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Sample records for isolates including non-albicans

  1. Association of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization or infection with Candida isolation and selection of non-albicans species.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Spiliopoulou, Anastasia; Fligou, Fotini; Manolopoulou, Patroula; Spiliopoulou, Iris; Vrettos, Theofanis; Dodou, Vasiliki; Filos, Kriton S; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Marangos, Markos; Christofidou, Myrto

    2014-11-01

    Clinical specimens from 565 patients hospitalized in 2 intensive care units (ICUs A and B) during a 28-month period were cultured on appropriate media for isolation of Candida. Forty-nine (9%) patients had at least a Candida spp.-positive sample. Candida albicans was the predominant species isolated from 26 (53%) patients. Seventeen patients (3%) developed candidemia. Multivariate analysis showed that obesity, female gender, hospitalization during summer months, admission at ICU B, parenteral nutrition, administration of metronidazole, transplantation, and KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) infection were independently associated with Candida spp. isolation. Candidemia was associated with cortisone administration, KPC-Kp infection, and presence of colostomy or abdominal catheter. Administration of fluconazole was a protective factor for both Candida spp. isolation and infection, leading to selection of Candida non-albicans species. Among several risk factors, KPC-Kp infection and colonization are identified as statistically significant factors associated with Candida isolation, especially of non-albicans species.

  2. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    PubMed

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  3. Comparison of the hemolytic activity between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species.

    PubMed

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2013-01-01

    The ability to produce enzymes, such as hemolysins, is an important virulence factor for the genus Candida.The objective of this study was to compare the hemolytic activity between C. albicansand non-albicans Candida species. Fifty strains of Candida species, isolated from the oral cavity of patients infected with HIV were studied. The isolates included the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae, and C. guilliermondii. Hemolysin production was evaluated on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol, blood, and glucose. A loop-full of pure Candidaculture was spot-inoculated onto plates and incubated at 37 ºC for 24 h in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Hemolytic activity was defined as the formation of a translucent halo around the colonies. All C. albicansstrains that were studied produced hemolysins. Among the non-albicans Candidaspecies, 86% exhibited hemolytic activity. Only C. guilliermondiiand some C. parapsilosis isolates were negative for this enzyme. In conclusion, most non-albicans Candidaspecies had a similar ability to produce hemolysins when compared to C. albicans.

  4. Proteolytic activity and cytokine up-regulation by non-albicans Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Ali; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Kari, Kirsti; Meurman, Jukka H

    2015-05-01

    Mouth is an important source of infections and oral infections such as Candida infections increase the risk of mortality. Our purpose was to investigate differences in proteolytic activity of non-albicans Candida albicans (non-albicans Candida) between clinical isolates and laboratory samples. The second aim was to assess the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α in saliva of patients with the non-albicans Candida and Candida-negative saliva samples. Clinical yeast samples from our laboratory were used for analyses. Candida strains were grown in YPG at 37 °C for 24 h in water bath with shaking. The activity of Candida proteinases of cell and cell-free fractions were analyzed by MDPF-gelatin zymography. The levels of IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured from saliva with ELISA. The study showed differences in the proteolytic activity among the non-albicans Candida strains. C. tropicalis had higher proteolytic activity when compared to the other strains. Significant difference was found in salivary IL-1β levels between the non-albicans Candida and control strains (P < 0.002). The present findings showed differences in proteolytic activity among the non-albicans Candida strains. The increased IL-1β concentration may be one of the host response components associated with non-albicans Candida infection.

  5. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic.

  6. Mixed biofilms formed by C. albicans and non-albicans species: a study of microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jéssica Diane dos; Piva, Elisabete; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2016-01-01

    Most Candida infections are related to microbial biofilms often formed by the association of different species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactions between Candida albicans and non-albicans species in biofilms formed in vitro. The non-albicans species studied were:Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. Single and mixed biofilms (formed by clinical isolates of C. albicans and non-albicans species) were developed from standardized suspensions of each strain (10(7) cells/mL), on flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates for 48 hour. These biofilms were analyzed by counting colony-forming units (CFU/mL) in Candida HiChrome agar and by determining cell viability, using the XTT 2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide colorimetric assay. The results for both the CFU/mL count and the XTT colorimetric assay showed that all the species studied were capable of forming high levels of in vitro biofilm. The number of CFU/mL and the metabolic activity of C. albicans were reduced in mixed biofilms with non-albicans species, as compared with a single C. albicans biofilm. Among the species tested, C. krusei exerted the highest inhibitory action against C. albicans. In conclusion, C. albicans established antagonistic interactions with non-albicans Candida species in mixed biofilms.

  7. Comparison of albicans vs. non-albicans candidemia in French intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Candidemia raises numerous therapeutic issues for intensive care physicians. Epidemiological data that could guide the choice of initial therapy are still required. This analysis sought to compare the characteristics of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with candidemia due to non-albicans Candida species with those of ICU patients with candidemia due to Candida albicans. Methods A prospective, observational, multicenter, French study was conducted from October 2005 to May 2006. Patients exhibiting candidemia developed during ICU stay and exclusively due either to one or more non-albicans Candida species or to C. albicans were selected. The data collected included patient characteristics on ICU admission and at the onset of candidemia. Results Among the 136 patients analyzed, 78 (57.4%) had candidemia caused by C. albicans. These patients had earlier onset of infection (11.1 ± 14.2 days after ICU admission vs. 17.4 ± 17.7, p = 0.02), higher severity scores on ICU admission (SOFA: 10.4 ± 4.7 vs. 8.6 ± 4.6, p = 0.03; SAPS II: 57.4 ± 22.8 vs. 48.7 ± 15.5, P = 0.015), and were less often neutropenic (2.6% vs. 12%, p = 0.04) than patients with candidemia due to non-albicans Candida species. Conclusions Although patients infected with Candida albicans differed from patients infected with non-albicans Candida species for a few characteristics, no clinical factor appeared pertinent enough to guide the choice of empirical antifungal therapy in ICU. PMID:20507569

  8. Scanning electron and confocal scanning laser microscopy imaging of the ultrastructure and viability of vaginal Candida albicans and non- albicans species adhered to an intrauterine contraceptive device.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Luciene C Farias; Donatti, Lucélia; Patussi, Eliana V; Svizdinski, Terezinha I E; Lopes-Consolaro, Márcia E

    2010-10-01

    Although bacterial biofilms have been studied in detail, adhesion of Candida albicans and non-albicans species to an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is not clear. The objective of this study was to evaluate aspects of imaging of the ultrastructure and viability of vaginal yeasts adhered to different parts of an IUD, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). We studied yeasts isolated from different patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A suspension of the each yeast was prepared and incubated with IUD parts (tail, without copper, and copper-covered). SEM and CSLM showed that all the vaginal yeasts adhered to all the parts of the IUD and demonstrated viability, including 30 days after contact for C. albicans. Possibly irregularities of IUD surface contribute to the adherence process. Although all of the IUD parts contribute to retention of yeasts in the genital tract, high concentration of yeast cells on the tail may indicate the importance of this segment in maintaining the colonization by yeast cells because the tail forms a bridge between the external environment, the vagina that is colonized by yeast cells, and the upper genital tract where there is no colonization. PMID:20804637

  9. Candida albicans and non-albicans species as etiological agent of vaginitis in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Babic, Mirela; Hukic, Mirsada

    2010-02-01

    Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidosis. The objectives of our study were: to make determination of the microscopic findings of vaginal swab, frequency of Candida species in the culture of pregnant women and patients who are not pregnant, determine the Candida species in all cultures, and to determine the frequency and differences in the frequency of C. albicans and other non-albicans species. In one year study performed during 2006 year, we tested patients of Gynaecology and Obstetrics clinic of the Clinical Centre in Sarajevo and Gynaecology department of the General hospital in Sarajevo. 447 woman included in the study were separated in two groups: 203 pregnant (in the last trimester of pregnancy), and 244 non-pregnant woman in period of fertility. Each vaginal swab was examined microscopically. The yeast, number of colonies, and the species of Candida were determined on Sabouraud dextrose agar with presence of antibiotics. For determination of Candida species, we used germ tube test for detection of C. albicans, and cultivation on the selective medium and assimilation tests for detection of non-albicans species. The results indicated positive microscopic findings in the test group (40,9%), as well as greater number of positive cultures (46,8%). The most commonly detected species for both groups was C. albicans ( test group 40.9% and control group 23,0%). The most commonly detected non-albicans species for the test group were C. glabrata (4,2 %) and C. krusei (3,2%), and for the control group were C. glabrata (3,2%) and C. parapsilosis (3,2%). The microscopic findings correlated with the number of colonies in positive cultures. In the test group, we found an increased number of yeasts (64,3%), and the pseudopyphae and blastopores by microscopic examination as an indication of infection. In the control group, we found a small number of yeasts (64,6%) , in the form of blastopores, as an indication of the candida colonisation. Our

  10. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    PubMed

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions.

  11. Epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis due to non-albicans species of Candida in 2,496 patients: data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) registry 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Michael A; Andes, David R; Diekema, Daniel J; Horn, David L; Reboli, Annette C; Rotstein, Coleman; Franks, Billy; Azie, Nkechi E

    2014-01-01

    This analysis describes the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in patients enrolled in the Prospective Antifungal Therapy Alliance (PATH Alliance) registry from 2004 to 2008. A total of 2,496 patients with non-albicans species of Candida isolates were identified. The identified species were C. glabrata (46.4%), C. parapsilosis (24.7%), C. tropicalis (13.9%), C. krusei (5.5%), C. lusitaniae (1.6%), C. dubliniensis (1.5%) and C. guilliermondii (0.4%); 111 infections involved two or more species of Candida (4.4%). Non-albicans species accounted for more than 50% of all cases of invasive candidiasis in 15 of the 24 sites (62.5%) that contributed more than one case to the survey. Among solid organ transplant recipients, patients with non-transplant surgery, and patients with solid tumors, the most prevalent non-albicans species was C. glabrata at 63.7%, 48.0%, and 53.8%, respectively. In 1,883 patients receiving antifungal therapy on day 3, fluconazole (30.5%) and echinocandins (47.5%) were the most frequently administered monotherapies. Among the 15 reported species, 90-day survival was highest for patients infected with either C. parapsilosis (70.7%) or C. lusitaniae (74.5%) and lowest for patients infected with an unknown species (46.7%) or two or more species (53.2%). In conclusion, this study expands the current knowledge of the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in North America. The variability in species distribution in these centers underscores the importance of local epidemiology in guiding the selection of antifungal therapy.

  12. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  13. Comparison Between Biofilm Production, Phospholipase and Haemolytic Activity of Different Species of Candida Isolated from Dental Caries Lesions in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Neetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction C.albicans is the most commonly isolated fungal pathogen in the oral cavity, but isolation of non-albicans Candida is increasing in recent years. We wish to demonstrate the virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the dental caries lesion of the children as presence of virulence factors determines the pathogenic potential of any microorganism. Aim To compare biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity of C.albicans with that of non-albicans species of Candida isolated from dental caries lesions of children to evaluate the role of non- albicans species of Candida in formation of dental caries. Materials and Methods Oral swabs were collected from caries lesion of 100 school children of age 5-10 years with dental caries. Candida isolates were tested for biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney U test wherever applicable using SPSS version 11.5. Results Out of the 100 children with dental caries 37 were positive for Candida by smear or culture and 31 by culture. C.albicans was the most prevalent isolate followed by C.krusei, C.tropicalis and C.albicans. Out of 21 C.albicans isolates, 10 (47.6%) showed phospholipase activity and 18 (85.71%) produced biofilm. Of the 10 non-albicans strains, 5 (50%) showed phospholipase activity and 6 (60%) produced biofilm. All isolates of Candida produced haemolysin (100%). Conclusion There was no statistically relevant difference between the virulence factor production by C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida. In other words, our study shows that both C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida isolated from caries lesions of the children, produce these virulence factors. So we can say that non-albicans species of Candida also are involved in caries formation. PMID:27190803

  14. Isolation of novel bacteria, including a candidate division, from geothermal soils in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Stott, Matthew B; Crowe, Michelle A; Mountain, Bruce W; Smirnova, Angela V; Hou, Shaobin; Alam, Maqsudul; Dunfield, Peter F

    2008-08-01

    We examined bacterial diversity of three geothermal soils in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes recovered directly from soils indicated that the bacterial communities differed in composition and richness, and were dominated by previously uncultured species of the phyla Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria and candidate division OP10. Aerobic, thermophilic, organotrophic bacteria were isolated using cultivation protocols that involved extended incubation times, low-pH media and gellan as a replacement gelling agent to agar. Isolates represented previously uncultured species, genera, classes, and even a new phylum of bacteria. They included members of the commonly cultivated phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Thermus/Deinococcus, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, as well as more-difficult-to-cultivate groups. Isolates possessing < 85% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to any cultivated species were obtained from the phyla Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and the previously uncultured candidate division OP10. Several isolates were prevalent in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed directly from the soils. A key factor facilitating isolation was the use of gellan-solidified plates, where the gellan itself served as an energy source for certain bacteria. The results indicate that geothermal soils are a rich potential source of novel bacteria, and that relatively simple cultivation techniques are practical for isolating bacteria from these habitats.

  15. Mounting Systems for Structural Members, Fastening Assemblies Thereof, and Vibration Isolation Systems Including the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Mounting systems for structural members, fastening assemblies thereof, and vibration isolation systems including the same are provided. Mounting systems comprise a pair of mounting brackets, each clamped against a fastening assembly forming a mounting assembly. Fastening assemblies comprise a spherical rod end comprising a spherical member having a through opening and an integrally threaded shaft, first and second seating members on opposite sides of the spherical member and each having a through opening that is substantially coaxial with the spherical member through opening, and a partially threaded fastener that threadably engages each mounting bracket forming the mounting assembly. Structural members have axial end portions, each releasably coupled to a mounting bracket by the integrally threaded shaft. Axial end portions are threaded in opposite directions for permitting structural member rotation to adjust a length thereof to a substantially zero strain position. Structural members may be vibration isolator struts in vibration isolation systems.

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Vagococcus fluvialis, including strains isolated from human sources.

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, L M; Carvalho, M G; Merquior, V L; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Facklam, R R

    1997-01-01

    This study presents phenotypic and genotypic data for seven isolates of Vagococcus fluvialis, including four strains recovered from human clinical sources, one strain isolated from an environmental source, and two strains isolated from pigs. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, most isolates were initially classified as "unidentified enterococci," because they resembled atypical arginine-negative enterococcal species. All seven strains as well as the type strain of V. fluvialis reacted with the AccuProbe Enterococcus genetic probe. The seven isolates had virtually indistinguishable whole-cell protein profiles that were similar to that of the V. fluvialis type strain and distinct from those of Enterococcus and Lactococcus species. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments confirmed that the strains were V. fluvialis. They were 71% or more related to the V. fluvialis type strain under optimum and stringent conditions, with 2.5% or less divergence within related sequences. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin and were resistant to clindamycin, lomefloxacin, and ofloxacin. Strain-to-strain variation was observed in relation to susceptibilities to 18 other antimicrobial agents. Chromosomal DNA was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with SmaI. Distinctive PFGE patterns were generated, suggesting the nonclonal nature of V. fluvialis strains. Although the number of strains was small, this report provides molecular characterization of V. fluvialis and the first evidence of a possible connection of this species with human infections. PMID:9350732

  17. Comparative genome analysis of Pseudomonas genomes including Populus-associated isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Se Ran; Wassenaar, Trudy; Nookaew, Intawat; Hauser, Loren John; Wanchai, Visanu; Land, Miriam L.; Timm, Collin M.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A; Ussery, David W

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas genus contains a metabolically versatile group of organisms that are known to occupy numerous ecological niches including the rhizosphere and endosphere of many plants influencing phylogenetic diversity and heterogeneity. In this study, comparative genome analysis was performed on over one thousand Pseudomonas genomes, including 21 Pseudomonas strains isolated from the roots of native Populus deltoides. Based on average amino acid identity, genomic clusters were identified within the Pseudomonas genus, which showed agreements with clades by NCBI and cliques by IMG. The P. fluorescens group was organized into 20 distinct genomic clusters, representing enormous diversity and heterogeneity. The species P. aeruginosa showed clear distinction in their genomic relatedness compared to other Pseudomonas species groups based on the pan and core genome analysis. The 19 isolates of our 21 Populus-associated isolates formed three distinct subgroups within the P. fluorescens major group, supported by pathway profiles analysis, while two isolates were more closely related to P. chlororaphis and P. putida. The specific genes to Populus-associated subgroups were identified where genes specific to subgroup 1 include several sensory systems such as proteins which act in two-component signal transduction, a TonB-dependent receptor, and a phosphorelay sensor; specific genes to subgroup 2 contain unique hypothetical genes; and genes specific to subgroup 3 organisms have a different hydrolase activity. IMPORTANCE The comparative genome analyses of the genus Pseudomonas that included Populus-associated isolates resulted in novel insights into high diversity of Pseudomonas. Consistent and robust genomic clusters with phylogenetic homogeneity were identified, which resolved species-clades that are not clearly defined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis alone. The genomic clusters may be reflective of distinct ecological niches to which the organisms have adapted, but this

  18. Comparative genome analysis of Pseudomonas genomes including Populus-associated isolates

    DOE PAGES

    Jun, Se Ran; Wassenaar, Trudy; Nookaew, Intawat; Hauser, Loren John; Wanchai, Visanu; Land, Miriam L.; Timm, Collin M.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Doktycz, Mitchel John; et al

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas genus contains a metabolically versatile group of organisms that are known to occupy numerous ecological niches including the rhizosphere and endosphere of many plants influencing phylogenetic diversity and heterogeneity. In this study, comparative genome analysis was performed on over one thousand Pseudomonas genomes, including 21 Pseudomonas strains isolated from the roots of native Populus deltoides. Based on average amino acid identity, genomic clusters were identified within the Pseudomonas genus, which showed agreements with clades by NCBI and cliques by IMG. The P. fluorescens group was organized into 20 distinct genomic clusters, representing enormous diversity and heterogeneity. The speciesmore » P. aeruginosa showed clear distinction in their genomic relatedness compared to other Pseudomonas species groups based on the pan and core genome analysis. The 19 isolates of our 21 Populus-associated isolates formed three distinct subgroups within the P. fluorescens major group, supported by pathway profiles analysis, while two isolates were more closely related to P. chlororaphis and P. putida. The specific genes to Populus-associated subgroups were identified where genes specific to subgroup 1 include several sensory systems such as proteins which act in two-component signal transduction, a TonB-dependent receptor, and a phosphorelay sensor; specific genes to subgroup 2 contain unique hypothetical genes; and genes specific to subgroup 3 organisms have a different hydrolase activity. IMPORTANCE The comparative genome analyses of the genus Pseudomonas that included Populus-associated isolates resulted in novel insights into high diversity of Pseudomonas. Consistent and robust genomic clusters with phylogenetic homogeneity were identified, which resolved species-clades that are not clearly defined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis alone. The genomic clusters may be reflective of distinct ecological niches to which the organisms have adapted, but

  19. Diversity of Pseudomonas Genomes, Including Populus-Associated Isolates, as Revealed by Comparative Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Se-Ran; Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Nookaew, Intawat; Hauser, Loren; Wanchai, Visanu; Land, Miriam; Timm, Collin M.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    The Pseudomonas genus contains a metabolically versatile group of organisms that are known to occupy numerous ecological niches, including the rhizosphere and endosphere of many plants. Their diversity influences the phylogenetic diversity and heterogeneity of these communities. On the basis of average amino acid identity, comparative genome analysis of >1,000 Pseudomonas genomes, including 21 Pseudomonas strains isolated from the roots of native Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood) trees resulted in consistent and robust genomic clusters with phylogenetic homogeneity. All Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomes clustered together, and these were clearly distinct from other Pseudomonas species groups on the basis of pangenome and core genome analyses. In contrast, the genomes of Pseudomonas fluorescens were organized into 20 distinct genomic clusters, representing enormous diversity and heterogeneity. Most of our 21 Populus-associated isolates formed three distinct subgroups within the major P. fluorescens group, supported by pathway profile analysis, while two isolates were more closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas putida. Genes specific to Populus-associated subgroups were identified. Genes specific to subgroup 1 include several sensory systems that act in two-component signal transduction, a TonB-dependent receptor, and a phosphorelay sensor. Genes specific to subgroup 2 contain hypothetical genes, and genes specific to subgroup 3 were annotated with hydrolase activity. This study justifies the need to sequence multiple isolates, especially from P. fluorescens, which displays the most genetic variation, in order to study functional capabilities from a pangenomic perspective. This information will prove useful when choosing Pseudomonas strains for use to promote growth and increase disease resistance in plants. PMID:26519390

  20. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of a Siderophore Cephalosporin, S-649266, against Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates, Including Carbapenem-Resistant Strains.

    PubMed

    Kohira, Naoki; West, Joshua; Ito, Akinobu; Ito-Horiyama, Tsukasa; Nakamura, Rio; Sato, Takafumi; Rittenhouse, Stephen; Tsuji, Masakatsu; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2015-11-16

    S-649266 is a novel siderophore cephalosporin antibiotic with a catechol moiety on the 3-position side chain. Two sets of clinical isolate collections were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of S-649266 against Enterobacteriaceae. These sets included 617 global isolates collected between 2009 and 2011 and 233 β-lactamase-identified isolates, including 47 KPC-, 49 NDM-, 12 VIM-, and 8 IMP-producers. The MIC90 values of S-649266 against the first set of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates were all ≤1 μg/ml, and there were only 8 isolates (1.3%) among these 617 clinical isolates with MIC values of ≥8 μg/ml. In the second set, the MIC values of S-649266 were ≤4 μg/ml against 109 strains among 116 KPC-producing and class B (metallo) carbapenemase-producing strains. In addition, S-649266 showed MIC values of ≤2 μg/ml against each of the 13 strains that produced other types of carbapenemases such as SME, NMC, and OXA-48. The mechanisms of the decreased susceptibility of 7 class B carbapenemase-producing strains with MIC values of ≥16 μg/ml are uncertain. This is the first report to demonstrate that S-649266, a novel siderophore cephalosporin, has significant antimicrobial activity against Enterobacteriaceae, including strains that produce carbapenemases such as KPC and NDM-1.

  1. Activity of faropenem tested against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Critchley, Ian A; Whittington, William L H; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pottumarthy, Sudha

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the anti-gonococcal potency of faropenem along with 7 comparator reference antimicrobials against a preselected collection of clinical isolates. The 265 isolates were inclusive of 2 subsets: 1) 76 well-characterized resistant phenotypes of gonococcal strains (53 quinolone-resistant strains--31 with documented quinolone resistance-determining region changes from Japan, 15 strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, and 8 strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin) and 2) 189 recent isolates from clinical specimens in 2004 from 6 states across the United States where quinolone resistance is prevalent. Activity of faropenem was adversely affected by l-cysteine hydrochloride in IsoVitaleX (4-fold increase in [minimal inhibitory concentration] MIC50; 0.06 versus 0.25 microg/mL). The rank order of potency of the antimicrobials for the entire collection was ceftriaxone (MIC90, 0.06 microg/mL) > faropenem (0.25 microg/mL) > azithromycin (0.5 microg/mL) > cefuroxime (1 microg/mL) > tetracycline (2 microg/mL) > penicillin = ciprofloxacin = levofloxacin (4 microg/mL). Using MIC90 for comparison, faropenem was 4-fold more potent than cefuroxime (0.25 versus 1 microg/mL), but was 4-fold less active than ceftriaxone (0.25 versus 0.06 microg/mL). Although the activity of faropenem was not affected by either penicillinase production (MIC90, 0.12 microg/mL, penicillinase-positive) or increasing ciprofloxacin MIC (0.25 microg/mL, ciprofloxacin-resistant), increasing penicillin MIC was associated with an increase in MIC90 values (0.016 microg/mL for penicillin-susceptible to 0.25 microg/mL for penicillin-resistant strains). Among the recent (2004) clinical gonococcal isolates tested, reduced susceptibility to penicillins, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones was high (28.0-94.2%). Geographic distribution of the endemic resistance rates of gonococci varied considerably, with 16.7-66.7% of the gonococcal isolates being ciprofloxacin-resistant in Oregon

  2. Antifungal susceptibility of invasive Candida bloodstream isolates from the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Tan, Thean Yen; Hsu, Li Yang; Alejandria, Marissa M; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Chinniah, Terrence; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Choudhury, Saugata; Chen, Yen Hsu; Shin, Jong Hee; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Mendoza, Myrna; Prabhu, Kavitha; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Tan, Ai Ling; Phan, Xuan Thi; Tran, Thi Thanh Nga; Nguyen, Gia Binh; Doan, Mai Phuong; Huynh, Van An; Nguyen, Su Minh Tuyet; Tran, Thanh Binh; Van Pham, Hung

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are of increasing importance and associated with significant mortality. We performed a multi-centre prospective observational study to identify the species and antifungal susceptibilities of invasive bloodstream isolates of Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region. The study was carried out over a two year period, involving 13 centers from Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Identification of Candida species was performed at each study center, and reconfirmed at a central laboratory. Susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial broth dilution panel (Sensititre YeastOne YST-010, Thermofisher, United Kingdom) with susceptibility categorisation (S = susceptible, S-DD = susceptible dose-dependent) applied using breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Eight hundred and sixty-one Candida isolates were included in the study. The most common species were C. albicans (35.9%), C. tropicalis (30.7%), C. parapsilosis (15.7%), and C. glabrata (13.6%). Non-albicans species exceeded C. albicans species in centers from all countries except Taiwan. Fluconazole susceptibility was almost universal for C. albicans (S = 99.7%) but lower for C. tropicalis (S = 75.8%, S-DD = 6.1%), C. glabrata (S-DD = 94.9%), and C. parapsilosis (S = 94.8%). Echinocandins demonstrated high rates of in vitro susceptibility (S>99%) against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis This study demonstrates that non-albicans species are the most common isolates from bloodstream infections in most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with C. tropicalis as the predominant species. Because of the prevalence of reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in non-albicans species, the study indicates that echinocandins should be the antifungal of choice in clinically unstable or high-risk patients with documented candidemia.

  3. Differential association of fluconazole dose and dose/MIC ratio with mortality in patients with Candida albicans and non-albicans bloodstream infection.

    PubMed

    Brosh-Nissimov, T; Ben-Ami, R

    2015-11-01

    Targeting fluconazole therapy to achieve predefined pharmacodynamic goals has been suggested as a means of optimizing the treatment of patients with candidaemia. However, data regarding species-specific dosing targets are inconclusive. We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 75 adult patients with Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) who received initial treatment with fluconazole for ≥48 h (36 Candida albicans and 39 non-albicans Candida (NAC)). Fluconazole dose, the dose/MIC ratio and the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24)/MIC ratio were determined for each patient, and classification and regression tree analysis was used to determine breakpoints for significant interactions with 30-day survival. Both fluconazole exposure parameters and patient-related and disease-related variables were assessed in univariable and multivariable survival models. The crude 30-day mortality rate was 32% (44% and 21% for C. albicans and NAC, respectively). An average fluconazole dose of >200 mg/day, a dose/MIC ratio of >400 and an AUC24/MIC ratio of >400 were associated with a higher 30-day survival rate and better microbiological response in patients with C. albicans BSI but not in those with NAC BSI. Baseline chronic kidney disease was a risk factor for fluconazole underdosing and mortality. Severity of sepsis (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score) was the only significant predictor of death in patients with NAC BSI. We conclude that, although pharmacodynamic target-directed fluconazole dosing may help to optimize outcomes for patients with C. albicans BSI, additional studies are needed to define the role of fluconazole in the treatment of NAC BSI.

  4. Differential association of fluconazole dose and dose/MIC ratio with mortality in patients with Candida albicans and non-albicans bloodstream infection.

    PubMed

    Brosh-Nissimov, T; Ben-Ami, R

    2015-11-01

    Targeting fluconazole therapy to achieve predefined pharmacodynamic goals has been suggested as a means of optimizing the treatment of patients with candidaemia. However, data regarding species-specific dosing targets are inconclusive. We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 75 adult patients with Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) who received initial treatment with fluconazole for ≥48 h (36 Candida albicans and 39 non-albicans Candida (NAC)). Fluconazole dose, the dose/MIC ratio and the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24)/MIC ratio were determined for each patient, and classification and regression tree analysis was used to determine breakpoints for significant interactions with 30-day survival. Both fluconazole exposure parameters and patient-related and disease-related variables were assessed in univariable and multivariable survival models. The crude 30-day mortality rate was 32% (44% and 21% for C. albicans and NAC, respectively). An average fluconazole dose of >200 mg/day, a dose/MIC ratio of >400 and an AUC24/MIC ratio of >400 were associated with a higher 30-day survival rate and better microbiological response in patients with C. albicans BSI but not in those with NAC BSI. Baseline chronic kidney disease was a risk factor for fluconazole underdosing and mortality. Severity of sepsis (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score) was the only significant predictor of death in patients with NAC BSI. We conclude that, although pharmacodynamic target-directed fluconazole dosing may help to optimize outcomes for patients with C. albicans BSI, additional studies are needed to define the role of fluconazole in the treatment of NAC BSI. PMID:26183300

  5. Accuracy of Phenotypic Methods for Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates Included in Surveillance Programs▿

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Sandra S.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Dohrn, Cassie L.; Riahi, Fathollah; Beekmann, Susan E.; Doern, Gary V.

    2008-01-01

    Similarities between Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans group streptococci may result in misidentification of these organisms. In surveillance programs which assess antimicrobial resistance rates among respiratory tract pathogens, such identification errors could lead to overestimates of pneumococcal resistance rates. DNA probe analysis (Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA), the bile solubility test, optochin susceptibility, colony morphology, and the capsular swelling reaction with Omni serum (Staten Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark) were used to characterize 1,733 organisms provisionally identified as S. pneumoniae in a 2004 to 2005 antimicrobial resistance surveillance program. These organisms were obtained in 41 U.S. medical centers. Among these, 1,647 (95%) were determined to be S. pneumoniae by DNA probe. Elimination of those isolates found not to be S. pneumoniae resulted in 1 to 2% decreases in resistance rate estimates with penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. With AccuProbe as a reference standard, the sensitivities and specificities of each phenotypic method for the identification of S. pneumoniae were, respectively, 98.8% and 82.6% for bile solubility, 99.3% and 74.4% for the capsular swelling reaction with Omni serum, and 87.9% and 59.3% for optochin susceptibility. Colony morphology was of limited value, as 391 (23.7%) isolates lacked the typical button or mucoid colony appearance of S. pneumoniae. PMID:18495854

  6. Colonization and antifungals susceptibility patterns of Candida species isolated from hospitalized patients in ICUs and NICUs

    PubMed Central

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Navid, Mojgan; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Mazdarani, Shahnam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that there are an increasing in invasive candidiasis during 2-3 last decades. Although, Candida albicans is considered as the most common candidiasis agents, other non-albicans such as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis were raised as infectious agents. Resistance to fluconazole among non-albicans species is an important problem for clinicians during therapy and prophylaxis. Objectives: The aim of current study was to detect the Candida species from hospitalized neonatal and children in intensive care units (ICUs) and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). In addition, the susceptibility of isolated agents were also evaluated against three antifungals. Materials and Methods: In the present study 298 samples including 98 blood samples, 100 urines and 100 swabs from oral cavity were inoculated on CHROMagar Candida. Initial detection was done according to the coloration colonies on CHROMagar Candida . Morphology on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and growth at 45°C were confirmed isolates. Amphotericin B, fluconazole and terbinafine (Lamisil) were used for the susceptibility tests using microdilution method. Results: In the present study 21% and 34% of urines and swabs from oral cavity were positive for Candida species, respectively. The most common species was C. albicans (62.5%) followed by C. tropicalis (15.6%), C. glabrata (6.3%) and Candida species (15.6%). Our study indicated that the most tested species of Candida, 70.3% were sensitive to fluconazole at the concentration of ≤8 μg/mL. Whereas 9 (14.1%) of isolates were resistant to amphotericine B at ≥8 μg/mL. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the importance of species identification and antifungals susceptibility testing for hospitalized patients in ICUs and NICUs wards. PMID:26312235

  7. Impact of cell lines included in enterovirus isolation protocol on perception of nonpolio enterovirus species C diversity.

    PubMed

    Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle; Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas

    2014-10-01

    There has been under-reporting of nonpolio enterovirus species Cs (NPESCs) in Nigeria despite the fact that most isolates recovered from the Nigerian vaccine derived poliovirus serotype 2 (VDPV2) outbreak were recombinants with nonstructural region of NPESC origin. It has been suggested that cell lines included in enterovirus isolation protocols might account for this phenomenon and this study examined this suggestion. Fifteen environmental samples concentrated previously and analysed using L20B and RD cell lines as part of the poliovirus environmental surveillance (ES) program in Nigeria were randomly selected and inoculated into two cell lines (MCF-7 and LLC-MK2). Isolates were identified as enteroviruses and species C members using different RT-PCR assays, culture in L20B cell line and sequencing of partial VP1. Forty-eight (48) isolates were recovered from the 15 samples, 47 (97.9%) of which were enteroviruses. Of the enteroviruses, 32 (68.1%) belonged to enterovirus species C (EC) of which 19 (40.4%) were polioviruses and 13 (27.7%) were NPESC members. All 13 NPESC isolates were recovered on MCF-7. Results of the study show that NPESCs are circulating in Nigeria and their under-reporting was due to the combination of cell lines used for enterovirus isolation in previous reports.

  8. Differentiation of ruminant transmissible spongiform encephalopathy isolate types, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy and CH1641 scrapie.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J G; Sauer, M; van Keulen, L J M; Tang, Y; Bossers, A; Langeveld, J P M

    2011-01-01

    With increased awareness of the diversity of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) strains in the ruminant population, comes an appreciation of the need for improved methods of differential diagnosis. Exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been associated with the human TSE, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, emphasizing the necessity in distinguishing low-risk TSE types from BSE. TSE type discrimination in ruminants such as cattle, sheep, goats and deer, requires the application of several prion protein (PrP)-specific antibodies in parallel immunochemical tests on brain homogenates or tissue sections from infected animals. This study uses in a single incubation step, three PrP-specific antibodies and fluorescent Alexa dye-labelled anti-mouse Fabs on a Western blot. The usual amount of brain tissue needed is 0.5 mg. This multiplex application of antibodies directed towards three different PrP epitopes enabled differential diagnosis of all established main features of classical scrapie, BSE and Nor98-like scrapie in sheep and goats, as well as the currently known BSE types C, H and L in cattle. Moreover, due to an antibody-dependent dual PrP-banding pattern, for the first time CH1641 scrapie of sheep can be reliably discriminated from the other TSE isolate types in sheep.

  9. First isolation of Legionella species, including L. pneumophila serogroup 1, in Greek potting soils: possible importance for public health.

    PubMed

    Velonakis, E N; Kiousi, I M; Koutis, C; Papadogiannakis, E; Babatsikou, F; Vatopoulos, A

    2010-06-01

    A total of 21 Legionella isolates were recovered from six out of 22 samples of potting soil from the Athens area, Greece. Legionella pneumophila (serogroups 1 and 2-15) and species and serotypes included in the group of L. longbeachae serogroups 1 and 2, L. bozemanii serogroups 1 and 2, L. dumoffii, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. micdadei and L. anisa were isolated on BCYEalpha agar containing cysteine, GVPC and natamycin and on BCYEalpha agar containing cysteine, Wadowsky Yee supplement and natamycin. The bacterial load was 4000-120 000 CFU/g of potting soil. The isolation of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 from Greek potting soils is reported here for the first time.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Brachyspira spp. including "Brachyspira hampsonii" from lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Joseph E; Harms, N Jane; Fernando, Champika; Soos, Catherine; Detmer, Susan E; Harding, John C S; Hill, Janet E

    2013-11-01

    Brachyspira is associated with diarrhea and colitis in pigs, and control of these pathogens is complicated by their complex ecology. Identification of wildlife reservoirs of Brachyspira requires the discrimination of colonized animals and those simply contaminated through environmental exposure. Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) were sampled in the Canadian arctic during the summer of 2011, and cloacal swabs were cultured on selective media. Brachyspira isolates were obtained from 15/170 (8.8 %) samples, and 12/15 isolates were similar to isolates previously recovered from pigs, including "Brachyspira hampsonii", a recently characterized species associated with dysentery-like disease in pigs in North America. A pilot inoculation study with one strongly β-hemolytic B. hampsonii isolate resulted in fecal shedding of the isolate by inoculated pigs for up to 14 days post-inoculation, but no severe clinical disease. Results of this study indicate that lesser snow geese can be colonized by Brachyspira strains that can also colonize pigs. Millions of lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens) travel through the major pork-producing areas of Canada and the USA during their annual migration, making them a potential factor in the continental distribution of these bacteria.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Brachyspira spp. including "Brachyspira hampsonii" from lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Joseph E; Harms, N Jane; Fernando, Champika; Soos, Catherine; Detmer, Susan E; Harding, John C S; Hill, Janet E

    2013-11-01

    Brachyspira is associated with diarrhea and colitis in pigs, and control of these pathogens is complicated by their complex ecology. Identification of wildlife reservoirs of Brachyspira requires the discrimination of colonized animals and those simply contaminated through environmental exposure. Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) were sampled in the Canadian arctic during the summer of 2011, and cloacal swabs were cultured on selective media. Brachyspira isolates were obtained from 15/170 (8.8 %) samples, and 12/15 isolates were similar to isolates previously recovered from pigs, including "Brachyspira hampsonii", a recently characterized species associated with dysentery-like disease in pigs in North America. A pilot inoculation study with one strongly β-hemolytic B. hampsonii isolate resulted in fecal shedding of the isolate by inoculated pigs for up to 14 days post-inoculation, but no severe clinical disease. Results of this study indicate that lesser snow geese can be colonized by Brachyspira strains that can also colonize pigs. Millions of lesser snow geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens) travel through the major pork-producing areas of Canada and the USA during their annual migration, making them a potential factor in the continental distribution of these bacteria. PMID:23933825

  12. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    PubMed

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals.

  13. American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) Resist Infection by Multiple Isolates of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Including One Implicated in Wild Mass Mortality.

    PubMed

    Eskew, Evan A; Worth, S Joy; Foley, Janet E; Todd, Brian D

    2015-09-01

    The emerging amphibian disease chytridiomycosis varies in severity depending on host species. Within species, disease susceptibility can also be influenced by pathogen variation and environmental factors. Here, we report on experimental exposures of American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) to three different isolates of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), including one implicated in causing mass mortality of wild American bullfrogs. Exposed frogs showed low infection prevalence, relatively low infection load, and lack of clinical disease. Our results suggest that environmental cofactors are likely important contributors to Bd-associated American bullfrog mortality and that this species both resists and tolerates Bd infection. PMID:26065669

  14. American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) Resist Infection by Multiple Isolates of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Including One Implicated in Wild Mass Mortality.

    PubMed

    Eskew, Evan A; Worth, S Joy; Foley, Janet E; Todd, Brian D

    2015-09-01

    The emerging amphibian disease chytridiomycosis varies in severity depending on host species. Within species, disease susceptibility can also be influenced by pathogen variation and environmental factors. Here, we report on experimental exposures of American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) to three different isolates of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), including one implicated in causing mass mortality of wild American bullfrogs. Exposed frogs showed low infection prevalence, relatively low infection load, and lack of clinical disease. Our results suggest that environmental cofactors are likely important contributors to Bd-associated American bullfrog mortality and that this species both resists and tolerates Bd infection.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dental unit waterlines can be divided in two distinct groups, including one displaying phenotypes similar to isolates from cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Myriam M.; Leduc, Annie; Nadeau, Christine; Barbeau, Jean; Charette, Steve J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays broad genetic diversity, giving it an astonishing capacity to adapt to a variety of environments and to infect a wide range of hosts. While many P. aeruginosa isolates of various origins have been analyzed, isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have received the most attention. Less is known about the genetic and phenotypic diversity of P. aeruginosa isolates that colonize other environments where flourishing biofilms can be found. In the present study, 29 P. aeruginosa isolates from dental unit waterlines and CF patients were collected and their genetic and phenotypes profiles were compared to determine whether environmental and clinical isolates are related. The isolates were first classified using the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. This made it possible to distribute the isolates into one clinical cluster and two environmental clusters. The isolates in the environmental cluster that were genetically closer to the clinical cluster also displayed phenotypes similar to the clinical isolates. The isolates from the second environmental cluster displayed opposite phenotypes, particularly an increased capacity to form biofilms. The isolates in this cluster were also the only ones harboring genes that encoded specific epimerases involved in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, which could explain their increased ability to form biofilms. In conclusion, the isolates from the dental unit waterlines could be distributed into two clusters, with some of the environmental isolates resembled the clinical isolates. PMID:25653647

  16. Activity of eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, including multidrug-resistant isolates, from New York City.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David; Quale, John

    2015-03-01

    Eravacycline demonstrated in vitro activity against a contemporary collection of more than 4,000 Gram-negative pathogens from New York City hospitals, with MIC50/MIC90 values, respectively, for Escherichia coli of 0.12/0.5 μg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter aerogenes of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter cloacae 0.5/1 μg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Activity was retained against multidrug-resistant isolates, including those expressing KPC and OXA carbapenemases. For A. baumannii, eravacycline MICs correlated with increased expression of the adeB gene. PMID:25534744

  17. Characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria from a temperate saltmarsh lagoon, including isolates that produce ethane from acetylene.

    PubMed

    Tibbles, B J; Rawlings, D E

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from sediments and water of a saltmarsh lagoon on the west coast of South Africa, and characterized according to factors that regulate nitrogen fixation in the marine environment. The majority of isolates were assigned to the Photobacterium or Vibrio genera on the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics. One isolate was further assigned to the species Vibrio diazotrophicus. Carbohydrate utilization by each diazotrophic isolate was examined. Abilities of the isolates to utilize a range of mono-, di-, and polysaccharides largely reflected the predicted availability of organic carbon and energy in the lagoon, except that chitin was not utilized. Biochemical tests on the utilization of combined nitrogen showed that one isolate could utilize nitrate, and that this strain was susceptible to full repression of nitrogenase activity by 10mM nitrate. Urease activity was not detected in any of the isolates. In the absence of molybdenum two of the isolates, a Photobacterium spp. and V. diazotrophicus, reduced acetylene to ethylene and ethane, a property frequently associated with the activity of alternative nitrogenases. Addition of 25µM molybdenum inhibited ethane production by V. diazotrophicus, but stimulated ethylene and ethane production by the Photobacterium isolate. Addition of 28µM vanadium did not appear to regulate ethane production by either strain. Assays of nitrogenase activity in sediments from which some isolates were obtained indicated that molybdenum was not limiting nitrogenase activity at naturally-occurring concentrations. Southern hybridizations of the chromosomes of these strains with the anfH and vnfH genes of Azotobacter vinelandii and the nifH gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae indicated the presence of only one nitrogenase in these isolates.

  18. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  19. Prevalence and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from bulk tank milk from Minnesota dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Haran, K P; Godden, S M; Boxrud, D; Jawahir, S; Bender, J B; Sreevatsan, S

    2012-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common causative agent of bovine mastitis in dairy herds. The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals as well as the community is a significant and costly public health concern. S. aureus-related bovine mastitis is a common reason for therapeutic and/or prophylactic use of antibiotics on dairy farms. In this study, herd prevalence of S. aureus, including MRSA, was estimated from bulk tank milk (BTM) from Minnesota farms. A total of 150 pooled BTM samples from 50 farms, collected over 3 seasons (spring, summer, and fall of 2009), were assessed. Herd prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was 84%, while MRSA herd prevalence was 4%. A total of 93 MSSA isolates and 2 MRSA isolates were recovered from 150 BTM samples. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus isolates showed pansusceptibility in 54 isolates, resistance to a single antibiotic class in 21 isolates, resistance to two antibiotic classes in 13 isolates, and resistance to ≥3 antibiotics classes and thus multidrug resistance in 5 isolates. The two MRSA isolates displayed resistance to β-lactams, cephalosporins, and lincosamides and were multiresistant. Staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) typing identified spa types t529 and t034 most frequently among methicillin-susceptible isolates, while t121 was observed in MRSA isolates. Seven isolates, including the two MRSA isolates, produced staphylococcal enterotoxins B, C, D, and E on overnight culture. MRSA isolates were further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 2 MRSA isolates, one had a composite genotype profile of MLST ST 5-PFGE USA100-unknown spa type, which has been reported among hospital-associated MRSA isolates, while the second isolate carried the MLST ST 8-PFGE USA300-spa type t121 genotype, commonly identified among community-associated MRSA isolates. These results suggest that MRSA genotypes

  20. Classification of thermophilic actinobacteria isolated from arid desert soils, including the description of Amycolatopsis deserti sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Busarakam, Kanungnid; Brown, Ros; Bull, Alan T; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie; Zucchi, Tiago D; da Silva, Leonardo José; de Souza, Wallace Rafael; Goodfellow, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The taxonomic position of 26 filamentous actinobacteria isolated from a hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil and 2 from an arid Australian composite soil was established using a polyphasic approach. All of the isolates gave the diagnostic amplification product using 16S rRNA oligonucleotide primers specific for the genus Amycolatopsis. Representative isolates had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties typical of members of the genus Amycolatopsis. 16S rRNA gene analyses showed that all of the isolates belong to the Amycolatopsis methanolica 16S rRNA gene clade. The Atacama Desert isolates were assigned to one or other of two recognised species, namely Amycolatopsis ruanii and Amycolatopsis thermalba, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, DNA:DNA relatedness and phenotypic data; emended descriptions are given for these species. In contrast, the two strains from the arid Australian composite soil, isolates GY024(T) and GY142, formed a distinct branch at the periphery of the A. methanolica 16S rRNA phyletic line, a taxon that was supported by all of the tree-making algorithms and by a 100 % bootstrap value. These strains shared a high degree of DNA:DNA relatedness and have many phenotypic properties in common, some of which distinguished them from all of the constituent species classified in the A. methanolica 16S rRNA clade. Isolates GY024(T) and GY142 merit recognition as a new species within the A. methanolica group of thermophilic strains. The name proposed for the new species is Amycolatopsis deserti sp. nov.; the type strain is GY024(T) (=NCIMB 14972(T) = NRRL B-65266(T)).

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility.

  2. Whole genome sequence analysis of circulating Bluetongue virus serotype 11 strains from the United States including two domestic canine isolates.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Natasha N; Jasperson, Dane C; Dubovi, Edward J; Johnson, Donna J; Ostlund, Eileen N; Wilson, William C

    2015-07-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-transmitted pathogen that typically infects and causes disease in domestic and wild ruminants. BTV is also known to infect domestic canines as discovered when dogs were vaccinated with a BTV-contaminated vaccine. Canine BTV infections have been documented through serological surveys, and natural infection by the Culicoides vector has been suggested. The report of isolation of BTV serotype 11 (BTV-11) from 2 separate domestic canine abortion cases in the states of Texas in 2011 and Kansas in 2012, were apparently unrelated to BTV-contaminated vaccination or consumption of BTV-contaminated raw meat as had been previously speculated. To elucidate the origin and relationship of these 2 domestic canine BTV-11 isolates, whole genome sequencing was performed. Six additional BTV-11 field isolates from Texas, Florida, and Washington, submitted for diagnostic investigation during 2011 and 2013, were also fully sequenced and analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the BTV-11 domestic canine isolates are virtually identical, and both share high identity with 2 BTV-11 isolates identified from white-tailed deer in Texas in 2011. The results of the current study further support the hypothesis that a BTV-11 strain circulating in the Midwestern states could have been transmitted to the dogs by the infected Culicoides vector. Our study also expands the short list of available BTV-11 sequences, which may aid BTV surveillance and epidemiology. PMID:26069226

  3. [In vitro biofilm formation and relationship with antifungal resistance of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal and intrauterine device string samples of women with vaginal complaints].

    PubMed

    Calışkan, Seyda; Keçeli Özcan, Sema; Cınar, Selvi; Corakçı, Aydın; Calışkan, Eray

    2011-10-01

    Intrauterin device (IUD) application is a widely used effective, safe and economic method for family planning. However IUD use may cause certain changes in vaginal ecosystem and may disturb microflora leading to increased colonization of various opportunistic pathogen microorganisms. The aims of this study were (i) to detect the biofilm production characteristics of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal and IUD string samples of women with IUDs, and (ii) to investigate the relationship between biofilm production and antifungal resistance. A total of 250 women (mean age: 34.4 ± 7.6 years) admitted to gynecology outpatient clinics with vaginal symptoms (discharge and itching) were included in the study. The patients have been implanted CuT380a type IUDs for a mean duration of 59.8 ± 42.4 months. Without removing IUD, string samples were obtained by cutting and simultaneous vaginal swab samples were also collected. Isolated Candida spp. were identified by conventional methods and API 20C AUX (BioMerieux, Fransa) system. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B were determined by broth microdilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. Biofilm formation was evaluated by crystal violet staining and XTT-reduction assays, and the isolates which yielded positive results in both of the methods were accepted as biofilm-producers. In the study, Candida spp. were isolated from 33.2% (83/250) of the vaginal and 34% (85/250) of the IUD string samples, C.albicans being the most frequently detected species (54 and 66 strains for the samples, respectively). The total in vitro biofilm formation rate was 25% (21/83) for vaginal isolates and 44.7% (38/85) for IUD string isolates. Biofilm formation rate of vaginal C.albicans isolates was significantly lower than vaginal non-albicans Candida spp. (14.8% and 44.8%, respectively; p= 0.003). Biofilm formation rate of C.albicans strains isolated from vaginal and IUD string samples were found

  4. Antifungal Susceptibility in Serum and Virulence Determinants of Candida Bloodstream Isolates from Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Seneviratne, Chaminda J.; Rajan, Suhasini; Wong, Sarah S. W.; Tsang, Dominic N. C.; Lai, Christopher K. C.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.; Jin, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Candida bloodstream infections (CBI) are one of the most common nosocomial infections globally, and they account for a high mortality rate. The increasing global prevalence of drug-resistant Candida strains has also been posing a challenge to clinicians. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the biofilm formation and production of hemolysin and proteinase of 63 CBI isolates derived from a hospital setting in Hong Kong as well as their antifungal susceptibility both in the presence and in the absence of human serum, using standard methodology. Candida albicans was the predominant species among the 63 CBI isolates collected, and non-albicans Candida species accounted for approximately one third of the isolates (36.5%). Of them, Candida tropicalis was the most common non-albicans Candida species. A high proportion (31.7%) of the CBI isolates (40% of C. albicans isolates, 10% of C. tropicalis isolates, 11% of C. parapsilosis isolates, and 100% of C. glabrata isolates) were found to be resistant to fluconazole. One of the isolates (C. tropicalis) was resistant to amphotericin B. A rising prevalence of drug-resistance CBI isolates in Hong Kong was observed with reference to a previous study. Notably, all non-albicans Candida species, showed increased hemolytic activity relative to C. albicans, whilst C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis exhibited proteinase activities. Majority of the isolates were capable of forming mature biofilms. Interestingly, the presence of serum distorted the yeast sensitivity to fluconazole, but not amphotericin B. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CBI isolates of Candida have the potential to express to varying extent their virulence attributes (e.g., biofilm formation, hemolysin production, and proteinase activity) and these, together with perturbations in their antifungal sensitivity in the presence of serum, may contribute to treatment complication in candidemia. The effect of serum on antifungal activity

  5. [Comparison of microdilution and disk diffusion methods for the detection of fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility against clinical Candida glabrata isolates and determination of changing susceptibility with new CLSI breakpoints].

    PubMed

    Hazırolan, Gülşen; Sarıbaş, Zeynep; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species as the causative agent of Candida infections. However, in recent years, the isolation rate of non-albicans Candida species have increased. In many centers, Candida glabrata is one of the commonly isolated non-albicans species of C.glabrata infections which are difficult-to-treat due to decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and cross-resistance to other azoles. The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro susceptibility profiles of clinical C.glabrata isolates against fluconazole and voriconazole by microdilution and disk diffusion methods and to evaluate the results with both the previous (CLSI) and current species-specific CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) clinical breakpoints. A total of 70 C.glabrata strains isolated from clinical samples were included in the study. The identification of the isolates was performed by morphologic examination on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and assimilation profiles obtained by using ID32C (BioMérieux, France). Broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods were performed according to CLSI M27-A3 and CLSI M44-A2 documents, respectively. The results were evaluated according to CLSI M27-A3 and M44-A2 documents and new vs. species-specific CLSI breakpoints. By using both previous and new CLSI breakpoints, broth microdilution test results showed that voriconazole has greater in vitro activity than fluconazole against C.glabrata isolates. For the two drugs tested, very major error was not observed with disk diffusion method when microdilution method was considered as the reference method. Since "susceptible" category no more exists for fluconazole vs. C.glabrata, the isolates that were interpreted as susceptible by previous breakpoints were evaluated as susceptible-dose dependent by current CLSI breakpoints. Since species-specific breakpoints remain yet undetermined for voriconazole, comparative analysis was not possible for this agent. The results obtained

  6. PRKAR1A in the development of cardiac myxoma: a study of 110 cases including isolated and syndromic tumors.

    PubMed

    Maleszewski, Joseph J; Larsen, Brandon T; Kip, Nefize Sertac; Castonguay, Mathieu C; Edwards, William D; Carney, J Aidan; Kipp, Benjamin R

    2014-08-01

    Cardiac myxoma usually occurs as a solitary mass, but occasionally develops as part of a familial syndrome, the Carney complex (CNC). Two thirds of CNC-associated cardiac myxomas exhibit mutations in PRKAR1A. PRKAR1A mutations occur in both familial and sporadic forms of CNC but have not been described in isolated (nonsyndromic) cardiac myxomas. A total of 127 consecutive cardiac myxomas surgically resected at Mayo Clinic (1993 to 2011) from 110 individuals were studied. Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings were reviewed. Of these, 103 patients had isolated cardiac myxomas, and 7 patients had the tumor as a component of CNC. Age and sex distributions were different for CNC (mean 26 y, range 14 to 44 y, 71% female) and non-CNC (mean 62 y, range 18 to 92 y, 63% female) patients. PRKAR1A immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) was performed, and myxoma cell reactivity was graded semiquantitatively. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing was performed in 3 CNC patients and 29 non-CNC patients, to test for the presence of mutations in all coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the PRKAR1A gene. IHC staining showed that all 7 CNC cases lacked PRKAR1A antigenicity and that 33 (32%) isolated cardiac myxomas were similarly nonreactive. Of tumors subjected to sequencing analysis, 2 (67%) CNC myxomas and 9 (31%) non-CNC myxomas had pathogenic PRKAR1A mutations. No germline mutations were found in 4 non-CNC cases tested. PRKAR1A appears to play a role in the development of both syndromic and nonsyndromic cardiac myxomas. Routine IHC evaluation of cardiac myxomas for PRKAR1A expression may be useful in excluding a diagnosis of CNC. PMID:24618615

  7. Isolation and structure of the principal products of preproglucagon processing, including an amidated glucagon-like peptide.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P C; Hawke, D H; Lee, T D; Legesse, K; Noe, B D; Shively, J E

    1986-06-25

    The principal products derived from in vivo processing of anglerfish preproglucagon II were isolated and their structures determined. The structures were confirmed by a combination of automated Edman degradation, amino acid analysis, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The peptide corresponding to anglerfish preproglucagon II-(22-49) (numbering from the amino terminus of preproglucagon) was isolated intact and defines the site of signal cleavage to be between Gln-21 and Met-22. Glucagon from the anglerfish preproglucagon gene II was found to correspond to preproglucagon II-(52-80) (numbering from the amino terminus). Three forms of a glucagon-like peptide derived from preproglucagon II were also isolated. The structure of the longest form was consistent with the sequence of preproglucagon II-(89-122) deduced from the cDNA, His-Ala-Asp-Gly-Thr-Tyr-Thr-Ser-Asp-Val-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Leu-Gln-Asp-Gln-Ala- Ala-Lys-Asp-Phe-Val-Ser-Trp-Leu-Lys-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Arg-Arg-Glu. The carboxyl-terminal portion deduced from the cDNA remains intact in this form. A second form, preproglucagon II-(89-119) appears to result from proteolytic processing of the major form at the two adjacent arginine residues occurring at the carboxyl terminus. This second form has a glycine residue at its carboxyl terminus and is processed to the third form (preproglucagon II-(89-118)) which contains a carboxyl-terminal arginineamide. Radiolabeling studies in primary tissue culture support the observation that glucagon (preproglucagon II-(52-80], preproglucagon II-(89-122), and preproglucagon II-(89-119) are products of proglucagon processing in vivo. PMID:3755132

  8. Isolation and identification of microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria and their use in microbial deacidification of wines from domestic vineyards.

    PubMed

    Drozdz, Iwona; Makarewicz, Malgorzata; Tuszyński, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify various bacteria isolated from grapes and their wines. Additionally we investigated the capacity of lactic acid bacteria for microbiological deacidification of wines produced in Poland. We have identified Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. During the microbial deacidification process, we observed decreases of total acidity and increases of volatile acidity, with statistically significant changes noted for O. oeni in Marechal Foch and Seyval Blanc, and for Lb. acidophilus in Frontenac. On the other hand, a statistically significant increase in pH was observed in Marechal Foch and Seyval Blanc following deacidification by O. oeni.

  9. [Isolation and characterization of two strains of Streptomyces able to metabolize natural polysaccharides including mannan (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, M; Percheron, F

    1976-10-01

    Two strains of aerobic and mesophilic microorganisms were isolated from palm-tree plantation sand. They grew on insoluble polysaccharides: mannan, cellulose, chitin as only source of carbon. This lytic activity was used for the purification of the two strains. The morphology of the organisms and the presence of LL-diaminopimetic acid in their cell-wall are characteristic of the genus Streptomyces. Investigations lead to: 1) the characterization of their specific polysaccharidase activity toward insoluble and natural beta-and alpha-glycans (mannan, cellulose, chitin, pectine and starch) and the formation of soluble saccharides (mannobiose, cellobiose, beta-D-N-acetylglucosamine, galacturonic acid, and maltose); 2) the research for antagonist, or synergic, effect on pathogenic bacteria and certain phytopathogenic microorganisms; only in the case of these latter was a weak lytic activity exerted by the two Streptomyces isolates, but one of them was shown to stimulate Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Phialophora cinerescens; 3) a study of antibiotic sensitivity; the two strains were sensitive to tetracycline and streptomycin, but they had native resistance to other aminosides (gentamicin, kanamycin), to erythromycin and to the beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin and cephalosporin); they possessed a beta-lactamase bound to the cell membrane. PMID:1020873

  10. [Isolation and characterization of two strains of Streptomyces able to metabolize natural polysaccharides including mannan (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, M; Percheron, F

    1976-10-01

    Two strains of aerobic and mesophilic microorganisms were isolated from palm-tree plantation sand. They grew on insoluble polysaccharides: mannan, cellulose, chitin as only source of carbon. This lytic activity was used for the purification of the two strains. The morphology of the organisms and the presence of LL-diaminopimetic acid in their cell-wall are characteristic of the genus Streptomyces. Investigations lead to: 1) the characterization of their specific polysaccharidase activity toward insoluble and natural beta-and alpha-glycans (mannan, cellulose, chitin, pectine and starch) and the formation of soluble saccharides (mannobiose, cellobiose, beta-D-N-acetylglucosamine, galacturonic acid, and maltose); 2) the research for antagonist, or synergic, effect on pathogenic bacteria and certain phytopathogenic microorganisms; only in the case of these latter was a weak lytic activity exerted by the two Streptomyces isolates, but one of them was shown to stimulate Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Phialophora cinerescens; 3) a study of antibiotic sensitivity; the two strains were sensitive to tetracycline and streptomycin, but they had native resistance to other aminosides (gentamicin, kanamycin), to erythromycin and to the beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin and cephalosporin); they possessed a beta-lactamase bound to the cell membrane.

  11. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients.

  12. How to identify Raoultella spp. including R. ornithinolytica isolates negative for ornithine decarboxylase? The reliability of the chromosomal bla gene.

    PubMed

    Walckenaer, Estelle; Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2008-12-01

    Although Raoultella planticola and Raoultella ornithinolytica were described more than 20 years ago, identifying them remains difficult. The reliability of the chromosomal bla gene for this identification was evaluated in comparison with that of the 16S rDNA and rpoB genes in 35 Raoultella strains from different origins. Of the 26 strains previously identified as R. planticola by biochemical tests alone or in association with molecular methods, 21 harboured a bla gene with 99.8% identity with the bla gene of two reference R. ornithinolytica strains (bla(ORN) gene) and 5 harboured a bla gene with 99.2% identity with the bla gene of two reference R. planticola strains (bla(PLA) gene). The 9 isolates previously identified as R. ornithinolytica harboured a bla(ORN) gene. The bla gene-based identification was confirmed by 16S rDNA and rpoB sequencing. The 21 isolates newly identified as R. ornithinolytica had a test negative for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Molecular experiments suggested one copy of ODC-encoding gene in both ODC-negative R. ornithinolytica and R. planticola strains and two copies in ODC-positive R. orninthinolytica strains. Analysis of the 35 bla genes allowed us (i) to confirm an identity of only 94% between the bla genes of the two Raoultella species while this identity was > 98% for rpoB and > 99% for 16S rDNA genes and (ii) to develop and successfully apply a bla PCR RFLP assay for Raoultella spp. identification. Overall, this study allowed us to discover ODC-negative R. ornithinolytica and to provide a reliable Raoultella identification method widely available as not requiring sequencing equipment.

  13. On-chip acoustophoretic isolation of microflora including S. typhimurium from raw chicken, beef and blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ngamsom, Bongkot; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Broyer, Patrick; Patel, Pradip; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen analysis in food samples routinely involves lengthy growth-based pre-enrichment and selective enrichment of food matrices to increase the ratio of pathogen to background flora. Similarly, for blood culture analysis, pathogens must be isolated and enriched from a large excess of blood cells to allow further analysis. Conventional techniques of centrifugation and filtration are cumbersome, suffer from low sample throughput, are not readily amenable to automation and carry a risk of damaging biological samples. We report on-chip acoustophoresis as a pre-analytical technique for the resolution of total microbial flora from food and blood samples. The resulting 'clarified' sample is expected to increase the performance of downstream systems for the specific detection of the pathogens. A microfluidic chip with three inlets, a central separation channel and three outlets was utilized. Samples were introduced through the side inlets, and buffer solution through the central inlet. Upon ultrasound actuation, large debris particles (10-100 μm) from meat samples were continuously partitioned into the central buffer channel, leaving the 'clarified' outer sample streams containing both, the pathogenic cells and the background flora (ca. 1 μm) to be collected over a 30 min operation cycle before further analysis. The system was successfully tested with Salmonella typhimurium-spiked (ca. 10(3)CFU mL(-1)) samples of chicken and minced beef, demonstrating a high level of the pathogen recovery (60-90%). When applied to S. typhimurium contaminated blood samples (10(7)CFU mL(-1)), acoustophoresis resulted in a high depletion (99.8%) of the red blood cells (RBC) which partitioned in the buffer stream, whilst sufficient numbers of the viable S. typhimurium remained in the outer channels for further analysis. These results indicate that the technology may provide a generic approach for pre-analytical sample preparation prior to integrated and automated downstream detection of

  14. On-chip acoustophoretic isolation of microflora including S. typhimurium from raw chicken, beef and blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ngamsom, Bongkot; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Broyer, Patrick; Patel, Pradip; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen analysis in food samples routinely involves lengthy growth-based pre-enrichment and selective enrichment of food matrices to increase the ratio of pathogen to background flora. Similarly, for blood culture analysis, pathogens must be isolated and enriched from a large excess of blood cells to allow further analysis. Conventional techniques of centrifugation and filtration are cumbersome, suffer from low sample throughput, are not readily amenable to automation and carry a risk of damaging biological samples. We report on-chip acoustophoresis as a pre-analytical technique for the resolution of total microbial flora from food and blood samples. The resulting 'clarified' sample is expected to increase the performance of downstream systems for the specific detection of the pathogens. A microfluidic chip with three inlets, a central separation channel and three outlets was utilized. Samples were introduced through the side inlets, and buffer solution through the central inlet. Upon ultrasound actuation, large debris particles (10-100 μm) from meat samples were continuously partitioned into the central buffer channel, leaving the 'clarified' outer sample streams containing both, the pathogenic cells and the background flora (ca. 1 μm) to be collected over a 30 min operation cycle before further analysis. The system was successfully tested with Salmonella typhimurium-spiked (ca. 10(3)CFU mL(-1)) samples of chicken and minced beef, demonstrating a high level of the pathogen recovery (60-90%). When applied to S. typhimurium contaminated blood samples (10(7)CFU mL(-1)), acoustophoresis resulted in a high depletion (99.8%) of the red blood cells (RBC) which partitioned in the buffer stream, whilst sufficient numbers of the viable S. typhimurium remained in the outer channels for further analysis. These results indicate that the technology may provide a generic approach for pre-analytical sample preparation prior to integrated and automated downstream detection of

  15. Genome Sequencing of Four Strains of Rickettsia prowazekii, the Causative Agent of Epidemic Typhus, Including One Flying Squirrel Isolate.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Ge, Hong; Butani, Amy; Osborne, Brian; Verratti, Kathleen; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Pop, Mihai; Read, Timothy D; Richards, Allen L

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia prowazekii is a notable intracellular pathogen, the agent of epidemic typhus, and a potential biothreat agent. We present here whole-genome sequence data for four strains of R. prowazekii, including one from a flying squirrel. PMID:23814035

  16. Human-associated fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli clonal lineages, including ST354, isolated from canine feces and extraintestinal infections in Australia.

    PubMed

    Guo, SiYu; Wakeham, David; Brouwers, Huub J M; Cobbold, Rowland N; Abraham, Sam; Mollinger, Joanne L; Johnson, James R; Chapman, Toni A; Gordon, David M; Barrs, Vanessa R; Trott, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Phylogenetic group D extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), including O15:K52:H1 and clonal group A, have spread globally and become fluoroquinolone-resistant. Here we investigated the role of canine feces as a reservoir of these (and other) human-associated ExPEC and their potential as canine pathogens. We characterized and compared fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates originally identified as phylogenetic group D from either the feces of hospitalized dogs (n = 67; 14 dogs) or extraintestinal infections (n = 53; 33 dogs). Isolates underwent phylogenetic grouping, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, virulence genotyping, resistance genotyping, human-associated ExPEC O-typing, and multi-locus sequence typing. Five of seven human-associated sequence types (STs) exhibited ExPEC-associated O-types, and appeared in separate RAPD clusters. The largest subgroup (16 fecal, 26 clinical isolates) were ST354 (phylogroup F) isolates. ST420 (phylogroup B2); O1-ST38, O15:K52:H1-ST393, and O15:K1-ST130 (phylogroup D); and O7-ST457, and O1-ST648 (phylogroup F) were also identified. Three ST-specific RAPD sub-clusters (ST354, ST393, and ST457) contained closely related isolates from both fecal or clinical sources. Genes encoding CTX-M and AmpC β-lactamases were identified in isolates from five STs. Major human-associated fluoroquinolone-resistant ± extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant ExPEC of public health importance may be carried in dog feces and cause extraintestinal infections in some dogs.

  17. Efficacy of monepantel and anthelmintic combinations against multiple-resistant Haemonchus contortus in sheep, including characterisation of the nematode isolate.

    PubMed

    Baker, K E; George, S D; Stein, P A; Seewald, W; Rolfe, P F; Hosking, B C

    2012-05-25

    Three experiments defined the resistance profile of a population of Haemonchus contortus, which was shown to express multiple resistances to the benzimidazole, levamisole, macrocyclic lactone and salicylanilide anthelmintic classes when given as a registered combination. Study 1 was a faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test and the efficacies for the anthelmintics were monepantel, 100%; abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole, 40.0%; and abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole+naphthalophos, 100%. No larvae were recovered from the post-treatment cultures for monepantel or the 4-way treatment, and for the 3-way treatment the culture was 100% Haemonchus spp. Efficacies in Study 2 were calculated from mean post-mortem nematode burdens of H. contortus and were levamisole+oxfendazole, 3.1%; abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole, 5.0%; ivermectin, 0.4%; moxidectin, 28.4% and closantel, 70.2%. Study 3 was also a FECR test that resulted in efficacies of 100% for monepantel and 83.0% for a formulated 4-way combination of abamectin+levamisole+albendazole+closantel. Larvae recovered from the post-treatment culture for the combination-treated sheep were all Haemonchus spp. Multi-resistant parasites such as examined in these studies are a continuing challenge to be managed by farmers and their advisors. Control programs must be planned and well-managed, and should include on-farm testing for anthelmintic resistance, monitoring of nematode burdens (by FEC and larval culture) to determine appropriate treatment times and the management of pastures to reduce the overall parasite challenge. This should be in balance with the generation, use and maintenance of drug-susceptible nematode populations in refugia.

  18. Carriage and acquisition rates of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized horses, including molecular characterization, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C; Taminiau, B; Brévers, B; Avesani, V; Van Broeck, J; Leroux, A A; Amory, H; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2014-08-01

    Clostridium difficile has been identified as a significant agent of diarrhoea and enterocolitis in both foals and adult horses. Hospitalization, antibiotic therapy or changes in diet may contribute to the development of C. difficile infection. Horses admitted to a care unit are therefore at greater risk of being colonized. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of C. difficile in hospitalized horses and the possible influence of some risk factors in colonization. During a seven-month period, faecal samples and data relating the clinical history of horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized through toxin profiles, cytotoxicity activity, PCR-ribotyping, antimicrobial resistance and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ten isolates were obtained with a total of seven different PCR-ribotypes, including PCR-ribotype 014. Five of them were identified as toxinogenic. A high resistance to gentamicin, clindamycin and ceftiofur was found. MLST revealed four different sequencing types (ST), which included ST11, ST26, ST2 and ST15, and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the isolates clustered in the same lineage. Clinical history suggests that horses frequently harbour toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile and that in most cases they are colonized regardless of the reason for hospitalization; the development of diarrhoea is more unusual.

  19. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Das, Partha Pratim; Saikia, Lahari; Nath, Reema; Phukan, Sanjib Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The changing spectrum of Candida species in causation of oropharyngeal candidiasis and their antifungal susceptibility pattern among the HIV infected individuals has made the identification to species level mandatory and detection of drug resistance necessary for patient care. The present study was carried out to determine the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of oral Candida isolates colonizing or infecting both HIV seropositive and seronegative individuals. Methods: A case-control study was conducted including 141 consecutive, non-repeat HIV-seropositive individuals and an equal number of sex and age matched HIV-seronegative control. Speciation of the oropharyngeal Candida isolates was done using standard yeast identification protocol. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done by the disk-diffusion method as well as by Fungitest method. Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candida albicans (n=47, 77.0%), C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%), C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%), C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%), and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%). Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control) group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3%) C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country. PMID:27377507

  20. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Linnemann, Anita R.; Gezgin, Yüksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Martinus J. R.; Smid, Eddy J.; Tamo, Manuele; van Boekel, Martinus A. J. S.; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Seven species of black Aspergilli were isolated based on morphological and chemical identification: A. tubingensis (44%), A. niger (32%), A. brasiliensis (10%), A. carbonarius (8.7%), A. luchuensis (2.7%), A. aculeatus (2%) and A. aculeatinus (0.7%). From these, 45 metabolites and their isomers were identified. Aurasperone and pyranonigrin A, produced by all species excluding A. aculeatus and A. aculeatinus, were most prevalent and were encountered in 146 (97.3%) and 145 (95.7%) isolates, respectively. Three mycotoxins groups were detected: fumonisins (B2 and B4) (2.7%) ochratoxin A (13.3%), and secalonic acids (2%), indicating that these mycotoxins could occur in raw cashew nuts. Thirty strains of black Aspergilli were randomly sampled for verification of species identity based on sequences of β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. Among them, 27 isolates were positive to the primers used and 11 were identified as A. niger, 7 as A. tubingensis, 6 as A. carbonarius, 2 as A. luchuensis and 1 as A. welwitschiae confirming the species names as based on morphology and chemical features. These strains clustered in 5 clades in A. section Nigri. Chemical profile clustering also showed also 5 groups confirming the species specific metabolites production. PMID:27768708

  1. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M.; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2016-01-01

    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia. PMID:27764175

  2. Fluconazole susceptibility of 3,056 clinical isolates of Candida species from 2005 to 2009 in a tertiary-care hospital.

    PubMed

    Ying, Y; Zhang, J; Huang, S B; Liu, F D; Liu, J H; Zhang, J; Hu, X F; Zhang, Z Q; Liu, X; Huang, X T

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Candida infections have been increasing significantly. This study was to investigate the distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of such infections. Totally, 3,056 clinical isolates were analysed, C. albicans was the most prevalent species from respiratory and vaginal specimens. However, non-albicans species constituted the majority of isolates from blood, urine, intensive care unit (ICU), organ transplant and burned patients. Similarly, Candida spp. from different specimens and clinical services had different degrees of susceptibility to fluconazole. Isolates from vagina and burned patients had the highest resistance rate, while all of the isolates from ascites and dermatological services were susceptible to fluconazole.

  3. Antifungal Activity of Cinnamon Oil and Olive Oil against Candida Spp. Isolated from Blood Stream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Hina; Singh, Gajender; Punia, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recently non-albicans Candida has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in blood stream infections. Some species of the Candida are becoming increasingly resistant to first line and second line antifungals such as echinocandins and fluconazole. In view of increasing global antifungal resistance, role of alternative and better antifungals like natural plant products need to be explored. Essential oils are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity against various fungi. Hence, we evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon oil and olive oil against Candida spp. Aim To evaluate the invitro antifungal activity of olive oil and cinnamon oil against blood stream Candida isolates. Materials and Methods The present prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology at a tertiary care teaching hospital during one year June 2011-July 2012. Blood samples were collected from 1376 patients clinically suspected to have fungal septicaemia, out of which 100 (7.2%) Candida isolates obtained, were speciated by conventional methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing of all the isolates was done against fluconazole, voriconazole as per NCCL (M27-A2) and against olive oil and cinnamon oil by agar well diffusion method. Results Prevalence of Candidemia was 7.26%. C. albicans (85.3%) and C. parapsilosis (85.7%) were most sensitive to fluconazole followed by C. tropicalis (67.4%). All isolates were 100% sensitive to voriconazole. Both oils were found to be effective against nearly 50% of the Candida isolates. About 55.5% of fluconazole resistant C. krusei strains were sensitive to olive and cinnamon oil. Conclusion Fluconazole resistant non-albicans Candida has emerged as major cause of Candidemia. Cinnamon and olive oil show marked sensitivity against albicans and non-albicans spp. PMID:27656437

  4. Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and Escherichia coli isolated from retail foods including chicken meat in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kumiko; Goto, Kensuke; Nakane, Kunihiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2014-02-01

    Contamination of retail meat with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has been reported, but only limited data have been documented in Japan. One hundred fifty-three retail foods including chicken meat, beef, pork, and vegetables were purchased from 29 supermarkets between January and October in 2010. ESBL producers were recovered from each food sample using McConkey agar plate supplemented with 1 mg/L of cefotaxime. ESBL type was identified by DNA sequencing analysis after polymerase chain reaction amplification. Antibiogram, O serotype, plasmid replicon type, pulsotype, and multilocus sequence type were also determined. Fifty-two epidemiologically unrelated Escherichia coli isolates producing ESBL were recovered from 35 (22.9%) of 153 samples, all of which were chicken meat. ESBL types were mainly CTX-M-2 group followed by CTX-M-1 group and CTX-M-8 group. The numbers of bacterial isolates (8 of 21, 38.1%) harboring bla(CTX-M-8) recovered from imported meat samples were significantly larger than those of domestic ones (one of 31, 3.2%) (p<0.05). Nine O serotypes (mainly O8, O25, and O1) were found, together with O-antigen untypable (OUT). Four E. coli belonging to the O25b:H4-ST131 clone were recovered from domestic (n=1) and imported meat samples (n=3), respectively. These four isolates were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, although the E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 clone producing CTX-M-15, which is predominant in human isolates, is usually resistant to fluoroquinolones. By contrast, five CTX-M-15-producing E. coli strains were recovered only from domestic meat samples, and their serotypes were O8 or OUT instead of predominant serotype O25b. Our results showed that ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from retail chicken meat samples in Japan are generally divergent in both genetic and serological aspects. Further comparative analyses of bla(CTX-M)-mediating genetic elements would be continued in the next step to characterize the ESBL

  5. Molecular Characterization of Enteroviruses Including a New Type EV-C99 Isolated from Xinjiang Students in Shandong, China in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zexin; Yuan, Qun; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Suting; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Cui, Ning; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Mei; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994. In 2011, a poliomyelitis outbreak caused by imported wide-type poliovirus occurred in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Here, we report the results of enterovirus (EV) isolation from Xinjiang students that returned to school in Shandong after summer vacation during this outbreak. Stool specimens from 376 students were collected and 10 EV strains were isolated including 4 polioviruses (All Sabin strains), 1 coxsackievirus (CV) A13, 3 CVA17 and 2 EV-C99. VP1 sequence analysis revealed these CVA13, CVA17 and EV-C99 strains had 71.3–81.8%, 76.5–84.6% and 74.2–82.9% nucleotide similarity with strains from other countries within a serotype, respectively. EV-C99 strains had 82.7–92.8% VP1 similarity with two previously reported Xinjiang strains. Complete genome analysis on EV-C99 strains revealed intra-serotypic genetic recombination events. These findings reflect great genetic divergence between Chinese strains and strains from other countries of the three types, and provide valuable information on monitoring EV transmission over long distance. PMID:25298041

  6. Isolation and molecular characterization of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotypes from diverse water resources including household drinking water from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tanveer, Tania; Hameed, Abdul; Muazzam, Ambreen Gul; Jung, Suk-Yul; Gul, Asma; Matin, Abdul

    2013-08-01

    Acanthamoeba, an opportunistic protozoan pathogen, is ubiquitous in nature, and therefore plays a predatory role and helps control microbial communities in the ecosystem. These Acanthamoeba species are recognized as opportunistic human pathogens that may cause blinding keratitis and rare but fatal granulomatous encephalitis. To date, there is not a single report demonstrating Acanthamoeba isolation and identification from environmental sources in Pakistan, and that is the aim of this study. Acanthamoeba were identified by morphological characteristics of their cysts on non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli. Additionally, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with genus-specific primers followed by direct sequencing of the PCR product for molecular identification. Furthermore, our PCR and sequencing results confirmed seven different pathogenic and nonpathogenic genotypes, including T2-T10, T4, T5, T7, T15, T16, and T17. To the best of our knowledge, we have identified and isolated Acanthamoeba sp., for the first time, from water resources of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. There is an urgent need to address (1) the pathogenic potential of the identified genotypes and (2) explore other environmental sources from the country to examine the water quality and the current status of Acanthamoeba species in Pakistan, which may be a potential threat for public health across the country.

  7. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  8. Fuel cell system including a unit for electrical isolation of a fuel cell stack from a manifold assembly and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Kelley; Dana A. , Farooque; Mohammad , Davis; Keith

    2007-10-02

    A fuel cell system with improved electrical isolation having a fuel cell stack with a positive potential end and a negative potential, a manifold for use in coupling gases to and from a face of the fuel cell stack, an electrical isolating assembly for electrically isolating the manifold from the stack, and a unit for adjusting an electrical potential of the manifold such as to impede the flow of electrolyte from the stack across the isolating assembly.

  9. Microbial Community Analysis in the Roots of Aquatic Plants and Isolation of Novel Microbes Including an Organism of the Candidate Phylum OP10

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Nigaya, Masahiro; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    A number of molecular ecological studies have revealed complex and unique microbial communities in various terrestrial plant roots; however, little is known about the microbial communities of aquatic plant roots in spite of their potential use for water quality improvement in aquatic environments (e.g. floating treatment wetland system). Here, we report the microbial communities inhabiting the roots of emerged plants, reed (Phragmites australis) and Japanese loosestrife (Lythrum anceps), collected from a floating treatment wetland in a pond by both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the microbial compositions between the two aquatic plant roots were clearly different (e.g. the predominant microbe was Betaproteobacteria for reed and Alphaproteobacteria for Japanese loosestrife). In comparisons of microbial communities between the plant roots and pond water taken from near the plants, the microbial diversity in the plant roots (e.g. 4.40–4.26 Shannon-Weiner index) were higher than that of pond water (e.g. 3.15 Shannon-Weiner index). Furthermore, the plant roots harbored 2.5–3.5 times more phylogenetically novel clone phylotypes than pond water. The culture-dependent approach also revealed differences in the microbial composition and diversity among the two plant roots and pond water. More importantly, compared to pond water, we succeeded in isolating approximately two times more novel isolate phylotypes, including a bacterium of candidate phylum OP10 (recently named Armatimonadetes) from the plant roots. These findings suggest that aquatic plants roots are significant sources for a variety of novel organisms. PMID:22791047

  10. Mycelium of fungi isolated from mouldy foods inhibits Staphylococcus aureus including MRSA – A rationale for the re-introduction of mycotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Alnaimat, Sulaiman; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Salmen, Saleh H.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Al-Johny, Bassam O.; Wainwright, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal mycelium capable of producing antibacterial agents was isolated from samples of apple, beetroot, lemon and orange; the mycelium of all isolates produced penicillin, while the apple and beetroot samples also produced the antibacterial mycotoxin patulin. The known penicillin-producing fungi were shown to produce penicillin, but not patulin. The mycelial discs of all of fruit and vegetable isolates, as well as the two known penicillin producing fungi, inhibited Staphylococcus aureus, and mycelium of all isolates inhibited MRSA, in contrast, only one of the two known penicillin-producers did so. The results are discussed in relation to the possibility of using the mycelium of Penicillium species in mycotherapy. PMID:26288565

  11. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype variant clinical isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti, including a molecular genetic analysis of virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Son, Mike S; Megli, Christina J; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Qadri, Firdausi; Taylor, Ronald K

    2011-11-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, is divided into two biotypes: classical and El Tor. Both biotypes produce the major virulence factors toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT). Although possessing genotypic and phenotypic differences, El Tor biotype strains displaying classical biotype traits have been reported and subsequently were dubbed El Tor variants. Of particular interest are reports of El Tor variants that produce various levels of CT, including levels typical of classical biotype strains. Here, we report the characterization of 10 clinical isolates from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and a representative strain from the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak. We observed that all 11 strains produced increased CT (2- to 10-fold) compared to that of wild-type El Tor strains under in vitro inducing conditions, but they possessed various TcpA and ToxT expression profiles. Particularly, El Tor variant MQ1795, which produced the highest level of CT and very high levels of TcpA and ToxT, demonstrated hypervirulence compared to the virulence of El Tor wild-type strains in the infant mouse cholera model. Additional genotypic and phenotypic tests were conducted to characterize the variants, including an assessment of biotype-distinguishing characteristics. Notably, the sequencing of ctxB in some El Tor variants revealed two copies of classical ctxB, one per chromosome, contrary to previous reports that located ctxAB only on the large chromosome of El Tor biotype strains.

  12. Plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae confers resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam.

    PubMed Central

    Horii, T; Arakawa, Y; Ohta, M; Ichiyama, S; Wacharotayankun, R; Kato, N

    1993-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae NU2936 was isolated from a patient and was found to produce a plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase (MOX-1) which conferred resistance to broad spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam, flomoxef, ceftizoxime, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. Resistance could be transferred from K. pneumoniae NU2936 to Escherichia coli CSH2 by conjugation with a transfer frequency of 5 x 10(-7). The structural gene of MOX-1 (blaMOX-1) was cloned and expressed in E. coli HB101. The MIC of moxalactam for E. coli HB101 producing MOX-1 was > 512 micrograms/ml. The apparent molecular mass and pI of this enzyme were calculated to be 38 kDa and 8.9, respectively. Hg2+ and Cu2+ failed to block enzyme activity, and the presence of EDTA in the reaction buffer did not reduce the enzyme activity. However, clavulanate and cloxacillin, serine beta-lactamase inhibitors, inhibited the enzyme activity competitively (Kis = 5.60 and 0.35 microM, respectively). The kinetic study of MOX-1 suggested that it effectively hydrolyzed broad-spectrum beta-lactams. A hybridization study confirmed that blaMOX-1 is encoded on a large resident plasmid (pRMOX1; 180 kb) of strain NU2936. By deletion analysis, the functional region was localized within a 1.2-kb region of the plasmid. By amino acid sequencing, 18 of 33 amino acid residues at the N terminus of MOX-1 were found to be identical to those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC. These findings suggest that MOX-1 is a plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase that provides enteric bacteria resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam. Images PMID:8517725

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates in south Sweden including a 13-year follow-up study of some respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, A; Walder, M

    1994-03-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility of consecutive isolates of the upper respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus, (100 strains of each species collected each year during March through April 1985, 1988 and 1992) to penicillin V, amoxycillin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, doxycycline, erythromycin, and cotrimoxazole was investigated by MIC determination on PDM and PDM II agar. The MICs of the upper respiratory isolates from 1992 supplemented with 100 isolates each of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus collected during 1992 were determined against the above antibiotics plus cefadroxil, cefpodoxime, roxithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and BAY Y 3118. Beta-lactamase production was found in 10% of H. influenzae and 80-90% of S. aureus and B. catarrhalis in 1992. Among H. influenzae isolates, non-beta-lactamase-induced resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics was first detected in 1988 and amounted to 3% of isolates in 1992. Decreased susceptibility of S. preumoniae to penicillin (> or = 0.12 mg/l), co-trimoxazole > or = 32 mg/l, doxycycline (> or = 2 ml/l) and erythromycin (> or = 1 mg/l) was detected in 11%, 7%, and 8%, respectively, in 1992, which is significantly higher than in previous years at the same laboratory. Decreased susceptibility of S. pyogenes to doxycycline and erythromycin was detected in 11% and 9% in 1992. The two most recently developed antibiotics, cefpodoxime and BAY Y 3118, showed high antibacterial activity. The study emphasizes the need to screen for resistance mechanisms such as beta-lactamase production and lowered penicillin affinity.

  14. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing).

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States during 1999–2000, Including a Comparison of Resistance Rates since 1994–1995

    PubMed Central

    Doern, Gary V.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Huynh, Holly K.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Coffman, Stacy L.; Brueggemann, Angela B.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 1,531 recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected from 33 medical centers nationwide during the winter of 1999–2000 and characterized at a central laboratory. Of these isolates, 34.2% were penicillin nonsusceptible (MIC ≥ 0.12 μg/ml) and 21.5% were high-level resistant (MIC ≥ 2 μg/ml). MICs to all beta-lactam antimicrobials increased as penicillin MICs increased. Resistance rates among non-beta-lactam agents were the following: macrolides, 25.2 to 25.7%; clindamycin, 8.9%; tetracycline, 16.3%; chloramphenicol, 8.3%; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 30.3%. Resistance to non-beta-lactam agents was higher among penicillin-resistant strains than penicillin-susceptible strains; 22.4% of S. pneumoniae were multiresistant. Resistance to vancomycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin was not detected. Resistance to rifampin was 0.1%. Testing of seven fluoroquinolones resulted in the following rank order of in vitro activity: gemifloxacin > sitafloxacin > moxifloxacin > gatifloxacin > levofloxacin = ciprofloxacin > ofloxacin. For 1.4% of strains, ciprofloxacin MICs were ≥4 μg/ml. The MIC90s (MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited) of two ketolides were 0.06 μg/ml (ABT773) and 0.12 μg/ml (telithromycin). The MIC90 of linezolid was 2 μg/ml. Overall, antimicrobial resistance was highest among middle ear fluid and sinus isolates of S. pneumoniae; lowest resistance rates were noted with isolates from cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Resistant isolates were most often recovered from children 0 to 5 years of age and from patients in the southeastern United States. This study represents a continuation of two previous national studies, one in 1994–1995 and the other in 1997–1998. Resistance rates with S. pneumoniae have increased markedly in the United States during the past 5 years. Increases in resistance from 1994–1995 to 1999–2000 for selected antimicrobial agents were as follows: penicillin, 10.6%; erythromycin

  16. Molecular analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1 clinical strains, including new nontoxigenic variants isolated in Mexico during the Cholera epidemic years between 1991 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2009-05-01

    We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI rRNA analysis revealed that these strains had ribotype profiles, denoted M5 and M6 in our study, that were identical to those previously designated Koblavi B5 or Popovic 5 and Popovic 6a or Tamayo B21a, respectively. Ribotype M5 was isolated between 1991 and 1993. This ribotype had a low level of genetic variation as detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribotype M6 persisted from 1991 to 2000. However, PFGE profiles suggested that two epidemiologically unrelated strains coexisted within this single ribotype from 1995 until the end of the epidemic. We identified three new BglI ribotypes, Mx1, Mx2, and Mx3, from nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated between 1998 and 2000; one of them grouped strains positive for the toxin-coregulated pilus island. They differed from nontoxigenic clones isolated in Latin America and on the U.S. Gulf Coast and are probably autochthonous Mexican V. cholerae O1 variants. Most of these new variants were isolated from states surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, where the highest incidence of cholera in the country was recorded. Thus, the Mexican Gulf Coast, like the U.S. Gulf Coast, may act as an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae O1.

  17. Staphylococcus petrasii sp. nov. including S. petrasii subsp. petrasii subsp. nov. and S. petrasii subsp. croceilyticus subsp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens and human ear infections.

    PubMed

    Pantůček, Roman; Švec, Pavel; Dajcs, Joseph J; Machová, Ivana; Černohlávková, Jitka; Šedo, Ondrej; Gelbíčová, Tereza; Mašlaňová, Ivana; Doškař, Jiří; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Růžičková, Vladislava; Sedláček, Ivo

    2013-03-01

    Thirteen coagulase-negative, oxidase-negative, and novobiocin-susceptible staphylococci were isolated from human clinical specimens. The isolates were differentiated from known staphylococcal species on the basis of 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoB, dnaJ, tuf, and gap gene sequencing, automated ribotyping, (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting, and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated phylogenetic relatedness of the analyzed strains to Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus devriesei, and Staphylococcus lugdunensis. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between representative strains CCM 8418(T), CCM 8421(T), and the closest phylogenetic neighbors confirmed that the isolates represent novel Staphylococcus species, for which the name Staphylococcus petrasii sp. nov. is proposed. Genotypic and phenotypic analyses unambiguously split the strains into two closely related subclusters. Based on the results, two novel subspecies S. petrasii subsp. petrasii subsp. nov. and S. petrasii subsp. croceilyticus subsp. nov. are proposed, with type strains CCM 8418(T) (=CCUG 62727(T)) and CCM 8421(T) (=CCUG 62728(T)), respectively.

  18. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Bluetongue virus serotype 2 strains isolated in the Americas including a novel strain from the western United States.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Natasha N; Mayo, Christie E; Jasperson, Dane C; Crossley, Beate M; Breitmeyer, Richard E; Johnson, Donna J; Ostlund, Eileen N; MacLachlan, N James; Wilson, William C

    2014-06-10

    Bluetongue is a potentially fatal arboviral disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is characterized by widespread edema and tissue necrosis. Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 occur throughout much of the United States, whereas serotype 2 (BTV-2) was previously only detected in the southeastern United States. Since 1998, 10 other BTV serotypes have also been isolated from ruminants in the southeastern United States. In 2010, BTV-2 was identified in California for the first time, and preliminary sequence analysis indicated that the virus isolate was closely related to BTV strains circulating in the southeastern United States. In the current study, the whole genome sequence of the California strain of BTV-2 was compared with those of other BTV-2 strains in the Americas. The results of the analysis suggest co-circulation of genetically distinct viruses in the southeastern United States, and further suggest that the 2010 western isolate is closely related to southeastern strains of BTV. Although it remains uncertain as to how this novel virus was translocated to California, the findings of the current study underscore the need for ongoing surveillance of this economically important livestock disease.

  19. Cell culture isolation and sequence analysis of genetically diverse US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains including a novel strain with a large deletion in the spike gene.

    PubMed

    Oka, Tomoichiro; Saif, Linda J; Marthaler, Douglas; Esseili, Malak A; Meulia, Tea; Lin, Chun-Ming; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Jung, Kwonil; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qiuhong

    2014-10-10

    The highly contagious and deadly porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first appeared in the US in April 2013. Since then the virus has spread rapidly nationwide and to Canada and Mexico causing high mortality among nursing piglets and significant economic losses. Currently there are no efficacious preventive measures or therapeutic tools to control PEDV in the US. The isolation of PEDV in cell culture is the first step toward the development of an attenuated vaccine, to study the biology of PEDV and to develop in vitro PEDV immunoassays, inactivation assays and screen for PEDV antivirals. In this study, nine of 88 US PEDV strains were isolated successfully on Vero cells with supplemental trypsin and subjected to genomic sequence analysis. They differed genetically mainly in the N-terminal S protein region as follows: (1) strains (n=7) similar to the highly virulent US PEDV strains; (2) one similar to the reportedly US S INDEL PEDV strain; and (3) one novel strain most closely related to highly virulent US PEDV strains, but with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. Representative strains of these three genetic groups were passaged serially and grew to titers of ∼5-6log10 plaque forming units/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation in cell culture of an S INDEL PEDV strain and a PEDV strain with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. We also designed primer sets to detect these genetically diverse US PEDV strains.

  20. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO. PMID:21770814

  1. Isolation of the most immature population of murine fetal thymocytes that includes progenitors capable of generating T, B, and myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Thymus cells of murine fetuses at day 12 of gestation are exclusively of the CD3-CD4-CD8-CD44+CD25- phenotype, which is known as a hallmark of the most immature subset of thymus cells. In the present study, we show that day 12 fetal thymus (FT) cells express Fc gamma RII/ III (FcR) at a broad range of levels on their surface. The FcR+ FT cells seem to represent T lineage cells, because a large majority of them express the T lineage specific transcription factors TCF-1 and GATA-3 as well as CD3 epsilon in the cytoplasm. Also shown is that the FcR- population contains progenitors capable of developing into not only T cells but also B and myeloid cells, whereas FcR+ progenitors are mostly committed to the T lineage. These findings indicate that thymic T lineage cells express FcR on their surface at the earliest stage of differentiation, and thus FcR is a useful marker in isolating the most immature population of murine FT cells. PMID:8920877

  2. Molecular Comparisons of Full Length Metapneumovirus (MPV) Genomes, Including Newly Determined French AMPV-C and –D Isolates, Further Supports Possible Subclassification within the MPV Genus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Paul A.; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Briand, François-Xavier; Courtillon, Céline; Guionie, Olivier; Allée, Chantal; Toquin, Didier; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Jestin, Véronique; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Four avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroups (A–D) have been reported previously based on genetic and antigenic differences. However, until now full length sequences of the only known isolates of European subgroup C and subgroup D viruses (duck and turkey origin, respectively) have been unavailable. These full length sequences were determined and compared with other full length AMPV and human metapneumoviruses (HMPV) sequences reported previously, using phylogenetics, comparisons of nucleic and amino acid sequences and study of codon usage bias. Results confirmed that subgroup C viruses were more closely related to HMPV than they were to the other AMPV subgroups in the study. This was consistent with previous findings using partial genome sequences. Closer relationships between AMPV-A, B and D were also evident throughout the majority of results. Three metapneumovirus “clusters” HMPV, AMPV-C and AMPV-A, B and D were further supported by codon bias and phylogenetics. The data presented here together with those of previous studies describing antigenic relationships also between AMPV-A, B and D and between AMPV-C and HMPV may call for a subclassification of metapneumoviruses similar to that used for avian paramyxoviruses, grouping AMPV-A, B and D as type I metapneumoviruses and AMPV-C and HMPV as type II. PMID:25036224

  3. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show

  4. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show strain

  5. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show strain

  6. In vitro activity of the new fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) against a large collection of clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and international reference strains, including those with high-level antimicrobial resistance: potential treatment option for gonorrhea?

    PubMed

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S; Unemo, Magnus

    2012-05-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies isolated from human B cells neutralize a broad range of H1 subtype influenza A viruses including swine-origin Influenza virus (S-OIV).

    PubMed

    Burioni, Roberto; Canducci, Filippo; Mancini, Nicasio; Clementi, Nicola; Sassi, Monica; De Marco, Donata; Diotti, Roberta Antonia; Saita, Diego; Sampaolo, Michela; Sautto, Giuseppe; Pianezze, Matteo; Clementi, Massimo

    2010-03-30

    The new H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) strain is a global health problem. The elucidation of the virus-host relationship is crucial for the control of the new infection. Two human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments (HMab) neutralizing the novel H1N1 influenza strain at very low concentrations were cloned before the emergence of S-OIV from a patient who had a broad-range H1N1 serum neutralizing activity. The two HMabs neutralized all tested H1N1 strains, including S-OIV and a swine strain with IC(50) ranging from 2 to 7 microg/ml. Data demonstrate that infection with previously circulating H1N1 strains can elicit antibodies neutralizing S-OIV. Finally, the human genes coding for the neutralizing HMabs could be used for generating full human monoclonal IgGs that can be safely administered being potentially useful in the prophylaxis and the treatment of this human infection.

  8. [New recurrent extended deletion, including GJB2 and GJB6 genes, results in isolated sensorineural hearing impairment with autosomal recessive type of inheritance].

    PubMed

    Bliznets, E A; Makienko, O N; Okuneva, E G; Markova, T G; Poliakov, A V

    2014-04-01

    Hereditary hearing loss with the autosomal recessive type of inheritance of the DFNB 1 genetic type, caused by mutations in the GJB2 gene, is the main reason of innate non-syndromal hearing impairment in most developed countries of the world (including Russia). Intragenic point mutations prevail among the GJB2 gene defectors; however, extended deletions in the DFNB1 locus are also found with considerable frequency in some populations (for example, Spain, Great Britain, France, United States, and Brazil). Among the four known extended deletions, only one deletion affects directly the GJB2 gene sequence and was described in a single family. A new extended deletion in the GJB2 and GJB6 gene sequences (approximately 101 kb in size; NC_000013.10:g.20,757,021_20,858,394del), detected in three unrelated Russian patients, was described and characterized. Ingush origin of this mutation is assumed. If the new deletion is frequent, its detection is very important for the genetic consulting of families with hereditary hearing impairment. PMID:25715449

  9. Isolation of major components from the roots of Godmania aesculifolia and determination of their antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Vásquez, Víctor; Ríos, María Isabel; Rodríguez, María Victoria; Solano, Godofredo; Zacchino, Susana; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2013-12-01

    From the methanol root extract of Godmania aesculifolia, a species selected in a multinational OAS program aimed at discovering antifungal compounds from Latin American plants, a new chavicol diglycoside (1), the known 3,4-dihydroxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one (2), and lapachol (3) were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. Only 3 exhibited fairly good activity against a panel of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC50 between 7.8 and 31.2 µg/mL) and moderate activities against Candida spp. and non-albicans Candida spp. PMID:24356871

  10. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, G.J.; Sampayan, S.E.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-10-13

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 12 figs.

  11. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  12. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; Sadatsune, Terue; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources, in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  13. Species distribution and susceptibility profile to fluconazole, voriconazole and MXP-4509 of 551 clinical yeast isolates from a Romanian multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Minea, B; Nastasa, V; Moraru, R F; Kolecka, A; Flonta, M M; Marincu, I; Man, A; Toma, F; Lupse, M; Doroftei, B; Marangoci, N; Pinteala, M; Boekhout, T; Mares, M

    2015-02-01

    This is the first multi-centre study regarding yeast infections in Romania. The aim was to determine the aetiological spectrum and susceptibility pattern to fluconazole, voriconazole and the novel compound MXP-4509. The 551 isolates were identified using routine laboratory methods, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and DNA sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing was performed using the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) method and breakpoints. The yeasts originated from superficial infections (SUP, 51.5 %), bloodstream infections (BSI, 31.6 %) and deep-seated infections (DEEP, 16.9 %), from patients of all ages. Nine genera and 30 species were identified. The 20 Candida species accounted for 94.6 % of all isolates. C. albicans was the overall leading pathogen (50.5 %). Lodderomyces elongisporus is reported for the first time as a fungaemia cause in Europe. C. glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the non-Candida spp. and non-albicans Candida spp. groups, showed decreased fluconazole susceptibility (<75 %). The overall fluconazole resistance was 10.2 %. C. krusei accounted for 27 of the 56 fluconazole-resistant isolates. The overall voriconazole resistance was 2.5 % and was due mainly to C. glabrata and C. tropicalis isolates. Fluconazole resistance rates for the three categories of infection were similar to the overall value; voriconazole resistance rates differed: 4 % for BSI, 3.2 % for DEEP and 1.4 % for SUP. The antifungal activity of MXP-4509 was superior to voriconazole against C. glabrata and many fluconazole-resistant isolates. There was a large percentage of non-albicans Candida isolates. A large part of the high fluconazole resistance was not acquired but intrinsic, resulting from the high percentage of C. krusei.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the VITEK 2, disk diffusion, etest, broth microdilution, and agar dilution susceptibility testing methods for colistin in clinical isolates, including heteroresistant Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii strains.

    PubMed

    Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; de Smet, Anne Marie G A; Diederen, Bram M W; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; van Keulen, Peter H J

    2007-10-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria has recently renewed interest in colistin as a therapeutic option. The increasing use of colistin necessitates the availability of rapid and reliable methods for colistin susceptibility testing. We compared seven methods of colistin susceptibility testing (disk diffusion, agar dilution on Mueller-Hinton [MH] and Isosensitest agar, Etest on MH and Isosensitest agar, broth microdilution, and VITEK 2) on 102 clinical isolates collected from patient materials during a selective digestive decontamination or selective oral decontamination trial in an intensive-care unit. Disk diffusion is an unreliable method to measure susceptibility to colistin. High error rates and low levels of reproducibility were observed in the disk diffusion test. The colistin Etest, agar dilution, and the VITEK 2 showed a high level of agreement with the broth microdilution reference method. Heteroresistance for colistin was observed in six Enterobacter cloacae isolates and in one Acinetobacter baumannii isolate. This is the first report of heteroresistance to colistin in E. cloacae isolates. Resistance to colistin in these isolates seemed to be induced upon exposure to colistin rather than being caused by stable mutations. Heteroresistant isolates could be detected in the broth microdilution, agar dilution, Etest, or disk diffusion test. The VITEK 2 displayed low sensitivity in the detection of heteroresistant subpopulations of E. cloacae. The VITEK 2 colistin susceptibility test can therefore be considered to be a reliable tool to determine susceptibility to colistin in isolates of genera that are known not to exhibit resistant subpopulations. In isolates of genera known to (occasionally) exhibit heteroresistance, an alternative susceptibility testing method capable of detecting heteroresistance should be used.

  15. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  16. Sequence-identification of Candida species isolated from candidemia

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Ghahri, Mohammad; Sadrossadati, Seyedeh Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections such as candidemia. Candidemia is a lethal fungal infection among immunocompromised patients worldwide. Main pathogen is Candida albicans but a global shift in epidemiology toward non-albicans species have reported. Species identification is imperative for good management of candidemia as a fatal infection. The aim of the study is to identify Candida spp. obtained from candidemia and determination of mortality rate among this population. Materials and Methods: The study was performed during February 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran, Iran. Two-hundred and four blood cultures were evaluated for fungal bloodstream infection. Identification of isolates was carried out using phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction sequencing technique. Results: Twenty-two out of 204 patients (10.8%) had candidemia. Candida parapsilosis was the most prevalent species (45.4%), followed by C. albicans (31.8%) and Candida glabrata (22.7%). Male to female sex ratio was 8/14. Conclusions: The emergence of resistant strains of Candida species should be considered by physicians to decrease the mortality of this fatal fungal infection by appropriate treatment. PMID:27713871

  17. Filobacterium rodentium gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of Filobacteriaceae fam. nov. within the phylum Bacteroidetes; includes a microaerobic filamentous bacterium isolated from specimens from diseased rodent respiratory tracts.

    PubMed

    Ike, Fumio; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kajita, Ayako; Matsushita, Satoru; Kokubo, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Strain SMR-CT, which was originally isolated from rats as the SMR strain, had been named 'cilia-associated respiratory bacillus' ('CAR bacillus'). 'CAR bacillus' was a Gram-stain-negative, filamentous argentophilic bacterium without flagella. SMR-CT grew at 37 °C under microaerobic conditions, showed gliding activity, hydrolysed urea and induced chronic respiratory diseases in rodents. The dominant cellular fatty acids detected were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed SMR-CT and other strains of 'CAR bacillus' isolated from rodents all belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The nearest known type strain, with 86 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, was Chitinophaga pinensis DSM 2588T in the family Chitinophagaceae. Strain SMR-CT and closely related strains of 'CAR bacillus' rodent-isolates formed a novel family-level clade in the phylum Bacteroidetes with high bootstrap support (98-100 %). Based on these results, we propose a novel family, Filobacteriaceae fam. nov., in the order Sphingobacteriales as well as a novel genus and species, Filobacterium rodentium gen. nov., sp. nov., for strain SMR-CT. The type strain is SMR-CT ( = JCM 19453T = DSM 100392T).

  18. Filobacterium rodentium gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of Filobacteriaceae fam. nov. within the phylum Bacteroidetes; includes a microaerobic filamentous bacterium isolated from specimens from diseased rodent respiratory tracts.

    PubMed

    Ike, Fumio; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kajita, Ayako; Matsushita, Satoru; Kokubo, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Strain SMR-CT, which was originally isolated from rats as the SMR strain, had been named 'cilia-associated respiratory bacillus' ('CAR bacillus'). 'CAR bacillus' was a Gram-stain-negative, filamentous argentophilic bacterium without flagella. SMR-CT grew at 37 °C under microaerobic conditions, showed gliding activity, hydrolysed urea and induced chronic respiratory diseases in rodents. The dominant cellular fatty acids detected were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed SMR-CT and other strains of 'CAR bacillus' isolated from rodents all belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The nearest known type strain, with 86 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, was Chitinophaga pinensis DSM 2588T in the family Chitinophagaceae. Strain SMR-CT and closely related strains of 'CAR bacillus' rodent-isolates formed a novel family-level clade in the phylum Bacteroidetes with high bootstrap support (98-100 %). Based on these results, we propose a novel family, Filobacteriaceae fam. nov., in the order Sphingobacteriales as well as a novel genus and species, Filobacterium rodentium gen. nov., sp. nov., for strain SMR-CT. The type strain is SMR-CT ( = JCM 19453T = DSM 100392T). PMID:26476525

  19. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  20. Are isolated wetlands isolated?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Haukos, David A.

    2011-01-01

    While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

  1. Assessment of competitive and mechanism-based inhibition by clarithromycin: use of domperidone as a CYP3A probe-drug substrate and various enzymatic sources including a new cell-based assay with freshly isolated human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Veronique; Turgeon, Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Clarithromycin is involved in a large number of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. Discrepancies are observed between the magnitude of drug interactions predicted from in vitro competitive inhibition studies and changes observed clinically in the plasma levels of affected CYP3A substrates. The formation of metabolic-intermediate complexes has been proposed to explain these differences. The objectives of our study were: 1) to determine the competitive inhibition potency of clarithromycin on the metabolism of domperidone as a CYP3A probe drug using human recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 isoenzymes, human liver microsomes and cultured human hepatocytes; 2) to establish the modulatory role of cytochrome b5 on the competitive inhibition potency of clarithromycin; 3) to demonstrate the clarithromycin-induced formation of CYP450 metabolic-intermediate complexes in human liver microsomes; and 4) to determine the extent of CYP3A inhibition due to metabolic-intermediate complex formation using human liver microsomes and cultured human hepatocytes. At high concentrations (100 µM), clarithromycin had weak competitive inhibition potency towards CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Inhibition potency was further decreased by the addition of cytochrome b5 (9-19%). Clarithromycin-induced metabolic-intermediate complexes were revealed by spectrophotometry analysis using human liver microsomes while time- and concentration-dependent mechanism-based inhibitions were quantified using isolated hepatocytes. These results indicate that mechanism-based but not competitive inhibition of CYP3As is the major underlying mechanism of drug-drug interactions observed clinically with clarithromycin. Drug interactions between clarithromycin and several CYP3A substrates are predicted to be insidious; the risk of severe adverse events should increase over time and persist for a few days after cessation of the drug.

  2. Analog signal isolation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  3. Analog signal isolation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  4. Antifungal drug resistance pattern of Candida. spp isolated from vaginitis in Ilam-Iran during 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadi, Jasem; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Panahi, Jafar; Pakzad, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal Candidiasis is the most common and important opportunistic fungal infection in women. By increasing use of antifungal drugs in recent years, it has caused drug resistance. This study aims to evaluate antifungal drugs susceptibility of Candida. spp isolated of women with vaginitis from Ilam-Iran during 2013-2014. samples were collected and cultured from 385 women with vaginitis, then Candida.spp was diagnosed by standard method. Antifungal drug susceptibility test for nystatin 100 unit/disk, fluconazole 10µg/disk, itraconazole 10µg/disk, ketoconazole 10µg/disk, amphotericinB 20µg/disk, clotrimazole 10µg/disk, posaconazole 5µg/disk, and voriconazole 1µg/disk were carried out by M44-A method(CLSI). From all culture positive samples, 150 isolates were Candida albicans and 89 isolates were non-albicans. The resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was 76%, 62%, 72%, 55%, 6%, 7%, 1% and 0%. The highest resistance was seen for fluconazole , itraconazole, and the highest susceptible was seen for nystatin and amphotericin B. These results indicate nystatin and amphotericin B can be used as the first line for empirical therapy of vaginal candidiasis in the district. PMID:26124561

  5. Concordance between isolated cleft palate in mice and alterations within a region including the gene encoding the [beta][sub 3] subunit of the type A [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Culiat, C.T.; Stubbs, L.; Nicholls, R.D.; Montgomery, C.S.; Russell, L.B.; Johnson, D.K. ); Rinchik, E.M. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville )

    1993-06-01

    Genetic and molecular analyses of a number of radiation-induced deletion mutations of the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in mouse chromosome 7 have identified a specific interval on the genetic map associated with a neonatally lethal mutation that results in cleft palate. This interval, closely linked and distal to p, and bracketed by the genes encoding the [alpha][sub 5] and [beta][sub 3] subunits of the type A [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor (Gabra5 and Gabrb3, respectively), contains a gene(s) (cp1; cleft palate 1) necessary for normal palate development. The cp1 interval extends from the distal breakpoint of the prenatally lethal p[sup 83FBFo] deletion to the Gabrb3 locus. Among 20 p deletions tested, there was complete concordance between alterations at the Gabrb3 transcription unit and inability to complement the cleft-palate defect. These mapping data, along with previously described in vivo and in vitro teratological effects of [gamma]-aminobutyric acid or its agonists on palate development, suggest the possibility that a particular type A [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor that includes the [beta][sub 3] subunit may be necessary for normal palate development. The placement of the cp1 gene within a defined segment of the larger D15S12h (p)-D15S9h-1 interval in the mouse suggests that the highly homologous region of the human genome, 15q11-q13, be evaluated for a role(s) in human fetal facial development. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Antifungal activity of cathelicidin peptides against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Candida species isolated from vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Scarsini, Michele; Tomasinsig, Linda; Arzese, Alessandra; D'Este, Francesca; Oro, Debora; Skerlavaj, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a frequent gynecological condition caused by Candida albicans and a few non-albicans Candida spp. It has a significant impact on the quality of life of the affected women also due to a considerable incidence of recurrent infections that are difficult to treat. The formation of fungal biofilm may contribute to the problematic management of recurrent VVC due to the intrinsic resistance of sessile cells to the currently available antifungals. Thus, alternative approaches for the prevention and control of biofilm-related infections are urgently needed. In this regard, the cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of the innate immunity are potential candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials as many of them display activity against biofilm formed by various microbial species. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antifungal activities of the cathelicidin peptides LL-37 and BMAP-28 against pathogenic Candida spp. also including C. albicans, isolated from vaginal infections, and against C. albicans SC5314 as a reference strain. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against planktonic and biofilm-grown Candida cells by using microdilution susceptibility and XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction assays and, in the case of established biofilms, also by CFU enumeration and fluorescence microscopy. BMAP-28 was effective against planktonically grown yeasts in standard medium (MIC range, 2-32μM), and against isolates of C. albicans and Candida krusei in synthetic vaginal simulated fluid (MIC range 8-32μM, depending on the pH of the medium). Established 48-h old biofilms formed by C. albicans SC5314 and C. albicans and C. krusei isolates were 70-90% inhibited within 24h incubation with 16μM BMAP-28. As shown by propidium dye uptake and CFU enumeration, BMAP-28 at 32μM killed sessile C. albicans SC5314 by membrane permeabilization with a faster killing kinetics

  7. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  8. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  9. Listening to Include

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  10. Module isolation devices

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  11. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-15

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections.

  12. Point prevalence, microbiology and antifungal susceptibility patterns of oral Candida isolates colonizing or infecting Mexican HIV/AIDS patients and healthy persons.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio; Ortiz-López, Natalia Guadalupe; Villar, María; Moragues, María Dolores; Aguirre, José Manuel; Cashat-Cruz, Miguel; Lopez-Ribot, Jose Luis; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quindós, Guillermo

    2005-06-01

    We have conducted a longitudinal study over a 3-year period to address the point prevalence, microbiological characteristics and antifungal susceptibility patterns of yeast isolates colonizing or infecting the oral cavities of 111 HIV-infected (51 adults, 60 children) and 201 non HIV-infected (109 adults, 92 children) Mexican persons. Regarding the epidemiology of oral candidiasis, Candida albicans was the most frequent species isolated. Seventy-one out of 85 isolates from colonized persons were C. albicans (83.5%), 27 isolates of them were from HIV-infected children and 44 from non HIV-infected patients. Sixty-two isolates belonged to serotype A which was the most prevalent serotype of C. albicans. Non-albicans species (Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were isolated from 16.5% of colonized patients and from 38.5% patients with candidiasis or Candida-related lesions. There were nine episodes of infection or colonization by at least 2 different yeast species. In the case of HIV/AIDS patients, it was determined that yeast carriage was not associated with the number of CD4+ cells or the viral load, but HAART reduced the prevalence of oral candidiasis. Overall, most patients harbored strains in vitro susceptible to fluconazole, however 10.8% of the yeasts were resistant to one or more azole antifungal agents and 29% were intermediate susceptible to them. On the contrary, 5-fluorocytosine was very active against all isolates tested, and amphotericin B was active against 97.9% of them.

  13. High-Frequency, In Vitro Reversible Switching of Candida lusitaniae Clinical Isolates from Amphotericin B Susceptibility to Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Stephanie A.; Vazquez, Jose A.; Steffan, Paul E.; Sobel, Jack D.; Akins, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed an increase in the incidence of serious infections caused by non-albicans Candida species. Candida lusitaniae is of special interest because of its sporadic resistance to amphotericin B (AmB). The present in vitro study demonstrated that, unlike other Candida species, C. lusitaniae isolates frequently generated AmB-resistant lineages form previously susceptible colonies. Cells switching from a resistant colony to a susceptible phenotype were also detected after treatment with either UV light, heat shock, or exposure to whole blood, all of which increased the frequency of switching. In some C. lusitaniae lineages, after a cell switched to a resistant phenotype, the resistant phenotype was stable; in other lineages, colonies were composed primarily of AmB-susceptible cells. Although resistant and susceptible lineages were identical in many aspects, their cellular morphologies were dramatically different. Switching mechanisms that involve exposure to antifungals may have an impact on antifungal therapeutic strategies as well as on standardized susceptibility testing of clinical yeast specimens. PMID:10103188

  14. [Two cases of anaerobic empyema including Actinomyces].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Satoru; Takiguchi, Yasuo

    2009-03-01

    We report 2 cases of empyema including Actinomyces spp. Case 1 was a 66-year-old man with fever and left pleural effusion, Actinomyces israelii and 2 other microbes were isolated. Case 2 was a 52-year-old male inpatient who developed empyema during treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Actinomyces odontolyticus and 3 other microbes were cultured in pleural effusion. Empyema caused by Actinomyces spp. is rare, in particular Actinomyces odontolyticus is rarely isolated and only 4 cases have been reported in Japan.

  15. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  16. EKG isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.; Rasquin, J. R.; Smith, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Light beam transmits heartbeat signal from electrodes on patient to electrocardiograph without exposing patient to possible severe electrical shock. System provides complete isolation between patient and EKG instrumentation.

  17. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  18. Social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

  19. Candiduria in Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection with Special Reference to Biofilm Production

    PubMed Central

    Rishpana, Mythreyi Shekar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infections as a result of Candida species are becoming increasingly common in hospital settings. The association is higher in patients with prolonged urinary catheterization and also various pre-disposing factors. Aim This study was done to look into the significance of candiduria in the catheterized patients and to perform microbial catheterization of yeast and biofilm detection by tube method to guide treatment protocol. Materials and Methods This is a prospective study. One hundred urine samples were collected over a period of 3 months. Specimens included were those of patients presenting with nosocomial Urinary tract infection (UTI) after 72 hours of hospitalization. The urine samples obtained were immediately processed in microbiology laboratory by semi-quantitative method as per standard protocol. All yeast isolates were stored for further microbial characterization. Biofilm production was detected by tube method. Results In the present study we observed that out of 100 samples obtained from catheterized patients presenting with nosocomial UTI 26% were caused by Candida species. Among the 26 Candida isolates 16 (61.53%) were non albicans Candida and 10(38.47%) were Candida albicans. Out 26 Candida isolates, 14(53.84%) of the candida isolates were found to produce biofilm. Biofilm production was found to occur more frequently among non albicans Candida 10(62.5%) than Candida albicans 4(40.0%). Conclusion The present study reiterates the presence of candiduria in catheterized patients. Non-albicans candida speices are replacing candida albicans as the predominant pathogen for nosocomial UTI. It was also observed that Biofilm formation is seen more frequently with non albicans candida species than with Candida albicans. PMID:26557518

  20. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  1. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  2. Including Conflict in Creative Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litvin, Martin

    Conflict is the basis of all stories and thus should appear in some form in the first sentence. There are three kinds of conflict: people vs. people; people vs. nature; and people vs. themselves. Conflict must be repeated in all the various elements of the story's structure, including the plot, which is the plan of action telling what happens to…

  3. Family Living, Including Sex Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlano, George

    This volume describes and evaluates 21 selected New York City Board of Education Umbrella Programs for the 1974-1975 school year. The programs include: (1) the parent resource center, (2) the teacher self-help program, (3) the East Harlem pre-kindergarten center, (4) the Brooklyn College volunteer tutoring program, (5) the parent education for…

  4. Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. ); Mostaghel, N. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

  5. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  6. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E.

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  7. Neoclassical Transport Including Collisional Nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.; Belli, E. A.

    2011-06-10

    In the standard {delta}f theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction {delta}f is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlueter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  8. Compact Radar Transceiver with Included Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matthew; Rincon, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is an eight-channel phased array radar system that employs solid-state radar transceivers, a microstrip patch antenna, and a reconfigurable waveform generator and processor unit. The original DBSAR transceiver design utilizes connectorized electronic components that tend to be physically large and heavy. To achieve increased functionality in a smaller volume, PCB (printed circuit board) transceivers were designed to replace the large connectorized transceivers. One of the most challenging problems designing the transceivers in a PCB format was achieving proper performance in the calibration path. For a radar loop-back calibration path, a portion of the transmit signal is coupled out of the antenna feed and fed back into the receiver. This is achieved using passive components for stability and repeatability. Some signal also leaks through the receive path. As these two signal paths are correlated via an unpredictable phase, the leakage through the receive path during transmit must be 30 dB below the calibration path. For DBSAR s design, this requirement called for a 100-dB isolation in the receiver path during transmit. A total of 16 solid-state L-band transceivers on a PCB format were designed. The transceivers include frequency conversion stages, T/R switching, and a calibration path capable of measuring the transmit power-receiver gain product during transmit for pulse-by-pulse calibration or matched filtering. In particular, this calibration path achieves 100-dB isolation between the transmitted signal and the low-noise amplifier through the use of a switching network and a section of physical walls achieving attenuation of radiated leakage. The transceivers were designed in microstrip PCBs with lumped elements and individually packaged components for compactness. Each transceiver was designed on a single PCB with a custom enclosure providing interior walls and compartments to isolate transceiver

  9. Isolated neurosarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Bianca; Crişan, Doiniţa; Tompa, I; Szabo, I

    2011-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory granulomatous disease affecting multiple organ systems. Neurosarcoidosis (central nervous system involvement) is seen in approximately 25% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis, although it is subclinical in most of these cases. Clinical presentations and imaging findings in nervous system were varied. Cranial nerve abnormalities were the most common clinical presentation and involvement of the optic nerve in particular was associated with a poor prognosis for visual recovery. A patient is described who presented with decreased visual acuity, hypoesthesia of the face and multiple tumors of the eyelids on both eyes. Initial biopsy of one of the tumor of the eyelids revealed a non-caseating granulomatous inflammatory process with nodular infiltrates made up of epithelioid cells, Langhans-type giant multinucleated cells and mononuclear cells; the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was suspected. After two years of clinical and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) follow up, the diagnosis of isolated neurosarcoidosis was confirmed by histology. In this study, we analyzed clinical and radiologic records of this patient with biopsy proven and clinically diagnosed neurosarcoidosis for the following reasons: (1) to assess the concordance between abnormalities noted on MRI with neurologic symptoms at presentation; (2) to correlate changes in imaging findings during follow-up with clinical worsening; and (3) to show up the characteristic feature of this case with no general sign/symptoms of sarcoidosis.

  10. Isolation precautions

    MedlinePlus

    ... airborne precautions include chickenpox , measles , and tuberculosis (TB) bacteria. People who have these germs should be in ... in the room should wear a gown and gloves. Droplet precautions are used to prevent contact with ...

  11. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

  12. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, W.D.

    1999-06-15

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

  13. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  14. Ultrasonic thermometer isolation standoffs

    DOEpatents

    Arave, Alvin E.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for minimizing sticking of the transmission line to the protective sheath and preventing noise echoes from interfering with signal echoes in an improved high temperature ultrasonic thermometer which includes an ultrasonic transmission line surrounded by a protective sheath. Small isolation standoffs are mounted on the transmission line to minimize points of contact between the transmission line and the protective sheath, the isolation standoffs serving as discontinuities mounted on the transmission line at locations where a signal echo is desired or where an echo can be tolerated. Consequently any noise echo generated by the sticking of the standoff to the protective sheath only adds to the amplitude of the echo generated at the standoff and does not interfere with the other signal echoes.

  15. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

  16. GOES-R Dual Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, Doug; Carter, Delano; Chapel, Jim; Clapp, Brian; Howat, John; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites, scheduled for delivery in late 2015. GOES-R represents a quantum increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. With the improved resolution, comes the instrument suite's increased sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectrum 0-512 Hz. Sources of disturbance include reaction wheels, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, gimbal motion, and internal instrument disturbances. To minimize the impact of these disturbances, the baseline design includes an Earth Pointed Platform (EPP), a stiff optical bench to which the two nadir pointed instruments are collocated together with the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) star trackers and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The EPP is passively isolated from the spacecraft bus with Honeywell D-Strut isolators providing attenuation for frequencies above approximately 5 Hz in all six degrees-of-freedom. A change in Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) vendors occurred very late in the program. To reduce the risk of RWA disturbances impacting performance, a secondary passive isolation system manufactured by Moog CSA Engineering was incorporated under each of the six 160 Nms RWAs, tuned to provide attenuation at frequencies above approximately 50 Hz. Integrated wheel and isolator testing was performed on a Kistler table at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. High fidelity simulations were conducted to evaluate jitter performance for four topologies: 1) hard mounted no isolation, 2) EPP isolation only, 2) RWA isolation only, and 4) dual isolation. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing stability requirements, with dual isolated Line of Sight (LOS) jitter less than 1 micron rad.

  17. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes. During these episodes the person is unable to move ...

  18. Isolation of neuromelanin granules.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Florian

    2008-12-01

    Neuromelanin granules are pigmented organelles in the human midbrain that give name to a brain area, substantia nigra pars compacta, which macroscopically appears as a dark brown region in the midbrain due to the insoluble pigment neuromelanin. The substantia nigra pars compacta massively degenerates in Parkinson's disease and gives rise to severely disabling movement symptoms. It has been suggested that neuromelanin granules play an important role in the neurodegenerative events in Parkinson's disease: redox-active iron is bound to neuromelanin and thereby retained within this compartment, but in Parkinson's disease it is thought to be increasingly released into the cytosol, promoting oxidative stress. This unit includes a methodological workflow for the isolation of neuromelanin granules from the human midbrain. This top-down approach (describes an approach that reduces the complexity of the sample stepwise from the level of tissue to cell, and from cell to organelle) encompasses the organelle isolation by sequential density gradient centrifugation and the assessment of the isolation efficacy by western blotting. PMID:19085988

  19. Cryogenic Faraday isolator

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznov, D S; Zelenogorskii, V V; Katin, E V; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Khazanov, Efim A

    2010-05-26

    A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts. (quantum electronic devices)

  20. ISOLATION OF MOUSE NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT 19.6. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:26237011

  1. Magnetically coupled signal isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  2. Isolation of marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Houssen, Wael E; Jaspars, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Marine macro- and micro-biota offer a wealth of chemically diverse compounds that have been evolutionary preselected to modulate biochemical pathways. Many industrial and academic groups are accessing this source using advanced technology platforms. The previous edition of this chapter offered some practical guidance in the process of extraction and isolation of marine natural products with more emphasis on the procedures adapted to the physical and chemical characteristics of the isolated compounds. Automation and direct integration of the isolation technology into high-throughput screening (HTS) systems were also reported. In this edition, we refer to some new topics which are heavily represented in the literature. These include methods for sampling the deep ocean and the procedures for culturing high-pressure-adapted (piezophilic) marine microorganisms to be amenable to laboratory investigation. A brief discussion on genomic-guided approaches to detect the presence of biosynthetic loci even those that are silent or cryptic is also included.

  3. Helicopter gearbox isolation using periodically layered fluidic isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefi, Joseph Thomas

    2003-07-01

    In rotorcraft transmissions, vibration generation by meshing gear pairs is a significant source of vibration and cabin noise. This high-frequency gearbox noise is primarily transmitted to the fuselage through rigid connections, which do not appreciably attenuate vibratory energy. The high-frequency vibrations typically include discrete gear-meshing frequencies in the range of 500--2000 Hz, and are often considered irritating and can reduce pilot effectiveness and passenger comfort. Periodically-layered isolators were identified as potential passive attenuators of these high frequency vibrations. Layered isolators exhibit transmissibility "stop bands," or frequency ranges in which there is very low transmissibility. An axisymmetric model was developed to accurately predict the location of these stop bands for isolators in compression. A Ritz approximation method was used to model the axisymmetric elastic behavior of layered cylindrical isolators. This model of layered isolators was validated with experiments. The physical design constraints of the proposed helicopter gearbox isolators were then estimated. Namely, constraints associated with isolator mass, axial stiffness, geometry, and elastomeric fatigue were determined. The passive performance limits of layered isolators were then determined using a design optimization methodology employing a simulated annealing algorithm. The results suggest that layered isolators cannot always meet frequency targets given a certain set of design constraints. Many passive and active design enhancements were considered to address this problem, and the use of embedded inertial amplifiers was found to exhibit a combination of advantageous effects. The first benefit was a lowering of the beginning stop band frequency, and thus a widening of the original stop band. The second was a tuned absorber effect, where the elastomer layer stiffness and the amplified tuned mass combined to act as a vibration absorber within the stop band. The

  4. Recombinant baculovirus isolation.

    PubMed

    King, Linda A; Hitchman, Richard; Possee, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    Although there are several different methods available of making recombinant baculovirus expression vectors (reviewed in Chapter 3), all require a stage in which insect cells are transfected with either the virus genome alone (Bac-to-Bac or BaculoDirect, Invitrogen) or virus genome and transfer vector. In the latter case, this allows the natural process of homologous recombination to transfer the foreign gene, under control of the polyhedrin or other baculovirus gene promoter, from the transfer vector to the virus genome to create the recombinant virus. Additionally, many systems require a plaque-assay to separate parental and recombinant virus prior to amplification and use of the recombinant virus. This chapter provides an overview of the historical development of increasingly more efficient systems for the isolation of recombinant baculoviruses (Chapter 3 provides a full account of the different systems and transfer vectors available). The practical details cover: transfection of insect cells with either virus DNA or virus DNA and plasmid transfer vector; a reliable plaque-assay method that can be used to separate recombinant virus from parental (nonrecombinant) virus where this is necessary; methods for the small-scale amplification of recombinant virus; and subsequent titration by plaque-assay. Methods unique to the Bac-to-Bac system are also covered and include the transformation of bacterial cells and isolation of bacmid DNA ready for transfection of insect cells.

  5. Psychopathology of social isolation.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-06-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered.

  6. DC isolation and protection system and circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Charles A. (Inventor); Kellogg, Gary V. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A precision analog electronic circuit that is capable of sending accurate signals to an external device that has hostile electric characteristics, including the presence of very large common mode voltages. The circuit is also capable of surviving applications of normal mode overvoltages of up to 120 VAC/VDC for unlimited periods of time without damage or degradation. First, the circuit isolates the DC signal output from the computer. Means are then provided for amplifying the isolated DC signal. Further means are provided for stabilizing and protecting the isolating and amplifying means, and the isolated and amplified DC signal which is output to the external device, against overvoltages and overcurrents.

  7. Launch Lock Assemblies with Reduced Preload and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Launch lock assemblies with reduced preload are provided. The launch lock assembly comprises first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and a pair of retracting assemblies. Each retracting assembly comprises a pair of toothed members having interacting toothed surfaces. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement. When the releasable clamp device is actuated, the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement and one toothed member of each retracting assembly moves in an opposite direction relative to the other one toothed member of the other retracting assembly to define an axial gap on each side of the first mount piece.

  8. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods. PMID:27276687

  9. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods.

  10. Characterization of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Isolated from Paprika.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young-Jae; Kwon, Hyuk-Woo; Nam, Ji-Sun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2006-09-01

    A fungal isolate collected from infected paprika (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) was characterized as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum based on its ability of sclerotium formation, physiological and molecular properties. When the isolate was grown on potato dextrose agar, oatmeal agar, and malt extract agar, it grew most well on PDA. Optimal temperature and pH for its growth were 25℃ and pH 7, respectively. The fungal isolate produced sclerotia on PDA within 10 days, and the color and shape of the sclerotia were similar to those of S. sclerotiorum . The ITS rDNA regions including ITS1 and ITS2 and 5.8S sequences were amplified using ITS1F and ITS4 primers from the genomic DNAs of the paprika isolate and other known pathogenic S. sclerotiorum isolated from different crops in Korea, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Sequence comparison analysis showed the ITS rDNA of the paprika isolate shares 100% sequence identity with those of S. sclerotiorum isolated from red pepper, lettuce and a S. sclerotiorum isolate registered in GenBank DNA database. Neighbor joining analysis based on the ITS rDNA sequence revealed the paprika isolate has very close phylogenetic relationships with known Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates. This is the first report that S. sclerotiorum has been found associated with paprika rot in paprika growing countries. PMID:24039491

  11. Studies on ribosomal RNA genes of mycobacteria including M. leprae.

    PubMed

    Katoch, V M; Shivannavar, C T; Datta, A K

    1989-01-01

    Information about specific genes specially of pathogenic mycobacteria could be used to unequivocally identify isolates of mycobacteria which are of clinical interest. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes have been shown to comprise sequences which are conserved and others which are divergent. In the present study, rRNA genes from several cultivable mycobacteria including M. tuberculosis and armadillo derived M. leprae have been investigated. rRNA was isolated, made radioactive in vitro and then used to identify restriction fragments of DNA containing rRNA gene sequences. It was observed that restriction endonuclease patterns of rRNA genes are characteristic. By probing with homologous and heterologous rRNA probes, fragments hybridizing maximum with homologous probes could be identified and it appears that sequences flanking the rRNA genes are not identical. These fragments need to be further sequenced to identify the nucleotide sequences specific to rRNA gene cluster. It would also be necessary to analyse several isolates of each species including armadillo derived M. leprae before reaching any conclusions.

  12. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  13. Mutation and premating isolation.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N

    2002-11-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  14. Mutation and premating isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  15. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  16. FEDERAL FACILITY COMPLIANCE AGREEMENT (FFCA) STACK ISOLATION PROJECT FUNCTIONS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    TRANBARGER, R.K.

    2003-12-16

    This document delineates the functions and requirements for the FFCA Stack Isolation Project for the 244-A, 244-BX, 244-5, and 244-TX DCRTs. The isolation of each ventilation system and stack includes the electrical, instrumentation, and mechanical isolation of the ventilation system and the installation of primary and annulus breather filters to provide passive ventilation to meet the FFCA requirements.

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST19 Isolates and One Isolate Variant.

    PubMed

    Platonov, Mikhail E; Blouin, Yann; Evseeva, Vera V; Afanas'ev, Maxim V; Pourcel, Christine; Balakhonov, Sergey V; Vergnaud, Gilles; Anisimov, Andrey P

    2013-04-11

    We report the first draft genome sequences of five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates of sequence type (ST) 19 and of a variant from one of the five isolates. The total length of assemblies ranged from 4,226,485 bp to 4,274,148 bp, including between 3,808 and 3,843 predicted coding sequences.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ST19 Isolates and One Isolate Variant

    PubMed Central

    Platonov, Mikhail E.; Blouin, Yann; Evseeva, Vera V.; Afanas’ev, Maxim V.; Pourcel, Christine; Balakhonov, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first draft genome sequences of five Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates of sequence type (ST) 19 and of a variant from one of the five isolates. The total length of assemblies ranged from 4,226,485 bp to 4,274,148 bp, including between 3,808 and 3,843 predicted coding sequences. PMID:23580708

  19. Adaptive Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Bong-Jun; Calise, Anthony J.; Craig, James I.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Most active vibration isolation systems that try to a provide quiescent acceleration environment for space science experiments have utilized linear design methods. In this paper, we address adaptive control augmentation of an existing classical controller that employs a high-gain acceleration feedback together with a low-gain position feedback to center the isolated platform. The control design feature includes parametric and dynamic uncertainties because the hardware of the isolation system is built as a payload-level isolator, and the acceleration Sensor exhibits a significant bias. A neural network is incorporated to adaptively compensate for the system uncertainties, and a high-pass filter is introduced to mitigate the effect of the measurement bias. Simulations show that the adaptive control improves the performance of the existing acceleration controller and keep the level of the isolated platform deviation to that of the existing control system.

  20. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  1. Lung isolation, one-lung ventilation and hypoxaemia during lung isolation

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Atul; Bhargava, Suresh; Mangal, Vandana; Parashar, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Lung isolation is being used more frequently in both adult and paediatric age groups due to increasing incidence of thoracoscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in these patients. Various indications for lung isolation and one-lung ventilation include surgical and non-surgical reasons. Isolation can be achieved by double-lumen endotracheal tubes or bronchial blocker. Different issues arise in prone and semi-prone position. The management of hypoxia with lung isolation is a stepwise drill of adding inhaled oxygen, adding positive end-expiratory pressure to ventilated lung and continuous positive airway pressure to non-ventilated side. PMID:26556920

  2. Recent advances in nonlinear passive vibration isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, R. A.

    2008-07-01

    The theory of nonlinear vibration isolation has witnessed significant developments due to pressing demands for the protection of structural installations, nuclear reactors, mechanical components, and sensitive instruments from earthquake ground motion, shocks, and impact loads. In view of these demands, engineers and physicists have developed different types of nonlinear vibration isolators. This article presents a comprehensive assessment of recent developments of nonlinear isolators in the absence of active control means. It does not deal with other means of linear or nonlinear vibration absorbers. It begins with the basic concept and features of nonlinear isolators and inherent nonlinear phenomena. Specific types of nonlinear isolators are then discussed, including ultra-low-frequency isolators. For vertical vibration isolation, the treatment of the Euler spring isolator is based on the post-buckling dynamic characteristics of the column elastica and axial stiffness. Exact and approximate analyses of axial stiffness of the post-buckled Euler beam are outlined. Different techniques of reducing the resonant frequency of the isolator are described. Another group is based on the Gospodnetic-Frisch-Fay beam, which is free to slide on two supports. The restoring force of this beam resembles to a great extent the restoring roll moment of biased ships. The base isolation of buildings, bridges, and liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquake ground motion is then described. Base isolation utilizes friction elements, laminated-rubber bearings, and the friction pendulum. Nonlinear viscoelastic and composite material springs, and smart material elements are described in terms of material mechanical characteristics and the dependence of their transmissibility on temperature and excitation amplitude. The article is closed by conclusions, which highlight resolved and unresolved problems and recommendations for future research directions.

  3. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  4. An isolated current monitor for iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hauser, S E; Cohen, S A

    1976-01-01

    An inexpensive isolated current monitor has been developed as an effort to minimize stimulus artifact in experimental systems which include iontophoresis as the source of stimulus. The monitor becomes an element of the iontophoresis circuit, but provides an output voltage isolated from the iontophoresis current. The voltage is proportional to the iontophoresis current and will represent currents of 1/2 nA to 5 muA. It is this ability to detect minute currents that is valuable in iontophoresis measurements.

  5. Extremely Isolated Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuse, Christopher R.; Marcum, P.; Fanelli, M.; Aars, C.

    2006-06-01

    Isolated galaxies provide a means of assessing the evolution of galactic systems. Extremely isolated galaxies define a zero-interaction baseline for comparative studies of galaxy evolution. We present results of a search for isolated elliptical galaxies (IEGs). We utilize the optical imaging data produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to identify candidate galaxies from Release 1-4 of the SDSS. Candidate IEGs meet strict isolation criteria: Any IEG must be separated by at least 2.5 Mpc from any neighboring non-dwarf galaxy having a MV fainter than -16.5 mag. The candidate isolated systems have no non-dwarf neighbors within a distance such that we can insure that the IEGs have never interacted with another existing galaxy since formation.In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, we have used the SDSS images in the u,g,r filters to create combined sets of images for each IEG. The stacked images permit a more robust determination of the morphology of the candidate galaxies. Verification that these are spheroidal systems is achieved through a bulge/disk decomposition technique using standard surface photometry. Our preliminary sample of 51 isolated systems defines a complete volume-limited population of extremely isolated early-type galaxies within a distance of 72Mpc

  6. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... below 470 MHz, including those licensed pursuant to 47 CFR 90.187(b)(2)(v)); (z) The 218-219 MHz band... Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 48533, August 15, 2014. The spectrum leasing policies and rules of this subpart apply to the...

  7. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  8. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  9. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  10. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record information maintained in the III System and the FIRS shall include serious and/or significant adult...

  11. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records maintained in state criminal history record repositories, including those states participating in the NFF....

  12. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum

  13. Complete Genome Sequences of Three Outbreak-Associated Legionella pneumophila Isolates.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shatavia S; Desai, Heta P; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Lapierre, Pascal; Raphael, Brian H; Musser, Kimberlee; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequences of three Legionella pneumophila isolates that are associated with a Legionnaires' disease outbreak in New York in 2012. Two clinical isolates (D7630 and D7632) and one environmental isolate (D7631) were recovered from this outbreak. A single isolate-specific virulence gene was found in D7632. These isolates were included in a large study evaluating the genomic resolution of various bioinformatics approaches for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates. PMID:27445383

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of Three Outbreak-Associated Legionella pneumophila Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shatavia S.; Desai, Heta P.; Mercante, Jeffrey W.; Lapierre, Pascal; Raphael, Brian H.; Musser, Kimberlee

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequences of three Legionella pneumophila isolates that are associated with a Legionnaires’ disease outbreak in New York in 2012. Two clinical isolates (D7630 and D7632) and one environmental isolate (D7631) were recovered from this outbreak. A single isolate-specific virulence gene was found in D7632. These isolates were included in a large study evaluating the genomic resolution of various bioinformatics approaches for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates. PMID:27445383

  15. Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration-sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. A tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem, including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements, as well as a comparison or the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation is provided. The flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: suppression of transient accelerations by levitation, the microgravity vibration isolation mount, and the active rack isolation system are surveyed.

  16. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Velmurugan, G V; Chockalingam, A; Pena, H F J; de Oliveira, L Nunes; Leifer, C A; Gennari, S M; Bahia Oliveira, L M G; Su, C

    2008-11-01

    Until recently, Toxoplasma gondii was considered clonal with very little genetic variability. Recent studies indicate that T. gondii isolates from Brazil are genetically and biologically different from T. gondii isolates from USA and Europe. In the present study, we retyped 151 free range chicken isolates from Brazil including 117 newly isolated samples from 11 geographically areas (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, São Paulo, Sergipe, and Rondonia) and 34 previously reported isolates from the very north (Pará) and the very south (Rio Grande do Sul). Ten PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico were used to genotype all isolates. Overall analysis of 151 T. gondii isolates revealed 58 genotypes. Half (29/58) of these genotypes had single isolate and the other half of the genotypes were characterized with two or more isolates. Only 1 of 151 isolates was clonal Type I strain and 5 were clonal Type III strains. Two isolates had mixed infections. Clonal Type II strain was absent. One strain was Type II at all loci, except BTUB. The results confirm high genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from Brazil.

  17. Genetic diversity among sea otter isolates of Toxoplasma gondii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundar, N.; Cole, R.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Majumdar, D.; Dubey, J.P.; Su, C.

    2008-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have been reported to become infected with Toxoplasma gondii and at times succumb to clinical disease. Here, we determined genotypes of 39 T. gondii isolates from 37 sea otters in two geographically distant locations (25 from California and 12 from Washington). Six genotypes were identified using 10 PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico, and by DNA sequencing of loci SAG1 and GRA6 in 13 isolates. Of these 39 isolates, 13 (33%) were clonal Type II which can be further divided into two groups at the locus Apico. Two of the 39 isolates had Type II alleles at all loci except a Type I allele at locus L358. One isolate had Type II alleles at all loci except the Type I alleles at loci L358 and Apico. One isolate had Type III alleles at all loci except Type II alleles at SAG2 and Apico. Two sea otter isolates had a mixed infection. Twenty-one (54%) isolates had an unique allele at SAG1 locus. Further genotyping or DNA sequence analysis for 18 of these 21 isolates at loci SAG1 and GRA6 revealed that there were two different genotypes, including the previously identified Type X (four isolates) and a new genotype named Type A (14 isolates). The results from this study suggest that the sea otter isolates are genetically diverse.

  18. Include Passive Solar in Your Renovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Gerald F.; Probasco, Jack F.

    1981-01-01

    A checklist covers potential energy saving modifications in a building scheduled for renovation, and includes suggestions for room utilization, landscaping, and building envelope, solar control, and active system modifications. (Author)

  19. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... is considered invasive. Symptoms of pneumonia usually include: Fever and chills Cough Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing Sweating ... the blood. It can cause symptoms such as: Fever and chills Excessive tiredness Pain in the belly Nausea with ...

  20. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  1. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of...

  2. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of...

  3. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of...

  4. Isolated perianal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Akgun, E; Tekin, F; Ersin, S; Osmanoglu, H

    2005-03-01

    Perianal tuberculosis, without the presence of any previous or active pulmonary infection, is extremely rare. A case of isolated perianal tuberculosis without gastrointestinal or pulmonary spread will be discussed here with an evaluation of the clinical features. PMID:15813425

  5. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  6. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  7. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  8. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  9. Ground Isolation Circuit for Isolating a Transmission Line from Ground Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Craig A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates generally to a system for isolating ground interference from a transmission line, e.g., a ground isolation circuit for isolating a wideband transmission signal (such as a video signal) from ground by modulating the base signal on a carrier signal to permit the transmission signal to be isolated. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a pair of matched mixer circuits, each of which receives a carrier signal from the same oscillator circuit. The first mixer circuit also receives the baseband signal input, after appropriate conditioning, and modulates the baseband signal onto the carrier signal. In a preferred embodiment the carrier signal has a predetermined frequency which is at least two times the frequency of the baseband signal. The modulated signal (which can comprise an rf signal) is transmitted via an rf transmission line to the second mixer, which demodulates the rf signal to recover the baseband signal. Each port of the mixer connects to an isolation transformer to ensure isolation from ground interference. The circuit is considered to be of commercial value in that it can provide isolation between transmitting and receiving circuits, e.g., ground isolation for television circuits or high frequency transmitters, without the need for video transformers or optical isolators, thereby reducing the complexity, power consumption, and weight of the system.

  10. What causes the isolation effect?

    PubMed

    Hunt, R R; Lamb, C A

    2001-11-01

    Events that are incongruent with their prevailing context are usually very well remembered. This fact often is described as the distinctiveness effect in memory, an effect that has served as explanation not only of memory phenomena but also of various other phenomena, including social judgment. The core laboratory paradigm for studying distinctiveness in memory research has long been the isolation paradigm. This paradigm, sometimes attributed to H. von Restorff, yields better memory for an item categorically isolated from surrounding items than for the surrounding items and a proper control item. The authors offer an interpretation of the isolation effect based on the analysis of the processing of similarities and differences among the items. Two experiments provide evidence for this interpretation. The results are discussed in the context of current theories of distinctiveness effects in memory. An appeal is made for a different conceptualization of distinctiveness effects, one that treats distinctiveness as a discriminative process in memory that requires processing of both similarities and differences among items. PMID:11713872

  11. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C; Hill, Kim R

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  12. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Hill, Kim R.

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a “leave them alone” strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10–14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction. PMID:26954672

  13. Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific. PMID:19909394

  14. Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific.

  15. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C; Hill, Kim R

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction. PMID:26954672

  16. Weather information network including graphical display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Daniel R. (Inventor); Burdon, David (Inventor); Son, Robert S. (Inventor); Martin, Kevin D. (Inventor); Harrison, John (Inventor); Hughes, Keith R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus for providing weather information onboard an aircraft includes a processor unit and a graphical user interface. The processor unit processes weather information after it is received onboard the aircraft from a ground-based source, and the graphical user interface provides a graphical presentation of the weather information to a user onboard the aircraft. Preferably, the graphical user interface includes one or more user-selectable options for graphically displaying at least one of convection information, turbulence information, icing information, weather satellite information, SIGMET information, significant weather prognosis information, and winds aloft information.

  17. Transmission line including support means with barriers

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an elongated outer sheath, a plurality of inner conductors disposed within and extending along the outer sheath, and an insulating gas which electrically insulates the inner conductors from the outer sheath. A support insulator insulatably supports the inner conductors within the outer sheath, with the support insulator comprising a main body portion including a plurality of legs extending to the outer sheath, and barrier portions which extend between the legs. The barrier portions have openings therein adjacent the main body portion through which the inner conductors extend.

  18. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  19. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

  20. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples. PMID:25615053

  1. Microfabricated structures with electrical isolation and interconnections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is directed to a microfabricated device. The device includes a substrate that is etched to define mechanical structures at least some of which are anchored laterally to the remainder of the substrate. Electrical isolation at points where mechanical structures are attached to the substrate is provided by filled isolation trenches. Filled trenches may also be used to electrically isolate structure elements from each other at points where mechanical attachment of structure elements is desired. The performance of microelectromechanical devices is improved by 1) having a high-aspect-ratio between vertical and lateral dimensions of the mechanical elements, 2) integrating electronics on the same substrate as the mechanical elements, 3) good electrical isolation among mechanical elements and circuits except where electrical interconnection is desired.

  2. 34 CFR 300.20 - Include.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include. 300.20 Section 300.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  3. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to 47 CFR 90.187(b)(2)(v)); (z) The 218-219 MHz band (part 95 of this chapter); (aa) The Local... Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. The spectrum leasing policies and rules of... (part 27 of this chapter); (j) The Wireless Communications Service in the 698-746 MHz band (part 27...

  4. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to 47 CFR 90.187(b)(2)(v)); (z) The 218-219 MHz band (part 95 of this chapter); (aa) The Local... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing Scope and Authority § 1.9005 Included services. The spectrum leasing policies and rules of this subpart apply to...

  5. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  6. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended; (c) All vessels which have previously been constructed with... Merchant Marine Act of 1936, as amended, and later adjusted in price pursuant to section 9 of the Merchant... ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the...

  7. Multicultural Resources: Including Technology and the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    In the fourteen years since the 1990 MENC pre-conference symposium on Multicultural Approaches to Music Education in Washington, D.C., music educators have come to recognize the need to include a variety of world musics in all music curricula, from elementary classrooms to advanced performing ensembles. Accordingly, a significant increase in the…

  8. 13 CFR 125.1 - Programs included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 125.1 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT CONTRACTING PROGRAMS § 125.1 Programs included. The regulations in this part relate to the Government contracting assistance... businesses in obtaining a fair share of Federal Government contracts, subcontracts, and property sales....

  9. 13 CFR 125.1 - Programs included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 125.1 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT CONTRACTING PROGRAMS § 125.1 Programs included. The regulations in this part relate to the Government contracting assistance... businesses in obtaining a fair share of Federal Government contracts, subcontracts, and property sales....

  10. 13 CFR 125.1 - Programs included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 125.1 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT CONTRACTING PROGRAMS § 125.1 Programs included. The regulations in this part relate to the Government contracting assistance... businesses in obtaining a fair share of Federal Government contracts, subcontracts, and property sales....

  11. 13 CFR 125.1 - Programs included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 125.1 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT CONTRACTING PROGRAMS § 125.1 Programs included. The regulations in this part relate to the Government contracting assistance... businesses in obtaining a fair share of Federal Government contracts, subcontracts, and property sales....

  12. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  13. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... body organ or external body member (including contiguous tissue) or replace all or part of the...

  14. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  15. Well production apparatus including pump means and thermal absorption means

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, K.M.; Moeller, R.C.; Williamson, S.E.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a well production apparatus which includes a tubular production conduit which extends from the top of the well to a production zone interior of casing. An electric submersible pump has a production fluid flow passageway which communicates between the exterior of the conduit and the interior of the casing. A packer is in communication with the production conduit below the pump and is movable into sealing engagement with the casing to isolate the production zone. A thermal absorber is carried on the production conduit between upper and lower production conduit members whereby subsequent to positioning of the packer assembly into set position, thermal expansion or contraction of the conduit above the set packer is absorbed by the thermal absorber without transmission of thermal expansion or contraction of the conduit to the pump.

  16. Standard line broadening impact theory for hydrogen including penetrating collisions.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, S; Poquérusse, A

    2005-10-01

    In recent years there has been significant interest in the emission spectra from high-density plasmas, as manifested by a number of experiments. At these high densities short range (small impact parameter) interactions become important and these cannot be adequately handled by the standard theory, whose predictions depend on some cutoffs, necessary to preserve unitarity, the long range approximation, and to ensure the validity of a semiclassical picture. Very recently, as a result of a debate concerning the broadening of isolated ion lines, the importance of penetration of bound electron wave functions by plasma electrons has been realized. By softening the interaction, penetration makes perturbative treatments more valid. The penetration effect has now been included analytically into the standard theory. It turns out that the integrations may be done in closed form in terms of the modified Bessel functions K0 and K1. This work develops the new theory and applies it to experimental measurements. PMID:16383542

  17. [Biophysical Characterization of Biopharmaceuticals, Including Antibody Drugs].

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals, including antibody drugs, are now popular because of their high specificity with low adverse effects, especially in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. However, because the active pharmaceutical ingredients of biopharmaceuticals are proteins, biophysical characterization of these therapeutic proteins should be required. In this manuscript, methods of chemical and physical characterization of therapeutic proteins are described. In terms of chemical characterization, analysis of chemical modifications of the constituent amino acids is explained. Physical characterization includes higher order structural analysis and assessment of protein aggregates. Quantification methods of aggregates with different sizes, recently encouraged by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are introduced. As for the stability of therapeutic proteins, the importance of chemical and physical stability is explained. Finally, the contribution of colloidal and structural stability to the production of an antibody drug less prone to aggregation is introduced.

  18. Subterranean barriers including at least one weld

    DOEpatents

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2007-01-09

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  19. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  20. Power generation method including membrane separation

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  1. New STD recommendations include HIV management.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has updated its 1993 guidelines for STDs, adding new recommendations for treating primary and recurrent genital warts and for managing patients with asymptomatic HIV infection. The guidelines grew out of research into microbiologic cures, alleviating signs and symptoms, preventing sequelae, and preventing transmission. The guidelines recommend that people seeking treatment for STDs should be offered HIV testing and counseling. Results of a recent Alan Guttmacher Institute study of STD public health programs are included.

  2. Temporary agency contracts: what should they include?

    PubMed

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2002-01-01

    The AHRA Board committed to provide some tools to help our members with agency contracts. This article provides the sections for a contract and what they should include. Of course, the language will have to comply with your organization's requirements. To comply with HIPAA regulations for contracts, I've also included language for business associates. JCAHO requires that the following documentation be on file for all contracted personnel: 1. Hospital job description or formal contract outlining the job responsibilities. 2. All licenses, certifications and registrations are reviewed and a process is developed to ensure that they remain current. 3. Competency is evaluated and maintained. 4. Evidence that personnel received a general orientation. 5. Evidence that personnel received a departmental orientation. 6. Safety and infection control standards must be met. In order to aid with compliance when utilizing contracted personnel, my organization developed a Contractor Personnel Administrative Compliance Checklist, which identifies requirements for compliance, a reference for assistance, and places to record that the requirement has been met for each of the areas listed in the previous item. Our standard contract includes sections on general definition of engagement, credentials and work experience; health, including immunization and drug testing; corporation; JCAHO; terms of the contract; and, non-disclosure of information. A business associate agreement may be necessary to comply with HIPAA regulations. Using the template has made my job much easier than trying to read each contract that crosses my desk. If an agency refuses to sign our contract, then we do not conduct business with that company. If an agency requests changes to the contract, depending on the language, we may or may not agree to it. This information is not intended to be legal advice, but rather an educational overview. As with any contract, the reader should consult with legal counsel at his or her

  3. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  4. Temporary agency contracts: what should they include?

    PubMed

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2002-01-01

    The AHRA Board committed to provide some tools to help our members with agency contracts. This article provides the sections for a contract and what they should include. Of course, the language will have to comply with your organization's requirements. To comply with HIPAA regulations for contracts, I've also included language for business associates. JCAHO requires that the following documentation be on file for all contracted personnel: 1. Hospital job description or formal contract outlining the job responsibilities. 2. All licenses, certifications and registrations are reviewed and a process is developed to ensure that they remain current. 3. Competency is evaluated and maintained. 4. Evidence that personnel received a general orientation. 5. Evidence that personnel received a departmental orientation. 6. Safety and infection control standards must be met. In order to aid with compliance when utilizing contracted personnel, my organization developed a Contractor Personnel Administrative Compliance Checklist, which identifies requirements for compliance, a reference for assistance, and places to record that the requirement has been met for each of the areas listed in the previous item. Our standard contract includes sections on general definition of engagement, credentials and work experience; health, including immunization and drug testing; corporation; JCAHO; terms of the contract; and, non-disclosure of information. A business associate agreement may be necessary to comply with HIPAA regulations. Using the template has made my job much easier than trying to read each contract that crosses my desk. If an agency refuses to sign our contract, then we do not conduct business with that company. If an agency requests changes to the contract, depending on the language, we may or may not agree to it. This information is not intended to be legal advice, but rather an educational overview. As with any contract, the reader should consult with legal counsel at his or her

  5. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  6. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Snitchler, Gregory L.; Gamble, Bruce B.; Voccio, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  7. Low-loss, high-isolation, fiber-optic isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, George F. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A low-loss, high-isolation, fiber-optic isolator for use in single-mode fiber systems utilizes a Faraday rotator and two polarizers, one at each end angularly oriented from each other at the angle of rotation for isolation, and two aspheric lens connectors to couple optical fibers to the Faraday isolator to reduce forward loss to about 2.5 dB and improve isolation to greater than 70 dB.

  8. Does vaginal douching affect the type of candidal vulvovaginal infection?

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Omar M; Abbas, Ahmed M; Moharram, Ahmad M; Farhan, Mohammed M; Hassanen, Ibrahim H

    2015-11-01

    The normal vaginal microbiota is a dynamic system that continually fluctuates under the environmental changes and different physiological conditions. Yeast infections of the vagina are caused by one of the species of fungus called Candida (C.). The study aimed to evaluate the types of mycobiota in women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) who were performing vaginal douching (VD) or not. Furthermore, it studied the antifungal sensitivity toward different fungi isolated from the vagina. In a cross-sectional study conducted in Assiut University Hospital, Egypt, women with VVC were interviewed regarding relevant history including the habit of VD. Vaginal swabs were obtained and processed by direct microscope and by culture on CHROMagar Candida and other differential media. The types of Candida in women with the habit of VD were compared with those not having this habit. We found that VD habit was practiced by 67.4% of women with VVC, and Candida albicans was the commonest (78.3%) type observed. There was no significant difference in the percentage of non-albicans types between women performing VD (23.6%) and those not reporting this habit (18.9%). Harboring non-albicans types were significantly increased in regular performers of VD compared with those who had this procedure only after sexual intercourse or after the end of menstruation (36.8%,12.5%, and 16.7%, respectively) (P = .048). Thus, vaginal douching does not influence the type of Candida infection involved in VVC. Frequent performance of VD increases the likelihood of having non-albicans types and the resistance to the common antifungal agents. PMID:26129887

  9. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lewis, Annette K.; Hildebrand, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  10. Nucleic acid isolation

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  11. Clinical Islet Isolation.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Wayne J; Williams, Lindy; Chew, Yi Vee

    2016-01-01

    The overarching success of islet transplantation relies on the success in the laboratory to isolate the islets. This chapter focuses on the processes of human islet cell isolation and the ways to optimally provide islet cells for transplantation. The major improvements in regards to the choice of enzyme type, way the digested pancreas tissue is handled to best separate islets from the acinar and surrounding tissues, the various methods of purification of the islets, their subsequent culture and quality assurance to improve outcomes to culminate in safe and effective islet transplantation will be discussed. After decades of improvements, islet cell isolation and transplantation now clearly offer a safe, effective and feasible therapeutic treatment option for an increasing number of patients suffering from type 1 diabetes specifically for those with severe hypoglycaemic unawareness. PMID:27586424

  12. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Tabbarah, Zuhair

    2015-01-01

    We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation. PMID:26483675

  13. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    2012-05-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002, registered in 89 population-based cancer registries (CRs) and followed-up to 31st December 2003. Over 17,688 cases of rare thoracic cancers were selected based on the list of the RACECARE project. Mesothelioma was the most common tumour (19 per million per year) followed by epithelial tumours of the trachea and thymus (1.3 and 1.7, respectively). The age standardised incidence rates of epithelial tumours of the trachea was double in Eastern and Southern Europe versus the other European regions: 2 per million per year. Epithelial tumours of the thymus had the lowest incidence in Northern and Eastern Europe and UK and Ireland(1) and somewhat higher incidence in Central and Southern Europe.(2) Highest incidence in mesothelioma was seen in UK and Ireland(23) and lowest in Eastern Europe.(4) Patients with tumours of the thymus had the best prognosis (1-year survival 85%, 66% at 5 years). Five year survival was lowest for the mesothelioma 5% compared to 14% of patients with tumours of the trachea. Mesothelioma was the most prevalent rare cancer (12,000 cases), followed by thymus (7000) and trachea (1400). Cancer Registry (CR) data play an important role in revealing the burden of rare thoracic cancers and monitoring the effect of regulations on asbestos use and smoking related policies.

  14. Inverse transonic airfoil design including viscous interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical technique was developed for the analysis of specified transonic airfoils or for the design of airfoils having a prescribed pressure distribution, including the effect of weak viscous interaction. The method uses the full potential equation, a stretched Cartesian coordinate system, and the Nash-MacDonald turbulent boundary layer method. Comparisons with experimental data for typical transonic airfoils show excellent agreement. An example shows the application of the method to design a thick aft-cambered airfoil, and the effects of viscous interaction on its performance are discussed.

  15. View of northeastern Italy including Venice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of northeastern Italy including the Venice (Venezia) area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The mountainous area is the Dolomite Alps. The most conspicuous stream northeast of Venice is the Piave River. The city near the center of the picture on the Brenta River is Bassano del Grappa. The large city of Padua (Padova) is on the western bank of the Grenta near the clock.

  16. Multiverse rate equation including bubble collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Michael P.

    2013-03-01

    The volume fractions of vacua in an eternally inflating multiverse are described by a coarse-grain rate equation, which accounts for volume expansion and vacuum transitions via bubble formation. We generalize the rate equation to account for bubble collisions, including the possibility of classical transitions. Classical transitions can modify the details of the hierarchical structure among the volume fractions, with potential implications for the staggering and Boltzmann-brain issues. Whether or not our vacuum is likely to have been established by a classical transition depends on the detailed relationships among transition rates in the landscape.

  17. Ocean management plan includes array of recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    When U.S. President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore appeared in Monterey, California in June 1998 for a National Oceans Conference, some of the salt water spray from the Pacific Ocean must have clung to them.As a follow-up to the conference, the Clinton Administration on September 2 issued an interagency report to help guide federal efforts in establishing a comprehensive ocean policy.The report, which touches upon a number of global issues including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, contains nearly 150 recommendations.

  18. Fuel delivery system including heat exchanger means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel delivery system is presented wherein first and second heat exchanger means are each adapted to provide the transfer of heat between the fuel and a second fluid such as lubricating oil associated with the gas turbine engine. Valve means are included which are operative in a first mode to provide for flow of the second fluid through both first and second heat exchange means and further operative in a second mode for bypassing the second fluid around the second heat exchanger means.

  19. Power inverter with optical isolation

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

    2005-12-06

    An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

  20. Inlet Guide Vane Wakes Including Rotor Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, R. T.; Fleeter, S.

    2001-02-01

    Fundamental experiments are described directed at the investigation of forcing functions generated by an inlet guide vane (IGV) row, including interactions with the downstream rotor, for application to turbomachine forced response design systems. The experiments are performed in a high-speed research fan facility comprised of an IGV row upstream of a rotor. IGV-rotor axial spacing is variable, with the IGV row able to be indexed circumferentially, thereby allowing measurements to be made across several IGV wakes. With an IGV relative Mach number of 0.29, measurements include the IGV wake pressure and velocity fields for three IGV-rotor axial spacings. The decay characteristics of the IGV wakes are compared to the Majjigi and Gliebe empirical correlations. After Fourier decomposition, a vortical-potential gust splitting analysis is implemented to determine the vortical and potential harmonic wake gust forcing functions both upstream and downstream of the rotor. Higher harmonics of the vortical gust component of the IGV wakes are found to decay at a uniform rate due to viscous diffusion.

  1. Spectroscopy of Isolated Prebiotic Nucleobases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svadlenak, Nathan; Callahan, Michael P.; Ligare, Marshall; Gulian, Lisa; Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Nachtigallova, Dana; Hobza, Pavel; deVries, Mattanjah

    2011-01-01

    We use multiphoton ionization and double resonance spectroscopy to study the excited state dynamics of biologically relevant molecules as well as prebiotic nucleobases, isolated in the gas phase. Molecules that are biologically relevant to life today tend to exhibit short excited state lifetimes compared to similar but non-biologically relevant analogs. The mechanism is internal conversion, which may help protect the biologically active molecules from UV damage. This process is governed by conical intersections that depend very strongly on molecular structure. Therefore we have studied purines and pyrimidines with systematic variations of structure, including substitutions, tautomeric forms, and cluster structures that represent different base pair binding motifs. These structural variations also include possible alternate base pairs that may shed light on prebiotic chemistry. With this in mind we have begun to probe the ultrafast dynamics of molecules that exhibit very short excited states and search for evidence of internal conversions.

  2. Isolation, propagation, and analysis of biological nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Linnes, Michael P; Shiekh, Farooq A; Hunter, Larry W; Miller, Virginia M; Lieske, John C

    2011-01-01

    Calcifying biologic nanoparticles (NPs) have been implicated as nucleation points for a number of -pathologic events that include vascular calcification and the formation of kidney stones. In order to study these potential relationships, reproducible isolation of well-characterized biologic NPs is a necessity. Our group has isolated and propagated calcifying NPs from several human tissues and renal stones. Specific proteins that could nucleate a calcium phosphate shell under physiologic conditions have been identified as part of their structure, including elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and fetuin-A. Visualization, using advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence microscopy, and nuclear and antibody staining in conjunction with flow cytometry, can further elucidate NPs composition and their role in pathology. In order to allow uniform investigation by others, the isolation, culture, and handling procedures for biologic NPs from human calcified vascular tissue and kidney stones are reported in detail. PMID:21948421

  3. Production of slime by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows.

    PubMed

    Bochniarz, M; Wawron, W; Szczubiał, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the slime-producing ability of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows. The study was carried out on 100 isolates of CNS obtained from milk of 86 cows from farms located in the Lublin region (Poland). Slime-producing ability was observed in over half of coagulase-negative staphylococci (54.0% of isolated CNS), including 19 isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (95.5% of all MRCNS). Of 22 isolates of CNS responsible for the clinical form of mastitis, 20 isolates (90.9%) produced slime: S. xylosus (7 isolates), S. haemolyticus (6 isolates), S. chromogenes (4 isolates), and S. sciuri (3 isolates), including 9 isolates of MRCNS (45.0%). The remaining 34 isolates of CNS (43.6%) with the ability to produce this exopolysaccharide were isolated from the milk of cows with subclinical form of mastitis: S. xylosus (12 isolates), S. sciuri (9 isolates), S. chromogenes (6 isolates), S. haemolyticus (3 isolates), S. warneri (3 isolates) and S. saprophyticus (1 isolate), including 10 isolates of MRCNS (12.8%).

  4. Production of slime by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows.

    PubMed

    Bochniarz, M; Wawron, W; Szczubiał, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the slime-producing ability of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows. The study was carried out on 100 isolates of CNS obtained from milk of 86 cows from farms located in the Lublin region (Poland). Slime-producing ability was observed in over half of coagulase-negative staphylococci (54.0% of isolated CNS), including 19 isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (95.5% of all MRCNS). Of 22 isolates of CNS responsible for the clinical form of mastitis, 20 isolates (90.9%) produced slime: S. xylosus (7 isolates), S. haemolyticus (6 isolates), S. chromogenes (4 isolates), and S. sciuri (3 isolates), including 9 isolates of MRCNS (45.0%). The remaining 34 isolates of CNS (43.6%) with the ability to produce this exopolysaccharide were isolated from the milk of cows with subclinical form of mastitis: S. xylosus (12 isolates), S. sciuri (9 isolates), S. chromogenes (6 isolates), S. haemolyticus (3 isolates), S. warneri (3 isolates) and S. saprophyticus (1 isolate), including 10 isolates of MRCNS (12.8%). PMID:25286652

  5. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates. PMID:25843529

  6. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates.

  7. Apelin Levels In Isolated Coronary Artery Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, İbrahim; Yıldız, Abdulkadir; Akıl, Mehmet Ata; Acet, Halit; Yüksel, Murat; Polat, Nihat; Aydın, Mesut; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Ertaș, Faruk; Kaya, Hasan; Alan, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The etiopathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is not known completely. In most of the cases, CAE is associated with atherosclerosis; however, isolated CAE has a nonatherosclerotic mechanism. The association between atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and apelin has been examined in previous studies. However, the role of plasma apelin in isolated coronary artery ectasia has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma apelin levels and isolated coronary artery ectasia. Subjects and Methods The study population included a total of 54 patients. Twenty-six patients had isolated CAE (53.6±8.1 years); 28 patients with normal coronary arteries (51.6±8.8 years) and with similar risk factors and demographic characteristics served as the control group. Apelin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Results Apelin level in the CAE group was significantly lower (apelin=0.181±0.159 ng/mL) than that in the control group (apelin=0.646±0.578 ng/mL) (p=0.033). Glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we showed that patients with isolated CAE have decreased plasma apelin levels compared with the control group. Based on the data, a relationship between plasma apelin and isolated CAE was determined. PMID:26413106

  8. A Multiwavelength View of Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdes-Montenegro, L.

    2014-03-01

    In the last few years interest in isolated galaxies has been renewed within a context regarding secular evolution. This adds to their value as a control sample for environmental studies of galaxies. This presentation will review important results from recent studies of isolated galaxies. I will emphasize work involving statistically significant samples of isolated galaxies culminating with refinement of the CIG in the AMIGA program. The AMIGA project (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated Galaxies, http://amiga.iaa.es) has identified a significant sample of the most isolated (Tcc(nearest-neighbor) ˜ 2-3Gyr) galaxies in the local Universe and revealed that they have different properties than galaxies in richer environments. Our analysis of a multiwavelength database includes quantification of degree of isolation, morphologies, as well as FIR and radio line/continuum properties. Properties usually regarded as susceptible to interaction enhancement show lower averages in AMIGA-lower than any galaxy sample yet identified. We find lower MIR/ FIR measures, low levels of radio continuum emission, no radio excess above the radio-FIR correlation, a small number of AGN, and lower molecular gas content. The late-type spiral majority in our sample show very small bulge/total ratios (largely < 0.1) and Sersic indices consistent with an absence of classical bulges. They have redder g-r colors and lower color dispersion for AMIGA subtypes and larger disks, and present the narrowest (Gaussian) distribution of HI profile asymmetries of any sample yet studied.

  9. Microgravity isolation system design: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. In this paper, extended H(sub 2) synthesis is used to design an active isolator (i.e., controller) for a realistic single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) microgravity vibration isolation problem. Complex mu-analysis methods are used to analyze the isolation system with respect to sensor, actuator, and umbilical uncertainties. The paper fully discusses the design process employed and the insights gained. This design case study provides a practical approach for isolation problems of greater complexity. Issues addressed include a physically intuitive state-space description of the system, disturbance and noise filters, filters for frequency weighting, and uncertainty models. The controlled system satisfies all the performance specifications and is robust with respect to model uncertainties.

  10. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    PubMed

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (<9 months of age) have resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  11. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOEpatents

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-03-06

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  12. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    DOEpatents

    Baldasaro, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  13. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  14. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-11-20

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  15. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nannan, N. R.; Guardone, A.; Colonna, P.

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  16. Including eddies in global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semtner, Albert J.; Chervin, Robert M.

    The ocean is a turbulent fluid that is driven by winds and by surface exchanges of heat and moisture. It is as important as the atmosphere in governing climate through heat distribution, but so little is known about the ocean that it remains a “final frontier” on the face of the Earth. Many ocean currents are truly global in extent, such as the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the “conveyor belt” that connects the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans by flows around the southern tips of Africa and South America. It has long been a dream of some oceanographers to supplement the very limited observational knowledge by reconstructing the currents of the world ocean from the first principles of physics on a computer. However, until very recently, the prospect of doing this was thwarted by the fact that fluctuating currents known as “mesoscale eddies” could not be explicitly included in the calculation.

  17. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.

    1980-01-01

    Positive-isolation-disconnect (PID) device with two mating halves prevents leakage or spillover when two fluid lines are disconnected. Each half has shutoff poppet to stop fluid flow. When flow is shut, poppets are flush against each other, leaving no space for fluid to remain it.

  18. Biological Isolation Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  19. Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spross, F. R.

    1968-01-01

    Biological Isolation Garment /BIG/ is a one-piece loose fitting garment fabricated from a tightly woven, permeable, 100 percent-cotton fabric. Its headpiece, incorporates an integral oronsal respirator with 0.3-micron-particle filters, and a full width visor. All fabrication seams are sealed on the inside of the garment.

  20. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of

  1. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  2. Fumonisin production by Fusarium species isolated from cereals and feeds in Spain.

    PubMed

    Castellá, G; Bragulat, M R; Cabañes, F J

    1999-07-01

    The ability of Fusarium species to produce fumonisins was studied with 145 isolates of the following species: F. moniliforme (119 isolates), F. subglutinans (12 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. avenaceum (1 isolate), F. oxysporum (1 isolate), and F. semitectum (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn kernels. The production of fumonisins was determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-o-phthaldialdehyde-fluorescence method. Fumonisin production was restricted to isolates of F. moniliforme (94.1%) and F. proliferatum (100%), in the section Liseola, including all strains isolated from wheat, barley, peas, and soybean. One strain of F. proliferatum isolated from maize produced 30,949 microg/g of fumonisin B1 and 16,966 microg/g of fumonisin B2.

  3. Full potential unsteady computations including aeroelastic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, Vijaya; Ide, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    A unified formulation is presented based on the full potential framework coupled with an appropriate structural model to compute steady and unsteady flows over rigid and flexible configurations across the Mach number range. The unsteady form of the full potential equation in conservation form is solved using an implicit scheme maintaining time accuracy through internal Newton iterations. A flux biasing procedure based on the unsteady sonic reference conditions is implemented to compute hyperbolic regions with moving sonic and shock surfaces. The wake behind a trailing edge is modeled using a mathematical cut across which the pressure is satisfied to be continuous by solving an appropriate vorticity convection equation. An aeroelastic model based on the generalized modal deflection approach interacts with the nonlinear aerodynamics and includes both static as well as dynamic structural analyses capability. Results are presented for rigid and flexible configurations at different Mach numbers ranging from subsonic to supersonic conditions. The dynamic response of a flexible wing below and above its flutter point is demonstrated.

  4. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOEpatents

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  5. Future ultraviolet experiments, including FUSE/COLUMBUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggess, A.

    1984-01-01

    Several new facilities for ultraviolet astronomy are under construction or study for launch within the coming decade. These include the Hubble Space Telescope to be launched in 1986 with instruments for spectroscopy, imaging, and photopolarimetry in the ultraviolet; the ASTRO Spacelab payload, also to be launched in 1986 with a similar range of instrumentation; STARLAB, a combined Canadian, Australian and U.S. mission concentrating primarily on imagery; and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), which was renamed COLUMBUS. COLUMBUS is currently under study by NASA and ESA as a future joint mission for spectroscopic studies of astrophysical plasmas covering a temperature range from approximately 10 to the 3rd power to approximately 10 to the 7th power k. In order to achieve this objective, the optics should be optimized for wavelengths below 1200 Angstroms, with a total wavelength range from approximately 2000 to approximately 100 Angstroms. The operational concept will be based on experience with IUE, but changes in communications techniques since IUE was designed suggest some interesting new approaches to observing.

  6. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. PMID:24075704

  7. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context.

  8. Articles including thin film monolayers and multilayers

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    Articles of manufacture including: (a) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, and a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, (b) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, and a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, (c) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, and a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and (d) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and a second metal species attached to the multifunctional organic ligand, are provided, such articles useful in detecting the presence of a selected target species, as nonliear optical materials, or as scavengers for selected target species.

  9. The Isolated Estate: An Agricultural Location Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Robert G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simulation, "The Isolated Estate," which introduces geography students to the Von Thonen model and game theory. The objective of the game is to make textbook concepts more realistic. Concepts illustrated through the game include agricultural land use, economic rent, competetive bidding, inequities associated with differential incomes,…

  10. Isolated prompt photon production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, P.A. )

    1992-11-01

    This note describes measurements of isolated prompt photon production at [radical]s = 1.8 TeV using the CDF experiment. The measurements are compared to recent NLO QCD calculations, including recently obtained parton distribution functions. Qualitatively, the QCD calculation with the new parton distribution functions agrees better with the data than the previous parton distribution functions.

  11. New secondary metabolites isolated from dondonae viscosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dodonaea viscosa Linn. from Egypt, resulted in the isolation and identification of three new compounds, including two new clerodane diterpenoids and a new myo-inositol derivative, along with nine...

  12. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  13. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    SciTech Connect

    C. Tsang

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  14. Bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals including radium-223.

    PubMed

    Brady, Darren; Parker, Chris C; O'Sullivan, Joe M

    2013-01-01

    Bone-seeking radionuclides including samarium-153 ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate and strontium-89 have been used for decades in the palliation of pain from bone metastases especially from prostate cancer. Emerging evidence of improved survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with the first-in-class α-radionuclide, radium-223 (Ra) has rekindled interest in the role of bone-seeking radionuclide therapy.We review the literature for randomized controlled trials of bone-seeking radionuclides and explore some of the issues regarding the optimal use of these agents. In particular, we discuss dose, dose rate, radiobiology, and quality of radiation and postulate on potential future directions in particular combination schedules. β-Emitting, bone-seeking radionuclides have proven ability to control pain in prostate cancer metastatic to bone with pain response rates in the order of 60% to 70% when used as single agents. Most of the published trials were underpowered to detect differences in survival; however, there is evidence of the potential for disease modification when these agents are used in combination with chemotherapy or in multiple cycles.Data from the recent phase III ALSYMPCA trial that compared Ra to placebo in symptomatic CRPC demonstrate a significant improvement in median overall survival of 3.6 months for patients with symptomatic CRPC metastatic to bone treated with 6 cycles of the α-emitting radionuclide Ra compared with placebo. The success of Ra in improving survival in CRPC will lead this agent to become part of the treatment paradigm for this disease, and with such an excellent safety profile, Ra has huge potential in combination strategies as well as for use earlier in the natural history of metastatic prostate cancer.

  15. Frequency, pathogenicity and microbiologic outcome of non-Candida albicans candiduria.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, D J; Gubbins, P O; Schreckenberger, P; Danziger, L H

    1994-06-01

    A retrospective review of urine cultures obtained from patients at the University of Illinois Hospital revealed that the frequency of isolation of non-albicans Candida species increased significantly from 1990 to 1991 (p = 0.0003), while the frequency of isolation of Candida albicans species decreased significantly (p = 0.0006). Patients with urine cultures positive for non-albicans Candida species of Torulopsis glabrata during 1991 were identified for review. Sixty-seven patients were eligible for evaluation. Non-albicans candiduria developed in an average of 12 days. Identical fungal species were isolated from the blood following a positive urine culture in only two patients. Twenty patients were treated; candiduria persisted in 9 (45%), while resolution occurred in 11 (55%). The remaining 47 patients were not treated. Non-albicans candiduria persisted in 30 (64%) of these patients and resolved in 15 (32%); in the remaining two patients (4%) the microbiologic outcome was undetermined. The difference in microbiologic outcomes between treated and untreated patients was not significant using the Chi-square test (p = 0.170). Non-albicans candiduria developed rapidly, frequently persisted whether treated or untreated, and rarely progressed to candidemia.

  16. Genomic Diversity of Escherichia Isolates from Diverse Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Tiedje, James M.; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the Escherichia genus is heavily biased toward pathogenic or commensal isolates from human or animal hosts. Recent studies have recovered Escherichia isolates that persist, and even grow, outside these hosts. Although the environmental isolates are typically phylogenetically distinct, they are highly related to and phenotypically indistinguishable from their human counterparts, including for the coliform test. To gain insights into the genomic diversity of Escherichia isolates from diverse habitats, including freshwater, soil, animal, and human sources, we carried out comparative DNA-DNA hybridizations using a multi-genome E. coli DNA microarray. The microarray was validated based on hybridizations with selected strains whose genome sequences were available and used to assess the frequency of microarray false positive and negative signals. Our results showed that human fecal isolates share two sets of genes (n>90) that are rarely found among environmental isolates, including genes presumably important for evading host immune mechanisms (e.g., a multi-drug transporter for acids and antimicrobials) and adhering to epithelial cells (e.g., hemolysin E and fimbrial-like adhesin protein). These results imply that environmental isolates are characterized by decreased ability to colonize host cells relative to human isolates. Our study also provides gene markers that can distinguish human isolates from those of warm-blooded animal and environmental origins, and thus can be used to more reliably assess fecal contamination in natural ecosystems. PMID:23056556

  17. Genomic diversity of Escherichia isolates from diverse habitats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seungdae; Buddenborg, Sarah; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R; Tiedje, James M; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the Escherichia genus is heavily biased toward pathogenic or commensal isolates from human or animal hosts. Recent studies have recovered Escherichia isolates that persist, and even grow, outside these hosts. Although the environmental isolates are typically phylogenetically distinct, they are highly related to and phenotypically indistinguishable from their human counterparts, including for the coliform test. To gain insights into the genomic diversity of Escherichia isolates from diverse habitats, including freshwater, soil, animal, and human sources, we carried out comparative DNA-DNA hybridizations using a multi-genome E. coli DNA microarray. The microarray was validated based on hybridizations with selected strains whose genome sequences were available and used to assess the frequency of microarray false positive and negative signals. Our results showed that human fecal isolates share two sets of genes (n>90) that are rarely found among environmental isolates, including genes presumably important for evading host immune mechanisms (e.g., a multi-drug transporter for acids and antimicrobials) and adhering to epithelial cells (e.g., hemolysin E and fimbrial-like adhesin protein). These results imply that environmental isolates are characterized by decreased ability to colonize host cells relative to human isolates. Our study also provides gene markers that can distinguish human isolates from those of warm-blooded animal and environmental origins, and thus can be used to more reliably assess fecal contamination in natural ecosystems.

  18. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  19. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  20. Isolated lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2012-01-01

    Isolated lung perfusion (ILP) has been historically used as a method to study basic lung physiologic concepts using animal models. More recently, ILP has been applied in lung transplantation and thoracic oncology. In lung transplantation, ILP has been used to assess physiological integrity of donor lungs after the organ is removed from the donor. This procedure is called Ex vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP), and it has also been proposed as a method for active treatment and repair of injured unsuitable donor organs ex vivo. In oncology, ILP is an attractive method to deliver high dose chemotherapy to treat pulmonary metastatic disease. Since the lung vasculature is isolated in vivo, this technique is called in vivo lung perfusion (IVLP). This review will focus on the rationale, technical aspects, experimental and clinical experience of EVLP and IVLP. A perspective on the future use of these techniques is described. PMID:22202033

  1. Isolated glucocorticoid insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Werder, E A; Haller, R; Vetter, W; Zachmann, M; Siebenmann, R

    1975-07-01

    Two cases of isolated glucocorticoid insufficiency or congenital adrenocortical unresponsiveness to ACTH-a variant of adrenocortical failure without mineralocorticoid insufficiency-are presented. Familial incidence was present only in case 1 since two of the siblings died after convulsions, possible related to hypoglycemia. The pathology specimens of one sibling were available for review showing complete lack of the fascicular zone and degenerative changes in the adrenals and evidence of increased ACTH secretion in the pituitary. In the patients who were given substitution therapy with hydrocortisone, studies of plasma renin and aldosterone revealed impairment of plasma aldosterone response to salt restriction, orthostatism and furosemide-induced diuresis combined with postural change. We conclude that in some cases of isolated glucocorticoid insufficiency, impairment of mineralocorticoid function may gradually develop, which is in contrast to the assumption of a congenital defect in the action of ACTH.

  2. High voltage isolation transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  3. Isolation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Inaba, K; Swiggard, W J; Steinman, R M; Romani, N; Schuler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents two methods for preparing dendritic cells (DCs), a highly specialized type of antigen-presenting cell (APC). The first method involves the isolation of DCs from mouse spleen, resulting in a cell population that is highly enriched in accessory cell and APC function. A support protocol for collagenase digestion of splenocyte suspensions is described to increase the yield of dendritic cells. The second method involves generating large numbers of DCs from mouse bone marrow progenitor cells. In that technique, bone marrow cells are cultured in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to yield 5-10 10(6) cells, 60% of which express DC surface markers (e.g., B-7-2/CD86). Additional techniques for isolating DCs from mouse spleens or other mouse tissues, as well as from human tissues, are also discussed.

  4. Isolation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kayo; Swiggard, William J; Steinman, Ralph M; Romani, Nikolaus; Schuler, Gerold; Brinster, Carine

    2009-08-01

    This unit presents two methods for preparing dendritic cells (DCs), a highly specialized type of antigen-presenting cell (APC). The first method involves the isolation of DCs from mouse spleen, resulting in a cell population that is highly enriched in accessory cell and APC function. A support protocol for collagenase digestion of splenocyte suspensions is described to increase the yield of dendritic cells. The second method involves generating large numbers of DCs from mouse bone marrow progenitor cells. In that technique, bone marrow cells are cultured in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to yield 5-10 x 10(6) cells, 60% of which express DC surface markers (e.g., B-7-2/CD86). Additional techniques for isolating DCs from mouse spleens or other mouse tissues, as well as from human tissues, are also discussed.

  5. Cycle isolation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C.

    2009-07-15

    There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

  6. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  7. Isolating phagosomes from tissue culture cells.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Paul R; Rofe, Adam P

    2014-12-01

    Phagocytosis is the process by which receptors at the plasma membrane are used to engulf a particle such as a bacterium, parasite, or dead cell. Phagosomes can be isolated from tissue culture cells by various centrifugation methods, including the use of differential density gradients or sucrose step gradients, but these methods are time-consuming or otherwise difficult. We describe here a protocol that avoids centrifugation and relies instead on the uptake of magnetic beads to rapidly isolate the phagosomal compartment from tissue culture cells.

  8. Genetics of population isolates.

    PubMed

    Arcos-Burgos, M; Muenke, M

    2002-04-01

    Genetic isolates, as shown empirically by the Finnish, Old Order Amish, Hutterites, Sardinian and Jewish communities among others, represent a most important and powerful tool in genetically mapping inherited disorders. The main features associated with that genetic power are the existence of multigenerational pedigrees which are mostly descended from a small number of founders a short number of generations ago, environmental and phenotypic homogeneity, restricted geographical distribution, the presence of exhaustive and detailed records correlating individuals in very well ascertained pedigrees, and inbreeding as a norm. On the other hand, the presence of a multifounder effect or admixture among divergent populations in the founder time (e.g. the Finnish and the Paisa community from Colombia) will theoretically result in increased linkage disequilibrium among adjacent loci. The present review evaluates the historical context and features of some genetic isolates with emphasis on the basic population genetic concepts of inbreeding and genetic drift, and also the state-of-the-art in mapping traits, both Mendelian and complex, on genetic isolates. PMID:12030885

  9. Isolated persistent hypermethioninemia.

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, S H; Levy, H L; Tangerman, A; Boujet, C; Buist, N; Davidson-Mundt, A; Hudgins, L; Oyanagi, K; Nagao, M; Wilson, W G

    1995-01-01

    New information has been obtained on 30 patients with isolated persistent hypermethioninemia, most of them previously unreported. Biopsies to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of partially deficient activity of ATP: L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT; E.C.2.5.1.6) in liver were not performed on most of these patients. However, none showed the clinical findings or the extreme elevations of serum folate previously described in other patients with isolated hypermethioninemia considered not to have hepatic MAT deficiency. Patients ascertained on biochemical grounds had no neurological abnormalities, and 27/30 had IQs or Bayley development-index scores within normal limits or were judged to have normal mental development. Methionine transamination metabolites accumulated abnormally only when plasma methionine concentrations exceeded 300-350 microM and did so more markedly after 0.9 years of age. Data were obtained on urinary organic acids as well as plasma creatinine concentrations. Patterns of inheritance of isolated hypermethioninemia were variable. Considerations as to the optimal management of this group of patients are discussed. PMID:7573050

  10. Microarray-based genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from camels.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Wernery, Renate; Johnson, Bobby; Jose, Sherry; Wernery, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of mastitis and other diseases in camels. In order to obtain data on population structure as well as on the carriage of toxin genes and resistance markers, a collection of 45 isolates from dromedaries of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, were genotyped. These isolates belonged to clonal complexes CC6 (twenty isolates; 44.44%), CC30 (sixteen isolates; 35.56%), CC188 (five isolates; 11.11%), CC152 (1 isolate, 2.2%) and to a previously un-described sequence type (ST1755: arcc-18, aroe-115, glpf-6, gmk-2 pta-109, tpi-50 and yqil-2; three isolates; 6.67%). Resistance genes proved to be rare. Only three out of 45 isolates (6.67%) carried the beta-lactamase operon. The tetracycline resistance gene tetK was also detected in three isolates (6.67%). Neither the mecA gene, defining MRSA, nor other resistance genes were found. Common virulence markers included leukocidin genes lukD+lukE (in twenty-five isolates; 55.56%), the staphylokinase gene sak (twenty-two isolates; 48.89%), the enterotoxin gene cluster egc (fifteen isolates; 33.33%), and a distinct variant of the enterotoxin A gene (sea-320E, GenBank AY196686.1; thirteen isolates; 28.89%). One CC152 isolate was positive for genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukF-PV+lukS-PV). This study provides first genotyping data on the population structure and the presence of toxin genes and resistance markers of S. aureus strains in Middle Eastern camels.

  11. Freedom from Social Isolation for Young Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Diane; Smith-Canter, Lora Lee; Voytecki, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, students in early childhood special education programs experience social isolation. To ameliorate the inappropriate behaviors that often contribute to this isolation, it is imperative that educators begin to include instruction in appropriate social interaction in the general education early childhood curriculum for children with…

  12. 76 FR 35026 - Hutchinson Technology, Inc., Including On-Site Workers Leased From Doherty, Including Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Doherty, Plymouth, Minnesota. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 5, 2009 (74 FR... Doherty, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Aramark Business Facilities, LLC, Hutchinson, MN; Hutchinson Technology, Inc., Including On-Site Workers Leased From...

  13. Vibration isolation system for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, T.; Kunz, N.

    1988-01-01

    The Vibration Isolation System for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is studied. Included are discussions of the various concepts, design goals, concerns, and the proposed configuration for the Vibration Isolation System.

  14. Propellant isolation shutoff valve program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis and design effort directed to advancing the state-of-the-art of space storable isolation valves for control of flow of the propellants liquid fluorine/hydrazine and Flox/monomethylhydrazine is discussed. Emphasis is on achieving zero liquid leakage and capability of withstanding missions up to 10 years in interplanetary space. Included is a study of all-metal poppet sealing theory, an evaluation of candidate seal configurations, a valve actuator trade-off study and design description of a pneumo-thermally actuated soft metal poppet seal valve. The concepts and analysis leading to the soft seal approach are documented. A theoretical evaluation of seal leakage versus seal loading, related finishes and yield strengths of various materials is provided. Application of a confined soft aluminum seal loaded to 2 to 3 times yield strength is recommended. Use of either an electro-mechanical or pneumatic actuator appears to be feasible for the application.

  15. An isolated nasolacrimal duct osteoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Kwon, Jae Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Osteomas of the nose and paranasal sinus are common benign tumors that can extend to surrounding structures and result in orbital or intracranial involvement. Presenting symptoms include facial pain, headache, cerebral symptoms, ocular symptoms, and so on, depending on the location and size of the tumor. They commonly occur within the frontal, ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses; however, there are rare cases of reported osteomas in the nasal cavity, turbinate, or orbit. Our case report describes a patient with nasolacrimal duct osteoma who presented with ipsilateral ocular pain, epiphora, and medial canthal swelling. We performed intranasal dacryocystorhinostomy using a nasal endoscope and removed the lacrimal duct osteoma. This report describes symptoms and management of an isolated nasolacrimal duct stone with a review of the literature.

  16. Nuclear RNA Isolation and Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Navroop K; Mitchell, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Most transcriptome studies involve sequencing and quantification of steady-state mRNA by isolating and sequencing poly (A) RNA. Although this type of sequencing data is informative to determine steady-state mRNA levels it does not provide information on transcriptional output and thus may not always reflect changes in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Furthermore, sequencing poly (A) RNA may miss transcribed regions of the genome not usually modified by polyadenylation which includes many long noncoding RNAs. Here, we describe nuclear-RNA sequencing (nucRNA-seq) which investigates the transcriptional landscape through sequencing and quantification of nuclear RNAs which are both unspliced and spliced transcripts for protein-coding genes and nuclear-retained long noncoding RNAs.

  17. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

  18. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  19. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  20. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 12 figs.

  1. Advances in pleural disease management including updated procedural coding.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andrew R; Sterman, Daniel H

    2014-08-01

    Over 1.5 million pleural effusions occur in the United States every year as a consequence of a variety of inflammatory, infectious, and malignant conditions. Although rarely fatal in isolation, pleural effusions are often a marker of a serious underlying medical condition and contribute to significant patient morbidity, quality-of-life reduction, and mortality. Pleural effusion management centers on pleural fluid drainage to relieve symptoms and to investigate pleural fluid accumulation etiology. Many recent studies have demonstrated important advances in pleural disease management approaches for a variety of pleural fluid etiologies, including malignant pleural effusion, complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema, and chest tube size. The last decade has seen greater implementation of real-time imaging assistance for pleural effusion management and increasing use of smaller bore percutaneous chest tubes. This article will briefly review recent pleural effusion management literature and update the latest changes in common procedural terminology billing codes as reflected in the changing landscape of imaging use and percutaneous approaches to pleural disease management.

  2. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  3. Linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolated in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir N; Memari, Nader; Shahinas, Dea; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have described linezolid-resistant MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) occurring worldwide, including an outbreak of linezolid-resistant MRSA. The objective of this study was to determine if linezolid-resistant enterococci are present in clinical isolates in Ontario, Canada. From January 2010 to June 2012, all enterococcal isolates submitted to the Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for confirmation of VRE and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Of 2829 enterococcal isolates tested, 12 Enterococcus faecium were found to be resistant to linezolid. All linezolid-resistant isolates were also resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin. In addition, 33% of isolates were non-susceptible to daptomycin, whereas 41% were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Molecular characterization of these isolates showed that 8/12 isolates (66.7%) contained the mutation G2576T in 23S rRNA, which has been associated with linezolid resistance. Amplification and sequencing of L3- and L4-coding genes did not reveal mutations associated with linezolid resistance. One isolate contained the cfr gene, which is associated with linezolid resistance, and has been found in staphylococcal species and E. faecalis. These data show that occurrence of linezolid resistance is still rare among enterococcal isolates referred to PHOL though detection of cfr in E. faecium is concerning as it has the potential to disseminate among other enterococci.

  4. The Genotypic Characterization of Cronobacter spp. Isolated in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jinghua; Du, Xiaoli; Liu, Hui; Hu, Guangchun; Lv, Guoping; Xu, Baohong; Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Wei; Cui, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) is an important pathogen contaminating powdered infant formula (PIF). To describe the genotypic diversity of Cronobacter isolated in China, we identified the isolates using fusA allele sequencing, and subtyped all of the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). A total of 105 isolates were identified, which included C. sakazakii (58 isolates), C. malonaticus (30 isolates), C. dublinensis (11 isolates), C. turicensis (5 isolates), and C. muytjensii (1 isolate). These isolates were showed to have 85 PFGE-patterns, 71 sequence types (STs), and 55 MLVA-patterns. Comparisons among the three molecular subtyping methods revealed that the PFGE method was the most distinguishable tool in identifying clusters of Cronobacter spp. through DNA fingerprinting, and MLST method came second. However, ESTR-1, ESTR-2, ESTR-3, and ESTR-4 were not effective loci for subtyping Cronobacter spp. such that the MLVA method requires further improvement. PMID:25029018

  5. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates from probiotic products.

    PubMed

    Temmerman, R; Pot, B; Huys, G; Swings, J

    2003-02-25

    In the present study, a total of 55 European probiotic products were evaluated with regard to the identity and the antibiotic resistance of the bacterial isolates recovered from these products. Bacterial isolation from 30 dried food supplements and 25 dairy products, yielded a total of 268 bacterial isolates selected from several selective media. Counts of food supplements showed bacterial recovery in 19 (63%) of the dried food supplements ranging from 10(3) to 10(6) CFU/g, whereas all dairy products yielded growth in the range of 10(5)-10(9) CFU/ml. After identification of the isolates using whole-cell protein profiling, mislabeling was noted in 47% of the food supplements and 40% of the dairy products. In six food supplements, Enterococcus faecium was isolated whereas only two of those products claim this species on their label. Using the disc diffusion method, antibiotic resistance among 187 isolates was detected against kanamycin (79% of the isolates), vancomycin (65%), tetracycline (26%), penicillinG (23%), erythromycin (16%) and chloramphenicol (11%). Overall, 68.4% of the isolates showed resistance against multiple antibiotics including intrinsic resistances. Initially, 38% of the isolated enterococci was classified as vancomycin resistant using the disc diffusion method, whereas additional broth dilution and PCR assays clearly showed that all E. faecium isolates were in fact vancomycin susceptible.

  6. Genetic analysis of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sánchez del Rey, V; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F; Briones, V; Iriso, A; Domínguez, L; Gottschalk, M; Vela, A I

    2013-08-30

    This work aims to investigate the presence of Streptococcus suis in wild rabbits. A total of 65 S. suis isolates were recovered from 33.3% of the wild rabbits examined. Most isolates (86.2%) belong to genotype cps9. These isolates were further characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence genotyping. Overall, S. suis exhibited a low genetic diversity. Only 5 genetic profiles were obtained by PFGE and most isolates (71.4%) were included in two pulsotypes that were also widely distributed among the wild rabbit population. MLST analysis assigned all cps9 isolates into three new singlestones (ST216, ST217 and ST284), which were not genetically related to the European ST87 and Spanish ST61 widespread swine clones, indicating a different genetic background for the S. suis isolates from wild rabbits and pigs. Wild rabbit isolates exhibited the genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-, different from those showed by most of the swine S. suis isolates of the ST87 and ST61 clones. None of the S. suis isolated from wild rabbits exhibited the genotype cps2/mrp+/epf+/sly+ associated with human infections. These results indicate that S. suis isolates from wild rabbits are not genetically related with prevalent clones usually associated with infections in pigs or humans in Europe and do not exhibit either their virulence genotypes. Therefore, although wild rabbits could represent an unknown reservoir of this pathogen, they could not represent a potential risk for pigs or humans.

  7. Deterministic sequential isolation of floating cancer cells under continuous flow.

    PubMed

    Tran, Quang D; Kong, Tian Fook; Hu, Dinglong; Marcos; Lam, Raymond H W

    2016-08-01

    Isolation of rare cells, such as circulating tumor cells, has been challenging because of their low abundance and limited timeframes of expressions of relevant cell characteristics. In this work, we devise a novel hydrodynamic mechanism to sequentially trap and isolate floating cells in biosamples. We develop a microfluidic device for the sequential isolation of floating cancer cells through a series of microsieves to obtain up to 100% trapping yield and >95% sequential isolation efficiency. We optimize the trappers' dimensions and locations through both computational and experimental analyses using microbeads and cells. Furthermore, we investigated the functional range of flow rates for effective sequential cell isolation by taking the cell deformability into account. We verify the cell isolation ability using the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with perfect agreement with the microbead results. The viability of the isolated cells can be maintained for direct identification of any cell characteristics within the device. We further demonstrate that this device can be applied to isolate the largest particles from a sample containing multiple sizes of particles, revealing its possible applicability in isolation of circulating tumor cells in cancer patients' blood. Our study provides a promising sequential cell isolation strategy with high potential for rapid detection and analysis of general floating cells, including circulating tumor cells and other rare cell types. PMID:27387093

  8. Enterotoxin gene profiles among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, R; Godarzi, H; Rahimi Baghi, F; Moeinrad, M

    2014-01-01

    Milk is considered a nutritious food because it contains several important nutrients including proteins and vitamins. Conversely, it can be a vehicle for several pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of genes encoding the nine Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and enterotoxin gene profiles in S. aureus isolates derived from raw bovine milk. A total of 52 S. aureus isolates were obtained from 246 milk samples of 246 dairy cows from eight different farms in Qom, Iran. On the basis of cultural and biochemical properties as well as by amplification of the 23S rRNA specific to S. aureus, all isolates could be identified as S. aureus. Of the 52 isolates studied, 80.7% were positive for one or more genes encoding the enterotoxins, and 12 different genotypes were identified. The gene encoding for enterotoxin A (Sea) was the most frequent (16 isolates, 30.7%), followed by Seb (14 isolates, 26.9%) and Sed (8 isolates, 15.37%). Among the genes encoding the other enterotoxins, Seg and Seh were the most frequently observed (8 isolates each, 15.38%), followed by Sej (6 isolates, 11.5%) and Sei (1 isolates, 3.84%). With the recent identification of new SEs, the frequency of enterotoxigenic strains has increased, suggesting that the pathogenic potential of Staphylococci may be higher than previously thought. These results of enterotoxin genes positivity of milk-derived Staphylococci constitute a potential risk for consumers’ health. PMID:27175141

  9. Review on Recent Advances in the Analysis of Isolated Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Satori, Chad P.; Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of isolated organelles is one of the pillars of modern bioanalytical chemistry. This review describes recent developments on the isolation and characterization of isolated organelles both from living organisms and cell cultures. Salient reports on methods to release organelles focused on reproducibility and yield, membrane isolation, and integrated devices for organelle release. New developments on organelle fractionation after their isolation were on the topics of centrifugation, immunocapture, free flow electrophoresis, flow field-flow fractionation, fluorescence activated organelle sorting, laser capture microdissection, and dielectrophoresis. New concepts on characterization of isolated organelles included atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers combined with Raman spectroscopy, organelle sensors, flow cytometry, capillary electrophoresis, and microfluidic devices. PMID:23107131

  10. Rare cell isolation and analysis in microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuchao; Li, Peng; Huang, Po-Hsun; Xie, Yuliang; Mai, John D.; Wang, Lin; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Rare cells are low-abundance cells in a much larger population of background cells. Conventional benchtop techniques have limited capabilities to isolate and analyze rare cells because of their generally low selectivity and significant sample loss. Recent rapid advances in microfluidics have been providing robust solutions to the challenges in the isolation and analysis of rare cells. In addition to the apparent performance enhancements resulting in higher efficiencies and sensitivity levels, microfluidics provides other advanced features such as simpler handling of small sample volumes and multiplexing capabilities for high-throughput processing. All of these advantages make microfluidics an excellent platform to deal with the transport, isolation, and analysis of rare cells. Various cellular biomarkers, including physical properties, dielectric properties, as well as immunoaffinities, have been explored for isolating rare cells. In this Focus article, we discuss the design considerations of representative microfluidic devices for rare cell isolation and analysis. Examples from recently published works are discussed to highlight the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. Various applications of these techniques are then introduced. Finally, a perspective on the development trends and promising research directions in this field are proposed. PMID:24406985

  11. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  12. A standard bacterial isolate set for research on contemporary dairy spoilage.

    PubMed

    Trmčić, A; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2015-08-01

    Food spoilage is an ongoing issue that could be dealt with more efficiently if some standardization and unification was introduced in this field of research. For example, research and development efforts to understand and reduce food spoilage can greatly be enhanced through availability and use of standardized isolate sets. To address this critical issue, we have assembled a standard isolate set of dairy spoilers and other selected nonpathogenic organisms frequently associated with dairy products. This publicly available bacterial set consists of (1) 35 gram-positive isolates including 9 Bacillus and 15 Paenibacillus isolates and (2) 16 gram-negative isolates including 4 Pseudomonas and 8 coliform isolates. The set includes isolates obtained from samples of pasteurized milk (n=43), pasteurized chocolate milk (n=1), raw milk (n=1), cheese (n=2), as well as isolates obtained from samples obtained from dairy-powder production (n=4). Analysis of growth characteristics in skim milk broth identified 16 gram-positive and 13 gram-negative isolates as psychrotolerant. Additional phenotypic characterization of isolates included testing for activity of β-galactosidase and lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes. All groups of isolates included in the isolate set exhibited diversity in growth and enzyme activity. Source data for all isolates in this isolate set are publicly available in the FoodMicrobeTracker database (http://www.foodmicrobetracker.com), which allows for continuous updating of information and advancement of knowledge on dairy-spoilage representatives included in this isolate set. This isolate set along with publicly available isolate data provide a unique resource that will help advance knowledge of dairy-spoilage organisms as well as aid industry in development and validation of new control strategies.

  13. How isolated is Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Barnes, David K A; Hodgson, Dominic A

    2005-01-01

    The traditional view of Antarctica and the surrounding Southern Ocean as an isolated system is now being challenged by the recent discovery at the Antarctic Peninsula of adult spider crabs Hyas areneus from the North Atlantic and of larvae of subpolar marine invertebrates. These observations question whether the well described biogeographical similarities between the benthic fauna of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Magellan region of South America result from history (the two regions were once contiguous), or from a previously unrecognized low level of faunal exchange. Such exchange might be influenced by regional climate change, and also exacerbated by changes in human impact. PMID:16701330

  14. Investigation of mercury thruster isolators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

  15. Isolation and synthesis of polyoxygenated dibenzofurans possessing biological activity.

    PubMed

    Love, Brian E

    2015-06-01

    Reports from the past ten years describing the isolation and/or synthesis of bioactive dibenzofurans possessing three or more oxygen-containing substituents are reviewed. Dibenzofuranoquinones are included in the review.

  16. Isolated 'idiopathic' micropenis: hidden genetic defects?

    PubMed

    Paris, F; De Ferran, K; Bhangoo, A; Ten, S; Lahlou, N; Audran, F; Servant, N; Poulat, F; Philibert, P; Sultan, C

    2011-12-01

    Micropenis is defined as a stretched penile length of less than 2-2.5SD for age. Aetiologies include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, testicular dysgenesis, defects in testosterone synthesis, androgen resistance [5α-reductase (5αR) deficiency or partial androgen insensitivity] and other rare causes like growth hormone GH deficiency. Often, the cause remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether isolated micropenis with normal plasma testosterone could hide a molecular defect in the androgen pathway. Twenty-six boys with isolated micropenis were included in this study. All of them had 46,XY karyotype, normal luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone and a normal plasma testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin testing. Androgen receptor (AR), 5αR and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) genes were sequenced. A mutation in the AR gene was found in two patients, and a new mutation in the SF1 gene was found in one patient who was the only one to have a low level of inhibin B (InhB). This is the first report of isolated micropenis as a revealing symptom of AR and SF1 mutations. Anti-Mullerian hormone and InhB should thus be evaluated in patients with isolated micropenis, even when plasma testosterone is in the normal range. Detection of gene mutations is helpful for diagnosis, treatment and genetic counselling for probands.

  17. Isolation of Actinomyces hyovaginalis from sheep and comparison with isolates obtained from pigs.

    PubMed

    Foster, Geoffrey; Wragg, Peter; Koylass, Mark S; Whatmore, Adrian M; Hoyles, Lesley

    2012-06-15

    Actinomyces hyovaginalis, an organism initially described from pigs, was recovered from nine sheep and a moufflon. Further strains of A. hyovaginalis were recovered from five samples from pigs over the same period. 16S rRNA sequencing and extensive phenotyping demonstrated high similarity between the ovine and porcine isolates; however differences with respect to erythritol, adonitol and l-arabitol fermentation were detected. Ovine isolates were made from various sample sites including abscesses and highlight the importance of the accurate identification of the various coryneform isolates which affect sheep. A. hyovaginalis can be added to the growing list of coryneforms which can cause disease in sheep including Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Trueperella pyogenes and Arcanobacterium pluranimalium.

  18. Characterization of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates from Clinical Sources in Spain and Comparison with Asian and North American Pandemic Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Lozano-Leon, Antonio; DePaola, Angelo; Ishibashi, Masanori; Shimada, Kanae; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Liebana, Ernesto

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the potential risk involved with contamination of seafood with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, there is a lack of information on the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in Europe. This organism was isolated in 1999 from a large outbreak (64 cases admitted to a single hospital) associated with raw oyster consumption in Galicia, Spain, one of the most important regions in shellfish production worldwide. Two V. parahaemolyticus isolates from the 1999 Galicia outbreak, three additional clinical isolates obtained in the same period from hospitals in Spain, two reference strains from clinical sources, and five Spanish environmental isolates were examined. Seventeen isolates belonging to the pandemic clone isolated in Asia and North America were included in the study for comparison. All isolates were characterized by serotyping, PCR for virulence-related genes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and plasmid analysis. Four of the five clinical isolates from hospitals in Spain belonged to serotype O4:K11; the remaining isolate was O4:K untypeable (KUT). All five isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus toxR and tlh (species-specific genes) and tdh and negative for trh and group-specific PCR (a PCR method for detection of the pandemic clone). PFGE analysis with NotI and SfiI discriminated the European isolates in two closely related PFGE types included in a homogeneous cluster, clearly differentiated from the Asian and North American isolates. The five environmental isolates belonged to serotypes O2:K28, O2:KUT, O3:K53, O4:KUT, and O8:K22 and were negative for all virulence genes. The five isolates were discriminated into five different PFGE types unrelated to any other isolate included in the study. While the virulence characteristics (tdh positive, trh negative) of the Spanish clinical isolates matched those of the O3:K6 clone from Asia and North America, they were clearly excluded from this clone by group-specific PCR, PFGE, and serotyping. The

  19. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    d'Ersu, J; Aubin, G G; Mercier, P; Nicollet, P; Bémer, P; Corvec, S

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host.

  20. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    d'Ersu, J.; Aubin, G. G.; Mercier, P.; Nicollet, P.; Bémer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. PMID:26511738

  1. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    d'Ersu, J; Aubin, G G; Mercier, P; Nicollet, P; Bémer, P; Corvec, S

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. PMID:26511738

  2. Isolation and perfusion of rat inner medullary vasa recta.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kristen K; Nawata, C Michele; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2015-08-15

    Outer medullary isolated descending vasa recta have proven to be experimentally tractable, and consequently much has been learned about outer medullary vasa recta endothelial transport, pericyte contractile mechanisms, and tubulovascular interactions. In contrast, inner medullary vasa recta have never been isolated from any species, and therefore isolated vasa recta function has never been subjected to in vitro quantitative evaluation. As we teased out inner medullary thin limbs of Henle's loops from the Munich-Wistar rat, we found that vasa recta could be isolated using similar protocols. We isolated ∼30 inner medullary vasa recta from 23 adult male Munich-Wistar rats and prepared them for brightfield or electron microscopy, gene expression analysis by RT-PCR, or isolated tubule microperfusion. Morphological characteristics include branching and nonbranching segments exhibiting a thin endothelium, axial surface filaments radiating outward giving vessels a hairy appearance, and attached interstitial cells. Electron microscopy shows multiple cells, tight junctions, and either continuous or fenestrated endothelia. Isolated vasa recta express genes encoding the urea transporter UT-B and/or the fenestral protein PV-1, genes expressed in descending or ascending vasa recta, respectively. The transepithelial NaCl permeability (383.3 ± 60.0 × 10(-5) cm/s, mean ± SE, n = 4) was determined in isolated perfused vasa recta. Future quantitative analyses of isolated inner medullary vasa recta should provide structural and functional details important for more fully understanding fluid and solute flows through the inner medulla and their associated regulatory pathways. PMID:26062876

  3. Isolation of Vermamoeba vermiformis and associated bacteria in hospital water.

    PubMed

    Pagnier, Isabelle; Valles, Camille; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    To detect new potential pathogens in hospital water, we isolated free-living amoebae in water samples taken from three different hospitals in Marseille (France). The samples were inoculated in media containing saline buffer and various bacteria as nutrient sources. The isolated amoebae were identified by gene sequencing. Among the 105 water samples, taken from 19 sites, we isolated 14 amoebae, of which 9 Vermamoeba vermiformis and 5 Acanthamoeba sp. None of the amoebae showed the presence of obligate bacterial endosymbionts. Because V. vermiformis was most commonly isolated, we used an axenic collection strain to isolate amoeba-resistant bacteria from the same sites. The isolated bacterial species included Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Legionella sp. Legionella taurinensis was isolated for the first time in association with amoebae. A strict intracellular bacterium was isolated, that may represent a new genus among the Chlamydiales. We propose that it be named "Candidatus Rubidus massiliensis". Our study shows that the isolation and identification of new pathogens associated with amoebae, which were previously performed using Acanthamoeba sp., should instead use V. vermiformis because this organism is more commonly associated with humans and is an essential complement of Acanthamoeba sp. co-culture to study the ecology of hospital water supplies. PMID:25697664

  4. Dissemination of clonal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates causing salmonellosis in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Issack, Mohammad I; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Ramsamy, Veemala D; Svendsen, Christina A; Pornruangwong, Srirat; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is one of the leading causes of salmonellosis in Mauritius, where it has also been associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness. However, little is known about its molecular epidemiology in the country. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the clonality and source of Salmonella Typhimurium in Mauritius by studying human, food, and poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration determination. Forty-nine isolates collected between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed, including 25 stool isolates from foodborne illness outbreaks and sporadic gastroenteritis cases, four blood isolates, one postmortem colon isolate, 14 food isolates, and five poultry isolates. All isolates were pansusceptible to the 16 antibiotics tested, except for two isolates that were resistant to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Overall characterization of the isolates by PFGE digested with XbaI and BlnI resulted in eight different patterns. The largest of the clusters in the composite dataset consisted of 20 isolates, including two raw chicken isolates, four poultry isolates, and nine human stool isolates from two outbreaks. A second cluster consisted of 18 isolates, of which 12 originated from human blood and stool samples from both sporadic and outbreak cases. Six food isolates were also found in this cluster, including isolates from raw and grilled chicken, marlin mousse, and cooked pork. One poultry isolate had a closely related PFGE pattern. The results indicate that one clone of Salmonella Typhimurium found in poultry has been causing outbreaks of foodborne illness in Mauritius and another clone that has caused many cases of gastrointestinal illness and bacteremia in humans could also be linked to poultry. Thus, poultry appears to be a major reservoir for Salmonella Typhimurium in Mauritius. Initiating on-farm control strategies and measures against future dissemination may

  5. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, Calvin J.; Dahlby, Joel W.; Gallimore, Bradford F.; Comer, Bob E.; Stone, Water A.; Carlson, David O.

    1993-01-01

    An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  6. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

    1993-04-27

    An enclosure is described, similar to a glove box, for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  7. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A disconnect composed basically of two halves each consisting of a poppet valve operable to isolate fluid with essentially zero fluid loss is presented. The two halves are coupled together by a quickly releasable coupling which may be either a coupling ring tightened or loosened by a twisting motion, or a clamp operated by a pivoted to prevent disconnecting the two halves until both valves are in closed condition. The positive feature of the device is one requiring a valve closing step before a disconnect step, and takes structural form in an accentric lobe mounted on the valve operating stem. If some obstruction prevents the poppet from moving to its seat, the eccentric lobe cannot be rotated to the closed position, and the interlock prevents a disconnect.

  8. The neuroendocrinology of social isolation.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed.

  9. Isolation and Physiological Analysis of Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Gretchen M.; Bader, David M.; Pfaltzgraff, Elise R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes, the workhorse cell of the heart, contain exquisitely organized cytoskeletal and contractile elements that generate the contractile force used to pump blood. Individual cardiomyocytes were first isolated over 40 years ago in order to better study the physiology and structure of heart muscle. Techniques have rapidly improved to include enzymatic digestion via coronary perfusion. More recently, analyzing the contractility and calcium flux of isolated myocytes has provided a vital tool in the cellular and sub-cellular analysis of heart failure. Echocardiography and EKGs provide information about the heart at an organ level only. Cardiomyocyte cell culture systems exist, but cells lack physiologically essential structures such as organized sarcomeres and t-tubules required for myocyte function within the heart. In the protocol presented here, cardiomyocytes are isolated via Langendorff perfusion. The heart is removed from the mouse, mounted via the aorta to a cannula, perfused with digestion enzymes, and cells are introduced to increasing calcium concentrations. Edge and sarcomere detection software is used to analyze contractility, and a calcium binding fluorescent dye is used to visualize calcium transients of electrically paced cardiomyocytes; increasing understanding of the role cellular changes play in heart dysfunction. Traditionally used to test drug effects on cardiomyocytes, we employ this system to compare myocytes from WT mice and mice with a mutation that causes dilated cardiomyopathy. This protocol is unique in its comparison of live cells from mice with known heart function and known genetics. Many experimental conditions are reliably compared, including genetic or environmental manipulation, infection, drug treatment, and more. Beyond physiologic data, isolated cardiomyocytes are easily fixed and stained for cytoskeletal elements. Isolating cardiomyocytes via perfusion is an extremely versatile method, useful in studying cellular changes

  10. Abinitio calculations of the spectral shapes of CO2 isolated lines including non-Voigt effects and comparisons with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J.-M.; Tran, H.; Ngo, N. H.; Landsheere, X.; Chelin, P.; Lu, Y.; Liu, A.-W.; Hu, S.-M.; Gianfrani, L.; Casa, G.; Castrillo, A.; Lepère, M.; Delière, Q.; Dhyne, M.; Fissiaux, L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a fully ab initio model and calculations of the spectral shapes of absorption lines in a pure molecular gas under conditions where the influences of collisions and of the Doppler effect are significant. Predictions of the time dependence of dipole autocorrelation functions (DACFs) are made for pure CO2 at room temperature using requantized classical molecular dynamics simulations. These are carried, free of any adjusted parameter, on the basis of an accurate anisotropic intermolecular potential. The Fourier-Laplace transforms of these DACFs then yield calculated spectra which are analyzed, as some measured ones, through fits using Voigt line profiles. Comparisons between theory and various experiments not only show that the main line-shape parameters (Lorentz pressure-broadening coefficients) are accurately predicted, but that subtle observed non-Voigt features are also quantitatively reproduced by the model. These successes open renewed perspectives for the understanding of the mechanisms involved (translational-velocity and rotational-state changes and their dependences on the molecular speed) and the quantification of their respective contributions. The proposed model should also be of great help for the test of widely used empirical line-shape models and, if needed, the construction of more physically based ones.

  11. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains.

  12. Genomics of isolation in hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Gompert, Zachariah; Parchman, Thomas L.; Buerkle, C. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid zones are common in nature and can offer critical insights into the dynamics and components of reproductive isolation. Hybrids between diverged lineages are particularly informative about the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation, because introgression in an admixed population is a direct measure of isolation. In this paper, we combine simulations and a new statistical model to determine the extent to which different genetic architectures of isolation leave different signatures on genome-level patterns of introgression. We found that reproductive isolation caused by one or several loci of large effect caused greater heterogeneity in patterns of introgression than architectures involving many loci with small fitness effects, particularly when isolating factors were closely linked. The same conditions that led to heterogeneous introgression often resulted in a reasonable correspondence between outlier loci and the genetic loci that contributed to isolation. However, demographic conditions affected both of these results, highlighting potential limitations to the study of the speciation genomics. Further progress in understanding the genomics of speciation will require large-scale empirical studies of introgression in hybrid zones and model-based analyses, as well as more comprehensive modelling of the expected levels of isolation with different demographies and genetic architectures of isolation. PMID:22201173

  13. Braking index of isolated pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamil, O.; Stone, J. R.; Urbanec, M.; Urbancová, G.

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities Ω , and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of detailed debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. Other processes, including the emission of gravitational radiation, and of relativistic particles (pulsar wind), are also being considered. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of Ω . This relation leads to the power law Ω ˙ =-K Ωn where n is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts n exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n , individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1

  14. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  15. Antarctic isolation: immune and viral studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingate, T. R.; Lugg, D. J.; Muller, H. K.; Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Stressful environmental conditions are a major determinant of immune reactivity. This effect is pronounced in Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition populations exposed to prolonged periods of isolation in the Antarctic. Alterations of T cell function, including depression of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and a peak 48.9% reduction of T cell proliferation to the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin, were documented during a 9-month period of isolation. T cell dysfunction was mediated by changes within the peripheral blood mononuclear cell compartment, including a paradoxical atypical monocytosis associated with altered production of inflammatory cytokines. There was a striking reduction in the production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the predominant pro-inflammatory monokine TNF-alpha and changes were also detected in the production of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-1ra and IL-10. Prolonged Antarctic isolation is also associated with altered latent herpesvirus homeostasis, including increased herpesvirus shedding and expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cell population. These findings have important long-term health implications.

  16. Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identity of nine clinical isolates from Czech patients presumably belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi based on morphology of colonies was revised using sequences of ß-tubulin, calmodulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA. The set of isolates included six isolates from suspected (n...

  17. Diversity and isolation of rare actinomycetes: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Kavita; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2013-08-01

    A renewed interest in the development of new antimicrobial agents is urgently needed to combat the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. Actinomycetes continue to be the mainstream supplier of antibiotics used in industry. The likelihood of discovering a new compound with novel chemical structure can be increased with intensive efforts in isolating and screening of rare genera of microorganisms to include in natural-product-screening collections. An unexpected variety of rare actinomycetes is now being isolated worldwide from previously uninvestigated diverse natural habitats, using different selective isolation methods. These isolation efforts include methods to enhance growth (enrichment) of rare actinomycetes, and eliminate unwanted microorganisms (pretreatment). To speed up the strain isolation process, knowledge about the distribution of such unexploited groups of microorganisms must also be augmented. This is a summary of using these microorganisms as new potential biological resources, and a review of almost all of the selective isolation methods, including pretreatment and enrichment techniques that have been developed to date for the isolation of rare actinomycetes.

  18. Isolation of multiple novel paramyxoviruses from pteropid bat urine.

    PubMed

    Barr, Jennifer; Smith, Craig; Smith, Ina; de Jong, Carol; Todd, Shawn; Melville, Debra; Broos, Alice; Crameri, Sandra; Haining, Jessica; Marsh, Glenn; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Bats have been found to harbour a number of new emerging viruses with zoonotic potential, and there has been a great deal of interest in identifying novel bat pathogens to determine the risk to human and animal health. Many groups have identified novel viruses in bats by detection of viral nucleic acid; however, virus isolation is still a challenge, and there are few reports of viral isolates from bats. In recent years, our group has developed optimized procedures for virus isolation from bat urine, including the use of primary bat cells. In previous reports, we have described the isolation of Hendra virus, Menangle virus and Cedar virus in Queensland, Australia. Here, we report the isolation of four additional novel bat paramyxoviruses from urine collected from beneath pteropid bat (flying fox) colonies in Queensland and New South Wales during 2009-2011.

  19. Isolate of Anaplasma marginale not transmitted by ticks.

    PubMed

    Smith, R D; Levy, M G; Kuhlenschmidt, M S; Adams, J H; Rzechula, D L; Hardt, T A; Kocan, K M

    1986-01-01

    The tick-borne transmissibility of 2 isolates of Anaplasma marginale was compared. Dermacentor variabilis were exposed to A marginale as nymphs by feeding on 1 of 4 splenectomized calves during periods of ascending parasitemia (maximum 49% to 81% parasitized erythrocytes) induced by injection of a stabilate. Tick-borne transmission was attempted, using 26 to 224 adult ticks within 30 to 220 days after molting. Adult D variabilis did not transmit an Illinois isolate of A marginale in 7 tick-borne transmission experiments (P = 0.0047), including 2 experiments in which calves were inoculated IV with homogenates of adult ticks. In contrast, a Virginia isolate of A marginale was readily transmitted by the same tick colony. Thus, previously reported morphologic and immunologic differences among A marginale isolates may extend to tick-borne transmissibility. The Virginia and Illinois A marginale isolates had an inclusion appendage that was not a marker for tick transmissibility. PMID:3946891

  20. New Ventilated Isolation Cage

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Reginald O.

    1968-01-01

    A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH “shoebox” cage rack (60 inches wide × 28 inches deep × 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:5659368

  1. High occurrence of multi-antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from healthy and diseased dogs and domesticated pigeons.

    PubMed

    Futagawa-Saito, Keiko; Ba-Thein, William; Fukuyasu, Tsuguaki

    2007-12-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius isolates (n=106), including 44 dog isolates and 62 pigeon isolates, were examined for their susceptibility to ampicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, oxacillin, tetracycline, and vancomycin by standard disk-diffusion test. The frequencies of resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, and tetracycline were significantly higher in dog isolates than pigeon isolates (95.5% vs. 0%, 31.8% vs. 0%, and 45.5% vs. 9.7%, respectively; P<0.01). Antimicrobial resistance patterns of dog isolates and pigeon isolates were categorized respectively into nine and five distinct profiles. Significantly higher occurrence of resistance to two or more antimicrobials was observed in dog isolates than pigeon isolates (54.5% vs. 12.9%; P<0.01) and also in domesticated pigeon isolates than non-domesticated pigeon isolates (53.3% vs. 0%; P<0.01).

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia fergusonii Isolated from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted.

  3. Patient experience of source isolation: lessons for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Ruth Linda; Shaban, Ramon; Moyle, Wendy

    2011-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is now the leading antimicrobial-resistant organism of concern to clinicians worldwide. Preventing and controlling the increase and spread of MRSA within the health-care environment is therefore an important function of the infection control team. The prevention and control of MRSA requires strict use of both Standard and Additional Precautions, which include good hand hygiene practices, judicious antimicrobial prescribing, and source isolation. While few would dispute the need for these precautions for preventing the spread of MRSA and other infections, their use may result in adverse physical and psychological effects for the patient. In an age of quality and safety of health care, ensuring infection control practice such as source isolation and contact precautions adhere to fundamental human rights is paramount. This paper presents a review of the literature on the patient experience of source isolation for MRSA or other infectious diseases. The review yielded five major interconnected themes: (1) psychological effects of isolation; (2) coping with isolation; (3) social isolation; (4) communication and information provision; and (5) physical environment and quality of care. It found that the experience of isolation by patients has both negative and positive elements. Isolation may result in detrimental psychological effects including anxiety, stress and depression, but may also result in the patient receiving less or substandard care. However, patients may also benefit from the quietness and privacy of single rooms. Nurses and other healthcare workers must look for ways to improve the experience of isolation and contact precautions of patients in source isolation. Opportunities exist in particular in improving the environment and the patient's self-control of the situation and in providing adequate information.

  4. Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2000-01-01

    An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

  5. Fragmentation and Isolation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscapes are being modified by humans at ever-increasing rates worldwide. This landscape level modification has resulted in changes in ecological patterns and processes, including species distributions. The rate at which humans are altering both terrestrial and aquatic habitats...

  6. Optical payload isolation using the Miniature Vibration Isolation System (MVIS-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMickell, M. B.; Kreider, Thom; Hansen, Eric; Davis, Torey; Gonzalez, Mario

    2007-04-01

    Precision satellite payloads commonly require isolation from bus disturbance sources, such as reaction wheels, thrusters, stepper motors, cryo-coolers, solar array drives, thermal popping, and other moving devices. Since nearly every satellite essentially has a unique construction, custom isolation systems are usually designed to attenuate a wide bandwidth of disturbance frequencies. The disadvantage of these custom solutions is that they are not easily reusable or transferable and are generally not robust to changes in payload geometry and mass properties during the development. The MVIS-II isolation system is designed to provide vibration disturbance attenuation over a wide bandwidth, as well as being able to adapt to changes in payload mass properties and geometry, through active control of a smart material. MVIS-II is a collaborative effort between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Space Vehicle Directorate and Honeywell Defense and Space to validate miniature hybrid (passive/active) vibration isolation of sensitive optical payloads. The original flight experiment was intended to isolate a non-critical representative payload mass for demonstration purposes; however, the MVIS-II has been adapted to support the primary optical payload onboard the Tactical Satellite 2 (TacSat-2). Throughout the program MVIS-II has been able to adapt to changes in the payload geometry and mass properties with modification limited to support structures only. The MVIS-II system consists of a hexapod of hybrid struts, where each strut includes a patented passive 3-parameter DStrut n series with a novel hydraulically amplified piezoelectric actuator with integral load cell. Additionally, Honeywell's Flexible I/O controller electronics and software are used for command and control of the hardware. The passive D-Strut element provides a 40 dB/decade passive roll-off to attenuate mid-to-high frequency disturbances, while the active piezoelectric actuator is used for enhanced low

  7. High performance rotational vibration isolator.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

    2013-10-01

    We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 ± 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors.

  8. Ruptured Isolated Spinal Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez Romero, Diego; Batista, Andre Lima; Gentric, Jean Christoph; Raymond, Jean; Roy, Daniel; Weill, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Summary Isolated spinal artery aneurysms are exceedingly rare vascular lesions thought to be related to dissection of the arterial wall. We describe two cases presenting with spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage that underwent conservative management. In the first patient the radiculomedullary branch involved was feeding the anterior spinal artery at the level of D3 and thus, neither endovascular nor surgical approach was employed. Control angiography was performed at seven days and at three months, demonstrating complete resolution of the lesion. In our second case, neither the anterior spinal artery or the artery of Adamkiewicz could be identified during angiography, thus endovascular management was deemed contraindicated. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a stable lesion in the second patient. No rebleeding or other complications were seen. In comparison to intracranial aneurysms, spinal artery aneurysms tend to display a fusiform appearance and lack a clear neck in relation to the likely dissecting nature of the lesions. Due to the small number of cases reported, the natural history of these lesions is not well known making it difficult to establish the optimal treatment approach. Various management strategies may be supported, including surgical and endovascular treatment, but It would seem that a wait and see approach is also viable, with control angiogram and treatment decisions based on the evolution of the lesion. PMID:25496690

  9. Isolation of herpes simplex viruses by chick embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Akter, T; Tabassum, S; Jahan, M; Nessa, A; Islam, M N; Giasuddin, M

    2013-04-01

    The chick embryo is a versatile host system in diagnostic virology, especially for isolation of herpes simplex viruses. In this study, samples obtained from 57 clinically diagnosed patients with active herpetic lesions (35 genital & 22 non-genital) were cultured by chick embryo method for isolation of herpes simplex virus. After inoculation onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-11 days old chick embryo, typical CAM reactions (pocks) appeared in 23(40.3%) samples after 3 days. CAM reactions were identified and typed by direct fluorescence antibody test and 22(95.6%) of 23 isolates gave positive results. Of this, 9(40.9%) were HSV-1 & 13(59.1%) were HSV-2. HSV-1 was isolated from 8(36.4%) of non-genital samples and from 1(7.1%) genital sample. HSV-2 was isolated from 13(92.8%) of genital samples, but none were isolated from non-genital samples. High isolation rate was obtained from vesicular stage of both non-genital (71.5%) and genital (57.1%) samples and from early lesions (sampled within 72 hours) of non-genital (50%) and genital (52.9%) specimen. The chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo it is a simple, cheap and efficient method of cultivation of some viruses, including HSV. Thus, in settings where cell culture facilities are not available, it can be used for the isolation of herpes simplex viruses from clinical samples.

  10. Active transmission isolation/rotor loads measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Defelice, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications were incorporated into a helicopter active transmission isolation system to provide the capability of utilizing the system as a rotor force measuring device. These included; (1) isolator redesign to improve operation and minimize friction, (2) installation of pressure transducers in each isolator, and (3) load cells in series with each torque restraint link. Full scale vibration tests performed during this study on a CH-53A helicopter airframe verified that these modifications do not degrade the systems wide band isolation characteristics. Bench tests performed on each isolator unit indicated that steady and transient loads can be measured to within 1 percent of applied load. Individual isolator vibratory load measurement accuracy was determined to be 4 percent. Load measurement accuracy was found to be independent of variations in all basic isolator operating characteristics. Full scale system load calibration tests on the CH-53A airframe established the feasibility of simultaneously providing wide band vibration isolation and accurate measurement of rotor loads. Principal rotor loads (lift, propulsive force, and torque) were measured to within 2 percent of applied load.

  11. Amikacin Resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Isolated from Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gold, R. M.; Cohen, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the most common microorganism isolated from canine pyoderma and postoperative wound infections. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has increased, and recently, isolates that are resistant not only to methicillin but also to other classes of antibiotic drugs, including aminoglycosides, have become common. A total of 422 S. pseudintermedius isolates collected from 413 dogs were analyzed for amikacin and methicillin resistance using broth microdilution and disk diffusion testing. Methicillin-resistant isolates were significantly (P < 0.0001) more likely to be resistant to amikacin (37%, 31/84) than were methicillin-susceptible isolates (7%, 22/338). Additionally, resistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics was significantly associated with resistance to amikacin irrespective of methicillin resistance. Among the 422 isolates, 32 that tested positive for amikacin resistance by broth microdilution or disk diffusion testing were investigated further for the presence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes using multiplex PCR. Of these isolates, 66% (21/32) were methicillin resistant. In contrast to previous studies of Staphylococcus aureus, the most prevalent gene detected was aph(3′)-IIIa found in 75% (24/32) of isolates followed by aac(6′)/aph(2″) and ant(4′)-Ia in 12% (4/32) and 3% (1/32), respectively. Understanding the differences in antimicrobial resistance gene carriage between different species of Staphylococcus may improve antimicrobial drug selection for clinical therapy and provide insights into how resistance develops in S. pseudintermedius. PMID:25078911

  12. Amikacin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs.

    PubMed

    Gold, R M; Cohen, N D; Lawhon, S D

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the most common microorganism isolated from canine pyoderma and postoperative wound infections. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has increased, and recently, isolates that are resistant not only to methicillin but also to other classes of antibiotic drugs, including aminoglycosides, have become common. A total of 422 S. pseudintermedius isolates collected from 413 dogs were analyzed for amikacin and methicillin resistance using broth microdilution and disk diffusion testing. Methicillin-resistant isolates were significantly (P < 0.0001) more likely to be resistant to amikacin (37%, 31/84) than were methicillin-susceptible isolates (7%, 22/338). Additionally, resistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics was significantly associated with resistance to amikacin irrespective of methicillin resistance. Among the 422 isolates, 32 that tested positive for amikacin resistance by broth microdilution or disk diffusion testing were investigated further for the presence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes using multiplex PCR. Of these isolates, 66% (21/32) were methicillin resistant. In contrast to previous studies of Staphylococcus aureus, the most prevalent gene detected was aph(3')-IIIa found in 75% (24/32) of isolates followed by aac(6')/aph(2") and ant(4')-Ia in 12% (4/32) and 3% (1/32), respectively. Understanding the differences in antimicrobial resistance gene carriage between different species of Staphylococcus may improve antimicrobial drug selection for clinical therapy and provide insights into how resistance develops in S. pseudintermedius.

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Environmental Sources▿

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jennifer R.; Zak, John C.; Jeter, Randall M.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria that cause serious infections in both poikilothermic and endothermic animals, including humans. Clinical isolates have shown an increasing incidence of antibiotic and antimicrobial drug resistance since the widespread use of antibiotics began. A total of 282 Aeromonas pure cultures were isolated from both urban and rural playa lakes in the vicinity of Lubbock, Texas, and several rivers in West Texas and New Mexico. Of these, at least 104 were subsequently confirmed to be independent isolates. The 104 isolates were identified by Biolog and belonged to 11 different species. The MICs of six metals, one metalloid, five antibiotics, and two antimicrobial drugs were determined. All aeromonads were sensitive to chromate, cobalt, copper, nickel, zinc, cefuroxime, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole. Low incidences of trimethoprim resistance, mercury resistance, and arsenite resistance were found. Dual resistances were found in 5 of the 104 Aeromonas isolates. Greater numbers of resistant isolates were obtained from samples taken in March versus July 2002 and from sediment versus water. Plasmids were isolated from selected strains of the arsenite- and mercury-resistant organisms and were transformed into Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF′. Acquisition of the resistance phenotypes by the new host showed that these resistance genes were carried on the plasmids. Mercury resistance was found to be encoded on a conjugative plasmid. Despite the low incidence of resistant isolates, the six playa lakes and three rivers that were sampled in this study can be considered a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:16950901

  14. Machilin A isolated from Myristica fragrans stimulates osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Ui; Shim, Ki Shuk; Ryu, Shi Yong; Min, Yong Ki; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the stimulatory effects of machilin A and structurally related lignans isolated from Myristica fragrans on osteoblast differentiation. In two IN VITRO osteoblast differentiation models, machilin A stimulated osteoblast differentiation via activation of p38 MAP kinase. Lignans isolated from Myristica fragrans also stimulated osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells; the lignans included macelignan, machilin F, nectandrin B, safrole, licarin A, licarin B, myristargenol, and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid. These data suggest that lignans isolated from Myristica fragrans have anabolic activity in bone metabolism.

  15. [Assimilation test of Malassezia furfur isolated from the environment].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, R; Nishimura, K; Kamei, K; Murayama, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The lipophilic yeasts Malassezia species are the causative agents of tinea versicolor and known also to be a member of normal skin flora. They are commonly isolated from the skin of humans and animals, but not from the environment. This is the first report of the isolation of Malassezia sp. from the environment (a hospital floor). The results of assimilation tests of lipids and karyotyping showed that these isolates were M. furfur. They assimilated not only lipids including floor wax and car wax but also some ointments (except antifungal agents) used clinically. The results suggest that we need to take care when using such ointments to treat skin diseases.

  16. Isolation and Culture of Muscle Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Mozzetta, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key epigenetic factors responsible for the proper spatiotemporal repression of defined transcriptional programs along the process of cell differentiation, including myogenesis. The discovery of the pivotal role played by PcG factors during myogenic differentiation relied on the possibility to culture myogenic cells in vitro. We describe here the methods currently used to isolate muscle stem cells (MuSCs) both from single myofibers and from bulk muscles by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), highlighting experimental details and critical steps. Through these techniques MuSCs can be efficiently isolated and cultured in vitro to recapitulate the different phases of myogenesis: activation, expansion, differentiation, and self-renewal. PMID:27659996

  17. Accelerator power concepts using isolated transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W.C.

    1981-05-01

    This report outlines the rationale and the advantages of using multiple transmission-line sections isolated by transit time and inductance in accelerating high-current (approx. = 10 -kA), short-pulse (less than or equal to 100-ns) particle beams to the multimegavolt level. The main advantages of this system include reducing the number of output switches required per output pulse by nearly an order of magnitude over conventional systems and increasing the system capability for repetition-rate operation. The isolated transmission-line concept is developed, and possible modes of operation are outlined. In addition, a point design of a 10-kA short-pulse accelerator is presented.

  18. DENGUE-TYPE VIRUSES ISOLATED IN SINGAPORE.

    PubMed

    LIM, K A; CHAN, Y C; PHOON, W O; HANAM, E

    1964-01-01

    A dengue-like illness with marked haemorrhagic manifestations appeared in Singapore in 1960. Its similarity in many respects to the haemorrhagic fevers of Thailand and the Philippines led to its being described as "Singapore haemorrhagic fever".This paper describes the isolation and identification of dengue-type viruses from patients in Singapore between 1960 and 1962. In addition to the conventional complement-fixation and neutralization tests, a new test, called the "sensitized erythrocyte agglutination test", was employed; this test method is described.Altogether 21 dengue-type viruses were isolated, including dengue types 1, 2 and 4. Chikungunya virus, prominent in the Thailand disease, was not detected.The author suggests that study of the epidemiology of haemorrhagic fevers in South-East Asia would cast further light on the transmission of arboviruses.

  19. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hotels of Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, S D; Antoniadis, A; Papapaganagiotou, J; Stefanou, T

    1989-03-01

    Twenty water samples collected from 6 hotels situated in various areas of Greece were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like organisms. Five of the six hotels included in this investigation were associated with cases of legionellosis. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 8 were isolated from four of six hotels, mainly from the hot water supply system. This is the first isolation and identification of L. pneumophila in Greece.

  20. Exploiting calnexin expression on phagosomes to isolate Leishmania parasitophorous vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Kima, Peter E; Dunn, Waltraud

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a simple scheme for the isolation of parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs) that harbor Leishmania parasites. This scheme exploits the observation that PVs display endoplasmic reticulum molecules, including the transmembrane protein calnexin. The presence of calnexin at the surface of the PVs distinguishes them from late endosomal vesicles of comparable density. As a result, PVs can be isolated by calnexin affinity selection from an enriched PV fraction obtained by sucrose density fractionation.

  1. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The compressor and accessory sections of turbine engines; and (7) The combustor, turbine, and tailpipe sections of turbine engine installations except sections that do not contain lines and components carrying flammable fluids or gases and are isolated from the designated fire zone prescribed in paragraph (a)(6)...

  2. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung.

  3. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola

    PubMed Central

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung. PMID:26839959

  4. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung. PMID:26839959

  5. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... zones are— (a) For reciprocating engines— (1) The power section; (2) The accessory section; (3) Any... section. (b) For turbine engines— (1) The compressor and accessory sections; (2) The combustor, turbine... complete powerplant compartment in which there is no isolation between compressor, accessory,...

  6. Isolated vastus lateralis tendon avulsion.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jonathan M; Riedel, Matthew D; McCormick, Frank M; Nho, Shane J

    2013-10-01

    Isolated avulsion of the vastus lateralis tendon is a very rare injury. To our knowledge, only 1 case has been reported in the literature. This tendon is crucial to knee stability and proper patellofemoral tracking. As isolated avulsion of the tendon tends to occur in young, active males, early surgical repair is recommended to allow them to maintain a high level of functional ability. We present the case of a 49-year-old man who sustained an isolated vastus lateralis tendon avulsion injury. The injury was successfully treated with suture anchor repair.

  7. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

  8. Epidemiology and Microbiologic Characterization of Nosocomial Candidemia from a Brazilian National Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Doi, André Mario; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Edmond, Michael B.; Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Siqueira, Ricardo Andreotti; da Mota, Vivian Pereira; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia is a growing problem in hospitals all over the world. Despite advances in the medical support of critically ill patients, candidiasis leads to prolonged hospitalization, and has a crude mortality rate around 50%. We conducted a multicenter surveillance study in 16 hospitals distributed across five regions of Brazil to assess the incidence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, and risk factors for bloodstream infections due to Candida species. From June 2007 to March 2010, we studied a total of 2,563 nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI) episodes. Candida spp. was the 7th most prevalent agent. Most of the patients were male, with a median age of 56 years. A total of 64 patients (46.7%) were in the ICU when candidemia occurred. Malignancies were the most common underlying condition (32%). The crude mortality rate of candidemia during the hospital admission was 72.2%. Non-albicans species of Candida accounted for 65.7% of the 137 yeast isolates. C. albicans (34.3%), Candida parapsilosis (24.1%), Candida tropicalis (15.3%) and Candida glabrata (10.2%) were the most prevalent species. Only 47 out of 137 Candida isolates were sent to the reference laboratory for antifungal susceptibility testing. All C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the 5 antifungal drugs tested. Among 11 C. glabrata isolates, 36% were resistant to fluconazole, and 64% SDD. All of them were susceptible to anidulafungin and amphotericin B. We observed that C. glabrata is emerging as a major player among non-albicans Candida spp. and fluconazole resistance was primarily confined to C. glabrata and C. krusei strains. Candida resistance to echinocandins and amphotericin B remains rare in Brazil. Mortality rates remain increasingly higher than that observed in the Northern Hemisphere countries, emphasizing the need for improving local practices of clinical management of candidemia, including early diagnosis, source control and precise

  9. Susceptibility of Recently Collected Spanish Pneumococci Nonsusceptible to Oral Penicillin from Serotypes Not Included in the 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccine▿

    PubMed Central

    Fenoll, Asunción; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, María-José; Vicioso, María-Dolores; Robledo, Olga; Granizo, Juan-José; Coronel, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibilities of pneumococci recently collected (up to June 2009) in Spain (500 isolates nonsusceptible to oral penicillin and 150 susceptible isolates) from serotypes not included in the conjugate vaccine were determined. Most nonsusceptible isolates (53.6%) belonged to serotype 19A. Susceptibility rates in serotype 19A penicillin-intermediate (n = 201)/penicillin-resistant (n = 67) isolates were <33%/≤6.0% (erythromycin and oral cephalosporins with defined breakpoints), 85.1%/11.9% (amoxicillin), and 96.0%/52.2% (cefotaxime), respectively. Low susceptibility to common oral β-lactams was also found in serotypes 11A (95.5% susceptibility to cefotaxime and erythromycin) and 35B. PMID:20308373

  10. ß-Lactamases in Salmonella enterica isolated in Australia.

    PubMed

    Micalizzi, Gino

    2013-03-31

    Understanding the antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella enterica is important both from a clinical treatment and a public health perspective. The emergence of extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESßLs) and AmpC ß-lactamases in S. enterica is important, as this will limit treatment options and could provide a strain with a significant selective advantage. The aim of the study was to screen isolates of S. enterica, including isolates that had previously shown antibiotic resistance, to gauge the extent of ß-lactamase activity in S. enterica in Australia. Phenotypic detection involved screening in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute double disk synergy test guidelines and assessing susceptibility to cefoxitin. Presumptive positives were then screened using a MAST® AmpC and ESßL detection set. S. enterica isolates that were consecutively received in the laboratory (n=624), or had previously exhibited some antibiotic resistance (n=351), were screened for ß-lactamase activity. None of the isolates in the second group were included in the first. ß-lactamase activity was detected in nine of the consecutively received isolates; one with demonstrated ESßL activity and eight others with demonstrated AmpC ß-lactamase. ß-lactamase activity was detected in 16 of the isolates that had previously demonstrated some antibiotic resistance; three with demonstrated ESßL activity and 13 others with demonstrated AmpC ß-lactamase activity. S. enterica serovar Stanley is a serovar that is frequently acquired overseas and this serovar had the highest proportion of isolates that demonstrated ß-Lactamase activity in consecutively sampled isolates (4.95%), reflecting the emergence of an epidemic clone within South East Asia. While antibiotic resistance is being detected in Salmonella isolates, the data indicates that there is limited awareness of, or screening for, ß-lactamases in S. enterica. This study will help to overcome these deficiencies and provide

  11. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis.

  12. Isolation, identification & characterization of Proteus penneri - a missed rare pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Janak

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Indole negative Proteus species are invariably incorrectly identified as P. mirabilis, missing isolates of Proteus penneri. P. penneri is an invasive pathogen capable of causing major infectious diseases still seldom reported in individual cases. We report here the isolation, differentiation, characterization and typing of P. penneri from patients with different clinical infections. Methods: Urine, pus and body fluids collected from patients in intensive care units, wards and out patients departments of a tertiary health care institute from north India were cultured. A total of 61 indole negative Proteus isolates were subjected to extended biochemical tests to differentiate and identify P. penneri from P. mirabilis including failure to produce ornithine decarboxylase (by 0% strains of P. penneri and 100% strains of P. mirabilis) besides P. penneri being uniformly salicin negative, non-utilizer of citrate but ferments sucrose and maltose. Antibiograms and Dienes phenomenon were performed to characterize and type P. penneri isolates besides screening for β-lactamase production. Results: Eight isolates of P. penneri were identified; four from urine, three from abdominal drain-fluid and one from diabetic foot ulcer. P. penneri was isolated as the sole pathogen in all patients having underlying disease; post-operatively. Swarming was not seen in the first strain on primary isolation and was poor in strain-4. All eight isolates were biochemically homologous but multi-drug resistant (MDR) with resistance to 6-8 drugs (up to 12). β-lactamase production was seen in three of five isolates while Dienes phenomenon found four distinct types and discriminated strains differing in resistance even with a single drug. Interpretation & Conclusions: A few additional biochemical tests identified P. penneri isolates; it infected patients with underlying disease and strains were MDR and heterogenous. PMID:22561620

  13. Genetic positioning of aquabirnavirus isolates from cultured Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2014-04-23

    Aquabirnavirus is an epizootic virus in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica farms in Korea, although its origin is unclear. In the present study, nucleotide sequences of the VP2/NS junction region of 9 Korean aquabirnaviruses from cultured eel in various areas of Korea during 2000-2009 were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates. The nucleotide sequences showed more than 94.2% identity among the 9 Korean eel isolates, 71.2% identity among 16 Korean isolates from freshwater and marine fish, and 71.1% identity among 25 worldwide isolates. All 9 isolates in this study were phylogenetically classified into genogroup II, including isolates from Denmark, Spain, Taiwan and Japan, and were discrete from salmonid and marine fish isolates (genogroup I and VII) in Korea. These results suggest that the Korean eel isolates have most likely been introduced from outside the country and not from coastal areas of Korea.

  14. A highly adjustable magnetorheological elastomer base isolator for applications of real-time adaptive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun; Tian, Tongfei; Li, Weihua

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by its controllable and field-dependent stiffness/damping properties, there has been increasing research and development of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) for mitigation of unwanted structural or machinery vibrations using MRE isolators or absorbers. Recently, a breakthrough pilot research on the development of a highly innovative prototype adaptive MRE base isolator, with the ability for real-time adaptive control of base isolated structures against various types of earthquakes including near- or far-fault earthquakes, has been reported by the authors. As a further effort to improve the proposed MRE adaptive base isolator and to address some of the shortcomings and challenges, this paper presents systematic investigations on the development of a new highly adjustable MRE base isolator, including experimental testing and characterization of the new isolator. A soft MR elastomer has been designed, fabricated and incorporated in the laminated structure of the new MRE base isolator, which aims to obtain a highly adjustable shear modulus under a medium level of magnetic field. Comprehensive static and dynamic testing was conducted on this new adaptive MRE base isolator to examine its characteristics and evaluate its performance. The experimental results show that this new MRE base isolator can remarkably change the lateral stiffness of the isolator up to 1630% under a medium level of magnetic field. Such highly adjustable MRE base isolator makes the design and implementation of truly real-time adaptive (e.g. semi-active or smart passive) seismic isolation systems become feasible.

  15. Isolation of methylglyoxal from liver.

    PubMed Central

    Fodor, G; Mujumdar, R; Szent-Gyorgyi, A

    1978-01-01

    Acetaldehyde and methylglyoxal were shown to be present in liver bound to protein. They were isolated in the form of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones and osazones, respectively. The NMR spectrum of pure methylglyoxal was recorded. PMID:279916

  16. Flight representative positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

  17. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, Paola; Fujioka, Hisashi; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  18. Isolation Effect in Immediate and Delayed Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellezza, Francis S.; Cheney, Terry L.

    1973-01-01

    If the hypothesis of selective rehearsal is used to account for the isolation effect, then the recall of isolated items will depend both on the serial position of the isolated item and on whether recall is immediate or delayed. (Author)

  19. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions isolated growth hormone deficiency isolated growth hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition caused by a severe ...

  20. Yersinia enterocolitica and related species isolated from wildlife in New York State.

    PubMed

    Shayegani, M; Stone, W B; DeForge, I; Root, T; Parsons, L M; Maupin, P

    1986-09-01

    Fecal specimens for Yersinia screening were obtained from a variety of wild mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates throughout New York State. One specimen from each of 1,426 animals was examined. A total of 148 isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species were obtained from 133 (9.3%) of the animals. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 100 (7%) of the animals tested, including 81 (10%) of 812 mammals and 19 (3.3%) of 573 birds. Y. intermedia, Y. frederiksenii, and Y. kristensenii were isolated from 39 (2.7%), 5 (0.35%), and 4 (0.28%) animals, respectively. The 81 Y. enterocolitica isolates from mammals belonged to 15 serogroups and included three pathogens: two isolates of typical serogroup 0:8, the "American strain," one from a gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and one from a porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum); and one isolate of serogroup 0:3, bacteriophage type IXb, the "Canadian strain," from a gray fox. The most prevalent serogroups recovered from mammals were 0:6,31 (16 isolates) and 0:5,27 (6 isolates). The 19 isolates of Y. enterocolitica from birds belonged to nine serogroups and included one serogroup 0:6,31 isolate from a common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) and two serogroup 0:5,27 isolates from great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). PMID:3767355

  1. Pneumothorax complicating isolated clavicle fracture.

    PubMed

    Hani, Redouane; Ennaciri, Badr; Jeddi, Idriss; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Isolated clavicle fractures are among the commonest of traumatic fractures in the emergency department. Complications of isolated clavicle fractures are rare. Pneumothorax has been described as a complication of a fractured clavicle only rarely in English literature. In all the reported cases, the pneumothorax was treated by a thoracostomy and the clavicle fracture was treated conservatively. In our case, the pneumothorax required a chest drain insertion and the clavicle fracture was treated surgically with good result.

  2. Market study: Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

  3. Low voltage 30-cm ion thruster development. [including performance and structural integrity (vibration) tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The basic goal was to advance the development status of the 30-cm electron bombardment ion thruster from a laboratory model to a flight-type engineering model (EM) thruster. This advancement included the more conventional aspects of mechanical design and testing for launch loads, weight reduction, fabrication process development, reliability and quality assurance, and interface definition, as well as a relatively significant improvement in thruster total efficiency. The achievement of this goal was demonstrated by the successful completion of a series of performance and structural integrity (vibration) tests. In the course of the program, essentially every part and feature of the original 30-cm Thruster was critically evaluated. These evaluations, led to new or improved designs for the ion optical system, discharge chamber, cathode isolator vaporizer assembly, main isolator vaporizer assembly, neutralizer assembly, packaging for thermal control, electrical terminations and structure.

  4. Fitness and Competitive Ability of Botrytis cinerea Isolates with Resistance to Multiple Chemical Classes of Fungicides.

    PubMed

    Chen, S N; Luo, C X; Hu, M J; Schnabel, G

    2016-09-01

    Resistance to multiple chemical classes of fungicides in Botrytis cinerea isolates from eastern United States strawberry fields is common and strategies to control them are needed. In this study, we compared fitness and competitive ability of eight sensitive isolates (S), eight isolates resistant to five or six chemical classes of fungicides but not to phenylpyrroles (5CCR), and eight isolates resistant to six or seven chemical classes including phenylpyrroles (6CCR/MDR1h). The latter included the MDR1h phenotype due to overexpression of atrB based on Δ497V/L in mrr1. The 6CCR/MDR1h isolates grew more slowly at 4°C on potato dextrose agar, and both 5CCR and 6CCR/MDR1h isolates were hypersensitive to osmotic stress compared with S isolates. In contrast, no differences were found in oxidative sensitivity, aggressiveness, and spore production in vivo, and sclerotia production and viability in vitro. In competition experiments, the 5CCR and 6CCR/MDR1h isolates were both outcompeted by S isolates and 6CCR/MDR1h isolates were outcompeted by 5CCR isolates in the absence of fungicide pressure. Under selective pressure of a fludioxonil/pyraclostrobin rotation, the 6CCR/MDR1h isolates dominated after coinoculation with 5CCR and S isolates. The competitive disadvantage of 5CCR and especially 6CCR/MDR1h isolates suggest that, in the absence of fungicide selection pressure, S isolates may reduce inoculum potential of multifungicide-resistant isolates under field conditions.

  5. Invasive fungal infections following liver transplantation: incidence, risk factors, survival, and impact of fluconazole-resistant Candida parapsilosis (2003-2007).

    PubMed

    Raghuram, Anupama; Restrepo, Alejandro; Safadjou, Saman; Cooley, Jennifer; Orloff, Mark; Hardy, Dwight; Butler, Sam; Koval, Christine E

    2012-09-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are associated with a high mortality rate for liver transplantation (LT) recipients. To study the incidence of and risk factors for IFIs in LT recipients and the associated mortality rates, we retrospectively reviewed the records of first-time deceased donor LT recipients (January 2003 to December 2007). The incidence of IFIs was 12%. Non-albicans Candida species accounted for 55% of IFIs; 50% of these IFIs were Candida parapsilosis. Only 43% of Candida isolates were fluconazole-susceptible (minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 8 μ/mL). All C. parapsilosis isolates were fluconazole-resistant, and this coincided with a surge of these isolates during a peak period of LT. Factors associated with IFIs included a creatinine level > 2 mg/mL [hazard ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-5.0, P = 0.01], a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score > 25 (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2-4.9, P = 0.02), pretransplant fungal colonization (OR = 7.0, 95% CI = 3.2-15.3, P < 0.001), and a daily prophylactic fluconazole dosage < 200 mg (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.1-7.4, P = 0.03). According to a multivariate analysis, only pretransplant fungal colonization was associated with IFIs (OR = 7.8, 95% CI = 3.9-16.2, P < 0.001). The 1-year patient survival rates with and without IFIs were 41% and 80%, respectively, and the survival rates with C. parapsilosis, other non-albicans Candida, and Candida albicans IFIs were 28%, 50%, and 75%, respectively. In conclusion, IFIs after LT (especially non-albicans Candida species and fluconazole-resistant C. parapsilosis) were associated with reduced survival. The risk factors highlight the importance of pretransplant risk assessments. The identification of pretransplant fungal colonization may allow for risk modifications before or at the time of LT. Additionally, the number of LT procedures and prophylactic strategies may affect institutional outbreaks of resistant Candida strains.

  6. Integrated rate isolation sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Tye (Inventor); Henderson, Timothy (Inventor); Phillips, Richard (Inventor); Zimpfer, Doug (Inventor); Crain, Tim (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    In one embodiment, a system for providing fault-tolerant inertial measurement data includes a sensor for measuring an inertial parameter and a processor. The sensor has less accuracy than a typical inertial measurement unit (IMU). The processor detects whether a difference exists between a first data stream received from a first inertial measurement unit and a second data stream received from a second inertial measurement unit. Upon detecting a difference, the processor determines whether at least one of the first or second inertial measurement units has failed by comparing each of the first and second data streams to the inertial parameter.

  7. SOX10 mutations mimic isolated hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pingault, V; Faubert, E; Baral, V; Gherbi, S; Loundon, N; Couloigner, V; Denoyelle, F; Noël-Pétroff, N; Ducou Le Pointe, H; Elmaleh-Bergès, M; Bondurand, N; Marlin, S

    2015-10-01

    Ninety genes have been identified to date that are involved in non-syndromic hearing loss, and more than 300 different forms of syndromic hearing impairment have been described. Mutations in SOX10, one of the genes contributing to syndromic hearing loss, induce a large range of phenotypes, including several subtypes of Waardenburg syndrome and Kallmann syndrome with deafness. In addition, rare mutations have been identified in patients with isolated signs of these diseases. We used the recent characterization of temporal bone imaging aspects in patients with SOX10 mutations to identify possible patients with isolated hearing loss due to SOX10 mutation. We selected 21 patients with isolated deafness and temporal bone morphological defects for mutational screening. We identified two SOX10 mutations and found that both resulted in a non-functional protein in vitro. Re-evaluation of the two affected patients showed that both had previously undiagnosed olfactory defects. Diagnosis of anosmia or hyposmia in young children is challenging, and particularly in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), SOX10 mutations can mimic non-syndromic hearing impairment. MRI should complete temporal bones computed tomographic scan in the management of congenital deafness as it can detect brain anomalies, cochlear nerve defects, and olfactory bulb malformation in addition to inner ear malformations.

  8. NASA Space Flight Vehicle Fault Isolation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bramon, Christopher; Inman, Sharon K.; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2016-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discrete programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as testability of the integrated flight vehicle especially problematic. The cost of fully automated diagnostics can be completely justified for a large fleet, but not so for a single flight vehicle. Fault detection is mandatory to assure the vehicle is capable of a safe launch, but fault isolation is another issue. SLS has considered various methods for fault isolation which can provide a reasonable balance between adequacy, timeliness and cost. This paper will address the analyses and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate risk while providing a reasonable testability solution for fault isolation.

  9. Preparing cytotoxic agents in an isolator.

    PubMed

    Favier, M; Hansel, S; Bressolle, F

    1993-11-01

    The design of an isolator and its use by an oncology satellite pharmacy for preparing cytotoxic drugs are described. The isolator (Iso Concept, Boulogne, France) is a totally enclosed ventilated biological-safety cabinet of class III polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with positive air pressure, a half-suit with a rotating seal, and attached neoprene gloves. There are three work-stations, one for the half-suit and two along one side of the isolator. The ventilation and air filtration system consists of one entry pipe with a full ventilation-filtration box fitted with one prefilter, one blower, one ball valve, one high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, one airtight nipple connected to an automatic sterilizer, alarms, and one exhaust pipe protected by a HEPA filter. The air lock consists of a rigid, transparent Plexiglas pass-through. The chamber is sterilized with heated compressed air mixed with 3.5% peracetic acid. Maintenance includes regular changing of gloves and HEPA filters; checking of the integrity of the PVC, half-suit, and gloves; and washing and decontamination procedures. Preparation of cytotoxics is planned in advance with prescription data and manufacturing sheets. In the half-suit, a pharmacy technician reads the label, supervises preparation of the sterile admixture, and writes a label. The operators on the side of the unit read the manufacturing sheet and prepare the dose identified by the label.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Comparison of RNA isolation methods from insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, J A; Timm, A E

    2014-01-01

    Isolating RNA from insects is becoming increasingly important in molecular entomology. Four methods including three commercial kits RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), SV Total RNA isolation system (Promega), TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen), and a cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based method were compared regarding their ability to isolate RNA from whole-body larvae of Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick), Thanatophilus micans (F.), Plutella xylostella (L.), and Tenebrio molitor (L.). A difference was observed among the four methods regarding RNA quality but not quantity. However, RNA quality and quantity obtained was not dependent on the insect species. The CTAB-based method produced low-quality RNA and the Trizol reagent produced partially degraded RNA, whereas the RNeasy Mini Kit and SV Total RNA isolation system produced RNA of consistently high quality. However, after reverse transcription to cDNA, RNA produced using all four extraction methods could be used to successfully amplify a 708 bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene. Of the four methods, the SV Total RNA isolation system showed the least amount of DNA contamination with the highest RNA integrity number and is thus recommended for stringent applications where high-quality RNA is required. This is the first comparison of RNA isolation methods among different insect species and the first to compare RNA isolation methods in insects in the last 20 years. PMID:25527580

  11. Understanding loneliness during adolescence: developmental changes that increase the risk of perceived social isolation.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C

    2013-12-01

    Loneliness is typically defined in terms of feeling states. In this review, we take a somewhat different approach, describing loneliness in terms of perceived social isolation. Vulnerabilities to perceived social isolation differ across the lifespan. Unique properties of adolescence are identified that carry special risk for perceived social isolation. These include (but are not limited to) developmental changes in companions, developmental changes in autonomy and individuation, identity exploration, cognitive maturation, developmental changes in social perspective taking, and physical maturation. Scholars are encouraged to consider loneliness through the lens of perceived social isolation so as to better understand how the experience of physical isolation varies across adolescence.

  12. Mutation analysis of the STRA6 gene in isolated and non-isolated anophthalmia/microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, N; Ragge, N; Kariminejad, A; Buffet, A; Ghaderi-Sohi, S; Martinovic, J; Calvas, P

    2013-03-01

    PDAC syndrome [Pulmonary hypoplasia/agenesis, Diaphragmatic hernia/eventration, Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) and Cardiac Defect] is a condition associated with recessive mutations in the STRA6 gene in some of these patients. Recently, cases with isolated anophthalmia have been associated with STRA6 mutations. To determine the minimal findings associated with STRA6 mutations, we performed mutation analysis of the STRA6 gene in 28 cases with anophthalmia. In 7 of the cases the anophthalmia was isolated, in 14 cases it was associated with one of the major features included in PDAC and 7 had other abnormalities. Mutations were identified in two individuals: one with bilateral anophthalmia and some features included in PDAC, who was a compound heterozygote for a missense mutation and a large intragenic deletion, and the second case with all the major features of PDAC and who had a homozygous splicing mutation. This study suggests that STRA6 mutations are more likely to be identified in individuals with A/M and other abnormalities included in the PDAC spectrum, rather than in isolated A/M cases.

  13. Catalogues of isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argudo-Fernández, M.; Verley, S.; Bergond, G.; Duarte Puertas, S.; Ramos Carmona, E.; Sabater, J.; Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Espada, D.; Sulentic, J.; Ruiz, J. E.; Leon, S.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The construction of catalogues of galaxies and the a posteriori study of galaxy properties in relation to their environment have been hampered by scarce redshift information. The new 3-dimensional (3D) surveys permit small, faint, physically bound satellites to be distinguished from a background-projected galaxy population, giving a more comprehensive 3D picture of the surroundings. Aims: We aim to provide representative samples of isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets for testing galaxy evolution and secular processes in low density regions of the local Universe, as well as to characterise their local and large-scale environments. Methods: We used spectroscopic data from the tenth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR10) to automatically and homogeneously compile catalogues of 3702 isolated galaxies, 1240 isolated pairs, and 315 isolated triplets in the local Universe (z ≤ 0.080). To quantify the effects of their local and large-scale environments, we computed the projected density and the tidal strength for the brightest galaxy in each sample. Results: We find evidence of isolated pairs and isolated triplets that are physically bound at projected separations up to d ≤ 450 kpc with radial velocity difference Δν ≤ 160 km s-1, where the effect of the companion typically accounts for more than 98% of the total tidal strength affecting the central galaxy. For galaxies in the catalogues, we provide their positions, redshifts, and degrees of relation with their physical and large-scale environments. The catalogues are publicly available to the scientific community. Conclusions: For isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets, there is no difference in their degree of interaction with the large-scale structure (up to 5 Mpc), which may suggest that they have a common origin in their formation and evolution. We find that most of them belong to the outer parts of filaments, walls, and clusters, and generally

  14. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    PubMed

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones.

  15. Help for the Isolated Physics Teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderman, Richard; Selway, James

    2012-02-01

    The feeling of professional loneliness that comes from being the only physics teacher in a school is one of the many reasons new physics teachers choose to leave the field. This interactive discussion will detail some of the ways that our institutions and we as individuals can provide meaningful support for isolated physics teachers. We will share ideas, including physics-based student challenges/competitions and regular local meetings of a local Physics Teacher Alliance, that provide opportunities for teachers to share experiences, test new lesson ideas, and simply spend more time with people who understand the punchline to a geeky joke.

  16. Electrotransformation and clonal isolation of Rickettsia species

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Sean P; Macaluso, Kevin R; Martinez, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia is currently undergoing a rapid period of change. The development of viable genetic tools, including replicative plasmids, transposons, homologous recombination, fluorescent protein-encoding genes, and antibiotic selectable markers has provided the impetus for future research development. This unit is designed to coalesce the basic methods pertaining to creation of genetically modified Rickettsia. The unit describes a series of methods, from inserting exogenous DNA into Rickettsia to the final isolation of genetically modified bacterial clones. Researchers working towards genetic manipulation of Rickettsia or similar obligate intracellular bacteria will find these protocols to be a valuable reference. PMID:26528784

  17. Electrotransformation and Clonal Isolation of Rickettsia Species.

    PubMed

    Riley, Sean P; Macaluso, Kevin R; Martinez, Juan J

    2015-11-03

    Genetic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia is currently undergoing a rapid period of change. The development of viable genetic tools, including replicative plasmids, transposons, homologous recombination, fluorescent protein-encoding genes, and antibiotic selectable markers has provided the impetus for future research development. This unit is designed to coalesce the basic methods pertaining to creation of genetically modified Rickettsia. The unit describes a series of methods, from inserting exogenous DNA into Rickettsia to the final isolation of genetically modified bacterial clones. Researchers working towards genetic manipulation of Rickettsia or similar obligate intracellular bacteria will find these protocols to be a valuable reference.

  18. Isolated lingual involvement in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Neera; Joshi, Laxmikant; Duggal, Ashish; Puri, Vinod; Khwaja, Geeta Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Lingual involvement can occur in a variety of neurological disorders including pyramidal, extrapyramidal and lower motor neuron disorders. It can be seen in the form of tremor, bradykinesia, dystonia, atrophy and weakness of tongue movements and can clinically present as difficulty in swallowing and dysarthria which can be a source of great discomfort to the patient. We describe a patient who presented with isolated lingual involvement and was diagnosed to have Wilsons's disease. This case emphasizes the clinical variability in presentation of Wilson's disease and importance of early clinical diagnosis.

  19. Isolation and analysis of mouse microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jenny A; Cardona, Sandra M; Cardona, Astrid E

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are mononuclear phagocytes that make up about 10% of the central nervous system (CNS). They are known for their surveillant behavior, which involves continuous monitoring of neural tissue by extending and retracting their processes. Microglial cells are derived from myeloid progenitor cells and play important roles in homeostasis as well as inflammatory and immune responses in the brain. This unit describes several microglial cell isolation protocols that can be easily adapted for projects requiring a rapid and efficient analysis of mouse microglial cells by flow cytometry. Methods for visualizing microglial cells using in situ immunohistochemistry and immunochemistry in free-floating sections are also included.

  20. Isolated thermocouple amplifier system for stirred fixed-bed gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1992-01-01

    A sensing system is provided for determining the bed temperature profile of the bed of a stirred, fixed-bed gasifier including a plurality of temperature sensors for sensing the bed temperature at different levels, a transmitter for transmitting data based on the outputs of the sensors to a remote operator's station, and a battery-based power supply. The system includes an isolation amplifier system comprising a plurality of isolation amplifier circuits for amplifying the outputs of the individual sensors. The isolation amplifier circuits each comprise an isolation operational amplifier connected to a sensor; a first "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the application of power from the power supply to the isolation amplifier; an output sample and hold circuit connected to the transmitter; a second "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the transfer of the output of the isolation amplifier to the sample and hold circuit; and a timing and control circuit for activating the first and second capacitor circuits in a predetermined timed sequence.

  1. Isolation of Bacteroides ureolyticus (B corrodens) from clinical infections.

    PubMed Central

    Duerden, B; Bennet, K W; Faulkner, J

    1982-01-01

    The introduction of an improved anaerobic system resulted in the isolation of Bacteroides ureolyticus (B corrodens) in numbers that suggested a pathogenic role from many more clinical specimens. During a three-year period B ureolyticus was isolated from 103 fairly superficial necrotic or gangrenous lesions all of which showed evidence of active infection. These included 27 perineal or genital infections, 15 perianal abscesses, 15 other soft tissue infections such as pilonidal abscesses and infected sebaceous cysts and 16 ulcers or gangrenous lesions of the lower limb. B ureolyticus was rarely isolated in pure culture but was usually one of the predominant organisms; the other organisms were mostly anaerobes and the combination of B ureolyticus with anaerobic Gram-positive cocci was particularly noticeable. The isolation and identification of B ureolyticus is not difficult but depends upon a reliable anaerobic system and the incubation of primary cultures for at least 72 h. PMID:7068922

  2. Isolation and Partial Purification of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cytokinetic Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brian A.; Buser, Christopher; Drubin, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Cytokinesis is the process by which a cell physically divides in two at the conclusion of a cell cycle. In animal and fungal cells, this process is mediated by a conserved set of proteins including actin, type II myosin, IQGAP proteins, F-BAR proteins, and the septins. To facilitate biochemical and ultrastructural analysis of cytokinesis, we have isolated and partially purified the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytokinetic apparatus. The isolated apparatus contains all components of the actomyosin ring for which we tested—actin, myosin heavy and light chain, and IQGAP—as well as septins and the cytokinetic F-BAR protein, Hof1p. We also present evidence indicating that the actomyosin rings associated with isolated cytokinetic apparati may be contractile in vitro, and show preliminary electron microscopic imaging of the cytokinetic apparatus. This first successful isolation of the cytokinetic apparatus from a genetically tractable organism promises to make possible a deeper understanding of cytokinesis. PMID:19790107

  3. [Molecular comparison of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Mehiri-Zghal, E; Essalah, L; Ghariani, A; Mahjoubi, W; Reyrolle, M; Meugnier, H; Forey, F; Jarraud, S; Freney, J; Etienne, J; Slim-Saidi, L

    2008-07-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a common cause of hospital and community-acquired pneumonia, being transmitted by inhalation of aqueous aerosols. Most outbreaks are linked to contaminated hot water systems and cooling towers. Our study was about the molecular typing of 35 strains of L. pneumophila including four clinical isolates and 31 environmental strains isolated from the distribution systems of 14 hotels. Among the clinical strains, two have the same pattern, however, all were different from the studied environmental strains. For the 31 environmental strains, ten patterns were obtained. Among which, a same pulsotype was found for four strains isolated from four different establishments. In addition, two different pulsotypes were found for strains isolated from the same establishment. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the existence of various patterns. Although cases of legionellosis were declared in these hotels, there are no epidemiological links between the clinical and environmental strains. PMID:18191502

  4. Neurological lesions in chickens experimentally infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropil reaction was evaluated in chickens inoculated with four different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates, including Texas GB, Turkey North Dakota, Nevada Cormorant (velogenic neurotropic) and Anhinga (mesogenic). Tissues for this study included archived formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded br...

  5. Screening for bacillus isolates in the broiler gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Teresa M; Serra, Cláudia R; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J; Henriques, Adriano O

    2005-02-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem.

  6. Screening for bacillus isolates in the broiler gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Teresa M; Serra, Cláudia R; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J; Henriques, Adriano O

    2005-02-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem. PMID:15691955

  7. Clonal Diversity among Streptogramin A-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Collected in French Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Haroche, Julien; Morvan, Anne; Davi, Marilyne; Allignet, Jeanine; Bimet, François; El Solh, Névine

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed 62 clinical isolates of streptogramin A-resistant (SGAr) Staphylococcus aureus collected between 1981 and 2001 in 14 hospitals located in seven French cities. These isolates, including five with decreased susceptibility to glycopeptides, were distributed into 45 antibiotypes and 38 SmaI genotypes. Each of these genotypes included between 1 and 11 isolates, the SmaI patterns of which differed by no more than three bands. Although numerous clones were identified, we observed the spread of monoclonal isolates either within the same hospital or within hospitals in distinct cities and at large time intervals. Hybridization with probes directed against 10 SGAr genes (vatA, vatB, vatC, vatD, vatE, vgaA, vgaB, vgaAv, vgbA, and vgbB) revealed six patterns: vgaAv (21 isolates), vatA-vgbA (24 isolates), vgaAv-vatB-vgaB (14 isolates), vgaAv-vatA-vgbA (1 isolate), vgaAv-vatA-vgbA-vatB-vgaB (1 isolate), and vgaA (1 isolate). We detected at least one SGAr determinant in all of the tested isolates. vgaAv, which is part of the recently characterized transposon Tn5406, was found in 59.7% of the tested isolates. Of the 16 streptogramin B-susceptible isolates, 14 carried vgaAv alone and were susceptible to the mixtures of streptogramins, whereas the 2 isolates carrying vgaAv-vatB-vgaB were resistant to these mixtures. vatA-vgbA was found on plasmids of the same apparent size in 26 (42%) of the tested clinical isolates from 18 unrelated SmaI genotypes. The possible dissemination of some of the multiple clones characterized in the present study with an expected increased selective pressure of streptogramins following the recent licensing of Synercid (quinupristin-dalfopristin) must be carefully monitored. PMID:12574251

  8. A comparative study of clinical and food isolates of Listeria monocytogenes and related species.

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, E. A.; Desmarchelier, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Ninety-six isolates of presumptive or confirmed Listeria monocytogenes were obtained from local clinical (30 isolates) or food laboratories (66 isolates). Minimal biochemical analysis identified only 80% of these isolates as L. monocytogenes the remaining included L. seeligeri, 1%, or the non-haemolytic L. innocua, 19%. The 27 clinical and 50 food isolates, mainly from meat products, frozen confectionaries, and cheeses, confirmed as L. monocytogenes were compared biochemically and serologically. Twenty-one isolates, including some strains of L. innocua and L. seeligeri, were examined for pathogenicity in immunocompromized mice and 44 typed using bacterial restriction endonuclease DNA analysis (BRENDA). Only isolates of L. monocytogenes were found to be pathogenic. Biovar-typing of the isolates was unreliable and provided poor discrimination. Serogroups 1/2 and 4 predominated among clinical and food isolates and BRENDA provided better discrimination among isolates. Ten stable and reproducible restriction patterns were observed among the Listeria sp. isolates studied. Overall, a combination of techniques gave the best discrimination and indicated their potential for use as epidemiological tools. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2120079

  9. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free range chickens in the Pantanal area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Silveira, Luciane Holsback; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; Ragozo, Alessandra; Galli, Susiana; Lopes, Estela Gallucci; Gennari, Solange M; de Jesus Pena, Hilda Fátima

    2011-05-31

    The aim of this paper was to genetically characterize Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free range chickens in regions of Brazilian territory in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) where T. gondii strains have never been studied. In total, T. gondii isolates from 22 free range chickens were included in this study. Fifty chickens from Eldorado, thirty from Rio Verde and ten from Aquidauana were sampled between January and April 2007. In relation to the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from chickens in MS, the magnitude of the diversity in the isolates sampled in this study was comparable to the overall diversity in a composite data set. These 22 isolates in MS revealed 11 genotypes, whereas the 321 isolates ever genotyped in Brazil have revealed 95 genotypes. The values of Simpson's Diversity Index for the whole population of T. gondii isolates in Brazil, the whole population of T. gondii isolates from chickens in Brazil and the population surveyed in this study were 0.97, 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. Seven of the 11 genotypes revealed from chicken isolates from MS are newly described genotypes and six of them each have a single isolate. In conclusion, the results obtained from isolates in MS corroborate previous studies on T. gondii isolates in Brazil, thus confirming their diversity and atypicality. Nonetheless, the applicability of PCR-RFLP markers for epidemiological inferences remains controversial.

  10. Recombination rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates with both erm(B) and mef(A) genes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Young; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2010-08-01

    Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates containing both erm(B) and mef(A) genes have a higher rate of multidrug resistance (MDR). We investigated the relationships between the presence of erythromycin resistance determinants and the recombination rate. We determined the mutation and recombination frequencies of 46 S. pneumoniae isolates, which included 19 with both erm(B) and mef(A), nine with only erm(B), six with only mef(A), and 11 erythromycin-susceptible isolates. Mutation frequency values were estimated as the number of rifampin-resistant colonies as a proportion of total viable count. Genotypes and serotypes of isolates with the hyper-recombination phenotype were determined. Twelve S. pneumoniae isolates were hypermutable and four isolates were determined to have hyper-recombination frequency. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates with both erm(B) and mef(A) genes did not show a high mutation frequency. In contrast, all isolates with a hyper-recombination phenotype contained both erm(B) and mef(A) genes. In addition, the recombination rate of isolates with both erm(B) and mef(A) genes was statistically higher than the rate of other isolates. The dual presence of erm(B) and mef(A) genes in some pneumococcal isolates may be associated with high recombination frequency. This may be one of the reasons for the frequent emergence of MDR in certain pneumococcal isolates.

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Clonality of Clinical Ureaplasma Isolates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Javier; Karau, Melissa J; Cunningham, Scott A; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum are pathogens involved in urogenital tract and intrauterine infections and also in systemic diseases in newborns and immunosuppressed patients. There is limited information on the antimicrobial susceptibility and clonality of these species. In this study, we report the susceptibility of 250 contemporary isolates of Ureaplasma (202 U. parvum and 48 U. urealyticum isolates) recovered at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. MICs of doxycycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and levofloxacin were determined by broth microdilution, with MICS of the last three interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Levofloxacin resistance was found in 6.4% and 5.2% of U. parvum and U. urealyticum isolates, respectively, while 27.2% and 68.8% of isolates, respectively, showed ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥4 μg/ml. The resistance mechanism of levofloxacin-resistant isolates was due to mutations in parC, with the Ser83Leu substitution being most frequent, followed by Glu87Lys. No macrolide resistance was found among the 250 isolates studied; a single U. parvum isolate was tetracycline resistant. tet(M) was found in 10 U. parvum isolates, including the single tetracycline-resistant isolate, as well as in 9 isolates which had low tetracycline and doxycycline MICs. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) performed on a selection of 46 isolates showed high diversity within the clinical Ureaplasma isolates studied, regardless of antimicrobial susceptibility. The present work extends previous knowledge regarding susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, resistance mechanisms, and clonality of Ureaplasma species in the United States. PMID:27246773

  12. Active nematocyst isolation via nudibranchs.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Ami; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Yossi

    2009-01-01

    Cnidarian venoms are potentially valuable tools for biomedical research and drug development. They are contained within nematocysts, the stinging organelles of cnidarians. Several methods exist for the isolation of nematocysts from cnidarian tissues; most are tedious and target nematocysts from specific tissues. We have discovered that the isolated active nematocyst complement (cnidome) of several sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) species is readily accessible. These nematocysts are isolated, concentrated, and released to the aqueous environment as a by-product of aeolid nudibranch Spurilla neapolitana cultures. S. neapolitana feed on venomous sea anemones laden with stinging nematocysts. The ingested stinging organelles of several sea anemone species are effectively excreted in the nudibranch feces. We succeeded in purifying the active organelles and inducing their discharge. Thus, our current study presents the attractive possibility of using nudibranchs to produce nematocysts for the investigation of novel marine compounds. PMID:19184220

  13. Entropy of isolated horizons revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Rudranil; Kaul, Romesh K.; Majumdar, Parthasarathi

    2010-07-15

    The decade-old formulation of the isolated horizon classically and within loop quantum gravity, and the extraction of the microcanonical entropy of such a horizon from this formulation, is reviewed, in view of recent renewed interest. There are two main approaches to this problem: one employs an SU(2) Chern-Simons theory describing the isolated horizon degrees of freedom, while the other uses a reduced U(1) Chern-Simons theory obtained from the SU(2) theory, with appropriate constraints imposed on the spectrum of boundary states ''living'' on the horizon. It is shown that both these ways lead to the same infinite series asymptotic in the horizon area for the microcanonical entropy of an isolated horizon. The leading area term is followed by an unambiguous correction term logarithmic in area with a coefficient -(3/2), with subleading corrections dropping off as inverse powers of the area.

  14. Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

  15. Perceived social isolation and cognition.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C

    2009-10-01

    Social species, from Drosophila melanogaster to Homo sapiens, fare poorly when isolated. Homo sapiens, an irrepressibly meaning-making species, are, in normal circumstances, dramatically affected by perceived social isolation. Research indicates that perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness) is a risk factor for, and may contribute to, poorer overall cognitive performance, faster cognitive decline, poorer executive functioning, increased negativity and depressive cognition, heightened sensitivity to social threats, a confirmatory bias in social cognition that is self-protective and paradoxically self-defeating, heightened anthropomorphism and contagion that threatens social cohesion. These differences in attention and cognition impact on emotions, decisions, behaviors and interpersonal interactions that can contribute to the association between loneliness and cognitive decline and between loneliness and morbidity more generally. PMID:19726219

  16. Fusarochromanone production by Fusarium isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, W D; Nelson, P E; Cook, M E; Smalley, E B

    1990-01-01

    Sixty two Fusarium isolates representing nine species from many parts of the world were screened for fusarochromanone production. A simplified method for the detection of fusarochromanone in culture filtrates or grain cultures was used. Under UV irradiation (364 nm) the chloroform phase from fusarochromanone-positive culture extracts fluoresced a characteristic bright blue color. Results were confirmed by thin-layer-chromatography comparison with pure fusarochromanone standards. Detection was possible in cultures as young as 1 week old. Biosynthesis of fusarochromanone was rare in Fusarium spp. and was only detected in three isolates of Fusarium equiseti, namely R-4482 (barley [Federal Republic of Germany]), R-6137 (barley [Alaska]), and R-8508 (potato [Denmark]), among all the isolates tested from various geographic sources. Images PMID:2285312

  17. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1995-05-30

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  18. QUANTUM ELECTRONIC DEVICES: Cryogenic Faraday isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznov, D. S.; Zelenogorskii, V. V.; Katin, E. V.; Mukhin, I. B.; Palashov, O. V.; Khazanov, Efim A.

    2010-05-01

    A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts.

  19. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Methicillin-Resistance Staphylococcus aureus from Different Tertiary Care Hospitals Including Mymensingh Medical College Hospital.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Haque, N; Barman, T K; Ahmed, S; Nasreen, S A; Hossain, M S; Ahmed, F; Biswas, P; Nahar, F; Begum, H; Islam, M S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to detect antimicrobial susceptibilities and the presence of drug resistance genes of MRSA from tertiary care hospitals. This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College during the period from Jan, 2015 to Dec, 2015. Clinical samples, including wound swab, pus, exudates from diabetic ulcer and burn ulcer, aural swab, blood and urine were collected. Standard microbiological procedure & biochemical tests were carried out to detect S. aureus. Oxacillin disk diffusion test was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Total 69 isolates of S. aureus were selected for the study. The isolates were collected from three different tertiary care hospitals, of which 33, 27 and 9 were from Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), BIRDEM hospital and Sir Salimullah Medical College Hospital (SSMCH) respectively. Among the 69 isolates, 17(24.6%) and 52(75.3%) were distinguished as MRSA and MSSA respectively by ODDM (Oxacillin disk diffusion method). In contrast, detection of presence and absence of mecA gene by PCR identified 20 (28.9%) and 49 (71.01%) isolates as MRSA and MSSA respectively. All of the S. aureus (MRSA and MSSA) isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and gentamicin. All MRSA isolates (100%) showed resistance to Penicillin and Oxacillin. Among the MRSA isolates about 88.2% were resistance to Ceftazidime, 64.7% were resistance to Erythromycin and Ciprofloxacin, 11.7% were resistance to Tetracycline. Among the MSSA isolates about 94.2% were resistance to Penicillin and 9.6% resistance to Ciprofloxacin. The MSSA were less resistance for non-beta lactam drugs than MRSA. Regarding drug resistance genes, the blaZ genes were present in 47 out of 49(95.8%) MSSA and in 18 out of 18 (100%) MRSA. The erythromycin resistance gene ermB was found in 8.69% isolates, of which highest 20% in MRSA and 4.08% in MSSA. The ermA was not found in any isolates. Among tetracycline resistance genes, tetK were detected in 10

  1. Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

    2011-01-01

    To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

  2. Incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kısaoğlu, Abdullah; Özoğul, Bünyami; Atamanalp, Sabri Selçuk; Pirimoğlu, Berhan; Aydınlı, Bülent; Korkut, Ercan

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pancreatic hydatid cysts are a rare parasitic disease even in endemic areas. It is difficult to discriminate primary pancreatic hydatid cysts from other cystic and solid lesions of the pancreas. This is a case report of an incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst. A heterogeneous cystic lesion in the body of the pancreas was identified on magnetic resonance imaging of a patient previously diagnosed patient with cholelithiasis, and because of the malignant possibility of the lesion, splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was reported as a hydatid cyst. Pancreatic hydatid cysts should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic malignancies.

  3. Mechanics of rotating isolated horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Beetle, Christopher; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2001-08-15

    Black hole mechanics was recently extended by replacing the more commonly used event horizons in stationary space-times with isolated horizons in more general space-times (which may admit radiation arbitrarily close to black holes). However, so far the detailed analysis has been restricted to nonrotating black holes (although it incorporated arbitrary distortion, as well as electromagnetic, Yang-Mills, and dilatonic charges). We now fill this gap by first introducing the notion of isolated horizon angular momentum and then extending the first law to the rotating case.

  4. Isolation of ribosomes and polysomes.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

    2015-03-01

    Here we describe a preparative differential centrifugation protocol for the isolation of ribosomes from a crude cell homogenate. The subcellular fraction obtained is enriched in ribosome monomers and polysomes. The protocol has been optimized for the homogenization and collection of the ribosomal fraction from prokaryotic cells, mammalian and plant tissues, reticulocytes, and chloroplasts. The quality of the ribosomal preparation is enhanced by the removal of the remaining cellular components and adsorbed proteins by pelleting through a sucrose cushion with a high concentration of monovalent salts, NH4Cl or KCl. The different components of the ribosomal fraction isolated using this protocol can be further purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation.

  5. [Isolated giant hydatid in kidney].

    PubMed

    Ozgör, Faruk; Erbin, Akif; Berberoğlu, Ahmet Yalçın; Binbay, Murat; Sarılar, Omer; Müslümanoğlu, Ahmet Yaser

    2014-06-01

    Cyst hydatid of the kidney is parasitic condition caused by Echinococcus granulosus and identified in many countries, especially associated with sheep farming. Echinococcal larvae enter the bloodstream using the digestive system and invade any organs in the human body. The urinary system is the third most common area affected by parasitic infection after liver and lungs, but isolated renal involvement is a very rare situation, even in endemic areas. İn our case, we aimed to report a 57-year-old female patient with an 18-centimeter isolated renal cyst hydatid treated by retroperitoneal nephrectomy. The diagnosis was based on imaging findings and confirmed by histopathologically.

  6. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.

    1984-07-01

    The following recommendations have been abstracted from the body of this report. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan for the Establishment of Mined Geologic Repositories to Isolate Nuclear Waste should be modified to: (1) encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; (2) clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process. In addition, the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation should carefully review the overall role that these persons and groups, including local pressure groups organized in the face of potential repository development, will play in the siting process; (3) place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; (4) include additional approaches to solving socioeconomic problems. For example, a reluctance to acknowledge that solutions to socioeconomic problems need to be found jointly with interested parties is evident in the plan; (5) recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; (6) as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and (7) comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA.

  7. The cytoskeletons of isolated, neuronal growth cones.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Weeks, P R

    1987-06-01

    We have examined by electron microscopy the cytoskeletons of growth cones isolated from neonatal rat forebrain by the method of Gordon-Weeks and Lockerbie [Gordon-Weeks and Lockerbie (1984) Neuroscience 13, 119-136]. When fixed in suspension with conventional fixatives, isolated growth cones contain a central region filled with a branching system of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and a cortical region immediately beneath the plasma membrane that is relatively free of organelles and is composed of an amorphous granular cytoplasm. The filopodia of isolated growth cones are also devoid of organelles and contain a cytoplasm that is similar in appearance to that in the cortical region. No microtubules or neurofilaments have been found in these growth cones. When isolated growth cones were prepared for electron microscopy by a method which preserves actin filaments [Boyles, Anderson and Hutcherson (1985) J. Histochem. Cytochem. 33, 1116-1128], microfilaments were found throughout the cortical cytoplasm. In the filopodia, the microfilaments were bundled together and oriented longitudinally. Filopodial microfilament bundles often extended into the body of the growth cone and could traverse it completely. Inclusion of Triton X-100 (1% v/v) in the fixative solubilized the membranes and soluble cytoplasmic proteins of growth cones, allowing an unobscured view of the microfilament cytoskeleton including the core bundle of microfilaments in filopodia. Suspended within the cytoskeleton were the coats of coated vesicles. These were particularly numerous at the broad bases of filopodia. Microfilaments bound heavy meromyosin and were cytochalasin B (2.0 X 10(-7) M) sensitive. Individual microfilaments branched and within filopodia they were extensively cross-linked by thin (7 nm) filaments. Microtubules and neurofilaments were not seen in these cytoskeletons despite the fact that the fixative contained a Ca2+ chelator. When growth cones were preincubated in taxol (14 microM) their

  8. Hypertropia in unilateral isolated abducens palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pihlblad, Matthew S.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the incidence and features of hypertropia in abducens nerve palsy. Methods The records of consecutive patients with unilateral, isolated, previously unoperated abducens nerve palsy were reviewed for binocular alignment on cover testing, Krimsky measurement, or Hess screen testing. Patients with associated cranial nerve palsy (including bilateral abducens palsies), orbital disease, myasthenia gravis, Horner syndrome, hemiplegia, cerebellar signs, arteritis, or previous strabismus surgery were excluded. Control subjects underwent complete examination to confirm normality. Results A total of 79 patients were included (40 males; mean age 49.2 years). Hypertropia in lateral or central gazes was present in 15 of 79 cases (19%) on alternate cover or Krimsky testing, in 32 of 56 cases (57%) on Hess screen testing, and absent in all 30 normal controls. Of cases with hypertropia, the mean of the greatest hypertropia in lateral or central gaze on was 5.0Δ ± 2.3Δ (standard deviation; range, 1Δ–8Δ) routine clinical examination, and 5.8Δ ± 4.2Δ (range, 2Δ–24Δ) on Hess screen testing. Of 39 cases with partial abducens palsy evaluated by Hess screen testing, the ipsilesional eye was hypertropic in 24 (61%) and hypotropic in 15 cases (39%). Conclusions Small-angle hypertropia is common in isolated, unilateral abducens and does not necessarily imply existence of multiple cranial neuropathies or skew deviation. PMID:24924275

  9. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in a gastroenteritis outbreak investigation.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S G; Goodbrand, R B; Ahmed, R; Kasatiya, S

    1995-08-01

    During investigation of a gastroenteritis outbreak in a chronic care institution, Norwalk virus was found in stool specimens from two individuals and bacterial isolates presumptively identified as Bacillus cereus were isolated from four individuals (including one with Norwalk virus) and spice. Phage typing confirmed all Bacillus clinical isolates were phage type 2. All clinical isolates were subsequently identified as B. thuringiensis when tested as a result of a related study (L. Leroux, personal communication). Eight of 10 spice isolates were phage type 4. All B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates showed cytotoxic effects characteristic of enterotoxin-producing B. cereus. An additional 20 isolates each of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis from other sources were tested for cytotoxicity. With the exception of one B. cereus, all showed characteristic cytotoxic patterns.

  10. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of multi-base seismically isolated structures with uplift potential I: formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsopelas, Panos C.; Roussis, Panayiotis C.; Constantinou, Michael C.

    2009-09-01

    The complexity of modern seismically isolated structures requires the analysis of the structural system and the isolation system in its entirety and the ability to capture potential discontinuous phenomena such as isolator uplift and their effects on the superstructures and the isolation hardware. In this paper, an analytical model is developed and a computational algorithm is formulated to analyze complex seismically isolated superstructures even when undergoing highly-nonlinear phenomena such as uplift. The computational model has the capability of modeling various types of isolation devices with strong nonlinearities, analyzing multiple superstructures (up to five separate superstructures) on multiple bases (up to five bases), and capturing the effects of lateral loads on bearing axial forces, including bearing uplift. The model developed herein has been utilized to form the software platform 3D-BASIS-ME-MB, which provides the practicing engineering community with a versatile tool for analysis and design of complex structures with modern isolation systems.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Empedobacter (Formerly Wautersiella) falsenii comb. nov. Wf282, a Strain Isolated from a Cervical Neck Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Traglia, German Matías; Dixon, Chelsea; Chiem, Kevin; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Montaña, Sabrina; Merino, Cindy; Mussi, María Alejandra; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.; Iriarte, Andres; Vay, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Empedobacter (formerly Wautersiella) falsenii comb. nov. strain Wf282 was isolated from a cervical neck abscess sample from an 18-year-old female patient. The isolate was resistant to many antibiotics, including meropenem and colistin. The total DNA from the multidrug-resistant E. falsenii comb. nov. Wf282 clinical isolate was sequenced. PMID:25838490

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Empedobacter (Formerly Wautersiella) falsenii comb. nov. Wf282, a Strain Isolated from a Cervical Neck Abscess.

    PubMed

    Traglia, German Matías; Dixon, Chelsea; Chiem, Kevin; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Montaña, Sabrina; Merino, Cindy; Mussi, María Alejandra; Tolmasky, Marcelo E; Iriarte, Andres; Vay, Carlos; Ramírez, María Soledad

    2015-04-02

    Empedobacter (formerly Wautersiella) falsenii comb. nov. strain Wf282 was isolated from a cervical neck abscess sample from an 18-year-old female patient. The isolate was resistant to many antibiotics, including meropenem and colistin. The total DNA from the multidrug-resistant E. falsenii comb. nov. Wf282 clinical isolate was sequenced.

  13. Injection-induced seismicity on basement faults including poroelastic stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. W.; Segall, P.

    2016-04-01

    Most significant induced earthquakes occur on faults within the basement beneath sedimentary cover. In this two-dimensional plane strain numerical study, we examine the full poroelastic response of basement faults to fluid injection into overlying strata, considering both (1) the permeability of the fault zone and (2) the hydraulic connectivity of the faults to the target horizon. Given hydraulic and mechanical properties, we compute the spatiotemporal change in Coulomb stress, which we separate into (1) the change in poroelastic stresses Δτs+fΔσn, where Δτs and Δσn are changes in shear and normal stress (Δτs>0 and Δσn>0 both favor slip), and (2) the change in pore pressure fΔp. Pore pressure diffusion into hydraulically connected, permeable faults dominates their mechanical stability. For hydraulically isolated or low-permeability faults, however, poroelastic stresses transmitted to deeper basement levels can trigger slip, even without elevated pore pressure. The seismicity rate on basement fault zones is predicted using the model of Dieterich (1994). High seismicity rates can occur on permeable, hydraulically connected faults due to direct pore pressure diffusion. Lower rates are predicted on isolated steeply dipping normal faults, caused solely by poroelastic stressing. In contrast, seismicity on similarly oriented reverse faults is inhibited.

  14. Myxococcus xanthus Growth, Development, and Isolation.

    PubMed

    Vaksman, Zalman; Kaplan, Heidi B

    2015-11-03

    Myxobacteria are a highly social group among the delta proteobacteria that display unique multicellular behaviors during their complex life cycle and provide a rare opportunity to study the boundary between single cells and multicellularity. These organisms are also unusual as their entire life cycle is surface associated and includes a number of social behaviors: social gliding and rippling motility, 'wolf-pack'-like predation, and self-organizing complex biostructures, termed fruiting bodies, which are filled with differentiated environmentally resistant spores. Here we present methods for the growth, maintenance, and storage of Myxococcus xanthus, the most commonly studied of the myxobacteria. We also include methods to examine various developmental and social behaviors (fruiting body and spore formation, predation, and rippling motility). As the myxobacteria, similar to the streptomycetes, are excellent sources of many characterized and uncharacterized antibiotics and other natural products, we have provided a protocol for obtaining natural isolates from a variety of environmental sources.

  15. Comparison of atypical Brachyspira spp. clinical isolates and classic strains in a mouse model of swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Burrough, Eric; Strait, Erin; Kinyon, Joann; Bower, Leslie; Madson, Darin; Schwartz, Kent; Frana, Timothy; Songer, J Glenn

    2012-12-01

    Multiple Brachyspira spp. can colonize the porcine colon, and the presence of the strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is typically associated with clinical swine dysentery. Recently, several Brachyspira spp. have been isolated from the feces of pigs with clinical disease suggestive of swine dysentery, yet these isolates were not identified as B. hyodysenteriae by genotypic or phenotypic methods. This study used a mouse model of swine dysentery to compare the pathogenic potential of seventeen different Brachyspira isolates including eight atypical clinical isolates, six typical clinical isolates, the standard strain of B. hyodysenteriae (B204), and reference strains of Brachyspira intermedia and Brachyspira innocens. Results revealed that strongly beta-hemolytic isolates induced significantly greater cecal inflammation than weakly beta-hemolytic isolates regardless of the genetic identification of the isolate, and that strongly beta-hemolytic isolates identified as 'Brachyspira sp. SASK30446' and B. intermedia by PCR produced lesions indistinguishable from those caused by B. hyodysenteriae in this model.

  16. Isolation of Lysosomes from Mammalian Tissues and Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Eva; Lahuerta, Marcos; Knecht, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes participate within the cells in the degradation of organelles, macromolecules, and a wide variety of substrates. In any study on specific roles of lysosomes, both under physiological and pathological conditions, it is advisable to include methods that allow their reproducible and reliable isolation. However, purification of lysosomes is a difficult task, particularly in the case of cultured cells. This is mainly because of the heterogeneity of these organelles, along with their low number and high fragility. Also, isolation methods, while disrupting plasma membranes, have to preserve the integrity of lysosomes, as the breakdown of their membranes releases enzymes that could damage all cell organelles, including themselves. The protocols described below have been routinely used in our laboratory for the specific isolation of lysosomes from rat liver, NIH/3T3, and other cultured cells, but can be adapted to other mammalian tissues or cell lines. PMID:27613045

  17. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  18. Emerging Contaminant Issues, Including Management Of Emerging Contaminants In Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging contaminants are receiving increasing media and scientific attention. These chemicals are sometimes referred to as compounds of emerging concern or trace organic compounds, and include several groups of chemicals including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and pha...

  19. Epidemiology and outcome of candidaemia in patients with oncological and haematological malignancies: results from a population-based surveillance in Spain.

    PubMed

    Puig-Asensio, M; Ruiz-Camps, I; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Aguado, J M; Muñoz, P; Valerio, M; Delgado-Iribarren, A; Merino, P; Bereciartua, E; Fortún, J; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Almirante, B

    2015-05-01

    A prospective, population-based surveillance on candidaemia was implemented in five metropolitan areas of Spain from May 2010 to April 2011. We aimed to describe the distribution and susceptibility pattern of Candida species, and to evaluate risk factors for mortality in patients with oncological (solid tumours) and haematological malignancies. Adults (≥ 16 years) with cancer were included in the present report. Impact of therapeutic strategies on 7- and 30-day mortality were analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for propensity score by inverse weighting probability of receiving early antifungal treatment and catheter removal. We included 238 (32.6%) patients (195 oncological, 43 haematological). Compared with oncological patients, haematological patients were more likely to have received chemotherapy (53.5% versus 17.4%, p < 0.001) or corticosteroids (41.9% versus 21%, p < 0.001), and have neutropenia (44.2% versus 1.5%, p < 0.001). Overall, 14.8% of patients developed breakthrough candidaemia. Non-albicans Candida species (71.1% versus 55.6%, p 0.056) and Candida tropicalis (22.2% versus 7.6%, p 0.011) were more frequent in haematological patients. Based on EUCAST breakpoints, 27.6% of Candida isolates were non-susceptible to fluconazole. Resistance to echinocandins was negligible. Mortality at 7 and 30 days was 12.2% and 31.5%, respectively, and did not differ significantly between the patient groups. Prompt antifungal therapy together with catheter removal (≤ 48 hours) was associated with lower mortality at 7 days (adjusted OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01-0.42) and 30 days (adjusted OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.16-0.46). In conclusion, non-albicans species are emerging as the predominant isolates, particularly in haematological patients. Prompt, adequate antifungal treatment plus catheter removal may lead to a reduction in mortality.

  20. 7 CFR 46.38 - Sundays and holidays included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sundays and holidays included. 46.38 Section 46.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Holidays § 46.38 Sundays and holidays included. Sundays and holidays shall be included in the...

  1. 7 CFR 46.38 - Sundays and holidays included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sundays and holidays included. 46.38 Section 46.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Holidays § 46.38 Sundays and holidays included. Sundays and holidays shall be included in the...

  2. 7 CFR 46.38 - Sundays and holidays included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sundays and holidays included. 46.38 Section 46.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Holidays § 46.38 Sundays and holidays included. Sundays and holidays shall be included in the...

  3. 7 CFR 46.38 - Sundays and holidays included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sundays and holidays included. 46.38 Section 46.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Holidays § 46.38 Sundays and holidays included. Sundays and holidays shall be included in the...

  4. 7 CFR 46.38 - Sundays and holidays included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sundays and holidays included. 46.38 Section 46.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Holidays § 46.38 Sundays and holidays included. Sundays and holidays shall be included in the...

  5. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  6. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  7. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  8. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  9. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  10. An azole-resistant isolate of Malassezia pachydermatis.

    PubMed

    Nijima, Misako; Kano, Rui; Nagata, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2011-04-21

    Canine Malassezia dermatitis (MD) is frequently treated with systemic ketoconazole (KTZ) and itaconazole (ITZ). However, the antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis from dogs and cats to the azoles has not been well investigated. In the present study, the in vitro susceptibility of the standard strain (CBS1879: the neotype strain of M. pachydermatis) and 29 clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis to the azoles was measured by a modified CLSI M27-A2 test using modified Dixon medium as well as by the E-test. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the 30 isolates of M. pachydermatis (including the neotype strain) against KTZ and ITZ were <0.03 μg/ml by the two methods. The MICs of 1 clinical isolate (ASC-11) were 1 and 2 μg/ml against KTZ, and 2 and 8 μg/ml against ITZ, by the modified CLSI M27-A2 test and the E-test, respectively. Thus, isolate ASC-11 may be resistant to these azoles, making this the first report of a resistant isolate of M. pachydermatis to KTZ and ITZ. PMID:21074337

  11. Molecular analysis of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliana Soares; Ferracin, Lara Munique; Carneiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2012-04-01

    Brazil nuts are an important export market in its main producing countries, including Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru. Approximately 30,000 tons of Brazil nuts are harvested each year. However, substantial nut contamination by Aspergillus section Flavi occurs with subsequent production of aflatoxins. In our study, Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa), and identified by morphological and molecular means. We obtained 241 isolates from nut samples, 41% positive for aflatoxin production. Eighty-one isolates were selected for molecular investigation. Pairwise genetic distances among isolates and phylogenetic relationships were assessed. The following Aspergillus species were identified: A. flavus, A. caelatus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. bombycis, and A. arachidicola. Additionally, molecular profiles indicated a high level of nucleotide variation within β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences associated with high genetic divergence from RAPD data. Among the 81 isolates analyzed by molecular means, three of them were phylogenetically distinct from all other isolates representing the six species of section Flavi. A putative novel species was identified based on molecular profiles.

  12. Isolation of cultivable microorganisms from Polish notes and coins.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Michal; Palusińska-Szysz, Marta; Turska-Szewczuk, Anna; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Urbanik-Sypniewska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The potential role of currency in the spread of pathogenic microflora has been evaluated in many countries. In this study Polish paper notes and the coins in general circulation were assayed for the presence of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Bacterial isolates identification was based on cultural and biochemical characters and by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Fungal isolates were recognized with biochemical and morphological criteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, (43.6% of the total bacterial count) including Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis, and Enteroccus spp. (30.8% of the total bacterial count), i.e. E.faecalis, E.faecium and E. durans, were the most numerous bacterial contamination. Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were the most frequently detected moulds whereas Candida spp. was the most frequent yeast isolated from currency. A visible dependence between the banknote denomination, the physical condition of paper currency, and the number of bacteria and fungi was found. The overall count of bacteria isolated from currency was thousand-fold higher than that of fungal isolates. The total amount of bacteria and fungi recovered from the coins was approximately 2.7-fold lower than that isolated from the notes. In summary, the Polish currency notes were found to be contaminated mainly with commensal bacteria and fungi while the opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas stutzeri and C. albicans were detected at a low frequency.

  13. RNA isolation from mouse pancreas: a ribonuclease-rich tissue.

    PubMed

    Azevedo-Pouly, Ana Clara P; Elgamal, Ola A; Schmittgen, Thomas D

    2014-08-02

    Isolation of high-quality RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissue such as mouse pancreas presents a challenge. As a primary function of the pancreas is to aid in digestion, mouse pancreas may contain as much a 75 mg of ribonuclease. We report modifications of standard phenol/guanidine thiocyanate lysis reagent protocols to isolate RNA from mouse pancreas. Guanidine thiocyanate is a strong protein denaturant and will effectively disrupt the activity of ribonuclease under most conditions. However, critical modifications to standard protocols are necessary to successfully isolate RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissues. Key steps include a high lysis reagent to tissue ratio, removal of undigested tissue prior to phase separation and inclusion of a ribonuclease inhibitor to the RNA solution. Using these and other modifications, we routinely isolate RNA with RNA Integrity Number (RIN) greater than 7. The isolated RNA is of suitable quality for routine gene expression analysis. Adaptation of this protocol to isolate RNA from ribonuclease rich tissues besides the pancreas should be readily achievable.

  14. Isolation of cultivable microorganisms from Polish notes and coins.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Michal; Palusińska-Szysz, Marta; Turska-Szewczuk, Anna; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Urbanik-Sypniewska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The potential role of currency in the spread of pathogenic microflora has been evaluated in many countries. In this study Polish paper notes and the coins in general circulation were assayed for the presence of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Bacterial isolates identification was based on cultural and biochemical characters and by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Fungal isolates were recognized with biochemical and morphological criteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, (43.6% of the total bacterial count) including Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis, and Enteroccus spp. (30.8% of the total bacterial count), i.e. E.faecalis, E.faecium and E. durans, were the most numerous bacterial contamination. Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were the most frequently detected moulds whereas Candida spp. was the most frequent yeast isolated from currency. A visible dependence between the banknote denomination, the physical condition of paper currency, and the number of bacteria and fungi was found. The overall count of bacteria isolated from currency was thousand-fold higher than that of fungal isolates. The total amount of bacteria and fungi recovered from the coins was approximately 2.7-fold lower than that isolated from the notes. In summary, the Polish currency notes were found to be contaminated mainly with commensal bacteria and fungi while the opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas stutzeri and C. albicans were detected at a low frequency. PMID:24459833

  15. Protocol for miRNA isolation from biofluids.

    PubMed

    Lekchnov, Evgeny A; Zaporozhchenko, Ivan A; Morozkin, Evgeny S; Bryzgunova, Olga E; Vlassov, Valentin V; Laktionov, Pavel P

    2016-04-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as promising biomarkers in cancer and other diseases. Packaging of miRNAs into vesicles and complexes with proteins ensures their stability in biological fluids but also complicates their isolation. Conventional protocols used to isolate cell-free RNA are generally successful in overcoming these difficulties; however, they are costly, labor-intensive, or heavily reliant on the use of hazardous chemicals. Here we describe a protocol that is suitable for isolating miRNAs from biofluids, including blood plasma and urine. The protocol is based on precipitation of proteins, denaturation of miRNA-containing complexes with octanoic acid and guanidine isothiocyanate, and subsequent purification of miRNA on spin columns. The efficacy of miRNA extraction by phenol-chloroform extraction, miRCURY RNA isolation kit--biofluids (Exiqon), and the proposed protocol was compared by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR of miR-16 and miR-126. The proposed protocol was slightly more effective for isolating miRNA from plasma and significantly superior to the other two methods for miRNA isolation from urine. Spectrophotometry and SDS-PAGE data suggest that the disparity in performance between miRCURY Biofluids and the proposed protocol can be attributed to differences in precipitation mechanisms, as confirmed by the retention of different proteins in the supernatant. PMID:26874020

  16. Methods and Devices for Micro-Isolation, Extraction, and/or Analysis of Microscale Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kartalov, Emil P. (Inventor); Shibata, Darryl (Inventor); Taylor, Clive (Inventor); Wade, Lawrence A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided herein are devices and methods for the micro-isolation of biological cellular material. A micro-isolation apparatus described can comprise a photomask that protects regions of interest against DNA-destroying illumination. The micro-isolation apparatus can further comprise photosensitive material defining access wells following illumination and subsequent developing of the photosensitive material. The micro-isolation apparatus can further comprise a chambered microfluidic device comprising channels providing access to wells defined in photosensitive material. The micro-isolation apparatus can comprise a chambered microfluidic device without access wells defined in photosensitive material where valves control the flow of gases or liquids through the channels of the microfluidic device. Also included are methods for selectively isolating cellular material using the apparatuses described herein, as are methods for biochemical analysis of individual regions of interest of cellular material using the devices described herein. Further included are methods of making masking arrays useful for the methods described herein.

  17. Resisting an Isolated Learning Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to suggest that researchers on workplace learning avoid an isolated learning discourse. The point at issue is that being a learner is just one aspect of people's sometimes complicated lives in the workplace, and that people may sometimes--for good reasons--resist a learning discourse if it is linked…

  18. Isolating Lysosomes from Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    This protocol describes the generation of a fraction enriched in lysosomes from rat liver. The lysosomes are rapidly isolated using density-gradient centrifugation with gradient media that retain the osmolarity of the lysosomes such that they are functional and can be used in in vitro assays.

  19. Pediatric isolated bilateral iliac aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T

    2013-07-01

    Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts.

  20. Emotional isolation in BBC Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Chmiel, A.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze emotionally annotated massive data from BBC Forum and examine properties of the isolation phenomenon of negative and positive users. Our results show the existence of a percolation threshold dependent on the average emotional value in the network of negatively charged nodes.

  1. BIOSYNTHESIS IN ISOLATED ACETABULARIA CHLOROPLASTS

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, David C.; Levin, Wendy B.

    1972-01-01

    The ability of chloroplasts isolated from Acetabulana mediterranea to synthesize the protein amino acids has been investigated. When this chloroplast isolate was presented with 14CO2 for periods of 6–8 hr, tracer was found in essentially all amino acid species of their hydrolyzed protein Phenylalanine labeling was not detected, probably due to technical problems, and hydroxyproline labeling was not tested for The incorporation of 14CO2 into the amino acids is driven by light and, as indicated by the amount of radioactivity lost during ninhydrin decarboxylation on the chromatograms, the amino acids appear to be uniformly labeled. The amino acid labeling pattern of the isolate is similar to that found in plastids labeled with 14CO2 in vivo. The chloroplast isolate did not utilize detectable amounts of externally supplied amino acids in light or, with added adenosine triphosphate (ATP), in darkness. It is concluded that these chloroplasts are a tight cytoplasmic compartment that is independent in supplying the amino acids used for its own protein synthesis. These results are discussed in terms of the role of contaminants in the observed synthesis, the "normalcy" of Acetabularia chloroplasts, the synthetic pathways for amino acids in plastids, and the implications of these observations for cell compartmentation and chloroplast autonomy. PMID:4557310

  2. Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT) ATD Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubomski, Joseph F.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Rohn, Douglas A.; Ramachandran, N.

    1994-01-01

    A fundamental advantage for performing material processing and fluid physics experiments in an orbital environment is the reduction in gravity driven phenomena. However, experience with manned spacecraft such as the Space Transportation System (STS) has demonstrated a dynamic acceleration environment far from being characterized as a 'microgravity' platform. Vibrations and transient disturbances from crew motions, thruster firings, rotating machinery etc. can have detrimental effects on many proposed microgravity science experiments. These same disturbances are also to be expected on the future space station. The Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA), NASA Headquarters recognized the need for addressing this fundamental issue. As a result an Advanced Technology Development (ATD) project was initiated in the area of Vibration Isolation Technology (VIT) to develop methodologies for meeting future microgravity science needs. The objective of the Vibration Isolation Technology ATD project was to provide technology for the isolation of microgravity science experiments by developing methods to maintain a predictable, well defined, well characterized, and reproducible low-gravity environment, consistent with the needs of the microgravity science community. Included implicitly in this objective was the goal of advising the science community and hardware developers of the fundamental need to address the importance of maintaining, and how to maintain, a microgravity environment. This document will summarize the accomplishments of the VIT ATD which is now completed. There were three specific thrusts involved in the ATD effort. An analytical effort was performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to define the sensitivity of selected experiments to residual and dynamic accelerations. This effort was redirected about half way through the ATD focusing specifically on the sensitivity of

  3. Isolation and identification among cockle isolates of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdi Al-Dulaimi, Mohammed M.; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Ghani, Ma`aruf Abd.

    2014-09-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infections are worldwide public health problems associated with illnesses resulting from consumption of raw or partially cooked seafood. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and identification of V. vulnificus in cockles from local wet (40) and supermarkets (38) from Selangor, Malaysia from July 2013 to February 2014. A total of 78(n=78) cockle were examined for the presence of V. vulnificus and at about 32% (25/78) cockle samples were positive to this bacterium. Colonies morphological observation and biochemical characterization for those isolates showed 60% (15/78) of isolates were classified as biotype 1 and 40% (10/78) belong to biotype 2.

  4. Shock Train/Boundary-Layer Interaction in Rectangular Scramjet Isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerts, Jonathan Simon

    Numerous studies of the dual-mode scramjet isolator, a critical component in preventing inlet unstart and/or vehicle loss by containing a collection of flow disturbances called a shock train, have been performed since the dual-mode propulsion cycle was introduced in the 1960s. Low momentum corner flow and other three-dimensional effects inherent to rectangular isolators have, however, been largely ignored in experimental studies of the boundary layer separation driven isolator shock train dynamics. Furthermore, the use of two dimensional diagnostic techniques in past works, be it single-perspective line-of-sight schlieren/shadowgraphy or single axis wall pressure measurements, have been unable to resolve the three-dimensional flow features inside the rectangular isolator. These flow characteristics need to be thoroughly understood if robust dual-mode scramjet designs are to be fielded. The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimentally analyzing shock train/boundary layer interactions from multiple perspectives in aspect ratio 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 rectangular isolators with inflow Mach numbers ranging from 2.4 to 2.7. Secondary steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics studies are performed to compare to the experimental results and to provide additional perspectives of the flow field. Specific issues that remain unresolved after decades of isolator shock train studies that are addressed in this work include the three-dimensional formation of the isolator shock train front, the spatial and temporal low momentum corner flow separation scales, the transient behavior of shock train/boundary layer interaction at specific coordinates along the isolator's lateral axis, and effects of the rectangular geometry on semi-empirical relations for shock train length prediction. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  5. Limited Diversity among Human Isolates of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, B.; Valenzuela, J.; Don, R.; Blanckenberg, D.; Wigney, D. I.; Malik, R.; Morris, A. J.; Robson, J. M.; Iredell, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 59 isolates of Bartonella henselae reveals relatively limited diversity among those of human origin (n = 28). Either of two distinct alleles of both gltA and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was found in all isolates, with a high level of congruity between 16S and gltA inheritance among proven human pathogens. Human isolates from all over Eastern Australia were most commonly 16S rDNA (Bergmans) type I, with the same gltA allele as the type strain (Houston-1). Comparable feline isolates were more commonly 16S type II, with less congruity of inheritance between 16S and gltA alleles. Previously described arbitrarily primed PCR and EagI-HhaI infrequent restriction site PCR fingerprinting techniques separated Bartonella species effectively but lacked discriminating power within B. henselae. Examination of the 16-23S intergenic spacer region revealed for several strains several point mutations as well as a repeat sequence of unknown significance which is readily detected by HaeIII restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The bacteriophage-associated papA gene was present in all isolates. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR proved to be a useful and robust typing tool and clearly separated human isolates (including imported strains) from the majority of feline isolates. Our data are consistent with published evidence and with previous suggestions of intragenomic rearrangements in the type strain and suggest that human isolates come from a limited subset of B. henselae strains. They strengthen arguments for careful exploration of genotype-phenotype relationships and for the development of a multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing-based approach to the phylogeny of B. henselae. PMID:12454174

  6. Acinetobacter seifertii Isolated from China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunxing; Wang, Jianfeng; Fu, Ying; Ruan, Zhi; Yu, Yunsong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinical infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. have increasing public health concerns because of their global occurrence and ability to acquire multidrug resistance. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex encompasses A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii, A. pittii (formerly genomic species 3), and A nosocomial (formerly genomic species 13TU), which are predominantly responsible for clinical pathogenesis in the Acinetobacter genus. In our previous study, a putative novel species isolated from 385 non-A. baumannii spp. strains based on the rpoB gene phylogenetic tree was reported. Here, the putative novel species was identified as A. seifertii based on the whole-genome phylogenetic tree. A. seifertii was recognized as a novel member of the ACB complex and close to A. baumannii and A. nosocomials. Furthermore, we studied the characteristics of 10 A. seifertii isolates, which were distributed widely in 6 provinces in China and mainly caused infections in the elderly or children. To define the taxonomic status and characteristics, the biochemical reactions, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and whole-genome sequence analysis were performed. The phenotypic characteristics failed to distinguish A. serfertii from other species in the ACB complex. Most of the A. seifertii isolates were susceptible to antibiotics commonly used for nosocomial Acinetobacter spp. infections, but one isolate (strain A362) was resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime and amikacin. The different patterns of MLST and PFGE suggested that the 10 isolates were not identical and lacked clonal relatedness. Our study reported for the first time the molecular epidemiological and genomic features of widely disseminated A. seifertii in China. These observations could enrich the knowledge of infections caused by non-A. baumannii and may provide a scientific basis for future clinical

  7. Characteristics and distribution of Listeria spp., including Listeria species newly described since 2009.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The genus Listeria is currently comprised of 17 species, including 9 Listeria species newly described since 2009. Genomic and phenotypic data clearly define a distinct group of six species (Listeria sensu strictu) that share common phenotypic characteristics (e.g., ability to grow at low temperature, flagellar motility); this group includes the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The other 11 species (Listeria sensu lato) represent three distinct monophyletic groups, which may warrant recognition as separate genera. These three proposed genera do not contain pathogens, are non-motile (except for Listeria grayi), are able to reduce nitrate (except for Listeria floridensis), and are negative for the Voges-Proskauer test (except for L. grayi). Unlike all other Listeria species, species in the proposed new genus Mesolisteria are not able to grow below 7 °C. While most new Listeria species have only been identified in a few countries, the availability of molecular tools for rapid characterization of putative Listeria isolates will likely lead to future identification of isolates representing these new species from different sources. Identification of Listeria sensu lato isolates has not only allowed for a better understanding of the evolution of Listeria and virulence characteristics in Listeria but also has practical implications as detection of Listeria species is often used by the food industry as a marker to detect conditions that allow for presence, growth, and persistence of L. monocytogenes. This review will provide a comprehensive critical summary of our current understanding of the characteristics and distribution of the new Listeria species with a focus on Listeria sensu lato. PMID:27129530

  8. Identification and epidemiological relationships of Aeromonas isolates from patients with diarrhea, drinking water and foods.

    PubMed

    Pablos, M; Huys, G; Cnockaert, M; Rodríguez-Calleja, J M; Otero, A; Santos, J A; García-López, M L

    2011-06-30

    A collection of Aeromonas isolates obtained over a three-year period in the same geographic area (León, NW of Spain) was characterized by (GTG)₅-PCR fingerprinting, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and gyrB gene sequence analysis. The isolates originated from human diarrheal stools (29 isolates), potable water (13 isolates), rabbit meat (13 isolates) and marine fish (5 isolates). The distribution of Aeromonas species varied with the strain source. Aeromonas caviae HG4 and Aeromonas media HG5 were predominant in clinical and water isolates, respectively, whereas motile Aeromonas salmonicida HG3 strains were most frequently found in fish and meat. Molecular typing revealed several genotypic relationships among specific isolate subsets: (i) two clones of A. media HG5 persisted in drinking water over the study period, (ii) different patients harbored identical or closely related clones during several months, and (iii) clonal relatedness was observed in two sets of water and human isolates. The first of these sets comprised nine water isolates and two human A. media HG5 isolates, whereas the other one included a water isolate and a human isolate of A. caviae HG4. The latter finding suggests that Aeromonas transmission in the studied region followed a waterborne route. Interestingly, the three human isolates closely related to water isolates were recovered in a period of four days in June 2006 from non-related patients without underlying medical conditions that tested negative for other enteric pathogens. The data imply the transmission through contaminated water of strains of the A. caviae group that can produce disease in humans.

  9. Isolation and Biochemical Fingerprinting of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium From Meat, Chicken and Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Malihe; Sadeghi, Javad; Rahimi, Fateh; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens and food chain has been considered as an assumed source for dissemination of VRE to human. Objectives: The presence of VRE isolates from food samples and typing of these isolates with Phene plate, a biochemical fingerprinting method, were investigated. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples of meat, chicken and cheese were analyzed for VRE during 2010. Antibiotic susceptibility tests and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were also examined. VRE isolates were typed with the Phene plate system (PhPlate), a biochemical fingerprinting method. Results: A total of 70 VRE isolates were obtained and identified as Enterococcus faecium by species-specific PCR. All the isolates carried vanA, while none of them harbored vanB. The VRE isolates included 35, 27, and 8 isolates from meat, chicken and cheese, respectively. Typing with the PhPlate revealed a diversity index of 0.78 for E. faecium, containing 10 common and four single types. The results of antibiotic susceptibility and MIC tests showed an increased resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin, to which, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 95% of VRE isolates were resistant, respectively. Only 5% of the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and the MIC of the isolates for vancomycin and teicoplanin was ≥ 256 µg/mL and for gentamicin-resistant isolates it was 1024 µg/mL. Conventional and molecular identification tests exhibited that all the isolates were E. faecium carrying vanA. None of the isolates harbored vanB. Conclusions: The results showed that enterococci are common contaminants in food. Indeed, this study indicates a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant enterococci in food of animal origin in Iran. Isolating some persisting enterococcal isolates revealed that continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci from food is essential. PMID:26034532

  10. Molecular structures of unstable isolated-pentagon-rule fullerenes C72-C86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamatgalimov, A. R.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Published data on fullerenes C72 to C86 which obey the isolated pentagon rule (IPR) are generalized. Analysis of unstable isolated-pentagon-rule fullerenes is carried out and the instability criteria are formulated. Two main reasons for the instability of IPR fullerene molecules are identified: their radical nature and/or local overstrain. The classification of fullerenes and a revised isolated pentagon rule are presented. The bibliography includes 119 references.

  11. Erratum: Photon isolation effects at NLO in γγ + jet final states in hadronic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrmann, T.; Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.

    2014-06-01

    We present the NLO QCD corrections to pp → γγj production at hadron colliders. Our calculation includes contributions from the fragmentation of a hadronic jet into a highly energetic photon, and consequently allows the implementation of arbitrary infrared-safe photon isolation definitions. We compare different photon isolation criteria and perform a detailed study of the dependence of the γγj cross section on the photon isolation parameters.

  12. Photon isolation effects at NLO in γγ+jet final states in hadronic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrmann, T.; Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.

    2013-06-01

    We present the NLO QCD corrections to pp → γγj production at hadron colliders. Our calculation includes contributions from the fragmentation of a hadronic jet into a highly energetic photon, and consequently allows the implementation of arbitrary infrared-safe photon isolation definitions. We compare different photon isolation criteria and perform a detailed study of the dependence of the γγj cross section on the photon isolation parameters.

  13. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van der Spoel van Dijk, Anneke; Makhoahle, Pakiso M; Rigouts, Leen; Baba, Kamaldeen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:27073397

  14. Detection of rDNA ITS polymorphism in Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 isolates.

    PubMed

    Pannecoucque, Joke; Höfte, Monica

    2009-01-01

    The sequence variability of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, including the 5.8S gene, was investigated for Rhizoctonia solani isolates of anastomosis group (AG) 2-1. During PCR RFLP analysis of eight isolates, the restriction patterns of four isolates showed an excess of bands after restriction with the enzymes AvaII and/or HincII, which suggested the presence of more than one ITS region. By cloning the ITS region of six isolates sequence heterogeneity was detected in the isolates that showed an excess of bands in the PCR RFLP analysis; up to nine different ITS regions were identified within one isolate. The same level of diversity was found within the same isolate as among isolates. In the phylogenetic tree based on the rDNA ITS sequences of several AG 2-1 isolates, sequences derived from the same isolate did not form distinct clusters, questioning the relevance of further subdivision of heterogeneous AG 2-1 isolates based on the ITS region.

  15. Diversity and Fermentation Products of Xylose-Utilizing Yeasts Isolated from Buffalo Feces in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lorliam, Wanlapa; Akaracharanya, Ancharida; Suzuki, Motofumi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-eight xylose-utilizing yeast strains were isolated by enrichment culture from 11 samples of feces from the rectum of Murrah buffalo and Swamp buffalo in Thailand. On the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics, including sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA), they were identified as Candida tropicalis (designated as Group I, 11 isolates), Candida parasilosis (Group II, 2 isolates), Candida mengyuniae (Group III, 2 isolates), Sporopachydermia lactativora (Group IV, 2 isolates), Geotrichum sp. (Group V, 5 isolates) and Trichosporon asahii (Group VI, 6 isolates). All isolates utilized xylose as the sole carbon source but 27 isolates could ferment xylose to ethanol (0.006–0.602 g L−1) and 21 isolates could ferment xylose to xylitol (0.19–22.84 g L−1). Candida tropicalis isolates produced the highest yield of xylitol (74.80%). Their ability to convert xylose to xylitol and ethanol ranged from 15.06 g L−1 to 22.84 g L−1 xylitol and 0.110 g L−1 to 0.602 g L−1 ethanol, respectively. PMID:24005843

  16. Determination and Distribution of cry-Type Genes of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chak, K.-F.; Chao, D.-C.; Tseng, M.-Y.; Kao, S.-S.; Tuan, S.-J.; Feng, T.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    Using PCR with a set of specific oligonucleotide primers to detect cryI-type genes, we were able to screen the cry-type genes of 225 Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Taiwan without much cost in time or labor. Some combinations of cry genes (the cry-type profile) in a single isolate were unique. We identified five distinct profiles of crystal genes from the B. thuringiensis soil isolates from Taiwan. The cry genes included cryIA(a), cryIA(b), cryIA(c), cryIC, cryID, and cryIV. Interestingly, 501 B. thuringiensis isolates (93.5% of the total number that we identified) were isolated from areas at high altitudes. The profiles of cry-type genes were distinct in all isolation areas. The distribution of cry-type genes of our isolates therefore depended on geography. Using PCR footprinting to detect cryIC-type genes, we identified two distinct cryIC footprints from some of our isolates, indicating that these isolates may contain novel cryIC-type genes. B. thuringiensis isolates containing cryIA(a)-, cryIA(b)-, and cryIA(c)-type genes exhibited much greater activity against Plutella xylostella than did other isolates, indicating that multiple cry-type genes may be used as markers for the prediction of insecticidal activities. Images PMID:16349324

  17. Characterization and zoonotic potential of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from dogs.

    PubMed

    Nam, Eui-Hwa; Ko, Sungjin; Chae, Joon-Seok; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of canine uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and the interaction between canine UPEC and human bladder epithelial cells. Ten E. coli isolates collected from dogs with cystitis were analyzed for antimicrobial resistance patterns, the presence of virulence factors, and biofilm formation. The ability of these isolates to induce cytotoxicity, invade human bladder epithelial cells, and stimulate an immune response was also determined. We observed a high rate of antimicrobial resistance among canine UPEC isolates. All virulence genes tested (including adhesins, iron acquisition, and protectin), except toxin genes, were detected among the canine UPEC isolates. We found that all isolates showed varying degrees of biofilm formation (mean, 0.26; range, 0.07 to 0.82), using a microtiter plate assay to evaluate biofilm formation by the isolates. Cytotoxicity to human bladder epithelial cells by the canine UPEC isolates increased in a time-dependent manner, with a 56.9% and 36.1% reduction in cell viability compared with the control at 6 and 9 h of incubation, respectively. We found that most canine UPEC isolates were able to invade human bladder epithelial cells. The interaction between these isolates and human bladder epithelial cells strongly induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8. We demonstrated that canine UPEC isolates can interact with human bladder epithelial cells, although the detailed mechanisms remain unknown. The results suggest that canine UPEC isolates, rather than dogspecific pathogens, have zoonotic potential.

  18. Isolated right ventricular failure in hyperthyroidism: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Ryan J.; Moul, Marvin S.; Beckman, Darrick; Slim, Ahmad M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a unique case of a 42-year-old gentleman with newly diagnosed Graves’ disease and isolated right ventricular failure. Extensive evaluation to include echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization were negative for significant pulmonary hypertension or coronary artery disease as potential etiologies. Hyperthyroid induced vasospasm is a rare but reported clinical entity that serves to be a clinical and diagnostic dilemma. PMID:22049310

  19. Dominant syndrome with isolated cryptophthalmos and ocular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Saal, H M; Traboulsi, E I; Gavaris, P; Samango-Sprouse, C A; Parks, M

    1992-07-15

    We report on a mother and daughter with nonsyndromal cryptophthalmos. Both patients have additional ocular anomalies, including microphthalmia, retinal dysplasia, and Peters anomaly. The periocular and lid changes seen in these individuals are distinct from those seen in typical cryptophthalmos. The apparent dominant mode of inheritance in this family distinguishes this condition from autosomal recessive isolated cryptophthalmos and from the Fraser or cryptophthalmos syndrome.

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Zika Virus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ladner, Jason T.; Wiley, Michael R.; Prieto, Karla; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Nagle, Elyse; Kasper, Matthew R.; Reyes, Daniel; Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Heang, Vireak; Weaver, Scott C.; Haddow, Andrew; Tesh, Robert B.; Sovann, Ly

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging human pathogen of great concern due to putative links to microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Here, we report the complete genomes, including the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions, of five Zika virus isolates, one from the Asian lineage and four from the African lineage. PMID:27174284

  1. Rubber dam isolation in pediatric patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Karaouzas, Litsa; Kim, Youngjoo E; Boynton, James R

    2012-01-01

    The rubber dam has been available to the dental profession for over 145 years and can serve as an invaluable tool to dental practitioners. Here we review the rubber dam and its application on children including advantages and disadvantages associated with its use and alternative isolation methods.

  2. A novel method to scale up fungal endophyte isolations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimations of species diversity are influenced by sampling intensity which in turn is influenced by methodology. For fungal endophyte diversity studies, the methodology includes surface-sterilization prior to isolation of endophytes. Surface-sterilization is an essential component of fungal endophy...

  3. [Isolation of a Kawa-pyrone from Achyrocline satureioides].

    PubMed

    Kaloga, M; Hänsel, R; Cybulski, E M

    1983-06-01

    6-(4'-Hydroxy-trans-styryl)-4-methoxy-2-Pyrone ( 1) has been isolated from overground parts including influrescences of Achyrocline satureioides D.C. with a yield of 0.02%. The structure was established by spectroscopic means and by comparing with a synthetic sample.

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Zika Virus Isolates.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Prieto, Karla; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Nagle, Elyse; Kasper, Matthew R; Reyes, Daniel; Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Heang, Vireak; Weaver, Scott C; Haddow, Andrew; Tesh, Robert B; Sovann, Ly; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging human pathogen of great concern due to putative links to microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Here, we report the complete genomes, including the 5' and 3' untranslated regions, of five Zika virus isolates, one from the Asian lineage and four from the African lineage.

  5. Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer via an isolating stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer includes obtaining an air core transformer with a primary and a secondary, matching the secondary to the mass spectrometer, and driving the primary based on first and second voltage levels. Driving of the primary is via an isolating stage that minimizes low level drive signal coupling.

  6. Subcellular Localization of Secondary Lipid Metabolites Including Fragrance Volatiles in Carnation Petals.

    PubMed Central

    Hudak, K. A.; Thompson, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles. PMID:12223738

  7. Polymicrobial biofilms by diabetic foot clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Mottola, Carla; Mendes, João J; Cristino, José Melo; Cavaco-Silva, Patrícia; Tavares, Luís; Oliveira, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major chronic disease that continues to increase significantly. One of the most important and costly complications of diabetes is foot ulceration that may be colonized by pathogenic and antimicrobial resistant bacteria, which may express several virulence factors that could impair treatment success. These bacterial communities can be organized in polymicrobial biofilms, which may be responsible for diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) chronicity. We evaluated the influence of polymicrobial communities in the ability of DFU isolates to produce biofilm, using a microtiter plate assay and a multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization, at three time points (24, 48, 72 h), after evaluating biofilm formation by 95 DFU isolates belonging to several bacterial genera (Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter). All isolates were biofilm-positive at 24 h, and the amount of biofilm produced increased with incubation time. Pseudomonas presented the higher biofilm production, followed by Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus. Significant differences were found in biofilm formation between the three time points. Polymicrobial communities produced higher biofilm values than individual species. Pseudomonas + Enterococcus, Acinetobacter + Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium + Staphylococcus produced higher biofilm than the ones formed by E. faecalis + Staphylococcus and E. faecalis + Corynebacterium. Synergy between bacteria present in dual or multispecies biofilms has been described, and this work represents the first report on time course of biofilm formation by polymicrobial communities from DFUs including several species. The biological behavior of different bacterial species in polymicrobial biofilms has important clinical implications for the successful treatment of these infections.

  8. Multicenter surveillance of species distribution and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida bloodstream isolates in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sook-In; Shin, Jong Hee; Song, Jae-Hoon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Kyungwon; Kim, Mi-Na; Chang, Hyun Ha; Moon, Chi Sook

    2010-06-01

    Multicenter data on in vitro susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates to echinocandin antifungal agents is still lacking in South Korea. We performed a prospective multicenter study to determine the species distribution of Candida bloodstream isolates and their susceptibility to five antifungal agents, including caspofungin and micafungin. A total of 639 isolates were collected from 20 tertiary hospitals between September 2006 and August 2007. Antifungal susceptibilities were determined through the use of the CLSI broth microdilution method M27-A3. The overall species distribution was as follows; Candida albicans (38%), Candida parapsilosis (26%), Candia tropicalis (20%), Candida glabrata (11%), and miscellaneous Candida species (5%). Although C. parapsilosis and miscellaneous Candida species were less susceptible to both echinocandins, all 639 isolates were susceptible to both caspofungin and micafungin (MIC, isolates (99.7%) had a MIC isolates, with C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates displaying the greatest level of resistance. This is the largest multicenter candidemia study conducted in South Korea and shows that non-C. albicans Candida species, including C. parapsilosis, constitutes over 60% of all Candida species isolates recovered from the bloodstream. In addition, the rates of resistance to all five antifungals, including two echinocandins, are still low among bloodstream isolates in South Korea.

  9. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- Isolates in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Amavisit, P.; Boonyawiwat, W.; Bangtrakulnont, A.

    2005-01-01

    Duplex PCR was developed to screen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104 and related strains in Thailand because a phage typing laboratory of serovar Typhimurium is not available. Of 46 isolates of serovar Typhimurium and 32 isolates of S. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:-, 15 (33%) and 30 (94%) were duplex PCR positive, respectively. All isolates were submitted for phage typing to analyze the specificity of the PCR assay. Among serovar Typhimurium isolates that yielded positive duplex PCRs, only seven isolates were phage types DT104 or U302, and eight isolates were undefined types, whereas the negative PCR isolates were either other phage types, including DT7, DT12, DT66, DT79, DT166, DT170, DT193, and DT208 or an undefined type. The serovar Typhimurium and serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates that were duplex PCR positive were further subtyped by using XbaI PFGE to reveal their genetic relatedness. All serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104 strains had indistinguishable chromosomal patterns. The isolates of phage type U302 and most of the serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates that were duplex PCR positive yielded similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. The patterns of PCR-negative isolates distinctly differed from the patterns of PCR-positive isolates. A total of 26% of all isolates had a dominant R-type ACSSuTG that was not found in the isolates of phage type DT104. PMID:15956391

  10. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF MARSICAL WORKS CONDENSERS INCLUDING QUICKSILVER COLLECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF MARSICAL WORKS CONDENSERS INCLUDING QUICKSILVER COLLECTION CHANNEL AND COLLECTION BOX, CENTER FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH, SOUTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  11. South side elevation view includes small buildings for communications equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side elevation view includes small buildings for communications equipment and cellular communications tower in background. - Chelan Butte Lookout, Summit of Chelan Butte, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  12. West side elevation view includes small buildings for communications equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side elevation view includes small buildings for communications equipment and cellular communications tower in background. - Chelan Butte Lookout, Summit of Chelan Butte, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  13. VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, CONDENSERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, CONDENSERS AND ORE BIN FOUNDATION ABOVE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  14. 18. VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, CONDENSERS, AND ORE BIN FOUNDATION ABOVE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  15. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates from Healthy Conjunctiva and a Comparative Analysis with Isolates from Ocular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Páez, Luis A.; Zenteno, Juan C.; Alcántar-Curiel, María D.; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos F.; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Cancino-Diaz, Mario E.; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common commensal of healthy conjunctiva and it can cause endophthalmitis, however its presence in conjunctivitis, keratitis and blepharitis is unknown. Molecular genotyping of S. epidermidis from healthy conjunctiva could provide information about the origin of the strains that infect the eye. In this paper two collections of S. epidermidis were used: one from ocular infection (n = 62), and another from healthy conjunctiva (n = 45). All isolates were genotyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), detection of the genes icaA, icaD, IS256 and polymorphism type of agr locus. The phenotypic data included biofilm production and antibiotic resistance. The results displayed 61 PFGE types from 107 isolates and they were highly discriminatory. MLST analysis generated a total of 25 STs, of which 11 STs were distributed among the ocular infection isolates and lineage ST2 was the most frequent (48.4%), while 14 STs were present in the healthy conjunctiva isolates and lineage ST5 was the most abundant (24.4%). By means of a principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and a discriminant analysis (DA) it was found that ocular infection isolates had as discriminant markers agr III or agr II, SCCmec V or SCCmec I, mecA gene, resistance to tobramycin, positive biofilm, and IS256+. In contrast to the healthy conjunctiva isolates, the discriminating markers were agr I, and resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and oxacillin. The discriminant biomarkers of ocular infection were examined in healthy conjunctiva isolates, and it was found that 3 healthy conjunctiva isolates [two with ST2 and another with ST9] (3/45, 6.66%) had similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics to ocular infection isolates, therefore a small population from healthy conjunctiva could cause an ocular infection. These data suggest that the healthy conjunctiva isolates do not

  16. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates from Healthy Conjunctiva and a Comparative Analysis with Isolates from Ocular Infection.

    PubMed

    Flores-Páez, Luis A; Zenteno, Juan C; Alcántar-Curiel, María D; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos F; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Cancino-Diaz, Mario E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common commensal of healthy conjunctiva and it can cause endophthalmitis, however its presence in conjunctivitis, keratitis and blepharitis is unknown. Molecular genotyping of S. epidermidis from healthy conjunctiva could provide information about the origin of the strains that infect the eye. In this paper two collections of S. epidermidis were used: one from ocular infection (n = 62), and another from healthy conjunctiva (n = 45). All isolates were genotyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), detection of the genes icaA, icaD, IS256 and polymorphism type of agr locus. The phenotypic data included biofilm production and antibiotic resistance. The results displayed 61 PFGE types from 107 isolates and they were highly discriminatory. MLST analysis generated a total of 25 STs, of which 11 STs were distributed among the ocular infection isolates and lineage ST2 was the most frequent (48.4%), while 14 STs were present in the healthy conjunctiva isolates and lineage ST5 was the most abundant (24.4%). By means of a principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and a discriminant analysis (DA) it was found that ocular infection isolates had as discriminant markers agr III or agr II, SCCmec V or SCCmec I, mecA gene, resistance to tobramycin, positive biofilm, and IS256+. In contrast to the healthy conjunctiva isolates, the discriminating markers were agr I, and resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and oxacillin. The discriminant biomarkers of ocular infection were examined in healthy conjunctiva isolates, and it was found that 3 healthy conjunctiva isolates [two with ST2 and another with ST9] (3/45, 6.66%) had similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics to ocular infection isolates, therefore a small population from healthy conjunctiva could cause an ocular infection. These data suggest that the healthy conjunctiva isolates do not

  17. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  18. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  19. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2015-11-09

    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  20. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2014-05-01

    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment.