underscoring the importance of therapeutic options that effectively reduce arterial stiffness.

  6. Usual versus tight control of systolic blood pressure in non-diabetic patients with hypertension (Cardio-Sis): an open-label randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Verdecchia, Paolo; Staessen, Jan A; Angeli, Fabio; de Simone, Giovanni; Achilli, Augusto; Ganau, Antonello; Mureddu, Gianfrancesco; Pede, Sergio; Maggioni, Aldo P; Lucci, Donata; Reboldi, Gianpaolo

    2009-08-15

    The level to which systolic blood pressure should be controlled in hypertensive patients without diabetes remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that tight control compared with usual control of systolic blood pressure would be beneficial in such patients. In this randomised open-label trial undertaken in 44 centres in Italy, 1111 non-diabetic patients with systolic blood pressure 150 mm Hg or greater were randomly assigned to a target systolic blood pressure of less than 140 mm Hg (usual control; n=553) or less than 130 mm Hg (tight control; n=558). After stratification by centre, we used a computerised random function to allocate patients to either group. Observers who were unaware of randomisation read electrocardiograms and adjudicated events. Open-label agents were used to reach the randomised targets. The primary endpoint was the rate of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy 2 years after randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00421863. Over a median follow-up of 2.0 years (IQR 1.93-2.03), systolic and diastolic blood pressure were reduced by a mean of 23.5/8.9 mm Hg (SD 10.6/7.0) in the usual-control group and by 27.3/10.4 mm Hg (11.0/7.5) in the tight-control group (between-group difference 3.8 mm Hg systolic [95% CI 2.4-5.2], p<0.0001; and 1.5 mm Hg diastolic [0.6-2.4]; p=0.041). The primary endpoint occurred in 82 of 483 patients (17.0%) in the usual-control group and in 55 of 484 patients (11.4%) of the tight-control group (odds ratio 0.63; 95% CI 0.43-0.91; p=0.013). A composite cardiovascular endpoint occurred in 52 (9.4%) patients in the usual-control group and in 27 (4.8%) in the tight-control group (hazard ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.79; p=0.003). Side-effects were rare and did not differ significantly between the two groups. Our findings lend support to a lower blood pressure goal than is recommended at present in non-diabetic patients with hypertension. Boehringer

  7. Can Echocardiography, Especially Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion Measurement, Predict Pulmonary Hypertension and Improve Prognosis in Patients on Long-Term Dialysis?

    PubMed Central

    Grabysa, Radosław; Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to pulmonary hypertension (PH) as a strong and independent risk factor for adverse outcome in the population of patients on long-term dialysis. Published results of observational studies indicate that the problem of PH refers mostly to patients on long-term hemodialysis and is less common in peritoneal dialysis patients. The main cause of this complication is proximal location of the arteriovenous fistula, causing chronically increased cardiac output. This paper presents the usefulness of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for measurement of the Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) in the early diagnosis of PH in dialysis patients. Echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension with TTE, especially in the case of HD patients, ensures the selection of the proper location for the first arteriovenous fistula and facilitates the decision to switch to peritoneal dialysis or to accelerate the process of qualification for kidney transplantation. PMID:26697754

  8. Newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism in the 25th gestational week of pregnancy presenting with systolic arterial hypertension only.

    PubMed

    Zaveljcina, Janez; Legan, Mateja; Gaberšček, Simona

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a 30-year-old woman diagnosed with arterial hypertension in the 25th week of pregnancy. Our search for secondary causes of arterial hypertension revealed hyperthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), which was treated with propilthiouracil. Three weeks after delivery, she was normotensive without medication. In the next four months, she developed hypothyroidism and treatment with L-thyroxine was started. In conclusion, in the second half of pregnancy, a hyperthyroid HT can occur - in spite of the well-known amelioration of autoimmune thyroid disorders in that period, and can be the only cause of arterial hypertension.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Crystalline Valsartan/Sacubitril (LCZ696) Compared With Placebo and Combinations of Free Valsartan and Sacubitril in Patients With Systolic Hypertension: The RATIO Study.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Joseph L; Zappe, Dion H; Jia, Yan; Hafeez, Kudsia; Zhang, Jack

    2017-06-01

    We compared the systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering efficacy and safety of crystalline valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696, an angiotensin receptor blocker-neprilysin inhibitor) 400 mg daily against valsartan (320 mg once daily) alone or coadministered with placebo or increasing doses of free sacubitril (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg once daily) to identify the optimal antihypertensive combination dose. This multicenter, double-blinded, 7-arm parallel-group study recruited patients with mild-to-moderate systolic hypertension (office SBP 150-179 mm Hg). Primary-dependent variable was change in office SBP from baseline to week 8. At entry (n = 907), mean age was 61.5 years, sitting office BP 160/90.2 mm Hg, and mean 24-hour ambulatory BP 142/82.1 mm Hg; 852 participants completed the study. At week 8, there were greater reductions in sitting office SBP and 24-hour ambulatory SBP with LCZ696 400 mg than with valsartan 320 mg (-5.7 and -3.4 mm Hg, respectively, P < 0.05 each). The SBP reduction with LCZ696 400 daily was similar to coadministered free valsartan 320 mg and sacubitril 200 mg. Effects were similar in those older and younger than 65 years, and active therapies had adverse event rates similar to placebo. We conclude that crystalline valsartan/sacubitril 400 mg daily (1) is superior to valsartan 320 mg daily for lowering SBP, (2) has similar efficacy to the combination of free valsartan 320 mg plus free sacubitril 200 mg, (3) represents the optimal dosage for systolic hypertension in patients of any age, and (4) is safe and well tolerated.

  10. Effect of angiotensin receptor blockade on central aortic systolic blood pressure in hypertensive Asians measured using radial tonometry: an open prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Teong, Hui Hwang; Chin, Adeline Mei Lin; Sule, Ashish Anil; Tay, Jam Chin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) has been shown to be a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than brachial blood pressure (BP). Different classes of drugs have differential effects on CASP and brachial BP. This open prospective cohort study aimed to observe changes in CASP (measured using radial tonometry) among hypertensive Asians after 12 weeks of treatment with valsartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). METHODS Patients with treatment-naïve hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension who were on non-ARB therapy were eligible for inclusion. Patients with uncontrolled BP (i.e. ≥ 140/90 mmHg) received valsartan for 12 weeks. The patients’ brachial systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP), and CASP changes were monitored using the BPro® watch. RESULTS The mean age of the 44 enrolled patients was 35 years. At baseline, the mean BP and CASP were 150.2/91.4 ± 10.6/9.4 mmHg and 136.3 ± 12.2 mmHg, respectively. Valsartan reduced SBP, DBP and CASP by 14.9 ± 10.7 mmHg, 10.9 ± 8.4 mmHg and 15.3 ± 10.9 mmHg, respectively (all p < 0.001). Every 1.0-mmHg reduction in brachial SBP resulted in a 0.8-mmHg reduction in CASP (p < 0.001). A CASP cut-off of 122.5 mmHg discriminated between controlled and uncontrolled BP (sensitivity 74%, specificity 88%). CONCLUSION Using radial tonometry, we demonstrated good correlation between CASP and brachial SBP reductions after 12 weeks of treatment with valsartan in our study cohort. Correlation analysis between CASP and SBP reductions may be useful for demonstrating whether a drug is able to lower CASP beyond lowering SBP. PMID:26875683

  11. Prognostic value of the increase in systolic blood pressure with exercise in patients with hypertension and known or suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bouzas-Mosquera, Carmen; Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Peteiro, Jesús

    2017-01-20

    The association of an exaggerated systolic blood pressure increase with exercise (EBPIE) with cardiovascular events remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the possible association of an EBPIE with survival and risk of serious cardiac events in patients with hypertension and known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). This is a retrospective observational study based on a sample of 5226 patients with a history of arterial hypertension and known or suspected CAD referred for exercise echocardiography. The EBPIE was defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure with exercise greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of this population (80mmHg). The end points were all-cause mortality, cardiac death and myocardial infarction (MI). During a mean follow-up of 4.7 years, there were 978 deaths (including 371 cardiac) and 798 MI. Annual rates of all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality and MI were 2.73, 0.83 and 2.63% in patients with EBPIE and 4.4, 1.58 and 3.98% in those without EBPIE (P<.001, P=.012, and P=.014, respectively). After multivariate analysis, an EBPIE remained independently associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.95; P=.023) and MI (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.95; P=.022) but was not significantly associated with cardiac mortality (HR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.43-1.20; P=.2). EBPIE was associated with an increased likelihood of survival and lower rate of MI in hypertensive patients with known or suspected CAD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Impaired systolic blood dipping and nocturnal hypertension: an independent predictor of carotid intima-media thickness in type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Akyürek, Nesibe; Eklioglu, Beray Selver; Alp, Hayrullah

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes in children predicts a broad range of later health problems including an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate whether nocturnal hypertension and impaired nocturnal dipping affect atherosclerosis in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to investigate the relationship between atherogenic risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). One hundred fifty-nine type 1 diabetic patients and 100 healthy controls were included in the study. We investigated metabolic and anthropometric parameters such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting glucose and insulin, serum lipids, 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and CIMT and compared these with those in control subjects (CS). No difference was found between type 1 diabetic patients and CS in age, weight, waist/hip ratio, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol level. However in children with type 1 diabetes, total cholesterol (p=0.016),and LDL-cholesterol (p=0.002) levels and CIMT (P<0.001) were greater than those of controls. It was determined that 10% of type 1 diabetic patients had dyslipidemia. In 23.2% of type 1 diabetic patients, ABPM showed arterial hypertension. CIMT was significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the non-hypertensive group (P=0.003). Twenty-three (14.4%) diabetic patients had nocturnal hypertension. CIMT was significantly greater in the nocturnal hypertensive group (p=0.023). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) dipping was significantly different in diabetic patients (P<0.001). CIMT was correlated positively with Hba1c (r=0.220, p=0.037), and negatively with SBP dipping (r=-0.362, p=0.020) in the diabetic patients. In stepwise regression analysis, Hba1c and SBP dipping emerged as a significant predictor of CIMT (β=0.300, p=0.044, β=0.398 p=0.009) contributing to 15.58% of its variability. These results provide additional evidence for the presence of

  13. The effects of control of systolic and diastolic hypertension on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in a community-based population cohort.

    PubMed

    Barengo, N C; Antikainen, R; Kastarinen, M; Laatikainen, T; Tuomilehto, J

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study (follow-up of 26,113 people) was to investigate differences in the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among hypertensive people according to the control of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). People with a history of coronary heart disease, heart failure, cancer or incomplete data at baseline (n=1113) were excluded from the study. The participants were classified into six groups according to their blood pressure status. Treated hypertensive individuals with controlled SBP and DBP did not experience an increase in all-cause mortality compared with normotensive people. The increase in all-cause mortality was 1.48-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.01) among those who were treated with antihypertensive drugs and had only their DBP controlled and 1.45-fold (95% CI 1.04-2.02) among those who were treated and had only their SBP controlled. Treated patients with both SBP and DBP controlled did not have an increased risk of CVD mortality when compared with normotensive people. The risk of CVD mortality was statistically significantly higher in treated hypertensive people with SBP alone, DBP alone or both SBP and DBP uncontrolled. Our study indicates that uncontrolled SBP alone and DBP alone are risk factors of all-cause and CVD mortality.

  14. Effect of Late Gadolinium Enhancement on the Recovery of Left Ventricular Systolic Function After Pulmonary Vein Isolation.

    PubMed

    Addison, Daniel; Farhad, Hoshang; Shah, Ravi V; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Abbasi, Siddique A; John, Roy M; Michaud, Gregory F; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Hoffmann, Udo; Stevenson, William G; Kwong, Raymond Y; Neilan, Tomas G

    2016-09-26

    The factors that predict recovery of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are not completely understood. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the LV has been reported among patients with AF, and we aimed to test whether the presence LGE was associated with subsequent recovery of LV systolic function among patients with AF and LV dysfunction. From a registry of 720 consecutive patients undergoing a cardiac magnetic resonance study prior to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), patients with LV systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction [EF] <50%) were identified. The primary outcome was recovery of LVEF defined as an EF >50%; a secondary outcome was a combined outcome of subsequent heart failure (HF), admission, and death. Of 720 patients, 172 (24%) had an LVEF of <50% prior to PVI. The mean LVEF pre-PVI was 41±6% (median 43%, range 20% to 49%). Forty-three patients (25%) had LGE (25 [58%] ischemic), and the extent of LGE was 7.5±4% (2% to 19%). During follow-up (mean 42 months), 91 patients (53%) had recovery of LVEF, 68 (40%) had early recurrence of AF, 65 (38%) had late AF, 18 (5%) were admitted for HF, and 23 died (13%). Factors associated with nonrecovery of LVEF were older age, history of myocardial infarction, early AF recurrence, late AF recurrence, and LGE. In a multivariable model, the presence of LGE and any recurrence of AF had the strongest association with persistence of LV dysfunction. Additionally, all patients without recurrence of AF and LGE had normalization of LVEF, and recovery of LVEF was associated with reduced HF admissions and death. In patients with AF and LV dysfunction undergoing PVI, the absence of LGE and AF recurrence are predictors of LVEF recovery and LVEF recovery in AF with associated reduction in subsequent death and heart failure. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Effect of an L- and T-Type Calcium Channel Blocker on 24-Hour Systolic Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Takeshi; Ebado, Mio; Takeyama, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an L- and T-type calcium channel blocker (CCB) on 24-hour systolic blood pressure (24-hour SBP) and heart rate (24-hour HR) profiles in essential hypertensive patients. Subjects and Methods Thirty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. The 24-hour SBP and HR were recorded before and after treatment with efonidipine (L- and T-type CCB, 40 mg), after waking. Changes in 24-hour SBP and HR and the diurnal to nocturnal SBP ratio were measured. The best-fit curves of changes in SBP and HR were depicted using a periodic function. Results The mean 24-hour SBP and HR decreased significantly after treatment. The diurnal to nocturnal SBP ratio in dipper-type hypertension cases decreased from 16.7±6.1% to 8.3±9.8% (p<0.05), whereas in non-dipper hypertension cases, it increased from 2.3±2.9% to 7.7±5.1% (p<0.01). The antihypertensive effect was minimal at 5.0 hours after drug administration and it slowly recovered at a constant rate (2.1 mm Hg/h) over 12 hours in dipper cases. The median 24-hour changes in HR in the dipper and non-dipper cases were -2.3/min and -5.4/min, respectively. A continuous reduction in the change in HR was seen from 3.5 to 23 hours after drug administration. Conclusion The antihypertensive action of efonidipine was characterized by a slow recovery of the SBP decrease at a constant rate (2.1 mm Hg/h) and a non-administration time dependent reduction in 24-hour HR. PMID:22563335

  16. Rationale, design and methods of the OSCAR study: observational study on cognitive function and systolic blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Atul; Hanon, Olivier; Negre-Pages, Laurence; Sevenier, Franck

    2007-04-01

    Data from several recent clinical trials have suggested a beneficial effect of antihypertensive medications on preservation of cognitive function. Eprosartan, an angiotensin type-1 receptor antagonist (ARA) with dual action on both pre- and postsynaptic angiotensin type 1 receptors, may be effective in the control of SBP and the prevention of cognitive decline. The OSCAR (Observational Study on Cognitive function And SBP Reduction) study is an international longitudinal observational study with a duration of 6 months intended to examine the impact of the ARA eprosartan on cognitive function (assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]) and control of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in a large international population of hypertensive patients managed in a standard primary care setting. A total of 100,000 hypertensive patients, aged >or=50 years and with SBP of >140 mmHg will be recruited by more than 20 000 primary care physicians in 27 countries. These patients will receive eprosartan 600 mg once a day for 6 months. The MMSE, a globally validated cognitive screening test, will be performed at baseline, and after 6 months of treatment. After the first month of monotherapy, eprosartan treatment may, at the absolute discretion of individual investigators, be supplemented with other antihypertensive medications for the remainder of the study. The primary outcome indices are the mean relative change in MMSE score and the absolute change from baseline in SBP in the study population as a whole and in subsets of patients according to various factors among them: ethnicity, comorbidities (i.e. target organ damage, diabetes), baseline cognitive level and baseline blood pressure level. The secondary objectives are to identify factors influencing SBP and MMSE changes. The OSCAR trial is the first international observational study focusing on MMSE in a wide international cohort of hypertensive patients. The results are expected in 2007.

  17. Clinical effect of naturally random allocation to lower systolic blood pressure beginning before the development of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ference, Brian A; Julius, Stevo; Mahajan, Nitin; Levy, Phillip D; Williams, Kim Allan; Flack, John M

    2014-06-01

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) rises approximately linearly with age in most societies. The cause of this rise is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that SBP is causally associated with the rate of rise in SBP with age by evaluating the effect of 12 polymorphisms associated with lower SBP on the age-related rate of rise in SBP in a series of meta-regression analyses involving ≤199 477 participants in 63 studies. We then evaluated the effect of these polymorphisms on the odds of coronary heart disease in 22,223 case and 64,762 control subjects and compared it with the effect of lower SBP observed in both prospective cohort studies and blood pressure-lowering randomized trials. All 12 polymorphisms were associated with both lower SBP and a slower age-related rise in SBP. The weighted mean effect of these 12 polymorphisms was associated with a 0.32-mm Hg lower SBP (P=1.79×10(-7)) and a 0.093-mm Hg/decade slower age-related rise in SBP (P=3.05×10(-5)). The effect of long-term exposure to lower SBP on coronary heart disease mediated by these polymorphisms was 2-fold greater than that observed in prospective cohort studies (P=0.006) and 3-fold greater than that observed in short-term blood pressure treatment trials (P=0.001). We conclude therefore that SBP seems to be causally associated with the rate of rise in SBP with age and has a cumulative effect on the risk of coronary heart disease.

  18. Importance of right ventricular end-systolic regional wall stress in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension: a new method for estimation of right ventricular wall stress.

    PubMed

    Quaife, Robert A; Chen, Marcus Y; Lynch, David; Badesch, David B; Groves, Bertron M; Wolfel, Eugene; Robertson, Alastair D; Bristow, Michael R; Voelkel, Norbert F

    2006-05-05

    RV dysfunction in idiopathic (primary) pulmonary hypertension (IPAH) is often characterized by chamber dilation, ventricular hypertrophy, and impaired systolic function. In this study we characterize right ventricular (RV) chamber size, end-diastolic thickness, myocardial mass, and ejection fraction in patients with right ventricular heart failure from IPAH, n = 16 and compare these characteristics to a control population of cardiac transplant patients (TX, n = 4) and a group of normal subjects (N, n = 5). Subjects underwent both gated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the right ventricle and right heart catheterization (RHC). Using parameters from both the MRI and RHC, an estimate of RV end-systolic relative wall stress (RWS) was calculated. RV RWS was 34.7 +/- 8.4 and 17.3 +/- 3.8 Kdynes/cm2 in the cardiac transplant and control subjects respectively and was significantly elevated 104.1 Kdynes/cm2 in IPAH patients (IPAH vs N and TX; p = 0.004 and 0.008 ). RV ejection fraction RVEF was lower in IPAH patients 0.36 +/- .10 than in N and TX 0.57 +/- .04 and 0.55 +/- .08 respectively, (p = 0.0006 N and 0.0007 TX). An inverse linear correlation was demonstrated between RWS and RVEF (y = 215- 332x; R = .80, p < or = .0001). Right ventricular RWS is significantly elevated in IPAH and may provide a useful quantitative monitoring tool in patients with IPAH to assess the benefit of different therapeutic interventions and provide prognostic information.

  19. An elevated systolic blood pressure response at 8 minutes in full contact exercise may identify hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Baker, Julien; Davies, Bruce; McCormick, Marie Clare; Graham, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify hypertension (HT) in karate competitors (KCs) in high intensity exercise. Values were compared with an exercise control group (EC). The 84 subjects were randomly divided into two groups: KC and EC. Resting blood pressure (BP) was measured the day before and immediately precompetition. A further three measurements were taken postexercise for all subjects at 1-, 2-, and 8- minute intervals. At rest, day one, mean BP of KC was 134/84 ± 3/2 mmHg vs. EC, 124/72 ± 1/2 mmHg and on day 2, was 141/79 ± 3/2 mmHg vs. EC, 125/72 ± 1/2 mmHg, respectively. Eight minutes postcompetition, BP of KCs was 140/77 ± 2/1 mmHg vs. EC 135/75 ± 2/1 mmHg. High blood pressure (HBP) was recorded in 60.5% of KCs on day 2, and essential HT that required medical therapy was subsequently diagnosed in 5% of KCs. Five percent of EC also had HBP, but subsequent medical examination reported normal values.

  20. Efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) add-on to amlodipine in Asian patients with systolic hypertension uncontrolled with amlodipine monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Guang; Yukisada, Kimihiko; Sibulo, Antonio; Hafeez, Kudsia; Jia, Yan; Zhang, Jack

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696, an angiotensin receptor and neprilysin inhibitor) add-on to amlodipine compared with amlodipine monotherapy in Asian patients with systolic hypertension uncontrolled with amlodipine. Patients with mean clinic SBP at least 145 mmHg and less than 180 mmHg after a 4-week treatment with amlodipine 5 mg/day were randomized to receive LCZ696/amlodipine (200/5 mg/day) or amlodipine 5 mg/day for 8 weeks. The primary assessment was the superiority of LCZ696/amlodipine versus amlodipine in lowering 24-h ambulatory SBP from baseline to week 8. Secondary assessments included 24-h ambulatory DBP and pulse pressure (PP), daytime and night-time BP, clinic BP and PP, BP control/responder rate (<140/90 mmHg or a reduction ≥20/10 mmHg from baseline), and safety. Of the 371 patients screened, 266 (71.7%) patients (mean age 55.4 years; 24-h SBP/DBP 139.0/86.1 mmHg at baseline) who did not respond to 4-week treatment with amlodipine 5 mg/day were randomized. At week 8, LCZ696/amlodipine provided greater reductions in 24-h SBP compared with amlodipine monotherapy from baseline (-13.9 versus -0.8 mmHg, P < 0.001). All the secondary efficacy assessments were significantly (P < 0.001) in favour of LCZ696/amlodipine, for instance, 24-h PP (-5.8 versus -0.6 mmHg). Overall, the incidence of adverse events was 20.0% with LCZ696/amlodipine and 21.3% with amlodipine. LCZ696/amlodipine showed significantly greater 24-h ambulatory BP and PP reductions compared with amlodipine monotherapy. Both treatments were generally well tolerated. Therefore, LCZ696/amlodipine combination could be an effective treatment for patients with systolic hypertension uncontrolled with amlodipine.

  1. History of Hypertension and the Effects of Eplerenone in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Bertram; Ahmed, Ali; Love, Thomas E.; Krum, Henry; Nicolau, Jose; Silva Cardoso, José; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Aschermann, Michael; Corbalán, Ramon; Solomon, Henry; Shi, Harry; Zannad, Faiez

    2013-01-01

    In the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (n=6632), eplerenone-associated reduction in all-cause mortality was significantly greater in those with a history of hypertension (Hx-HTN). There were 4007 patients with Hx-HTN (eplerenone: n=1983) and 2625 patients without Hx-HTN (eplerenone: n=1336). Propensity scores for eplerenone use, separately calculated for patients with and without Hx-HTN, were used to assemble matched cohorts of 1838 and 1176 pairs of patients. In patients with Hx-HTN, all-cause mortality occurred in 18% of patients treated with placebo (rate, 1430/10 000 person-years) and 14% of patients treated with eplerenone (rate, 1058/10 000 person-years) during 2350 and 2457 years of follow-up, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.85; P<0.0001). Composite end point of cardiovascular hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality occurred in 33% of placebo-treated patients (3029/10 000 person-years) and 28% of eplerenone-treated patients (2438/10 000 person-years) with Hx-HTN (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.94; P=0.003). In patients without Hx-HTN, eplerenone reduced heart failure hospitalization (HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.97; P=0.028) but had no effect on mortality (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.72 to 1.15; P=0.435) or on the composite end point (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.10; P=0.331). Eplerenone should, therefore, be prescribed to all of the post–acute myocardial infarction patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and heart failure regardless of Hx-HTN. PMID:18559720

  2. Gene by smoking interaction in hypertension: identification of a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 15q for systolic blood pressure in Mexican-Americans.

    PubMed

    Montasser, May E; Shimmin, Lawrence C; Hanis, Craig L; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hixson, James E

    2009-03-01

    Our objective was to investigate the influence of gene by smoking (GxS) interaction on hypertension and blood pressure (BP) using genome-wide linkage analysis in Mexican-Americans, followed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) fine mapping of candidate genes in the linked chromosomal region. We used nonparametric methods to test for linkage of microsatellites with hypertension and BP measures in smokers, nonsmokers, and the combined group. To begin fine mapping of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for systolic blood pressure (SBP) on chromosome 15q that showed strong evidence for GxS interaction, we genotyped 55 SNPs in nine candidate genes for association studies using two population-based statistical methods. The strongest evidence for GxS interaction (P = 0.0004) was found for SBP on chromosome 15q, where a major QTL (LOD = 3.36) was identified only in nonsmokers. Follow-up studies identified three SNPs in three genes (ANPEP, IGF1R, and SLCO3A1) that showed associations with SBP only in nonsmokers, cumulatively accounting for a 7 mmHg increase in SBP. However, conditional linkage analyses that accounted for phenotypic effects of these SNPs only slightly reduced the original LOD score. The detection of a major QTL on chromosome 15q for SBP in nonsmokers indicates the presence of loci that influence BP via GxS interactions. However, identification of the genes that underlie such QTL effects remains a challenge. Although we found three candidate genes that showed significant associations with SBP in nonsmokers, further studies are required to identify the gene(s) that underlie the chromosome 15q QTL that influences SBP via GxS interactions.

  3. Thermoase-derived flaxseed protein hydrolysates and membrane ultrafiltration peptide fractions have systolic blood pressure-lowering effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Girgih, Abraham T; Malomo, Sunday A; Onuh, John O; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-10-09

    Thermoase-digested flaxseed protein hydrolysate (FPH) samples and ultrafiltration membrane-separated peptide fractions were initially evaluated for in vitro inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities. The two most active FPH samples and their corresponding peptide fractions were subsequently tested for in vivo antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The FPH produced with 3% thermoase digestion showed the highest ACE- and renin-inhibitory activities. Whereas membrane ultrafiltration resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increases in ACE inhibition by the <1 and 1-3 kDa peptides, only a marginal improvement in renin-inhibitory activity was observed for virtually all the samples after membrane ultrafiltration. The FPH samples and membrane fractions were also effective in lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) in SHR with the largest effect occurring after oral administration (200 mg/kg body weight) of the 1-3 kDa peptide fraction of the 2.5% FPH and the 3-5 kDa fraction of the 3% FPH. Such potent SBP-lowering capacity indicates the potential of flaxseed protein-derived bioactive peptides as ingredients for the formulation of antihypertensive functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  4. Impact of yoga on blood pressure and quality of life in patients with hypertension – a controlled trial in primary care, matched for systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical treatment of hypertension is not always sufficient to achieve blood pressure control. Despite this, previous studies on supplementary therapies, such as yoga, are relatively few. We investigated the effects of two yoga interventions on blood pressure and quality of life in patients in primary health care diagnosed with hypertension. Methods Adult patients (age 20–80 years) with diagnosed hypertension were identified by an electronic chart search at a primary health care center in southern Sweden. In total, 83 subjects with blood pressure values of 120–179/≤109 mmHg at baseline were enrolled. At baseline, the patients underwent standardized blood pressure measurement at the health care center and they completed a questionnaire on self-rated quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). There were three groups: 1) yoga class with yoga instructor (n = 28); 2) yoga at home (n = 28); and 3) a control group (n = 27). The participants were matched at the group level for systolic blood pressure. After 12 weeks of intervention, the assessments were performed again. At baseline a majority of the patients (92%) were on antihypertensive medication, and the patients were requested not to change their medication during the study. Results The yoga class group showed no improvement in blood pressure or self-rated quality of life, while in the yoga at home group there was a decline in diastolic blood pressure of 4.4 mmHg (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Moreover, the yoga at home group showed significant improvement in self-rated quality of life compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions A short yoga program for the patient to practice at home seems to have an antihypertensive effect, as well as a positive effect on self-rated quality of life compared to controls. This implies that simple yoga exercises may be useful as a supplementary blood pressure therapy in addition to medical treatment when prescribed by primary care

  5. Independent association of obstructive sleep apnea with left ventricular geometry and systolic function in resistant hypertension: the RESIST-POL study.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Piotr; Klisiewicz, Anna; Florczak, Elżbieta; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Bieleń, Przemysław; Sliwiński, Paweł; Kabat, Marek; Rybicka, Justyna; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Hoffman, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and night blood pressure (BP) on left ventricular geometry and systolic function in patients with resistant hypertension (RHTN). Data from 155 patients with RHTN were analyzed. All patients underwent biochemical evaluations, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and polysomnography. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), midwall fractional shortening (mwFS) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) were measured. Patients were divided into four groups based on the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and OSA: group 1: OSA(-), MS(-) [n = 42]; group 2: OSA(+), MS(-) [n = 14]; group 3: OSA(-), MS(+) [n = 46]; and group 4: OSA(+), MS(+) [n = 53]. In group 3 and 4 concentric geometry was present in 53.2% and 79.6% respectively (P = 0.004). There were no differences in LVEF between groups. Group 3 and 4 had lower mwFS as compared with group 1 (16.40 ± 1.9 and 15.38 ± 2.2 vs 17.44 ± 1.9; P < 0.049 and P < 0.0001 respectively). Group 4 had significantly lower GLS as compared with group 1 (-12.64 ± 3.3 vs -15.59 ± 4.0; P < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with concentric geometry were age, nighttime SBP (OR -1.04; 95%Cl 1.019-1.082; P < 0.0001) and OSA (OR -3.97; 95%Cl 1.835-8.590; P < 0.0001). In the other multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with GLS were OSA (beta = 0.279; P = 0.001), and nighttime DBP (beta = 0.168; P = 0.048) whereas factors independently associated with mwFS were age, gender, nighttime SBP, concentric geometry, and metabolic syndrome. In patients with true RHTN without diabetes concentric geometry and systolic dysfunction are independently associated with moderate and severe OSA and nighttime BP levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Time spent moving is related to systolic blood pressure among older women.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patrick; Pescatello, Linda S; Bohannon, Richard W; Marschke, Lisa; Murphy, Mary; Coble, Denis; Hasson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is present in the majority of older women. Exercise is an attractive antihypertensive lifestyle therapy for older women with isolated systolic hypertension, but the amount of exercise needed to reduce blood pressure (BP) is not clear. Evidence is accumulating that lower levels of physical exertion are associated with decreased BP. The authors sought to determine if BP was related to daily time spent moving. Participants were 109 women (mean +/- SD, 75.2+/-7.2 yr). A majority (63.3%) had hypertension, and 48.6% had isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic BP was lower among women moving > or =5 h/d (142.2+/-18.7 mm Hg) than those moving <5 h/d (149.8+/-19.0 mm Hg) (p=0.038). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the potentially strong confounding effects of antihypertensive medication use, adiposity, and age did not eliminate these favorable associations between daily time spent moving and systolic BP. Older women should be encouraged to regularly engage in physical activities typical of everyday life such as walking because of its BP benefits.

  7. Optimal Systolic Blood Pressure Levels for Primary Prevention of Stroke in General Hypertensive Adults: Findings From the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial).

    PubMed

    Fan, Fangfang; Yuan, Ziwen; Qin, Xianhui; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Yan; Li, Youbao; Yu, Tao; Ji, Meng; Ge, Junbo; Zheng, Meili; Yang, Xinchun; Bao, Huihui; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Gu, Dongfeng; Zhao, Dong; Wang, Jiguang; Sun, Ningling; Chen, Yundai; Wang, Hong; Wang, Xiaobin; Parati, Gianfranco; Hou, Fanfan; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xian; Zhao, Gang; Huo, Yong

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship of time-averaged on-treatment systolic blood pressure (SBP) with the risk of first stroke in the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial). A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from 17 720 hypertensive adults without cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and renal function decline from the CSPPT, a randomized double-blind controlled trial. The primary outcome was first stroke. Over a median follow-up duration of 4.5 years, the association between averaged on-treatment SBP and risk for first stoke followed a U-shape curve, with increased risk above and below the reference range of 120 to 130 mm Hg. Compared with participants with time-averaged on-treatment SBP at 120 to 130 mm Hg (mean, 126.2 mm Hg), the risk of first stroke was not only increased in participants with SBP at 130 to 135 mm Hg (mean, 132.6 mm Hg; 1.5% versus 0.8%; hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.63) or 135 to 140 mm Hg (mean, 137.5 mm Hg; 1.9% versus 0.8%; hazard ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.93), but also increased in participants with SBP <120 mm Hg (mean, 116.7 mm Hg; 3.1% versus 0.8%; hazard ratio, 4.37; 95% confidence interval, 2.10-9.07). Similar results were found in various subgroups stratified by age, sex, and treatment group. Furthermore, lower diastolic blood pressure was associated with lower risk of stroke, with a plateau at a time-average on-treatment diastolic blood pressure <80 mm Hg. In conclusion, among adults with hypertension and without a history of stroke or myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, or renal function decline, a lower SBP goal of 120 to 130 mm Hg, as compared with a target SBP of 130 to 140 mm Hg or <120 mm Hg, resulted in the lowest risk of first stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Usefulness of the right ventricular systolic to diastolic duration ratio to predict functional capacity and survival in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Alkon, Jaime; Humpl, Tilman; Manlhiot, Cedric; McCrindle, Brian W; Reyes, Janette T; Friedberg, Mark K

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the systolic to diastolic duration ratio (S:D ratio) in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and its association with right ventricular (RV) performance, hemodynamics, 6-minute walk test, clinical outcomes, and survival. We reviewed 503 serial echocardiograms in 47 children with PAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure >or=25 mm Hg) and compared the S:D ratio, assessed from Doppler flow of tricuspid valve regurgitation, to that in 47 age-matched controls. We reviewed echocardiograms, catheterization data, 6-minute walk tests, clinical data, lung transplantation, and death and used univariate linear regression models with a maximum likelihood algorithm for parameter estimation to investigate associations between S:D ratio and RV function, hemodynamics, functional capacity, and clinical outcomes. The S:D ratio was significantly higher in patients than in controls (1.38 +/- 0.61 vs 0.72 +/- 0.16, p <0.001). A higher S:D ratio was associated with worse echocardiographic RV fractional area of change, worse catheterization hemodynamics, shorter 6-minute walk distance, and worse clinical outcomes independent of pulmonary resistance or pressures. An increase of 0.1 in the S:D ratio was associated with a 13% increase in yearly risk for lung transplantation or death (hazard ratio 1.13, p <0.001). An S:D ratio 1.00 to 1.40 was associated with a moderate risk and an S:D ratio >1.40 was associated with a high risk of a negative outcome. In conclusion, in children with PAH, an increased S:D ratio is temporally associated with worse RV function, hemodynamics, exercise capability, clinical status, and survival. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prognostic value of right ventricular free wall strain in pulmonary hypertension patients with pseudo-normalized tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values.

    PubMed

    van Kessel, Marco; Seaton, David; Chan, Jonathan; Yamada, Akira; Kermeen, Fiona; Butler, Thomas; Sabapathy, Surendran; Morris, Norman

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressively fatal disease having a significant impact on right ventricular (RV) function, a major determinant of long-term outcome in PH patients. In our clinic we frequently noticed the combination of PH and reduced RV function, but with discordant Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) values. The present study focuses on whether RV free wall strain measured using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography is able to predict mortality in this subgroup of PH patients. 57 patients with PH and RV dysfunction (visual echocardiographic assessment of ≥2) and pseudo-normalized TAPSE values (defined as ≥16 mm) were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided by RV free -20 % as cut-off value. Follow-up data on all-cause mortality were registered after a median follow-up time of 27.9 ± 1.7 months. RV free of ≥-20 % was predictive of all-cause mortality after a median follow-up time of 27.9 ± 1.7 months (HR 3.76, 95 % CI 1.02-13.92, p = 0.05). RV free ≥-20 % remained a significant predictor of all-cause mortality (HR 4.30, 95 % CI 1.11-16.61, p = 0.04) after adjusting for PH-specific treatment. On the contrary, TAPSE was not a significant predictor of all-cause mortality. RV free wall strain provides prognostic information in patients with PH and RV dysfunction, but with normal TAPSE values. Future studies with larger cohorts, longer follow-up periods and inclusion of more echocardiographic parameters measuring LV and RV function could confirm the strength of RV free ≥-20 % as a predictor of mortality for this subgroup of patients with PH.

  10. Association of early systolic blood pressure response to exercise with future cardiovascular events in patients with uncomplicated mild-to-moderate hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Soo; Jang, Sun-Joo; Lee, Chang Hoon; Park, Chong-Hun

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between blood pressure (BP) response during exercise and future cardiovascular events remains unclear. We assessed the association between an increase in early systolic BP (SBP) during exercise tests and future cardiovascular events in patients with sustained hypertension (sHT). Between 2002 and 2005, we enrolled 300 patients newly diagnosed with mild-to-moderate sHT without complications from the Asan Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring registry. All the patients successfully performed treadmill tests, achieving target heart rate according to the Naughton/Balke protocol. The patients were divided into quartiles according to their SBP at 8 min (7.4 metabolic equivalent tasks). The primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death, new-onset ischemic heart disease and stroke. The 5-year survival rates did not differ significantly among quartiles 1-4 (100% vs. 96.6% vs. 94.4% vs. 98.3%, P=0.211). Relative to quartile 1, the 5-year event-free survival rates were significantly lower in patients in quartiles 3 (86.9% vs. 98.3%, P=0.023) and 4 (88.2% vs. 98.3%, P=0.023). After multivariable adjustment for covariates, the risk for the composite end point was higher for patients in quartiles 3 (Hazard ratio (HR) 4.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-17.13, P=0.020) and 4 (HR 3.65, 95% CI 0.92-14.50, P=0.065) than in quartiles 1 and 2. Cardiovascular risk was significantly higher in patients with stage 4 SBP (>180 mm Hg) even after adjustment (HR 4.00, 95% CI 1.19-13.44, P=0.025). Increased submaximal SBP response to exercise may be a predictor of future cardiovascular events in patients with mild-to-moderate sHT.

  11. Low sodium inotropy is accompanied by diastolic Ca2+ gain and systolic loss in isolated guinea-pig ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Même, William; O'Neill, S C; Eisner, D A

    2001-01-01

    We measured sarcolemmal Ca2+ fluxes responsible for the positive inotropic effects of solutions with reduced Na+ concentration in voltage-clamped guinea-pig ventricular myocytes; intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with Indo-1. Reduction of external Na+ concentration by 50 % (to 67 mM) produced an increase in systolic [Ca2+]i accompanied by a decrease in Ca2+ entry via the L-type Ca2+ current. With reduced Na+ concentration, there was an initial decrease in the Na+–Ca2+ exchange current on repolarization followed by an increase to greater than control. We attribute this initial decrease to a decrease in the Na+ gradient and the subsequent increase to a fall in intracellular Na+ concentration and increase in systolic [Ca2+]i. The decreased L-type Ca2+ current and increased Ca2+ efflux on Na+–Ca2+ exchange resulted in a calculated systolic loss of Ca2+. The calculated systolic loss of Ca2+ was accompanied by a measured increase in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content. Reduction of the external Na+ concentration also produced an outward shift of holding current which was blocked by Ni2+. This is taken to represent Ca2+ influx via Na+–Ca2+ exchange. When diastolic influx is taken into account, the observed gain in SR Ca2+ content can be predicted. The measurements show that, in reduced Na+, much of the entry of Ca2+ into the cell occurs during diastole (via Na+–Ca2+ exchange) rather than in systole (via the L-type Ca2+ current). PMID:11158278

  12. [Effectiveness of magnetotherapy in elderly hypertensive patients aging at different rates].

    PubMed

    Abramovich, S G; Koriakina, A V; Brodach, L N; Akhmedzianov, Iu A; Makarychkin, S P

    2000-01-01

    Effectiveness of general magnetotherapy was studied in 84 patients with essential hypertension and 36 patients with isolated systolic arterial hypertension of old age. It is thought necessary to determine biological age of the cardiovascular system in hypertensive patients over 60 years of age to specify indications and contraindications to physiotherapy.

  13. Vascular reactivity of rabbit isolated renal and femoral resistance arteries in renal wrap hypertension.

    PubMed

    Khammy, Makhala M; Angus, James A; Wright, Christine E

    2016-02-15

    In rabbits with cellophane renal wrap hypertension, hindquarter and total vascular resistance changes to pressor and depressor agents are amplified compared to those of normotensive rabbits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro pharmacodynamics of hypertensive and normotensive rabbit small artery segments isolated from the renal and hindquarter vascular beds. Using wire myography, the full range (Emax) and sensitivity (EC50) to a range of agonists of segments of renal interlobar (≈ 600 µm i.d.), renal arcuate (≈ 250 µm i.d.) and deep femoral branch (≈ 250 µm i.d.) arteries were assessed under normalised conditions of passive tension. Interlobar arteries from hypertensive rabbits were more sensitive (EC50) than those from normotensive rabbits to noradrenaline (6-fold), methoxamine (3-fold) and angiotensin II (3-fold). Arcuate artery reactivity was largely unaffected by hypertension. Deep femoral arteries from hypertensive rabbits had enhanced sensitivity only to noradrenaline (2-fold) and methoxamine (4-fold). Sensitivity to relaxation by acetylcholine was unaffected by hypertension in all arteries. Deep femoral arteries from hypertensive rabbits were more sensitive to sodium nitroprusside than normotensive counterparts. Adenosine caused little relaxation in renal arteries, but full relaxation in deep femoral arteries, unaltered by hypertension. This study found substantial heterogeneity in the pharmacodynamic profile of vessels isolated from different vascular beds and between arterial segments within the kidney. These profiles were differentially affected by hypertension suggesting that hypertension per se is not a resultant of general vascular dysfunction.

  14. Chronic enalapril treatment increases transient outward potassium current in cardiomyocytes isolated from right ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Junior, Luiz Fernando; de Azevedo Carvalho, Ana Carolina; Pimentel, Enildo Broetto; Mill, José Geraldo; Nascimento, José Hamilton Matheus

    2017-03-01

    It has been well established that chronic pressure overload resulting from hypertension leads to ventricular hypertrophy and electrophysiological remodeling. The transient outward potassium current (I to) reduction described in hypertensive animals delays ventricular repolarization, leading to complex ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Antihypertensive drugs, as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), can restore I to and reduce the incidence of arrhythmic events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential effects of long-term treatment with ACEi or direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant on the I to of left and right ventricle myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Animals were divided into four groups: normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), hypertensive (SHR), SHR treated for 6 weeks with enalapril 10 mg/kg/day (SHRE), or hydralazine 20 mg/kg/day (SHRH). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and hypertrophy index (heart weight/body weight (HW/BW)) were determined at the end of treatment period. Cell membrane capacitance (C m) and I to were assessed in cardiomyocytes isolated from left and right ventricles. The SHR exhibited significantly increased SBP and HW/BW when compared to the WKY. The treated groups, SHRE and SHRH, restored normal SBP but not HW/BW. The SHR group exhibited a diminished I to in the left but not the right ventricle. Both the treated groups restored I to in the left ventricle. However, in the right ventricle, only enalapril treatment modified I to. The SHRE group exhibited a significant increase in I to compared to all the other groups. These findings suggest that enalapril may increase I to by a pressure overload independent mechanism.

  15. Isolated Diastolic Hypertension among Adults in Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Predictors and Treatment. Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdalla Abdelwahid; Al-Hamdan, Nasser Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past, diastolic hypertension was the main criterion for treatment, but currently, systolic pressure is the main criterion because it was thought that Isolated Diastolic Hypertension (IDH) is not associated with complications. Studies later revealed that IDH carries significant risks. Quantifying the magnitude and risk factors of IDH in the community is essential for all intervention strategies. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence, risk factors, predictors, treatment modalities and lifestyle practices of IDH adult patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study using STEPwise approach among adults using a multistage, stratified, cluster random sample was carried out. Data were collected using questionnaires which included socio-demographics, blood pressure, biochemical, anthropometric measurements and lifestyle practices. Statistical analysis included calculating means and standard deviations, proportions, univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Of a total 4562 subjects, 180 (3.95%) suffered from IDH, which was significantly related to age, gender, employment, smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. More than 93% were using some form of treatment, with 77.2% on prescribed drugs, 63% using diet, and 23% using exercise. Significant predictors of IDH were retirement and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion: IDH is associated with some sociodemographic characteristics and co-morbidity. Given the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with IDH, the findings of this study emphasize the need for diagnosing the disease in middle-aged persons focusing on the modifiable risk factors of IDH. PMID:26966618

  16. Hypertension in aging patients.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alexander G

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension, especially isolated systolic hypertension, is commonly found in older (60-79 years of age) and elderly (≥80 years of age) people. Antihypertensive drug therapy should be considered in all aging hypertensive patients, as treatment greatly reduces cardiovascular events. Most classes of antihypertensive medications may be used as first-line treatment with the possible exception of α- and β-blockers. An initial blood pressure treatment goal is less than 140/90 mmHg in all older patients and less than 150/80 mmHg in the nonfrail elderly. The current paradigm of delaying therapeutic interventions until people are at moderate or high cardiovascular risk, a universal feature of hypertensive patients over 60 years of age, leads to vascular injury or disease that is only partially reversible with treatment. Future management will likely focus on intervening earlier to prevent accelerated vascular aging and irreversible arterial damage.

  17. Characterization and Treatment of Resistant Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pisoni, Roberto; Ahmed, Mustafa I.; Calhoun, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a common medical problem and carries a significantly increased risk of end organ damage and cardiovascular events as compared with more easily controlled hypertension. Resistant hypertension is most often related to isolated systolic hypertension and is characterized by aldosterone excess and increased intravascular volume. Its diagnosis requires the exclusion of pseudoresistance. The etiology of resistant hypertension is almost always multifactorial and common reversible contributing factors need to be identified and addressed. Secondary causes of hypertension such as primary aldosteronism, parenchymal and vascular kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea require investigation and effective treatment if present. Therapy for resistant hypertension should be based on use of rational drug class combinations at optimal doses with particular attention to adequate diuretic use. The addition of an aldosterone antagonist may further improve blood pressure control. PMID:19863864

  18. [Hypertension].

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Mitsuru

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is well known to one of the risk factors to reduce cognitive function, however, it is still unclear whether anti-hypertensive therapy is effective to prevent development of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological studies suggested antihypertensive therapy from the middle-age could reduce risk of dementia. The meta-analysis including HYVET also suggested blood pressure lowering from the elderly might be also effective to prevent development of dementia. The network meta-analysis and the cohort study using mega-data bank suggested ARB might be effective to prevent development of dementia or Alzheimer's disease compared to administration with other anti-hypertensive drugs. Although the further major clinical investigation is required, anti-hypertensive treatment might be useful to manage hypertensive patients with dementia.

  19. Isolated clinical hypertension diagnosis: self-home BP, ambulatory BP monitoring, or both simultaneously?

    PubMed

    Coll de Tuero, Gabriel; Llibre, Joan Bayó; Poncelas, Antonio Rodriguez; Saumell, Carme Roca; Saez, Marc; Boreu, Quintí Foguet; Marcó, Narcís Salleres; Baqué, Antoni Dalfó; Sanz, M Rosa Senán; Fontanet, Mireia Ventura

    2011-02-01

    Self-blood pressure (BP) measurement (SBPM) and ambulatory BP measurement (ABPM) are suitable for the isolated clinical hypertension (ICH) or 'white-coat' hypertension diagnosis. However, patients with ICH have a different cardiovascular risk according to the measurement technique used for the diagnosis. To describe baseline cardiovascular risk of patients with hypertension and with ICH according to SBPM and daytime ABPM. Six hundred and sixty-four newly diagnosed and never treated patients with hypertension and with an average age of 59.3 years (standard deviation=12.0) were included (52% men) in this study. Clinical data, analytical data with urinary albumin excretion rate, estimated glomerular filtration rate, retinography, SBPM, and ABPM were performed. Cardiovascular risk was estimated from the European Society of Hypertension and Systemic Coronary Risk Evaluation tables. ICH prevalence varies according to the ambulatory measurement technique used: SBPM=24.2%, daytime ABPM=8.1, and 5.2% if criteria are required from both techniques. In the 403 patients with hypertension and who had SBPM and ABPM, the percentage of patients with high or very high baseline cardiovascular risk, falls progressively from 31.2% of patients with sustained hypertension to 20.0% of patients with ICH measured using SBPM, to 15.1% of patients with ICH measured using ABPM-day and to 9.5% of patients who present ICH using both techniques (P<0.005 for trend). The baseline results show that patients with hypertension and with ICH using SBPM and daytime ABPM are those who have a lower baseline cardiovascular risk and allow ICH to be defined on the basis of normal ambulatory readings using both techniques.

  20. Effect of self-monitoring and medication self-titration on systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: the TASMIN-SR randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    McManus, Richard J; Mant, Jonathan; Haque, M Sayeed; Bray, Emma P; Bryan, Stirling; Greenfield, Sheila M; Jones, Miren I; Jowett, Sue; Little, Paul; Penaloza, Cristina; Schwartz, Claire; Shackleford, Helen; Shovelton, Claire; Varghese, Jinu; Williams, Bryan; Hobbs, F D Richard; Gooding, Trevor; Morrey, Ian; Fisher, Crispin; Buckley, David

    2014-08-27

    Self-monitoring of blood pressure with self-titration of antihypertensives (self-management) results in lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension, but there are no data about patients in high-risk groups. To determine the effect of self-monitoring with self-titration of antihypertensive medication compared with usual care on systolic blood pressure among patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease. A primary care, unblinded, randomized clinical trial involving 552 patients who were aged at least 35 years with a history of stroke, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease and with baseline blood pressure of at least 130/80 mm Hg being treated at 59 UK primary care practices was conducted between March 2011 and January 2013. Self-monitoring of blood pressure combined with an individualized self-titration algorithm. During the study period, the office visit blood pressure measurement target was 130/80 mm Hg and the home measurement target was 120/75 mm Hg. Control patients received usual care consisting of seeing their health care clinician for routine blood pressure measurement and adjustment of medication if necessary. The primary outcome was the difference in systolic blood pressure between intervention and control groups at the 12-month office visit. Primary outcome data were available from 450 patients (81%). The mean baseline blood pressure was 143.1/80.5 mm Hg in the intervention group and 143.6/79.5 mm Hg in the control group. After 12 months, the mean blood pressure had decreased to 128.2/73.8 mm Hg in the intervention group and to 137.8/76.3 mm Hg in the control group, a difference of 9.2 mm Hg (95% CI, 5.7-12.7) in systolic and 3.4 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.8-5.0) in diastolic blood pressure following correction for baseline blood pressure. Multiple imputation for missing values gave similar results: the mean baseline was 143.5/80.2 mm Hg in the intervention group vs 144.2/79.9 mm Hg in the control group, and

  1. Hypertensive emergency presenting with an isolated celiac artery dissection: A rare case study.

    PubMed

    Swergold, Natalie; Kozusko, Steven; Rivera, Carlos; Sturt, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge the most recent article on celiac dissection was published in 2015 and reported 24 known cases of spontaneous isolated celiac trunk dissection [2]. While some of those cases reported hypertension as a risk factor, no other case presents as hypertensive emergency with an isolated celiac artery dissection. A 43 year-old man with a past medical history of uncontrolled hypertension, for which he had reportedly been non-compliant with follow-up, presented with complaints of severe, sudden-onset epigastric pain which was non-radiating and constant for 1 hour prior to arrival. On CT an intimal flap was noted within the celiac trunk, starting at the origin and extending into the left gastric, splenic, and the common hepatic arteries. The most common symptom in patients with celiac artery dissection is acute or chronic epigastric or abdominal pain [2,4,9,11]. The crux of the diagnosis of this condition relies on contrast enhanced CT. The superiority of the CT scan is because of the contrast tracking capability [11]. The two most common risk factors for celiac artery dissection are hypertension followed by vasculitis. Patients can be managed nonoperatively or with one of a few operative procedures. Conservative treatment consists of anticoagulants, antihypertensives, and antiplatelet therapy [2]. To the best of our knowledge, we present the 25th case of isolated celiac artery dissection. This is the first case of hypertensive emergency induced spontaneous isolated celiac trunk dissection in literature. Our patient was managed primarily with a labetalol drip. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Timeline of History of Hypertension Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saklayen, Mohammad G.; Deshpande, Neeraj V.

    2016-01-01

    It is surprising that only about 50 years ago hypertension was considered an essential malady and not a treatable condition. Introduction of thiazide diuretics in late 50s made some headway in successful treatment of hypertension and ambitious multicenter VA co-operative study (phase 1 and 2) started in 1964 for diastolic hypertension ranging between 90 and 129 mmHg and completed by 1971 established for the first time that treating diastolic hypertension reduced CV events such as stroke and heart failure and improved mortality. In the following decade, these results were confirmed for the wider US and non-US population, including women and goal-oriented BP treatment to diastolic 90 became the standard therapy recommendation. But isolated systolic hypertension (accounting for two-thirds of the 70 million hypertensive population in USA alone) was not considered treatable until 1991 when SHEP study (systolic hypertension in elderly program) was completed and showed tremendous benefits of treating systolic BP over 160 mmHg using only a simple regimen using small dose chlorthalidone with addition of atenolol if needed. In the next two decades, ALLHAT and other studies examined the comparability of outcomes with use of different classes and combinations of antihypertensive drugs. Although diastolic BP goal was established as 90 in the late 70s and later confirmed by HOT study, the goal BP for systolic hypertension was not settled until very recently with completion of SPRINT study. ACCORD study showed no significant difference in outcome with sys 140 vs. 120 in diabetics. But recently completed SPRINT study with somewhat similar protocol as in ACCORD but in non-diabetic showed almost one-quarter reduction in all-cause mortality and one-third reduction of CV events with systolic BP goal 120. PMID:26942184

  3. Captopril avoids hypertension, the increase in plasma angiotensin II but increases angiotensin 1-7 and angiotensin II-induced perfusion pressure in isolated kidney in SHR.

    PubMed

    Castro-Moreno, P; Pardo, J P; Hernández-Muñoz, R; López-Guerrero, J J; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; Pastelín-Hernández, G; Ibarra-Barajas, M; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2012-10-01

    We investigated captopril effects, an ACE inhibitor, on hypertension development, on Ang II and Ang-(1-7) plasma concentrations, on Ang II-induced contraction in isolated kidneys, and on kidney AT1R from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Five weeks-old SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with captopril at 30 mg/kg/day, in drinking water for 2 or 14 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured, and isolated kidneys were tested for perfusion pressure and AT1R expression; while Ang II and Ang-(1-7) concentrations were determined in plasma. Captopril did not modify SBP in WKY rats and avoided its increase as SHR aged. Plasma Ang-II concentration was ∼4-5 folds higher in SHR rats, and captopril reduced it (P<0.05); while captopril increased Ang-(1-7) by ∼2 fold in all rat groups. Captopril increased Ang II-induced pressor response in kidneys of WKY and SHR rats, phenomenon not observed in kidneys stimulated with phenylephrine, a α₁-adrenoceptor agonist. Captopril did not modify AT1R in kidney cortex and medulla among rat strains and ages. Data indicate that captopril increased Ang II-induced kidney perfusion pressure but not AT₁R density in kidney of WKY and SHR rats, due to blockade of angiotensin II synthesis; however, ACE inhibitors may have other actions like activating signaling processes that could contribute to their diverse effects. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Consequence of social isolation on blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity and design in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Hallbäck, M

    1975-04-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which inherently display exaggerated cardiovascular defence reactions to environmental stimuli (Hallbäck and Folkow 1974), and normotensive control rats (NCR) were kept isolated after they were weaned to reduce such environmental influences which normally induce psychological activation. Mean arterial pressure was followed until 7 months of age, when the cardiovascular defence reactions to acute mental stress were compared and an analysis of cardiovascular design was made. The isolated SHR but no the isolated NCR, had significantly lower pressures than their unisolated controls. Likewise, judged by the relative weight of the left ventricle and the hemodynamically evaluated design of the hindquarter resistance vessels, the structural cardiovascular adaptation was about proportionally less pronounced in isolated than in control SHR. However, their cardiovascular responses to acute "psychological stress" were equally intense, and clearly exaggerated when compared with NCR. Thus, a prolonged reduction of excitatory environmental influences implies a relatively less pronounced development of hypertension in SHR, even though an inherent hyperreactivity concerning neurohormonal pressor responses to alerting stimuli is present. These findings tress the importance of interacting intrinsic-hereditary and extrinsic neurogenic influences for the initiation of primary hypertension.

  5. Diminished contractile responses of isolated conduit arteries in two rat models of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zemancíková, Anna; Török, Jozef

    2013-08-31

    Hypertension is accompanied by thickening of arteries, resulting in marked changes in their passive and active mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the large conduit arteries from hypertensive individuals may not exhibit enhanced contractions in vitro, as is often claimed. Mechanical responses to vasoconstrictor stimuli were measured under isometric conditions using ring arterial segments isolated from spontaneously hypertensive rats, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-treated Wistar rats, and untreated Wistar rats serving as normotensive control. We found that thoracic aortas from both types of hypertensive rats had a greater sensitivity but diminished maximal developed tension in response to noradrenaline, when compared with that from normotensive rats. In superior mesenteric arteries, the sensitivity to noradrenaline was similar in all examined rat groups but in L-NAME-treated rats, these arteries exhibited decreased active force when stimulated with high noradrenaline concentrations, or with 100 mM KCl. These results indicate that hypertension leads to specific biomechanical alterations in diverse arterial types which are reflected in different modifications in their contractile properties.

  6. Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara; Lepine, Todd

    2012-05-01

    Hypertension is responsible for roughly one-in-six adult deaths annually in the United States and is associated with five of the top nine causes of death.(1) Ten trillion dollars is the estimated annual cost worldwide of the direct and indirect effects of hypertension.(2,3) In the U.S. alone, costs estimated at almost $74 billion in 2009 placed a huge economic burden on the health care system.(4) The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age to the point where more than half of people 60 to 69 years of age and at least three-fourths of those 70 years of age and older are affected.(5) Most individuals with hypertension do not have it adequately controlled.(1,6) Medication noncompliance due to avoidance of side effects is suggested to be a primary factor.(6) The epidemic incidence of hypertension and its significant cost to society indicate that a well-tolerated, cost-effective approach to treatment is urgently needed.

  7. Proper patient selection yields significant and sustained reduction in systolic blood pressure following renal artery stenting in patients with uncontrolled hypertension: long-term results from the HERCULES trial.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Bates, Mark C; Sullivan, Timothy M; Bachinsky, William B; Popma, Jeffrey J; Peng, Lei; Omran, Hend L; Jaff, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    The Safety and Effectiveness Study of the Herculink Elite Renal Stent to Treat Renal Artery Stenosis (HERCULES) trial is a prospective, multicenter trial evaluating the safety, effectiveness, and durability of the RX Herculink Elite renal stent system (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Park, IL) in select patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and uncontrolled hypertension. A total of 202 patients were enrolled between August 2007 and October 2009. The primary endpoint, 9-month binary restenosis, was 10.5% determined by core laboratory adjudicated duplex ultrasound and/or angiography. Additional analyses included changes in blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, renal function (RF), major adverse events (MAEs) (death, ipsilateral nephrectomy, and embolic events resulting in kidney damage), and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR) between baseline and 36 months. Freedom from MAE was 98.5% at 30 days. At 36 months, freedom from death, nephrectomy, and CD-TLR were 90.1%, 100%, and 91.8%, respectively. After 30 days there were no site-reported embolic events resulting in kidney damage. The mean baseline systolic blood pressure of 162±18 mm Hg significantly decreased postprocedure and through 36 months (mean systolic blood pressure 141 mm Hg [P<.0001] and 146 mm Hg [P<.0001], respectively). No differences were noted in antihypertensive medications or RF compared with baseline. The HERCULES trial demonstrated sustained clinically and statistically significant reduction in SBP in patients with uncontrolled HTN. Coupled with the low core laboratory-adjudicated in-stent restenosis, acceptable procedural complication rates (1.5%), and <10% CD-TLR, the study suggests that there may be a role for renal artery stenting using contemporary stent technology. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The problem of hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hedner, T

    2000-01-01

    Since most developed countries have an ageing population, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing. This age-driven increase in cardiovascular risk is an important factor contributing to the increasing burden of mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease. Today, there is a strong rationale for an aggressive approach to hypertension since antihypertensive treatment has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the elderly. It is likely that increasing emphasis will be placed on control of isolated and borderline systolic hypertension, which are the predominant forms of hypertension in elderly patients. The recent second Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension (STOP-Hypertension-2) represents an important contribution to the literature since it shows that newer antihypertensive agents, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and calcium antagonists, are as effective as older agents in reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in elderly patients.

  9. [Cardiovascular risk stratification. Systolic, diastolic or pulse pressure?].

    PubMed

    Pede, S; Lombardo, M

    2001-04-01

    and prognostic implications and account for the possible diversity of significance to attribute to systolic, diastolic, mean and pulse BP, factors which, in their entirety, can represent an element, albeit partial, of resolvability of problems in managing hypertension. In fact, possibilities of diversification in the stratification of risk of the hypertensive patients may be considered on a pathophysiological basis, with the prospect of better aimed therapeutic interventions. On the whole, it appears that the clinical significance to attribute to pulse BP should be considered not as an alternative to that of systolic and diastolic BP, but rather in complementary terms, with age kept in careful consideration. In practice, by simplifying to a maximum the state of present knowledge, the values of systolic, diastolic, mean and pulse BP are all important in subjects under 60 years old. This indicates that the clinical significance to attribute to diastolic hypertension in young or middle-aged patients, which have been so accurately described by well-known meta-analyses, is not presently under discussion. What seems to change, with respect to the past, is the importance that should be attributed to the systolic and pulse BP in subjects of all ages and in particular to pulse BP in subjects over 60 years old: in these persons, the increase in pulse BP summarizes and integrates the adverse prognostic value of an elevated systolic BP and a low diastolic BP. It should be clearly understood that, in subjects over 60 years old, a high systolic BP and a low diastolic BP mean rigidity of the wall of the aorta and of the main elastic arteries; in these subjects, the isolated increase in diastolic BP, usually easily controllable by antihypertensive treatment, should not cause excessive clinical concern; instead, an increase in systolic BP - even if isolated - and, above all, an increase in pulse BP, should cause greater preoccupation, inasmuch as they are signs of consistent serious

  10. Vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effect of Cocos nucifera Linn. endocarp on isolated rat thoracic aorta and DOCA salt-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Bankar, Girish R; Nayak, Pawan G; Bansal, Punit; Paul, Piya; Pai, K S R; Singla, Rajeev K; Bhat, Varadaraj G

    2011-03-08

    The fruits of Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae) have long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cardio-metabolic disorders. To evaluate the ethanolic extract of Cocos nucifera Linn. endocarp (CNE) for its vasorelaxant activity on isolated rat aortic rings and antihypertensive effects in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt-induced hypertensive rats. Cocos nucifera Linn. endocarp was extracted with ethanol and characterized by HPLC. CNE was examined for its in vitro vascular relaxant effects in isolated norepinephrine, phenylephrine or potassium chloride pre-contracted aortic rings (both intact endothelium and denuded). In vivo anti-hypertensive studies were conducted in DOCA salt-induced uninephrectomized male Wistar rats. Removal of endothelium or pretreatment of aortic rings (intact endothelium) with l-NNA (10μM) or ODQ (10 μM) followed by addition of contractile agonists prior to CNE significantly blocked the CNE-induced relaxation. Indomethacin (10μM) and atropine (1 μM) partially blocked the relaxation, whereas glibenclamide (10 μM) did not alter it. CNE significantly reduced the mean systolic blood pressure in DOCA salt-induced hypertensive rats (from 185.3 ± 4.7 mmHg to 145.6±6.1 mmHg). The activities observed were supported by the polyphenols, viz. chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid and ferulic acid identified in the extract. These findings reveal that the vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects of CNE, through nitric oxide production in a concentration and endothelium-dependent manner, is due to direct activation of nitric oxide/guanylate cyclase pathway, stimulation of muscarinic receptors and/or via cyclooxygenase pathway. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel digitalis-like factor, marinobufotoxin, isolated from cultured Y-1 cells, and its hypertensive effect in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshika, Masamichi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Konishi, Motomi; Akizawa, Toshifumi; Kobayashi, Takahisa; Date, Mutsuhiro; Kobatake, Shinzo; Masuda, Midori; Masaki, Hiroya; Takahashi, Hakuo

    2007-01-01

    Marinobufagenin and telecinobufagin have been identified as digitalis-like factors in mammals. In toads, marinobufagenin-related compounds, such as marinobufotoxin (MBT), have been isolated in some tissues but not in mammals, and its biological action has not been elucidated. Herein, we aimed to explore the possible production and/or secretion of MBT and the biological action in rats. First, the MBT in culture supernatant of the adrenocortical-originated cell line Y-1 was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and sensitive ELISA for marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity. Moreover, the structural information was obtained by mass spectrometry. To determine the biological action, MBT (9.6 and 0.96 microg/kg per day) was intraperitoneally infused via an osmotic minipump for 1 week. Blood pressure and renal excretion of marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity were measured. Marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity was found in Y-1 cell culture media, and the concentration increased until 24 hours. The structural analysis suggested that marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivities were marinobufagenin and MBT, and tandem mass spectrum analysis revealed them with the specific daughter ions. The highest sensitive ELISA-positive peak of marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity in the media was MBT. Continuous administration of MBT in rats for 1 week significantly increased systolic blood pressure and renal excretion of marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity compared with control rats (135+/-3.0 versus 126+/-2.0 mm Hg and 1.41+/-0.286 versus 0.34+/-0.064 ng/day, respectively). These data suggest that MBT, arginine-suberoyl ester of marinobufagenin, can be a novel digitalis-like factor with hypertensive action and is secreted from the adrenocortical cells.

  12. Pulmonary hypertension and isolated right heart failure complicating amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sean-Man; Tse, Hung-Fat; Siu, Chung-Wah

    2012-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a common side effect encountered in patients prescribed long-term amiodarone therapy for cardiac arrhythmias. We previously studied 354 patients prescribed amiodarone in whom the occurrence of hyperthyroidism was associated with major adverse cardiovascular events including heart failure, myocardial infarction, ventricular arrhythmias, stroke and even death [1]. We now present a case of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism complicated by isolated right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension that resolved with treatment of hyperthyroidism. Detailed quantitative echocardiography enables improved understanding of the haemodynamic mechanisms underlying the condition.

  13. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G. Raghavendra; Billa, Srikar; Bhandari, Pavaneel; Hussain, Aijaz

    2013-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric – inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up. PMID:23798814

  14. Effect of antihypertensive agents on blood pressure variability: the Natrilix SR versus candesartan and amlodipine in the reduction of systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients (X-CELLENT) study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Agnoletti, Davide; Safar, Michel E; Blacher, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effect of different antihypertensive agents on blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) and the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the ambulatory BP monitoring data of 577 patients before and after 3-month antihypertensive treatment, in the Natrilix SR Versus Candesartan and Amlodipine in the Reduction of Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients (X-CELLENT) Study, a multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 4 parallel treatment arms (placebo, candesartan, indapamide sustained release, and amlodipine). Within-subject mean and SD of 24-hour BP, weighted by time interval between consecutive readings, were calculated in 3 time frames (daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours) to evaluate BP and BPV. The mean 24-hour heart rate (HR) and HR variability were calculated with the same algorithms. We found that the 3 antihypertensive drugs had a similar BP-lowering effect (P<0.001 for all), but amlodipine (P<0.007) and indapamide sustained release (P<0.04) were the only agents associated with a significantly decreased BPV after 3-month treatment. On the other hand, the major determinants of BPV at baseline were age, mean BP, and the corresponding HR variability. However, the reduction in BPV by amlodipine was significantly associated with the reduction in BP (P<0.006) and the reduction in HR variability (P<0.02), whereas the corresponding reduction by indapamide sustained release was only associated with the reduction in HR variability at night (P=0.004). In summary, 3-month amlodipine or indapamide sustained release treatment was associated with a significant reduction in BPV, and the mechanism of those reductions was possibly attributable to lowering BP or ameliorating the autonomic nervous system regulation or both. The combination of the 2 agents might help to optimize such properties.

  15. Comparative analysis of Micrococcus luteus isolates from blood cultures of patients with pulmonary hypertension receiving epoprostenol continuous infusion.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yoshinori; Sata, Makoto; Makiuchi, Yuko; Morikane, Keita; Wada, Akihito; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Tomoike, Hitonobu

    2009-12-01

    During the period 2002-2008, at the National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, 28 Micrococcus luteus isolates and one Kocuria spp. isolate were obtained from blood cultures of pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients who were receiving continuous infusion therapy with epoprostenol. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the isolates were unrelated, suggesting that the infections had multiple origins. The preparation of epoprostenol solution by patients themselves was thought to be a risk factor.

  16. [Arterial hypertension in elderly patients - from pathophysiology to rational treatment].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    According to the WHO, arterial hypertension is a major cause of death in adult populations all over the world, regardless of the socio-economic level of a specific population. In Poland, the presence of hypertension is estimated to be about 1/3 in the population of adult Poles. Although hypertension may occur in people of all ages, as the population is ageing, a large group of patients are those over 65. In this age group, the dominant form of arterial hypertension is the isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), in which increased systolic blood pressure is disclosed (higher than or equal to 140 mm Hg), with diastolic blood pressure values remaining within the normal range (<90 mm Hg). Even 15 years ago, the therapeutic approach to ISH in the elderly was a subject of a broad debate. Until the results of main clinical trials and meta-analyzes summarising these results were announced, it was not certain whether active treatment of these patients was beneficial. Moreover, the drug selection issue was hotly debated. The last major problem was the question concerning benefits resulting from the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension in patients aged 80 years and older.

  17. [Decreasing systolic blood pressure with isometric muscle training: a CAT].

    PubMed

    Espinoza Salinas, Alexis; Sánchez, Pablo Aguilera; Zafra Santos, Edson; Cofre Bolados, Cristian; Prado Núñez, Hugo; Pavez Von Martens, Gustavo

    2014-09-11

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease or heart failure. One of the interventions for the management of this disorder is isometric muscle training on upper and lower limbs. To prove the validity and applicability of results regarding the effectiveness of isometric training in hypertensive subjects. We also attempt to answer the following question: what is the effectiveness of isometric muscle training on the decrease of systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients? Critical appraisal of the systematic review and meta-analysis "Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management". Isometric training reduces systolic blood pressure in normotensive and medicated hypertensive subjects, with a standardized mean difference of 6.77 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: 7.93-5.62). It is reasonable to recommend isometric muscle training with the aim of lowering systolic blood pressure, considering the impact of the results of the articles analyzed and the applicability of this type of training.

  18. An evidence-based practice case study: white coat hypertension.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Mary Ellis

    2015-01-01

    White coat hypertension, also referred to as isolated clinical hypertension, is a condition in which blood pressure rises in the medical setting due to anxiety. White coat hypertension causes no more than 15 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure or 7 mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure in normotensive patients, and these increases in blood pressures should return to baseline within 3 visits to the medical provider. In this case, a 77-year-old white man presented to preoperative testing, with a blood pressure of 265/101 mmHg, claiming to have white coat hypertension. This case discusses the interventions implemented for this particular patient and the misdiagnosis and misperceptions of white coat hypertension by both clinicians and patients. This article also addresses recommendations for diagnosis, treatment options, and follow-up for patients with true white coat hypertension.

  19. The relative importance of systolic versus diastolic blood pressure control and incident symptomatic peripheral artery disease in women.

    PubMed

    Powell, Tiffany M; Glynn, Robert J; Buring, Julie E; Creager, Mark A; Ridker, Paul M; Pradhan, Aruna D

    2011-08-01

    Prospective data regarding risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) are sparse, especially among women; the relative contribution of systolic versus diastolic blood pressure control for incident PAD has not been well studied. We evaluated the association of self-reported blood pressure control with incident symptomatic PAD in middle-aged and older women. We examined the relationship between reported hypertension and incident confirmed symptomatic PAD (n = 178) in 39,260 female health professionals aged ≥ 45 years without known vascular disease at baseline. Median follow-up was 13.3 years. Women were grouped according to presence of reported isolated diastolic (IDH), isolated systolic (ISH), or combined systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH) using cut-points of 90 and 140 mmHg for diastolic and systolic blood pressure, respectively. SBP and DBP were modeled as continuous and categorical exposures. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs), including adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, were derived from Cox proportional hazards models. Adjusted HRs compared to women without reported hypertension were 1.0 (0.4-2.8) for IDH, 2.0 (1.3-3.1) for ISH, and 2.8 (1.8-4.5) for SDH. There was a 43% increased adjusted risk per 10 mmHg of reported SBP (95% CI 27-62%) and a gradient in risk according to SBP category (< 120, 120-139, 140-159, and ≥ 160 mmHg); HRs were 1.0, 2.3, 4.3, and 6.6 (p-trend < 0.001), respectively. Reported DBP, while individually predictive in models excluding SBP, was not predictive after adjustment for SBP. In conclusion, these prospective data suggest a strong prognostic role for uncontrolled blood pressure and, particularly, uncontrolled systolic blood pressure in the development of peripheral atherosclerosis in women.

  20. IN VITRO EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS ISOLATED FROM CONCENTRATED AIR PARTICLES-EXPOSED SPONTANEOUS HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro effects of particulate matter on airway epithelial cells isolated from concentrated air particles-exposed spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Ines Pagan, Urmila Kodavanti, Paul Evansky, Daniel L Costa and Janice A Dye. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, National...

  1. IN VITRO EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS ISOLATED FROM CONCENTRATED AIR PARTICLES-EXPOSED SPONTANEOUS HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro effects of particulate matter on airway epithelial cells isolated from concentrated air particles-exposed spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Ines Pagan, Urmila Kodavanti, Paul Evansky, Daniel L Costa and Janice A Dye. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, National...

  2. Multilocus family-based association analysis of seven candidate polymorphisms with essential hypertension in an african-derived semi-isolated brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Kimura, L; Angeli, C B; Auricchio, M T B M; Fernandes, G R; Pereira, A C; Vicente, J P; Pereira, T V; Mingroni-Netto, R C

    2012-01-01

    Background. It has been widely suggested that analyses considering multilocus effects would be crucial to characterize the relationship between gene variability and essential hypertension (EH). Objective. To test for the presence of multilocus effects between/among seven polymorphisms (six genes) on blood pressure-related traits in African-derived semi-isolated Brazilian populations (quilombos). Methods. Analyses were carried out using a family-based design in a sample of 652 participants (97 families). Seven variants were investigated: ACE (rs1799752), AGT (rs669), ADD2 (rs3755351), NOS3 (rs1799983), GNB3 (rs5441 and rs5443), and GRK4 (rs1801058). Sensitivity analyses were further performed under a case-control design with unrelated participants only. Results. None of the investigated variants were associated individually with both systolic and diastolic BP levels (SBP and DBP, respectively) or EH (as a binary outcome). Multifactor dimensionality reduction-based techniques revealed a marginal association of the combined effect of both GNB3 variants on DBP levels in a family-based design (P = 0.040), whereas a putative NOS3-GRK4 interaction also in relation to DBP levels was observed in the case-control design only (P = 0.004). Conclusion. Our results provide limited support for the hypothesis of multilocus effects between/among the studied variants on blood pressure in quilombos. Further larger studies are needed to validate our findings.

  3. Multilocus Family-Based Association Analysis of Seven Candidate Polymorphisms with Essential Hypertension in an African-Derived Semi-Isolated Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, L.; Angeli, C. B.; Auricchio, M. T. B. M.; Fernandes, G. R.; Pereira, A. C.; Vicente, J. P.; Pereira, T. V.; Mingroni-Netto, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. It has been widely suggested that analyses considering multilocus effects would be crucial to characterize the relationship between gene variability and essential hypertension (EH). Objective. To test for the presence of multilocus effects between/among seven polymorphisms (six genes) on blood pressure-related traits in African-derived semi-isolated Brazilian populations (quilombos). Methods. Analyses were carried out using a family-based design in a sample of 652 participants (97 families). Seven variants were investigated: ACE (rs1799752), AGT (rs669), ADD2 (rs3755351), NOS3 (rs1799983), GNB3 (rs5441 and rs5443), and GRK4 (rs1801058). Sensitivity analyses were further performed under a case-control design with unrelated participants only. Results. None of the investigated variants were associated individually with both systolic and diastolic BP levels (SBP and DBP, respectively) or EH (as a binary outcome). Multifactor dimensionality reduction-based techniques revealed a marginal association of the combined effect of both GNB3 variants on DBP levels in a family-based design (P = 0.040), whereas a putative NOS3-GRK4 interaction also in relation to DBP levels was observed in the case-control design only (P = 0.004). Conclusion. Our results provide limited support for the hypothesis of multilocus effects between/among the studied variants on blood pressure in quilombos. Further larger studies are needed to validate our findings. PMID:23056922

  4. Determinants of systolic blood pressure response during exercise in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Bratberg, Jon A; Bulut, Efraim; Rieck, Ashild E; Lønnebakken, Mai Tone; Hetland, Trude; Gerdts, Eva

    2014-08-01

    Higher systolic exercise blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in hypertension. We aimed at identifying covariates of systolic exercise BP in overweight subjects. 77 subjects with body mass index (BMI) > 27 kg/m(2) and without known heart disease were tested. BP was measured by sphygmomanometry before and at all exercise stages during maximal exercise capacity testing on a treadmill. High peak systolic exercise BP was defined as ≥ 200 mmHg. The study population was 48 ± 10 years and included 60% women and 42% with known hypertension. Average BMI was 32.6 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) and clinic BP 132/82 ± 17/8 mmHg. High systolic exercise BP was found in 32%. Subjects with high systolic exercise BP had higher systolic clinic and 24-h ambulatory BP (ABP), as well as lower peak oxygen uptake, compared with subjects with normal systolic exercise BP (all p < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis known hypertension (β = 0.33), higher systolic ABP (β = 0.22) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level (β = 0.23, all p < 0.05) predicted higher systolic exercise BP independent of sex and peak oxygen uptake (multiple R(2) = 0.32, p < 0.001). Among overweight subjects, known hypertension, higher systolic ABP and HDL-cholesterol level were the most important factors predicting higher systolic exercise BP.

  5. Systolic blood pressure in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sennello, Kathleen A; Schulman, Rhonda L; Prosek, Robert; Siegel, Arthur M

    2003-07-15

    To determine the prevalence of systemic hypertension in cats with diabetes mellitus and establish ranges for echocardiographic variables in diabetic cats. Prospective study. 14 cats with diabetes mellitus and 19 healthy control cats. Systolic blood pressure was measured indirectly with a noninvasive Doppler technique. Ophthalmic and echocardiographic examinations were performed, and urine protein concentration was measured. Cats were considered to have hypertension if they had systolic blood pressure > 180 mm Hg and at least 1 other clinical abnormality typically associated with hypertension (eg, hypertensive retinopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy, or proteinuria). None of the diabetic or control cats had systolic blood pressure > 180 mm Hg. One diabetic cat had left ventricular hypertrophy, but systolic blood pressure was 174 mm Hg. None of the cats had evidence of hypertensive retinopathy or proteinuria. Mean values for echocardiographic variables for the diabetic cats were not significantly different from published values for healthy cats. Results suggest that hypertension does not occur or occurs in only a small percentage of cats with diabetes mellitus.

  6. Prevalence of hypertension subtypes in 2011 and the trends from 1991 to 2011 among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Qi, Su-Fen; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Hui-Jun; Yan, Jing; Mi, Ying-Jun; Liu, Dian-Wu; Tian, Qing-Bao

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to estimate the current prevalence and trends of hypertension subtypes among Chinese adults from 1991 to 2011. We analysed the measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure among adults aged ≥18 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 1991-2011. The prevalence was age-adjusted to the 2010 census of Chinese adults. The adjusted prevalence in 2011 was 20.9% (95% CI 20.2% to 21.6%) of hypertension, 3.30% (95% CI 2.99% to 3.62%) of isolated systolic hypertension, 4.44% (95% CI 4.08% to 4.80%) of isolated diastolic hypertension, 4.11% (95% CI 3.76% to 4.46%) of systolic-diastolic hypertension and 9.01% (95% CI 8.51% to 9.51%) of current use of antihypertensive medication, respectively. From 1991 to 2011, the prevalence increased from 15.6% to 20.9% for hypertension (p<0.001) and from 3.04% to 3.30% for isolated systolic hypertension (p<0.001). However, the prevalence decreased from 4.77% to 4.44% for isolated diastolic hypertension (p=0.023) and from 5.27% to 4.11% for systolic-diastolic hypertension (p<0.001). Consistent with these findings, the percentage of current use of antihypertensive medication increased from 2.55% to 9.01%, which accounted for approximately 43.1% of the total number of cases in 2011. Importantly, only 36.9% (equivalent to 17.5% of the total number of hypertensive people) of cases of current use of antihypertensive medication were adequately controlled. Both the prevalence of hypertension and the percentage of current use of antihypertensive medication significantly increased from 1991 to 2011. Currently, about one-fifth of Chinese adults are hypertensive; however, only 17.5% of hypertension is controlled. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Long-term prognosis of non-interventionally followed patients with isolated myocardial bridge and severe systolic compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ertan; Bildirici, Ulas; Celikyurt, Umut; Kilic, Teoman; Sahin, Tayfun; Acar, Eser; Kahraman, Göksel; Ural, Dilek

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term prognosis of non-interventionally followed patients with myocardial bridge and angiographic milking of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. All of the coronary angiography records from May 2000 to November 2007 were reevaluated and patients who had more than 70% narrowing during systole on LAD were eligible for the present study. Follow-up was carried out by physical examination, echocardiography, and treadmill exercise testing. The clinical situations of the patients, medical treatment at the time of follow-up, and experienced events (death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization) were recorded. There were 59 eligible patients (44 male, 74.6%). The mean age of the patients was 54 +/- 11 years. The bridges were located in the proximal, mid, and distal portion of the LAD in 17 (28.8%), 20 (33.9%), and 22 (37.3%) patients, respectively. Distributions of the narrowing degree were as follows: between 70% to 89% in 33 (56%) patients and 90% to 100% in 26 (44%) patients. Mean follow-up duration of the group was 37 +/- 13 months (range 15-65 mo). The clinical presentation during follow-up was stable angina in 9 (15.3%) cases, atypical angina in 12 (20.3%), atypical chest pain in 13 (22%), dyspnea in 3 (5.1%), and syncope in 3 (5.1%) cases. There were no experienced events and/or hospitalizations related to cardiac disease. Echocardiographic examination revealed normal systolic ventricular function. Only 17 (28.8%) patients continued to use medication. Most of them were on beta-blocker therapy. Patients with myocardial bridges and angiographic milking of the LAD coronary artery have a good long-term prognosis.

  8. Bronchoconstriction and endogenous nitric oxide in isolated lungs of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewski, Fábio H; Landgraf, Richardt Gama; Bakhle, Yeshwant S; Jancar, Sonia

    2004-03-19

    Bronchoconstrictor responses were measured in lungs isolated from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive rats, perfused via the airways. Lungs from SHRs were more responsive than lungs from normotensive rats to methacholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), arachidonic acid or prostaglandin H(2). The responses of SHR airways to methacholine or 5-HT were unaffected by pretreatment in vivo with an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 30 mg kg(-1)), although responses in normotensive airways to methacholine, but not to 5-HT, were enhanced. Antigen challenge of isolated lungs from actively sensitized rats elicited bronchoconstriction, not different between strains. Pretreatment with L-NAME increased the response to antigen challenge only in normotensive lungs. Compound 48/80 induced bronchoconstriction in lungs from either strain, equally. These responses to compound 48/80 were unaffected by L-NAME pretreatment. Thus, SHR airways lack relaxing factors and degranulation of mast cells in SHR lungs was not affected by endogenous NO.

  9. Diastolic function in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R A; Diamond, J A

    2001-11-01

    Diastolic dysfunction in patients with hypertension may present as asymptomatic findings on noninvasive testing, or as fulminant pulmonary edema, despite normal left ventricular systolic function. Up to 40% of hypertensive patients presenting with clinical signs of congestive heart failure have normal systolic left ventricular function. In this article we review the pathophysiologic factors affecting diastolic function in individuals with diastolic function, current and emerging tools for measuring diastolic function, and current concepts regarding the treatment of patients with diastolic congestive heart failure.

  10. Synchronizing Large Systolic Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Allan L.; Kung, H. T.

    1982-12-01

    Parallel computing structures consist of many processors operating simultaneously. If a concurrent structure is regular, as in the case of a systolic array. it may be convenient to think of all processors as operating in lock step. This synchronized view, for example, often makes the definition of the structure and its correctness relatively easy to follow. However, large, totally synchronized systems controlled by central clocks are difficult to implement because of the inevitable problem of clock skews and delays. An alternative means of enforcing necessary synchronization is the use of self-timed, asynchronous schemes, at the cost of increased design complexity and hardware cost. Realizing that different circumstances call for different synchronization methods, this paper provides a spectrum of synchronization models; based on the assumptions made for each model, theoretical lower bounds on clock skew are derived, and appropriate or best-possible synchronization schemes for systolic arrays are proposed. In general, this paper represents a first step towards a systematic study of synchronization problems for large systolic arrays. One set of models is based on assumptions that allow the use of a pipelined clocking scheme, where more than one clock event is propagated at a time. In this case, it is shown that even assuming that physical variations along clock lines can produce skews between wires of the same length, any one-dimensional systolic array can be correctly synchronized by a global pipelined clock while enjoying desirable properties such as modularity, expandability and robustness in the synchronization scheme. This result cannot be extended to two-dimensional arrays, however--the paper shows that under this assumption, it is impossible to run a clock such that the maximum clock skew between two communicating cells will be bounded by a constant as systems grow. For such cases or where pipelined clocking is unworkable, a synchronization scheme

  11. Characteristics of hypertension in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Guang; Li, Yan

    2012-10-01

    In China, the prevalence of hypertension is currently 18.8 %, and a major risk factor for hypertension is unbalanced dietary sodium and potassium intakes. High dietary sodium intake may change the circadian rhythm of 24-h blood pressure, which is characterized by a higher nighttime blood pressure. The prevalence of isolated nighttime hypertension, defined as a nighttime blood pressure of at least 120 mm Hg systolic or 70 mm Hg diastolic and a daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure less than 135/85 mm Hg, is higher in Chinese than in Europeans. The complications of hypertension are also different across ethnicities, being mainly stroke instead of myocardial infarction in Chinese. Lowering of blood pressure provides more protection against stroke than against myocardial infarction, and calcium channel blockers provide more protection against stroke than do other classes of antihypertensive drugs. Current Chinese hypertension guidelines recommend calcium channel blockers as the most suitable class of drugs of the five classes of antihypertensive drugs.

  12. Pathophysiologic considerations in the treatment of the elderly hypertensive patient.

    PubMed

    Chobanian, A V

    1983-11-10

    Changes that occur as a consequence of aging can influence the development of hypertension and its complications. Such changes may adversely affect cardiac function and tissue blood flow and the responsiveness of the circulation to antihypertensive therapy. The distribution and metabolism of antihypertensive drugs may also be influenced by aging. These factors can complicate the pharmacologic management of the elderly hypertensive patient and may lead to a higher incidence of side effects. A conservative approach to the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension is indicated because the merits of therapy remain uncertain. Although standard stepped-care treatment can be used, certain special precautions should be considered. Lower doses of medications are generally required in elderly than in young hypertensives. Hypokalemia and volume contraction are the more frequent and more clinically important complications of diuretic therapy, while sluggishness, sexual dysfunction, or decreased mentation are more commonly observed with sympatholytic agents. Complications from beta-adrenergic blockers also are relatively frequent in elderly persons. Calcium-channel blockers, although not approved in the United States for the treatment of hypertension, may be beneficial in these patients. When diastolic hypertension is also present, a vigorous approach to lowering blood pressure should be used because the benefits of such therapy have been well documented. However, similar precautions should be used in these patients as in those with systolic hypertension.

  13. Survival protection by bodyweight in isolated scleroderma-related pulmonary artery hypertension.

    PubMed

    Marini, Carlo; Formichi, Bruno; Bauleo, Carolina; Michelassi, Claudio; Airò, Edoardo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Giuntini, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF) due to systemic cardiovascular disease, obese patients have better survival. Bodyweight versus survival was analyzed post hoc in subjects with limited scleroderma (SSc) and isolated pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), i.e. with CHF due to pulmonary vascular disease. Rheumatologists referred scleroderma subjects for evaluation, and PAH was ascertained by right heart catheterization (RHC). Forty-nine SSc-PAH subjects were stratified by body mass index (BMI): obese 7 (14.3 %), overweight 11 (22.4 %), normal weight 21 (42.9 %), and underweight 10 (20.4 %) for 24-month follow-up and pooled together for long-term 72-month follow-up. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling helped to assess variables associated to survival. At 24 months (17 events), survival increases with BMI across four groups (logrank for trend P = 0.031). By Cox multivariate mortality, best model included: BMI (P = 0.043), low lung diffusion (DLco, P = 0.007), and reduced stroke volume index (SVI, P = 0.017). At 72 month (37 events), higher BMI values were associated with better survival but not significantly (P = 0.076). By multivariate modeling BMI did not enter any model, whereas low DLco entered all (P < 0.001). Also low SVI (P = 0.02) and low mixed venous saturation (SvO2, P = 0.009) were associated with the prognosis. From PAH diagnosis to final event, BMI had small (5.4 %), but significant decline (P < 0.001). This is ascribed to CHF progression, and may explain BMI predictive power weakening. The results suggest BMI decline should be contrasted, DLco is useful for screening and with SVI and SvO2 for assessing prognosis and treatment.

  14. Aldosterone binding in isolated tubules. IV. Autoradiography along the nephron of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, N.; Bonvalet, J.P.

    1985-07-01

    The binding of aldosterone was studied in tubular segments isolated by microdissection from kidneys of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR, n = 8), Kyoto normotensive (KWR, n = 8), and normal Wistar (NWR, n = 6) rats with an autoradiographic technique on dry film. All animals had been previously adrenalectomized. Kidney pyramids were incubated in vitro before microdissection with collagenase and 2 X 10(-9) M (/sup 3/H)aldosterone in the presence or absence of an excess of unlabeled aldosterone. In addition, the displacement of the binding by 10 times excess dexamethasone or aldosterone was examined in the cortical and medullary collecting tubule of SHR and KWR to assess the specificity of binding sites. In the three groups, no specific nuclear labeling was detectable in the proximal tubule. The highest specific nuclear labeling was found in the distal portions of the nephron, and intermediate values were present along the loop of Henle. In the cortical collecting tubule, the most specific mineralocorticoid segment, the specific nuclear binding, expressed in silver grains per unit surface, was significantly elevated in SHR (16.1 +/- 1.5) and KWR (13.7 +/- 1.5) as compared with NWR (10.2 +/- 0.8, P less than 0.001 and less than 0.05, respectively). The difference between SHR and KWR did not reach statistical significance. In the medullary collecting tubule, binding was higher in SHR (14.3 +/- 1.6) than in both KWR (8.7 +/- 1.0, P less than 0.005) and NWR (10.1 +/- 0.9, P less than 0.025).

  15. Microvascular disease relevance in the hypertension syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abarquez, Ramon F

    2003-01-01

    Hypertension is not an isolated problem. Co-morbidities of smoking, obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia are all associated with microvascular disease (MVD) with abnormal PET scan and endothelial dysfunction. MVD may contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) via an imbalance between hyperplasia and apoptotic signals. Digitalis and other anti-hypertensive agents have anti-apoptotic action and MVD blunting effects, respectively. Heart failure progression must then be based on the preservation of myocyte integrity. Indeed, altered contractility appears to be a consequence of rather than the cause of myocyte deterioration. LV systolic dysfunction improvement is already a late strategy. Furthermore, the efficacy of anti-hypertension therapy may be limited in restoring LV diastolic function. Recognition of the role of apoptosis and MVD may initiate a paradigm shift in clinical practice.

  16. Exercise intolerance in rats with hypertensive heart disease is associated with impaired diastolic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Guazzi, M; Brenner, D A; Apstein, C S; Saupe, K W

    2001-02-01

    A decrease in functional capacity is one of the most important clinical manifestations of hypertensive heart disease, but its cause is poorly understood. Our purpose was to evaluate potential causes of hypertension-induced exercise intolerance, focusing on identifying the type(s) of cardiac dysfunction associated with the first signs of exercise intolerance during the course of hypertensive heart disease. Exercise capacity was measured weekly in Dahl salt-sensitive rats as they developed hypertension as well as in Dahl salt-resistant control rats. Exercise capacity was unchanged from baseline during the first 8 weeks of hypertension, suggesting that hypertension itself did not cause exercise intolerance. After 9 to 12 weeks of hypertension, exercise capacity decreased in salt-sensitive rats but not in control rats. After 10 weeks of hypertension, indices of diastolic function (early truncation of the E wave), as assessed by echocardiography at rest, were decreased in the salt-sensitive rats. When exercise capacity had decreased by approximately 25% in a rat, the heart was isolated, and left ventricular (LV) compliance and systolic function were measured. At that time point, LV hypertrophy was modest (an approximately 20% increase in LV mass), and systolic function was normal or supernormal, indicating that exercise intolerance began during "compensated" LV hypertrophy. Passive LV compliance remained normal in salt-sensitive rats. Thus, in this model of hypertensive heart disease, exercise intolerance develops during the compensated stage of LV hypertrophy and appears to be due to changes in diastolic rather than systolic function. However, studies in which LV function is assessed during exercise are needed to conclusively define the roles of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in causing exercise intolerance.

  17. What is a Systolic Algorithm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sailesh K.; Kollath, T.

    1986-07-01

    In this paper, we show that every systolic array executes a Regular Iterative Algorithm with a strongly separating hyperplane and conversely, that every such algorithm can be implemented on a systolic array. This characterization provides us with an unified framework for describing the contributions of other authors. It also exposes the relevance of many fundamental concepts that were introduced in the sixties by Hennie, Waite and Karp, Miller and Winograd, to the present day concern of systolic array

  18. Prevalence and treatment of isolated and concurrent hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Thomas M; Morant, Steven V

    2008-05-01

    The 1998 and 2003 Health Survey for England revealed a high prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in the population of England. Major changes in the reimbursement of primary care for the management of both hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia have occurred in the UK. Using a GP database we have examined the proportion of subjects diagnosed and treated for hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia over time. To examine the true population rates and primary care data we compared the results of the Health survey for England in both 1998 and 2003 with the recorded data on GP computers. Despite current guidelines, many patients with hypertension and/or hypercholesterolaemia are under-treated and, even amongst those who are treated, many do not achieve their blood pressure and/or lipid targets. Although treatment rates in the UK have improved recently, particularly for lipid-lowering therapies, they remain suboptimal. AIMS To determine the prevalence and treatment of hypertension, dyslipidaemia and both together in the UK between 1998 and 2006. We used The Health Improvement Network (THIN) a general practice-based database from 1998 to 2006 and we compared the 1998 and 2003 data to that taken from the Health Survey for England (HSE) in 1998 and 2003. The prevalence (treatment) of hypertension was 25.3% (11.4%) in 1998, 27.8% (15.1%) in 2003 and 26.9% (16.2%) in 2006 in THIN. In HSE it was 37.3% (9.6%) in 1998 and 32.9% (13.8%) in 2003. For dyslipidaemia the figures were 8.6% (1.9%), 18.5% (6.5%) and 24.4% (9.8%) for THIN and 67.8% (2.3%) and 74.9% (7.0%) for HSE. Concurrent hypertension and dyslipidaemia in THIN increased from 5.5% (1.1%) in 1998 to 13.5% (4.5%) in 2003 and 17.4% (7.1%) in 2006. The prevalence of both conditions was 30.6% (0.7%) in HSE in 1998 and 28.7% (3.1%) in 2003. There has been a progressive improvement in the detection and treatment of hypertension, dyslipidaemia and both conditions together between 1998 and 2006. However, much still

  19. Prevalence and treatment of isolated and concurrent hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Thomas M; Morant, Steven V

    2008-01-01

    AIMS To determine the prevalence and treatment of hypertension, dyslipidaemia and both together in the UK between 1998 and 2006. METHODS We used The Health Improvement Network (THIN) a general practice-based database from 1998 to 2006 and we compared the 1998 and 2003 data to that taken from the Health Survey for England (HSE) in 1998 and 2003. RESULTS The prevalence (treatment) of hypertension was 25.3% (11.4%) in 1998, 27.8% (15.1%) in 2003 and 26.9% (16.2%) in 2006 in THIN. In HSE it was 37.3% (9.6%) in 1998 and 32.9% (13.8%) in 2003. For dyslipidaemia the figures were 8.6% (1.9%), 18.5% (6.5%) and 24.4% (9.8%) for THIN and 67.8% (2.3%) and 74.9% (7.0%) for HSE. Concurrent hypertension and dyslipidaemia in THIN increased from 5.5% (1.1%) in 1998 to 13.5% (4.5%) in 2003 and 17.4% (7.1%) in 2006. The prevalence of both conditions was 30.6% (0.7%) in HSE in 1998 and 28.7% (3.1%) in 2003. CONCLUSIONS There has been a progressive improvement in the detection and treatment of hypertension, dyslipidaemia and both conditions together between 1998 and 2006. However, much still needs to be done to improve the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and concurrent hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in the United Kingdom. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT The 1998 and 2003 Health Survey for England revealed a high prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in the population of England. Major changes in the reimbursement of primary care for the management of both hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia have occurred in the UK. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS Using a GP database we have examined the proportion of subjects diagnosed and treated for hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia over time. To examine the true population rates and primary care data we compared the results of the Health survey for England in both 1998 and 2003 with the recorded data on GP computers. Despite current guidelines, many patients with hypertension and

  20. Correlates of hypertension among urban Asian Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruchika; Misra, Anoop; Agarwal, Sunil K; Vikram, Naval

    2010-12-01

    Primary hypertension has become increasingly common in children but remains largely understudied, underdiagnosed and undertreated. This study examines the relationship between hypertension in adolescents and various markers of obesity, serum lipid levels, fasting blood glucose (FBG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and family history of hypertension. DESIGN/SETTINGS: A cross-sectional population-based study of 1022 students aged 14-19 years in New Delhi, India. MAIN OUTCOME/EXPOSURES: Those with age, gender and height specific blood pressure >95th percentile (derived from study data) or >130/85 mm Hg were considered hypertensive. Various markers of obesity, FBG, HbA1c and serum lipid levels were divided into quartiles and the odds ratios of hypertension calculated for the highest quartiles with reference to the lowest. Hypertension was seen in 65 (6.4%) adolescents (2.7% isolated systolic, 2.0% isolated diastolic and 1.7% both). The odds of having hypertension were higher for those in the highest versus lowest quartiles of various measures of obesity such as body mass index (OR 2.90; 95% CI 1.40 to 6.12) and waist circumference (OR 5.21; 95% CI 2.14 to 12.17). A parental history of hypertension was associated with diastolic hypertension in the child (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.13 to 4.33); the odds ratio decreased after simultaneous adjustment for salt intake (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.00 to 3.94). In a multivariable model with backward elimination, waist circumference and triglycerides were the strongest predictors of hypertension, further suggesting that the relationship is stronger with central than peripheral obesity. Hypertension in Asian Indian adolescents is associated with obesity, higher serum lipids and a family history of hypertension.

  1. Glycyrrhizinate reduces portal hypertension in isolated perfused rat livers with chronic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Deng, Bo; Xu, Xue-Yan; Yang, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Tao; Song, Yi-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Yue-Qi; Cai, Da-Yong

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (Gly) on portal hypertension (PHT) in isolated portal perfused rat liver (IPPRL) with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatitis. METHODS: PHT model was replicated with CCl4 in rats for 84 d. Model was identified by measuring the ascetic amounts, hepatic function, portal pressure in vivo, splenic index, and pathological alterations. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in liver was assessed by immunohistochemistry. IPPRLs were performed at d0, d28, d56, and d84. After phenylephrine-induced constriction, Gly was geometrically used to reduce PHT. Gly action was expressed as median effective concentration (EC50) and area under the curve (AUC). Underlying mechanism was exploited by linear correlation between AUC values of Gly and existed iNOS in portal triads. RESULTS: PHT model was confirmed with ascites, splenomegaly, serum biomarkers of hepatic injury, and elevated portal pressure. Pathological findings had shown normal hepatic structure at d0, degenerations at d28, fibrosis at d56, cirrhosis at d84 in PHT rats. Pseudo lobule ratios decreased and collagen ratios increased progressively along with PHT development. Gly does dose-dependently reduce PHT in IPPRLs with CCl4-induced chronic hepatitis. Gly potencies were increased gradually along with PHT development, characterized with its EC50 at 2.80 × 10-10, 3.03 × 10-11, 3.77 × 10-11 and 4.65×10-11 mol/L at d0, d28, d56 and d84, respectively. Existed iNOS was located at hepatocyte at d0, stellate cells at d28, stellate cells and macrophages at d56, and macrophages in portal triads at d84. Macrophages infiltrated more into portal triads and expressed more iNOS along with PHT development. AUC values of Gly were positively correlated with existed iNOS levels in portal triads. CONCLUSION: Gly reduces indirectly PHT in IPPRL with CCl4-induced chronic hepatitis. The underlying mechanisms may relate to rescue NO bioavailability from macrophage

  2. [Impact of isolated diastolic hypertension on new-onset cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Xing, Fengmei; Dong, Yan; Tao, Jie; Gao, Xinying; Zhou, Jianhui; Chen, Shuohua; Ji, Chunpeng; Yao, Tao; Wu, Shouling

    2014-08-01

    To explore the impact of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) on new-onset cardio-cerebral vascular diseases (CVD). This cohort study involved 101 510 participants who were employees of the Kailuan Group-a state-run coal mining company, in 2006 and 2007. Among them, 6 780 subjects were diagnosed with IDH, 35 448 subjects were diagnosed with high-normal blood pressure and 19 460 subjects were diagnosed with normal tension. However, none of them had the history of either cardio-cerebral vascular disease or malignant cancer. Cardio-cerebral vascular events including cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, acute myocardial infarction were recorded every 6 months during the follow-up (47.1 ± 4.8) period. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the risk factors of first-ever CVD events. 1) There were 675 CVD events occurred during the follow-up period. The incidence rates of CVD events (1.7% vs. 0.9%), cerebral infarction (1.0% vs. 0.6%) and cerebral hemorrhage (0.4% vs. 0.1%) were significantly higher in IDH group than that in the normal tension group (all P < 0.05). 2) After adjustment for other established CVD risk factors, the hazards ratios became 1.67 (95% CI: 1.28-2.17) for total CVD events and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.12-2.27) for cerebral infarction and 2.67 (95% CI: 1.54-4.65) for cerebral hemorrhage in the IDH group. 3). In stratified analysis on age, after adjustment for other established CVD risk factors, the hazards ratio was 2.22 (95% CI: 1.41-3.50) for cerebral infarction in lower 60 years old group, while the it was 7.27 (95% CI: 2.58-20.42) for cerebral hemorrhage in groups older than 60 years of age. IDH was the independent risk factor for the total cardio-cerebral vascular events, on both cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. The predicted values of IDH for different CVD events were diverse on different age groups.

  3. Genetic isolation of a region of chromosome 8 that exerts major effects on blood pressure and cardiac mass in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed Central

    Kren, V; Pravenec, M; Lu, S; Krenova, D; Wang, J M; Wang, N; Merriouns, T; Wong, A; St Lezin, E; Lau, D; Szpirer, C; Szpirer, J; Kurtz, T W

    1997-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is the most widely studied animal model of essential hypertension. Despite > 30 yr of research, the primary genetic lesions responsible for hypertension in the SHR remain undefined. In this report, we describe the construction and hemodynamic characterization of a congenic strain of SHR (SHR-Lx) that carries a defined segment of chromosome 8 from a normotensive strain of Brown-Norway rats (BN-Lx strain). Transfer of this segment of chromosome 8 from the BN-Lx strain onto the SHR background resulted in substantial reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and cardiac mass. Linkage and comparative mapping studies indicate that the transferred chromosome segment contains a number of candidate genes for hypertension, including genes encoding a brain dopamine receptor and a renal epithelial potassium channel. These findings demonstrate that BP regulatory gene(s) exist within the differential chromosome segment trapped in the SHR-Lx congenic strain and that this region of chromosome 8 plays a major role in the hypertension of SHR vs. BN-Lx rats. PMID:9045857

  4. The Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome: A Unifying Pathophysiological Concept for Patients with Isolated Intracranial Hypertension with Neither Mass Lesion Nor Ventriculomegaly

    PubMed Central

    Halmagyi, G. M.; Ahmed, R. M.; Johnston, I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In 1991 we proposed that while the syndrome of isolated intracranial hypertension might have many definite and probable causes, it has nonetheless a single unifying pathophysiological mechanism: namely, impairment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reabsorption. For that reason, we also proposed then that it is best described by a single, unifying, inclusive term, namely, pseudotumor cerebri syndrome. Although it appears that there is, as far as nomenclature is concerned, now international agreement, there is as yet no agreement on pathophysiology and classification. Herein we outline our views on these matters and give our reasons. PMID:27928307

  5. A systolic array parallelizing compiler

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a completely new approach to the problem of systolic array parallelizing compiler. It describes the AL parallelizing compiler for the Warp systolic array, the first working systolic array parallelizing compiler which can generate efficient parallel code for complete LINPACK routines. This book begins by analyzing the architectural strength of the Warp systolic array. It proposes a model for mapping programs onto the machine and introduces the notion of data relations for optimizing the program mapping. Also presented are successful applications of the AL compiler in matrix computation and image processing. A complete listing of the source program and compiler-generated parallel code are given to clarify the overall picture of the compiler. The book concludes that systolic array parallelizing compiler can produce efficient parallel code, almost identical to what the user would have written by hand.

  6. Genetic variation in the raptor gene is associated with overweight but not hypertension in American men of Japanese ancestry.

    PubMed

    Morris, Brian J; Carnes, Bruce A; Chen, Randi; Donlon, Timothy A; He, Qimei; Grove, John S; Masaki, Kamal H; Elliott, Ayako; Willcox, Donald C; Allsopp, Richard; Willcox, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is pivotal for cell growth. Regulatory associated protein of mTOR complex I (Raptor) is a unique component of this pro-growth complex. The present study tested whether variation across the raptor gene (RPTOR) is associated with overweight and hypertension. We tested 61 common (allele frequency ≥ 0.1) tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that captured most of the genetic variation across RPTOR in 374 subjects of normal lifespan and 439 subjects with a lifespan exceeding 95 years for association with overweight/obesity, essential hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension. Subjects were drawn from the Honolulu Heart Program, a homogeneous population of American men of Japanese ancestry, well characterized for phenotypes relevant to conditions of aging. Hypertension status was ascertained when subjects were 45-68 years old. Statistical evaluation involved contingency table analysis, logistic regression, and the powerful method of recursive partitioning. After analysis of RPTOR genotypes by each statistical approach, we found no significant association between genetic variation in RPTOR and either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension. Models generated by recursive partitioning analysis showed that RPTOR SNPs significantly enhanced the ability of the model to accurately assign individuals to either the overweight/obese or the non-overweight/obese groups (P = 0.008 by 1-tailed Z test). Common genetic variation in RPTOR is associated with overweight/obesity but does not discernibly contribute to either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension in the population studied. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Early Systolic Dysfunction Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Gibbons, Edward F; Rivara, Frederick P; Temkin, Nancy R; Pontius, Crystal; Luk, Kevin; Graves, Morgan; Lozier, Danielle; Chaikittisilpa, Nophanan; Kiatchai, Taniga; Vavilala, Monica S

    2017-06-01

    Prior studies have suggested that traumatic brain injury may affect cardiac function. Our study aims were to determine the frequency, longitudinal course, and admission risk factors for systolic dysfunction in patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury. Prospective cohort study. Level 1 trauma center. Transthoracic echocardiogram within 1 day and over the first week after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury; transthoracic echocardiogram within 1 day after mild traumatic brain injury (comparison group). Systolic function was assessed by transthoracic echocardiogram, and systolic dysfunction was defined as fractional shortening less than 25%. Multivariable Poisson regression models examined admission risk factors for systolic dysfunction. Systolic function in 32 patients with isolated moderate-severe traumatic brain injury and 32 patients with isolated mild traumatic brain injury (comparison group) was assessed with transthoracic echocardiogram. Seven (22%) moderate-severe traumatic brain injury and 0 (0%) mild traumatic brain injury patients had systolic dysfunction within the first day after injury (p < 0.01). All patients with early systolic dysfunction recovered in 1 week. Younger age (relative risk, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.94; for 1 yr increase in age) and lower admission Glasgow Coma Scale score (relative risk, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20-0.58; for one unit increase in Glasgow Coma Scale) were independently associated with the development of systolic dysfunction among moderate-severe traumatic brain injury patients. Early systolic dysfunction can occur in previously healthy patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury, and it is reversible over the first week of hospitalization. Younger age and lower admission Glasgow Coma Scale score are independently associated with the development of systolic dysfunction after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury.

  8. Effects of the flavonoid quercetin and its methylated metabolite isorhamnetin in isolated arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Manuel; Moreno, Laura; Vera, Rocío; Cogolludo, Angel; Duarte, Juan; Tamargo, Juan; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

    2003-11-01

    Chronic oral quercetin exerts antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, the vasodilator effects of the flavonoid quercetin and its main metabolite isorhamnetin were analysed in isolated thoracic aorta, iliac artery and on the isolated perfused mesenteric resistance vascular bed from SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). In noradrenaline-precontracted vessels from SHR there was an inverse correlation between the relaxant potency (pIC50) of quercetin (4.76 +/- 0.02, 5.08 +/- 0.12, 5.30 +/- 0.18, in aorta, iliac arteries and mesentery, respectively) and isorhamnetin (4.90 +/- 0.11, 5.38 +/- 0.15 and 5.80 +/- 0.10, respectively) and the diameter of the vessel studied. Both flavonoids were more potent in endothelium-denuded aortae and iliac arteries from SHR than from normotensive WKY rats. In addition, in aortae from SHR both flavonoids restored the endothelial-dependent vasodilation. Isorhamnetin, but not quercetin, also reduced the endothelium-dependent contractile responses induced by acetylcholine. These direct vasodilator effects, together with the improvement of endothelial function, are good candidates to explain the blood pressure reduction and vascular protective effects of quercetin in animal models of hypertension and possibly in human cardiovascular diseases.

  9. [Definition of arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Degaute, J P

    1994-01-01

    Recent publication of several consensus by well-known international experts in the field of high blood pressure gives us the opportunity to update the definition of hypertension. For the first time, systolic blood pressure is taken into account to define hypertensives. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been recently developed for the evaluation and treatment of hypertensive patients. Due to the absence of world-wide recognized normative data and the lack of prospective studies assessing the superiority of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over casual blood pressure measurement for the prediction of cardiovascular events, the use of this new technique is to be restricted to a limited number of hypertensive patients.

  10. Pomegranate Extract Enhances Endothelium-Dependent Coronary Relaxation in Isolated Perfused Hearts from Spontaneously Hypertensive Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Nathalie T. B.; Rouver, Wender do N.; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C.; de Paula, Tiago D.-C.; Duarte, Andressa; Silva, Josiane F.; Lemos, Virgínia S.; Santos, Alexandre M. C.; Mauad, Helder; Santos, Roger L.; Moysés, Margareth R.

    2017-01-01

    Decline in estrogen levels promotes endothelial dysfunction and, consequently, the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases in menopausal women. The use of natural therapies such as pomegranate can change these results. Pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)] is widely used as a phytotherapeutic agent worldwide, including in Brazil. We hypothesized that treatment with pomegranate hydroalcoholic extract (PHE) would improve coronary vascular reactivity and cardiovascular parameters. At the beginning of treatment, spontaneously hypertensive female rats were divided into Sham and ovariectomized (OVX) groups, which received pomegranate extract (PHE) (250 mg/kg) or filtered water (V) for 30 days by gavage. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed by Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A dose-response curve for bradykinin was performed, followed by L-NAME inhibition. The protein expression of p-eNOS Ser1177, p-eNOS Thr495, total eNOS, p-AKT Ser473, total AKT, SOD-2, and catalase was quantified by Western blotting. The detection of coronary superoxide was performed using the protocol of dihydroethidium (DHE) staining Plasma nitrite measurement was analyzed by Griess method. Systolic blood pressure increased in both Sham-V and OVX-V groups, whereas it was reduced after treatment in Sham-PHE and OVX-PHE groups. The baseline coronary perfusion pressure was reduced in the Sham-PHE group. The relaxation was significantly higher in the treated group, and L-NAME attenuated the relaxation in all groups. The treatment has not changed p-eNOS (Ser1177), total eNOS, p-AKT (Ser473) and total AKT in any groups. However, in Sham and OVX group the treatment reduced the p-eNOS (Thr495) and SOD-2. The ovariectomy promoted an increasing in the superoxide anion levels and the treatment was able to prevent this elevation and reducing oxidative stress. Moreover, the treatment

  11. Dynamically Reconfigurable Systolic Array Accelorators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasu, Aravind (Inventor); Barnes, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A polymorphic systolic array framework that works in conjunction with an embedded microprocessor on an FPGA, that allows for dynamic and complimentary scaling of acceleration levels of two algorithms active concurrently on the FPGA. Use is made of systolic arrays and hardware-software co-design to obtain an efficient multi-application acceleration system. The flexible and simple framework allows hosting of a broader range of algorithms and extendable to more complex applications in the area of aerospace embedded systems.

  12. Activation of human T cells in hypertension: Studies of Humanized Mice and Hypertensive Humans

    PubMed Central

    Itani, Hana A.; McMaster, William G.; Saleh, Mohamed A.; Nazarewicz, Rafal R.; Mikolajczyk, Tomasz P.; Kaszuba, Anna; Konior, Anna; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Norlander, Allison E.; Chen, Wei; Bonami, Rachel H.; Marshall, Andrew F.; Poffenberger, Greg; Weyand, Cornelia M.; Madhur, Meena S.; Moore, Daniel J.; Harrison, David G.; Guzik, Tomasz J.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports an important role for T cells in the genesis of hypertension. Because this work has predominantly been performed in experimental animals, we sought to determine whether human T cells are activated in hypertension. We employed a humanized mouse model in which the murine immune system is replaced by the human immune system. Angiotensin II increased systolic pressure to 162 mm Hg vs. 116 mm Hg for sham treated animals. Flow cytometry of thoracic lymph nodes, thoracic aorta and kidney revealed increased infiltration of human leukocytes (CD45+) and T lymphocytes (CD3+ and CD4+) in response to angiotensin II infusion. Interestingly, there was also an increase in the memory T cells (CD3+/CD45RO+) in the aortas and lymph nodes. Prevention of hypertension using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide prevented the accumulation of T cells in these tissues. Studies of isolated human T cells and monocytes indicated that angiotensin II had no direct effect on cytokine production by T cells or the ability of dendritic cells to drive T cell proliferation. We also observed an increase in circulating IL-17A producing CD4+ T cells and both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that produce IFN-γ in hypertensive compared to normotensive humans. Thus, human T cells become activated and invade critical end-organ tissues in response to hypertension in a humanized mouse model. This response likely reflects the hypertensive milieu encountered in vivo and is not a direct effect of the hormone angiotensin II. PMID:27217403

  13. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  14. Genetic Variation in the Raptor Gene Is Associated With Overweight But Not Hypertension in American Men of Japanese Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Carnes, Bruce A.; Chen, Randi; Donlon, Timothy A.; He, Qimei; Grove, John S.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Elliott, Ayako; Willcox, Donald C.; Allsopp, Richard; Willcox, Bradley J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is pivotal for cell growth. Regulatory associated protein of mTOR complex I (Raptor) is a unique component of this pro-growth complex. The present study tested whether variation across the raptor gene (RPTOR) is associated with overweight and hypertension. METHODS We tested 61 common (allele frequency ≥ 0.1) tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that captured most of the genetic variation across RPTOR in 374 subjects of normal lifespan and 439 subjects with a lifespan exceeding 95 years for association with overweight/obesity, essential hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension. Subjects were drawn from the Honolulu Heart Program, a homogeneous population of American men of Japanese ancestry, well characterized for phenotypes relevant to conditions of aging. Hypertension status was ascertained when subjects were 45–68 years old. Statistical evaluation involved contingency table analysis, logistic regression, and the powerful method of recursive partitioning. RESULTS After analysis of RPTOR genotypes by each statistical approach, we found no significant association between genetic variation in RPTOR and either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension. Models generated by recursive partitioning analysis showed that RPTOR SNPs significantly enhanced the ability of the model to accurately assign individuals to either the overweight/obese or the non-overweight/obese groups (P = 0.008 by 1-tailed Z test). CONCLUSION Common genetic variation in RPTOR is associated with overweight/obesity but does not discernibly contribute to either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension in the population studied. PMID:25249372

  15. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in elderly adults with chronic kidney disease: results from the survey of Prevalence, Awareness, and Treatment Rates in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with Hypertension in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guangyan; Zheng, Ying; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2013-12-01

    Data regarding hypertension in elderly adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains limited. This study aimed to assess the epidemiological characteristics of hypertension in elderly adults with CKD using data from a nationwide survey. A nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study with a large sample. The Survey of Prevalence, Awareness, and Treatment Rates in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with Hypertension in China (PATRIOTIC). Participants in PATRIOTIC (aged≥60; n=2,414). Trained physicians measured blood pressure (BP) using a standard protocol with a mercury sphygmomanometer at the time of admission. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment of hypertension in elderly adults with CKD were 82.0%, 90.7%, and 87.3%, respectively. The control of hypertension at BP less than 140/90 mmHg was 29.6% and at BP less than 130/80 mmHg it was 12.1%. No significant differences were noted in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, or control of hypertension in individuals with CKD divided into the age groups of 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and 80 and older (P>.05). With increasing age, the proportion of isolated systolic hypertension in elderly adults with CKD with uncontrolled hypertension increased (P=.02). Obesity (P=.01), CKD Stages 4 and 5 (P<.001), and concomitant diabetes mellitus (P=.002) were significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension in elderly adults with CKD, using the goal of BP less than 140/90 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension in elderly adults in China with CKD is high, and its control is poor. Most elderly adults with CKD with uncontrolled hypertension have systolic hypertension. Obesity, CKD Stages 4 and 5, and diabetes mellitus were adversely associated with greater uncontrolled hypertension in elderly adults with CKD. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Dietary calcium and magnesium supplements in spontaneously hypertensive rats and isolated arterial reactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkynen, H.; Kähönen, M.; Arvola, P.; Wuorela, H.; Vapaatalo, H.; Pörsti, I.

    1995-01-01

    1. High calcium diet attenuates the development of hypertension but an associated undesirable effect is that Mg2+ loss to the urine is enhanced. Therefore, we studied the effects of high calcium diet alone and in combination with increased magnesium intake on blood pressure and arterial function. 2. Forty-eight young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were allocated into four groups, the dietary contents of Ca2+ and Mg2+ being: 1.1%, 0.2% (SHR); 2.5%, 0.2% (Ca-SHR); 2.5%, 0.8% (CaMg-SHR); and 1.1%, 0.8% (Mg-SHR), respectively. Development of hypertension was followed for 13 weeks, whereafter electrolyte balance, lymphocyte intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), and mesenteric arterial responses in vitro were examined. Forty normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were investigated in a similar manner. 3. Calcium supplementation comparably attenuated the development of Lypertension during normal and high magnesium intake in SHR, with an associated reduced lymphocyte [Ca2+]i and increased Mg2+ loss to the urine. 4. Endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation to acetylcholine was augmented in Ca-SHR and CaMg-SHR, while the relaxations to isoprenaline and the nitric oxide donor SIN-1 were similar in all SHR groups. Relaxation responses induced by the return of K+ to the organ bath upon precontractions in K(+)-free solution were used to evaluate the function of arterial Na+, K(+)-ATPase. The rate of potassium relaxation was similar in Ca-SHR and CaMg-SHR and faster than in untreated SHR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564205

  17. The efficacy and tolerability of barnidipine hydrochloride in Thai patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Buranakitjaroen, P; Koanantakul, B; Phoojaroenchanachai, M; Chawantanpipat, C

    2004-01-01

    This open-label, blinded study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of barnidipine at a titrated dose of 10-15 mg once daily for 8 weeks in the treatment of essential hypertension in 40 Thai patients. 'Office' blood pressure (BP) and 24-h ambulatory BP measurements were recorded. A systolic BP/diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) reduction of 18.0 +/- 13.6/9.1 +/- 6.6 mmHg was obtained. The full response rate among patients with systolic and diastolic hypertension was 63% using either SBP or DBP criteria, and 54% using both SBP and DBP criteria. One of the two patients with isolated systolic hypertension had a full response, and the BP in two of the three patients with isolated diastolic hypertension was normalized. The trough-to-peak ratio and smoothness index for SBP/DBP were acceptable (0.76 +/- 0.63/0.55 +/- 0.26 and 1.2 +/- 0.4/1.2 +/- 0.3, respectively). In conclusion, once-daily barnidipine monotherapy provides effective 24-h BP control and is generally well tolerated in ambulatory patients.

  18. Vascular dysfunctions in the isolated aorta of double-transgenic hypertensive mice developing aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Waeckel, Ludovic; Badier-Commander, Cécile; Damery, Thibaut; Köhler, Ralf; Sansilvestri-Morel, Patricia; Simonet, Serge; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine; Wulff, Heike; Félétou, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin-II and oxidative stress are involved in the genesis of aortic aneurysms, a phenomenon exacerbated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deletion or uncoupling. The purpose of this work was to study the endothelial function in wild-type C57BL/6 (BL) and transgenic mice expressing the h-angiotensinogen and h-renin genes (AR) subjected to either a control, or a high-salt diet plus a treatment with a NO-synthase inhibitor, N-ω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME; BLSL and ARSL). BLSL showed a moderate increase in blood pressure, while ARSL became severely hypertensive. Seventy-five percent of ARSL developed aortic aneurysms, characterized by major histo-morphological changes and associated with an increase in NADP(H) oxidase-2 (NOX2) expression. Contractile responses (KCl, norepinephrine, U-46619) were similar in the four groups of mice, and relaxations were not affected in BLSL and AR. However, in ARSL, endothelium-dependent relaxations (acetylcholine, UK-14304) were significantly reduced, and this dysfunction was similar in aortae without or with aneurysms. The endothelial impairment was unaffected by catalase, superoxide-dismutase mimetic, radical scavengers, cyclooxygenase inhibition, or TP-receptor blockade and could not be attributed to sGC oxidation. Thus, ARSL is a severe hypertension model developing aortic aneurysm. A vascular dysfunction, involving both endothelial (reduced role of NO) and smooth muscle cells, precedes aneurysms formation and, paradoxically, does not appear to involve oxidative stress.

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of a polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps sinensis on hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Feixiang; Lin, Liming; Hu, Min; Qi, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of a polysaccharide fraction from Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The CSP1, one component of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP), was obtained after water extraction, deproteinization, de-colorization and purification with DEAE-cellulose 52. And a more homogeneous component CSP1-2 was obtained using Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. CSP1-2 mainly consisted of mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of about 2:2:1 and its average molecular weight was approximately 2.70×10(4)Da. Pharmacological tests showed that CSP1, in which the CSP1-2 was its main component, had antihypertensive effect by stimulating the secretion of vasodilator NO, decreasing the level of ET-1, epinephrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin II, inhibiting the increase of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and lowering the level of inflammatory mediator of C-reactive protein (CRP). These results suggested that CSP1 may possess high potential in treating hypertension.

  20. Data supporting the cardiac mitochondria calcium handling in female normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Ciocci Pardo, Alejandro; Rinaldi, Gustavo J.; Mosca, Susana M.

    2016-01-01

    In association with the published article “Mitochondrial calcium handling in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats: correlation with systolic blood pressure levels” [1], this data article contains information about calcium handling of cardiac mitochondria isolated from female of both rats strains (WKY and SHR). Dataset of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) resistance to opening Ca2+-mediated, Ca2+ retention capacity (CRC), time constants and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) are showed. PMID:26977446

  1. Dynamically Reconfigurable Systolic Array Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasu, Aravind; Barnes, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A polymorphic systolic array framework has been developed that works in conjunction with an embedded microprocessor on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which allows for dynamic and complimentary scaling of acceleration levels of two algorithms active concurrently on the FPGA. Use is made of systolic arrays and a hardware-software co-design to obtain an efficient multi-application acceleration system. The flexible and simple framework allows hosting of a broader range of algorithms, and is extendable to more complex applications in the area of aerospace embedded systems. FPGA chips can be responsive to realtime demands for changing applications needs, but only if the electronic fabric can respond fast enough. This systolic array framework allows for rapid partial and dynamic reconfiguration of the chip in response to the real-time needs of scalability, and adaptability of executables.

  2. Systoles in discrete dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Sara; Grácio, Clara; Ramos, Carlos Correia

    2013-01-01

    The fruitful relationship between Geometry and Graph Theory has been explored by several authors benefiting also the Theory of discrete dynamical systems seen as Markov chains in graphs. In this work we will further explore the relation between these areas, giving a geometrical interpretation of notions from dynamical systems. In particular, we relate the topological entropy with the systole, here defined in the context of discrete dynamical systems. We show that for continuous interval maps the systole is trivial; however, for the class of interval maps with one discontinuity point the systole acquires relevance from the point of view of the dynamical behavior. Moreover, we define the geodesic length spectrum associated to a Markov interval map and we compute the referred spectrum in several examples.

  3. Arterial Wave Reflection and Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Takei, Yasuyoshi; Hasegawa, Takuya; Koshaka, Shun; Palmieri, Vittorio; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Increased arterial wave reflection is a predictor of cardiovascular events and has been hypothesized to be a cofactor in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Whether increased wave reflection is inversely associated with left ventricular (LV) systolic function in subjects without heart failure is not clear. Methods Arterial wave reflection and LV systolic function were assessed in 301 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study using 2-dimensional echocardiography and applanation tonometry of the radial artery to derive central arterial waveform by a validated transfer function. Aortic augmentation index (AIx) and wasted energy index (WEi) were used as indices of wave reflection. LV systolic function was measured by ejection fraction (LVEF) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Mitral annulus peak systolic velocity (Sm), peak longitudinal strain and strain rate were measured. Participants with history of coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, LVEF <50% or wall motion abnormalities were excluded. Results Mean age of the study population was 68.3±10.2 years (64.1% women, 65% hypertensive). LV systolic function by TDI was lower with increasing wave reflection, whereas LVEF was not. In multivariate analysis, TDI parameters of LV longitudinal systolic function were significantly and inversely correlated to AIx and WEi (p values from 0.05 to 0.002). Conclusions In a community cohort without heart failure and with normal LVEF, an increased arterial wave reflection was associated with subclinical reduction in LV systolic function assessed by novel TDI techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate the prognostic implications of this relationship. PMID:21169863

  4. Paradoxical hypertension with cardiac tamponade.

    PubMed

    Argulian, Edgar; Herzog, Eyal; Halpern, Dan G; Messerli, Franz H

    2012-10-01

    Subacute (medical) tamponade develops over a period of days or even weeks. Previous studies have shown that subacute tamponade is uncommonly associated with hypotension. On the contrary, many of those patients are indeed hypertensive at initial presentation. We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypertensive cardiac tamponade and hemodynamic response to pericardial effusion drainage. We conducted a retrospective study of patients who underwent pericardial effusion drainage for subacute pericardial tamponade. Diagnosis of pericardial tamponade was established by the treating physician based on clinical data and supportive echocardiographic findings. Patients were defined as hypertensive if initial systolic blood pressure (BP) was ≥140 mm Hg. Thirty patients with subacute tamponade who underwent pericardial effusion drainage were included in the analysis. Eight patients (27%) were hypertensive with a mean systolic BP of 167 compared to 116 mm Hg in 22 nonhypertensive patients. Hypertensive patients with tamponade were more likely to have advanced renal disease (63% vs 14%, p <0.05) and pre-existing hypertension (88% vs 46, p <0.05) and less likely to have systemic malignancy (0 vs 41%, p <0.05). Systolic BP decreased significantly in patients with hypertensive tamponade after pericardial effusion drainage. Those results are consistent with previous studies with an estimated prevalence of hypertensive tamponade from 27% to 43%. In conclusion, a hypertensive response was observed in approximately 1/3 of patients with subacute pericardial tamponade. Relief of cardiac tamponade commonly resulted in a decrease in BP.

  5. Insulin and hypertension in the NHLBI Family Heart Study: a sibpair approach to a controversial issue.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, F; Rich, S S; Sholinsky, P; Arnett, D K; Province, M E; Myers, R H; Eckfeldt, J H; Williams, R R; Hunt, S C

    2000-03-01

    The association between insulin and hypertension remains equivocal. We therefore investigated insulin levels in 3037 normotensive and 1067 hypertensive subjects from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study (FHS) by two different approaches. First, we compared insulin levels between normotensive and 275 untreated hypertensive subjects. Insulin levels unadjusted as well as adjusted for age, sex, and center were significantly higher in hypertensives. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), insulin remained significantly higher only in the diastolic hypertensive group (mean +/- SD 77.0 +/-36.7 pmol/L, P < .01) but not in the isolated systolic hypertensive group (67.0 +/- 38.2 pmol/L) when compared to normotensives (63.2 +/- 29.1 pmol/L). A sibpair analysis was then used that compared the intra-sibpair differences in insulin concentrations to the intra-sibpair differences in blood pressure (BP) levels. This approach was intended to control for the effects of genetic and residual shared environmental variance upon insulin levels. The intra-sibpair difference in insulin concentrations between concordant (diastolic and systolic deltaBP < 5 mm Hg) and discordant sibpairs (diastolic and systolic deltaBP > 15 and > 20 mm Hg, respectively) was no longer significantly different when adjusted for BMI (2.7 v 5.9 pmol/L for diastolic and -1.7 v -1.8 pmol/L for systolic BP). Even the random selection of one sibpair from each of the 326 families independently of insulin and BP levels did not result in a significant correlation between the intrasibpair differences in insulin and BP. Using an insulin resistance index instead of insulin did not change our findings. Our investigation in the FHS sample of families suggests that there is only a small, if any, influence of insulin levels on BP after adjustment for obesity-related sources of variation.

  6. Comparison Of Cardiovascular Characteristics In Normotensive And Hypertensive Rat Strains.

    PubMed

    Zemancíková, Anna; Török, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Hypertensive rats serve as valuable tools for studies of dysregulations in cardiovascular functions before and during pathological elevation of blood pressure. They exhibit many defects in structure and function of heart and vessels which are often related to severity of hypertension. The relationship of blood pressure level and manifestation of aberrations in selected cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were determined in 20-week-old normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in their F1 offspring borderline hypertensive rats (BHR), and also in normotensive Wistar rats which are genetically less compatible with the other mentioned rat strains. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured in conscious rats by the non-invasive tail-cuff method. At the end of the treatment, rats were sacrificed, relative weight of their left heart ventricle and liver were determined and plasma concentration of glucose and triglycerides were measured. Thoracic aorta and superior mesenteric artery were isolated and prepared for isometric tension recording. Neurogenic contractions were elicited by electrical stimulation of perivascular adrenergic nerves. The level of systolic blood pressure in WKY rats (106.0 ± 0.4 mmHg), BHR (149.5 ± 2.5 mmHg) and SHR (186.4 ± 3.9 mmHg) corresponded with the impairment of acetylcholine-induced relaxation of isolated thoracic aorta and with the increase in sensitivity of contractile responses to exogenous noradrenaline and to electrical stimulation of perivascular adrenergic nerves in mesenteric artery. However, rats of the normotensive strain Wistar (118.1 ± 2.0 mmHg) exhibited arterial contractions similar to those obtained in hypertensive rats. Wistar rats had also the highest relative liver weight and plasma triglyceride concentration. These observations indicate that when comparing non-related rat strains the higher magnitude of arterial contractions and abnormal lipid parameters may not

  7. [Hypertension and heart].

    PubMed

    Hennersdorf, Marcus G; Strauer, Bodo E

    2006-03-22

    The term hypertensive heart disease covers the entities left ventricular hypertrophy, microangiopathy, diastolic and systolic dysfunction, und increased risk of arrhythmias. From the pathophysiological point of view this is caused by hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes, interstitial fibrosis and media hypertrophy of the arterioles. As an earliest sign of hypertensive heart disease a microangiopathy can be diagnosed. Also a diastolic dysfunction can be found as an early change. In further persisting arterial hypertension left ventricular hypertrophy develops (often asymmetric), and later a systolic dysfunction. Clinically, the patients suffer from angina pectoris, dyspnea and rhythm disorders. Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with an increased risk of ventricular malignant arrhythmias. Thus, the main therapeutic principle should be antihypertensive therapy with the goal of regression of hypertrophy and, as a consequence, a decreased mortality risk.

  8. Age-Associated Increases in Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Borlaug, Barry A.; Kane, Garvan C.; Enders, Felicity T.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Redfield, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    Background In contrast to the wealth of data on isolated systolic hypertension involving the systemic circulation in the elderly, much less is known about age-related change in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and its prognostic impact in the general population. We sought to define the relationship between PASP and age, evaluate which factors influence PASP and determine if PASP is independently predictive of mortality in the community. Methods and Results A random sample of Olmsted County, MN general population (N=2042) underwent echocardiography and spirometry and was followed for a median of 9 years. PASP was measured from the tricuspid regurgitation velocity. Left ventricular diastolic pressure was estimated using Doppler echocardiography (E/e' ratio) and arterial stiffening was assessed using the brachial artery pulse pressure. Among 1413 (69%) subjects with measurable PASP (63±11y; 43% male), PASP (median, 25th-75th percentile) was 26 (24-30) mmHg and increased with age (r=0.31; p<0.001). Independent predictors of PASP were age, pulse pressure and mitral E/e' (all p≤0.003). Increasing PASP was associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio 2.73 per 10 mmHg; p<0.001). In subjects without cardiopulmonary disease (any heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or chronic obstructive lung disease), the age-adjusted hazard ratio was 2.74 per 10 mmHg (p=0.016). Conclusions We provide the first population-based evidence of age-related increase in pulmonary artery pressure, its association with increasing left heart diastolic pressures and systemic vascular stiffening, as well as its negative impact on survival. Pulmonary artery pressure may serve as a novel cardiovascular risk factor and potential therapeutic target. PMID:19433755

  9. Prevention of cardiovascular events by treating hypertension in older adults: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Firdaus, Muhammad; Sivaram, Chittur A; Reynolds, Dwight W

    2008-03-01

    Hypertension in older adults is not well controlled in clinical practice. Isolated systolic hypertension is often more difficult to manage. A systematic PubMed search was conducted to look for evidence showing benefits of lowering blood pressure (BP) in older hypertensive adults. Lowering BP in these individuals significantly reduces the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Based on trial evidence, a low-dose diuretic should be considered the most appropriate first-step treatment for preventing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therapy with >1 medication is often necessary to reduce BP in these patients. There is unequivocal evidence that cardiovascular events can be prevented in older adults, even those older than 80 years, by treating hypertension.

  10. Salvianolic Acid B Reducing Portal Hypertension Depends on Macrophages in Isolated Portal Perfused Rat Livers with Chronic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Jia, Hongmei; Yang, Shijun; Liu, Yuetao; Deng, Bo; Xu, Xueyan; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Hang; Zu, Chengzhe; Yin, He; Li, Ting; Song, Yijun; Wang, Yueqi; Li, Pengtao; Zou, Zhongmei; Cai, Dayong

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the effects of Sal B on portal hypertension (PH). PH with chronic hepatitis was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. The model was confirmed with elevated portal pressures and increased serum CD163 levels. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) or heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in portal triads was assessed. The isolated portal perfused rat liver (IPPRL) was performed at d0, d28, d56 , and d84 in the progression of chronic hepatitis. After constricting with phenylephrine, the portal veins were relaxed with Sal B. The EC50 of Sal B for relaxing portal veins was −2.04 × 10−9, 7.28 × 10−11, 1.52 × 10−11, and 8.44 × 10−11 mol/L at d0, d28, d56, and d84, respectively. More macrophages infiltrated in portal triads and expressed more iNOS or HO-1 as PH advanced. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of Sal B for reducing PH were positively correlated with the levels of iNOS or HO-1 in portal triads, and so did with serum CD163 levels. Sal B reduces PH in IPPRL with chronic hepatitis, via promoting portal relaxation due to macrophage-originated NO or CO in portal triads, partly at least. PMID:23118797

  11. [Hypertensive emergencies and urgencies].

    PubMed

    Phan, David Giang; Dreyfuss-Tubiana, Céline; Blacher, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disease, the most common chronic disease. Hypertensive emergency is much less frequent and only affects 1 to 2 % of all hypertensive patients. The true hypertensive emergency is characterized by the serious damage of one hypertensive target organ and requires an urgent intravenous treatment. Isolated blood pressure elevation should not be regarded as a hypertensive emergency if there is no target organ damage, even if the blood pressure is very high. These situations of "false hypertensive emergency", or hypertensive urgencies, often requires an immediate treatment, but oral. Signs of visceral pain of true hypertensive emergency often are a poor general condition, severe headache, decreased visual acuity, neurological deficit of ischemic or hemorrhagic cause, confusion, dyspnea with orthopnoea revealing heart failure, angina, chest pain revealing an aortic dissection, proteinuria, acute renal failure or eclampsia. True hypertensive emergencies include several entities, namely: severe hypertension, malignant hypertension and accelerated hypertension. If malignant hypertension is not treated, the prognosis is poor with 50 % death risk in the following year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of hypertension in Chinese and their relevance for the choice of antihypertensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Guang; Li, Yan

    2012-12-01

    According to the 4th National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002, the prevalence of hypertension in China was 18.8%. Despite that, the treatment rate among hypertensive patients was 82%, the control rate remained low in persons with hypertension (6%), because of the low awareness in general (30%) and the low control rate among treated hypertensive patients (25%). One of the major reasons for the increasing prevalence of hypertension is unbalance of dietary sodium and potassium intakes. In the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), Chinese, compared with American, British, and Japanese populations, had highest dietary sodium intakes and lowest potassium intakes, leading to a two to three times higher sodium/potassium ratio. High dietary sodium intakes may change the circadian rhythm of 24 h blood pressure, which is characterized by a higher night-time blood pressure. Indeed, the prevalence of isolated night-time hypertension, defined as a night-time blood pressure of at least 120 mmHg systolic or 70 mmHg diastolic and a daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure less than 135/85 mmHg, was higher in Chinese than in Europeans. The complications of hypertension are also different across ethnicities, being mainly stroke instead of myocardial infarction in Chinese. Blood pressure lowering provides more protection against stroke than myocardial infarction, and calcium channel blockers provide more protection against stroke than other classes of antihypertensive drugs. Current Chinese hypertension guidelines recommend calcium channel blockers as the first of the five classes of antihypertensive drugs for stage 1 and low-risk hypertension. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The hypertension of autonomic failure and its treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J.; Jordan, J.; Costa, F.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the incidence and severity of supine hypertension in 117 patients with severe primary autonomic failure presenting to a referral center over a 9-year period. Patients were uniformly characterized by disabling orthostatic hypotension, lack of compensatory heart rate increase, abnormal autonomic function tests, and unresponsive plasma norepinephrine. Fifty-four patients had isolated autonomic impairment (pure autonomic failure). Sixty-three patients had central nervous system involvement in addition to autonomic impairment (multiple-system atrophy). Patients were studied off medications, in a metabolic ward, and on a controlled diet containing 150 mEq of sodium. Fifty-six percent of patients had supine diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg. The prevalence of hypertension was slightly greater in females (63%) than in males (52%). Potential mechanisms responsible for this hypertension were investigated. No correlation was found between blood volume and blood pressure. Similarly, plasma norepinephrine (92+/-15 pg/mL) and plasma renin activity (0.3+/-0.05 ng/mL per hour) were very low in the subset of patients with pure autonomic failure and supine hypertension (mean systolic/diastolic pressure, 177 +/- 6/108 +/- 2 mm Hg, range 167/97 to 219/121). Supine hypertension represents a challenge in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. We found these patients to be particularly responsive to the hypotensive effects of transdermal nitroglycerin. Doses ranging from 0.025 to 0.1 mg/h decreased systolic blood pressure by 36+/-7 mm Hg and may effectively treat supine hypertension overnight, but the dose should be individualized and used with caution.

  14. The hypertension of autonomic failure and its treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J.; Jordan, J.; Costa, F.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the incidence and severity of supine hypertension in 117 patients with severe primary autonomic failure presenting to a referral center over a 9-year period. Patients were uniformly characterized by disabling orthostatic hypotension, lack of compensatory heart rate increase, abnormal autonomic function tests, and unresponsive plasma norepinephrine. Fifty-four patients had isolated autonomic impairment (pure autonomic failure). Sixty-three patients had central nervous system involvement in addition to autonomic impairment (multiple-system atrophy). Patients were studied off medications, in a metabolic ward, and on a controlled diet containing 150 mEq of sodium. Fifty-six percent of patients had supine diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg. The prevalence of hypertension was slightly greater in females (63%) than in males (52%). Potential mechanisms responsible for this hypertension were investigated. No correlation was found between blood volume and blood pressure. Similarly, plasma norepinephrine (92+/-15 pg/mL) and plasma renin activity (0.3+/-0.05 ng/mL per hour) were very low in the subset of patients with pure autonomic failure and supine hypertension (mean systolic/diastolic pressure, 177 +/- 6/108 +/- 2 mm Hg, range 167/97 to 219/121). Supine hypertension represents a challenge in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. We found these patients to be particularly responsive to the hypotensive effects of transdermal nitroglycerin. Doses ranging from 0.025 to 0.1 mg/h decreased systolic blood pressure by 36+/-7 mm Hg and may effectively treat supine hypertension overnight, but the dose should be individualized and used with caution.

  15. [Arterial hypertension as a medical and social problem in the older urban population. The CINDI WHO Program study].

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk-Chałas, Krystyna; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Pikala, Małgorzata; Drygas, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Increasing lifespan and progressive aging of the Polish population results in rising demands on health care. Chronic diseases with a leading position of arterial hypertension (HA) prevail in morbidity rates of adult seniors. The aim of the study is to characterize hypertension in the elderly with regard to other risk factors, complications and therapeutic control. The study was carried out in 2002 within the framework of the CINDI WHO Programme. A total of 1460 persons were randomly selected among residents of Lodz aged > or = 65 years. The response rate was 57%. All participants underwent questionnaire interview, two blood pressure (BP) measurements, anthropometric and physical examination, ECG and laboratory tests. After final verification, we analysed data collected from 828 persons (289 men and 539 women). Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP were 147.6 and 83.6 mmHg, respectively. The increase of systolic BP with age of studied seniors was observed. Hypertension was diagnosed in 669 persons (79% men, 82% women). In most cases there were systolic-diastolic or isolated systolic hypertension. About 60% of seniors with elevated BP declared suffering from HA, while 73% were under antihypertensive treatment. Normalization of BP (< 140/ 90 mmHg) was achieved in 28% of treated patients. Most often prescribed medications were: ACE-inhibitors (51%), beta-blockers (40%), calcium channel blockers (31%) and diuretics (30%). Mean values of plasma lipids and prevalence of lipid disorders were comparable in hypertensive and normotensive persons. Among patients with HA there were significantly smaller percentage of smokers (8.6% vs 18.7%, p < 0.05). The prevalence of obesity, visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome was higher in hypertensive seniors. As a result, incidents of myocardial infarction and morbidity due to coronary artery disease were twice as cantly more often hospitalised and visited family doctors (7 vs 4.6 visits/year) in comparison to normotensive subjects.

  16. Systolic VLSI for Kalman filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H.-G.; Chang, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A novel two-dimensional parallel computing method for real-time Kalman filtering is presented. The mathematical formulation of a Kalman filter algorithm is rearranged to be the type of Faddeev algorithm for generalizing signal processing. The data flow mapping from the Faddeev algorithm to a two-dimensional concurrent computing structure is developed. The architecture of the resulting processor cells is regular, simple, expandable, and therefore naturally suitable for VLSI chip implementation. The computing methodology and the two-dimensional systolic arrays are useful for Kalman filter applications as well as other matrix/vector based algebraic computations.

  17. Arterial-ventricular and interventricular interaction in isolated post-capillary and combined pulmonary hypertension in severe mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Venkateshvaran, Ashwin; Sola, Srikanth; Govind, Satish Chandra; Dash, Pravat Kumar; Vyavahare, Sagar; Lund, Lars H; la Merkely, Bé; Nagy, Anikó Ilona; Manouras, Aristomenis

    2016-08-01

    Isolated post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (Ipc-PH) is characterized by elevated left atrial pressures that are passively transmitted upstream, whereas combined pre- and post-capillary PH (Cpc-PH) demonstrates additional reactive changes in pulmonary vasculature. The increased load imposed on the right ventricle (RV) influences left ventricular (LV) mechanics by means of interventricular interaction. However, there is lack of evidence to substantiate the effect of possible additional alterations in the arterio-ventricular (AV) coupling and their effect on LV function. Considering the discrepant RV load in Cpc-PH and Ipc-PH, we sought to investigate whether these two conditions are also characterized by differential alterations in AV coupling. Invasive hemodynamic and echocardiographic data of 120 patients with PH due to severe rheumatic mitral stenosis before and immediately after percutaneous valvulotomy, along with 40 age-matched healthy controls, were analyzed. Effective arterial (E a) and ventricular elastance (E es) were measured. PH patients demonstrated elevated LV afterload (E a) along with AV uncoupling, and these derangements were more evident in the Cpc-PH group [E a: 3.3 (2.3-5.4) vs 2.6 (2.1-3.5) mmHg/mL, E a/E es: 0.73 (0.6-0.9) vs 0.88 (0.7-1.2), p < 0.05]. In addition, PH was associated with reduced LV deformation, which was mainly determined by elevated E a, while the effect of interventricular interaction was limited to the septal wall. Our results suggest that in addition to the interventricular interaction, an abnormal AV coupling contributes to the altered LV mechanics that has been associated with adverse prognosis in Cpc-PH.

  18. Characterization of the hyperpolarization-activated current, I(f), in ventricular myocytes isolated from hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Cerbai, E; Barbieri, M; Mugelli, A

    1994-01-01

    1. Left ventricular myocytes isolated from the heart of young (2-month-old) and old (18- to 20-month-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were studied in the whole-cell configuration. Since multicellular preparations from old SHRs show a diastolic depolarization phase, we performed experiments to test whether it was associated with the presence of a hyperpolarization-activated If-like current. 2. In control Tyrode solution, a time-dependent increasing inward current activated by hyperpolarization was recorded in myocytes from old SHRs showing a diastolic depolarization phase. A barium-insensitive, caesium-sensitive, time-dependent inward current was recorded in a minority (4 of 33) of cells from young SHRs (membrane capacitance, 160 +/- 7 pF) but in 93% (25 of 27, P < 0.01) of myocytes from old SHRs (membrane capacitance, 355 +/- 19 pF, P < 0.01). 3. The current was fully activated at -120 mV and voltage of half-maximal activation was -88.1 +/- 1.5 mV; it was blocked by extracellular CsCl (4 mM) in a voltage-dependent manner. Reducing [K+]o from 25 to 5.4 mM caused a shift of the reversal potential from -17.3 +/- 3.8 to -25.7 +/- 2.7 mV and a 60% decrease of current conductance. 4. These findings suggest that an If-like current is present in rat ventricular myocytes from old SHRs, where it might favour the occurrence of spontaneous action potentials. PMID:7707227

  19. Effects of dihydropyridines on tension and calcium-45 influx in isolated mesenteric resistance vessels from spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cauvin, C.; Hwang, O.; Yamamoto, M.; van Breemen, C.

    1987-01-30

    Contractile tension responses to norepinephrine and depolarizing potassium (80 mM K+), as well as calcium-45 influx stimulated by these agents, were studied in isolated mesenteric resistance vessels (each 100 microM internal diameter) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs). Inhibitory effects of 2 dihydropyridine Ca++ antagonists, PN 200-110 (isradipine) and nisoldipine, on these parameters were also determined. Contractile responses to 80 mM K+ were inhibited by both Ca++ antagonists with the same potency and efficacy in SHR compared with WKY vessels (PN 200-110 IC50 = 2.8 +/- 1.3 X 10(-8) M in SHRs and 2.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(-8) M in WKYs; nisoldipine IC50 = 1.1 +/- 0.4 X 10(-8) M in SHRs and 1.2 +/- 0.9 X 10(-8) M in WKYs). However, contractile responses to norepinephrine (10(-4) M) were inhibited less potently by nisoldipine in SHR vessels (IC50 = 2.2 +/- 0.3 X 10(-9) M) compared with WKY vessels (IC50 = 1.6 +/- 0.6 X 10(-10) M). Similarly, PN 200-110 tended to be less (but not significantly less) potent in SHR vessels (IC50 = 3.3 +/- 1.8 X 10(-8) M) than in WKY vessels (IC50 = 3.4 +/- 0.9 X 10(-9) M); its efficacy was significantly depressed in the SHR vessels (by approximately 20%). When norepinephrine-stimulated calcium-45 influx was determined in the presence of these Ca++ antagonists, a similar profile emerged with respect to a comparison of SHR and WKY vessels. These results support a previously hypothesized alteration in receptor-activated Ca++ influx pathways in SHR mesenteric resistance vessels.

  20. Automatic heart sounds detection and systolic murmur characterization using wavelet transform and AR modeling.

    PubMed

    Ning, Taikang; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a signal processing procedure that identifies the first and the second heart sounds (S1 and S2), extracts the systole from the diastole, detects and characterizes the systolic murmur found within. The identification of heart sounds was facilitated by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) approximation using the Coiflet wavelet and followed by using indicators that quantify signal activity and strength. The systole was isolated and divided into smaller short segments where the signal activity measure and absolute amplitude were computed. S1 and S2, and the onset and duration of a systolic murmur were marked. Using the indices derived from AR modeling, a systolic murmur can be characterized by its timing, duration, pitch, and shape either as crescendo, decrescendo, crescendo-decrescendo, or plateau. The performance of the proposed procedure was evaluated and proved with clinically recorded systolic murmur episodes.

  1. Management of hypertension in the elderly patient at abidjan cardiology institute (ivory coast).

    PubMed

    Kramoh, K E; Aké-Traboulsi, E; Konin, C; N'goran, Y; Coulibaly, I; Adoubi, A; Koffi, J; Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Guikahue, M

    2012-01-01

    Background. Since the treatment of hypertension is beneficial for the elderly, we have undertaken this study that aims to evaluate the management of hypertension in elderly patient in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among 854 hypertensive elderly patients of Abidjan Cardiology Institute who were followed for a minimum of one year, between January 2000 and December 2009. Results. The patients mean age was 73.1 ± 5.3 years, and 59% were women. At the first presentation, it was mostly systolic-diastolic hypertension (51.8%) and isolated systolic hypertension (38.5%). Mean blood pressure was 169.4 ± 28.4 mmHg for systolic, 95.3 ± 15.7 mmHg for diastolic, and 74.1 ± 22.8 mmHg for pulse pressure. Pulse pressure was ≥60 mmHg in 80.4%. According to the European Guidelines stratification of the cardiovascular risk-excess attributable to high blood pressure, 82.1% of the sample had a very high added risk. The pharmacological therapy was prescribed in 93.5%. More than 66% of patients were receiving ≥2 antihypertensive drugs including fixed-dose combination drugs. The most common agents used were diuretics (63.5%) followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in 61.3%. The most common agents used for monotherapy were calcium antagonists. When ≥2 drugs were used, diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers were the most common. Blood pressure control was achieved in 42.6%. Conclusion. The control of elderly hypertension can be effective in Sub-Saharan Africa. He required at least two antihypertensive drugs to meet the recommended blood pressure target.

  2. Management of Hypertension in the Elderly Patient at Abidjan Cardiology Institute (Ivory Coast)

    PubMed Central

    Kramoh, K. E.; Aké-Traboulsi, E.; Konin, C.; N'goran, Y.; Coulibaly, I.; Adoubi, A.; Koffi, J.; Anzouan-Kacou, J. B.; Guikahue, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Since the treatment of hypertension is beneficial for the elderly, we have undertaken this study that aims to evaluate the management of hypertension in elderly patient in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among 854 hypertensive elderly patients of Abidjan Cardiology Institute who were followed for a minimum of one year, between January 2000 and December 2009. Results. The patients mean age was 73.1 ± 5.3 years, and 59% were women. At the first presentation, it was mostly systolic-diastolic hypertension (51.8%) and isolated systolic hypertension (38.5%). Mean blood pressure was 169.4 ± 28.4 mmHg for systolic, 95.3 ± 15.7 mmHg for diastolic, and 74.1 ± 22.8 mmHg for pulse pressure. Pulse pressure was ≥60 mmHg in 80.4%. According to the European Guidelines stratification of the cardiovascular risk-excess attributable to high blood pressure, 82.1% of the sample had a very high added risk. The pharmacological therapy was prescribed in 93.5%. More than 66% of patients were receiving ≥2 antihypertensive drugs including fixed-dose combination drugs. The most common agents used were diuretics (63.5%) followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in 61.3%. The most common agents used for monotherapy were calcium antagonists. When ≥2 drugs were used, diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers were the most common. Blood pressure control was achieved in 42.6%. Conclusion. The control of elderly hypertension can be effective in Sub-Saharan Africa. He required at least two antihypertensive drugs to meet the recommended blood pressure target. PMID:22028955

  3. Activation of Human T Cells in Hypertension: Studies of Humanized Mice and Hypertensive Humans.

    PubMed

    Itani, Hana A; McMaster, William G; Saleh, Mohamed A; Nazarewicz, Rafal R; Mikolajczyk, Tomasz P; Kaszuba, Anna M; Konior, Anna; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Norlander, Allison E; Chen, Wei; Bonami, Rachel H; Marshall, Andrew F; Poffenberger, Greg; Weyand, Cornelia M; Madhur, Meena S; Moore, Daniel J; Harrison, David G; Guzik, Tomasz J

    2016-07-01

    Emerging evidence supports an important role for T cells in the genesis of hypertension. Because this work has predominantly been performed in experimental animals, we sought to determine whether human T cells are activated in hypertension. We used a humanized mouse model in which the murine immune system is replaced by the human immune system. Angiotensin II increased systolic pressure to 162 versus 116 mm Hg for sham-treated animals. Flow cytometry of thoracic lymph nodes, thoracic aorta, and kidney revealed increased infiltration of human leukocytes (CD45(+)) and T lymphocytes (CD3(+) and CD4(+)) in response to angiotensin II infusion. Interestingly, there was also an increase in the memory T cells (CD3(+)/CD45RO(+)) in the aortas and lymph nodes. Prevention of hypertension using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide prevented the accumulation of T cells in these tissues. Studies of isolated human T cells and monocytes indicated that angiotensin II had no direct effect on cytokine production by T cells or the ability of dendritic cells to drive T-cell proliferation. We also observed an increase in circulating interleukin-17A producing CD4(+) T cells and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that produce interferon-γ in hypertensive compared with normotensive humans. Thus, human T cells become activated and invade critical end-organ tissues in response to hypertension in a humanized mouse model. This response likely reflects the hypertensive milieu encountered in vivo and is not a direct effect of the hormone angiotensin II. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... claims: sodium and hypertension. (a) Relationship between sodium and hypertension (high blood pressure). (1) Hypertension, or high blood pressure, generally means a systolic blood pressure of greater than 140 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or a diastolic blood pressure of greater than 90 mm...

  5. The two faces of hypertension: role of aortic stiffness.

    PubMed

    Smulyan, Harold; Mookherjee, Saktipada; Safar, Michel E

    2016-02-01

    Adult hypertension can be divided into two relatively distinct forms-systolic/diastolic hypertension in midlife and systolic hypertension of the aged. The two types differ in prevalence, pathophysiology, and therapy. The prevalence of systolic hypertension in the elderly is twice that of midlife hypertension. The systolic pressure is elevated in both forms, but the high diastolic pressure in midlife is due to a raised total peripheral resistance, whereas the normal or low diastolic pressure in the elderly is due to aortic stiffening. Aortic stiffness, as measured by the carotid/femoral pulse wave velocity, has been found to be a cardiovascular risk marker independent of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis. Instead, it is related to microcirculatory disease of the brain and kidney and to disorders of inflammation. Loss of aortic distensibility is an inevitable consequence of aging, but a review of its causes suggests that it may be amenable to future pharmacologic therapy.

  6. Blood pressure change and risk of hypertension associated with parental hypertension: the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nae-Yuh; Young, J Hunter; Meoni, Lucy A; Ford, Daniel E; Erlinger, Thomas P; Klag, Michael J

    2008-03-24

    Parental hypertension is used to classify hypertension risk in young adults, but the long-term association of parental hypertension with blood pressure (BP) change and risk of hypertension over the adult life span has not been well studied. We examined the association of parental hypertension with BP change and hypertension risk from young adulthood through the ninth decade of life in a longitudinal cohort of 1160 male former medical students with 54 years of follow-up. In mixed-effects models using 29 867 BP measurements, mean systolic and diastolic BP readings were significantly higher at baseline among participants with parental hypertension. The rate of annual increase was slightly higher for systolic (0.03 mm Hg, P= .04), but not diastolic, BP in those with parental hypertension. After adjustment for baseline systolic and diastolic BP and time-dependent covariates--body mass index, alcohol consumption, coffee drinking, physical activity, and cigarette smoking--the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) of hypertension development was 1.5 (1.2-2.0) for men with maternal hypertension only, 1.8 (1.4-2.4) for men with paternal hypertension only, and 2.4 (1.8-3.2) for men with hypertension in both parents compared with men whose parents never developed hypertension. Early-onset (at age hypertension in both parents imparted a 6.2-fold higher adjusted risk (95% CI, 3.6-10.7) for the development of hypertension throughout adult life and a 20.0-fold higher adjusted risk (95% CI, 8.4-47.9) at the age of 35 years. Hypertension in both mothers and fathers has a strong independent association with elevated BP levels and incident hypertension over the course of adult life.

  7. Hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hansson, L

    1996-10-01

    TREATMENT OF ELDERLY HYPERTENSIVES: Treatment of hypertension in the elderly is nowadays an accepted and highly effective medical intervention following the positive reports on the benefits of lowering elevated arterial pressure in elderly patients. Most of the intervention studies an antihypertensive treatment in elderly patients have used diuretics or beta-blockers or the two in combination as the therapy by which blood pressure was lowered. However, from a theoretical point of view, novel therapies such as calcium antagonists could offer advantages that would translate into an even greater reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than has been obtained with the traditional antihypertensive therapies used so far. DATA ON CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS IN THE ELDERLY: Some of the studies in elderly hypertensives that are currently in progress are using calcium antagonists as one of the main therapies, e.g. the Swedish Trial in Old patients with hypertension (STOP-Hypertension)-2 study and the Systolic hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) study. Another source of information is a large database on nicardipine, a dihydropyridine-derived calcium antagonist, used in the treatment of elderly hypertensives.

  8. Heart failure and diabetes: left ventricular systolic function.

    PubMed

    Palmiero, P; Macello, M; De Pascalis, S

    2006-04-01

    Heart failure is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in general population, annual mortality rate is 20%, in spite of pharmacological treatments or other therapies. Cardio-vascular events and diabetes tight correlation is well known, while it is less evaluated diabetes and heart failure correlation is less studied, heart failure as left ventricular systolic function impairment. Cardiovascular disease rate is decreasing, systolic heart failure rate is raising. Our study goal is to evaluate which role diabetes plays in determining systolic heart failure, diagnosed by echocardiographical examination. Four hundred and fifty consecutive patients, systolic heart failure prone, diagnosed by left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%, were included. Exclusion criteria were rheumatic or congenital valve diseases. Mean age was 78.3 years (53-93 years), 286 were women and 164 men. Statistical analysis were performed by parametric t-Student test and not parametric chi2 test. High significant difference was assessed for P<0.05. Seventy six (16.9%) patients were diabetes prone (D), 374 (83.1%) were diabetes free, so not diabetic (ND). Forty three men were D (56.5%), 131 ND (35%). Diabetic mean age was 74.7 years (52-88), not diabetic was 79.3 (53-93). Six D (7.8%) and 21 ND patients (5.6%) were hypercholesterolemia prone. Eight D (10.5%) and 18 ND (10.1%) patients were smokers. Twenty eight D (36.8%) and 107 ND patients (28.6%) were hypertensive. Thirty three D (43.4%) and 88 ND (26.4%) patients were coronary artery disease prone, 3 of 33 (3.9%) D and 28 of 88 (7.4%) ND ischemic patients were myocardial infarction prone. Twenty one D (27.6%) and 106 ND (28.3%) patients were atrial fibrillation prone. There were not statistical significant difference among D and ND patients for following variables: sex, smoke, total cholesterolemia, hypertension and atrial fibrillation. We found an high significant difference for mean age (P<0.005) and coronary artery disease prone

  9. Pharmacologic Management of Pediatric Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Misurac, Jason; Nichols, Kristen R; Wilson, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Hypertension in children is common, and the prevalence of primary hypertension is increasing with the obesity epidemic and changing dietary choices. Careful measurement of blood pressure is important to correctly diagnose hypertension, as many factors can lead to inaccurate blood pressure measurement. Hypertension is diagnosed based on comparison of age-, sex-, and height-based norms with the average systolic and diastolic blood pressures on three separate occasions. In the absence of hypertensive target organ damage (TOD), stage I hypertension is managed first by diet and exercise, with the addition of drug therapy if this fails. First-line treatment of stage I hypertension with TOD and stage II hypertension includes both lifestyle changes and medications. First-line agents include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, and calcium-channel blockers. Hypertensive emergency with end-organ effects requires immediate modest blood pressure reduction to alleviate symptoms. This is usually accomplished with IV medications. Long-term reduction in blood pressure to normal levels is accomplished gradually. Specific medication choice for outpatient hypertension management is determined by the underlying cause of hypertension and the comparative adverse effect profiles, along with practical considerations such as cost and frequency of administration. Antihypertensive medication is initiated at a starting dose and can be gradually increased to effect. If ineffective at the recommended maximum dose, an additional medication with a complementary mechanism of action can be added.

  10. [Pulmonary hypertension caused by left heart disease].

    PubMed

    Erer, Betül; Eren, Mehmet

    2010-09-01

    Increased resistance to pulmonary venous drainage is the main mechanism in pulmonary hypertension (PH) developing due to left heart disease. This condition may occur as a result of various diseases affecting left ventricle, left atrium, mitral or aortic valves. Pulmonary hypertension is the common and well-recognized complication of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension accompanying chronic heart failure is related to increased mortality. Treatment should be tailored according to the underlying disease.

  11. Hypertension burden in Luxembourg

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Castell, Maria; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Kuemmerle, Andrea; Schritz, Anna; Barré, Jessica; Delagardelle, Charles; Krippler, Serge; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Stranges, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but it remains the main cause of death in Luxembourg. We aimed to estimate the current prevalence of hypertension, associated risk factors, and its geographic variation in Luxembourg. Cross-sectional, population-based data on 1497 randomly selected Luxembourg residents aged 25 to 64 years were collected as part of the European Health Examination Survey from 2013 to 2015. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg, self-report of a physician diagnosis or on antihypertensive medication. Standard and Bayesian regressions were used to examine associations between hypertension and covariates, and also geographic distribution of hypertension across the country. Nearly 31% of Luxembourg residents were hypertensive, and over 70% of those were either unaware of their condition or not adequately controlled. The likelihood of hypertension was lower in men more physically active (odds ratio [95% credible region] 0.6 [0.4, 0.9]) and consuming alcohol daily (0.3 [0.1, 0.8]), and higher in men with a poor health perception (1.6 [1.0, 2.7]) and in women experiencing depressive symptoms (1.8 [1.3, 2.7]). There were geographic variations in hypertension prevalence across cantons and municipalities. The highest odds ratio was observed in the most industrialized region (South-West) (1.2 [0.9, 1.6]) with a positive effect at 90% credible region. In Luxembourg, the vast majority of people with hypertension are either unaware of their condition or not adequately controlled, which constitutes a major, neglected public health challenge. There are geographic variations in hypertension prevalence in Luxembourg, hence the role of individual and regional risk factors along with public health initiatives to reduce disease burden should be considered. PMID:27603374

  12. Hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Price, Raymond S; Kasner, Scott E

    2014-01-01

    The definition of hypertension has continuously evolved over the last 50 years. Hypertension is currently defined as a blood pressure greater than 140/90mmHg. One in every four people in the US has been diagnosed with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension increases further with age, affecting 75% of people over the age of 70. Hypertension is by far the most common risk factor identified in stroke patients. Hypertension causes pathologic changes in the walls of small (diameter<300 microns) arteries and arterioles usually at short branches of major arteries, which may result in either ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Reduction of blood pressure with diuretics, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have all been shown to markedly reduce the incidence of stroke. Hypertensive emergency is defined as a blood pressure greater than 180/120mmHg with end organ dysfunction, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, encephalopathy, or focal neurologic deficits. Hypertensive encephalopathy is believed to be caused by acute failure of cerebrovascular autoregulation. Hypertensive emergency is treated with intravenous antihypertensive agents to reduce blood pressure by 25% within the first hour. Selective inhibition of cerebrovascular blood vessel permeability for the treatment of hypertensive emergency is beginning early clinical trials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mitral valve prolapse with a late-systolic regurgitant murmur may be associated with significant hemodynamic consequences.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mustafa I; Sanagala, Thriveni; Denney, Thomas; Inusah, Seidu; McGiffin, David; Knowlan, Donald; O'Rourke, Robert A; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2009-08-01

    The late-systolic murmur of mitral regurgitation (MR) in degenerative mitral valve disease is widely believed to represent regurgitation of a degree that is not associated with hemodynamic significance. However, the extent of left ventricular (LV) remodeling associated with the late-systolic murmur has not been systematically assessed. Accordingly, we studied 82 patients sent for evaluation of at least moderate isolated MR by echocardiography/Doppler examination. All patients had a physical examination and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to measure LV volumes by summation of serial short-axis slices. Forty-five patients had a pan-systolic murmur and 37 had a late-systolic murmur on auscultation that was verified by timing of onset of regurgitant turbulence by cine magnetic resonance imaging. Systolic blood pressures (124 +/- 3 versus 124 +/- 3 mm Hg) and LV ejection fraction (61 +/- 1% versus 61 +/- 1%) did not differ significantly between pan-systolic and late-systolic murmur groups. Although LV end-diastolic volume index was greater in the pan-systolic versus late-systolic murmur (108 +/- 4 versus 95 +/- 4 mL/m2, P = 0.007), both groups were significantly greater than normals (68 +/- 2 mL/m2, P < 0.0001). However, LV end-systolic volume index (42 +/- 2 versus 38 +/- 2 mL/m2) and LV end-systolic dimension (38 +/- 1 versus 37 +/- 1 mm), critical markers of adverse LV remodeling in isolated MR, did not differ significantly between pan-systolic and late-systolic murmur groups. In conclusion, the late systolic isolated MR murmur may be associated with significant adverse LV remodeling, and should not be considered evidence of hemodynamically unimportant MR.

  14. Evaluation of Right Ventricular Systolic Function in Chagas Disease Using Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Henrique T; Volpe, Gustavo J; Marin-Neto, José A; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Nwabuo, Chike C; Trad, Henrique S; Romano, Minna M D; Pazin-Filho, Antonio; Maciel, Benedito C; Lima, João A C; Schmidt, André

    2017-03-01

    Right ventricular (RV) impairment is postulated to be responsible for prominent systemic congestion in Chagas disease. However, occurrence of primary RV dysfunction in Chagas disease remains controversial. We aimed to study RV systolic function in patients with Chagas disease using cardiac magnetic resonance. This cross-sectional study included 158 individuals with chronic Chagas disease who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance. RV systolic dysfunction was defined as reduced RV ejection fraction based on predefined cutoffs accounting for age and sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to verify the relationship of RV systolic dysfunction with age, sex, functional class, use of medications for heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Mean age was 54±13 years, 51.2% men. RV systolic dysfunction was identified in 58 (37%) individuals. Although usually associated with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, isolated RV systolic dysfunction was found in 7 (4.4%) patients, 2 of them in early stages of Chagas disease. Presence of RV dysfunction was not significantly different in patients with indeterminate/digestive form of Chagas disease (35.7%) compared with those with Chagas cardiomyopathy (36.8%) (P=1.000). In chronic Chagas disease, RV systolic dysfunction is more commonly associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, although isolated and early RV dysfunction can also be identified. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Fatigue With Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Anne M.; Sullivan, Shawna L.; Zerwic, Julie J.; Piano, Mariann R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Fatigue is one of the most prevalent symptoms in persons with systolic heart failure (HF). There remains insufficient information about the physiological and psychosocial underpinnings of fatigue in HF. The specific aims of this study were to (1) determine the psychometric properties of 2 fatigue questionnaires in patients with HF, (2) compare fatigue in patients with HF to published scores of healthy adults and patients with cancer undergoing treatment, and (3) identify the physiological (eg, hemoglobin, B-type natriuretic peptide, body mass index, and ejection fraction) and psychosocial (eg, depressed mood) correlates of fatigue in HF. Subjects and Methods A convenience sample of 87 HF outpatients was recruited from 2 urban medical centers. Patients completed the Fatigue Symptom Inventory, Profile of Mood States, and Short Form-36 Health Survey. Results and Conclusions Patients with HF and patients with cancer reported similar levels of fatigue, and both patient groups reported significantly more fatigue than did healthy adults. Physical functioning and hemoglobin categories explained 30% of the variance in Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Interference Scale scores, whereas depressed mood and physical functioning explained 47% of the variance in Profile of Mood States Fatigue subscale scores. Patients with HF experienced substantial fatigue that is comparable with cancer-related fatigue. Low physical functioning, depressed mood, and low hemoglobin level were associated with HF-related fatigue. PMID:19707101

  16. Analysis of circumferential and longitudinal left ventricular systolic function in patients with non-ischemic chronic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (from the CARRY-IN-HFpEF study).

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Giovanni; Senni, Michele; Tarantini, Luigi; Faggiano, Pompilio; Rossi, Andrea; Stefenelli, Carlo; Russo, Tiziano Edoardo; Alessandro, Selmi; Furlanello, Francesco; de Simone, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    Heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) is implicitly attributed to diastolic dysfunction, often recognized in elderly patients with hypertension, diabetes, and renal dysfunction. In these patients, left ventricular circumferential and longitudinal shortening is often impaired despite normal ejection fraction. The aim of this prospective study was to analyze circumferential and longitudinal shortening and their relations in patients with nonischemic HFpEF. Stress-corrected midwall shortening (sc-MS) and mitral annular peak systolic velocity (S') were measured in 60 patients (mean age 73 ± 13 years) with chronic nonischemic HFpEF in stable New York Heart Association functional class II or III and compared to the values in 120 healthy controls and 120 patients with hypertension without HFpEF. Sc-MS was classified as low if <89% and S' as low if <8.5 cm/s (the 10th-percentile values of healthy controls). Isolated low sc-MS was detected in 46% of patients with HFpEF, 27% of patients with hypertension, and 2% of controls; isolated low S' was detected in 11% of patients with HFpEF, 7% of patients with hypertension, and 5% of controls; and combined low sc-MS and low S' was detected in 26% of patients with HFpEF, 9% of patients with hypertension, and 5% of controls (HFpEF vs others, all p values <0.001). Thus, any alteration of systolic function was found in 83% of patients with HFpEF. The relation between sc-MS and S' was nonlinear (cubic). Changes in S' within normal values corresponded to negligible variations in sc-MS, whereas the progressive decrease below 8.5 cm/s was associated with substantial decrease in sc-MS. In conclusion, circumferential and/or longitudinal systolic dysfunction is present in most patients with HFpEF. Circumferential shortening normalized by wall stress identifies more patients with concealed left ventricular systolic dysfunction than longitudinal shortening.

  17. Correlates of isolated nocturnal hypertension and target organ damage in a population-based cohort of African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Spruill, Tanya M; Sarpong, Daniel F; Agyemang, Charles; Chaplin, William; Pastva, Amy; Martins, David; Ravenell, Joseph; Pickering, Thomas G

    2013-08-01

    African Americans have higher rates of nocturnal hypertension and less nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping compared with whites. Although nocturnal hypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, its clinical significance among those with normal daytime BP is unclear. This paper reports the prevalence and correlates of isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH) in a population-based cohort of African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). The study sample included 425 untreated, normotensive and hypertensive JHS participants who underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), echocardiography, and 24-hour urine collection. Multiple logistic regression and 1-way analysis of variance models were used to test the hypothesis that those with INH have worse target organ damage reflected by greater left ventricular (LV) mass and proteinuria compared with normotensive participants. Based on 24-hour ABP profiles, 19.1% of participants had INH. In age and sex-adjusted models, participants with INH had greater LV mass compared with those who were normotensive (P = 0.02), as well as about 3 times the odds of LV hypertrophy and proteinuria (Ps < 0.10). However, multivariable adjustment reduced the magnitude and statistical significance of each of these differences. INH was associated with increased LV mass compared with normo tension in a population-based cohort of African Americans enrolled in the JHS. There were trends toward a greater likelihood of LV hyper trophy and proteinuria among participants with INH vs. those who were normotensive. The clinical significance of the noted target organ damage should be explored in this population.

  18. Diastolic dysfunction in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nazário Leão, R; Marques da Silva, P

    2017-03-03

    Hypertension and coronary heart disease, often coexisting, are the most common risk factors for heart failure. The progression of hypertensive heart disease involves myocardial fibrosis and alterations in the left ventricular geometry that precede the functional change, initially asymptomatic. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is part of this continuum being defined by the presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction without signs or symptoms of heart failure or poor left ventricular systolic function. It is highly prevalent in hypertensive patients and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite its growing importance in clinical practice it remains poorly understood. This review aims to present the epidemiological fundamentals and the latest developments in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

  19. Characterization of peptides from common bean protein isolates and their potential to inhibit markers of type-2 diabetes, hypertension and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Luis; Luna-Vital, Diego A; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes and hypertension are diseases affecting a high proportion of the world population; the use of food-based products such as common bean peptides may contribute to reduce the risk of complications associated to chronic diseases. The aim was to produce and characterize peptides from common bean protein isolates and evaluate their potential to inhibit markers of type-2 diabetes, hypertension and oxidative stress. Mexican black and Brazilian Carioca bean isolated proteins were characterized after pepsin/pancreatin digestion. Also, four synthesized pure peptides, originally found in these beans, were evaluated. Bean protein digests and pure peptides exerted dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition (IC50 = 0.03-0.87 mg dry weight (DW) mL(-1) ). Lineweaver-Burk plots and computational modeling showed competitive inhibition of DPP-IV. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition ranged from IC50 = 0.09 to 0.99 mg DW mL(-1) , and α-glucosidase inhibition ranged from 36.3 to 50.1% mg(-1) DW. Carioca Perola bean digested proteins presented the highest antioxidant capacity (269.3 mmol L(-1) Trolox equivalent g(-1) DW) as the peptide KTYGL (P > 0.05) with the most potent DPP-IV and ACE inhibition. Peptides from common bean have antidiabetic and antihypertensive potential regardless of their antioxidant capacity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides attenuate hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a low-salt diet.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Mai; Tamura, Yuki; Toda, Natsuko; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Terakado, Shouko; Otsuka, Kie; Numabe, Atsushi; Kawabata, Yukari; Murota, Itsuki; Sato, Nobuyuki; Uehara, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of sodium alginate oligosaccharides (alginate) on the development of spontaneous hypertension in rats. Spontaneous hypertensive rats were treated with alginate for 7 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cardiovascular and kidney damage were assessed. Systolic blood pressure increased in SHRs and this elevation was attenuated with alginate treatment. The heart weight tended to decline. Alginate did not change plasma cholesterol levels or urinary sodium excretions. The slightly higher urinary protein excretion in SHRs was not changed with the treatment; however, morphologic glomerular damage was significantly attenuated. Sodium alginate oligosaccharide attenuates spontaneous hypertension in SHRs, and may help prevent early-stage kidney injury.

  1. Effect of myricetin on deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Borde, Pravin; Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Kasture, Sanjay

    2011-09-01

    Chronic administration of myricetin (100 and 300 mg kg⁻¹, p.o., for 4 weeks) isolated from Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) ameliorated hypertension and oxidative stress induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt in rats. Myricetin treatment reduced systolic blood pressure, vascular reactivity changes and reversed the DOCA-induced increase in heart rate. Urinary sodium excretion was significantly decreased in animals treated with myricetin compared to the DOCA group when measured by flame photometer. The cumulative concentration response curve of serotonin (5-HT) and angiotensin II (Ang II) were shifted towards the right in rats treated with myricetin using the isolated rat fundus strip and ascending colon, respectively. Increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione in the heart tissue were observed in animals treated with DOCA, which were reversed by myricetin. Thus, myricetin shows antihypertensive and antioxidant properties in the DOCA model of hypertension.

  2. Intradialytic Hypertension and the Association with Interdialytic Ambulatory Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Toto, Robert; Inrig, Jula K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Increasing BP during maintenance hemodialysis or intradialytic hypertension is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In hemodialysis patients, ambulatory BP measurements predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes better than in-center measurements. We hypothesized that patients with intradialytic hypertension have higher interdialytic ambulatory systolic BP than those without intradialytic hypertension. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We performed a case-control study in adult hemodialysis patients. Cases consisted of subjects with intradialytic-hypertension (systolic BP increase ≥10 mmHg from pre- to posthemodialysis in at least four of six treatments), and controls were subjects with ≥10 mmHg decreases from pre- to posthemodialysis in at least four of six treatments. The primary outcome was mean interdialytic 44-hour systolic ambulatory BP. Results Fifty subjects with a mean age of 54.5 years were enrolled (25 per group) among whom 80% were men, 86% diabetic, 62% Hispanic, and 38% African American. The mean prehemodialysis systolic BP for the intradialytic-hypertension and control groups were 144.0 and 155.5 mmHg, respectively. Mean posthemodialysis systolic BP was 159.0 and 128.1 mmHg, for the intradialytic-hypertension and control groups, respectively. The mean systolic ambulatory BP was 155.4 and 142.4 mmHg for the intradialytic-hypertension and control groups, respectively (P = 0.005). Both daytime and nocturnal systolic BP were higher among those with intradialytic hypertension as compared with controls. There was no difference in interdialytic weight gain between groups. Conclusions Time-integrated BP burden as measured by 44-hour ambulatory BP is higher in hemodialysis patients with intradialytic hypertension than those without intradialytic hypertension. PMID:21734087

  3. Intradialytic hypertension and the association with interdialytic ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Van Buren, Peter N; Kim, Catherine; Toto, Robert; Inrig, Jula K

    2011-07-01

    Increasing BP during maintenance hemodialysis or intradialytic hypertension is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In hemodialysis patients, ambulatory BP measurements predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes better than in-center measurements. We hypothesized that patients with intradialytic hypertension have higher interdialytic ambulatory systolic BP than those without intradialytic hypertension. We performed a case-control study in adult hemodialysis patients. Cases consisted of subjects with intradialytic-hypertension (systolic BP increase ≥10 mmHg from pre- to posthemodialysis in at least four of six treatments), and controls were subjects with ≥10 mmHg decreases from pre- to posthemodialysis in at least four of six treatments. The primary outcome was mean interdialytic 44-hour systolic ambulatory BP. Fifty subjects with a mean age of 54.5 years were enrolled (25 per group) among whom 80% were men, 86% diabetic, 62% Hispanic, and 38% African American. The mean prehemodialysis systolic BP for the intradialytic-hypertension and control groups were 144.0 and 155.5 mmHg, respectively. Mean posthemodialysis systolic BP was 159.0 and 128.1 mmHg, for the intradialytic-hypertension and control groups, respectively. The mean systolic ambulatory BP was 155.4 and 142.4 mmHg for the intradialytic-hypertension and control groups, respectively (P = 0.005). Both daytime and nocturnal systolic BP were higher among those with intradialytic hypertension as compared with controls. There was no difference in interdialytic weight gain between groups. Time-integrated BP burden as measured by 44-hour ambulatory BP is higher in hemodialysis patients with intradialytic hypertension than those without intradialytic hypertension.

  4. Hypertensive Target Organ Damage in Ghanaian Civil Servants with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Addo, Juliet; Smeeth, Liam; Leon, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Low levels of detection, treatment and control of hypertension have repeatedly been reported from sub Saharan Africa, potentially increasing the likelihood of target organ damage. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1015 urban civil servants aged≥25 years from seven central government ministries in Accra, Ghana. Participants diagnosed to have hypertension were examined for target organ involvement. Hypertensive target organ damage was defined as the detection of any of the following: left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosed by electrocardiogram, reduction in glomerular filtration rate, the presence of hypertensive retinopathy or a history of a stroke. Results Of the 219 hypertensive participants examined, 104 (47.5%) had evidence of target organ damage. The presence of target organ damage was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The odds of developing hypertensive target organ damage was five to six times higher in participants with blood pressure (BP)≥180/110 mmHg compared to those with BP<140/90 mmHg, and there was a trend to higher odds of target organ damage with increasing BP (p = 0.001). Women had about lower odds of developing target organ damage compared to men. Conclusions The high prevalence of target organ damage in this working population associated with increasing blood pressure, emphasises the need for hypertension control programs aimed at improving the detection of hypertension, and importantly addressing the issues inhibiting the effective treatment and control of people with hypertension in the population. PMID:19701488

  5. Investigating the potential role of TRPA1 in locomotion and cardiovascular control during hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bodkin, Jennifer V; Thakore, Pratish; Aubdool, Aisah A; Liang, Lihuan; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Nandi, Manasi; Spina, Domenico; Clark, James E; Aaronson, Philip I; Shattock, Michael J; Brain, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to investigate the in vivo cardiovascular and activity phenotype of both TRPA1 (transient receptor potential ankyrin 1) wild-type (WT) and TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice. After baseline recording, experimental hypertension was induced using angiotensin II infusion (1.1 mg−1 kg−1 a day, for 14 days). TRPA1 WT and KO mice showed similar morphological and functional cardiovascular parameters, including similar basal blood pressure (BP), heart rate, size, and function. Similar hypertension was also displayed in response to angiotensin II (156 ± 7 and 165 ± 11 mmHg, systolic BP ± SEM, n = 5–6). TRPA1 KO mice showed increased hypertensive hypertrophy (heart weight:tibia length: 7.3 ± 1.6 mg mm−1 vs. 8.8 ± 1.7 mg mm−1) and presented with blunted interleukin 6 (IL-6) production compared with hypertensive WT mice (151 ± 24 vs. 89 ± 16 pg mL−1). TRPA1 expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones was upregulated during hypertension (163% of baseline expression). Investigations utilizing the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde (CA) on mesenteric arterioles isolated from näive mice suggested a lack of TRPA1-dependent vasoreactivity in this vascular bed; a site with notable ability to alter total peripheral resistance. However, mesenteric arterioles isolated from TRPA1 KO hypertensive mice displayed significantly reduced ability to relax in response to nitric oxide (NO) (P < 0.05). Unexpectedly, naïve TRPA1 KO mice also displayed physical hyperactivity traits at baseline, which was exacerbated during hypertension. In conclusion, our study provides a novel cardiovascular characterization of TRPA1 KO mice in a model of hypertension. Results suggest that TRPA1 has a limited role in global cardiovascular control, but we demonstrate an unexpected capacity for TRPA1 to regulate physical activity. PMID:25505598

  6. Investigating the potential role of TRPA1 in locomotion and cardiovascular control during hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bodkin, Jennifer V; Thakore, Pratish; Aubdool, Aisah A; Liang, Lihuan; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Nandi, Manasi; Spina, Domenico; Clark, James E; Aaronson, Philip I; Shattock, Michael J; Brain, Susan D

    2014-08-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to investigate the in vivo cardiovascular and activity phenotype of both TRPA1 (transient receptor potential ankyrin 1) wild-type (WT) and TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice. After baseline recording, experimental hypertension was induced using angiotensin II infusion (1.1 mg(-1) kg(-1) a day, for 14 days). TRPA1 WT and KO mice showed similar morphological and functional cardiovascular parameters, including similar basal blood pressure (BP), heart rate, size, and function. Similar hypertension was also displayed in response to angiotensin II (156 ± 7 and 165 ± 11 mmHg, systolic BP ± SEM, n = 5-6). TRPA1 KO mice showed increased hypertensive hypertrophy (heart weight:tibia length: 7.3 ± 1.6 mg mm(-1) vs. 8.8 ± 1.7 mg mm(-1)) and presented with blunted interleukin 6 (IL-6) production compared with hypertensive WT mice (151 ± 24 vs. 89 ± 16 pg mL(-1)). TRPA1 expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones was upregulated during hypertension (163% of baseline expression). Investigations utilizing the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde (CA) on mesenteric arterioles isolated from näive mice suggested a lack of TRPA1-dependent vasoreactivity in this vascular bed; a site with notable ability to alter total peripheral resistance. However, mesenteric arterioles isolated from TRPA1 KO hypertensive mice displayed significantly reduced ability to relax in response to nitric oxide (NO) (P < 0.05). Unexpectedly, naïve TRPA1 KO mice also displayed physical hyperactivity traits at baseline, which was exacerbated during hypertension. In conclusion, our study provides a novel cardiovascular characterization of TRPA1 KO mice in a model of hypertension. Results suggest that TRPA1 has a limited role in global cardiovascular control, but we demonstrate an unexpected capacity for TRPA1 to regulate physical activity.

  7. Risk given by AGT polymorphisms in inducing susceptibility to essential hypertension among isolated populations from a remote region of China: A case-control study among the isolated populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Sun, Lijuan; Du, Jing; Ran, Pengzhan; Gao, Tangxin; Yuan, Yuncang; Xiao, Chunjie

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension is a serious risk factor affecting up to 30% of the world's population with a heritability of more than 30-50%. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the polymorphisms localized in the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene, a main component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, in inducing the susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH) among isolated populations (Yi and Hani minorities) with low prevalence rate from the remote region of Yunnan in China. A case-control association study was performed, and all subjects were genotyped for the seven single nucleotide polymorphisms localized in the AGT region by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Three polymorphisms, i.e. rs5046, rs5049, and rs2478544, were significantly associated with EH among the Hani minority. The associations, found in the Yi minority, did not reach a conclusive level of statistical significance. The polymorphisms of rs2478544 and rs5046 caused the transformations of exonic splicing enhancer sites and transcription factor binding sites, respectively, in the bioinformatic analyses. The haplotype-rs5046T, rs5049A, rs11568020G, rs3789679C, rs2478544C was susceptible for EH among the Hani minority. Our findings suggested that the AGT polymorphisms have played a vital role in determining an individual's susceptibility to EH among the isolated population, which would be helpful for EH management in the remote mountainous region of Yunnan in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression: Why the Suboptimal Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Bidani, Anil K.; Griffin, Karen A.; Epstein, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Current therapeutic interventions to retard the progression of chronic kidney disease have yielded disappointing outcomes despite adequate renin-angiotensin system blockade. The parameters to gauge the adequacy of blood pressure control need to be reassessed because clinic blood pressure constitutes a poor gauge of such control. The biologically relevant parameter for hypertensive target organ damage is total blood pressure burden, and reliance on isolated clinic blood pressure measurements per se does not accurately reflect the total blood pressure burden. This is particularly relevant to the population with chronic kidney disease in whom masked daytime or nocturnal hypertension and blood pressure lability are both widely prevalent and more difficult to control. Consequently, it is possible that the limited success currently being achieved in preventing or attenuating chronic kidney disease progression may be attributable in part to suboptimal 24-hour blood pressure control. Recent data and analyses also indicate that blood pressure variability, instability, episodic and nocturnal blood pressure elevations, and maximum systolic blood pressure may constitute additional strong predictors of the risk of target organ damage independently of mean systolic blood pressure. Accordingly, we suggest that future research should include the development of safe and effective strategies to achieve around-the-clock blood pressure control in addition to targeting mechanisms that reduce intrarenal blood pressure transmission or interrupt subsequent downstream pathways. Meanwhile, more aggressive use of patient education and home blood pressure monitoring with selection of longer-acting antihypertensive agents or nocturnal dosing should be considered to improve the current suboptimal results. PMID:22906957

  9. Diuretic, natriuretic and potassium-sparing effect of nothofagin isolated from Leandra dasytricha (A. Gray) Cogn. leaves in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Camila Leandra Bueno; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Steimbach, Viviane Miranda Bispo; da Silva, Luísa Mota; Andrade, Sérgio Faloni de; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; de Souza, Priscila

    2017-03-08

    Active constituents from natural origin have long been used for the treatment of patients suffering from cardiovascular and renal diseases. This study therefore aimed to investigate the diuretic and natriuretic properties of nothofagin, a dihydrochalcone isolated from Leandra dasytricha (A. Gray) Cogn. leaves in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Male Wistar normotensive rats were orally treated with vehicle (1 ml/kg); hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 25 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction from L. dasytricha (EALD; 3-30 mg/kg) and nothofagin (NOT; 0.3-3 mg/kg). Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) received NOT (1 mg/kg), HCTZ (25 mg/kg) or vehicle. The cumulative diuretic index, urinary electrolytes excretion (Na(+) and K(+)), pH, density and conductivity were measured at the end of the experiment (after 8 h). A7r5 and L929 cell lines were used to measure cell viability after exposure to NOT. Nitric oxide generation was quantified in A7r5 cell supernatant, and DPPH assay was used for evaluating the antioxidant properties of NOT. The urinary volume of normotensive rats were increased after the treatment with EALD, without any changes in Na(+) or K(+) excretion. NOT was able to induce diuresis and natriuresis, but not kaliuresis, in both normotensive and hypertensive rats. The reduction in prostanoids generation through cyclooxygenase inhibition, as well as the muscarinic receptor antagonism, fully avoided NOT-induced increases in diuretic index. NOT, which did not interfere with L929 or A7r5 cell viability, was able to stimulate nitric oxide generation in A7r5 cell, besides showing an antioxidant effect in scavenging the free-radical DPPH. Taken together, our study shows, for the first time, the diuretic, natriuretic and potassium-sparing effect of nothofagin in rats, which was associated with prostanoids generation, muscarinic receptor activation and antioxidant properties.

  10. Hypertension in Chronic Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic glomerulonephritis (GN), which includes focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and proliferative forms of GN such as IgA nephropathy, increases the risk of hypertension. Hypertension in chronic GN is primarily volume dependent, and this increase in blood volume is not related to the deterioration of renal function. Patients with chronic GN become salt sensitive as renal damage including arteriolosclerosis progresses and the consequent renal ischemia causes the stimulation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system(RAAS). Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system also contributes to hypertension in chronic GN. According to the KDIGO guideline, the available evidence indicates that the target BP should be ≤140mmHg systolic and ≤90mmHg diastolic in chronic kidney disease patients without albuminuria. In most patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30mg/24 h (i.e., those with both micro-and macroalbuminuria), a lower target of ≤130mmHg systolic and ≤80mmHg diastolic is suggested. The use of agents that block the RAAS system is recommended or suggested in all patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30mg/ 24 h. The combination of a RAAS blockade with a calcium channel blocker and a diuretic may be effective in attaining the target BP, and in reducing the amount of urinary protein excretion in patients with chronic GN. PMID:26848302

  11. Languages, Systems and Tools for Systolic Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-07

    Reif (Ed.), pp. 319-328, Springer-Verlag, June, 1988. 3. Cappello, P. R. " Spacetime Transformations of Cellular Algorithms." In Systolic Signal...Arrays in Spacetime ." In Digital Communications, E. Biglieri and G . Prati (Eds.), pp. 219-233, North-Holland, New York 1986. 5. VLSI Signal Processing...17. Cappello, P. R., "Transforming Systolic Arrays in Spacetime ," Int. Workshop on Digital Communications, Tirrenia, ITALY, Sep. 1985, (see BOOKS 4

  12. Augmented vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and adhesion when hypertension is superimposed on aging.

    PubMed

    Sehgel, Nancy L; Sun, Zhe; Hong, Zhongkui; Hunter, William C; Hill, Michael A; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F; Meininger, Gerald A

    2015-02-01

    Hypertension and aging are both recognized to increase aortic stiffness, but their interactions are not completely understood. Most previous studies have attributed increased aortic stiffness to changes in extracellular matrix proteins that alter the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. Alternatively, we hypothesized that a significant component of increased vascular stiffness in hypertension is due to changes in the mechanical and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells, and that aging would augment the contribution from vascular smooth muscle cells when compared with the extracellular matrix. Accordingly, we studied aortic stiffness in young (16-week-old) and old (64-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto wild-type controls. Systolic and pulse pressures were significantly increased in young spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with young Wistar-Kyoto rats, and these continued to rise in old spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with age-matched controls. Excised aortic ring segments exhibited significantly greater elastic moduli in both young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats versus Wistar-Kyoto rats. were isolated from the thoracic aorta, and stiffness and adhesion to fibronectin were measured by atomic force microscopy. Hypertension increased both vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion, and these increases were both augmented with aging. By contrast, hypertension did not affect histological measures of aortic collagen and elastin, which were predominantly changed by aging. These findings support the concept that stiffness and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells are novel mechanisms contributing to the increased aortic stiffness occurring with hypertension superimposed on aging. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Hypertension in the Parsi community of Bombay: a study on prevalence, awareness and compliance to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Nadir E; Kuruvilla, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Background Uncontrolled hypertension (HT) is an established risk factor for the development of vascular diseases. Prevalence varies in different communities and no such study has been conducted in the Parsi community living in Bombay, India. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, awareness, compliance to medication and control of HT in this community. Method We used a 1 in 4 random selection of subjects who were ≥ 20 years of age. A questionnaire was administered and the blood pressure (BP) was measured by a doctor. HT was defined as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg ± systolic pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) was defined as SBP ≥ 160 mm Hg with DBP < 90 mm Hg. Subsequently, we reanalysed the data using current definition of ISH as SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg with DBP < 90 mm Hg. Results 2879 subjects ≥ 20 years of age were randomly selected of which 2415 (84%) participated in the study. The overall prevalence of HT in the community was 36.4%, of whom 48.5% were unaware of their hypertensive status. Of those aware of having HT, 36.4% were non-compliant with their anti-hypertensive drugs and only 13.6% had optimally controlled HT. Prevalence of ISH using the present criteria was 19.5% and 73% of hypertensives ≥ 60 years had ISH. Conclusion This study shows that prevalence of HT in the Parsi community is high and nearly half are unaware of their hypertensive status. ISH is the dominant form of HT in the elderly. Compliance to treatment is poor and optimal BP control is achieved in only a small minority. The study highlights the need for regular screening coupled with educational programs to detect and optimally treat HT in the community. PMID:12513697

  14. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Lawrence; Dresang, Lee T; Fontaine, Patricia

    2016-01-15

    Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks' gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks' gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension. Preeclampsia is defined as hypertension and either proteinuria or thrombocytopenia, renal insufficiency, impaired liver function, pulmonary edema, or cerebral or visual symptoms. Proteinuria is not essential for the diagnosis and does not correlate with outcomes. Severe features of preeclampsia include a systolic blood pressure of at least 160 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of at least 110 mm Hg, platelet count less than 100 × 103 per µL, liver transaminase levels two times the upper limit of normal, a doubling of the serum creatinine level or level greater than 1.1 mg per dL, severe persistent right upper-quadrant pain, pulmonary edema, or new-onset cerebral or visual disturbances. Preeclampsia without severe features can be managed with twice-weekly blood pressure monitoring, antenatal testing for fetal well-being and disease progression, and delivery by 37 weeks' gestation. Preeclampsia with any severe feature requires immediate stabilization and inpatient treatment with magnesium sulfate, antihypertensive drugs, corticosteroids for fetal lung maturity if less than 34 weeks' gestation, and delivery plans. Preeclampsia can worsen or initially present after delivery. Women with hypertensive disorders should be monitored as inpatients or closely at home for 72 hours postpartum.

  15. Brachial vs. central systolic pressure and pulse wave transmission indicators: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Joseph L

    2014-12-01

    This critique is intended to provide background for the reader to evaluate the relative clinical utilities of brachial cuff systolic blood pressure (SBP) and its derivatives, including pulse pressure, central systolic pressure, central augmentation index (AI), and pulse pressure amplification (PPA). The critical question is whether the newer indicators add sufficient information to justify replacing or augmenting brachial cuff blood pressure (BP) data in research and patient care. Historical context, pathophysiology of variations in pulse wave transmission and reflection, issues related to measurement and model errors, statistical limitations, and clinical correlations are presented, along with new comparative data. Based on this overview, there is no compelling scientific or practical reason to replace cuff SBP with any of the newer indicators in the vast majority of clinical situations. Supplemental value for central SBP may exist in defining patients with exaggerated PPA ("spurious systolic hypertension"), managing cardiac and aortic diseases, and in studies of cardiovascular drugs, but there are no current standards for these possibilities.

  16. Randomized Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Structured Educational Program for Patients With Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Perl, Sabine; Niederl, Ella; Kos, Cornelia; Mrak, Peter; Ederer, Herbert; Rakovac, Ivo; Beck, Peter; Kraler, Elisabeth; Stoff, Ingrid; Klima, Gert; Pieske, Burkert M; Pieber, Thomas R; Zweiker, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to medication and lifestyle interventions are essential keys for the management of hypertension. In this respect, a structured educational program for hypertensive patients has got remarkable merits (herz.leben). In order to determine the isolated effect of participation in the educational program, neglecting the possible impact of more intense care, this prospective multicenter randomized controlled study was designed (NCT00453037). A total of 256 patients in 13 centers were enrolled and randomly assigned to 2 groups (G). G-I (n = 137) underwent the educational program immediately (T-0), G-II (n = 119) after 6 months (T-6). Follow-up visits were done after 6 (T-6) and 12 (T-12) months. Primary endpoint was a difference in office blood pressure (BP) at T-6, when only G-I had undergone the educational program. Patients' baseline characteristics were comparable. At T-6, systolic office and home BP were significantly lower in G-I compared to G-II: office BP systolic 139 (134-150) mm Hg vs. 150 (135-165) mm Hg (P < 0.01); diastolic 80 (76-85) mm Hg vs. 84 (75-90) mm Hg (ns); home BP systolic 133 (130-140) mm Hg vs. 142 (132-150) mm Hg (P < 0.01); diastolic 80 (75-85) mm Hg vs. 80 (76-89) mm Hg (ns)). At T-12, when all patients had undergone the educational program differences in BP disappeared. The results of this multicenter randomized controlled study provide significant evidence for benefit by participation in a structured educational program. Positive effects seem to be mediated by better adherence and life style changes due to higher levels of information and patient empowerment. Therefore, educational strategies should be considered as standard of care for hypertensive patients. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Progression is Accelerated from Pre-Hypertension to Hypertension in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Selassie, Anbesaw; Wagner, C. Shaun; Laken, Marilyn L.; Ferguson, M. LaFrance; Ferdinand, Keith C.; Egan, Brent M.

    2011-01-01

    Pre-hypertension is a major risk factor for hypertension. African Americans (blacks) have more prevalent and severe hypertension than whites, but it is unknown whether progression from pre-hypertension is accelerated in blacks. We examined this question in a prospective cohort study of 18,865 non-hypertensive persons (5,733 [30.4% black, 13,132 [69.6%]) white) 18–85 years old. Electronic health record data were obtained from 197 community-based outpatient clinics in the Southeast U.S. Days elapsing from study entry to hypertension diagnosis, mainly blood pressure [BP] ≥140 systolic and/or ≥90 mmHg diastolic on two consecutive visits established conversion time within a maximum observation period of 2550 days. Cox regression modeling was used to examine conversion to hypertension as a function of race, while controlling for age, sex, baseline systolic and diastolic BP, body mass index [BMI], diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. The covariable adjusted median conversion time when 50% became hypertensive was 365 days earlier for blacks than whites (626 vs 991 days, p<0.001). Among covariables, baseline systolic BP 130–139 (Hazard Ratio 1.77, 95% Confidence Intervals [1.69–1.86]) and 120–129 mmHg (1.52 [1.44–1.60] as well as age ≥75 (1.40 [1.29–1.51] and 55–74 years (1.29 [1.23–1.35] were the strongest predictors of hypertension. Additional predictors included age 35–54 years, diastolic BP 80–89 mmHg, overweight and obesity, and diabetes mellitus (all p<0.001). Conversion from pre-hypertension to hypertension is accelerated in blacks, which suggests that effective interventions in pre-hypertension could reduce racial disparities in prevalent hypertension. PMID:21911708

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis of preterm birth and later systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Femke; Monuteaux, Michael C; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Gillman, Matthew W; Belfort, Mandy B

    2012-02-01

    Lower birth weight because of fetal growth restriction is associated with higher blood pressure later in life, but the extent to which preterm birth (<37 completed weeks' gestation) or very low birth weight (<1500 g) predicts higher blood pressure is less clear. We performed a systematic review of 27 observational studies that compared the resting or ambulatory systolic blood pressure or diagnosis of hypertension among children, adolescents, and adults born preterm or very low birth weight with those born at term. We performed a meta-analysis with the subset of 10 studies that reported the resting systolic blood pressure difference in millimeters of mercury with 95% CIs or SEs. We assessed methodologic quality with a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The 10 studies were composed of 1342 preterm or very low birth weight and 1738 term participants from 8 countries. The mean gestational age at birth of the preterm participants was 30.2 weeks (range: 28.8-34.1 weeks), birth weight was 1280 g (range: 1098-1958 g), and age at systolic blood pressure measurement was 17.8 years (range: 6.3-22.4 years). Former preterm or very low birth weight infants had higher systolic blood pressure than term infants (pooled estimate: 2.5 mm Hg [95% CI: 1.7-3.3 mm Hg]). For the 5 highest quality studies, the systolic blood pressure difference was slightly greater, at 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI: 2.6-5.0 mm Hg). We conclude that infants who are born preterm or very low birth weight have modestly higher systolic blood pressure later in life and may be at increased risk for developing hypertension and its sequelae.

  19. Pregnancy-Induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kintiraki, Evangelia; Papakatsika, Sophia; Kotronis, George; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Kotsis, Vasilios

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) complicates 6-10% of pregnancies. It is defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90 mmHg. It is classified as mild (SBP 140-149 and DBP 90-99 mmHg), moderate (SBP 150-159 and DBP 100-109 mmHg) and severe (SBP ≥ 160 and DBP ≥ 110 mmHg). PIH refers to one of four conditions: a) pre-existing hypertension, b) gestational hypertension and preeclampsia (PE), c) pre-existing hypertension plus superimposed gestational hypertension with proteinuria and d) unclassifiable hypertension. PIH is a major cause of maternal, fetal and newborn morbidity and mortality. Women with PIH are at a greater risk of abruptio placentae, cerebrovascular events, organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Fetuses of these mothers are at greater risk of intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity and intrauterine death. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a period of 24 h seems to have a role in predicting deterioration from gestational hypertension to PE. Antiplatelet drugs have moderate benefits when used for prevention of PE. Treatment of PIH depends on blood pressure levels, gestational age, presence of symptoms and associated risk factors. Non-drug management is recommended when SBP ranges between 140-149 mmHg or DBP between 90-99 mmHg. Blood pressure thresholds for drug management in pregnancy vary between different health organizations. According to 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines, antihypertensive treatment is recommended in pregnancy when blood pressure levels are ≥ 150/95 mmHg. Initiation of antihypertensive treatment at values ≥ 140/90 mmHg is recommended in women with a) gestational hypertension, with or without proteinuria, b) pre-existing hypertension with the superimposition of gestational hypertension or c) hypertension with asymptomatic organ damage or symptoms at any time during pregnancy. Methyldopa is the drug of choice in pregnancy. Atenolol and metoprolol appear to be

  20. Knowledge, Awareness and Self-Care Practices of Hypertension among Cardiac Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Muhammad; Haseeb, Abdul; Lashkerwala, Sehan Siraj; Zahid, Ibrahim; Siddiq, Khadijah; Saad, Muhammad; Dar, Mudassir Iqbal; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Shahnawaz, Waqas; Ahmed, Bilal; Yaqub, Aimen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The most prevalent form of hypertension is systolic blood pressure (SBP) and it is considered to be predisposing risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to assess self-care practices, knowledge and awareness of hypertension, especially related to SBP among cardiac hypertensive patients. Methodology: A Cross sectional study was conducted on 664 cardiac hypertensive patients, which were selected by non-probability convenience sampling from cardiology outpatient department of three tertiary care hospitals. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pre designed questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed by SPSS (V17). Results: 81.8%, did not know that hypertension is defined as high blood pressure. 97.1% of the sample population did not know that top measurement of blood pressure was referred to as systolic and only 25.0% correctly recognized normal systolic blood pressure to be less than 140mmHg. 7.4% of the patients consulted their doctor for hypertension once or twice in a month. Risk factor for high blood pressure most commonly identified by the participants was too much salt intake Conclusions: The results state that there is an inadequate general knowledge of hypertension among cardiac patients and they do not recognise the significance of elevated SBP levels. There is a need to initiate programs that create community awareness regarding long term complications of uncontrolled hypertension, particularly elevated SBP levels so that there is an improvement in self-care practices of the cardiacpatients. PMID:26383212

  1. Masked Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Stanley S.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Hansen, Tine W.; Boggia, José; Liu, Yanping; Asayama, Kei; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. Prevalence of masked hypertension in untreated normotensive participants was higher (P<0.0001) among 229 diabetics (29.3%, n=67) than among 5486 nondiabetics (18.8%, n=1031). Over a median of 11.0 years of follow-up, the adjusted risk for a composite cardiovascular end point in untreated diabetic-masked hypertensives tended to be higher than in normotensives (hazard rate [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97–3.97; P=0.059), similar to untreated stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 1.07; CI, 0.58–1.98; P=0.82), but less than stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.53; CI, 0.29–0.99; P=0.048). In contrast, cardiovascular risk was not significantly different in antihypertensive-treated diabetic-masked hypertensives, as compared with the normotensive comparator group (HR, 1.13; CI, 0.54–2.35; P=0.75), stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 0.91; CI, 0.49–1.69; P=0.76), and stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.65; CI, 0.35–1.20; P=0.17). In the untreated diabetic-masked hypertensive population, mean conventional systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 129.2±8.0/76.0±7.3 mm Hg, and mean daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure 141.5±9.1/83.7±6.5 mm Hg. In conclusion, masked hypertension occurred in 29% of untreated diabetics, had comparable cardiovascular risk as stage 1 hypertension, and would require considerable reduction in conventional blood pressure to reach daytime ambulatory treatment goal. Importantly, many hypertensive diabetics when receiving antihypertensive therapy can present with normalized conventional and elevated ambulatory blood pressure that mimics masked hypertension. PMID:23478096

  2. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nirali H; Romero, Sarah K; Kaelber, David C

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) in the pediatric population is estimated to have a world-wide prevalence of 2%-5%. As with adults, pediatric patients with HTN can present with hypertensive crises include hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies. However, pediatric blood pressure problems have a greater chance of being from secondary causes of HTN, as opposed to primary HTN, than in adults. Thorough evaluation of a child with a hypertensive emergency includes accurate blood pressure readings, complete and focused symptom history, and appropriate past medical, surgical, and family history. Physical exam should include height, weight, four-limb blood pressures, a general overall examination and especially detailed cardiovascular and neurological examinations, including fundoscopic examination. Initial work-up should typically include electrocardiography, chest X-ray, serum chemistries, complete blood count, and urinalysis. Initial management of hypertensive emergencies generally includes the use of intravenous or oral antihypertensive medications, as well as appropriate, typically outpatient, follow-up. Emergency department goals for hypertensive crises are to (1) safely lower blood pressure, and (2) treat/minimize acute end organ damage, while (3) identifying underlying etiology. Intravenous antihypertensive medications are the treatment modality of choice for hypertensive emergencies with the goal of reducing systolic blood pressure by 25% of the original value over an 8-hour period.

  3. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nirali H; Romero, Sarah K; Kaelber, David C

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) in the pediatric population is estimated to have a world-wide prevalence of 2%–5%. As with adults, pediatric patients with HTN can present with hypertensive crises include hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies. However, pediatric blood pressure problems have a greater chance of being from secondary causes of HTN, as opposed to primary HTN, than in adults. Thorough evaluation of a child with a hypertensive emergency includes accurate blood pressure readings, complete and focused symptom history, and appropriate past medical, surgical, and family history. Physical exam should include height, weight, four-limb blood pressures, a general overall examination and especially detailed cardiovascular and neurological examinations, including fundoscopic examination. Initial work-up should typically include electrocardiography, chest X-ray, serum chemistries, complete blood count, and urinalysis. Initial management of hypertensive emergencies generally includes the use of intravenous or oral antihypertensive medications, as well as appropriate, typically outpatient, follow-up. Emergency department goals for hypertensive crises are to (1) safely lower blood pressure, and (2) treat/minimize acute end organ damage, while (3) identifying underlying etiology. Intravenous antihypertensive medications are the treatment modality of choice for hypertensive emergencies with the goal of reducing systolic blood pressure by 25% of the original value over an 8-hour period. PMID:27147865

  4. Pre-hypertension and hypertension in college students in Kuwait: a neglected issue.

    PubMed

    Al-Majed, Hana T; Sadek, Ali A

    2012-05-01

    To determine the proportion of pre-hypertension and hypertension in college students in Kuwait and their related risk factors. A total of 803, randomly selected students aged 17 to 23 years (346 male, 457 female) from different colleges in Kuwait, were included in the study between 2009 and 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were taken by trained personnel. Pre-hypertension was defined as systolic pressure between 120 and 139 mm Hg or diastolic pressure between 80 and 89 mm Hg. Risk factor measurements that were determined, included smoking, body mass index (BMI), and family history of hypertension. Blood samples were collected and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and lipid profile levels were determined. There were no hypotensive students. Normotensives constituted 53.5% (n = 430), pre-hypertensives formed 39.5% (n = 317), and hypertensive students comprised of 7% (n = 56). The overall proportions of hypertension and pre-hypertension were higher among male students (85.7 and 64.4%) than female students (14.3 and 35.6%), respectively. Hypertensive and pre-hypertensive students versus normotensive students had significantly higher levels of BMI-based obesity, smoking, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and IGT. Also, hypertensive and pre-hypertensive, compared to normotensive students, had significantly higher proportions (21.4, 18.3, and 4.0%, respectively) of risky high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level (< 1 mg / dL), cholesterol (7.1, 3.8, and 1.4%, respectively), and triglycerides (TG) (17.9, 9.1, and 7.9%, respectively) where p was< 0.001, 0.016, and 0.051, respectively. Hypertensive and pre-hypertensive students showed elevated levels of lipids and BMI-based obesity more than normotensive students. TG, HDL, HbA1c, and cholesterol appeared to influence pre-hypertension.

  5. Optical implementation of systolic FIR filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.; Govind, G.; Antony, S.

    1987-01-01

    An optical systolic finite impulse response (FIR) filter (or convolution operation) implementation using barrel shifters and a modified signed-digit adder is presented. The computational element used in systolic FIR filters in electronics includes a multiplier and an accumulator. It is noted that a speed-up in the throughput data rate can be achieved along with a high degree of regularity and concurrency by replacing the multiplier with barrel shifters and accumulators. It is shown that the modified signed-digit adder is implemented using symbolic substitution logic and the input operands in the various cells are arranged on the same input data plane to give all the required summation terms.

  6. Decoding white coat hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-03-16

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the "white coat" condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure.

  7. Decoding white coat hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  8. Hydroalcoholic extract of Allium eriophyllum leaves attenuates cardiac impairment in rats with simultaneous type 2 diabetes and renal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Janahmadi, Z.; Nekooeian, A.A.; Mozafari, M.

    2015-01-01

    Some species of Allium family have been shown to offer cardioprotection in animal studies. This study aimed at examining possible role of oxidative stress in the cardioprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Allium eriophyllum in rats with simultaneous type 2 diabetes and renal hypertension. Six groups of male Spargue-Dawley rats (8-10 rats each) including a sham-control, a diabetic group, a renal hypertensive group, three groups of animals with simultaneous diabetes and hypertension receiving vehicle, or the extract at 30 or 100 mg/kg/day were used. Four weeks after receiving vehicle or extract, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase levels were measured, and isolated heart studies were performed. Systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, coronary effluent creatine kinase-MB, infarct size and coronary resistance of diabetic hypertensive group receiving vehicle were significantly higher than those of the sham-control group and treatment with the extract prevented the increase of these variables. Moreover, rate of rise and decrease of left ventricular pressure, left ventricular developed pressure, rate pressure product and serum levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase of diabetic hypertensive group receiving vehicle were significantly lower than those the sham-control group, and treatment with the extract prevented the decrease of these variables. The findings indicate that hydroalcoholic extract of A. eriophyllum leaves, possibly by an antioxidant mechanism, protected against simultaneous diabetes and hypertension-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:26487889

  9. Clinical effectiveness and safety of low cost versus innovator brand amlodipine in hypertension: A single-blinded, randomized, crossover, noninferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Das, Alak Kumar; Chatterjee, Suparna; Pal, Jyotirmoy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: A single-blinded, randomized, crossover, noninferiority trial was conducted to evaluate clinical effectiveness and safety of low-cost brand (LCB) versus innovator brand (IB) amlodipine in essential hypertension. Materials and Methods: The primary end-point was change of systolic blood pressure (BP) from baseline to study end. Adult patients with Stage 1 hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension were randomized to receive 5 mg amlodipine LCB or IB once daily for 6 weeks in each period in a 2 × 2 crossover manner with three follow-up visits in each sequence. In 28 evaluable patients, the reduction of systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, and safety profile between two brands was comparable. Results: The lower bound of the 95% confidence interval of the difference in reduction of SBP (−5.04 mmHg) was within the noninferiority margin of 10 mmHg. Conclusion: LCB amlodipine is noninferior to IB in terms of BP reduction and is a cost-effective alternative as it is less expensive than IB. PMID:28066111

  10. Wafer-Scale Integration of Systolic Arrays,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    wafer-scale system, however, all the nearest neighbors of a processor may be dead, and thus the prime advantage of adopting a systolic array...work, however. To the best of our knowledge, the only result of a similar nature is due to Erdos and Renyi 15] who showed that most graphs with N

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension among Male Occupational Bus Drivers in North Kerala, South India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Arjun; Manikath, Neeraj; Rahim, Asma; Anilakumari, V P

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in a population of male bus drivers in North Kerala, India. Methods. The study population included male bus drivers of Corporation Bus stand Kozhikode, Kerala. Blood pressure, height, and weight of subjects were measured, and relevance was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Results. Age varied from 21 to 60 years (mean 36.5 ± 8.4). Among 179 bus drivers studied, 16.8% (30/179) had normal BP, 41.9% (75/179) had prehypertension, and 41.3% (74/179) had hypertension. Isolated systolic HTN was seen in 6.70% (12/179) individuals. Out of 74 hypertensives, 9 (12.1%) were aware of their hypertension, while 3 (4.0%) were medicated and only 1 (1.3%) had BP adequately controlled. Age > 35 years (P = 0.015), BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2) (P = 0.007), supporting more than four family members (P = 0.011), and taking main meals from restaurants on most working days (P = 0.017) were independently associated with HTN in binary logistic regression. Conclusion. Prevalence of hypertension was high among bus drivers. Age > 35 years, elevated BMI, supporting a large family, and dietary habits associated with the job showed significant association with hypertension. Primary and secondary prevention strategies need to be emphasized in this occupational group.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension among Male Occupational Bus Drivers in North Kerala, South India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Manikath, Neeraj; Rahim, Asma; Anilakumari, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in a population of male bus drivers in North Kerala, India. Methods. The study population included male bus drivers of Corporation Bus stand Kozhikode, Kerala. Blood pressure, height, and weight of subjects were measured, and relevance was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Results. Age varied from 21 to 60 years (mean 36.5 ± 8.4). Among 179 bus drivers studied, 16.8% (30/179) had normal BP, 41.9% (75/179) had prehypertension, and 41.3% (74/179) had hypertension. Isolated systolic HTN was seen in 6.70% (12/179) individuals. Out of 74 hypertensives, 9 (12.1%) were aware of their hypertension, while 3 (4.0%) were medicated and only 1 (1.3%) had BP adequately controlled. Age > 35 years (P = 0.015), BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 (P = 0.007), supporting more than four family members (P = 0.011), and taking main meals from restaurants on most working days (P = 0.017) were independently associated with HTN in binary logistic regression. Conclusion. Prevalence of hypertension was high among bus drivers. Age > 35 years, elevated BMI, supporting a large family, and dietary habits associated with the job showed significant association with hypertension. Primary and secondary prevention strategies need to be emphasized in this occupational group. PMID:24971195

  13. [Hypertensive emergency and urgence].

    PubMed

    Gegenhuber, Alfons; Lenz, Kurt

    2003-12-01

    DEFINITION, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, THERAPY: The hypertensive crisis is characterized by a massive, acute rise in blood pressure. Patients with underlying hypertensive disease usually have an increase in systolic blood pressure values > 220 mmHg and diastolic values > 120 mmHg. The severity of the condition, however, is not determined by the absolute blood pressure level but by the magnitude of the acute increase in blood pressure. Thus, in the presence of primarily normotensive baseline values (such as those in eclampsia), even a systolic blood pressure > 170 mmHg may lead to a life-threatening condition. The most important causes are non-compliance (reduction or interruption of therapy), inadequate therapy, endocrine disease, renal (vessel) disease, pregnancy and intoxication (drugs). The management of this condition greatly depends on whether the patient has a hypertensive crisis with organ manifestation (hypertensive emergency) or a crisis without organ manifestation (hypertensive urgency). By documenting the medical history, the medical status and by simple diagnostic procedures, the differential diagnosis can be established at the emergency site within a very short period of time. In the absence of organ manifestations (hypertensive urgency) the patient may have non-specific symptoms such as palpitations, headache, malaise and a general feeling of illness in addition to the increase in blood pressure. In a hypertensive urgency the patient's blood pressure should not be reduced within a few minutes but within a period of 24 to 48 hours. Such adjustment can be achieved on an out-patient basis, however, only if the patient can be followed up adequately for early detection of a renewed attack. In the absence of follow-up facilities, the patient's blood pressure should be reduced over a period of 4 to 6 hours, if necessary in an out-patient emergency service. While intravenous medication is given preference when a rapid effect is desired, oral medication may be used for

  14. Pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L-J; Huang, S-M; Liang, T; Tang, H

    2014-01-01

    Hemodialysis treatment has been revealed to increased the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP). Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) had been demonstrated to predict mortality in chronic renal failure patients. We investigate the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and RVD among patients and possible contributing factors for pulmonary hypertension. A cross-sectional survey consisted of 70 hemodialysis patients was performed in our hemodialysis center. By using echocardiography, an estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure of > 35 mmHg at rest met the criterion of pulmonary hypertension. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the right ventricle was performed in all patients. 27 out of 70 (38.57%) patients met the definition of pulmonary hypertension, while 32 out of 70 (45.71%) patients met the definition of RVD. Compared to patients without pulmonary hypertension, patients with pulmonary hypertension demonstrated higher systolic blood pressure and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). RVD, indicated by TDI myocardial performance index (MPI), was worse impaired in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Echocardiographic findings suggested elevated MPI values of right ventricular and right ventricular wall thickness were significantly associated with sPAP. While a high level of LVEF and Kt/V values was inversely correlated with sPAP. The multivariate determinants of pulmonary hypertension were systolic blood pressure and Kt/V values. Among hemodialysis patients, pulmonary hypertension is extraordinary common and is significantly associated with RVD. The poor control of systolic blood pressure and volume overload have played an important role in the mechanism of pulmonary hypertension in chronic uremia patients.

  15. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Coxson, Pamela G.; Rasmussen, Petra W.; Huang, Chen; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Tzong, Keane Y.; Xiong, Juyang; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Dong; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is China’s leading cardiovascular disease risk factor. Improved hypertension control in China would result in result in enormous health gains in the world’s largest population. A computer simulation model projected the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment in Chinese adults, assuming a range of essential medicines list drug costs. Methods and Findings The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-China, a Markov-style computer simulation model, simulated hypertension screening, essential medicines program implementation, hypertension control program administration, drug treatment and monitoring costs, disease-related costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained by preventing cardiovascular disease or lost because of drug side effects in untreated hypertensive adults aged 35–84 y over 2015–2025. Cost-effectiveness was assessed in cardiovascular disease patients (secondary prevention) and for two blood pressure ranges in primary prevention (stage one, 140–159/90–99 mm Hg; stage two, ≥160/≥100 mm Hg). Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension were modeled as a reduction in systolic blood pressure; treatment of isolated diastolic hypertension was modeled as a reduction in diastolic blood pressure. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses explored ranges of antihypertensive drug effectiveness and costs, monitoring frequency, medication adherence, side effect severity, background hypertension prevalence, antihypertensive medication treatment, case fatality, incidence and prevalence, and cardiovascular disease treatment costs. Median antihypertensive costs from Shanghai and Yunnan province were entered into the model in order to estimate the effects of very low and high drug prices. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than the per capita gross domestic product of China (11,900 international dollars [Int$] in 2015) were considered cost-effective. Treating

  16. The TRINITY Study: distribution of systolic blood pressure reductions

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Danny H; Chrysant, Steven G; Melino, Michael; Lee, James; Fernandez, Victor; Heyrman, Reinilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated systolic blood pressure is more difficult to control than elevated diastolic blood pressure. The objective of this prespecified analysis of the Triple Therapy with Olmesartan Medoxomil, Amlodipine, and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertensive Patients Study (TRINITY) was to compare the efficacy of olmesartan medoxomil (OM) 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML) 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg triple-combination treatment with the component dual-combination treatments in reducing elevated seated systolic blood pressure (SeSBP). Methods The 12-week TRINITY study randomized participants to either one of the three component dual-combination treatments (OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg, OM 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, or AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg) or the triple-combination treatment. The primary outcome of this analysis was the categorical distribution of SeSBP reductions at week 12 from baseline with OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg versus the dual-combination treatments. Results SeSBP reductions >50 mmHg were seen in 24.4% of participants receiving triple-combination treatment versus 8.1%–15.8% receiving dual-combination treatment. More participants receiving triple-combination treatment achieved the SeSBP target of <140 mmHg (73.6% versus 51.3%–58.8%; P < 0.001) and the seated blood pressure target of <140/90 mmHg (69.9% versus 41.1%–53.4%; P < 0.001). Prevalence and severity of adverse events were similar in all treatment groups. Conclusion Treatment with OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg was well tolerated and more effective in reducing SeSBP than the dual-combination treatments. PMID:23901293

  17. Diastolic dysfunction in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Slama, Michel; Susic, Dinko; Varagic, Jasmina; Frohlich, Edward D

    2002-07-01

    Heart failure is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension is the most common cause of cardiac failure. Recent studies have shown that isolated diastolic dysfunction very often accompanies hypertensive heart disease. Ventricular diastolic function may be divided into an active relaxation phase and a passive compliance period. These two components have been investigated invasively, and they remain the gold standards for the study of diastolic function. However, in the routine clinical setting, echocardiographic and Doppler techniques are most useful for evaluating ventricular filling. Thus, analysis of E and A waves of mitral flow have provided important and useful information. Unfortunately, these indices depend on too many factors. Newer indices obtained from ventricular time intervals, tissue Doppler imaging, and color M-mode echocardiography have enhanced the means to assess diastolic function. In addition, new methods including MRI and cine CT have also provided better understanding of left ventricular filling in hypertension. Using these techniques, diastolic dysfunction has been found to be common in patients with hypertension, even before left ventricular hypertrophy is demonstrable and before hypertension in young, normotensive male offspring of hypertensive parents has developed. Furthermore, it has been made clear recently that myocardial ischemia and fibrosis are two important factors associated with diastolic dysfunction in hypertension.

  18. Secondary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions that affect your kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system. Secondary hypertension can also occur during pregnancy. Secondary ... blood pressure, such as kidney, artery, heart or endocrine system problems. Complications Secondary hypertension can worsen the underlying ...

  19. Hypertension - overview

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    If left untreated, hypertension can lead to the thickening of arterial walls causing its lumen, or blood passage way, to narrow in diameter. ... the narrowed arterial openings. In addition, people with hypertension may be more susceptible to stroke.

  20. Renovascular hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Rector's The Kidney . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 48. Victor RG. Arterial hypertension. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 67. Victor RG. Systemic hypertension: ...

  1. Hypertensive Crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... 18,2017 Know the two types of HBP crisis to watch for A hypertensive ( high blood pressure ) ...

  2. Association between carotid atherosclerosis and different subtypes of hypertension in adult populations: A multiethnic study in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Adi, Dilare; Yang, Yi-Ning; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bang-Dang; Shan, Chun-Fang; Ma, Yi-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Background Ethnic differences in non-invasive measurements of carotid atherosclerosis are being increasingly reported, but the association between carotid atherosclerosis and different subtypes of hypertension in adult populations is not fully understood in different ethnicities. We aimed to investigate the association of carotid atherosclerosis with different subtypes of hypertension in different ethnicities in Xinjiang, a northwestern province in China. Methods A total of 14,618 participants (5,757 Hans, 4,767 Uygurs, and 4,094 Kazakhs) from 26 villages of seven cities in Xinjiang were randomly selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010. A standard questionnaire, a physical examination and biochemical tests were employed. Results The mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) for the 14,618 participants was 0.86±0.003 mm. The CIMT gradually increased with age. Men (0.92±0.005 mm) had a higher CIMT than women (0.81±0.004 mm). The Uygur participants (0.82±0.006 mm) had a lower CIMT than the Han (0.88±0.005 mm) and Kazakh participants (0.88±0.005 mm). The overall prevalences of carotid intimal thickening and carotid plaques were 12.4% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of CIMT varied for the different subtypes of hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed different risk factors for abnormal CIMT in different ethnicities. The associations between abnormal CIMT and the different subtypes of hypertension within different ethnic backgrounds were also different. The risk factors for abnormal CIMT included systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH) in Han participants (OR: 1.323, 95% CI: 1.100–1.590), SDH (OR: 1.426, 95% CI: 1.160–1.753) and isolated-systolic hypertension (ISH) (OR: 1.844, 95% CI: 1.470–2.313) in Uygur participants, and isolated-diastolic hypertension (IDH) (OR: 1.536, 95% CI: 1.170–2.016) in Kazakh participants. Conclusion There was an ethnic difference in the prevalence of abnormal

  3. Food restriction induces in vivo ventricular dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats without impairment of in vitro myocardial contractility.

    PubMed

    Okoshi, K; Fioretto, J R; Okoshi, M P; Cicogna, A C; Aragon, F F; Matsubara, L S; Matsubara, B B

    2004-04-01

    Cardiac structures, function, and myocardial contractility are affected by food restriction (FR). There are few experiments associating undernutrition with hypertension. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of FR on the cardiac response to hypertension in a genetic model of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Five-month-old SHR were fed a control or a calorie-restricted diet for 90 days. Global left ventricle (LV) systolic function was evaluated in vivo by transthoracic echocardiogram and myocardial contractility and diastolic function were assessed in vitro in an isovolumetrically beating isolated heart (Langendorff preparation). FR reduced LV systolic function (control (mean +/- SD): 58.9 +/- 8.2; FR: 50.8 +/- 4.8%, N = 14, P < 0.05). Myocardial contractility was preserved when assessed by the +dP/dt (control: 3493 +/- 379; FR: 3555 +/- 211 mmHg/s, P > 0.05), and developed pressure (in vitro) at diastolic pressure of zero (control: 152 +/- 16; FR: 149 +/- 15 mmHg, N = 9, P > 0.05) and 25 mmHg (control: 155 +/- 9; FR: 150 +/- 10 mmHg, N = 9, P > 0.05). FR also induced eccentric ventricular remodeling, and reduced myocardial elasticity (control: 10.9 +/- 1.6; FR: 9.2 +/- 0.9%, N = 9, P < 0.05) and LV compliance (control: 82.6 +/- 16.5; FR: 68.2 +/- 9.1%, N = 9, P < 0.05). We conclude that FR causes systolic ventricular dysfunction without in vitro change in myocardial contractility and diastolic dysfunction probably due to a reduction in myocardial elasticity.

  4. Perceived Social Standing, Medication Nonadherence, and Systolic Blood Pressure in the Rural South.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Doyle M; Wu, Jia-Rong; Cene, Crystal; Halladay, Jacquie; Donahue, Katrina E; Hinderliter, Alan; Miller, Cassandra; Garcia, Beverly; Penn, Dolly; Tillman, Jim; DeWalt, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how perceived social standing versus traditional socioeconomic characteristics influence medication adherence and blood pressure (BP) among African American and white patients with hypertension in the rural southeastern United States. Perceived social standing, socioeconomic characteristics, self-reported antihypertensive medication adherence, and BP were measured at baseline in a cohort of rural African American and white patients (n = 495) with uncontrolled hypertension attending primary care practices. Multivariate models examined the relationship of perceived social standing and socioeconomic indicators with medication adherence and systolic BP. Medication nonadherence was reported by 40% of patients. Younger age [β = 0.20; P = .001], African American race [β = -0.30; P = .03], and lower perceived social standing [β = 0.08; P = .002] but not sex or traditional socioeconomic characteristics including education and household income, were significantly associated with lower medication adherence. Race-specific analyses revealed that this pattern was limited to African Americans and not observed in whites. In stepwise modeling, older age [β = 0.57, P = .001], African American race [β = 4.4; P = .03], and lower medication adherence [β = -1.7, P = .01] but not gender, education, or household income, were significantly associated with higher systolic BP. Lower perceived social standing and age, but not traditional socioeconomic characteristics, were significantly associated with lower medication adherence in African Americans. Lower medication adherence was associated with higher systolic BP. These findings suggest the need for tailored, culturally relevant medication adherence interventions in rural communities. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Optical systolic array processor using residue arithmetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J.; Casasent, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of residue arithmetic to increase the accuracy and reduce the dynamic range requirements of optical matrix-vector processors is evaluated. It is determined that matrix-vector operations and iterative algorithms can be performed totally in residue notation. A new parallel residue quantizer circuit is developed which significantly improves the performance of the systolic array feedback processor. Results are presented of a computer simulation of this system used to solve a set of three simultaneous equations.

  6. [Hypertension in the elderly population].

    PubMed

    Sierra, Cristina; López-Soto, Alfonso; Coca, Antonio

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of essential hypertension in the Spanish population aged more than 60 years old is greater than 65%, mainly due to the high prevalence of elevated systolic pressure. Essential hypertension is known to be the most important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, which continues to be the leading cause of death among adults in the developed world. Several randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in hypertensive elderly people. However, the management of high blood pressure in the elderly population can be difficult due to a series of factors in this group such as altered pharmacokinetics, comorbidity, and polypharmacy. In addition, although there is recent evidence of the benefit of antihypertensive treatment in the oldest old (> 85 years), comprehensive geriatric assessment and individualized treatment should be applied in daily clinical practice.

  7. Spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide exert antioxidant effects and reduce vascular matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and expression in a model of renovascular hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ceron, CS; Castro, MM; Rizzi, E; Montenegro, MF; Fontana, V; Salgado, MCO; Gerlach, RF; Tanus-Santos, JE

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Increased oxidative stress and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may cause structural and functional vascular changes in renovascular hypertension. We examined whether treatment with spironolactone (SPRL), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or both drugs together modified hypertension-induced changes in arterial blood pressure, aortic remodelling, vascular reactivity, oxidative stress and MMP levels and activity, in a model of renovascular hypertension. Experimental approach: We used the two-kidney,one-clip (2K1C) model of hypertension in Wistar rats. Sham-operated or hypertensive rats were treated with vehicle, SPRL (25 mg·kg−1·day−1), HCTZ (20 mg·kg−1·day−1) or a combination for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was monitored weekly. Aortic rings were isolated to assess endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations. Morphometry of the vascular wall was carried out in sections of aorta. Aortic NADPH oxidase activity and superoxide production were evaluated. Formation of reactive oxygen species was measured in plasma as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Aortic MMP-2 levels and activity were determined by gelatin and in situ zymography, fluorimetry and immunohistochemistry. Key results: Treatment with SPRL, HCTZ or the combination attenuated 2K1C-induced hypertension, and reversed the endothelial dysfunction in 2K1C rats. Both drugs or the combination reversed vascular aortic remodelling induced by hypertension, attenuated hypertension-induced increases in oxidative stress and reduced MMP-2 levels and activity. Conclusions and implications: SPRL or HCTZ, alone or combined, exerted antioxidant effects, and decreased renovascular hypertension-induced MMP-2 up-regulation, thus improving the vascular dysfunction and remodelling found in this model of hypertension. PMID:20331602

  8. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fixler, D E; Wallace, J M; Thornton, W E; Dimmitt, P

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to identify youths with chronic blood pressure elevation. Nineteen adolescent boys were studied, ten had 5-year average systolic or diastolic pressures above the 95th percentile, nine had normal pressure. A Del Mar Avionics Pressurometer III system recorded an average of 121 readings on each subject. The coefficients of variation for pressure were similar for hypertensive and normotensive individuals. During classes, eight of the ten hypertensive youths had elevated pressures in over half of the measurements. Also during these classes eight of ten hypertensive boys had average systolic or diastolic pressure above the 95th percentile, whereas only one of nine normotensive boys had average pressures above this level. We suggest that schooltime ambulatory pressures may be most useful in classifying the blood pressure trend in a youth.

  9. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O. )

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac {beta}-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of {beta}-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension.

  10. Exaggerated blood pressure response to early stages of exercise stress testing and presence of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Martin G; Picone, Dean S; Nikolic, Sonja B; Williams, Andrew D; Sharman, James E

    2016-12-01

    Exaggerated exercise blood pressure (EEBP) recorded during exercise testing at moderate-intensity is independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. It is hypothesized that EEBP may be indicative of underlying hypertension unnoticed by standard clinic (resting) BP measures (thus explaining increased mortality risk), but this has never been confirmed by association with hypertension defined using ambulatory BP monitoring, which was the aim of this study. Cross-sectional study. 100 consecutive patients free from coronary artery disease (aged 56±9 years, 72% male) underwent clinically indicated exercise stress testing. Exercise BP was recorded at each stage of the Bruce protocol. Presence of hypertension was defined as 24-hour systolic BP ≥130mmHg or daytime systolic BP ≥135mmHg. Exercise systolic BP at stage 1 and 2 of the test was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension (P<0.05), with the strongest association observed between stage 1 exercise systolic BP and 24-h systolic BP >130mmHg (AUC=0.752, 95% CI's 0.649-0.846, P<0.001). 79% of participants achieving systolic BP ≥150mmHg at stage 1 of the test were classified as having hypertension, with systolic BP >150mmHg predicting hypertension independently of age, sex and in-clinic hypertension status (OR=4.83, 95% CI's 1.62-14.39, P=0.005). Irrespective of resting BP, systolic BP ≥150mmHg during early stages of the Bruce exercise stress test is associated with presence of hypertension. EEBP should be a warning signal to health/exercise professionals on the presence of hypertension and the need to provide follow up care to reduce cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Chronic Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Biolo, Andreia; Shibata, Rei; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Kihara, Shinji; Sonoda, Mina; Walsh, Kenneth; Sam, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocytokine, is secreted by adipocytes and mediates anti-hypertrophic and anti-inflammatory effects in the heart. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin are decreased in obesity, insulin resistance and obesity-associated conditions such as hypertension and coronary heart disease. However, a paradoxical increase in adiponectin levels is observed in human systolic heart failure (HF). We sought to investigate the determinants of adiponectin levels in patients with chronic systolic HF. Total adiponectin levels were measured in 99 patients with stable HF and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) <40%. Determinants of adiponectin levels by univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. At baseline patients were 62% black, 63% male, mean age of 60±13 years, LVEF of 21±9% and a body mass index (BMI) of 30.6±6.7kg/m2. Mean adiponectin levels were 15.8±15µg/ml. Beta-blocker use, BMI, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significant determinants of adiponectin levels by multivariate analysis. LV mass, structure, and LVEF were not related to adiponectin levels by multivariate analysis. Interestingly, the effect of beta-blocker therapy was most marked in non-obese patients with BMI < 30kg/m2. In conclusion, in chronic systolic HF patients, beta-blocker therapy is correlated with lower adiponectin levels, especially in non-obese patients. This relation should be taken into account when studying the complex role of adiponectin in chronic systolic HF. PMID:20381668

  12. Echocardiographic assessment of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Rasoulinejad, Mehrnaz; Moradmand Badie, Sina; Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Seyed Alinaghi, Seyed Ahmad; Dehghan Manshadi, Seyed Ali; Zakerzadeh, Nahid; Foroughi, Maryam; Jahanjo Amin Abad, Fatemeh; Moradmand Badie, Banafsheh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is rare but is one of the complications that occur due to HIV infection. Symptoms of HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension are often non-specific but the main symptom of the disease is dyspnea. In this cross-sectional study, we measured systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) by echocardiographic methods among HIV-positive patients who received ART. This research is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 170 HIV-positive patients that was conducted in Imam-Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran during 2011-2013. All patients regularly received antiretroviral therapy at least for recent 2 years. There were not any cardiopulmonary symptoms (cough, dyspnea, exertional fatigue and chest discomfort) in these patients. All participants underwent echocardiography to estimate SPAP. The participants comprised 108 males (63.5%) and 62 females (46.5%). The mean age of patients was 41 years old, and the mean duration of HIV infection was 5.5 years. The mean CD4 cell count was 401 cell/µl. The principal regimen of antiretroviral therapy included two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in the hospital. The mean of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was 25 mmHg in the participants; 156 (93.4%) of them had SPAP ≤ 30 mmHg (normal), six (3.6%) had SPAP: 31-35 mmHg (borderline) and five (3%) had SPAP > 35 mmHg (pulmonary hypertension). Our results indicated a significant increase of pulmonary hypertension in asymptomatic HIV-positive patients that had no association with any other risk factor. Also, antiretroviral therapy was not a risk factor for pulmonary hypertension in this study.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the risk of incident hypertension associated with a parental history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shook, Robin P; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Prasad, Vivek; Hooker, Steven P; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2012-06-01

    Family history of hypertension increases the risk of an individual to develop hypertension, whereas moderate-to-high cardiorespiratory fitness has the opposite effect. However, the joint association of each on the development of hypertension is not well understood. We studied fitness and incident hypertension in 6278 participants who were given a preventative medical examination. Thirty-three percent reported a parent with hypertension, and there were 1545 cases of incident hypertension after a mean of 4.7 years. The presence of parental hypertension was associated with a 28% higher risk of developing hypertension after adjustments for age, sex, and examination year. After further adjustments for smoking, alcohol intake, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, physical inactivity, and fitness, there was a 20% higher risk associated with parental hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, and examination year, both moderate and high levels of fitness were associated with lower risk for developing hypertension by 26% and 42%, respectively. In the joint analysis, individuals with both a low level of fitness and a parent with hypertension exhibited a 70% higher risk for developing hypertension compared with high fit individuals with no parental history (P = 0.004). However, individuals with a high level of fitness and a parent with hypertension only experienced a 16% higher risk of developing hypertension compared with fit individuals with no parental history (P = 0.03). The significantly lower risk of developing hypertension when progressing from low- to high-fit groups among those with a parental history of hypertension has important clinical implications.

  14. [Knowledge level of hypertensive patients about hypertension. Relationship between knowledge level and hypertension control].

    PubMed

    Benítez Camps, M; Egocheaga Cabello, M Isabel; Dalfó Baqué, A; Bajo García, J; Vara González, L; Sanchis Doménech, C; Martín Rioboo, E; Ureña Fernández, T; Domínguez Sardiña, M; Bonet Pla, A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the knowledge of the hypertensive patients about their hypertension and their relation to its control. Cross-sectional study among 400 hypertensive patients, all over 18 years, selected from 50 primary-care centres, who responded to an hypertension-related survey. Included variables were survey items, age, gender, educational level, professional occupation, blood pressure data and antihypertensive treatment. The obtained differences were analyzed using the chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, Anova and Bonferroni methods. There were 323 valid surveys. 52.9% of respondents were women, the average age: 65.4 years (SD: 11.2), 54.8% of them had primary education. 39.6% were aware of the objectives of systolic BP control. Only 19.6% having knowledge of those for diastolic BP control, with no differences between controlled and uncontrolled (systolic BP: 39% vs 38.1%, P=.887; diastolic BP: 19.2% vs 21%, P=.721). Over 70% knew about lifestyle changes, without significant differences between controlled and uncontrolled respondents. 82% of controlled respondents, and 79% of those uncontrolled, recognized the chronical nature of the treatment (P=.548), but 15.1% of the controlled respondents and 12.4% of uncontrolled respondents did not see the relation between the treatment and hypertension control (P=.525). 31.1% believed to be well-controlled, but in fact was not. Our patients doesn't know blood pressure targets of control. There isn't relationship between this knowledge and control of hypertension. Copyright © 2014 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypertension-induced remodeling of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling in ventricular myocytes occurs prior to hypertrophy development.

    PubMed

    Chen-Izu, Ye; Chen, Ling; Bányász, Tamás; McCulle, Stacey L; Norton, Byron; Scharf, Steven M; Agarwal, Anuj; Patwardhan, Abhijit; Izu, Leighton T; Balke, C William

    2007-12-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for developing cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Previous studies show that hypertrophied and failing hearts display alterations in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. However, it is unclear whether remodeling of the E-C coupling system occurs before or after heart disease development. We hypothesized that hypertension might cause changes in the E-C coupling system that, in turn, induce hypertrophy. Here we tested this hypothesis by utilizing the progressive development of hypertensive heart disease in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) to identify a window period when SHR had just developed hypertension but had not yet developed hypertrophy. We found the following major changes in cardiac E-C coupling during this window period. 1) Using echocardiography and hemodynamics measurements, we found a decrease of left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac output after the onset of hypertension. 2) Studies in isolated ventricular myocytes showed that myocardial contraction was also enhanced at the same time. 3) The action potential became prolonged. 4) The E-C coupling gain was increased. 5) The systolic Ca(2+) transient was augmented. These data show that profound changes in E-C coupling already occur at the onset of hypertension and precede hypertrophy development. Prolonged action potential and increased E-C coupling gain synergistically increase the Ca(2+) transient. Functionally, augmented Ca(2+) transient causes enhancement of myocardial contraction that can partially compensate for the greater workload to maintain cardiac output. The increased Ca(2+) signaling cascade as a molecular mechanism linking hypertension to cardiac hypertrophy development is also discussed.

  16. Treatment of high blood pressure in elderly and octogenarians: European Society of Hypertension statement on blood pressure targets.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Stenehjem, Aud; Os, Ingrid; Van de Borne, Philippe; Burnier, Michel; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Redon, Josep; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    The European Society of Hypertension recommend the following main rules for treatment of hypertension in elderly and octogenarians: 1) In elderly hypertensives with SBP ≥ 160 mmHg there is solid evidence to recommend reducing SBP to between 140 mmHg and 150 mmHg. 2) In fit elderly patients less than 80 years old treatment may be considered at SBP ≥ 140 mmHg with a target SBP < 140 mmHg if treatment is well tolerated. 3) In fit individuals older than 80 years with an initial SBP ≥ 160 mmHg it is recommended to reduce SBP to between 150 mmHg and 140 mmHg. 4) In frail elderly patients, it is recommended to base treatment decisions on comorbidity and carefully monitor the effects of treatment. 5) Continuation of well-tolerated antihypertensive treatment should be considered when a treated individual becomes octogenarian. 6) All hypertensive agents are recommended and can be used in the elderly, although diuretics and calcium antagonists may be preferred in isolated systolic hypertension.

  17. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to mesenteric venous hypertension by becoming weaker pumps

    PubMed Central

    Dongaonkar, R. M.; Nguyen, T. L.; Heaps, C. L.; Hardy, J.; Laine, G. A.; Wilson, E.; Stewart, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangions, the segments of lymphatic vessels between two adjacent lymphatic valves, actively pump lymph. Acute changes in transmural pressure and lymph flow have profound effects on lymphatic pump function in vitro. Chronic changes in pressure and flow in vivo have also been reported to lead to significant changes in lymphangion function. Because changes in pressure and flow are both cause and effect of adaptive processes, characterizing adaptation requires a more fundamental analysis of lymphatic muscle properties. Therefore, the purpose of the present work was to use an intact lymphangion isovolumetric preparation to evaluate changes in mesenteric lymphatic muscle mechanical properties and the intracellular Ca2+ in response to sustained mesenteric venous hypertension. Bovine mesenteric veins were surgically occluded to create mesenteric venous hypertension. Postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels from mesenteric venous hypertension (MVH; n = 6) and sham surgery (Sham; n = 6) animals were isolated and evaluated 3 days after the surgery. Spontaneously contracting MVH vessels generated end-systolic active tension and end-diastolic active tension lower than the Sham vessels. Furthermore, steady-state active tension and intracellular Ca2+ concentration levels in response to KCl stimulation were also significantly lower in MVH vessels compared with those of the Sham vessels. There was no significant difference in passive tension in lymphatic vessels from the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that following 3 days of mesenteric venous hypertension, postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to become weaker pumps with decreased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. PMID:25519727

  18. [Diuretics in monotherapy and in combination with other diuretics and nondiuretics in the treatment of hypertension].

    PubMed

    Spinar, J; Spinarová, L; Vítovec, J

    2013-06-01

    Diuretics belong to the basic group of medicines for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. In the case of hypertension treatment, their main indication is higher age and isolated systolic hypertension. In the case of heart failure they are used for the treatment of swellings and shortness of breath. The most frequently prescribed group of diuretics is thiazides and similar products. In patients with renal insufficiency, loop diuretics are administered. In the case of hypertension, diuretics are mainly used in the combination treatment. The most frequently used diuretic in combination is again hydrochlorothiazide, which is combined with reninangiotensin system blockers. It is mainly the combination of an ACE inhibitor + indapamide that seems to be modern and promising, and it is, on the basis of large clinical trials, recommended also for diabetics (ADVANCE) or for secondary prevention following a cerebrovascular accident (PROGRESS) or for the elderly (HYVET). Also a combination of two diuretics is popular -  mainly hydrochlorothiazide + amiloride. A combination of a betablocker and diuretic is less suitable.

  19. Lactobacillus casei strain C1 attenuates vascular changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Wei Boon; Ahmad, Faisal Malau; Lim, Yi Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension can be caused by various factors while the predominant causes include increase in body fluid volume and resistance in the circulatory system that elevate the blood pressure. Consumption of probiotics has been proven to attenuate hypertension; however, the effect is much strain-dependent. In this study, a newly isolated Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei) strain C1 was investigated for its antihypertensive properties in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) suspension of 11 log colony-forming unit (CFU) was given to SHR (SHR+LAB, n=8), and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was given as a control in SHR (SHR, n=8) and in Wistar rats as sham (WIS, n=8). The treatment was given via oral gavage for 8 weeks. The results showed that the weekly systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and aortic reactivity function were remarkably improved after 8 weeks of bacterial administration in SHR+LAB. These effects were mostly attributed by restoration of wall tension and tensile stress following the bacterial treatment. Although not statistically significant, the level of malondialdehye (MDA) in SHR+LAB serum was found declining. Increased levels of glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) in SHR+LAB serum suggested that the bacterium exerted vascular protection through antioxidative functions and relatively high NO level that induced vasodilation. Collectively, Lb. casei strain C1 is a promising alternative for hypertension improvement. PMID:27847439

  20. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with mild essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Ciuceis, Carolina; Pilu, Annamaria; Rizzoni, Damiano; Porteri, Enzo; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Salvetti, Massimo; Paini, Anna; Belotti, Eugenia; Zani, Francesca; Boari, Gianluca E M; Rosei, Claudia Agabiti; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2011-04-01

    It has been reported that the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) reflects the endogenous vascular repair ability, with the EPCs pool declining in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. However, their relationship with hypertension and the effects of anti-hypertensive treatment remain unclear. We randomized 29 patients with mild essential hypertension to receive barnidipine up to 20 mg or hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) up to 25 mg. Circulating EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Mononuclear cells were cultured with endothelial basal medium supplemented with EGM SingleQuots. EPCs were identified by positive double staining for both FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin I and Dil-labeled acethylated low-density lipoprotein. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were significantly reduced. No difference was observed between drugs. An increase in the number of EPCs was observed after 3 and 6 months of anti-hypertensive treatment (p < 0.05). Barnidipine significantly increased EPCs after 3 and 6 months of treatment, whereas no effect was observed with HCT. No statistically significant correlation was observed between EPCs and clinical BP values. Our data suggest that antihypertensive treatment may increase the number of EPCs. However, we observed a different effect of barnidipine and HCT on EPCs, suggesting that, beyond its BP lowering effect, barnidipine may elicit additional beneficial properties, related to a healthier vasculature.

  1. Aerobic, resistance and combined exercise training on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlei; Hanssen, Henner; Cordes, Mareike; Rossmeissl, Anja; Endes, Simon; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has different effects on arterial stiffness according to training modalities. The optimal exercise modality for improvement of arterial function in normotensive and hypertensive individuals has not been well established. In this review, we aim to evaluate the effects of aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic and resistance training on arterial stiffness in individuals with and without hypertension. We systematically searched the Pubmed and Web of Science database from 1985 until December 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The data were extracted by one investigator and checked by a second investigator. The training effects on arterial stiffness were estimated using weighted mean differences of the relative changes (%) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We finally reviewed the results from 17 RCTs. The available evidence indicates that aerobic exercise tends to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients, but does not affect arterial stiffness in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Resistance exercise has differing effects on arterial stiffness depending on type and intensity. Vigorous resistance training is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. There seem to be no unfavourable effects on arterial stiffness if the training is of low intensity, in a slow eccentric manner or with lower limb in healthy individuals. Combined training has neutral or even a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. In conclusion, our review shows that exercise training has varying effects on arterial stiffness depending on the exercise modalities.

  2. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to mesenteric venous hypertension by becoming weaker pumps.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Nguyen, T L; Quick, C M; Heaps, C L; Hardy, J; Laine, G A; Wilson, E; Stewart, R H

    2015-03-01

    Lymphangions, the segments of lymphatic vessels between two adjacent lymphatic valves, actively pump lymph. Acute changes in transmural pressure and lymph flow have profound effects on lymphatic pump function in vitro. Chronic changes in pressure and flow in vivo have also been reported to lead to significant changes in lymphangion function. Because changes in pressure and flow are both cause and effect of adaptive processes, characterizing adaptation requires a more fundamental analysis of lymphatic muscle properties. Therefore, the purpose of the present work was to use an intact lymphangion isovolumetric preparation to evaluate changes in mesenteric lymphatic muscle mechanical properties and the intracellular Ca(2+) in response to sustained mesenteric venous hypertension. Bovine mesenteric veins were surgically occluded to create mesenteric venous hypertension. Postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels from mesenteric venous hypertension (MVH; n = 6) and sham surgery (Sham; n = 6) animals were isolated and evaluated 3 days after the surgery. Spontaneously contracting MVH vessels generated end-systolic active tension and end-diastolic active tension lower than the Sham vessels. Furthermore, steady-state active tension and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration levels in response to KCl stimulation were also significantly lower in MVH vessels compared with those of the Sham vessels. There was no significant difference in passive tension in lymphatic vessels from the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that following 3 days of mesenteric venous hypertension, postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to become weaker pumps with decreased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Normalization effect of sports training on blood pressure in hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Liang; Liu, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Harris, Brennan; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Exercise is recommended as a lifestyle intervention in preventing hypertension based on epidemiological findings. However, previous intervention studies have presented mixed results. This discrepancy could be associated with shortcomings related to sample sizes or the inclusion of normotensive participants. The aim of this prospective cohort study (N = 463) was to compare the chronic effect of increasing sports training time on resting blood pressure for normotensives and hypertensives. We assessed systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for 69 untreated hypertensive patients (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg) and 394 normotensive controls (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years) before training and at follow-up visits at 12 months. All participants enrolled in various sports training lessons for 8 hours a week. The baseline BMI and HOMA-IR in the hypertensive group were significantly higher than those in the control group. For the normotensive control group, no significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed after training. However, for the hypertensives, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after training by approximately 15 mmHg and approximately 4 mmHg, respectively, and HOMA-IR was reduced by approximately 25%. In conclusion, the effect of sports training to lower blood pressure was confined to the group of hypertensives, which may account for the overall minimal reduction in blood pressure observed in previous intervention studies.

  4. Malignant hypertension in antiphospholipid syndrome without overt lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Cacoub, P; Wechsler, B; Piette, J C; Beaufils, H; Herreman, G; Bletry, O; Godeau, P

    1993-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome is usually defined by the association of a clinical manifestation (recurrent venous and/or arterial thrombosis, recurrent spontaneous miscarriages) and a biological abnormality (anticardiolipin antibody, lupus anticoagulant). We retrospectively analyzed the records of 5 patients (4 females, 1 male, aged 30 +/- 12 years) with antiphospholipid syndrome, primary (n = 1) or secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 4), who developed malignant systemic hypertension with renal insufficiency, in the absence of lupus nephritis. Before the episode of malignant hypertension, all patients had normal systemic blood pressure and renal function. During malignant hypertension the systolic pressure was 206 +/- 39 mmHg and the diastolic pressure 130 +/- 25 mmHg, peak serum creatinine was 204 +/- 95 mumol/l, daily proteinuria was 1.1 +/- 0.8 gr, and complement serum levels were normal in all patients. Renal angiography found normal proximal renal arteries. Renal biopsy showed ischaemic glomeruli without proliferative lesions (n = 5), focal intimal fibrosis either isolated (n = 3) or associated with thrombosis (n = 2) of the intrarenal vessels, and the absence of vasculitis. Immunofluorescence study did not reveal typical lupus deposits. Patients were treated with antihypertensive agents, increasing doses of prednisone (n = 3), and anticoagulant (n = 2) or anti-aggregant therapy (n = 1). After a mean follow-up of 6.8 +/- 5.2 years, 4 patients were still alive with normal blood pressure and renal function, whereas 1 patient died of a probable catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome. Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, primary or secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus, may develop malignant hypertension with renal insufficiency and intrarenal vascular lesions, in the absence of lupus nephritis.

  5. Systolic and diastolic mechanics in stress cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Keith; O'Connor, Mark J; Baicu, Catalin F; Fitzgibbons, Timothy P; Shaw, Peter; Tighe, Dennis A; Zile, Michael R; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2014-04-22

    Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM) is a peculiar form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction seen predominantly in women and occurs in response to emotional or physical stress. Because dysfunction in SCM is reversible and that of acute myocardial infarction (MI) is not, we hypothesized that these fundamental mechanistic differences between SCM and MI would be associated with different systolic and diastolic properties. We examined 3 groups, all women: patients with SCM (n=24; mean age, 63±12 years), those with left anterior (LAD) ST-segment-elevation MI (n=36; mean age, 63±10 years), and referent control subjects (n=30; mean age, 62±8 years). All underwent angiography, ventriculography, and pressure measurements within 48 hours of presentation. Left ventricular volumes, diastolic pressures, and diastolic stiffness were higher in SCM and LAD MI patients than in control subjects but no different from each other. Similarly, left ventricular diastolic pressures and diastolic stiffness were elevated in the SCM and LAD MI groups compared with the control group. Left ventricular ejection fraction in SCM and LAD MI were 40.8±12.3% and 49.6±5.6%, respectively, versus 70.4±9.4% in control subjects (P<0.001), and stroke work less than half the value of control subjects. Indexes of contractility and ventricular-arterial coupling were similarly abnormal in SCM and LAD MI. SCM and LAD MI show severe diastolic dysfunction. At similar left ventricular volumes, their diastolic pressures are more than twice as high as in control subjects, and systolic dysfunction is equally reduced in SCM and LAD MI. Despite a completely different pathophysiology in terms of systolic and diastolic function, SCM is indistinguishable from acute LAD-territory MI.

  6. Melatonin, given at the time of reperfusion, prevents ventricular arrhythmias in isolated hearts from fructose-fed rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Diez, Emiliano Raúl; Renna, Nicolás Federico; Prado, Natalia Jorgelina; Lembo, Carina; Ponce Zumino, Amira Zulma; Vazquez-Prieto, Marcela; Miatello, Roberto Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Melatonin reduces reperfusion arrhythmias when administered before coronary occlusion, but in the clinical context of acute coronary syndromes, most of the therapies are administered at the time of reperfusion. Patients frequently have physiological modifications that can reduce the response to therapeutic interventions. This work determined whether acute melatonin administration starting at the moment of reperfusion protects against ventricular arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused hearts isolated from fructose-fed rats (FFR), a dietary model of metabolic syndrome, and from spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). In both experimental models, we confirmed metabolic alterations, a reduction in myocardial total antioxidant capacity and an increase in arterial pressure and NADPH oxidase activity, and in FFR, we also found a decrease in eNOS activity. Melatonin (50 μm) initiated at reperfusion after 15-min regional ischemia reduced the incidence of ventricular fibrillation from 83% to 33% for the WKY strain, from 92% to 25% in FFR, and from 100% to 33% in SHR (P = 0.0361, P = 0.0028, P = 0.0013, respectively, by Fisher's exact test, n = 12 each). Although, ventricular tachycardia incidence was high at the beginning of reperfusion, the severity of the arrhythmias progressively declined in melatonin-treated hearts. Melatonin induced a shortening of the action potential duration at the beginning of reperfusion and in the SHR group also a faster recovery of action potential amplitude. We conclude that melatonin protects against ventricular fibrillation when administered at reperfusion, and these effects are maintained in hearts from rats exposed to major cardiovascular risk factors. These results further support the ongoing translation to clinical trials of this agent.

  7. Effects of antihypertensive drugs losartan and levamlodipine besylate on insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension combined with isolated impaired fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei-Yin; Ning, Ning; Tan, Ming-Hong; Jiang, Xue-Shu; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Ling; Yi, Dong; Wei, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the antihypertensive effect of losartan and levamlodipine besylate on insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension (EH) combined with isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG). Patients (n=244) were randomly assigned to losartan potassium tablets (50-100 mg per day) or levamlodipine besylate tablets (2.5-5.0 mg per day) for intensive antihypertensive treatment with no lifestyle interventions for 3 years. The changes in fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin (FINS) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) from before to after treatment were observed. Blood pressure (BP) in each group was significantly reduced by treatment (P<0.05). After 12 months of treatment, the FINS level in the losartan potassium group was significantly decreased and ISI was significantly increased compared with before treatment (P<0.05) and compared with the levamlodipine besylate group (P<0.05). After 24 and 36 months of treatment, FINS was significantly decreased and ISI was significantly improved in both groups compared with baseline (P<0.05), and there was no difference between the groups (P>0.05). The incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus was not significantly different between two groups. The antihypertensive effect of losartan and levamlodipine besylate could amoliorate insulin resistance in patients with EH combined with i-IFG. The improvement of insulin resistance by losartan potassium at 12 months might be better than that by levamlodipine besylate; however, after 24 and 36 months of follow-up, both agents significantly alleviated insulin resistance. These results suggest that the effects of these two drugs on insulin resistance are not significantly different.

  8. Dietary β-carotene regulates interleukin-1β-induced expression of apolipoprotein E in astrocytes isolated from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Nakayama, Chika; Suzuki, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) have an abnormality in cholesterol synthesis, but the pathological relevance of this to stroke and related neuronal disorders is not yet clear. The induction of astrocyte-derived cholesterol transportation to neurons by apolipoprotein E (apoE) promotes neuronal repair after brain injuries such as stroke. Such repair is reduced by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and stroke conditions. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) regulates the production of apoE-cholesterol-rich high density lipoproteins (HDL) and induces gliosis of astrocytes. On the other hand, high levels of plasma carotenoids reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. Thus, we investigated the expression of apoE in primary astrocytes that had been treated with IL-1β or β-carotene. In addition, we compared the expression levels of Apoe genes in astrocytes from SHRSP/Izm and normal control rats, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY/Izm) following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). The expression levels of genes and proteins were investigated by RT-PCR, Western blotting (WB), and immunofluorescence analysis. IL-1β decreased the expression levels of the Apoe gene. Conversely, β-carotene significantly enhanced the expression levels of genes related to cholesterol regulation, including Abca1, Abcg1, Hmgcr as well as Apoe. During H/R, the gene expression levels of Apoe were decreased in the SHRSP/Izm rats in comparison with the WKY/Izm rats. These results suggest that IL-1β decreases Apoe expression levels, whereas β-carotene strongly elevates Apoe levels and inhibits FGF1-mediated gliosis of astrocytes. Furthermore, under hypoxic stress, astrocytes isolated from SHRSP/Izm rats displayed altered regulation of Apoe compared with those from WKY/Izm rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of individual components and their combinations within a family history of hypertension on the incidence of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Risa; Fujihara, Kazuya; Heianza, Yoriko; Ishizawa, Masahiro; Kodama, Satoru; Saito, Kazumi; Hara, Shigeko; Hanyu, Osamu; Honda, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Arase, Yasuji; Sone, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although a family history (FH) of hypertension is a risk factor for the development of hypertension, only a few studies have investigated in detail the impact of individual components of an FH on incident hypertension. We investigated the impact of individual components and their combinations on the presence or development of hypertension considering obesity, smoking habits, physical activity, and other metabolic parameters. Studied were 12,222 Japanese individuals without hypertension (n = 9,766) and with hypertension (n = 2,456) at the baseline examination. The presence or incidence of hypertension during 5 years after a baseline examination was assessed by the presence of systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or a self-reported history of clinician-diagnosed hypertension. In this prospective study, the odds ratio for incident hypertension was 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22, 1.59) for individuals with any FH of hypertension compared with those without such an FH. Individuals with an FH of hypertension in both parents and one or more grandparents had an odds ratio of 3.05 (95% CI 1.74, 5.36) for hypertension compared with those without an FH of hypertension. FH was associated with incident hypertension independently of other modifiable risk factors such as obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. A parental history of hypertension was an essential component within an FH for incident hypertension. FH of hypertension over two generations with both parents affected was the most important risk factor for incident hypertension. Although an FH is not a modifiable risk factor, modifying other risk factors could contribute to reducing the risk of hypertension even among individuals with a family history of hypertension. PMID:27661014

  10. Mineralocorticoid hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension affects about 10 – 25% of the population and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The renin-angiotensin system is frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension, be it primary or secondary. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism increases with the severity of hypertension, from 2% in patients with grade 1 hypertension to 20% among resistant hypertensives. Mineralcorticoid hypertension includes a spectrum of disorders ranging from renin-producing pathologies (renin-secreting tumors, malignant hypertension, coarctation of aorta), aldosterone-producing pathologies (primary aldosteronism – Conns syndrome, familial hyperaldosteronism 1, 2, and 3), non-aldosterone mineralocorticoid producing pathologies (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, Liddle syndrome, deoxycorticosterone-secreting tumors, ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) syndrome, congenitalvadrenal hyperplasia), and drugs with mineraocorticoid activity (locorice, carbenoxole therapy) to glucocorticoid receptor resistance syndromes. Clinical presentation includes hypertension with varying severity, hypokalemia, and alkalosis. Ratio of plasma aldosterone concentraion to plasma renin activity remains the best screening tool. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling is the best diagnostic test coupled with a CT scan. Treatment is either surgical (adrenelectomy) for unilateral adrenal disease versus medical therapy for idiopathic, ambiguous, or bilateral disease. Medical therapy focuses on blood pressure control and correction of hypokalemia using a combination of anti-hypertensives (calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers) and potassium-raising therapies (mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist or potassium sparing diuretics). Direct aldosterone synthetase antagonists represent a promising future therapy. PMID:22145132

  11. Cardiac dilatation and pump dysfunction without intrinsic myocardial systolic failure following chronic beta-adrenoreceptor activation.

    PubMed

    Osadchii, Oleg E; Norton, Gavin R; McKechnie, Richard; Deftereos, Dawn; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2007-04-01

    There is no direct evidence to indicate that pump dysfunction in a dilated chamber reflects the impact of chamber dilatation rather than the degree of intrinsic systolic failure resulting from myocardial damage. In the present study, we explored the relative roles of intrinsic myocardial systolic dysfunction and chamber dilatation as mediators of left ventricular (LV) pump dysfunction. Administration of isoproterenol, a beta-adrenoreceptor agonist, for 3 mo to rats (0.1 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) resulted in LV pump dysfunction as evidenced by a reduced LV endocardial fractional shortening (echocardiography) and a decrease in the slope of the LV systolic pressure-volume relation (isolated heart preparations). Although chronic beta-adrenoreceptor activation induced cardiomyocyte damage (deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) as well as beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoreceptor inotropic downregulation (attenuated contractile responses to dobutamine and salbutamol), these changes failed to translate into alterations in intrinsic myocardial contractility. Indeed, LV midwall fractional shortening (echocardiography) and the slope of the LV systolic stress-strain relation (isolated heart preparations) were unchanged. A normal intrinsic myocardial systolic function, despite the presence of cardiomyocyte damage and beta-adrenoreceptor inotropic downregulation, was ascribed to marked increases in myocardial norepinephrine release, to upregulation of alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated contractile effects as determined by phenylephrine responsiveness, and to compensatory LV hypertrophy. LV pump failure was attributed to LV dilatation, as evidenced by increased LV internal dimensions (echocardiography), and a right shift and increased volume intercept of the LV diastolic pressure-volume relation. In conclusion, chronic sympathetic stimulation, despite reducing beta-adrenoreceptor-mediated inotropic responses and promoting myocyte apoptosis, may nevertheless induce pump

  12. Hypotensive acute effect of photobiomodulation therapy on hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Oishi, J C; De Moraes, T F; Buzinari, T C; Cárnio, E C; Parizotto, N A; Rodrigues, G J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) on arterial pressure in hypertensive and normotensive rats with application in an abdominal region. Normotensive (2K) and hypertensive (2K-1C) wistar rats were treated with PBM. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before, during and after PBM application. The nitric oxide (NO) serum concentration was measured before and after PBM application. Vascular reactivity study was performed in isolated thoracic aortas. Aluminum gallium arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser was used, at 660nm wavelength and 100mW optical output. The PBM application induced a decrease of SAP in 2K-1C rats. In 2K rats, the PBM application had no effect on SAP, DAP and MAP. Moreover, the magnitude of hypotensive effect was higher in 2K-1C than in 2K rats. The PBM application induced a decrease of HR in 2K-1C and 2K, with higher effect in 2K-1C rats. In 2K-1C, the hypotensive effect induced by PBM was longer than that obtained in 2K rats. PBM application induced an elevation of NO concentration in serum from 2K-1C and 2K rats, with higher effect in 2K-1C. In isolated aortic rings PBM effect is dependent of NO release, and is not dependent of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation. Our results indicate that the abdominal acute application of PBM at 660nm is able to induce a long lasting hypotensive effect in hypertensive rats and vasodilation by a NO dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Closing the gap in hypertension control between younger and older adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Shatat, Ibrahim F; Fuller, J Michael; Sinopoli, Angelo

    2014-05-20

    Joint National Committee goal blood pressure for all adults was <140/<90 mm Hg or lower from 1984 to 2013. Adults aged ≥60 years (older) have mainly isolated systolic hypertension, with major trials attaining systolic blood pressure <150 but not <140 mm Hg. The main objective was to assess changes in hypertension control to <140/<90 mm Hg in younger (aged <60 years) and older adults and <150/<90 mm Hg in the latter. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2005 to 2010 were analyzed in adults aged ≥18 years. From 1988 to 1994 to 2005 to 2010, hypertension control to <140/<90 mm Hg improved in older (31.6% to 53.1%; P<0.001) and younger (45.7% to 55.9%; P<0.001) patients. The age gap in control declined from 14.1% (P<0.01) in 1988 to 1994 to 2.8% (P=0.13) in 2005 to 2010. Better hypertension control reflected increased percentages of older (55.6% to 77.5%) and younger (34.6% to 54.7%) patients on treatment and treated older (45.7% to 64.9%) and younger (56.8% to 73.4%) patients controlled (all P<0.001). Control to <150/<90 mm Hg rose from 48.8% to 69.9% in older adults. Antihypertensive medication number and percentages on ≥3 medications increased in both age groups but increased more in older patients (P<0.01). Blood pressure control was higher in both age groups with ≥2 healthcare visits per year and on statin therapy. The age gap in hypertension control to <140/<90 mm Hg was virtually eliminated in 2005 to 2010 as clinicians intensified therapy, especially in older patients in whom isolated systolic hypertension predominates, controlling 70% to <150/<90 mm Hg. More frequent healthcare visits and the use of statin therapy may improve hypertension control in all adults. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. The Preoperative Patient With a Systolic Murmur

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Patients with undifferentiated systolic murmurs present commonly during the perioperative period. Traditional bedside assessment and auscultation has not changed significantly in almost 200 years and relies on interpreting indirect acoustic events as a means of evaluating underlying cardiac pathology. This is notoriously inaccurate, even in expert cardiology hands, since many different valvular and cardiac diseases present with a similar auditory signal. Evidence Acquisition: The data on systolic murmurs, physical examination, perioperative valvular disease in the setting of non-cardiac surgery is reviewed. Results: Significant valvular heart disease increases perioperative risk in major non-cardiac surgery and increases long term patient morbidity and mortality. We propose a more modern approach to physical examination that incorporates the use of focused echocardiography to allow direct visualization of cardiac structure and function. This improves the diagnostic accuracy of clinical assessment, allows rational planning of surgery and anaesthesia technique, risk stratification, postoperative monitoring and appropriate referral to physicians and cardiologists. Conclusions: With a thorough preoperative assessment incorporating focused echocardiography, anaesthetists are in the unique position to enhance their role as perioperative physicians and influence short and long term outcomes of their patients. PMID:26705529

  15. Characteristic systolic waveform of left ventricular longitudinal strain rate in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazunori; Kaga, Sanae; Mikami, Taisei; Masauzi, Nobuo; Abe, Ayumu; Nakabachi, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Shinobu; Nishino, Hisao; Ichikawa, Ayako; Nishida, Mutsumi; Murai, Daisuke; Hayashi, Taichi; Shimizu, Chikara; Iwano, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-18

    We analyzed the waveform of systolic strain and strain-rate curves to find a characteristic left ventricular (LV) myocardial contraction pattern in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and evaluated the utility of these parameters for the differentiation of HCM and LV hypertrophy secondary to hypertension (HT). From global strain and strain-rate curves in the longitudinal and circumferential directions, the time from mitral valve closure to the peak strains (T-LS and T-CS, respectively) and the peak systolic strain rates (T-LSSR and T-CSSR, respectively) were measured in 34 patients with HCM, 30 patients with HT, and 25 control subjects. The systolic strain-rate waveform was classified into 3 patterns ("V", "W", and "√" pattern). In the HCM group, T-LS was prolonged, but T-LSSR was shortened; consequently, T-LSSR/T-LS ratio was distinctly lower than in the HT and control groups. The "√" pattern of longitudinal strain-rate waveform was more frequently seen in the HCM group (74 %) than in the control (4 %) and HT (20 %) groups. Similar but less distinct results were obtained in the circumferential direction. To differentiate HCM from HT, the sensitivity and specificity of the T-LSSR/T-LS ratio <0.34 and the "√"-shaped longitudinal strain-rate waveform were 85 and 63 %, and 74 and 80 %, respectively. In conclusion, in patients with HCM, a reduced T-LSSR/T-LS ratio and a characteristic "√"-shaped waveform of LV systolic strain rate was seen, especially in the longitudinal direction. The timing and waveform analyses of systolic strain rate may be useful to distinguish between HCM and HT.

  16. Hypertension Canada's 2017 Guidelines for Diagnosis, Risk Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of Hypertension in Adults.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander A; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Dasgupta, Kaberi; McBrien, Kerry; Butalia, Sonia; Zarnke, Kelly B; Nerenberg, Kara; Harris, Kevin C; Nakhla, Meranda; Cloutier, Lyne; Gelfer, Mark; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Milot, Alain; Bolli, Peter; Tremblay, Guy; McLean, Donna; Tobe, Sheldon W; Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Gryn, Steven E; Feldman, Ross D; Selby, Peter; Pipe, Andrew; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; McFarlane, Philip A; Oh, Paul; Hegele, Robert A; Khara, Milan; Wilson, Thomas W; Penner, S Brian; Burgess, Ellen; Sivapalan, Praveena; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Rabkin, Simon W; Gilbert, Richard E; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Campbell, Norman R C; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Prebtani, Ally; Kline, Gregory; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Côté, Anne-Marie; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Trudeau, Luc; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Hiremath, Swapnil; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Hamet, Pavel; Grégoire, Jean C; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra; Lear, Scott A; Moullec, Gregory; Gupta, Milan; Magee, Laura A; Logan, Alexander G; Dionne, Janis; Fournier, Anne; Benoit, Geneviève; Feber, Janusz; Poirier, Luc; Padwal, Raj S; Rabi, Doreen M

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension Canada provides annually updated, evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension. This year, we introduce 10 new guidelines. Three previous guidelines have been revised and 5 have been removed. Previous age and frailty distinctions have been removed as considerations for when to initiate antihypertensive therapy. In the presence of macrovascular target organ damage, or in those with independent cardiovascular risk factors, antihypertensive therapy should be considered for all individuals with elevated average systolic nonautomated office blood pressure (non-AOBP) readings ≥ 140 mm Hg. For individuals with diastolic hypertension (with or without systolic hypertension), fixed-dose single-pill combinations are now recommended as an initial treatment option. Preference is given to pills containing an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker in combination with either a calcium channel blocker or diuretic. Whenever a diuretic is selected as monotherapy, longer-acting agents are preferred. In patients with established ischemic heart disease, caution should be exercised in lowering diastolic non-AOBP to ≤ 60 mm Hg, especially in the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy. After a hemorrhagic stroke, in the first 24 hours, systolic non-AOBP lowering to < 140 mm Hg is not recommended. Finally, guidance is now provided for screening, initial diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of renovascular hypertension arising from fibromuscular dysplasia. The specific evidence and rationale underlying each of these guidelines are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Resveratrol improves vasoprotective effects of captopril on aortic remodeling and fibrosis triggered by renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Natalin, Henrique Melo; Garcia, Arthur Feierabend Engracia; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambeli; Restini, Carolina Baraldi Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system triggers vascular remodeling and fibrosis during the renovascular hypertensive two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) model by oxidative-stress-mediated mechanisms. Thus, we hypothesized that the chronic treatment with the polyphenolic antioxidant resveratrol would improve the vasoprotective effects promoted by the chronic treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) captopril in 2K1C hypertensive rats. Our main objective was to evaluate the effects of the combined treatment with resveratrol and captopril on vascular remodeling and fibrosis in 2K1C rats. Male Wistar rats underwent to unilateral renal stenosis by 2K1C Goldblatt model. Six weeks after surgery, rat systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by indirect tail-cuff plethysmography. 2K1C rats were considered hypertensive when presenting SBP higher than 160 mmHg and underwent resveratrol (20 mg/kg), captopril (6 or 12 mg/kg), or resveratrol (20 mg/kg) combined with captopril (6 or 12 mg/kg) treatment for 3 weeks. Nine weeks after surgery, rat SBP was measured, and rat thoracic aorta was isolated for histological assays with hematoxylin/eosin or Picrosirius Red to evaluate aortic remodeling and fibrosis, respectively. Oral treatment of 2K1C hypertensive rats with resveratrol (20 mg/kg) combined with the dose-dependent ACEi captopril (6 and 12 mg/kg) resulted in lesser aortic thickening and reduced aortic fibrosis. Resveratrol (20 mg/kg) promoted a more expressive hypotensive effect with captopril (12 mg/kg) in 2K1C rats than the treatment with isolated captopril (12 mg/kg). Resveratrol improves the vasoprotective effects promoted by captopril on aortic remodeling and fibrosis during renovascular hypertension probably by synergic mechanisms involving antioxidant actions and nitric oxide generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DB 01-3 TREATMENT TARGET OF SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE IN DIABETES MAY DIFFER ACCORDING TO ETHNICITY (PRO).

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-09-01

    Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension and related cardiovascular disease. Stroke is more common than coronary artery disease in Eastern Asian countries, while the coronary artery disease is more common than stroke in Western countries. The association slope between higher blood pressure (BP) and the risk of cardiovascular events is steeper in Asians than in Caucasians. This may partly explained by the recent result demonstrating that the morning BP surge in Asians is more extended (Hoshide, Kario, Parati et al. Hypertension 2016;68:54-61). Thus, 24-hr BP control including night-time and morning periods is especially important for Asian hypertensive patients (Kario. Essential manual of 24 hour blood pressure management. Wiley, UK, pp.1-158.2016).The existing direct evidence from Asian studies are limited than the accumulated evidence from Western countries. In the ACCORD BP trial which enrolled 4733 participants with type 2 diabetes and randomized them to a target systolic BP <120mmHg (intensive BP control) or <140mmHg (standard BP control). Despite the significant difference in the achieved systolic BP, there was no significant difference in the incidence of primary cardiovascular outcomes. Based on this evidence, the target systolic BP for diabetics has been revised from 130 mmHg to 140 mmHg in the majority of Western guidelines. However, in the ACCORD study, the intensive BP control was associated with significant reduction in both total stroke and nonfatal stroke. In addition, the ONTARGET study, which showed that in diabetic patients, the risk of stroke continued to decrease down to achieved SBP <115mmHg with no evidence of J curve.The new guidelines of the Japanese Society of Hypertension regarding the management of hypertension (JSH2014) were published in 2014 (Hypertens Res 2014;37:253-390). The JSH2014 guidelines use the systolic BP value 130 mmHg, a lower target clinic BP compared to the Western guidelines (140 mmHg), for hypertensive

  19. Non-invasive estimation of pulmonary artery systolic pressure with Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Hatle, L; Angelsen, B A; Tromsdal, A

    1981-01-01

    Systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery was estimated from the interval between pulmonary valve closure and tricuspid valve opening, and the heart rate using a nomogram previously described. The timing of valve movements was recorded by Doppler ultrasound. The estimated pressure correlated well with that obtained at catheterisation in 45 of 48 patients with pulmonary hypertension. Instantaneous variations in pressure and changes with treatment and during exercise could be measured. The method was easy to apply in all age groups, and was found useful both in detecting pulmonary hypertension and in the follow-up of patients. It may help to determine the optimal time for surgery or the effect of treatment. PMID:7459175

  20. Hypertension in the nursing home.

    PubMed

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2008-09-01

    Hypertension in a nursing home patient is a systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and 130 mm Hg or higher in a patient with diabetes mellitus or chronic renal insufficiency, or a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher and 80 mm Hg or higher in a patient with diabetes mellitus or chronic renal insufficiency. Numerous prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that antihypertensive drug therapy reduces the development of new coronary events, stroke, and congestive heart failure in older persons. The goal of treatment of hypertension in elderly persons is to lower the blood pressure to less than 140/90 mm Hg and to less than 130/80 mm Hg in older persons with diabetes mellitus or chronic renal insufficiency. Elderly persons with diastolic hypertension should have their diastolic blood pressure reduced to 80 to 85 mm Hg. Diuretics should be used as initial drugs in the treatment of older persons with hypertension and no associated medical conditions. The selection of antihypertensive drug therapy in persons with associated medical conditions depends on their associated medical conditions. If the blood pressure is more than 20/10 mm Hg above the goal blood pressure, drug therapy should be initiated with 2 antihypertensive drugs, one of which should be a thiazide-type diuretic. Other coronary risk factors must be treated in patients with hypertension.

  1. Uric Acid Levels in Normotensive Children of Hypertensive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Ali; Keles, Fatma; Kosger, Pelin; Ozdemir, Gokmen; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated uric acid concentrations in normotensive children of parents with hypertension. Eighty normotensive children from families with and without a history of essential hypertension were included. Concentrations of lipid parameters and uric acid were compared. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in the groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension without statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Uric acid concentrations were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension (4.61 versus 3.57 mg/dL, P < 0.01). Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in control children aged >10 years (P < 0.01). Uric acid levels were significantly higher in all children with more pronounced difference after age 10 of years (P < 0.001). Positive correlations were found between the level of serum uric acid and age, body weight, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the normotensive children of parents. The higher uric acid levels in the normotensive children of hypertensive parents suggest that uric acid may be a predeterminant of hypertension. Monitoring of uric acid levels in these children may allow for prevention or earlier treatment of future hypertension. PMID:26464873

  2. Impaired left ventricular mechanics in pulmonary arterial hypertension: identification of a cohort at high risk.

    PubMed

    Hardegree, Evan L; Sachdev, Arun; Fenstad, Eric R; Villarraga, Hector R; Frantz, Robert P; McGoon, Michael D; Oh, Jae K; Ammash, Naser M; Connolly, Heidi M; Eidem, Benjamin W; Pellikka, Patricia A; Kane, Garvan C

    2013-07-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling and right heart failure. The right (RV) and left ventricles (LV) do not function in isolation, sharing a common pericardial sac and interventricular septum. We sought to define the clinical and prognostic significance of ventricular interdependence in PAH and its association with LV filling patterns through speckle-tracking strain echocardiography. Echocardiography was performed in 71 adults with a new diagnosis of PAH. To analyze LV and RV function separately, we measured peak systolic longitudinal and circumferential strain of the LV and RV. Survival was assessed >2 years. Patients had dilated right-sided chambers (right atrial volume index, 44 ± 19 mL/m(2); RV end-diastolic area, 34 ± 9 cm(2)), and reduced RV function (RV fractional area change, 28 ± 12%). Speckle-tracking echocardiography revealed significant reductions in RV free wall peak systolic strain (-15 ± 3%). Despite normal LV size and normal conventional measures of LV systolic function (end-diastolic dimension, 42 ± 6 mm; ejection fraction, 65 ± 8%; cardiac index, 2.6 ± 0.8 L/min per m(2)), patients had reduced LV free wall systolic strain (-15 ± 3%). Decreased LV free wall systolic strain was associated with a delayed relaxation mitral inflow Doppler pattern, P=0.0002. During 2-year follow-up, 19 patients (27%) died. LV strain was associated with increased mortality (unadjusted hazard ratio, 2.40 per 5% decrease in LV free wall strain, 1.22-4.68), which remained significant when adjusted for age, sex, World Health Organization functional class, and PAH pathogenesis (hazard ratio, 3.11, 1.38-7.20). The pressure loading in PAH results in geometric alterations and functional decline of the RV, with marked reduction in RV systolic strain. Despite preservation of LV ejection fraction, LV systolic strain was also reduced and associated with early mortality, highlighting the significance of ventricular

  3. A Logical Characterization of Systolic Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Angelo; Peron, Adriano

    In this paper we study, in the framework of mathematical logic, ℒ(SBTA) i.e. the class of languages accepted by Systolic Binary Tree Automata. We set a correspondence (in the style of Büchi Theorem for regular languages) between ℒ(SBTA) and MSO[Sig], i.e. a decidable Monadic Second Order logic over a suitable infinite signature Sig. We also introduce a natural subclass of ℒ(SBTA) which still properly contains the class of regular languages and which is proved to be characterized by Monadic Second Order logic over a finite signature Sig' ⊂ Sig. Finally, in the style of McNaughton Theorem for star free regular languages, we introduce an expression language which precisely denotes the class of languages defined by the first order fragment of MSO[Sig'].

  4. Singular value decomposition with systolic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipsen, I. C. F.

    1984-01-01

    Systolic arrays for determining the singular value decomposition of a mxn, m n, matrix A of bandwidth w are presented. After A has been reduced to bidiagonal form B by means of Givens plane rotations, the singular values of B are computed by the Golub-Reinsch iteration. The products of plane rotations form the matrices of left and right singular vectors. Assuming each processor can compute or supply a plane rotation, O(wn) processors accomplish the reduction to bidiagonal form in O(np) steps, where p is the number of superdiagonals. A constant number of processors then determines each singular value in about 6n steps. The singular vectors are computed by rerouting the rotations through the arrays used for the reduction to bidiagonal form, or else along the way by employing another rectangular array of O(wm) processors.

  5. The 2007 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for the management of hypertension: Part 2 – therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nadia A; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Padwal, Raj; Larochelle, Pierre; Mahon, Jeff L; Lewanczuk, Richard Z; McAlister, Finlay A; Rabkin, Simon W; Hill, Michael D; Feldman, Ross D; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Campbell, Norman RC; Logan, Alexander G; Arnold, Malcolm; Moe, Gordon; Campbell, Tavis S; Milot, Alain; Stone, James A; Jones, Charlotte; Leiter, Lawrence A; Ogilvie, Richard I; Herman, Robert J; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Carruthers, George; Culleton, Bruce; Burns, Kevin D; Ruzicka, Marcel; deChamplain, Jacques; Pylypchuk, George; Gledhill, Norm; Petrella, Robert; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Trudeau, Luc; Hegele, Robert A; Woo, Vincent; McFarlane, Phil; Touyz, Rhian M; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2007-01-01

    grains and protein from plant sources; and considering stress management in selected individuals with hypertension. For the pharmacological management of hypertension, treatment thresholds and targets should take into account each individual’s global atherosclerotic risk, target organ damage and any comorbid conditions: blood pressure should be lowered to lower than 140/90 mmHg in all patients and lower than 130/80 mmHg in those with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve these blood pressure targets. In adults without compelling indications for other agents, initial therapy should include thiazide diuretics; other agents appropriate for first-line therapy for diastolic and/or systolic hypertension include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (except in black patients), long-acting calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or beta-blockers (in those younger than 60 years of age). First-line therapy for isolated systolic hypertension includes long-acting dihydropyridine CCBs or ARBs. Certain comorbid conditions provide compelling indications for first-line use of other agents: in patients with angina, recent myocardial infarction, or heart failure, beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors are recommended as first-line therapy; in patients with cerebrovascular disease, an ACE inhibitor plus diuretic combination is preferred; in patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, ACE inhibitors are recommended; and in patients with diabetes mellitus, ACE inhibitors or ARBs (or, in patients without albuminuria, thiazides or dihydropyridine CCBs) are appropriate first-line therapies. All hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia should be treated using the thresholds, targets and agents outlined in the Canadian Cardiovascular Society position statement (recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease). Selected high-risk patients with

  6. The hypoxic moderation of systemic hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Deng, X; Zhou, X; Zheng, Y; Wang, X; Liang, B; Cai, Q; Yang, Y

    1993-09-01

    The mechanism of hypoxic moderation of systemic systolic blood pressure was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male SHR rats were divided into hypoxic (H, 5000 m for 15 d) and normoxic (N) groups. The systemic blood pressure of SHR-H (24.9 +/- 1.2 kPa) was found to be 3 kPa lower than that in SHR-N (27.0 +/- 1.3 kPa) (P < 0.05). This protective effect may have been related to the adaptive changes in vascular reactivity which manifested as an increase in the relaxation response of the aorta to ACh (P < 0.01) and a drop in its contraction in response to 5-HT (P < 0.05) following hypoxic exposure. The hypoxic moderating effect against the development of systemic hypertension may have also been related to the increased plasma levels of ANP observed.

  7. Incidence and Cause of Hypertension During Adrenal Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakado, Koichiro Takaki, Haruyuki; Yamada, Tomomi; Yamanaka, Takashi; Uraki, Junji; Kashima, Masataka; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kan

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and cause of hypertension prospectively during adrenal radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: For this study, approved by our institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients who received RFA for adrenal tumors (adrenal ablation) and other abdominal tumors (nonadrenal ablation) were included in this prospective study. Blood pressure was monitored during RFA. Serum adrenal hormone levels including epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol levels were measured before and during RFA. The respective incidences of procedural hypertension (systolic blood pressure >200 mmHg) of the two patient groups were compared. Factors correlating with procedural systolic blood pressure were evaluated by regression analysis.ResultsNine patients underwent adrenal RFA and another 9 patients liver (n = 5) and renal (n = 4) RFA. Asymptomatic procedural hypertension that returned to the baseline by injecting calcium blocker was found in 7 (38.9%) of 18 patients. The incidence of procedural hypertension was significantly higher in the adrenal ablation group (66.7%, 6/9) than in the nonadrenal ablation group (11.1%, 1/9, P < 0.0498). Procedural systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with serum epinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.68, P < 0.0001) and norepinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.72, P < 0.0001) levels during RFA. The other adrenal hormones did not show correlation with procedural systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Hypertension occurs frequently during adrenal RFA because of the release of catecholamine.

  8. Value of retinal examination in hypertensive encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Amraoui, F; van Montfrans, G A; van den Born, B J H

    2010-04-01

    The presence of grade III or IV hypertensive retinopathy (HRP) is considered to distinguish hypertensive urgencies from emergencies. However, case-reports suggest that these retinal changes may be lacking in patients with hypertensive encephalopathy. To assess the frequency of grade III and IV retinopathy in this hypertensive emergency, we conducted a retrospective cohort study. We retrieved 162 patients with malignant hypertension and 34 patients (17%) fulfilled the predefined criteria for hypertensive encephalopathy. Data on retinal examination were incomplete for 6 patients (18%), thus leaving 28 patients who were analysed for the presence or absence of grade III and IV HRP. In 9 (32%) patients with hypertensive encephalopathy, grade III or IV HRP was absent, 11 (39%) patients presented with grade III and 8 (29%) patients with grade IV retinopathy. Patients without retinal abnormalities were on average 13 years younger (P=0.05), more often black (P=0.02) and displayed lower blood pressure (BP) values (P=0.04 for systolic and diastolic BP). A substantial proportion of patients with hypertensive encephalopathy lack grade III or IV HRP. This suggests that the decision to admit these patients should not only rely on the presence of grade III and IV retinopathy alone, but should also include a careful neurological examination.

  9. Isolated Left Ventricular Apical Hypoplasia with Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction: A Rare Combination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonghui; Zhang, Jiaying; Zhang, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Isolated left ventricular (LV) apical hypoplasia is a unusual and recently recognized congenital cardiac anomaly. A 19-year-old man was found to have an abnormal ECG and cardiac murmur identified during a routine health check since joining work. His ECG revealed normal sinus rhythm, right-axis deviation, poor R wave progression, and T wave abnormalities. On physical examination, a 2/6~3/6 systolic murmur was heard at the second intercostal space along the left sternal border. Subsequent echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the LV apical hypoplasia. Of note, we first found that LV apical hypoplasia was accompanied by RV outflow tract obstruction due to exaggerated rightward bulging of the basal-anterior septum during systole. A close follow-up was performed for the development of heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and potentially tachyarrhythmia.

  10. Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) prevented hypertension by an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sanae, Matsuda; Yasuo, Aoyagi

    2013-06-12

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is known to be rich in functional components. In the present study, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used to clarify whether green asparagus prevents hypertension by inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Six-week-old male SHR were fed a diet with (AD group) or without (ND group) 5% asparagus for 10 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) (AD: 159 ± 4.8 mmHg, ND: 192 ± 14.7 mmHg), urinary protein excretion/creatinine excretion, and ACE activity in the kidney were significantly lower in the AD group compared with the ND group. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher in the AD group compared with the ND group. In addition, ACE inhibitory activity was observed in a boiling water extract of asparagus. The ACE inhibitor purified and isolated from asparagus was identified as 2″-hydroxynicotianamine. In conclusion, 2″-hydroxynicotianamine in asparagus may be one of the factors inhibiting ACE activity in the kidney, thus preventing hypertension and preserving renal function.

  11. Visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability predicts treatment-related adverse event of hyponatremia in SPRINT.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Abhinav; Mezue, Kenechukwu; Rangaswami, Janani

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is a common condition and an important cardiovascular risk factor. SPRINT trial showed that the beneficial effects of targeting systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg were accompanied by more adverse events. De-identified SPRINT database was used for this analysis. All subjects in each group that achieved their respective target blood pressure (<120, intensive; <140, standard) were included. Only readings after reaching target blood pressure for the first time were included. Subjects that never reached target or had <2 readings upon reaching target were excluded. Coefficient of Variation (CV) of systolic blood pressure was calculated for each subject to characterize variability. Cox proportional hazards regression was used in the overall cohort as well as the intensive and standard treatment subgroups separately, to identify the effect of CV of systolic blood pressure on occurrence of hyponatremia. P<.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 8884 subjects met the inclusion criteria; 4323 in intensive and 4561 in standard group. Two hundred and sixty five hyponatremic events occurred in the overall cohort; 168 in intensive, and 127 in standard treatment group. CV of systolic blood pressure consistently and independently predicted a greater hazard of hyponatremia on overall (HR 1.08, P<.001), as well as separate regressions by treatment arms (each HR=1.08 and P<.05). In conclusion, visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability is independently associated with a small but significant risk of hyponatremia in the SPRINT trial. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tsao, G

    2001-05-01

    Portal hypertension is the main complication of cirrhosis and is responsible for its most common complications: variceal hemorrhage, ascites, and portosystemic encephalopathy. Portal hypertension is the result of increased intrahepatic resistance and increased portal venous inflow, which in turn is the result of splanchnic vasodilatation. Vasodilatation (splanchnic and systemic) and hyperdynamic circulation are hemodynamic abnormalities typical of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Gastroesophageal varices result almost solely from portal hypertension, although the hyperdynamic circulation contributes to variceal growth and hemorrhage. Ascites results from sinusoidal hypertension and sodium retention, which is, in turn, secondary to vasodilatation and activation of neurohumoral systems. The hepatorenal syndrome represents the result of extreme vasodilatation with an extreme decrease in effective blood volume that leads to maximal activation of vasoconstrictive systems, renal vasoconstriction, and renal failure. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a potentially lethal infection of ascites that occurs in the absence of a local source of infection. Portosystemic encephalopathy is a consequence of both portal hypertension (shunting of blood through portosystemic collaterals) and hepatic insufficiency that result in the accumulation of neurotoxins in the brain. This paper reviews the recent advances in the pathophysiology and management of the complications of portal hypertension.

  13. Portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2003-05-01

    Portal hypertension, the main complication of cirrhosis, is responsible for its most common complications: variceal hemorrhage, ascites, and portosystemic encephalopathy. Portal hypertension is the result of increased intrahepatic resistance and increased portal venous inflow. Vasodilatation (splanchnic and systemic) and the hyperdynamic circulation are hemodynamic abnormalities typical of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Gastroesophageal varices result almost solely from portal hypertension, although the hyperdynamic circulation contributes to variceal growth and hemorrhage. Ascites results from sinusoidal hypertension and sodium retention, which, in turn, is secondary to vasodilatation and activation of neurohumoral systems. The hepatorenal syndrome represents the result of extreme vasodilatation, with an extreme decrease in effective blood volume that leads to maximal activation of vasoconstrictive systems, renal vasoconstriction, and renal failure. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a potentially lethal infection of ascites that occurs in the absence of a local source of infection. Portosystemic encephalopathy is a consequence of both portal hypertension (shunting of blood through portosystemic collaterals) and hepatic insufficiency that result in the accumulation of neurotoxins in the brain. This review covers the recent advances in the pathophysiology and management of the complications of portal hypertension.

  14. Cuminum cyminum, a dietary spice, attenuates hypertension via endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NO pathway in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Saranya, Ramesh Babu; Ramakrishnan, Ganapathy; Ranju, Vijayan; Sathiya, Sekar; Gayathri, Veeraraghavan; Thiyagarajan, Lakshmi Kantham; Venkhatesh, Jayakothanda Ramaswamy; Babu, Chidambaram Saravana; Thanikachalam, Sadagopan

    2013-01-01

    Cuminum cyminum (CC) is a commonly used spice in South Indian foods. It has been traditionally used for the treatment and management of sleep disorders, indigestion, and hypertension. The present study was carried out to scientifically evaluate the anti-hypertensive potential of standardized aqueous extract of CC seeds and its role in arterial endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, inflammation, and oxidative stress in renal hypertensive rats. Renal hypertension was induced by the two-kidney one-clip (2K/1C) method in rats. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma nitrate/nitrite, carotid-eNOS, renal-TNF-α, IL-6, Bax, Bcl-2, thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRXR1) mRNA expressions were studied to demonstrate the anti-hypertensive action of CC. Cuminum cyminum was administered orally (200 mg/kg b.wt) for a period of 9 weeks; it improved plasma nitric oxide and decreased the systolic blood pressure in hypertensive rats. It also up-regulated the gene expression of eNOS, Bcl-2, TRX1, and TRXR1; and down-regulated Bax, TNF-α, and IL-6. These data reveal that CC seeds augment endothelial functions and ameliorate inflammatory and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats. The present report is the first of its kind to demonstrate the mechanism of anti-hypertensive action of CC seeds in an animal model of renovascular hypertension.

  15. Pulmonary hypertension in polymyositis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Liu, Tao; Cai, Ying-ying; Luo, Lian; Wang, Meng; Yang, Mengmeng; Cai, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is relatively common in connective tissue diseases. However, few studies have focused on the pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with polymyositis (PM). Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of PH and determine the associated factors for PH in patients with PM. Multicenter study of 61 patients with PM underwent evaluation including general information, physical examination, laboratory indictors, thoracic high-resolution CT (HRCT) imaging, and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). TTE was performed to estimate the pulmonary arterial pressure. PH was defined as resting systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) ≥40 mmHg. PH was identified in ten patients (16.39 %) who had few cardiopulmonary symptoms. PM patients with PH had higher prevalence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and pericardial effusion (PE) compared with patients without PH (18 vs. 11.5 %, p = 0.005; 11.5 vs. 9.8 %, p = 0.004; respectively). After controlling for age, gender, and potential factors, ILD and PE were independently associated with PH in patients with PM in multivariate analysis (OR = 8.193, 95 % CI 1.241-54.084, p = 0.029; OR = 8.265, 95 % CI 1.298-52.084, p = 0.025; respectively). Depending on TTE, the possible prevalence of PH was 16.39 % in patients with PM. Both ILD and PE may contribute to the development of PH in PM.

  16. Systolic blood pressure contributes to intracerebral haemorrhage after thrombolysis for ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Perini, Francesco; De Boni, Antonella; Marcon, Michela; Bolgan, Irene; Pellizzari, Michele; Dionisio, Laura Di

    2010-10-15

    The frequency and risk factors for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) after ischemic stroke are well-known. ICH frequency is increased by the use of antithrombotic or thrombolytic drugs. Several experimental studies have demonstrated a relationship between ICH and hypertension after fibrinolysis, but the optimal blood pressure levels in patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) are as yet unknown. We evaluated the role of blood pressure in patients with ischemic stroke treated with rTPA within 3h of symptom onset. We treated 86 consecutive patients admitted to our stroke unit between 2002 and 2008 and prospectively recorded the clinical and instrumental data in our stroke registry. We evaluated haemorrhagic complications by reviewing imaging findings. Blood pressure was recorded before rTPA and at 6, 12, 18, and 32h. Total cerebral haemorrhage occurred in eleven (12.7%) patients, and symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage occurred in seven (8.1%). We failed to find a correlation between blood pressure levels and stroke severity at admission. High blood pressure levels correlated with a worse outcome. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in ICH patients relative to rTPA-treated patients without haemorrhagic complications (p<0.03). This study indicates that rTPA-induced haemorrhage is influenced by systolic blood pressure. More aggressive pharmacological reduction of hypertension during fibrinolysis and the subsequent 32h may reduce this complication. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary sodium, dietary potassium, and systolic blood pressure in US adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Jennifer; Carmody, J Bryan

    2017-09-01

    Both high sodium and low potassium diets are associated with hypertension, but whether these risk factors are distinct or overlapping has not been thoroughly investigated. The authors evaluated the relationship between dietary sodium, potassium, and high systolic blood pressure among 4716 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2012. There was no association with blood pressure across most values of sodium or potassium intake. However, participants who reported sodium intake ≥7500 mg/d, potassium <700 mg/d, or sodium-potassium ratio ≥2.5 had increased odds for high systolic blood pressure (≥95th percentile for age, sex, and height). Although the high sodium and low potassium groups did not overlap, 49.2% of these adolescents also had a sodium-potassium ratio ≥2.5. In young adolescents, both excessive sodium and limited potassium are associated with high systolic blood pressure, but the balance between sodium and potassium intake may be more useful in explaining blood pressure in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exposure to fipronil elevates systolic blood pressure and disturbs related biomarkers in plasma of rats.

    PubMed

    Chaguri, Joao Leandro; Godinho, Antonio Francisco; Horta, Daniel França; Gonçalves-Rizzi, Victor Hugo; Possomato-Vieira, Jose Sergio; Nascimento, Regina Aparecida; Dias-Junior, Carlos Alan

    2016-03-01

    Recent reports show that fipronil affects non-target organisms, including environmental species populations and potentially humans. We aimed to examine if fipronil exposure affects the systolic blood pressure and related biomarkers. Thus, fipronil was orally administered to rats (30 mg/kg/day) during 15 days (Fipronil group) or physiological solution (Control group). While fipronil increased significantly the systolic blood pressure (158±13 mmHg), no significant changes were observed in Control group (127±3 mmHg). Significantly, higher levels of fipronil in plasma were observed in Fipronil group (0.46±0.09 μg/mL versus 0.17±0.11 μg/mL in Control group). Fipronil group showed lower weight gain compared with Control group. While fipronil resulted in higher concentrations of endothelin-1, reduced antioxidant capacity and lower levels of circulating matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites compared to Control group, no alteration was observed in serum biomarkers of renal and hepatic/biliary functional abilities. Therefore, this study suggests that fipronil causes hypertension and endothelin-1 plays a key role. Also, these findings suggest that reductions of both MMP-2 and NO may contribute with the elevation of systolic blood pressure observed with fipronil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mathematical Model Analysis of Heart-Arterial Interaction in Hypertension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in vivo data show that in hypertensives with LVH, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increase by about 40% while cardiac output is constant and wall...compliance 25% lower and peripheral resistance 40% higher in hypertensives than in normotensive controls [13], and predicted blood pressure , cardiac output...thickness increases by 30-55%. In both (i) and (ii), blood pressure increased by only 10% while cardiac output dropped by 20%. In (ii), LV wall

  20. Single-flux-quantum integer multiplier with systolic array structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, K.; Tanaka, M.; Tashiro, Y.; Kamiya, Y.; Irie, N.; Takagi, K.; Takagi, N.; Fujimaki, A.; Yoshikawa, N.; Terai, H.; Yorozu, S.

    2006-10-01

    We propose an integer multiplier with systolic array structure for single-flux-quantum (SFQ) technology. Since SFQ logic circuits work by pulse logic, suitable circuit structure for SFQ logic circuits is different from one for semiconductor logic circuits. The systolic array is a circuit structure for VLSIs and consists of regularly arranged simple processing elements. All signals of the proposed systolic multiplier flow from input to output unidirectionally. This feature matches concurrent-flow clocking well. For evaluating the proposed systolic multiplier, we have designed a 4-bit systolic multiplier, as well as a 4-bit array multiplier which is one of the most typical parallel multipliers, and have compared them with each other. From the results of the design and the digital simulation, the number of Josephson junctions (JJs) of the 4-bit systolic multiplier is almost the half of that of the 4-bit array multiplier, and the latency of the former is about 1.5 times longer than that of the latter. Our estimation of the performance of larger-scale multipliers shows that the proposed systolic multiplier achieves comparable latency to the array multiplier, using extremely smaller number of JJs when the bit-width of input becomes large. We have fabricated a 1-bit cell of the systolic multiplier using NEC standard Nb process and have successfully tested it at low speed. The proposed systolic integer multiplier is attractive for SFQ technology.

  1. Recursive least squares estimation and Kalman filtering by systolic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. J.; Yao, K.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most promising new directions for high-throughput-rate problems is that based on systolic arrays. In this paper, using the matrix-decomposition approach, a systolic Kalman filter is formulated as a modified square-root information filter consisting of a whitening filter followed by a simple least-squares operation based on the systolic QR algorithm. By proper skewing of the input data, a fully pipelined time and measurement update systolic Kalman filter can be achieved with O(n squared) processing cells, resulting in a system throughput rate of O (n).

  2. Recursive least squares estimation and Kalman filtering by systolic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. J.; Yao, K.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most promising new directions for high-throughput-rate problems is that based on systolic arrays. In this paper, using the matrix-decomposition approach, a systolic Kalman filter is formulated as a modified square-root information filter consisting of a whitening filter followed by a simple least-squares operation based on the systolic QR algorithm. By proper skewing of the input data, a fully pipelined time and measurement update systolic Kalman filter can be achieved with O(n squared) processing cells, resulting in a system throughput rate of O (n).

  3. Hypertension screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  4. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  5. Portal Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affairs, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University Get the Quick Facts For this topic NOTE: ... at least 6 months) Drinking large amounts of alcohol over a long period of time Portal hypertension ...

  6. Hypertension screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  7. The 2010 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for the management of hypertension: Part 2 – therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hackam, Daniel G; Khan, Nadia A; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Rabkin, Simon W; Touyz, Rhian M; Campbell, Norman RC; Padwal, Raj; Campbell, Tavis S; Lindsay, M Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Quinn, Robert R; Mahon, Jeff L; Herman, Robert J; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Ruzicka, Marcel; Larochelle, Pierre; Feldman, Ross D; Lebel, Marcel; Poirier, Luc; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Trudeau, Luc; Bacon, Simon L; Petrella, Robert J; Milot, Alain; Stone, James A; Drouin, Denis; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Sharma, Mukul; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Dresser, George K; Carruthers, S George; Pylypchuk, George; Burgess, Ellen D; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, GV Ramesh; Gilbert, Richard E; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; McFarlane, Philip A; Hegele, Robert A; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2010-01-01

    the pharmacological management of hypertension, treatment thresholds and targets should be predicated on the patient’s global atherosclerotic risk, target organ damage and comorbid conditions. Blood pressure should be decreased to less than 140/90 mmHg in all patients, and to less than 130/80 mmHg in patients with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. Most patients will require more than one agent to achieve these target blood pressures. Antihypertensive therapy should be considered in all adult patients regardless of age (caution should be exercised in elderly patients who are frail). For adults without compelling indications for other agents, considerations for initial therapy should include thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (in patients who are not black), long-acting calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or beta-blockers (in those younger than 60 years of age). A combination of two first-line agents may also be considered as initial treatment of hypertension if systolic blood pressure is 20 mmHg above target or if diastolic blood pressure is 10 mmHg above target. The combination of ACE inhibitors and ARBs should not be used, unless compelling indications are present to suggest consideration of dual therapy. Agents appropriate for first-line therapy for isolated systolic hypertension include thiazide diuretics, long-acting dihydropyridine CCBs or ARBs. In patients with coronary artery disease, ACE inhibitors, ARBs or beta-blockers are recommended as first-line therapy; in patients with cerebrovascular disease, an ACE inhibitor/diuretic combination is preferred; in patients with proteinuric nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, ACE inhibitors or ARBs (if intolerant to ACE inhibitors) are recommended; and in patients with diabetes mellitus, ACE inhibitors or ARBs (or, in patients without albuminuria, thiazides or dihydropyridine CCBs) are appropriate first-line therapies. In selected high

  8. Correlation between pre- and post-dialysis blood pressure levels in hemodialysis patients with intradialytic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mattos, M S Rita de Cássia; Lemes, Helton P; Ferreira-Filho, Sebastião R

    2016-12-01

    To determine the association between arterial systolic blood pressure values at the beginning and at the end of a hemodialysis (HD) session in intradialytic hypertension patients. This study evaluated the arterial systolic blood pressure patterns in 154 chronic kidney failure patients; among these patients, 18 were identified as having intradialytic hypertension. In the patients with intradialytic hypertension, four consecutive HD sessions were analyzed in which the systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse blood pressures were automatically determined every 30 min. A linear relationship was revealed between the systolic blood pressure levels measured after 30 min and those obtained after 240 min of HD (r = 0.3894, p = 0.001). This association became stronger after 90 min (r = 0.5471; p < 0.001), indicating that for intradialytic hypertension patients, systolic blood pressure values at the beginning of HD were correlated with systolic blood pressure values at the end of the session. For intradialytic hypertension patients, values obtained at the end of HD are correlated with the initial values. This information could facilitate planning and earlier treatment.

  9. Portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2002-05-01

    Portal hypertension is the main complication of cirrhosis and is responsible for its most common complications: variceal hemorrhage, ascites, and portosystemic encephalopathy. Portal hypertension is the result of increased intrahepatic resistance and increased portal venous inflow. Vasodilatation (splanchnic and systemic) and the hyperdynamic circulation are hemodynamic abnormalities typical of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Gastroesophageal varices result almost solely from portal hypertension, although the hyperdynamic circulation contributes to variceal growth and hemorrhage. Ascites results from sinusoidal hypertension and sodium retention, which is in turn secondary to vasodilatation and activation of neurohumoral systems. Hepatic hydrothorax results from the passage of ascites across the diaphragm and into the pleural space. The hepatorenal syndrome represents the result of extreme vasodilatation with an extreme decrease in effective blood volume that leads to maximal activation of vasoconstrictive systems, renal vasoconstriction, and renal failure. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a potentially lethal infection of ascites that occurs in the absence of a local source of infection. Portosystemic encephalopathy is a consequence of both portal hypertension (shunting of blood through portosystemic collaterals) and hepatic insufficiency resulting in the accumulation of neurotoxins in the brain.

  10. Pulsatile blood pressure component as predictor of mortality in hypertension: a meta-analysis of clinical trial control groups.

    PubMed

    Gasowski, Jerzy; Fagard, Robert H; Staessen, Jan A; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Pocock, Stuart; Boutitie, Florent; Gueyffier, François; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Although current guidelines rest exclusively on the measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, the arterial pressure wave is more precisely described as consisting of a pulsatile (pulse pressure) and a steady (mean pressure) component. This study explored the independent roles of pulse pressure and mean pressure as predictors of mortality in a wide range of patients with hypertension. This meta-analysis, based on individual patient data, has combined results from the control groups of seven randomized clinical trials conducted in patients with systolo-diastolic or isolated systolic hypertension. The relative hazard rates associated with pulse pressure and mean pressure were calculated using Cox's proportional hazard regression models with stratification for the seven trials and with adjustment for sex, age, smoking and the other pressure. A 10 mmHg wider pulse pressure at baseline, which corresponds to approximately one-half of its standard deviation, was independently associated with an increase in risk by 6% for total mortality (P = 0.001), 7% for cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.01), and 7% for fatal coronary accidents (P = 0.03). The corresponding increase in risk of fatal stroke was similar (+6%, P = 0.27) but there were too few strokes to reach statistical significance. In similar analyses, mean pressure was not identified as an independent predictor of these outcomes. Significant interactions of pulse pressure or mean pressure with age suggested that the prognostic power of pulse pressure for fatal stroke was more important at higher age (P = 0.04), whereas the prognostic power of mean pressure for coronary mortality was greatest in the young (P = 0.01). In hypertensive patients pulse pressure, not mean pressure, is associated with an increased risk of fatal events. This appears to be true in a broad range of patients with hypertension.

  11. [Management of severe arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Leeman, M

    2015-09-01

    Severe arterial hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥180 mmHg and/or a diastolic BP ≥ 110 mmHg. Initial assessment is to identify acute, ongoing, target-organ damage such as pulmonary edema, aortic dissection, ... (hypertensive emergency). If so, the patient requires urgent and specific management in a hospital setting. More commonly, however, BP in the severe range is relatively asymptomatic and not associated with end-organ damage (hypertensive urgency). Management can usually be carried out in the ambulatory setting. Severe hypertension should first be confirmed after a period of rest in a quiet room. If BP remains in the severe range, an antihypertensive drug can be initiated. Otherwise, the patient should be referred for further evaluation within a few days ; however, an antihypertensive treatment could be started immediately if there is concern that urgent outpatient follow-up cannot be ensured or if the patient is at high cardiovascular risk. The choice of the first drug should be tailored according to associated conditions and possible contraindications. Some guidelines recommend starting therapy with an antihypertensive combination of two drugs. In all cases, rapid and excessive reduction in BP, which could compromise organ perfusion, must be avoided, especially in elderly patients. In the short-term (days), BP should be progressively lowered to < 160/100 mmHg. In the long term, a BP < 140/90 mmHg should be obtained.

  12. Myocardial Performance Index in Childhood Onset Essential Hypertension and White Coat Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hamzeh, Rabih K.; Poffenbarger, Tim; McNiece-Redwine, Karen; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND As a global measure of ventricular systolic and diastolic function, the myocardial performance index (MPI) can be an early indicator of hypertensive cardiomyopathy in children with essential hypertension (EH). METHODS Children with untreated newly diagnosed EH and white coat hypertension (WCH) by a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), both groups without any identifiable etiology for the hypertension, were enrolled for the study. Echocardiograms and vascular ultrasounds for carotid artery intimal medial thickness were performed on all children prior to therapy. Diastolic function (peak E and A velocities, E/A ratio, isovolumic relaxation time, and deceleration times) and MPI were evaluated by simultaneous transmitral and transaortic spectral Doppler flow velocities. Systolic function was evaluated by shortening fraction and ejection fraction. RESULTS A cohort of 66 children (24 with EH, 42 with WCH, males 61%, median age of 13 years, range 10–17 years) were enrolled in the study. The demographic, anthropometric, laboratory tests, vascular ultrasound, and conventional echocardiographic parameters were similar between the 2 groups. There was a very small difference in MPI between the EH and WCH children (0.28 SD: 0.07 vs. 0.31 SD: 0.08, P = 0.045). However, in EH children, MPI increased by 0.14 units for every 10 unit increase in mean ABPM systolic BP (95% confidence interval: 0.03–0.25). CONCLUSIONS We found the increasing MPI was associated with increasing 24-hour mean systolic BP in children with EH. Therefore, MPI may have utility as a single, quick, noninvasive method of detection and tracking of subclinical hypertensive heart disease. PMID:26271107

  13. Assessment of the left ventricular systolic function in cardiac syndrome X using speckle tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yağmur, Jülide; Açıkgöz, Nusret; Cansel, Mehmet; Ermiş, Necip; Karakuş, Yasin; Kurtoğlu, Ertuğrul

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate left ventricular (LV) systolic strain by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3-DE) for the early detection of myocardial dysfunction in patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). We compared 34 patients with CSX (18 females, mean age 47.9±10.0 years) with 41 healthy persons as a control group (23 females, mean age 50.6±9.9 years). Inclusion criteria for CSX were typical angina, a positive exercise ECG stress test, and angiographically documented normal coronary arteries. Exclusion criteria for both groups were hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathies, inflammatory diseases, myocarditis, vasculitis, arthropathies, Tietze's syndrome, gastrointestinal diseases, aortic diseases, hormone replacement therapy, arrhythmias, liver diseases, and alcohol use. All subjects underwent two-dimensional STE and 3-DE to assess resting LV function. STE measures were taken from the basal septum, mid-septum, apical septum, apex, apicolateral, mid-lateral, basal lateral, anteroseptal, anterior, anterolateral, inferolateral, inferior, and inferoseptal walls. Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-square test were used to statistically analyze data. LV echo ejection fraction (EF) and systolic wave peak velocity were similar for both groups. Regional mean longitudinal strain (-17.7±2.5% vs. -19.8±1.8%; p<0.0001) was significantly lower in patients with CSX than in healthy control patients. However, regional mean circumferential strain values (-22.0±1.6% vs. -22.2±2.3%; p=0.78) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Significant impairment of LV longitudinal myocardial systolic function was detected with STE in patients with CSX, although normal 3-D EF and tissue Doppler imaging systolic parameters were observed. Arteriosclerosis of small coronary arteries and microvascular dysfunction may affect myocardial longitudinal strain.

  14. Effects of Parental Smoking on Exercise Systolic Blood Pressure in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hacke, Claudia; Weisser, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Background In adults, exercise blood pressure seems to be more closely related to cardiovascular risk than resting blood pressure; however, few data are available on the effects of familial risk factors, including smoking habits, on exercise blood pressure in adolescents. Methods and Results Blood pressure at rest and during exercise, parental smoking, and other familial risk factors were investigated in 532 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (14.6±1.5 years) in the Kiel EX.PRESS. (EXercise PRESSure) Study. Exercise blood pressure was determined at 1.5 W/kg body weight using a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Mean resting blood pressure was 113.1±12.8/57.2±7.1 mm Hg, and exercise blood pressure was 149.9±19.8/54.2±8.6 mm Hg. Parental smoking increased exercise systolic blood pressure (+4.0 mm Hg, 3.1 to 4.9; P=0.03) but not resting blood pressure of the subjects (adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index percentile, fitness). Parental overweight and familial hypertension were related to both higher resting and exercise systolic blood pressure values, whereas associations with an inactive lifestyle and a low educational level of the parents were found only with adolescents’ blood pressure during exercise. The cumulative effect of familial risk factors on exercise systolic blood pressure was more pronounced than on blood pressure at rest. Conclusions Parental smoking might be a novel risk factor for higher blood pressure, especially during exercise. In addition, systolic blood pressure during a submaximal exercise test was more closely associated with familial risk factors than was resting blood pressure, even in adolescents. PMID:25964207

  15. Left ventricular responses to acute changes in late systolic pressure augmentation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Nancy K; Hetzel, Scott J; Skalski, Joseph; Velez, Mauricio; Eggleston, Kevin; Mitchell, Gary F

    2013-07-01

    Changes in the cardiovascular system with age may predispose older persons to development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Vascular stiffening, aortic pressure augmentation, and ventricular-vascular coupling have been implicated. We explored the potential for acute reductions in late systolic pressure augmentation to impact left ventricular relaxation in older persons without heart failure. Sixteen older persons free of known cardiovascular disease with the exception of hypertension had noninvasive tonometry and cardiac ultrasound to evaluate central augmentation index (AI) and diastolic function at baseline and after randomized, blinded administration of intravenous B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and hydralazine in a crossover design. AI was significantly reduced after BNP (11.4±8.9 to -0.2±14.7%; P = 0.02) and nonsignificantly reduced after hydralazine (14.7±8.4% to 11.5±8.8%; P = 0.39). With decreased AI during BNP, a trend toward worsened myocardial relaxation by tissue Doppler imaging occurred (E' velocity pre- and post-BNP: 10.0±2.5 and 8.8±2.0cm/s, respectively; P = 0.06). There was a significant fall in stroke volume with BNP (68.5±18.3 to 60.9±18.1ml; P = 0.02), suggesting that changes in preload overwhelmed effects of afterload reduction on ventricular performance. With hydralazine, neither relaxation nor stroke volume changed. Acute changes in late systolic aortic pressure augmentation do not necessarily lead to improved systolic or diastolic function in older people. Preload may be a more important determinant of cardiac performance than afterload in older people with compensated ventricular function. The potential for changes in preload to impair rather than enhance left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in older people warrants further study. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00204984.

  16. Effects of parental smoking on exercise systolic blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hacke, Claudia; Weisser, Burkhard

    2015-05-11

    In adults, exercise blood pressure seems to be more closely related to cardiovascular risk than resting blood pressure; however, few data are available on the effects of familial risk factors, including smoking habits, on exercise blood pressure in adolescents. Blood pressure at rest and during exercise, parental smoking, and other familial risk factors were investigated in 532 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (14.6±1.5 years) in the Kiel EX.PRESS. (EXercise PRESSure) Study. Exercise blood pressure was determined at 1.5 W/kg body weight using a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Mean resting blood pressure was 113.1±12.8/57.2±7.1 mm Hg, and exercise blood pressure was 149.9±19.8/54.2±8.6 mm Hg. Parental smoking increased exercise systolic blood pressure (+4.0 mm Hg, 3.1 to 4.9; P=0.03) but not resting blood pressure of the subjects (adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index percentile, fitness). Parental overweight and familial hypertension were related to both higher resting and exercise systolic blood pressure values, whereas associations with an inactive lifestyle and a low educational level of the parents were found only with adolescents' blood pressure during exercise. The cumulative effect of familial risk factors on exercise systolic blood pressure was more pronounced than on blood pressure at rest. Parental smoking might be a novel risk factor for higher blood pressure, especially during exercise. In addition, systolic blood pressure during a submaximal exercise test was more closely associated with familial risk factors than was resting blood pressure, even in adolescents. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. Trends in blood pressure among adults with hypertension: United States, 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung Sug; Gu, Qiuping; Nwankwo, Tatiana; Wright, Jacqueline D; Hong, Yuling; Burt, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe trends in the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension; mean blood pressure; and the classification of blood pressure among US adults 2003 to 2012. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2012, a total of 9255 adult participants aged ≥18 years were identified as having hypertension, defined as measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or taking prescription medication for hypertension. Awareness and treatment among hypertensive adults were ascertained via an interviewer administered questionnaire. Controlled hypertension among hypertensive adults was defined as systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg. Blood pressure was categorized as optimal blood pressure, prehypertension, and stage I and stage II hypertension. Between 2003 and 2012, the percentage of adults with controlled hypertension increased (P-trend <0.01). Hypertensive adults with optimal blood pressure and with prehypertension increased from 13% to 19% and 27% to 33%, respectively (P-trend <0.01 for both groups). Among hypertensive adults who were taking antihypertensive medication, uncontrolled hypertension decreased from 38% to 30% (P-trend <0.01). Similarly, a decrease in mean systolic blood pressure was observed (P-trend <0.01); however, mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged. The trend in the control of blood pressure has improved among hypertensive adults resulting in a higher percentage with blood pressure at the optimal or prehypertension level and a lower percentage in stage I and stage II hypertension. Overall, mean systolic blood pressure decreased as did the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension among the treated hypertensive population.

  18. Mild renal hypertension alters run training effects on the frequency response of rat cardiomyocyte mechanics.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Bradley M; Mokelke, Eric A; Thayer, Anne M; Moore, Russell L

    2003-11-01

    We examined the effects of run training on the frequency dependence of cardiomyocyte mechanics and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) dynamics in rats with mild renal hypertension. Male Fischer 344 rats aged 2-3 mo underwent a sham operation or stenosis of the left renal artery, which increased systolic blood pressure 20-30 mmHg. Half of the rats in each group underwent treadmill run training for >16 wk. Isolated cardiomyocytes were paced at 1.0 and 0.2 Hz in 2 mM external Ca2+ concentration at 29 degrees C. Under these conditions, negative frequency responses, i.e., decreased value with increased frequency, were recorded for peak shortening, shortening velocity, and the integral of the [Ca2+]i transient in both groups. Run training amplified the negative frequency response for the integral of the [Ca2+]i transient in both groups, but it amplified the negative frequency response for the shortening dynamics only in the normotensive sham-operated and not in the hypertensive rats. These results, as well as others for relaxation parameters, suggest that renal hypertension altered the effects of run training on the frequency response for cardiomyocyte contractile apparatus and/or passive mechanical properties, which respond to [Ca2+]i.

  19. Protective Effect of Salicornia europaea Extracts on High Salt Intake-Induced Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Panth, Nisha; Park, Sin-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Deuk-Hoi; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake causes and aggravates arterial hypertension and vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effect of Salicornia europaea extracts (SE) on vascular function and blood pressure. SE constituents were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and SE’s effect on vascular function was evaluated in isolated porcine coronary arteries. SE’s vascular protective effect was also evaluated in vivo using normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). SE mainly contained sodium chloride (55.6%), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, p-coumaric acid, and trans-ferulic acid. High sodium (160 mmol/L) induced vascular dysfunction; however, SE containing the same quantity of sodium did not cause vascular dysfunction. Among the compounds in SE, trans-ferulic acid accounts for the vascular protective effect. Normotensive rats fed a high-salt diet showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which decreased significantly in the SE-treated groups. In SHRs, high edible salt intake significantly increased SBP, DBP, and MAP, but SE intake was associated with a significantly lower MAP. Thus, SE did not induce vascular dysfunction, and trans-ferulic acid might be at least partly responsible for the vasoprotective effect of SE. Taken together, SE could be used as an alternative to purified salt to prevent and ameliorate hypertension. PMID:27455235

  20. Morning Blood Pressure Surge, Dipping, and Risk of Coronary Events in Elderly Treated Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Pierdomenico, Sante D; Pierdomenico, Anna M; Di Tommaso, Roberta; Coccina, Francesca; Di Carlo, Silvio; Porreca, Ettore; Cuccurullo, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The independent prognostic significance of morning surge (MS) of blood pressure (BP) is not yet clear. We investigated the association between MS of systolic BP and risk of coronary events in elderly treated hypertensive patients. The occurrence of coronary events was evaluated in 1,191 elderly treated hypertensive patients (age range 60-90 years). Subjects were divided according to tertiles of MS of systolic BP of the population as a whole, by dipping status and by group-specific tertiles of MS of systolic BP in dippers and nondippers. During the follow-up (9.1 ± 4.9 years, range 0.4-20 years), 120 coronary events occurred. In the population as a whole, coronary event risk was not significantly associated with tertiles of MS of systolic BP, whereas nondippers were at higher risk than dippers. When nondippers and dippers were analyzed separately, by group-specific tertiles of MS of systolic BP, coronary event risk was associated with MS of systolic BP in dippers but not in nondippers. After adjustment for various covariates, Cox regression analysis showed that dippers in the third tertile (>23 mm Hg) of MS of systolic BP (hazard ratio 1.912, 95% confidence interval 1.048-3.488, P = 0.03) and nondippers (hazard ratio 1.739, 95% confidence interval 1.074-2.815, P = 0.02) were at higher coronary event risk than dippers with MS of systolic BP <23 mm Hg . In elderly treated hypertensive patients, high MS of systolic BP predicts coronary events in dippers but not in nondippers. Nondippers, however, show higher risk of coronary events independently of MS in systolic BP. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in the Czech population].

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, Peter; Krajčoviechová, Alena; Bruthans, Jan; Cífková, Renata

    Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are inter-related ad mutually potentiating cardiovascular risk factors, which, when occurring together, strongly accelerate atherosclerosis and significantly increase cardiovascular risk.The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence and control of both risk factors in the Czech population. A 1 % population random sample aged 40-64 years was examined within the Czech post-MONICA in 2006-2009. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP 90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication. Hypercholesterolemia was defined according to cardiovascular risk and LDL-cholesterol levels or use of lipid-lowering drugs. In a group of 2 508 persons (51 % of females), hypertension was found in 52 % and hypercholesterolemia in 40 % of examined individuals. Both risk factors occurred together in 30 % of subjects. While lipid-lowering drugs were used by 39 % of individuals with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, target LDL-cholesterol were achieved by only 42 % of treated individuals. Only a total of 10 % individuals with both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia achieved target levels for both risk factors. Treatment and control of hypercholesterolemia in patients with hypertension remains unsatisfactory in the Czech Republic. Taking into account the high prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and the substantial increase in cardiovascular risk, lipid-lowering drugs should be considered in each patient with hypertension.Key words: antihypertensive drugs - Czech post-MONICA - lipid-lowering drugs - SCORE - target values - total cardiovascular risk.

  2. Diastolic dysfunction in arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Simone, G; Palmieri, V

    2001-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic properties are important markers of pump function and are frequently abnormal when myocardial insults alter tissue structure. Alterations can be limited to the early diastolic phase (early active relaxation) or to late diastolic filling (late ventricular compliance), but more often involve regulation of both phases of diastole. In asymptomatic patients with arterial hypertension, left ventricular relaxation is often prolonged, independently, at least in part, of cardiac loading conditions and left ventricular geometry, but this abnormality is associated with early signs of systolic dysfunction. Uncontrolled hypertension, diabetes, and obesity are most often associated with ischemic heart disease and impaired diastolic function. Reducing blood pressure with antihypertension therapy will reduce myocardial afterload, regress LVH, and improve systolic and diastolic function. In patients with symptoms of CHF with a normal ejection fraction, however, changes in therapy may be indicated. Greater emphasis should be placed on using medications that decrease myocardial load, but also reduce the effects of neurohormonal activation. (c)2001 by Le Jacq Communications, Inc.

  3. Preferable effects of olmesartan/calcium channel blocker to olmesartan/diuretic on blood pressure variability in very elderly hypertension: COLM study subanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Ogihara, Toshio; Saruta, Takao; Kawai, Tatsuo; Saito, Ikuo; Teramukai, Satoshi; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Katayama, Shigehiro; Higaki, Jitsuo; Odawara, Masato; Tanahashi, Norio; Kimura, Genjiroh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this subanalysis of the COLM trial [NCT00454662] were to compare visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure (BP) between age groups and between two treatment combinations, that is, the angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan combined with a calcium channel blocker (CCB), or a diuretic and to investigate the effect of VVV of BP on cardiovascular events in elderly hypertensive patients. Methods: Hypertensive patients ages 65–84 years with a history of and/or risk factors for cardiovascular disease were randomized to receive treatment with olmesartan along with either a CCB or a diuretic for at least 3 years. This subanalysis comprised 4876 patients who had their office BP measured at least three occasions (median nine occasions) during the follow-up period. VVV of BP was defined by several metrics including the within-individual standard deviation of every visit during the follow-up period. Results: VVV of SBP was larger in the very elderly group (75–84 years) than in the elderly group (65–74 years). VVV of SBP was smaller in the olmesartan along with CCB group than in the olmesartan along with diuretic group, especially in very elderly patients and also isolated systolic hypertensive patients. The incidence rate of primary endpoint increased along with an increment in the SD of SBP in all of the age and treatment groups. Conclusion: VVV of SBP may mediate the preferable effect of combination of angiotensin II receptor blocker along with CCB on cardiovascular events in the very elderly and also isolated systolic hypertensive patients. PMID:26066644

  4. Preferable effects of olmesartan/calcium channel blocker to olmesartan/diuretic on blood pressure variability in very elderly hypertension: COLM study subanalysis.

    PubMed

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Ogihara, Toshio; Saruta, Takao; Kawai, Tatsuo; Saito, Ikuo; Teramukai, Satoshi; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Katayama, Shigehiro; Higaki, Jitsuo; Odawara, Masato; Tanahashi, Norio; Kimura, Genjiroh

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this subanalysis of the COLM trial [NCT00454662] were to compare visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure (BP) between age groups and between two treatment combinations, that is, the angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan combined with a calcium channel blocker (CCB), or a diuretic and to investigate the effect of VVV of BP on cardiovascular events in elderly hypertensive patients. Hypertensive patients ages 65-84 years with a history of and/or risk factors for cardiovascular disease were randomized to receive treatment with olmesartan along with either a CCB or a diuretic for at least 3 years. This subanalysis comprised 4876 patients who had their office BP measured at least three occasions (median nine occasions) during the follow-up period. VVV of BP was defined by several metrics including the within-individual standard deviation of every visit during the follow-up period. VVV of SBP was larger in the very elderly group (75-84 years) than in the elderly group (65-74 years). VVV of SBP was smaller in the olmesartan along with CCB group than in the olmesartan along with diuretic group, especially in very elderly patients and also isolated systolic hypertensive patients. The incidence rate of primary endpoint increased along with an increment in the SD of SBP in all of the age and treatment groups. VVV of SBP may mediate the preferable effect of combination of angiotensin II receptor blocker along with CCB on cardiovascular events in the very elderly and also isolated systolic hypertensive patients.

  5. Evaluation of BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Rosati, Alessandra; M, De Marco; Basile, Anna; D'Angelo, Angela; Romano, Davide; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Falco, Antonia; Turco, Maria C

    2017-07-11

    BAG3 is a member of human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins and plays a role in apoptosis, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and autophagy. The aim of this study was to evaluate BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients. We enrolled 209 Caucasian adults, of both sex, 18-75 years of age, 77 were healthy controls, 62 were affected by hypertension, and 70 were affected by hypertension and type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent an assessment that included medical history, physical examination, vital signs, a 12-lead electrocardiogram, measurements of systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), triglycerides (TG), transaminases, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and BAG3. We observed higher blood pressure values in hypertensive, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. As expected, FPG and HbA1c were higher in diabetic hypertensive patients, compared to the other two groups. No Tg levels differences were recorded among the three groups. Hs-CRP was higher in diabetic hypertensive patients compared to healthy subjects. Finally, BAG3 levels were higher in hypertensives, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. We observed higher levels of BAG3 in hypertensive patients compared to healthy controls, and even higher levels in hypertensive diabetic patients compared to healthy subjects. This paper could be the first of a long way to identify potential involvement of deregulated BAG3 levels in cardiometabolic diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Masked Hypertension and Incident Clinic Hypertension among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Marwah; Booth, John N.; Seals, Samantha R.; Spruill, Tanya M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Diaz, Keith M.; Sims, Mario; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Masked hypertension, defined as non-elevated clinic blood pressure and elevated out-of-clinic blood pressure may be an intermediary stage in the progression from normotension to hypertension. We examined the associations of out-of-clinic blood pressure and masked hypertension using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with incident clinic hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective cohort of African Americans. Analyses included 317 participants with clinic blood pressure <140/90mmHg, complete ABPM, who were not taking antihypertensive medication at baseline in 2000–2004. Masked daytime hypertension was defined as mean daytime blood pressure ≥135/85mmHg; masked nighttime hypertension as mean nighttime blood pressure ≥120/70mmHg; and masked 24-hour hypertension as mean 24-hour blood pressure ≥130/80mmHg. Incident clinic hypertension, assessed at study visits in 2005–2008 and 2009–2012, was defined as the first visit with clinic systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg or antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 8.1 years, there were 187 (59.0%) incident cases of clinic hypertension. Clinic hypertension developed in 79.2% and 42.2% of participants with and without any masked hypertension, 85.7% and 50.4% with and without masked daytime hypertension, 79.9% and 43.7% with and without masked nighttime hypertension and 85.7% and 48.2% with and without masked 24-hour hypertension, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) of incident clinic hypertension for any masked hypertension and masked daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour hypertension were 2.13 (1.51–3.02), 1.79 (1.24–2.60), 2.22 (1.58–3.12), and 1.91 (1.32–2.75), respectively. These findings suggest that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can identify African Americans at increased risk for developing clinic hypertension. PMID:27185746

  7. Masked Hypertension and Incident Clinic Hypertension Among Blacks in the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Marwah; Booth, John N; Seals, Samantha R; Spruill, Tanya M; Viera, Anthony J; Diaz, Keith M; Sims, Mario; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-07-01

    Masked hypertension, defined as nonelevated clinic blood pressure (BP) and elevated out-of-clinic BP may be an intermediary stage in the progression from normotension to hypertension. We examined the associations of out-of-clinic BP and masked hypertension using ambulatory BP monitoring with incident clinic hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective cohort of blacks. Analyses included 317 participants with clinic BP <140/90 mm Hg, complete ambulatory BP monitoring, who were not taking antihypertensive medication at baseline in 2000 to 2004. Masked daytime hypertension was defined as mean daytime blood pressure ≥135/85 mm Hg, masked night-time hypertension as mean night-time BP ≥120/70 mm Hg, and masked 24-hour hypertension as mean 24-hour BP ≥130/80 mm Hg. Incident clinic hypertension, assessed at study visits in 2005 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012, was defined as the first visit with clinic systolic/diastolic BP ≥140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 8.1 years, there were 187 (59.0%) incident cases of clinic hypertension. Clinic hypertension developed in 79.2% and 42.2% of participants with and without any masked hypertension, 85.7% and 50.4% with and without masked daytime hypertension, 79.9% and 43.7% with and without masked night-time hypertension, and 85.7% and 48.2% with and without masked 24-hour hypertension, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of incident clinic hypertension for any masked hypertension and masked daytime, night-time, and 24-hour hypertension were 2.13 (1.51-3.02), 1.79 (1.24-2.60), 2.22 (1.58-3.12), and 1.91 (1.32-2.75), respectively. These findings suggest that ambulatory BP monitoring can identify blacks at increased risk for developing clinic hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Abnormal Vascular Function and Hypertension in Mice Deficient in Estrogen Receptor β

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan; Bian, Zhao; Lu, Ping; Karas, Richard H.; Bao, Lin; Cox, Daniel; Hodgin, Jeffrey; Shaul, Philip W.; Thorén, Peter; Smithies, Oliver; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Mendelsohn, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    Blood vessels express estrogen receptors, but their role in cardiovascular physiology is not well understood. We show that vascular smooth muscle cells and blood vessels from estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-deficient mice exhibit multiple functional abnormalities. In wild-type mouse blood vessels, estrogen attenuates vasoconstriction by an ERβ-mediated increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In contrast, estrogen augments vasoconstriction in blood vessels from ERβ-deficient mice. Vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from ERβ-deficient mice show multiple abnormalities of ion channel function. Furthermore, ERβ-deficient mice develop sustained systolic and diastolic hypertension as they age. These data support an essential role for ERβ in the regulation of vascular function and blood pressure.

  9. Systolic array IC for genetic computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D.

    Measuring similarities between large sequences of genetic information is a formidable task requiring enormous amounts of computer time. Geneticists claim that nearly two months of CRAY-2 time are required to run a single comparison of the known database against the new bases that will be found this year, and more than a CRAY-2 year for next year's genetic discoveries, and so on. The DNA IC, designed at HP-ICBD in cooperation with the California Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is being implemented in order to move the task of genetic comparison onto workstations and personal computers, while vastly improving performance. The chip is a systolic (pumped) array comprised of 16 processors, control logic, and global RAM, totaling 400,000 FETS. At 12 MHz, each chip performs 2.7 billion 16 bit operations per second. Using 35 of these chips in series on one PC board (performing nearly 100 billion operations per second), a sequence of 560 bases can be compared against the eventual total genome of 3 billion bases, in minutes--on a personal computer. While the designed purpose of the DNA chip is for genetic research, other disciplines requiring similarity measurements between strings of 7 bit encoded data could make use of this chip as well. Cryptography and speech recognition are two examples. A mix of full custom design and standard cells, in CMOS34, were used to achieve these goals. Innovative test methods were developed to enhance controllability and observability in the array. This paper describes these techniques as well as the chip's functionality. This chip was designed in the 1989-90 timeframe.

  10. Systolic array IC for genetic computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D.

    1991-01-01

    Measuring similarities between large sequences of genetic information is a formidable task requiring enormous amounts of computer time. Geneticists claim that nearly two months of CRAY-2 time are required to run a single comparison of the known database against the new bases that will be found this year, and more than a CRAY-2 year for next year's genetic discoveries, and so on. The DNA IC, designed at HP-ICBD in cooperation with the California Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is being implemented in order to move the task of genetic comparison onto workstations and personal computers, while vastly improving performance. The chip is a systolic (pumped) array comprised of 16 processors, control logic, and global RAM, totaling 400,000 FETS. At 12 MHz, each chip performs 2.7 billion 16 bit operations per second. Using 35 of these chips in series on one PC board (performing nearly 100 billion operations per second), a sequence of 560 bases can be compared against the eventual total genome of 3 billion bases, in minutes--on a personal computer. While the designed purpose of the DNA chip is for genetic research, other disciplines requiring similarity measurements between strings of 7 bit encoded data could make use of this chip as well. Cryptography and speech recognition are two examples. A mix of full custom design and standard cells, in CMOS34, were used to achieve these goals. Innovative test methods were developed to enhance controllability and observability in the array. This paper describes these techniques as well as the chip's functionality. This chip was designed in the 1989-90 timeframe.

  11. Why is control of hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa poor?

    PubMed

    Seedat, Y K

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2010, hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 115 mmHg) was the leading cause of death, increasing 67% since 1990. It was also the sixth leading cause of disability, contributing more than 11 million adjusted life years. In SSA, stroke was the main outcome of uncontrolled hypertension. Poverty is the major underlying factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This article analyses the causes of poor compliance in the treatment of hypertension in SSA and provides suggestions on the treatment of hypertension in a poverty-stricken continent.

  12. Efficient algorithm and systolic architecture for modular division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuanpeng; Qin, Zhongping

    2011-06-01

    A new efficient modular division algorithm suitable for systolic implementation and its systolic architecture is proposed in this article. With a new exit condition of while loop and a new updating method of a control variable, the new algorithm reduces the average of iteration numbers by more than 14.3% compared to the algorithm proposed by Chen, Bai and Chen. Based on the new algorithm, we design a fast systolic architecture with an optimised core computing cell. Compared to the architecture proposed by Chen, Bai and Chen, our systolic architecture has reduced the critical path delay by about 18% and the total computational time for one modular division by almost 30%, with the cost of about 1% more cells. Moreover, by the addition of a flag signal and three logic gates, the proposed systolic architecture can also perform Montgomery modular multiplication and a fast unified modular divider/multiplier is realised.

  13. Hypertension Canada's 2016 Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines for Blood Pressure Measurement, Diagnosis, Assessment of Risk, Prevention, and Treatment of Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander A; Nerenberg, Kara; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; McBrien, Kerry; Zarnke, Kelly B; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Cloutier, Lyne; Gelfer, Mark; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Milot, Alain; Bolli, Peter; Tremblay, Guy; McLean, Donna; Tobe, Sheldon W; Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; Feldman, Ross D; Selby, Peter; Pipe, Andrew; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; McFarlane, Philip A; Oh, Paul; Hegele, Robert A; Khara, Milan; Wilson, Thomas W; Penner, S Brian; Burgess, Ellen; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Rabkin, Simon W; Gilbert, Richard E; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Campbell, Norman R C; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Prebtani, Ally; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Trudeau, Luc; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Grégoire, Jean C; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra; Lear, Scott A; Moullec, Gregory; Gupta, Milan; Magee, Laura A; Logan, Alexander G; Harris, Kevin C; Dionne, Janis; Fournier, Anne; Benoit, Geneviève; Feber, Janusz; Poirier, Luc; Padwal, Raj S; Rabi, Doreen M

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension Canada's Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines Task Force provides annually updated, evidence-based recommendations to guide the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension. This year, we present 4 new recommendations, as well as revisions to 2 previous recommendations. In the diagnosis and assessment of hypertension, automated office blood pressure, taken without patient-health provider interaction, is now recommended as the preferred method of measuring in-office blood pressure. Also, although a serum lipid panel remains part of the routine laboratory testing for patients with hypertension, fasting and nonfasting collections are now considered acceptable. For individuals with secondary hypertension arising from primary hyperaldosteronism, adrenal vein sampling is recommended for those who are candidates for potential adrenalectomy. With respect to the treatment of hypertension, a new recommendation that has been added is for increasing dietary potassium to reduce blood pressure in those who are not at high risk for hyperkalemia. Furthermore, in selected high-risk patients, intensive blood pressure reduction to a target systolic blood pressure ≤ 120 mm Hg should be considered to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in hypertensive individuals with uncomplicated, stable angina pectoris, either a β-blocker or calcium channel blocker may be considered for initial therapy. The specific evidence and rationale underlying each of these recommendations are discussed. Hypertension Canada's Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines Task Force will continue to provide annual updates.

  14. Hypertension and Its Correlates Among School Adolescents in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Tanu; Ingle, G. K.; Meena, G. S.; Kishore, Jugal; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is fast emerging as a major health problem amongst all school adolescents, particularly in urban areas. Regular screening of the students for this is required for preventing the emergence of complications later in life. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the objective to determine the prevalence of hypertension amongst urban school adolescents and its correlation with anthropometric measurements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a school in Central Delhi involving all 315 students of 9th and 11th standard. A preforma was filled by the students and anthropometric measurements along with blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken for each student. Data was analyzed using Epi-info 2005 and SPSS 16.0. Results: Out of the total 315 students, 208 (66%) were boys and 107 (34%) were girls and the mean age was 14.31 ± 0.96 years. Overall prevalence of malnutrition was 24% and boys were found to be more obese as compared to girls. There were 5 students (1.6%) who were found to have systolic hypertension while 17 (5.4%) were found to have diastolic hypertension while 4.1% (n = 13) of the participants were systolic pre-hypertensive and 26% (n = 82) were in stage of diastolic pre-hypertension. Body mass index and gender were found to be independent predictor for systolic hypertension. Conclusions: Prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension was high amongst the school children. BP check-up for children and adolescents is thus recommended to take remedial action on time. PMID:24791194

  15. Changes of imidazoline receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Guang-Yuan; Chou, Ming-Ting; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Chiu, Nien-Hua; Chen, Mei-Fen; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2013-01-01

    The role of imidazoline receptors in the regulation of vascular function remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of agmatine, an imidazoline receptor agonist, on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and investigated the expressions of imidazoline receptors by Western blot. The isometric tension of aortic rings isolated from male SHRs was also estimated. Agmatine decreased SBP in a dose-dependent manner in SHRs but not in the normal group [Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats]. This reduction in SBP in SHRs was abolished by BU224, a selective antagonist of imidazoline I2-receptors. Higher expression of imidazoline receptors in SHR was observed. Moreover, agmatine-induced relaxation in isolated aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine or KCl. This relaxation was also abolished by BU224 but was not modified by efaroxan, an imidazoline I1-receptor antagonist. Agmatine-induced relaxation was also attenuated by PNU 37883, a selective blocker of vascular ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Additionally, vasodilatation by agmatine was reduced by an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA). We suggest that agmatine can lower blood pressure in SHRs through activation of the peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor, which is expressed more highly in SHRs. PMID:23176371

  16. [Aerosolized iloprost therapy for pulmonary hypertensive crisis in 4 patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Deng, Ke-wu; Zhou, Yu-jie; Xu, Xi-qi; Wu, Ming-ying; Wang, Guo-hong; Bian, Hong; Chen, Bo; Wang, Chun-bo

    2012-10-01

    To summary the efficacy and safety of aerosolized iloprost in patients with pulmonary hypertensive crisis. On the basis of conventional therapy, aerosolized iloprost (10 µg per time for 10 - 15 min in 2 hours interval, 8 times per day) was administered to four patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary hypertensive crisis. Blood pressure, heart rate, systemic artery oxygen saturation, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) measured by echocardiography and the adverse events were analyzed. After aerosolized iloprost therapy, sPAP was significantly decreased and systemic artery oxygen saturation was improved. Adverse events (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dry cough) were observed in two patients, and the iloprost use was stopped in one patient due to severe vomiting and diarrhea. Aerosolized iloprost could significantly reduce the sPAP and improve the systemic artery oxygen saturation in patients with pulmonary hypertension crisis.

  17. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate down-regulates vascular matrix metalloproteinases and ameliorates vascular dysfunction and remodelling in renovascular hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cau, SBA; Guimaraes, DA; Rizzi, E; Ceron, CS; Souza, LL; Tirapelli, CR; Gerlach, RF; Tanus-Santos, JE

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Mounting evidence implicates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in the vascular dysfunction and remodelling associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), which interferes with NF-κB-induced MMPs gene transcription, could exert antihypertensive effects, prevent MMP-2 and MMP-9 up-regulation, and protect against the functional alterations and vascular remodelling of two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) hypertension. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Sham-operated or hypertensive rats were treated with vehicle or PDTC (100 mg·Kg−1·day−1) by gavage for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored weekly. Aortic rings were isolated to assess endothelium-dependent relaxations. Quantitative morphometry of structural alterations of the aortic wall was carried out in haematoxylin/eosin sections. Formation of vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inducible (i) NOS and phosphorylated-p65 NF-κB subunit expression were measured in the aortas. MMP-2 and MMP-9 aortic levels and gelatinolytic activity were determined by gelatin and in situ zymography and by immunofluorescence. KEY RESULTS Treatment with PDTC attenuated the increases in SBP and prevented the endothelial dysfunction associated with 2K1C hypertension. Moreover, PDTC reversed the vascular aortic remodelling, the increases in aortic ROS levels and in iNOS and phosphorylated-p65 NF-κB expression found in 2K1C rats. These effects were associated with attenuation of 2K1C up-regulation of aortic MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and gelatinolytic activity. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These findings suggest that PDTC down-regulates vascular MMPs and ameliorates vascular dysfunction and remodelling in renovascular hypertension, thus providing evidence supporting the suggestion that PDTC is probably a good candidate to be used to treat hypertension. PMID:21434884

  18. Audit-based education lowers systolic blood pressure in chronic kidney disease: the Quality Improvement in CKD (QICKD) trial results

    PubMed Central

    de Lusignana, Simon; Gallagher, Hugh; Jones, Simon; Chan, Tom; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Tahir, Aumran; Thomas, Nicola; Jain, Neerja; Dmitrieva, Olga; Rafi, Imran; McGovern, Andrew; Harris, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Strict control of systolic blood pressure is known to slow progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared audit-based education (ABE) to guidelines and prompts or usual practice in lowering systolic blood pressure in people with CKD. This 2-year cluster randomized trial included 93 volunteer general practices randomized into three arms with 30 ABE practices, 32 with guidelines and prompts, and 31 usual practices. An intervention effect on the primary outcome, systolic blood pressure, was calculated using a multilevel model to predict changes after the intervention. The prevalence of CKD was 7.29% (41,183 of 565,016 patients) with all cardiovascular comorbidities more common in those with CKD. Our models showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.41 mm Hg (CI 0.59–4.29 mm Hg), in the ABE practices with an odds ratio of achieving at least a 5 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure of 1.24 (CI 1.05–1.45). Practices exposed to guidelines and prompts produced no significant change compared to usual practice. Male gender, ABE, ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure were independently associated with a greater lowering of systolic blood pressure but the converse applied to hypertension and age over 75 years. There were no reports of harm. Thus, individuals receiving ABE are more likely to achieve a lower blood pressure than those receiving only usual practice. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the wide confidence intervals. PMID:23536132

  19. Resistance Training in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Severe Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Rodrigo Vanerson Passos; Souza, Michel Kendy; Passos, Clévia Santos; Bacurau, Reury Frank Pereira; Simoes, Herbert Gustavo; Prestes, Jonato; Boim, Mirian Aparecida; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Franco, Maria do Carmo Pinho; Moraes, Milton Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance training (RT) has been recommended as a non-pharmacological treatment for moderate hypertension. In spite of the important role of exercise intensity on training prescription, there is still no data regarding the effects of RT intensity on severe hypertension (SH). Objective This study examined the effects of two RT protocols (vertical ladder climbing), performed at different overloads of maximal weight carried (MWC), on blood pressure (BP) and muscle strength of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with SH. Methods Fifteen male SHR [206 ± 10 mmHg of systolic BP (SBP)] and five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; 119 ± 10 mmHg of SBP) were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SED-WKY) and SHR (SED-SHR); RT1-SHR training relative to body weight (~40% of MWC); and RT2-SHR training relative to MWC test (~70% of MWC). Systolic BP and heart rate (HR) were measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. The progression of muscle strength was determined once every fifteen days. The RT consisted of 3 weekly sessions on non-consecutive days for 12-weeks. Results Both RT protocols prevented the increase in SBP (delta - 5 and -7 mmHg, respectively; p > 0.05), whereas SBP of the SED-SHR group increased by 19 mmHg (p < 0.05). There was a decrease in HR only for the RT1 group (p < 0.05). There was a higher increase in strength in the RT2 (140%; p < 0.05) group as compared with RT1 (11%; p > 0.05). Conclusions Our data indicated that both RT protocols were effective in preventing chronic elevation of SBP in SH. Additionally, a higher RT overload induced a greater increase in muscle strength. PMID:26840054

  20. Alterations in Diastolic Function in Masked Hypertension: Findings from the Masked Hypertension Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In a prior study of patients with diabetes, diastolic function was similarly impaired in masked hypertension (MHT) and sustained hypertension (SHT). We evaluated whether MHT is associated with impaired diastolic function compared with SHT and sustained normotension (NT) in the general population. METHODS From February 2005 to December 2010, 798 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease or treated hypertension, were enrolled in the Masked Hypertension Study. Participants underwent clinic blood pressure (CBP) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) measurements. A 2-dimensional Doppler echocardiogram was performed to evaluate diastolic function,s cardiac structure, volume, and systolic function. The 9 CBPs obtained across 3 clinic visits and awake ABP measurements were averaged. Clinic hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) ≥ 140/90 mmHg. Ambulatory hypertension was defined as awake SBP/DBP ≥ 135/85mm Hg. MHT was defined as having ambulatory but not clinic hypertension. White-coat hypertensives (n = 8) were excluded from the analysis. RESULTS Of the 790 participants, 116 (14.7%) participants had MHT, 37 (4.7%) participants had SHT, and 637 (80.6%) participants had NT. After age, sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index adjustment, compared with NT, E’-velocities were significantly lower in MHT (P < 0.01) and SHT (P < 0.05), and E/E’ ratios were significantly higher MHT (P < 0.05) and SHT (P < 0.05). These associations were independent of left ventricular mass. Diastolic function parameters did not significantly differ between MHT and SHT. CONCLUSIONS Diastolic function was impaired in MHT compared with NT independent of changes in left ventricular mass. PMID:23446956

  1. Serum cobalt in children with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nicoloff, G; Angelova, M; Christova, I; Nikolov, A; Alexiev, A

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cobalt on the cardiovascular system is one of many aspects of cobalt metabolism in humans. Elastin and collagen are the main proteins of the vascular wall. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine serum cobalt concentrations in children with hypertension; and 2) to study the correlation between serum cobalt and some biological markers of the extracellular matrix of the vascular wall, i.e., anti-elastin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Patients showed statistically significant higher levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and significantly lower serum cobalt concentrations, than controls. Children with hypertension showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.0003) and collagen type IV IgM (P = 0.04). Collagen type IV IgG levels (P = 0.027) were lower than in controls. Serum cobalt in patients showed a correlation with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.44, P = 0.05), elastin IgM (r = 0.60, P = 0.007), and collagen type IV IgG (r = -0.46, P = 0.04). Our data suggest the existence of a correlation between changes in levels of serum cobalt, total cholesterol, anti-collagen type IV antibodies, and essential hypertension in children. This is the first study of serum cobalt in children with essential hypertension.

  2. Longitudinal Patterns of Change in Systolic Blood Pressure and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Avery, Christy L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Couper, David; Kucharska-Newton, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure in midlife contributes significantly to the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, patterns of blood pressure increase may differ among individuals and may result in differential risk. Our goal was to examine the contribution of longitudinal patterns of blood pressure change to incidence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Latent class growth models were used to identify patterns of change in blood pressure across 4 clinical examinations (1987-1998) among 9845 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort participants (mean age, 53.7 [SD 5.7] years). Patterns of change in systolic blood pressure included slowly and steeply increasing, a decreasing and a sustained elevated blood pressure. Changes in diastolic and mid-blood pressure (½ systolic+½ diastolic) were less pronounced. The association of blood pressure pattern group membership with incidence of clinical outcomes was examined in follow-up from the fourth clinical examination (1996-1998) to December 31, 2011, using Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic and metabolic characteristics, and hypertension medication use. A gradient of rates of all events was observed across the identified patterns. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for covariates. Cumulative systolic blood pressure load, rather than the temporal pattern of change in systolic blood pressure itself, plays a role in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease, in particular, of heart failure and cardiovascular disease mortality, independent of blood pressure level measured at one point in time. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea: the most common secondary cause of hypertension associated with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Rodrigo P; Drager, Luciano F; Gonzaga, Carolina C; Sousa, Marcio G; de Paula, Lílian K G; Amaro, Aline C S; Amodeo, Celso; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Krieger, Eduardo M; Bradley, T Douglas; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2011-11-01

    Recognition and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension among patients with resistant hypertension may help to control blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular risk. However, there are no studies systematically evaluating secondary causes of hypertension according to the Seventh Joint National Committee. Consecutive patients with resistant hypertension were investigated for known causes of hypertension irrespective of symptoms and signs, including aortic coarctation, Cushing syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, drugs, pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, renal parenchymal disease, renovascular hypertension, and thyroid disorders. Among 125 patients (age: 52±1 years, 43% males, systolic and diastolic blood pressure: 176±31 and 107±19 mm Hg, respectively), obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index: >15 events per hour) was the most common condition associated with resistant hypertension (64.0%), followed by primary aldosteronism (5.6%), renal artery stenosis (2.4%), renal parenchymal disease (1.6%), oral contraceptives (1.6%), and thyroid disorders (0.8%). In 34.4%, no secondary cause of hypertension was identified (primary hypertension). Two concomitant secondary causes of hypertension were found in 6.4% of patients. Age >50 years (odds ratio: 5.2 [95% CI: 1.9-14.2]; P<0.01), neck circumference ≥41 cm for women and ≥43 cm for men (odds ratio: 4.7 [95% CI: 1.3-16.9]; P=0.02), and presence of snoring (odds ratio: 3.7 [95% CI: 1.3-11]; P=0.02) were predictors of obstructive sleep apnea. In conclusion, obstructive sleep apnea appears to be the most common condition associated with resistant hypertension. Age >50 years, large neck circumference measurement, and snoring are good predictors of obstructive sleep apnea in this population.

  4. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  5. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-07-06

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  6. Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

    2013-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for hypertension, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important. Active smoking is a well-known risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine, and high blood pressure among never smokers. We examined 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was secondhand smoke exposure among never smokers, estimated by serum cotinine level, and our main outcome was hypertension (n=1004). We found that in never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with hypertension. In comparison with those with serum cotinine levels ≤ 0.025 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with serum cotinine levels ≥ 0.218 ng/mL was 1.44 (1.01-2.04). In addition, higher serum cotinine was positively associated with mean change in systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.24 [0.86-5.63]; P=0.0061). However, no association was present with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in never smokers, higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension independent of age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol, and other confounders.

  7. Perceived racial discrimination and hypertension: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dolezsar, Cynthia M; McGrath, Jennifer J; Herzig, Alyssa J M; Miller, Sydney B

    2014-01-01

    Discrimination is posited to underlie racial disparities in hypertension. Extant literature suggests a possible association between racial discrimination and blood pressure, although inconsistent findings have been reported. The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate the association between perceived racial discrimination with hypertensive status and systolic, diastolic, and ambulatory blood pressure. Electronic database search of PubMed and PsycINFO (keywords: blood pressure/hypertension/diastolic/systolic, racism/discrimination/prejudice/unfair treatment) was combined with descendancy and ascendancy approaches. Forty-four articles (N = 32,651) met inclusion criteria. Articles were coded for demographics, hypertensive diagnosis, blood pressure measurement, discrimination measure and constructs, study quality, and effect sizes. Random effects meta-analytic models were tested based on Fisher's Z, the derived common effect size metric. Overall, perceived racial discrimination was associated with hypertensive status, Zhypertension = 0.048, 95% CI [.013, .087], but not with resting blood pressure, Zsystolic = 0.011, 95% CI [-.006, .031], Zdiastolic = .016, 95% CI [-.006, .034]. Moderators that strengthened the relation included sex (male), race (Black), age (older), education (lower), and hypertensive status. Perceived discrimination was most strongly associated with nighttime ambulatory blood pressure, especially among Blacks. Despite methodological limitations in the existing literature, there was a small, significant association between perceived discrimination and hypertension. Future studies should consider ambulatory nighttime blood pressure, which may more accurately capture daily variation attributable to experienced racial discrimination. Perceived discrimination may partly explain racial health disparities. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Effects of propofol on the systolic and diastolic performance of the postischaemic, reperfused myocardium in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Leather, H A; De Wolff, M H; Wouters, P F

    2003-03-01

    The effect of propofol on myocardial dysfunction during ischaemia and reperfusion is controversial yet important because of its frequent use in cardiac anaesthesia. Although animal studies suggest a free radical-scavenging potential, the cardioprotective properties of propofol have not been demonstrated consistently in vivo. Previous studies focused on systolic function while diastolic function may be a more sensitive marker of ischaemic injury. The main aim was to document the effect of propofol on diastolic function in isolated, blood perfused rabbit hearts subjected to moderate global ischaemia and reperfusion. Propofol 168 micromol L(-1), or the equivalent of its vehicle, Intralipid, was administered to 34 paced parabiotic Langendorff blood-perfused isolated rabbit hearts before and after 30 min of global normothermic ischaemia. Recovery of systolic function was quantified with the maximum rate of rise of left ventricular pressure. Diastolic performance was assessed using the time constant of the decline in left ventricular pressure (tau) and chamber stiffness (VdP/dV at 12 mmHg). Recovery of systolic function during reperfusion was comparable in the two groups. There was no difference in left ventricular pressure between the two groups at any time during the experiments. Chamber stiffness increased significantly during ischaemia and reperfusion in the control group (from 34 +/- 9 to 54 +/- 8 mmHg during ischaemia, and 43 +/- 5 mmHg after 30 min reperfusion; mean +/-95% confidence interval) but not in the propofol-treated group (29 +/- 5, 36 +/- 8 and 30 +/- 8 at baseline, ischaemia and 30 min reperfusion, respectively). Propofol has no protective effect on active relaxation or on systolic function in the present model, but it reduces ischaemic and postischaemic chamber stiffness.

  9. Antihypertensive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Crataegus Azarolus Subspecies Aronia Fruit in Rats with Renovascular Hypertension: An Experimental Mechanistic Study

    PubMed Central

    Haydari, Mohammad Reza; Panjeshahin, Mohammad Reza; Mashghoolozekr, Elaheh; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hawthorn species decreases blood pressure and relaxes precontracted vessels. This study aimed at examining the antihypertensive effect and related mechanisms of hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus azarolus subspecies aronia fruit in rats with renovascular hypertension. Methods: Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats, each containing 6 to 8 rats, were studied. The groups comprised of one sham group and 5 renal artery-clipped groups. The sham group received vehicle (distilled water 0.5 ml/day) and the renal artery-clipped groups received vehicle or the extract at 5, 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg/day. Oral vehicle or extract was administered daily for 4 weeks following sham-operation or induction of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured weekly. Isolated aorta study was performed by last week and serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were measured. The findings were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests at P≤0.05 using SigmaStat software. Results: The data obtained after 4 weeks of treatment showed that the renal artery-clipped group receiving vehicle had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (P=0.002) and phenylephrine maximal response (P=0.01); and lower acetylcholine maximal response (P=0.01), serum superoxide dismutase (P=0.006) and serum glutathione reductase (P=0.006) than those of the sham group. The renal artery-clipped group receiving extract had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (P=0.03) and phenylephrine maximal response (P=0.01); and significantly higher acetylcholine maximal response (P=0.01), serum superoxide dismutase (P=0.015), and serum glutathione reductase (P=0.015) than those of the renal artery-clipped group receiving vehicle. Conclusion: Our findings show that the hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus azarolus subspecies aronia fruit has antihypertensive effects, which may be partly due to antioxidant and nitric oxide releasing effects. PMID

  10. Antihypertensive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Crataegus Azarolus Subspecies Aronia Fruit in Rats with Renovascular Hypertension: An Experimental Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Haydari, Mohammad Reza; Panjeshahin, Mohammad Reza; Mashghoolozekr, Elaheh; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar

    2017-05-01

    Hawthorn species decreases blood pressure and relaxes precontracted vessels. This study aimed at examining the antihypertensive effect and related mechanisms of hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus azarolus subspecies aronia fruit in rats with renovascular hypertension. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats, each containing 6 to 8 rats, were studied. The groups comprised of one sham group and 5 renal artery-clipped groups. The sham group received vehicle (distilled water 0.5 ml/day) and the renal artery-clipped groups received vehicle or the extract at 5, 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg/day. Oral vehicle or extract was administered daily for 4 weeks following sham-operation or induction of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured weekly. Isolated aorta study was performed by last week and serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were measured. The findings were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range tests at P≤0.05 using SigmaStat software. The data obtained after 4 weeks of treatment showed that the renal artery-clipped group receiving vehicle had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (P=0.002) and phenylephrine maximal response (P=0.01); and lower acetylcholine maximal response (P=0.01), serum superoxide dismutase (P=0.006) and serum glutathione reductase (P=0.006) than those of the sham group. The renal artery-clipped group receiving extract had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (P=0.03) and phenylephrine maximal response (P=0.01); and significantly higher acetylcholine maximal response (P=0.01), serum superoxide dismutase (P=0.015), and serum glutathione reductase (P=0.015) than those of the renal artery-clipped group receiving vehicle. Our findings show that the hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus azarolus subspecies aronia fruit has antihypertensive effects, which may be partly due to antioxidant and nitric oxide releasing effects.

  11. Importance of ischaemic time as a predictor of LV systolic function in Indians.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shuvanan; Chattopadhyay, Bhabani Prasad; Ghosh, A K; Ray, Shilanjan; Kundu, Subhas; Deb, Pradip; Bannerjee, Amal

    2010-01-01

    Sucessful reperfusion therapy in AMI improves LV systolic function. Success in thrombolytic therapy is directly related to the ischaemic time. Our aim in the present study was to observe the importance of ischaemic time as a predictor of left ventricular systolic function in patients undergoing PPCI. In addition, the contribution of presentation delay in determining the ischaemic time in the Indian scenario was also observed. The present pilot study was carried out on 48 Indian patients (Male-40) of STEMI (Killip class I & II) undergoing primary PCI in last 2 yrs. Suggestive chest pain, ECG evidence of STEMI coming within 12 hrs were the inclusion criteria. Patients coming after 12 hours without ongoing chest pain, Killip class III & IV, the patients who were thrombolysed outside and the patients with prior PCland/or CABG were excluded from the study. Cardiac echodoppler study was done in every patient during followup at one month.Every patient received pre and peri procedural abciximab infusion and thrombosuction was done in all before deployment of BMS during the transfemoral primary PCI. Data analysis revealed mean age was 57.6 yrs, male preponderance (80%),diabetes (35%),hypertension (61%), Smoking (61%), average total ischaemic time 7.6 +/- 3.78 hours, average presentation delay 6.26 +/- 3.77 hrs, average door to balloon time 60 +/- 14 mins, SVD (69%), LAD involvement(60%). Multivariate regression analysis without considering any other factor showed predicted LV Systolic function one month post PPCI to be 74.08%. Mean LVEF: 58.2%. Most interesting observation is 0.63% reduction of predicted LVEF for each hour increment of ischaemic time. Also LAD occlusion is associated with 4.91% reduction of predicted LVEF compared to other vessel(s) involvement. All the 48 patients who underwent PPCI not only survived but also had good LV Systolic function one month post PPCI. Ischaemic time is an important predictor of LV Systolic function even after PPCI. lncrease in

  12. Recruitment strategies and challenges in a large intervention trial: Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Thomas M; Snyder, Joni K; Lovato, Laura C; Roumie, Christianne L; Glasser, Steven P; Cosgrove, Nora M; Olney, Christine M; Tang, Rocky H; Johnson, Karen C; Still, Carolyn H; Gren, Lisa H; Childs, Jeffery C; Crago, Osa L; Summerson, John H; Walsh, Sandy M; Perdue, Letitia H; Bankowski, Denise M; Goff, David C

    2016-06-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial of 9361 participants with hypertension who are ≥50 years old. The trial is designed to evaluate the effect of intensive systolic blood pressure control (systolic blood pressure goal <120 mm Hg) compared to standard control (systolic blood pressure goal <140 mm Hg) on cardiovascular events using commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications and lifestyle modification. To describe the recruitment strategies and lessons learned during recruitment of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial cohort and five targeted participant subgroups: pre-existing cardiovascular disease, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, age ≥75 years, women, and minorities. In collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Project Office and Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial Coordinating Center, five Clinical Center Networks oversaw clinical site selection, recruitment, and trial activities. Recruitment began on 8 November 2010 and ended on 15 March 2013 (about 28 months). Various recruitment strategies were used, including mass mailing, brochures, referrals from healthcare providers or friends, posters, newspaper ads, radio ads, and electronic medical record searches. Recruitment was scheduled to last 24 months to enroll a target of 9250 participants; in just over 28 months, the trial enrolled 9361 participants. The trial screened 14,692 volunteers, with 33% of initial screens originating from the use of mass mailing lists. Screening results show that participants also responded to recruitment efforts through referral by Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial staff, healthcare providers, or friends (45%); brochures or posters placed in clinic waiting areas (15%); and television, radio, newspaper, Internet ads, or toll-free numbers (8%). The overall recruitment yield (number randomized/number screened) was 64% (9361 randomized/14,692 screened), 77% for those

  13. Depression increases the risk for uncontrolled hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Rodriguez-Lopez, Leticia; Vargas-Ayala, German; Huerta-Ramirez, Saul; Serna, David Castro; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose Juan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because hypertension and depression share common pathways, it is possible that each disease has an impact on the natural history of the other. OBJECTIVE: To determinate whether depression influences blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. METHODS: Forty hypertensive patients undergoing antihypertensive treatment, excluding beta-blockers and central-acting agents, self-measured their blood pressure several times a day for three days using a validated, commercially available device. All patients also completed the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale survey for depression. Associations between the results of the blood pressure and depression tests were determined using the Spearman correlation coefficient; RR was also measured. RESULTS: Of the 40 patients, 23 were depressed, and 21 of these 23 had poor control of their blood pressure. The RR for uncontrolled hypertension in depressed patients was 15.5. A significant correlation between systolic (r=0.713) and diastolic (r=0.52) blood pressure values and depression was found. CONCLUSION: Depression is common in patients with uncontrolled hypertension and may interfere with blood pressure control. Screening for depression in hypertensive patients is a simple and cost-effective tool that may improve outcomes. PMID:24294029

  14. Research on red cell membrane permeability in arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gatina, R; Balta, N; Moisin, C; Burtea, C; Botea, S; Ioan, M; Teleianu, C

    1998-01-01

    Arterial hypertension, including the elucidation of hypertension pathogenic mechanisms involving elements in the composition of the blood, continues to represent a topical research area. Recent work, such as nuclear magnetic resonance studies looking into red cell permeability, illustrates the presence of modifications of red cell permeability to water (RCPW) related to the stage of arterial hypertension. The identification of a significant increase of RCPW compared to that present in the population with normal arterial pressure values can be useful both in early diagnosis and in warning about a possible predisposition for this condition. At the same time, the dynamic investigation of protonic relaxation time of both intra- and extra-erythrocytic water, the assessment of proton exchange time across the red cell and the calculation of permeability to water enable one not only to diagnose arterial hypertension but also to ascertain the evolution of the disease, its complications and the effectiveness of anti-hypertensive medication. Our studies have also proven the existence of a correlation between the values of systolic arterial pressure and red cell permeability to water. The curve describing the interdependence of the two values has the shape of a bell, in the case of males. The peak of the curve is reached for a systolic pressure of 160 mmHg and gets below the values of the control group in the case of systolic pressures above 200 mmHg. The RCPW test can also be considered a valuable indicator in evaluating the risk of stroke in hypertensive patients. In the chronic therapy of arterial hypertension with various types of anti-hypertensive drugs, one can note differences in the RCPW values related to the effectiveness of the respective medication, to the clinical form and stage of the disease, the sex of the patient as well as to the existence of cerebro-vascular complications.

  15. Are hot tubs safe for people with treated hypertension?

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Tae Won; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Background People with hypertension are commonly warned to check with a physician before using a hot tub, but there is little literature on which to base this advice. We compared symptoms, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in response to 10 minutes of hot-tub immersion in a group of patients with treated hypertension and in a control group normotensive subjects. Methods We recruited 21 patients (18 men and 3 women aged 43–76 years) with stable, treated hypertension and 23 control subjects (14 men and 9 women aged 19–83 years) without hypertension. They were studied, in mid-afternoon, at a public facility. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured at baseline, during immersion in a hot tub at 40°C and for 10 minutes after immersion. We asked each subject to report any symptoms. Results None of the subjects reported dizziness, chest pain or palpitations. During immersion, systolic blood pressure fell in both groups, from a mean (and standard deviation [SD]) of 144 (17) mm Hg to 122 (18) mm Hg in the hypertensive group (p < 0.05) and from 130 (14) mm Hg to 110 (17) mm Hg in the control group (p < 0.05). It returned toward baseline within 10 minutes after the subjects left the hot tub. Diastolic blood pressure also fell, whereas heart rate was increased in both groups. The hypertensive group showed a slightly lower maximal increase in heart rate than the normotensive group (5 [SD 5] v. 13 [SD 10] beats/minute, p < 0.05). Interpretation Immersion in a hot tub for 10 minutes lowers blood pressure in subjects with treated hypertension, but no more than in normotensive control subjects. Spending 10 minutes in a hot tub should be safe for most treated hypertensive patients. PMID:14662661

  16. Are hot tubs safe for people with treated hypertension?

    PubMed

    Shin, Tae Won; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas W

    2003-12-09

    People with hypertension are commonly warned to check with a physician before using a hot tub, but there is little literature on which to base this advice. We compared symptoms, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in response to 10 minutes of hot-tub immersion in a group of patients with treated hypertension and in a control group normotensive subjects. We recruited 21 patients (18 men and 3 women aged 43-76 years) with stable, treated hypertension and 23 control subjects (14 men and 9 women aged 19-83 years) without hypertension. They were studied, in mid-afternoon, at a public facility. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured at baseline, during immersion in a hot tub at 40 degrees C and for 10 minutes after immersion. We asked each subject to report any symptoms. None of the subjects reported dizziness, chest pain or palpitations. During immersion, systolic blood pressure fell in both groups, from a mean (and standard deviation [SD]) of 144 (17) mm Hg to 122 (18) mm Hg in the hypertensive group (p < 0.05) and from 130 (14) mm Hg to 110 (17) mm Hg in the control group (p < 0.05). It returned toward baseline within 10 minutes after the subjects left the hot tub. Diastolic blood pressure also fell, whereas heart rate was increased in both groups. The hypertensive group showed a slightly lower maximal increase in heart rate than the normotensive group (5 [SD 5] v. 13 [SD 10] beats/minute, p < 0.05). Immersion in a hot tub for 10 minutes lowers blood pressure in subjects with treated hypertension, but no more than in normotensive control subjects. Spending 10 minutes in a hot tub should be safe for most treated hypertensive patients.

  17. Intradialytic hypertension and its association with endothelial cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Inrig, Jula K; Van Buren, Peter; Kim, Catherine; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Povsic, Thomas J; Toto, Robert D

    2011-08-01

    Intradialytic hypertension is associated with adverse outcomes, yet the mechanism is uncertain. Patients with intradialytic hypertension exhibit imbalances in endothelial-derived vasoregulators nitric oxide and endothelin-1, indirectly suggesting endothelial cell dysfunction. We hypothesized that intradialytic hypertension is associated in vivo with endothelial cell dysfunction, a novel predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We performed a case-control cohort study including 25 hemodialysis (HD) subjects without (controls) and 25 with intradialytic hypertension (an increase in systolic BP pre- to postdialysis ≥10 mmHg ≥4/6 consecutive HD sessions). The primary outcome was peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) assessed by aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(br)) and cell surface marker expression (CD34(+)CD133(+)). We also assessed endothelial function by ultrasonographic measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) normalized for shear stress. Parametric and nonparametric t tests were used to compare EPCs, FMD, and BP. Baseline characteristics and comorbidities were similar between groups. Compared with controls, 2-week average predialysis systolic BP was lower among subjects with intradialytic hypertension (144.0 versus 155.5 mmHg), but postdialysis systolic BP was significantly higher (159.0 versus 128.1 mmHg). Endothelial cell function was impaired among subjects with intradialytic hypertension as measured by decreased median ALDH(br) cells and decreased CD34(+)CD133(+) cells (ALDH(br), 0.034% versus 0.053%; CD34(+)CD133(+), 0.033% versus 0.059%). FMD was lower among subjects with intradialytic hypertension (1.03% versus 1.67%). Intradialytic hypertension is associated with endothelial cell dysfunction. We propose that endothelial cell dysfunction may partially explain the higher event rates observed in these patients.

  18. Assessment of pulmonary artery systolic pressures by stress Doppler echocardiography after bilateral lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kasimir, Marie-Theres; Mereles, Derliz; Aigner, Clemens; Jaksch, Peter; Benz, Andreas; Kreuscher, Sandra; Klepetko, Walter; Grünig, Ekkehard

    2008-01-01

    Even after successful single-lung transplantation (SLTx) or bilateral lung transplantation (BLTx), patients continue to have peripheral muscle weakness and exercise impairment. After SLTx, exercise limitation is also attributed to persistent or recurrent pulmonary vascular abnormalities with elevated pulmonary arterial pressures at rest or during exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate systolic pulmonary artery pressures (PASPs) at rest and during supine bicycle exercise, exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary function in post-BLTx patients. Nine patients underwent BLTx due to end-stage pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and 37 age- and gender-matched control subjects underwent a physical examination, electrocardiographic (ECG) test, a 6-minute walk test, a lung function test, a cardiopulmonary exercise test and echocardiographic assessment at rest and during exercise. Exercise capacity was significantly reduced in the BLTx group, with an impaired 6-minute walk test and maximal oxygen uptake and workload. Ventilatory factors did not appear to limit exercise capacity. Right and left ventricular size and pump function and PASP values at rest were normal in both groups, but exceeded 40 mm Hg in 3 of 9 BLTx recipients and in 1 of 37 controls during exercise at low workloads. Mean PASP during exercise was only slightly higher in the BLTx group (40 +/- 5 vs 36 +/- 4 mm Hg, p = not statistically significant). Reduced exercise capacity of patients after BLTx due to end-stage pulmonary hypertension is not attributed to persistent or recurrent manifest pulmonary hypertension or cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Nevertheless, latent pulmonary hypertension with exaggerated pulmonary artery pressures during exercise may occur in some patients.

  19. Pathophysiology and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Castro, Oswaldo L; Machado, Roberto F

    2016-02-18

    Pulmonary hypertension affects ∼10% of adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), particularly those with the homozygous genotype. An increase in pulmonary artery systolic pressure, estimated noninvasively by echocardiography, helps identify SCD patients at risk for pulmonary hypertension, but definitive diagnosis requires right-heart catheterization. About half of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension patients have precapillary pulmonary hypertension with potential etiologies of (1) a nitric oxide deficiency state and vasculopathy consequent to intravascular hemolysis, (2) chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, or (3) upregulated hypoxic responses secondary to anemia, low O2 saturation, and microvascular obstruction. The remainder have postcapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. Although the pulmonary artery pressure in SCD patients with pulmonary hypertension is only moderately elevated, they have a markedly higher risk of death than patients without pulmonary hypertension. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension were published recently by the American Thoracic Society. Management of adults with sickle-related pulmonary hypertension is based on anticoagulation for those with thromboembolism; oxygen therapy for those with low oxygen saturation; treatment of left ventricular failure in those with postcapillary pulmonary hypertension; and hydroxyurea or transfusions to raise the hemoglobin concentration, reduce hemolysis, and prevent vaso-occlusive events that cause additional increases in pulmonary pressure. Randomized trials have not identified drugs to lower pulmonary pressure in SCD patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Patients with hemodynamics of pulmonary arterial hypertension should be referred to specialized centers and considered for treatments known to be effective in other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. There have been reports that some of these treatments

  20. Optimal Systolic Blood Pressure Target After SPRINT: Insights from a Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Bangalore, Sripal; Toklu, Bora; Gianos, Eugenia; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Weintraub, Howard; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Messerli, Franz H

    2017-06-01

    and safety. In patients with hypertension, a on-treatment systolic BP target of <130 mm Hg achieved optimal balance between efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Congestive Heart Failure With Apparently Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function: A 10-Year Observational Study.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Shabana, Adel; Arabi, Abdulrahman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Asaad, Nidal; AlBinALi, Hajar; Singh, Rajvir; Gomaa, Mohammed; Gehani, A

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed the clinical presentation and outcomes (from 2003 to 2013) of heart failure (HF) with apparently normal systolic function (HFPEF). Based on the echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), patients were divided into 2 groups, group 1 (<50%) and group 2 (≥50%). Of 2212 patients with HF, 20% were in group 2. Patients in group 2 were more likely to be older, females, Arabs, hypertensive, and obese (P = .001). Patients in group 1 were mostly Asians and had more troponin-T positivity (P = .001). Inhospital cardiac arrest, shock, and deaths were significantly greater in group 1. On multivariate analysis, age, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, lack of on-admission β-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors use were independent predictors of mortality. HFPEF is associated with less mortality compared to those who presented with reduced LVEF. On admission, use of evidence-based medications could in part predict this difference in the hospital outcome.

  2. Hypertension and exercise.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K

    1993-11-01

    A sedentary lifestyle may be a risk for hypertension, according to the results of both cross sectional and longitudinal studies. However, exercise may reverse the adverse effects of lack of activity. Many controlled studies have shown that exercise lowers systolic/diastolic blood pressure by at least 10/5 mmHg. Exercise not only improves blood pressure, but also attenuates other risk factors for cardiovascular complications. Dynamic isotonic exercise (e.g., weight lifting). Milder (e.g., brisk walking for 30-60 minutes/day) rather than moderate to severe exercise (e.g., running) is also recommended because of similar effectiveness and better compliance. The underlying mechanism of action of exercise on blood pressure seems to be multifactorial involving a decrease in pressor factors such as plasma norepinephrine, the serum Na/K ratio, endogenous ouabain-like substance and erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume, as well as an increase in depressor factors such as plasma prostaglandin E, serum taurine and urinary dopamine excretion.

  3. Sodium intake and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Karppanen, Heikki; Mervaala, Eero

    2006-01-01

    In current diets, the level of sodium is very high, whereas that of potassium, calcium, and magnesium is low compared with the level in diets composed of unprocessed, natural foods. We present the biologic rationale and scientific evidence that show that the current salt intake levels largely explain the high prevalence of hypertension. Comprehensive reduction of salt intake, both alone and particularly in combination with increases in intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium, is able to lower average blood pressure levels substantially. During the past 30 years, the one-third decrease in the average salt intake has been accompanied by a more than 10-mm Hg fall in the population average of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and a 75% to 80% decrease in both stroke and coronary heart disease mortality in Finland. There is no evidence of any harmful effects of salt reduction. Salt-reduction recommendations alone have a very small, if any, population impact. In the United States, for example, the per capita use of salt increased by approximately 55% from the mid-1980s to the late 1990s. We deal with factors that contribute toward increasing salt intakes and present examples of the methods that have contributed to the successful salt reduction in Finland.

  4. The Isometric Handgrip Exercise As a Test for Unmasking Hypertension in the Offsprings of Hypertensive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rinku; Malhotra, Varun; Dhar, Usha; Tripathi, Yogesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: A familial history of hypertension increases the risk of hypertension in the offsprings. Aims and objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the underlying hypertension by using the Isometric Handgrip (IHG) exercise test in the offsprings of hypertensive parents and to compare it with age-matched controls of normotensive parents. Material and Methods: The isometric handgrip test was performed in the study and control groups. The resting blood pressure was recorded before exercise and afterwards the subjects were asked to perform the isometric handgrip exercise with the dominant hand for 2 minutes. Then the blood pressure was recorded in the sitting position during and 5 minutes after the completion of the exercise. Statistical Analysis: The analysis of the results was done by ANOVA with SPSS, version 17.0, by using the unpaired ‘t’ test. Results: The results showed that the Resting Systolic (SBP), Diastolic (DBP) and the Mean (MBP) Blood Pressures were higher (p <0.001) in the offsprings of the hypertensive parents as compared to those in the control subjects of normotensive parents. During the isometric handgrip exercise test, the rise in the systolic, diastolic and the mean blood pressures was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the offsprings of the hypertensive parents. After 5 minutes of exercise, the SBP, DBP and the MBP were found to be significantly higher (p<0.001) in the study group as compared to those in the control group. Conclusions: An early and a regular screening of the children of hypertensive parents is necessary to prevent any future cardiovascular complications. PMID:23905088

  5. Prognostic utility of blood pressure-adjusted global and basal systolic longitudinal strain.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Isaac B; Rehman, Shuja; Jarori, Upasana; Choudhry, Muhammad W; Feigenbaum, Harvey; Sawada, Stephen G

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) and longitudinal systolic strain of the basal segments (BLS) has shown prognostic value in cardiac disorders. However, strain is reduced with increased afterload. We assessed the prognostic value of GLS and BLS adjusted for afterload. GLS and BLS were determined in 272 subjects with normal ejection fraction and no known coronary disease, or significant valve disease. Systolic blood pressure (SP) and diastolic blood pressure (DP) obtained at the time of echocardiography were used to adjust GLS and BLS as follows: strain×SP (mmHg)/120 mmHg and strain×DP (mmHg)/80 mmHg. Patients were followed for cardiac events and mortality. The mean age was 53±15 years and 53% had hypertension. There were 19 cardiac events and 70 deaths over a mean follow-up of 26±14 months. Cox analysis showed that left ventricular mass index (P=0.001), BLS (P<0.001), and DP-adjusted BLS (P<0.001) were independent predictors of cardiac events. DP-adjusted BLS added incremental value (P<0.001) to the other two predictors and had an area under the curve of 0.838 for events. DP (P=0.001), age (P=0.001), ACE inhibitor use (P=0.017), and SP-adjusted BLS (P=0.012) were independent predictors of mortality. SP-adjusted BLS added incremental value (P=0.014) to the other independent predictors. In conclusion, DP-adjusted BLS and SP-adjusted BLS were independent predictors of cardiac events and mortality, respectively. Blood pressure-adjusted strain added incremental prognostic value to other predictors of outcome.

  6. Prognostic utility of blood pressure-adjusted global and basal systolic longitudinal strain

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, Isaac B; Rehman, Shuja; Choudhry, Muhammad W; Feigenbaum, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Assessment of global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) and longitudinal systolic strain of the basal segments (BLS) has shown prognostic value in cardiac disorders. However, strain is reduced with increased afterload. We assessed the prognostic value of GLS and BLS adjusted for afterload. GLS and BLS were determined in 272 subjects with normal ejection fraction and no known coronary disease, or significant valve disease. Systolic blood pressure (SP) and diastolic blood pressure (DP) obtained at the time of echocardiography were used to adjust GLS and BLS as follows: strain×SP (mmHg)/120 mmHg and strain×DP (mmHg)/80 mmHg. Patients were followed for cardiac events and mortality. The mean age was 53±15 years and 53% had hypertension. There were 19 cardiac events and 70 deaths over a mean follow-up of 26±14 months. Cox analysis showed that left ventricular mass index (P=0.001), BLS (P<0.001), and DP-adjusted BLS (P<0.001) were independent predictors of cardiac events. DP-adjusted BLS added incremental value (P<0.001) to the other two predictors and had an area under the curve of 0.838 for events. DP (P=0.001), age (P=0.001), ACE inhibitor use (P=0.017), and SP-adjusted BLS (P=0.012) were independent predictors of mortality. SP-adjusted BLS added incremental value (P=0.014) to the other independent predictors. In conclusion, DP-adjusted BLS and SP-adjusted BLS were independent predictors of cardiac events and mortality, respectively. Blood pressure-adjusted strain added incremental prognostic value to other predictors of outcome. PMID:27249810

  7. Baseline Characteristics of African Americans in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    PubMed Central

    Still, Carolyn H.; Craven, Timothy E.; Freedman, Barry I.; Van Buren, Peter; Sink, Kaycee M.; Killeen, Anthony A.; Bates, Jeffrey T.; Bee, Alberta; Contreras, Gabriel; Oparil, Suzanne; Pedley, Carolyn; Wall, Barry; White, Suzanne; Woods, Delia; Rodriguez, Carlos; Wright, Jackson T.

    2015-01-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) will compare treatment to a systolic blood pressure goal of <120 mmHg to treatment to the currently recommended goal of <140 mmHg for effects on incident cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic outcomes including cognitive decline. Objectives The objectives of this analysis are to compare baseline characteristics of African American (AA) and non-AA SPRINT participants and explore factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) by race. Methods SPRINT enrolled 9,361 hypertensive participants over age 50. This cross-sectional analysis examines sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and study measures among AAs compared to non-AAs. Results AAs made up 31% of participants. AAs (compared to non-AAs) were younger and less frequently male, had less education, and were more likely uninsured or covered by Medicaid. In addition, AAs scored lower on the cognitive screening test when compared to non-AAs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found BP control rates to <140/90 mmHg were higher for AAs who were male, had higher number of chronic diseases, were on diuretic treatment, and had better medication adherence. Conclusion SPRINT is well poised to examine the effects of SBP targets on clinical outcomes as well as predictors influencing BP control in AAs. PMID:26320890

  8. Dealcoholized red wine decreases systolic and diastolic blood pressure and increases plasma nitric oxide: short communication.

    PubMed

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Ros, Emilio; Arranz, Sara; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Llorach, Rafael; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon

    2012-09-28

    Experimental studies have shown a potential blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of red wine polyphenols, whereas the effects of ethanol and polyphenols on BP in humans are not yet clear. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of red wine fractions (alcoholic and nonalcoholic) on BP and plasma nitric oxide (NO) in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Sixty-seven men at high cardiovascular risk were studied. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomized into 3 treatment periods in a crossover clinical trial, with a common background diet plus red wine (30g alcohol/day), the equivalent amount of dealcoholized red wine, or gin (30g alcohol/day), lasting 4 weeks each intervention. At baseline and after each intervention, anthropometrical parameters, BP and plasma NO were measured. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly after the dealcoholized red wine intervention and these changes correlated with increases in plasma NO. Dealcoholized red wine decreases systolic and diastolic BP. Our results point out through an NO-mediated mechanism. The daily consumption of dealcoholized red wine could be useful for the prevention of low to moderate hypertension. Trial registered at controlled-trials.com: ISRCTN88720134.

  9. Impact of Stress Reduction Interventions on Hostility and Ambulatory Systolic Blood Pressure in African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Lynda Brown; Gregoski, Mathew J.; Tingen, Martha S.; Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM), life skills (LS) training, and health education (HE) interventions on self-reported hostility and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in 121 African American (AA) ninth graders at increased risk for development of essential hypertension. They were randomly assigned to BAM, LS, or HE and engaged in intervention sessions during health class for 3 months. Before, after, and 3 months following intervention cessation, self-reported hostility and 24-hour ABP were measured. Results indicated that between pre- and postintervention, BAM participants displayed significant reductions in self-reported hostility and 24-hour systolic ABP. Reductions in hostility were significantly related to reductions in 24-hour systolic ABP. Between postintervention and follow-up, participants receiving LS showed a significant reduction in hostility but not in 24-hour ABP. Significant changes were not found for the HE group in 24-hour ABP or self-reported hostility, but these change scores were significantly correlated. The implications of the findings are discussed with regard to behavioral stress reduction programs for the physical and emotional health of AAs. PMID:22485058

  10. Taking the Tension Out of Hypertension: A Prospective Study of Psychological Well-Being and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    TRUDEL-FITZGERALD, Claudia; BOEHM, Julia K.; KIVIMAKI, Mika; KUBZANSKY, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that psychological well-being is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether well-being might be specifically associated with reduced risk of hypertension has not been rigorously investigated in prospective studies. Objective This study examined the prospective association between two measures of psychological well-being and incident hypertension. Methods Participants were 6,384 healthy British civil servants age 39 to 63 from the Whitehall II cohort. Psychological well-being (emotional vitality and optimism) and cardiovascular risk factors (demographic characteristics, health status, health behaviors, psychological ill-being) were assessed during the 1991-1994 baseline. Incident hypertension was defined by clinical measures of systolic or diastolic blood pressure >140/90 mmHg, self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, or treatment for hypertension. Follow-up assessments of hypertension took place approximately every three years through 2002-2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated hazard ratios. Results There were 2,304 cases of incident hypertension during the follow-up period. High versus low emotional vitality was associated with a significantly reduced risk of hypertension in an age-adjusted model (hazard ratio = 0.89; 95% confidence interval 0.80-0.98). This association was maintained after controlling for demographic characteristics and health status, but was slightly attenuated after adjusting for health behaviors and ill-being. Optimism was not significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusions High emotional vitality was associated with reduced hypertension risk; favorable health behaviors explained only part of the relationship. Associations did not differ by age, were similar for men and women and were maintained after accounting for ill-being. PMID:24786293

  11. Ambulatory versus clinic blood pressure for the assessment of anti hypertensive efficacy in clinical trials: insights from the Val-Syst Study.

    PubMed

    Palatini, Paolo; Dorigatti, Francesca; Mugellini, Amedeo; Spagnuolo, Vitaliano; Varì, Natale; Ferrara, Roberto; Bertocchi, Federico

    2004-09-01

    Several studies have found that measurement of blood pressure (BP) in the clinical setting may lead to overestimation of hypertension and may yield inaccurate assessments of the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of clinic BP in the Valsartan and Amlodipine for the Treatment of Isolated Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly (Val-Syst) study accurately identified those elderly outpatients with systolic hypertension who had true 24-hour elevations in BP, as well as those who required dose increases in antihypertensive therapy during follow-up. In Val-Syst, patients aged between 60 and 80 years with a clinic sitting systolic BP (SBP) of 160 to 220 mm Hg and a diastolic BP <90 mm Hg after a 2-week placebo washout period were randomized to receive valsartan 80 mg or amlodipine 5 mg once daily (level 1). In those with a trough SBP > or =140 mm Hg after 8 weeks of double-blind treatment, doses were titrated upward to valsartan 160 mg or amlodipine 10 mg once daily (level 2). If clinic SBP was > or =140 mm Hg after a further 8 weeks, hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg was added for an additional 8 weeks (level 3). Clinical decisions during the active-treatment period were based on clinic BP measurements. Thirteen of the 35 participating centers assessed ambulatory BP as well as clinic BP at baseline and the end of the treatment, making it possible to compare the results of the 2 modes of measurement. The Student test was used to compare drug-induced changes in clinic and ambulatory BP in individual patients. Differences between the decreases in clinic and ambulatory BP at the 3 treatment levels were tested using repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with baseline as the covariate. One hundred sixty-four elderly patients (age range, 60-80 years; 85 men, 79 women) were included in the study (79 valsartan, 85 amlodipine), and valsartan and amlodipine were reported to have comparable effects on the level and

  12. Resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Armario, P; Oliveras, A; de la Sierra, A

    2013-11-01

    A 53 year old woman with hypercholesterolemia treated with statins, with no history of cardiovascular disease, was referred to the Hypertension and Vascular Risk Unit for management of hypertension resistant to 4 antihypertensive agents at full doses. The patient had obesity, with a body mass index of 36.3kg/m(2) and office blood pressure 162/102mm Hg. Physical examination showed no data of interest. glucose 120mg/dl, glycated Hb: 6.4%, albuminuria 68mg/g, kidney function and study of the renin angiotensin system and other biochemical parameters were normal. Echocardiography: left ventricular mass, 131g/m(2) (normal, <110g/m(2)). True resistant hypertension was confirmed by ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure during 24h (153/89mm Hg). Spironolactone treatment (25mg/day) was added and was well tolerated, with no change in renal function and kaliemia within normal (4.1mmol/l) following the treatment. After 8 weeks, blood pressure was well controlled: office blood pressure 132/86mm Hg and 24h-ambulatory blood pressure: 128/79mm Hg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Simvastatin enhances the antihypertensive effect of ramipril in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients. Possible role of nitric oxide, oxidative stress, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Zaher, Ahmed O; Elkoussi, Alaa Eldin A; Abudahab, Lotfy H; Elbakry, Mohammed H; Elsayed, Elsayed Abu-Elwafa

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the effects of simvastatin on the blood pressure and on the antihypertensive activity of ramipril in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients were evaluated. In hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals, repeated administration of simvastatin slightly but significantly decreased the systolic blood pressure, enhanced its progressive reductions induced by repeated administration of ramipril and corrected the compromised lipid profile. Concomitantly, repeated administration of simvastatin, ramipril or simvastatin in combination with ramipril to these animals, increased nitric oxide (NO) production and decreased the elevated serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. The effects of combined treatment were greater than those of simvastatin or ramipril alone. In hypertensive hypercholesterolemic patients, repeated administration of ramipril decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, increased NO production, and decreased the elevated serum MDA and hs-CRP levels. Addition of simvastatin to ramipril therapy enhanced these effects and corrected the compromised lipid profile. Simvastatin but not ramipril inhibited the contractile responses of isolated aortic rings induced by angiotensin 11. l-arginine and acetylcholine enhanced, while l-NAME inhibited effects of simvastatin, and simvastatin in combination with ramipril on these contractile responses. These findings suggest that simvastatin exerts antihypertensive effect and enhances the antihypertensive effect of ramipril in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic animals and patients. In addition to its cholesterol-lowering effect, the ability of simvastat