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Sample records for isopod genus mesamphisopus

  1. A multiple data set phylogeny for the endemic South African freshwater phreatoicidean isopod genus Mesamphisopus: Taxonomic and biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Gouws, G; Matthee, C A; Stewart, B A

    2010-05-01

    The obligate, freshwater isopod suborder Phreatoicidea is represented in South Africa by ten species contained within the endemic genus Mesamphisopus (Mesamphisopidae). Here, phylogenetic hypotheses are proposed to describe the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the genus with respect to drainage basin evolution and to assess species diversity, particularly among populations variably identified as Mesamphisopusabbreviatus or Mesamphisopusdepressus. Twenty-three ingroup taxa were examined, including eight known species and representatives of the M. abbreviatus-depressus complex. Allozyme data from 12 loci were analysed phenetically and cladistically. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the 12S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes were analysed as a combined mtDNA data set and as a total data set in combination with recoded allele frequency data. Analyses retrieved (1) a monophyletic Mesamphisopus; (2) Mesamphisopustsitsikamma and a Mesamphisopuspaludosus+Mesamphisopuspenicillatus clade as basal lineages; (3) a Mesamphisopuscapensis+Mesamphisopusbaccatus clade; and (4) a clade containing the M. abbreviatus-depressus complex, with these taxa nested among several other species. Large genetic distances among taxa and the paraphyly of the members of the M. abbreviatus-depressus complex suggested the presence of hidden taxonomic diversity in Mesamphisopus. Clear biogeographic patterns emerged with lineages and clades mostly restricted to geographically discrete regions. Patterns showed remarkable similarity to those seen in the region's terrestrial fauna and bore no relation to the history of drainage basins. These patterns suggested that vicariance and, possibly, limited dispersal events played a major role in the evolution of Mesamphisopus.

  2. Global diversification at the harsh sea-land interface: mitochondrial phylogeny of the supralittoral isopod genus Tylos (Tylidae, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Luis A; Lee, Eun J; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The supralittoral environment, at the transition between sea and land, is characterized by harsh conditions for life. Nonetheless, evolution of terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea), the only group of Crustacea fully adapted to live on land, appears to have involved a transitional step within the supralittoral. The two most basal oniscidean lineages (Ligiidae and Tylidae) have representatives that successfully colonized the supralittoral. One of them is the genus Tylos, which is found exclusively in supralittoral sandy beaches from tropical and subtropical coasts around the world. Comprehensive phylogenetic hypotheses for this genus are lacking, which are necessary for understanding the evolution and biogeography of a lineage that successfully diversified in the harsh sea-land interface. Herein, we studied the phylogenetic relationships among 17 of the 21 currently recognized species of the genus Tylos, based on sequences from four mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I, Cytochrome b, 16S rDNA, and 12S rDNA). Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified several lineages with deep divergences and discrete geographic distributions. Phylogenetic and distributional patterns of Tylos provide important clues on the biogeography and evolution of this group. Large divergences among the most basal clades are consistent with ancient splits. Due to the biological characteristics of Tylos, which likely prevent dispersal of these isopods across vast oceanic scales, we argue that tectonic events rather than trans-oceanic dispersal explain the distribution of Tylos in different continents. Overwater dispersal, however, likely enabled range expansions within some basins, and explains the colonization of volcanic oceanic islands. Present-day distributions were also likely influenced by sea level and climate changes. High levels of allopatric cryptic genetic differentiation are observed in different regions of the world, implying that the dispersal abilities of

  3. Global Diversification at the Harsh Sea-Land Interface: Mitochondrial Phylogeny of the Supralittoral Isopod Genus Tylos (Tylidae, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Lee, Eun J.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The supralittoral environment, at the transition between sea and land, is characterized by harsh conditions for life. Nonetheless, evolution of terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea), the only group of Crustacea fully adapted to live on land, appears to have involved a transitional step within the supralittoral. The two most basal oniscidean lineages (Ligiidae and Tylidae) have representatives that successfully colonized the supralittoral. One of them is the genus Tylos, which is found exclusively in supralittoral sandy beaches from tropical and subtropical coasts around the world. Comprehensive phylogenetic hypotheses for this genus are lacking, which are necessary for understanding the evolution and biogeography of a lineage that successfully diversified in the harsh sea-land interface. Herein, we studied the phylogenetic relationships among 17 of the 21 currently recognized species of the genus Tylos, based on sequences from four mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I, Cytochrome b, 16S rDNA, and 12S rDNA). Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified several lineages with deep divergences and discrete geographic distributions. Phylogenetic and distributional patterns of Tylos provide important clues on the biogeography and evolution of this group. Large divergences among the most basal clades are consistent with ancient splits. Due to the biological characteristics of Tylos, which likely prevent dispersal of these isopods across vast oceanic scales, we argue that tectonic events rather than trans-oceanic dispersal explain the distribution of Tylos in different continents. Overwater dispersal, however, likely enabled range expansions within some basins, and explains the colonization of volcanic oceanic islands. Present-day distributions were also likely influenced by sea level and climate changes. High levels of allopatric cryptic genetic differentiation are observed in different regions of the world, implying that the dispersal abilities of

  4. A new species of the giant deep-sea isopod genus Bathynomus A. Milne Edwards, 1879 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cirolanidae) from Hainan Island, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Kou, Qi; Chen, Jun; Li, Xinzheng; He, Lisheng; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-05

    Several specimens of the giant deep-sea isopod genus Bathynomus were collected by a deep-sea lander at a depth of 898 m from Hainan Island, northern South China Sea. After careful examination, this material and the specimens collected from Gulf of Aden, north-western Indian Ocean, previously reported as Bathynomus sp., were identified to be the same as a new species to the genus. Bathynomus jamesi sp. nov. can be distinguished from the congeners by the distal margin of pleotelson with 11 or 13 short straight spines and central spine not bifid; uropodal endopod and exopod with distolateral corner slightly pronounced; clypeus with lateral margins concave; and antennal flagellum extending when extended posteriorly reaches the pereonite 3. In addition, Bathynomus jamesi sp. nov. is also supported by molecular analyses based on mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The distribution range of the new species includes the western Pacific and north-western Indian Ocean. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution and species identification in the crustacean isopod genus Dynamene Leach, 1814 along the North East Atlantic-Black Sea axis

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Pedro E.; Queiroga, Henrique; Costa, Filipe O.; Holdich, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sphaeromatid isopods, such as Dynamene, are common and abundant members of the invertebrate fauna of littoral and shallow sublittoral substrates. Six species of Dynamene occur in the northern hemisphere. Only two species exist outside this range, in Australia. The distribution of the various species in the NE Atlantic-Black Sea axis has been controversial due to the difficulty in the identification of the different species. This has led to inaccurate records of their distribution, ultimately generating uncertain or faulty assessments on the biodiversity of these habitats. An update and a clarification about the distribution of this genus is therefore in order. In this study, we describe the distribution of Dynamene species in the light of new records from the NE Atlantic Ocean and its associated islands, and the Mediterranean, Black and Red Seas, and from re-examination of museum and several authors’ personal collections. Based on these observations, we extend the northern and southern limits of Dynamene bidentata (Adams); the western and southern limits of Dynamene magnitorata Holdich; the northern, eastern and western limits of Dynamene edwardsi (Lucas); and the eastern and western limits of Dynamene bifida Torelli. The range of Dynamene tubicauda Holdich is extended, but is still only known from the eastern Mediterranean. We also clarify the synonymy of Dynamene torelliae Holdich with Dynamene bicolor (Rathke), and the occurrence of Dynamene bicolor in the Black Sea. New distribution maps of the six Dynamene species are presented. Illustrated keys to the adult males and females of the northern hemisphere species are provided. PMID:27917055

  6. Patterns of taxonomic diversity among terrestrial isopods

    PubMed Central

    Sfenthourakis, Spyros; Taiti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The publication of the world catalog of terrestrial isopods some ten years ago by Schmalfuss has facilitated research on isopod diversity patterns at a global scale. Furthermore, even though we still lack a comprehensive and robust phylogeny of Oniscidea, we do have some useful approaches to phylogenetic relationships among major clades which can offer additional insights into isopod evolutionary dynamics. Taxonomic diversity is one of many approaches to biodiversity and, despite its sensitiveness to biases in taxonomic practice, has proved useful in exploring diversification dynamics of various taxa. In the present work, we attempt an analysis of taxonomic diversity patterns among Oniscidea based on an updated world list of species containing 3,710 species belonging to 527 genera and 37 families (data till April 2014). The analysis explores species diversity at the genus and family level, as well as the relationships between species per genera, species per families, and genera per families. In addition, we consider the structure of isopod taxonomic system under the fractal perspective that has been proposed as a measure of a taxon’s diversification. Finally, we check whether there is any phylogenetic signal behind taxonomic diversity patterns. The results can be useful in a more detailed elaboration of Oniscidea systematics. PMID:26261437

  7. Wolbachia in Neotropical terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Bianca L; Bouchon, Didier; Almerão, Maurício P; Araujo, Paula B

    2015-04-01

    Despite Wolbachia being widespread among terrestrial isopods, studies on this symbiotic relationship are still incipient in the Neotropical region. The aims of the present study were to investigate the presence and prevalence of Wolbachia in natural populations of terrestrial isopod species in South America, and to analyze the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia strains. A total of 1172 individuals representing 11 families and 35 species were analyzed. We observed distinct evolutionary scenarios according to the geographical origins of the species: strains harbored by most of the introduced species belong to the Oniclade in supergroup B and are identical to those found in their original ecozone (i.e. Palearctic). On the other hand, the strains found in native Neotropical terrestrial isopods showed low prevalence, high diversity and none of them belonged to the Oniclade, although most belonged to supergroup B. The dynamics of infection in Neotropical species seems to be the result of several events of loss and acquisition of the bacteria, which refutes the hypothesis of an ancestral acquisition of Wolbachia in Oniscidea. The presence of strains from supergroups A and F was also detected for the first time in terrestrial isopods, revealing a Wolbachia diversity previously unknown for this group of host.

  8. Active and passive migration in boring isopods Limnoria spp. (Crustacea, Peracarida) from kelp holdfasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Leonardo; Thiel, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Many boring isopods inhabit positively buoyant substrata (wood and algae), which float after detachment, permitting passive migration of inhabitants. Based on observations from previous studies, it was hypothesized that juvenile, subadult and male isopods migrate actively, and will rapidly abandon substrata after detachment. In contrast, reproductive females and small offspring were predicted to remain in floating substrata and thus have a high probability to disperse passively via rafting. In order to test this hypothesis, a colonization and an emigration experiment were conducted with giant kelp ( Macrocystis integrifolia), the holdfasts of which are inhabited by boring isopods from the genus Limnoria. A survey of benthic substrata in the kelp forest confirmed that limnoriids inhabited the holdfasts and did not occur in holdfast-free samples. Results of the colonization experiment showed that all life history stages of the boring isopods immigrated into young, largely uncolonized holdfasts, and after 16 weeks all holdfasts were densely colonized. In the emigration experiment, all life history stages of the isopods rapidly abandoned the detached holdfasts — already 5 min after detachment only few individuals remained in the floating holdfasts. After this initial rapid emigration of isopods, little changes in isopod abundance occurred during the following 24 h, and at the end of the experiment some individuals of all life history stages still remained in the holdfasts. These results indicate that all life history stages of Limnoria participate in both active migration and passive dispersal. It is discussed that storm-related dynamics within kelp forests may contribute to intense mixing of local populations of these burrow-dwelling isopods, and that most immigrants to young holdfasts probably are individuals emigrating from old holdfasts detached during storm events. The fact that some individuals of all life history stages and both sexes remain in floating

  9. Sea-land transitions in isopods: pattern of symbiont distribution in two species of intertidal isopods Ligia pallasii and Ligia occidentalis in the Eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Eberl, Renate

    2010-07-01

    Studies of microbial associations of intertidal isopods in the primitive genus Ligia (Oniscidea, Isopoda) can help our understanding of the formation of symbioses during sea-land transitions, as terrestrial Oniscidean isopods have previously been found to house symbionts in their hepatopancreas. Ligia pallasii and Ligia occidentalis co-occur in the high intertidal zone along the Eastern Pacific with a large zone of range overlap and both species showing patchy distributions. In 16S rRNA clone libraries mycoplasma-like bacteria (Firmicutes), related to symbionts described from terrestrial isopods, were the most common bacteria present in both host species. There was greater overall microbial diversity in Ligia pallasii compared with L. occidentalis. Populations of both Ligia species along an extensive area of the eastern Pacific coastline were screened for the presence of mycoplasma-like symbionts with symbiont-specific primers. Symbionts were present in all host populations from both species but not in all individuals. Phylogenetically, symbionts of intertidal isopods cluster together. Host habitat, in addition to host phylogeny appears to influence the phylogenetic relation of symbionts.

  10. First recorded cave-dwelling terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in Iran with a description of a new species .

    PubMed

    Kashani, Ghasem M; Malekhosseini, Mohammad-Javad; Sadeghi, Saber

    2013-11-08

    Cave-dwelling terrestrial isopods from the province of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad, southwestern Iran, are reported here. These include three accidental and one troglobitic species namely Protracheoniscus gakalicus n. sp., which is also the first recorded troglobitic species from the genus Protracheoniscus. The new species is readily distinguished by the lack of eyes and pigmentation.

  11. The first complete mitogenome of the South China deep-sea giant isopod Bathynomus sp. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cirolanidae) allows insights into the early mitogenomic evolution of isopods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanjun; Kou, Qi; Zhong, Zaixuan; Li, Xinzheng; He, Lisheng; He, Shunping; Gan, Xiaoni

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the South China deep-sea giant isopod Bathynomus sp. was determined, and this study is the first to explore in detail the mt genome of a deep-sea member of the order Isopoda. This species belongs to the genus Bathynomus, the members of which are saprophagous residents of the deep-sea benthic environment; based on their large size, Bathynomus is included in the "supergiant group" of isopods. The mt genome of Bathynomus sp. is 14,965 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, only 18 transfer RNA genes, and a noncoding control region 362 bp in length, which is the smallest control region discovered in Isopoda to date. Although the overall genome organization is typical for metazoans, the mt genome of Bathynomus sp. shows a number of derived characters, such as an inversion of 10 genes when compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Rearrangements in some genes (e.g., cob, trnT, nad5, and trnF) are shared by nearly all isopod mt genomes analyzed thus far, and when compared to the putative isopod ground pattern, five rearrangements were found in Bathynomus sp. Two tRNAs exhibit modified secondary structures: The TΨC arm is absent from trnQ, and trnC lacks the DHU. Within the class Malacostraca, trnC arm loss is only found in other isopods. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Bathynomus sp. (Cymothoida) and Sphaeroma serratum (Sphaeromatidea) form a single clade, although it is unclear whether Cymothoida is monophyletic or paraphyletic. Moreover, the evolutionary rate of Bathynomus sp. (dN/dS [nonsynonymous mutational rate/synonymous mutational rate] = 0.0705) is the slowest measured to date among Cymothoida, which may be associated with its relatively constant deep-sea environment. Overall, our results may provide useful information for understanding the evolution of deep-sea Isopoda species.

  12. Pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complexes on terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Raimond, Maryline; Prats, Olivier; Lafitte, Alexandra; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus, on the survival of eight terrestrial isopod species. The EPN species S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora reduced the survival of six isopod species while S. feltiae reduced survival for two species. Two terrestrial isopod species tested (Armadillidium vulgare and Armadillo officinalis) were found not to be affected by treatment with EPNs while the six other isopod species showed survival reduction with at least one EPN species. By using aposymbiotic S. carpocapsae (i.e. without Xenorhabdus symbionts), we showed that nematodes can be isopod pathogens on their own. Nevertheless, symbiotic nematodes were more pathogenic for isopods than aposymbiotic ones showing that bacteria acted synergistically with their nematodes to kill isopods. By direct injection of entomopathogenic bacteria into isopod hemolymph, we showed that bacteria had a pathogenic effect on terrestrial isopods even if they appeared unable to multiply within isopod hemolymphs. A developmental study of EPNs in isopods showed that two of them (S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora) were able to develop while S. feltiae could not. No EPN species were able to produce offspring emerging from isopods. We conclude that EPN and their bacteria can be pathogens for terrestrial isopods but that such hosts represent a reproductive dead-end for them. Thus, terrestrial isopods appear not to be alternative hosts for EPN populations maintained in the absence of insects.

  13. The Australian fresh water isopod (Phreatoicidea: Isopoda) allows insights into the early mitogenomic evolution of isopods.

    PubMed

    Kilpert, Fabian; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2010-03-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the Australian fresh water isopod Eophreatoicus sp.-14 has been determined. The new species is a member of the taxon Phreatoicidea, a clade of particular interest, as it is often regarded as the sister group to all other Isopoda. Although the overall genome organization of Eophreatoicus sp.-14 conforms to the typical state of Metazoa--it is a circular ring of DNA hosting the usual 37 genes and one major non-coding region--it bears a number of derived characters that fall within the scope of "genome morphology". Earlier studies have indicated that the isopod mitochondrial gene order is not as conserved as that of other crustaceans. Indeed, the mt genome of Eophreatoicus sp.-14 shows an inversion of seven genes (including cox1), which is as far as we know unique. Even more interesting is the derived arrangement of nad1, trnL(CUN), rrnS, control region, cob, trnT, nad5 and trnF that is shared by nearly all available isopod mt genomes. A striking feature is the close proximity of the rearranged genes to the mt control region. Inferable gene translocation events are, however, more suitable to trace the evolution of mt genomes. Genes like nad1/trnL(CUN) and nad5/trnF, which retained their adjacent position after being rearranged, were most likely translocated together. A very good example for the need to understand the mechanisms of translocations is the remolding of trnL(UUR) to trnL(CUN). Both tRNA genes are adjacent and have a high sequence similarity, probably the result of a gene duplication and subsequent anticodon mutation. Modified secondary structures were found in three tRNAs of Eophreatoicus sp.-14, which are all characterized by the loss of the DHU-arm. This is common to crustaceans for tRNA Serine(AGY), while the arm-loss in tRNA Cysteine within Malacostraca is only shared by other isopods. Modification of the third tRNA, Isoleucine, is not known from any other related species. Nucleotide frequencies of

  14. Thermal stress studies on selected zooplankton species and an isopod

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, D.L.; Cheper, N.J.

    1980-06-01

    Laboratory determination of temperature stress levels and assessment of their ecological consequences was carried out for selected zooplankton species to develop data for ecological impact associated with industrial use of natural water for cooling. An included literature search revealed substantial fish and benthos data, but little on stress temperature effects on zooplankton. Information was gathered on two cladocerans, four copepods and an isopod.

  15. Iridovirus infection in terrestrial isopods from Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Lupetti, Pietro; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Ciolfi, Silvia; Marri, Laura; Gentile, Mariangela; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2013-10-01

    During our researches on systematics and ecology of terrestrial isopods, carried out in western Sicily, some specimens showing a blue-purple coloration were collected; they belonged to four species: Armadillidium decorum Brandt, 1833, Trichoniscus panormidensis Montesanto et al., 2011, Philoscia affinis Verhoeff, 1908, Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi et al., 1992. We hypothesized that such coloration could be due, as reported in literature, to characteristic paracrystalline arrays of virions inside the tissues of blue colored specimens. Ultrastructural observations by transmission electron microscopy, on tissues of A. decorum, showed the presence of electron-dense viral particles, with a diameter of nearly 0.12μm. Dual-axis tomography, performed on specimens of A. decorum, evidenced an icosahedral structure of viral particles matching with that of Isopod Iridescent Virus (IIV). Molecular analysis, on 254bp portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene, allowed to place the virus into IIV-31 group, already known for other oniscidean species. The symptoms of infected individuals and the course of the disease were followed in laboratory, indicating similarities with other studies on Isopod Iridoviruses. Moreover, some notes on reproduction of infected ovigerous females are reported. Our data support unequivocal and direct evidences for the first case of IIV infection in terrestrial isopods reported in Italy.

  16. Is size-assortative mating important for rapid pigment differentiation in a freshwater isopod?

    PubMed

    Hargeby, A; Erlandsson, J

    2006-11-01

    Identifying mechanisms behind assortative mating is central to the understanding of ecological divergence and speciation. Recent studies show that populations of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus can rapidly become locally differentiated when submerged Chara vegetation expands in lakes. In the novel Chara habitat, isopods have become lighter pigmented and smaller than in ancestral reed stands. In this study, we used a laboratory multiple-choice experiment to investigate assortative mating as a possible prezygotic reproductive barrier between Chara and reed isopods. Mating was assortative when Chara isopods were experimentally mixed with isopods from an adjacent reed site with large-size individuals, suggesting a partial prezygotic reproductive barrier. No deviation from random mating could, however, be detected when Chara isopods were mixed with smaller sized isopods from another reed site. In both experiments, assortative mating was apparently based on size, as Chara isopods were larger and reed isopods smaller in mixed pairs than in assortative pairs. Pigmentation did not have any clear influence on mating. We suggest that divergence in pigmentation evolved through natural selection in conjunction with size-assortative mating indirectly causing assortative mating between Chara and reed isopods. Size-assortative mating is likely a by-product of natural selection, but its importance may hypothetically be transient, if selection erodes the correlation between pigmentation and size over time.

  17. Pyrethroid pesticide effects on behavioral responses of aquatic isopods to danger cues.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Carolyn K; Poquette, Signe R; Whitlow, W Lindsay

    2014-04-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the behavioral responses of non-target organisms in order to determine whether phototactic responses of isopods to danger cues are altered as a function of exposure to the pyrethroid pesticides λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin. Experiments conducted on Gnorimosphaeroma oregonensis identified sublethal behavioral responses to pyrethroids, λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin at concentrations 0.15 ng/mL, 0.025 ng/mL, and 0.005 ng/mL. Experimental setup tested isopod phototactic responses across six treatments: control, pyrethroid, hemolymph, predator, hemolymph + pyrethroid, and predator + pyrethroid. Isopods exhibited no preference for phototactic responses in the control and pyrethroid treatments. When exposed to danger cues (hemolymph or predator), isopods exhibited significant negative phototaxis, as expected. When exposure to danger cues was combined with pyrethroids, isopods again exhibited no preference for phototactic response. Experiments indicate that pyrethroids diminish isopod's negatively phototactic response to danger cues.

  18. Distribution of isopod parasites in Carangid fishes from Parangipettai, Southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Ramesh, Mathan

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean parasites absorb their nourishment directly from hosts for feeding. The present study was aimed at collecting information as possible on this so far neglected group of isopod parasites of the Carangid fishes of Parangipettai coastal environment. A very little information is available regarding the isopod parasites of Carangid fishes. In the present study six species of isopods belonging to 3 genera were found on four species of fishes. The distribution of Catoessa boscii is found throughout the year.

  19. Occurrence of cymothoid isopod from Miri, East Malaysian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Anand Kumar, A; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Priya, E Rethna; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Leng, Alex Goh Kwang

    2015-06-01

    To identify the isopod parasite, which has been recorded from Miri, East Malaysian marine fishes. During the present study, four cymothoid isopods are reported three genera, including Cymothoa eremita, Lobothorax typus, Nerocila longispina and Nerocila loveni. Nerocila longispina and N. loveni are also previously reported from Malaysia and two additional cymothoids C. eremita and L. typus are reported for the first record of Miri coast, East Malaysia. New hosts were identified for N. loveni on Chirocentrus dorab for the first time in the world fauna. The Parasitological indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. These parasites can cause the damage in gill, eye and internal organ including swim bladder. Marine fish parasitology is a rapidly developing field of aquatic science.

  20. Transformations of mercury in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Jereb, Vesna; Horvat, Milena; Drobne, Damjana; Pihlar, Boris

    2003-03-20

    The biological cycle of mercury in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber was investigated. Testing the possibility of in vivo Hg(2+) methylation was divided into two methodologically different parts. Firstly, concentrations of total mercury and MeHg in isopods P. scaber and their environment from a Hg-unpolluted area were measured by the use of validated methods (CV AAS, CV AFS). The data obtained show that the percentage of MeHg in leaves, soil and faeces was less than 1%. In contrast, the percentage of MeHg in gut and hepatopancreas was increased to 14 and 77%, respectively, indicating methylation of Hg(2+) in the gut and its further accumulation in glands. To confirm this assumption, the second methodology was applied-a radiotracer technique with 203Hg(2+) of high specific activity. There are few radiotracer techniques for Hg-methylation assays; for our work we chose the method of Czuba et al. which includes alkaline leaching of Hg species, their extraction into dithizone-toluene, followed by specific separation of Hg dithizonates by thin-layer chromatography and gamma counting. All steps of the analytical protocol were checked and optimised by the use of aqueous solutions of 203Hg(2+) and Me(203)Hg(+). The most important finding was that cleaning-up the extract through a florisil column is not appropriate, because the column retains different percentages of Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) and consequently affects the accuracy of the final result. This optimised protocol was then applied to Hg transformation studies in the terrestrial isopod P. scaber. Leaching Hg species from P. scaber fed with 203Hg(2+) or Me(203)Hg(+) dosed food was completely efficient only at elevated temperatures. Preliminary results of methylation/demethlytion studies are rather variable but they show that both processes (Hg(2+)<-->MeHg(+)) take place in the isopod P. scaber. Additionally, an assessment of the mass balance of Hg in isopods P. scaber exposed to 203Hg(2+) indicates that volatile Hg

  1. Fate of microplastics in the marine isopod Idotea emarginata.

    PubMed

    Hämer, Julia; Gutow, Lars; Köhler, Angela; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2014-11-18

    Plastic pollution is an emerging global threat for marine wildlife. Many species of birds, reptiles, and fishes are directly impaired by plastics as they can get entangled in ropes and drown or they can ingest plastic fragments which, in turn, may clog their stomachs and guts. Microplastics of less than 1 mm can be ingested by small invertebrates, but their fate in the digestive organs and their effects on the animals are yet not well understood. We embedded fluorescent microplastics in artificial agarose-based food and offered the food to marine isopods, Idotea emarginata. The isopods did not distinguish between food with and food without microplastics. Upon ingestion, the microplastics were present in the stomach and in the gut but not in the tubules of the midgut gland which is the principal organ of enzyme-secretion and nutrient resorption. The feces contained the same concentration of microplastics as the food which indicates that no accumulation of microplastics happens during the gut passage. Long-term bioassays of 6 weeks showed no distinct effects of continuous microplastic consumption on mortality, growth, and intermolt duration. I. emarginata are able to prevent intrusion of particles even smaller than 1 μm into the midgut gland which is facilitated by the complex structure of the stomach including a fine filter system. It separates the midgut gland tubules from the stomach and allows only the passage of fluids and chyme. Our results indicate that microplastics, as administered in the experiments, do not clog the digestive organs of isopods and do not have adverse effects on their life history parameters.

  2. Host-specificity of environmentally transmitted Mycoplasma-like isopod symbionts.

    PubMed

    Fraune, Sebastian; Zimmer, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Mycoplasms are known as pathogens of economic and medical interest in plants, animals and man. Here, we show a positive correlation between the presence of Mycoplasma-like symbionts in their isopod hosts and survivorship on low-quality food. Most isopods that survived feeding on a cellulose-based low-quality diet for 90 days harboured 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma' in their midgut glands, while those that died within 90 days mostly either harboured no or other bacterial symbionts. We detected 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma' in all but one of the examined species of terrestrial isopods from different habitats and locations, suggesting an evolutionarily ancient association between terrestrial isopods and their Mycoplasma-like symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses clustered symbionts from different populations of the same isopod species together, and clearly distinguished between symbionts of different isopod species, indicating host-specificity of 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma', although a previous study provided evidence for environmental symbiont transmission. Nonetheless, horizontal exchange of symbionts between species may have been possible in evolutionary earlier stages, as suggested by only limited congruency of phylogenetic trees of hosts and symbionts. Another symbiont, 'Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum', was only detected in midgut glands of the most terrestrial tribe of isopods (Crinocheta), suggesting an evolutionarily younger host-symbiont association. This symbiont proved to be negatively correlated with host longevity, even on high-quality food.

  3. Bioaccumulation of hexachlorobenzene in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Kampe, Sebastian; Schlechtriem, Christian

    2016-11-01

    A test system to investigate the biomagnification of organic chemicals in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber was developed and validated. Adult isopods were fed on alder leaf powder (Alnus glutinosa) spiked with [(14) C]hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Test animals, sampled regularly during the uptake (16 d) and depuration phases (16 d), were analyzed, and the kinetics of tissue concentrations were determined. Uptake (k1 ) and depuration rates (k2 ) were calculated to estimate kinetic biomagnification factors (BMFs). In addition, the effect of coprophagy on the uptake and accumulation of HCB as well as the tissue distribution of HCB in P. scaber was investigated. The test system was shown to be suitable for investigations into the terrestrial bioaccumulation of chemicals. Coprophagy had no effect on the bioaccumulation of HCB in P. scaber. The hepatopancreas was identified as the main target tissue for HCB accumulation. The low BMF of 0.057 resulted from an assimilation efficiency (α) of 31.42%, a low uptake rate k1 (0.009 d(-1) ), and a high depuration rate k2 (0.164 d(-1) ). The results indicate that the terrestrial bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in P. scaber might not represent a worst-case scenario for biomagnification, limiting the value of the test system for the regulatory assessment of organic chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2867-2873. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and transferability in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Isabelle; Valette, Victorien; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies.

  5. Terrestrial isopods -- a good choice for toxicity testing of pollutants in the terrestrial environment

    SciTech Connect

    Drobne, D.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial isopods are suitable invertebrates for testing the relative toxicities of chemicals present in the terrestrial environment. Terrestrial isopods respond in numerous ways to elevated concentrations of chemicals in their food, but only a few of these responses can be used as toxicological endpoints. The most suitable are changes in reproduction, food consumption, moult cycle duration, and structure of the digestive glands. These responses are able to provide accurate indications of sublethal toxicity. Toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods could be much more reliable through the use of positive controls. A positive control with a reference toxicant could also be supplemented by a reference endpoint. The most suitable reference endpoint is change of food consumption rate. Toxicity testing with terrestrial isopods is a very promising method for fast, routine, and inexpensive laboratory determination of the relative toxicities of chemicals in the terrestrial environment.

  6. Candidate pathogenicity islands in the genome of 'Candidatus Rickettsiella isopodorum', an intracellular bacterium infecting terrestrial isopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Wang, YaDong; Chandler, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial genus Rickettsiellabelongs to the order Legionellales in the Gammaproteobacteria, and consists of several described species and pathotypes, most of which are considered to be intracellular pathogens infecting arthropods. Two members of this genus, R. grylliand R. isopodorum, are known to infect terrestrial isopod crustaceans. In this study, we assembled a draft genomic sequence for R. isopodorum, and performed a comparative genomic analysis with R. grylli. We found evidence for several candidate genomic island regions in R. isopodorum, none of which appear in the previously available R. grylli genome sequence.Furthermore, one of these genomic island candidates in R. isopodorum contained a gene that encodes a cytotoxin partially homologous to those found in Photorhabdus luminescensand Xenorhabdus nematophilus (Enterobacteriaceae), suggesting that horizontal gene transfer may have played a role in the evolution of pathogenicity in Rickettsiella. These results lay the groundwork for future studies on the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis in R. isopodorum, and this system may provide a good model for studying the evolution of host-microbe interactions in nature.

  7. Candidate pathogenicity islands in the genome of ‘Candidatus Rickettsiella isopodorum’, an intracellular bacterium infecting terrestrial isopod crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YaDong

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial genus Rickettsiellabelongs to the order Legionellales in the Gammaproteobacteria, and consists of several described species and pathotypes, most of which are considered to be intracellular pathogens infecting arthropods. Two members of this genus, R. grylliand R. isopodorum, are known to infect terrestrial isopod crustaceans. In this study, we assembled a draft genomic sequence for R. isopodorum, and performed a comparative genomic analysis with R. grylli. We found evidence for several candidate genomic island regions in R. isopodorum, none of which appear in the previously available R. grylli genome sequence.Furthermore, one of these genomic island candidates in R. isopodorum contained a gene that encodes a cytotoxin partially homologous to those found in Photorhabdus luminescensand Xenorhabdus nematophilus (Enterobacteriaceae), suggesting that horizontal gene transfer may have played a role in the evolution of pathogenicity in Rickettsiella. These results lay the groundwork for future studies on the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis in R. isopodorum, and this system may provide a good model for studying the evolution of host-microbe interactions in nature. PMID:28028472

  8. Global Diversity of Marine Isopods (Except Asellota and Crustacean Symbionts)

    PubMed Central

    Poore, Gary C. B.; Bruce, Niel L.

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10–1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from

  9. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  10. Distribution of isopod parasites in commercially important marine fishes of the Miri coast, East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Anand Kumar, A; Rameshkumar, G; Ravichandran, S; Nagarajan, R; Prabakaran, K; Ramesh, M

    2017-03-01

    Isopods occur very commonly as parasites in food fishes. Parasitic isopods are typically marine and usually inhabit the warmer seas. They are blood-feeding; several species settle in the buccal cavity of fish, others live in the gill chamber or on the body surface including the fins. Isopods can cause morbidity and mortality in captive fish populations. The infestation usually pressure atrophy often accompanies the presence of larger parasites. The present study was aimed at collecting information on the neglected group of isopod parasites of the marine fishes from the Miri coastal environment, East Malaysia. A very little information available regarding the distribution of isopod parasites of Malaysian coastal environment. In the present study, nine isopod parasites were  oberved from ten marine fish species. The maximum number of parasites were observed in the months of June and October, 2013. Maximum prevalence was observed in October (50 %) and the minimum was observed in June (7.14 %). The parasitic infestation may lead to an economic loss in commercial fish species.

  11. Biotope and biology of Armadillidium album Dollfuss, a terrestrial isopod of sandy beaches, in the SW Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vader, Wim; De Wolf, Lein

    The supralittoral isopod Armadillidium album Dollfus is common, although patchily distributed, under driftwood on the foreshore of broad sandy beaches on the outer coast of the Delta area in the SW Netherlands. The isopods are very tolerant of immersion in seawater, but are nevertheless confined to a narrow zone just above normal spring tides. A. album is a sexually reproducing isopod, with a single well-defined reproductive period in summer and a lifespan of two years. In spite of its very specialized biotope, the life cycle and reproductive strategy of A. album do not deviate substantially from those of related ubiquitous terrestrial isopods.

  12. Locally differentiated cryptic pigmentation in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Hargeby, A; Stoltz, J; Johansson, J

    2005-05-01

    A repeated pattern of background colour matching in animals is an indication that pigmentation may be cryptic. Here, we examine the relationship between pigmentation of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus and background darkness in 29 lakes, wetlands and ponds in Southern Sweden. The results show that Asellus pigmentation was correlated with substrate darkness across all localities. In seven localities, in which two contrasting substrate types were noted, Asellus populations were differentiated with respect to pigmentation. These findings thus provide phenomenological support for cryptic pigmentation in Asellus. Pigmentation generally increased with body size, but the relationship between pigmentation and size differed among localities, possibly as a result of differences in correlational selection on pigmentation and size. Selection thus appears to have resulted in local differentiation over a small spatial scale, even within lakes and wetlands. This differentiation is a likely cause behind elevated phenotype variation noted in localities with two substrate types, suggesting that habitat heterogeneity promotes genetic diversity.

  13. Global diversity of fish parasitic isopod crustaceans of the family Cymothoidae

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico J.; Bruce, Niel L.; Hadfield, Kerry A.

    2014-01-01

    Of the 95 known families of Isopoda only a few are parasitic namely, Bopyridae, Cryptoniscidae, Cymothoidae, Dajidae, Entoniscidae, Gnathiidae and Tridentellidae. Representatives from the family Cymothoidae are obligate parasites of both marine and freshwater fishes and there are currently 40 recognised cymothoid genera worldwide. These isopods are large (>6 mm) parasites, thus easy to observe and collect, yet many aspects of their biodiversity and biology are still unknown. They are widely distributed around the world and occur in many different habitats, but mostly in shallow waters in tropical or subtropical areas. A number of adaptations to an obligatory parasitic existence have been observed, such as the body shape, which is influenced by the attachment site on the host. Cymothoids generally have a long, slender body tapering towards the ends and the efficient contour of the body offers minimum resistance to the water flow and can withstand the forces of this particular habitat. Other adaptations to this lifestyle include small sensory antennae and eyes; a very heavily thickened and calcified cuticle for protection; and sharply curved hooks on the ends of the pereopods which allows these parasites to attach to the host. Most cymothoids are highly site and host specific. Some of these parasitic cymothoids have been reported to parasitise the same host fish species for over 100 years, showing this species specificity. The site of attachment on the host (gills, mouth, external surfaces or inside the host flesh) can also be genus or species specific. This paper aims to provide a summary of our current knowledge of cymothoid biodiversity and will highlight their history of discovery, morphology, relationships and classification, taxonomic diversity and ecology. PMID:25180163

  14. Traits underpinning desiccation resistance explain distribution patterns of terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Dias, André T C; Krab, Eveline J; Mariën, Janine; Zimmer, Martin; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Ellers, Jacintha; Wardle, David A; Berg, Matty P

    2013-07-01

    Predicted changes in soil water availability regimes with climate and land-use change will impact the community of functionally important soil organisms, such as macro-detritivores. Identifying and quantifying the functional traits that underlie interspecific differences in desiccation resistance will enhance our ability to predict both macro-detritivore community responses to changing water regimes and the consequences of the associated species shifts for organic matter turnover. Using path analysis, we tested (1) how interspecific differences in desiccation resistance among 22 northwestern European terrestrial isopod species could be explained by three underlying traits measured under standard laboratory conditions, namely, body ventral surface area, water loss rate and fatal water loss; (2) whether these relationships were robust to contrasting experimental conditions and to the phylogenetic relatedness effects being excluded; (3) whether desiccation resistance and hypothesized underlying traits could explain species distribution patterns in relation to site water availability. Water loss rate and (secondarily) fatal water loss together explained 90% of the interspecific variation in desiccation resistance. Our path model indicated that body surface area affects desiccation resistance only indirectly via changes in water loss rate. Our results also show that soil moisture determines isopod species distributions by filtering them according to traits underpinning desiccation resistance. These findings reveal that it is possible to use functional traits measured under standard conditions to predict soil biota responses to water availability in the field over broad spatial scales. Taken together, our results demonstrate an increasing need to generate mechanistic models to predict the effect of global changes on functionally important organisms.

  15. Activity syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-03-01

    Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.

  16. Widespread atypical mitochondrial DNA structure in isopods (Crustacea, Peracarida) related to a constitutive heteroplasmy in terrestrial species.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Raimond, Roland; Grandjean, Frédéric; Lafitte, Alexandra; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Marcadé, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    Metazoan mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally composed of circular monomeric molecules. However, a few exceptions do exist and among them two terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellionides pruinosus have an atypical mtDNA composed of linear monomers associated with circular "head-to-head" dimers: a very unusual structure for animal mtDNA genome. To assess the distribution of this atypical mtDNA among isopods, we performed RFLP and Southern blot analyses on mtDNA of 16 terrestrial (Oniscidea family) and two aquatic isopod species: the marine Sphaeroma serratum (suborder Flabellifera, sister group of Oniscidea) and the freshwater Asellus aquaticus (Asellota, early derived taxon of isopod). The atypical mtDNA structure was observed in 15 terrestrial isopod species and A. aquaticus, suggesting a wide distribution of atypical mtDNA among isopods. However, a typical metazoan mtDNA structure was detected in the marine isopod S. serratum and the Oniscidea Ligia oceanica . Our results suggest two possible scenarios: an early origin of the atypical mtDNA in isopods followed by reversion to the typical ancestral mtDNA structure for several species, or a convergent appearance of the atypical mtDNA structure in two isopod suborders. We compare this distribution of the atypical mtDNA structure with the presence of a heteroplasmy also observed in the mtDNA of several terrestrial isopod species. We discuss if this transmitted heteroplasmy is vectored by the atypical mtDNA and its impact on the maintenance of the atypical mtDNA in isopods.

  17. Phylogeographic patterns of a lower intertidal isopod in the Gulf of California and the Caribbean and comparison with other intertidal isopods.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Luis A; Mateos, Mariana; Liu, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of knowledge on the diversity and evolution of intertidal isopods across different regions worldwide has enhanced our understanding on biological diversification at the poorly studied, yet vast, sea-land interface. High genetic divergences among numerous allopatric lineages have been identified within presumed single broadly distributed species. Excirolana mayana is an intertidal isopod that is commonly found in sandy beaches throughout the Gulf of California. Its distribution in the Pacific extends from this basin to Colombia and in the Atlantic from Florida to Venezuela. Despite its broad distribution and ecological importance, its evolutionary history has been largely neglected. Herein, we examined phylogeographic patterns of E. mayana in the Gulf of California and the Caribbean, based on maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from four mitochondrial genes (16S rDNA, 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I gene, and cytochrome b gene). We compared the phylogeographic patterns of E. mayana with those of the coastal isopods Ligia and Excirolana braziliensis (Gulf of California and Caribbean) and Tylos (Gulf of California). We found highly divergent lineages in both, the Gulf of California and Caribbean, suggesting the presence of multiple species. We identified two instances of Atlantic-Pacific divergences. Some geographical structuring among the major clades found in the Caribbean is observed. Haplotypes from the Gulf of California form a monophyletic group sister to a lineage found in Venezuela. Phylogeographic patterns of E. mayana in the Gulf of California differ from those observed in Ligia and Tylos in this region. Nonetheless, several clades of E. mayana have similar distributions to clades of these two other isopod taxa. The high levels of cryptic diversity detected in E. mayana also pose challenges for the conservation of this isopod and its fragile environment, the sandy shores.

  18. Cadmium assimilation in the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio dilatatus--is trophic transfer important?

    PubMed

    Calhôa, Carla Filipa; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Mann, Reinier M

    2006-12-01

    Terrestrial isopods have become important tools for the ecotoxicological assessment of metal-contaminated soils. Their value as an invertebrate model is partly because of their extraordinary capacity to bioaccumulate toxic metals from the environment. Replication of this accumulation process in the laboratory has in the past relied on the amendment of organic food substrates through the addition of inorganic metal salts. However, the bioavailability of the metals when presented through doping regimes may differ from the bioavailability of metals in nature, because over time metals become biologically compartmentalised and form complexes with organic molecules. This study examines the differential bioavailability of Cd to the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio dilatatus, when presented as either a Cd-amended diet or pre-incorporated biologically into lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Isopods were either provided with lettuce contaminated superficially with Cd(NO(3))(2) or lettuce grown hydroponically in growth media containing 100 microM Cd(NO(3))(2). Assimilation efficiency of Cd was greater among isopods that were fed the amended diet (71%, S.E.=7%), than among isopods feeding on biologically contaminated lettuce (52%, S.E.=5%) and demonstrates that speciation of Cd is likely to influence the rate of Cd assimilation and accumulation in a laboratory test.

  19. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Lapanje, A; Drobne, D; Nolde, N; Valant, J; Muscet, B; Leser, V; Rupnik, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10microg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed.

  20. Evidence for Permo-Triassic colonization of the deep sea by isopods.

    PubMed

    Lins, Luana S F; Ho, Simon Y W; Wilson, George D F; Lo, Nathan

    2012-12-23

    The deep sea is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth and is home to a highly diverse fauna, with polychaetes, molluscs and peracarid crustaceans as dominant groups. A number of studies have proposed that this fauna did not survive the anoxic events that occurred during the Mesozoic Era. Accordingly, the modern fauna is thought to be relatively young, perhaps having colonized the deep sea after the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. To test this hypothesis, we performed phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal 18S and 28S and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and 16S sequences from isopod crustaceans. Using a molecular clock calibrated with multiple isopod fossils, we estimated the timing of deep-sea colonization events by isopods. Our results show that some groups have an ancient origin in the deep sea, with the earliest estimated dates spanning 232-314 Myr ago. Therefore, anoxic events at the Permian-Triassic boundary and during the Mesozoic did not cause the extinction of all the deep-sea fauna; some species may have gone extinct while others survived and proliferated. The monophyly of the 'munnopsid radiation' within the isopods suggests that the ancestors of this group evolved in the deep sea and did not move to shallow-water refugia during anoxic events.

  1. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND ENERGETICS OF THE BOPRYID ISOPOD PARASITE ORTHIONE GRIFFENIS IN MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The population structure and energetic burden of bopyrid isopod parasite Orthione griffenis on the eastern Pacific mud shrimp Upogebia pugettensis are estimated from size and weight relationships between parasite and host. U. pugettensis weight loss increases with O. griffenis weight but the high v...

  2. Evidence for widespread Wolbachia infection in isopod crustaceans: molecular identification and host feminization.

    PubMed Central

    Bouchon, D; Rigaud, T; Juchault, P

    1998-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited, intracellular, alpha proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They cause three kinds of reproductive alterations in their hosts: cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. There have been many studies of the distribution of Wolbachia in arthropods, but very few crustacean species are known to be infected. We investigated the prevalence of Wolbachia in 85 species from five crustacean orders. Twenty-two isopod species were found to carry these bacteria. The bacteria were found mainly in terrestrial species, suggesting that Wolbachia came from a continental environment. The evolutionary relationships between these Wolbachia strains were determined by sequencing bacterial genes and by interspecific transfers. All the bacteria associated with isopods belonged to the Wolbachia B group, based on 16S rDNA sequence data. All the terrestrial isopod symbionts in this group except one formed an independent clade. The results of interspecific transfers show evidence of specialization of Wolbachia symbionts to their isopod hosts. They also suggest that host species plays a more important role than bacterial phylogeny in determining the phenotype induced by Wolbachia infection. PMID:9684374

  3. [Test for bioenergetic progress and specific energy metabolism in isopod crustaceans (Isopoda) of various ecology].

    PubMed

    Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Alekseeva, T A

    2002-01-01

    We studied energy metabolism of terrestrial and cavernicolous isopods and demonstrated much lower standard metabolism in the troglobionts as compared to other Isopoda representatives. The test for bioenergetic progress proved to be applicable for both aromorphosis and katamorphosis. Different patterns of the relationship between energy metabolism and temperature in stenothermal and eurythermal species have been proposed.

  4. Assemblages of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a fragmented forest landscape in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tajovský, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Wytwer, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were collected in 13 forest fragments differing in area (within the range of 0.1 and 254.5 ha), shape and composition of forest vegetation (thermophilous oak, mesophilous oak-hornbeam, thermophilous oak-hornbeam, acidophilous oak, basiphilous oak, beech oak-hornbeam, moist mixed deciduous forest, plantations of deciduous and coniferous trees), all situated in the Český kras Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic, Central Europe. Number of sites sampled in each fragment of forest depended on its size and ranged from 1 to 7. Altogether 30 sites were sampled. Soil samples (5 per site collected twice a year) and pitfall trapping (5 traps per site in continuous operation throughout a year) during 2008-2009 yielded a total of 14 species of terrestrial isopods. The highest densities and highest epigeic activities of terrestrial isopods were recorded in the smallest fragments of woodland. Although a wider range of habitats were sampled in the larger fragments of woodland there was not a greater diversity of species there and the population densities and epigeic activities recorded there were lower. Porcellium collicola was most abundant in small fragments of woodland regardless the vegetation there. Armadillidium vulgare and Protracheoniscus politus were statistically more abundant in the larger fragments of woodland. The results indicate that forest fragmentation does not necessarily result in a decrease in the species richness of the isopod assemblages in such habitats.

  5. Toxicity of abamectin to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Kolar, Lucija; Jemec, Anita; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Valant, Janez; Hrzenjak, Rok; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh; Zidar, Primoz

    2010-06-01

    To determine effects of the antiparasitic veterinary drug abamectin on the isopod Porcellio scaber, animals were exposed for 21 days to Lufa 2.2 soil spiked at concentrations of 3-300 mg/kg dry soil. After exposure, abamectin residues in the isopods were analysed using a novel analytical method. Toxicity was evaluated on different levels of biological organisation: biochemical, cellular and the individual organism. Measurements included glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and stability of cell membranes in the digestive gland, animal mass gain or loss, food consumption, behaviour and mortality. LC50 for the effect of abamectin on survival of P. scaber was 71 mg/kg dry soil. The most obvious sublethal effects were reduced food consumption and decreased body mass (NOEC 3 mg/kg dry soil). Additionally, loss of digging activity and reduced GST activity (NOEC 30 mg/kg dry soil) and cell membrane destabilization (NOEC 10 mg/kg dry soil) were recorded. Abamectin only slightly accumulated in the isopods, with bioaccumulation factors always being <0.1. Based on these results and current information on environmental levels of abamectin, it is not likely that isopods will be affected by abamectin, but further studies with exposure through faeces are recommended.

  6. Nutrition in terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea): an evolutionary-ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin

    2002-11-01

    The nutritional morphology, physiology and ecology of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is significant in two respects. (1) Most oniscid isopods are truly terrestrial in terms of being totally independent of the aquatic environment. Thus, they have evolved adaptations to terrestrial food sources. (2) In many terrestrial ecosystems, isopods play an important role in decomposition processes through mechanical and chemical breakdown of plant litter and by enhancing microbial activity. While the latter aspect of nutrition is discussed only briefly in this review, I focus on the evolutionary ecology of feeding in terrestrial isopods. Due to their possessing chewing mouthparts, leaf litter is comminuted prior to being ingested, facilitating both enzymatic degradation during gut passage and microbial colonization of egested faeces. Digestion of food through endogenous enzymes produced in the caeca of the midgut glands (hepatopancreas) and through microbial enzymes, either ingested along with microbially colonized food or secreted by microbial endosymbionts, mainly takes place in the anterior part of the hindgut. Digestive processes include the activity of carbohydrases, proteases, dehydrogenases, esterases, lipases, arylamidases and oxidases, as well as the nutritional utilization of microbial cells. Absorption of nutrients is brought about by the hepatopancreas and/or the hindgut epithelium, the latter being also involved in osmoregulation and water balance. Minerals and metal cations are effectively extracted from the food, while overall assimilation efficiencies may be low. Heavy metals are stored in special organelles of the hepatopancreatic tissue. Nitrogenous waste products are excreted via ammonia in its gaseous form, with only little egested along with the faeces. Nonetheless, faeces are characterized by high nitrogen content and provide a favourable substrate for microbial colonization and growth. The presence of a dense microbial population on faecal

  7. Habitat-specific pigmentation in a freshwater isopod: adaptive evolution over a small spatiotemporal scale.

    PubMed

    Hargeby, Anders; Johansson, Jonas; Ahnesjö, Jonas

    2004-01-01

    Pigmentation in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus (Crustacea) differed between habitats in two Swedish lakes. In both lakes, isopods had lighter pigmentation in stands of submerged vegetation, consisting of stoneworts (Chara spp.), than in nearby stands of reed (Phragmites australis). Experimental crossings of light and dark isopods in a common environment showed that pigmentation had a genetic basis and that genetic variance was additive. Environmental effects of diet or chromatophore adjustment to the background had minor influence on pigmentation, as shown by laboratory rearing of isopods on stonewort or reed substrates, as well as analyses of stable isotope ratios for isopods collected in the field. In both study lakes, the average phenotype became lighter with time (across generations) in recently established stonewort stands. Taken together, these results indicate that altered phenotype pigmentation result from evolutionary responses to local differences in natural selection. Based on the assumption of two generations per year, the evolutionary rate of change in pigmentation was 0.08 standard deviations per generation (haldanes) over 20 generations in one lake and 0.22 haldanes over two generations in the other lake. This genetic change occurred during an episode of population growth in a novel habitat, a situation known to promote adaptive evolution. In addition, stonewort stands constitute large and persistent patches, characteristics that tend to preserve local adaptations produced by natural selection. Results from studies on selective forces behind the adaptive divergence suggest that selective predation from visually oriented predators is a possible selective agent. We found no indications of phenotype-specific movements between habitats. Mating within stonewort stands was random with respect to pigmentation, but on a whole-lake scale it is likely that mating is assortative, as a result of local differences in phenotype distribution.

  8. Depth-related gradients in community structure and relatedness of bivalves and isopods in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Angelika; Linse, Katrin; Ellingsen, Kari E.; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2016-05-01

    Despite increased research over the last decade, diversity patterns in Antarctic deep-sea benthic taxa and their driving forces are only marginally known. Depth-related patterns of diversity and distribution of isopods and bivalves collected in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean are analysed. The data, sampled by epibenthic sledge at 40 deep-sea stations from the upper continental slope to the hadal zone (774-6348 m) over a wide area of the Southern Ocean, comprises 619 species of isopods and 81 species of bivalves. There were more species of isopods than bivalves in all samples, and species per station varied from 2 to 85 for isopods and from 0 to 18 for bivalves. Most species were rare, with 72% of isopod species restricted to one or two stations, and 45% of bivalves. Among less-rare species bivalves tended to have wider distributions than isopods. The species richness of isopods varied with depth, showing a weak unimodal curve with a peak at 2000-4000 m, while the richness of bivalves did not. Multivariate analyses indicate that there are two main assemblages in the Southern Ocean, one shallow and one deep. These overlap over a large depth-range (2000-4000 m). Comparing analyses based on the Sørensen resemblance measure and Γ+ (incorporating relatedness among species) indicates that rare species tend to have other closely related species within the same depth band. Analysis of relatedness among species indicates that the taxonomic variety of bivalves tends to decline at depth, whereas that of isopods is maintained. This, it is speculated, may indicate that the available energy at depth is insufficient to maintain a range of bivalve life-history strategies.

  9. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Bogyó, Dávid; Sattler, Thomas; Moretti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities. This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe(Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. Trichoniscus alemannicus, Cylindroiulus verhoeffi) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool.

  10. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans. PMID:24109435

  11. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway.

    PubMed

    Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans.

  12. Acute toxicity of cadmium to eight species of marine amphipod and isopod crustaceans from southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.S.; Reish, D.J.

    1987-11-01

    Amphipods and isopods are important components of the marine intertidal and subtidal fauna where they are found on or in the substrate or among spaces between larger, attached organisms. However, in spite of their abundance and importance, the use of these two endemic marine groups has been limited in comparison to decapods in marine toxicological research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single metallic salt, CdCl/sub 2/, on six species of amphipods and two species of isopods under similar experimental conditions. Cadmium was selected as the toxicant in this comparative study since this metal is an important constituent in municipal wastes discharged into southern California marine waters.

  13. Episymbiotic microbes as food and defence for marine isopods: unique symbioses in a hostile environment

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Niels; Barber, Paul H; Weisz, Jeremy B

    2005-01-01

    Symbioses profoundly affect the diversity of life, often through novel biochemical services that symbionts provide to their hosts. These biochemical services are typically nutritional enhancements and less commonly defensive, but rarely both simultaneously. On the coral reefs of Papua New Guinea, we discovered unique associations between marine isopod crustaceans (Santia spp.) and episymbiotic microbes. Transmission electron microscopy and pigment analyses show that episymbiont biomass is dominated by large (20–30 μm) cyanobacterial cells. The isopods consume these photosymbionts and ‘cultivate’ them by inhabiting exposed sunlit substrates, a behaviour made possible by symbionts' production of a chemical defence that is repulsive to fishes. Molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the symbiotic microbial communities are diverse and probably dominated in terms of population size by bacteria and small unicellular Synechococcus-type cyanobacteria. Although largely unknown in the oceans, defensive symbioses probably promote marine biodiversity by allowing niche expansions into otherwise hostile environments. PMID:16024384

  14. Adaptive variation in offspring size in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brody, M.S.; Lawlor, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the birth size of offspring of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was observed in laboratory experiments and in field populations. In the laboratory, larger offspring were produced when the mother's food supply was reduced. In field populations, larger offspring were produced during the summer, a period of reduced food availability. Smaller offspring are produced in the spring, when food is readily available. Females may be making larger young to increase survival during the more severe conditions of the summer breeding period.

  15. PAH biotransformation in terrestrial invertebrates--a new phase II metabolite in isopods and springtails.

    PubMed

    Stroomberg, Gerard J; Zappey, Herman; Steen, Ruud J C A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Ariese, Freek; Velthorst, Nel H; van Straalen, Nico M

    2004-06-01

    Soil-living invertebrates are exposed to high concentrations of contaminants accumulating in dead organic matter, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The capacity for PAH biotransformation is not equally developed in all invertebrates. In this paper, we compare three species of invertebrates, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda), Eisenia andrei (Lumbricidae) and Folsomia candida (Collembola), for the metabolites formed upon exposure to pyrene. Metabolic products of pyrene biotransformation in extracts from whole animals or isopod hepatopancreas were compared to those found in fish bile (flounder and plaice). An optimized HPLC method was used with fluorescence detection; excitation/emission spectra were compared to reference samples of 1-hydroxypyrene and enzymatically synthesized conjugates. Enzymatic hydrolysis after fractionation was used to demonstrate that the conjugates originated from 1-hydroxypyrene. All three invertebrates were able to oxidize pyrene to 1-hydroxypyrene, however, isopods and collembolans stood out as more efficient metabolizers compared to earthworms. In contrast to fish, none of the invertebrates produced pyrene-1-glucuronide as a phase II conjugate. Both Collembola and Isopoda produced significant amounts of pyrene-1-glucoside, whereas isopods also produced pyrene-1-sulfate. A third, previously unknown, conjugate was found in both isopods and springtails, and was analysed further using electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. Based on the obtained mass spectra, a new conjugate is proposed: pyrene-1-O-(6"-O-malonyl)glucoside. The use of glucose-malonate as a conjugant in animal phase II biotransformation has not been described before, but is understandable in the microenvironment of soil-living invertebrates. In the earthworm, three other pyrene metabolites were observed, none of which was shared with the arthropods, although two were conjugates of 1-hydroxypyrene. Our study illustrates the great

  16. Bopyrid isopods parasitizing on the cultured fresh water prawn, Macrobrachiummalcolmsonii in South India.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, A; Raja, K; Trilles, J P; Rajkumar, M; Rahman, M M; Saravanakumar, A

    2017-03-01

    The bopyrid isopods are common in wild Macrobrachium spp. but not common in aquaculture condition. This is the first study that reports the parasitizing of bopyrid isopods on the cultured M. malcolmsonii. Bopyrid isopod (Probopyrus buitendijki) was identified in the branchial cavities of the fresh water prawn, M. malcolmsonii from grow-out culture pond at Kuriyamangalam, India. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii is a new host for P. buitendijki. A total of 1323 M. malcolmsonii were checked for this study. The overall prevalence of the parasitic infestation was reached 46.2 %. The parasitic infection was higher in female (83 %) than in male (3.4 %). Highest prevalence of infestation was found in the median size group (7-8 cm) (58.7 %). Infected females were not berried unlike uninfected prawns. The parasites cause infertility and does not found any organ deformities due to the infestation. The parasite was inversely attached in the gill chamber with no lesion on the gill but the infected branchial chamber became bulged.

  17. Temperature, physiological time, and zinc toxicity in the isopod, Porcellio scaber

    SciTech Connect

    Donker, M.H.; Van Straalen, N.M.; Abdel-Lateif, H.M.; Khalil, M.A.; Bayoumi, B.M.

    1998-08-01

    Temperature is an important controlling factor in the metabolism of ectotherms, and it may interact with the toxicity of heavy metals in a variety of ways. In this work, a study on the effect of different zinc concentrations on growth of the isopod, Porcellio scaber was conducted using four temperature levels. The results demonstrated a significant effect for both zinc and temperature on the growth rate; the interaction between zinc and temperature was also significant. The Arrhenius function was used to describe the temperature-growth rate relationship, from which estimates for the activation energy were derived. A tendency for activation energy to decrease with increasing zinc concentration was observed. Isopods exposed to 13 {micro}mol Zn/g had the highest activation energy and the highest growth rate. To analyze the effect of temperature on the internal body concentration of zinc, the exposure time was transformed into physiological time, calibrated at 15 C, for all experimental groups using the activation energies estimated earlier. The rate of zinc accumulation was derived from the relationship between internal body concentration and physiological exposure time. Differences between isopods cultured at different temperatures could be explained well by the effect of physiological exposure time. The interaction between temperature and zinc toxicity seems to be due not to increased accumulation of zinc at higher temperatures as such but to a physiological interaction with the energy metabolism.

  18. Seasonal variation in heavy metal accumulation in subtropical population of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio laevis.

    PubMed

    Hussein, M A; Obuid-Allah, A H; Mohammad, A H; Scott-Fordsmand, J J; Abd El-Wakeil, K F

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the seasonal fluctuation of heavy metals in the isopod Porcellio laevis at four uncontaminated subtropical locations. This study was carried out at four different field sites in Assiut, Egypt. The concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc in animal, soil, and litter (mug/g dry weight) were monthly recorded during the period from June 2002 till May 2003. There was little difference in metal accumulation trends between the sites. In general, the isopod showed significant increased Pb and Zn concentration during summer and spring months, whereas this was not the case for Cd and Cu. The bioaccumulation (BAF) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) of the metals revealed marked seasonal changes throughout the year. Generally, BAF of metals were higher during summer and spring, and BCF were higher during summer and autumn. Comparing the metal accumulation with climatic fluctuations (measured) it was speculated that temperature was the main factor causing seasonal fluctuations of the internal metal concentration in the isopod.

  19. Reproductive biology of the isopod Excirolana braziliensis at the southern edge of its geographical range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Gastón; Defeo, Omar

    2006-12-01

    A full analysis of the reproductive biology of the isopod Excirolana braziliensis Richardson 1912 was conducted in a sandy beach of Uruguay, located at the southernmost edge of its distributional range in the Atlantic Ocean. Reproductive and recruitment periods of E. braziliensis were concentrated in austral summer. Females with oostegites appeared in November, whereas total biomass, individual sizes and fecundity of ovigerous females peaked between December and January. These concurrent traits were responsible for the significant peak of juveniles in January. The size at maturity was 9.88 mm. Four embryonic developmental stages were described and identified: mean length linearly increased from stages I to III, whereas dry weight exponentially decreased from stages I to IV. The high reproductive output (0.41-0.58), reported for the first time in this isopod, exceeds the rates documented for other isopods. Reproduction of E. braziliensis at the southern edge of its range is semelparous: females produce one brood during the reproductive season, exhaust their energy reserves during incubation, and probably die at the end of the reproductive season. A macroscale comparison suggests that E. braziliensis at the southern edge of its range counteracts its narrow reproductive period by a short incubation period with larger individual mature female and embryo sizes, higher fecundity and a higher percentage of ovigerous females than in subtropical and tropical populations. These extreme reproductive indicators could be attributed to the internal retention of embryos that assures offspring survival, coupled with a high adaptation capability to environmental variations across its range.

  20. Toxicity interaction between chlorpyrifos, mancozeb and soil moisture to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Rui G; Gomes, Pedro A D; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Cardoso, Diogo N; Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-02-01

    A main source of uncertainty currently associated with environmental risk assessment of chemicals is the poor understanding of the influence of environmental factors on the toxicity of xenobiotics. Aiming to reduce this uncertainty, here we evaluate the joint-effects of two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and mancozeb) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus under different soil moisture regimes. A full factorial design, including three treatments of each pesticide and an untreated control, were performed under different soil moisture regimes: 25%, 50%, and 75% WHC. Our results showed that soil moisture had no effects on isopods survival, at the levels assessed in this experiment, neither regarding single pesticides nor mixture treatments. Additivity was always the most parsimonious result when both pesticides were present. Oppositely, both feeding activity and biomass change showed a higher sensitivity to soil moisture, with isopods generally showing worse performance when exposed to pesticides and dry or moist conditions. Most of the significant differences between soil moisture regimes were found in single pesticide treatments, yet different responses to mixtures could still be distinguished depending on the soil moisture assessed. This study shows that while soil moisture has the potential to influence the effects of the pesticide mixture itself, such effects might become less important in a context of complex combinations of stressors, as the major contribution comes from its individual interaction with each pesticide. Finally, the implications of our results are discussed in light of the current state of environmental risk assessment procedures and some future perspectives are advanced.

  1. Terrestrial isopod community as indicator of succession in a peat bog.

    PubMed

    Antonović, Ivan; Brigić, Andreja; Sedlar, Zorana; Bedek, Jana; Soštarić, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were studied in the Dubravica peat bog and surrounding forest in the northwestern Croatia. Sampling was conducted using pitfall traps over a two year period. Studied peat bog has a history of drastically decrease in area during the last five decades mainly due to the process of natural succession and changes in the water level. A total of 389 isopod individuals belonging to 8 species were captured. Species richness did not significantly differ between bog, edge and surrounding forest. High species richness at the bog is most likely the result of progressive vegetation succession, small size of the bog and interspecific relationships, such as predation. With spreading of Molinia grass on the peat bog, upper layers of Sphagnum mosses become less humid and probably more suitable for forest species that slowly colonise bog area. The highest diversity was found at the edge mainly due to the edge effect and seasonal immigration, but also possibly due to high abundance and predator pressure of the Myrmica ants and lycosid spiders at the bog site. The most abundant species were Trachelipus rathkii and Protracheoniscus politus, in the bog area and in the forest, respectively. Bog specific species were not recorded and the majority of the species collected belong to the group of tyrphoneutral species. However, Hyloniscus adonis could be considered as a tyrphoxenous species regarding its habitat preferences. Most of collected isopod species are widespread eurytopic species that usually inhabit various habitats and therefore indicate negative successive changes or degradation processes in the peat bog.

  2. The effects of temperature, desiccation, and body mass on the locomotion of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio laevis.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Tara M; Claussen, Dennis L; Ladd, Gregory B; Buckner, Shizuka T

    2009-06-01

    Locomotion in terrestrial isopods is strongly influenced by body size and by abiotic factors. We determined the speeds of isopods of differing masses within a linear racetrack at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 degrees C. We also predicted maximum speeds based on the Froude number concept as originally applied to vertebrates. In addition we used a circular thermal gradient to examine the temperature preferences of isopods, and we measured the effects of desiccation on locomotion. Measured speeds of the isopods progressively increased with temperature with an overall Q(10) of 1.64 and scaling exponents ranging from 0.38 to 0.63. The predicted maximum speeds were remarkably close to the measured speeds at the highest test temperature although the scaling exponents were closer to 0.15. The isopods did not exhibit a strong thermal preference within the gradient; however, they did generally avoid temperatures above 25 degrees C. Moderate desiccation had no apparent effect on locomotor performance, but there was a progressive decrease in speed once animals had lost more than 10% of their initial body mass. Though largely restricted to moist habitats, P. laevis can easily withstand short exposures to desiccating conditions, and they are capable of effective locomotion over a wide range of temperatures. Since they are nonconglobating, active escape appears to be their primary defense when threatened under exposed conditions. Although their maximum speeds may be limited both by temperature and by their inability to change gait, these speeds are clearly adequate for survival.

  3. A new species of Dolicholana Bruce, 1986 (Isopoda, Cymothoidea, Cirolanidae), the first record of the genus from the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Ricardo J C; Souza-Filho, Jesser F

    2015-11-05

    The isopod genus Dolicholana Bruce, 1986, previously known only from the Indo-West Pacific, is recorded for the first time from the Atlantic Ocean. A new species, Dolicholana brucei sp. nov., is described from the northeastern Brazilian coast, and is the first record of the genus Dolicholana Bruce, 1986 for the Atlantic Ocean. The material was collected from the upper part of the continental slope off Rio Grande do Norte (150 m depth). The new species is characterized by pereopod 1 propodal palm being crenulate, ischium of pereopod 1 and 2 with a plumose seta on the anterior margin, peduncle of pleopods 3-5 bearing an accessory lobe acute on the distolateral angle, pleotelson posterior margin being rounded, and the uropodal endopod and the exopod apices distally being rounded. A revised key to the genus is provided.

  4. Parasites in the fossil record: a Cretaceous fauna with isopod-infested decapod crustaceans, infestation patterns through time, and a new ichnotaxon.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W M; Fraaije, René H B; Jagt, John W M

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations).

  5. Toxicity of imidacloprid to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Drobne, Damjana; Blazic, Mateja; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Leser, Vladka; Zidar, Primoz; Jemec, Anita; Trebse, Polonca

    2008-04-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide with neurotoxic action that, as a possible alternative for commonly used organophosphorus pesticides, has gained registration in about 120 countries for use in over 140 agricultural crops. Only few data are available on its toxicity for soil invertebrates. We therefore assessed the effects of imidacloprid on survival, weight gain, feeding rate, total protein content, glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), and digestive gland epithelial thickness in juveniles and adults of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. After two weeks of feeding on imidacloprid-dosed food, weight gain (NOEC 5 microg/g dry food) and feeding rate (NOEC 10 microg/g) in juveniles, and feeding rate (NOEC<10 microg/g) and digestive gland epithelial thickness (NOEC<10 microg/g) in adults were most affected. In juveniles induction of GST activity and increase of total protein content per wet animal weight was detected at 5 microg/g dry food, whereas in adults a reduction of GST was observed at 25 microg/g (NOEC 10 microg/g). An estimate of actual intake rates suggests that imidacloprid affects isopods at similar exposure concentrations as insects. The toxicity of imidacloprid was similar to that of the organophosphorus pesticide diazinon, tested earlier using the same methods [Stanek, K., Drobne, D., Trebse, P., 2006. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). Chemosphere 64, 1745-1752]. At actual environmental concentrations, diazinon poses a higher risk to P. scaber. Due to its increasing use in crop protection and higher persistence in soil, imidacloprid might however, be potentially more dangerous after long-term application. We conclude that toxicity testing with P. scaber provides relevant, repeatable, reproducible and comparable toxicity data that is useful for the risk assessment of pesticides in the terrestrial environment.

  6. The Global Diversity of Parasitic Isopods Associated with Crustacean Hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason D.; Boyko, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans) are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ∼7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species) and intermediate (pelagic copepod) host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species), with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species), East Asian Sea (120 species), and Central Indian Ocean (44 species). The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts) are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species) followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively). Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids) exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species) with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts) show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species) and North East Atlantic (8 species). Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago) hold a wealth of

  7. The genus Bipolaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on ...

  8. Molt frequency of the isopod Porcellio scaber, as a measure of zinc-contaminated food

    SciTech Connect

    Drobne, D.; Strus, J.

    1996-02-01

    The effect of zinc-contaminated leaf litter (250--10,000 {micro}g/g dry wt.) diets on molting in Porcellio scaber, a terrestrial isopod was measured under controlled conditions. The duration of the premolt stage, the period between two successive ecdyses and the rate of molting, was followed during the exposure. Increased zinc concentration in the food caused prolongation of the molt cycle and decreased molt frequency. The duration of the premolt stage was not changed. Molt cycle was not affected drastically due to food deprivation. The application of molt cycle response to contaminated food in toxicity tests is discussed.

  9. First record of Gnathia sp. an ectoparasitic isopod isolated from the coral reef fish, Heniochus acuminatus collected from the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, G; Anand, M; Chelladurai, G; Kumaraguru, A K

    2017-03-01

    An ectoparasitic isopod, Gnathia sp. was found in the Gill chambers of Heniochus acuminatus collected from the Gulf of Mannar region, Southeast coast of India. The present study signifies the new record of Gnathia sp. an coral reef ectoparasitic isopod captured from the gill net during October 2014. Among the 36 specimens examined 5 specimens were infested with Pranzia larvae of Gnathia sp. The size of the isopods were ranged from 1.5 to 3.2 mm and the host fish length varied between 119 and 230 mm. They were specifically found attached to the gill chambers and no damage observed in the lamellar pattern.

  10. Isolation, characterization and PCR multiplexing of microsatellite loci for two sub-species of terrestrial isopod Porcellio dilatatus (Crustacea, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Michaud, Caroline; Chupeau, Cassandre; Bech, Nicolas; Thierry, Magali; Sicard, Mathieu; Greve, Pierre; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Several microsatellite markers have already been developed for different terrestrial isopod species such as Armadillidium vulgare, A. nasatum and Porcellionides pruinosus. In all these species, the endosymbiont Wolbachia has a feminizing effect that generates a female bias in sex ratio and reduces the number of reproductive males. Thus this can potentially decrease the genetic diversity of host populations. However, in some other isopod species, Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI); the most commonly described effect of Wolbachia in arthropods. The CI by rendering some crossings incompatible can reduce the gene flow and strengthen genetic differentiation between isopod populations. To date, the influence of Wolbachia inducing CI on population structure of terrestrial isopods has never been investigated. In this study, we developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers shared by two sub-species of Porcellio dilatatus. Crossings between the two sub-species are partially incompatible due to two CI-inducing Wolbachia strains. These new microsatellite markers will allow us to investigate the effect of CI on host genetic differentiation in this species complex.

  11. Iranian terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae Verhoeff, 1949 with a description of a new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Ghasem M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, the terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae in Iran are investigated. Geographical distributions of two formerly reported species from Iran, namely Cylisticoides angulatus Schmalfuss, 2003 and Cylisticus rotundifrons (Schmalfuss, 1986), are expanded. Cylisticus masalicus sp. n. is described and its diagnostic characters are figured. PMID:27199591

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Ps, a Bacterial Symbiont in the Hepatopancreas of the Terrestrial Isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Collingro, Astrid; Kostanjšek, Rok; Toenshoff, Elena R; Schulz, Frederik; Schuster, Lisa; Domann, Daryl; Horn, Matthias

    2015-08-13

    "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Ps is an extracellular symbiont residing in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Its genome is highly similar to that of the close relative "Ca. Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Av from Armadillidium vulgare. However, instead of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system, it encodes a type I restriction modification system.

  13. Ultrastructure and mineral distribution in the tergal cuticle of the terrestrial isopod Titanethes albus. Adaptations to a karst cave biotope.

    PubMed

    Hild, Sabine; Neues, Frank; Znidarsic, Nada; Strus, Jasna; Epple, Matthias; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Composition and spatial distribution of organic and inorganic materials within the cuticle of isopods vary between species. These variations are related to the behaviour and habitat of the animal. The troglobiotic isopod Titanethes albus lives in the complete darkness of caves in the Slovenian Karst. This habitat provides constant temperature and saturated humidity throughout the year and inconsistent food supply. These conditions should have lead to functional adaptations of arthropod cuticles. However, studies on structure and composition of cave arthropod cuticles are rare and lacking for terrestrial isopods. We therefore analysed the tergite cuticle of T. albus using transmission and field-emission electron microscopy, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopic imaging, quantitative X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ultrastructure of the epicuticle suggests a poor resistance against water loss. A weak interconnection between the organic and mineral phase within the endo- and exocuticle, a comparatively thin apical calcite layer, and almost lack of magnesium within the calcite crystal lattice suggest that the mechanical strength of the cuticle is low in the cave isopod. This may possibly be of advantage in maintaining high cuticle flexibility and reducing metabolic expenditures.

  14. Body shape in terrestrial isopods: A morphological mechanism to resist desiccation?

    PubMed

    Broly, Pierre; Devigne, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2015-11-01

    Woodlice are fully terrestrial crustaceans and are known to be sensitive to water loss. Their half-ellipsoidal shapes represent simple models in which to investigate theoretical assumptions about organism morphology and rates of exchange with the environment. We examine the influence of surface area and mass on the desiccation rates in three eco-morphologically different species of woodlice: Oniscus asellus, Porcellio scaber, and Armadillidium vulgare. Our analysis indicates that the rate of water loss of an individual depends on both the initial weight and the body surface area. Interspecific and intraspecific analyses show that the mass-specific water loss rate of a species decreases along with the ratio of surface area to volume. In particular, we show that body shape explains the difference in mass-specific water loss rates between A. vulgare and P. scaber. This observation also explains several known ecological patterns, for example, the distribution and survivorship of individuals. However, in addition to body size and shape, water loss in terrestrial isopods depends also on the coefficient of permeability (i.e., a measure of water loss rate per surface unit), which is high in O. asellus and lower (and at similar levels) in P. scaber and A. vulgare. We discuss morphological, physiological, and behavioral aspects of water loss avoidance in terrestrial isopods.

  15. Terrestrial isopods congregate under a low-level beta-emitter source.

    PubMed

    Kanao, Tomoko; Miyachi, Yukihisa; Yamada, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is ubiquitous, but very few experiments have investigated the biological effects of the natural background radiation at very low doses (>10 mGy/yr). We examined whether the background radiation, or radiation of a slightly higher level, has a role in evoking changes in behaviors of terrestrial isopods (woodlice). Upon exposure to a source giving 15 times the background level placed at one end of a box, a significant increase in the number of woodlice gathering under the beta-source was observed with time, as compared with the sham control. Terrestrial isopods have chemoreceptors (the olfactory system) on the terminal segment of their antennae. An additional experiment confirmed the involvement of these antennae in the radiation effect on behavior. After the excision of the antennae, no beta-taxis response was observed. The behavior of the group exposed to the source giving 30 times the background tended to decrease gradually in the area of the source, and the individuals aggregated in the area away from the source. Thus, the olfactory sensor in the antennae may be an important organ involved in the prompt response to radiation exposure, and the discrimination of the radiation field strengths of radioisotopes.

  16. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria.

  17. Environmental- and growth stage-related differences in the susceptibility of terrestrial isopods to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Rui; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Tourinho, Paula; Ribeiro, Fabianne; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-09-05

    Global environmental changes are nowadays one of the most important issues affecting terrestrial ecosystems. One of its most significant expressions is the increasing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) arising from the human-induced depletion in ozone layer. Therefore, to investigate the effects of UVR on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus a multiple biomarker approach was carried out. Two experiments were performed in order to analyze the importance of the exposure environment and the growth stage on the UV-induced damages. First, adult individuals were exposed to UVR in three exposure environments (soil, soil with leaves, and plaster). Thereafter, three growth stages using soil as the exposure condition were tested. Integrated biomarker responses (IBR) suggested that UV effects were higher in plaster, and mostly identified by changes in acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferases activities, lipid peroxidation rates, and total energy available. The effects in soil and soil with leaves were not so clear. In the growth stages' experiment, juveniles and pre-adults were found to be more affected than adults, with the greatest differences between irradiated and non-irradiated isopods occurring in energy-related parameters. Our findings suggest that soil surface-living macrofauna may be prone to deleterious effects caused by UVR, highlighting the importance of taking the media of exposure and growth stage in account.

  18. Protein differential expression induced by endocrine disrupting compounds in a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Marco F L; Esteves, Ana Cristina; Samyn, Bart; Timperman, Isaak; van Beeumen, Jozef; Correia, António; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2010-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been studied due to their impact on human health and increasing awareness of their impact on wildlife species. Studies concerning the organ-specific molecular effects of EDC in invertebrates are important to understand the mechanisms of action of this class of toxicants but are scarce in the literature. We have used a dose/response approach to unravel the protein expression in different organs of isopods exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) and assess their potential use as surrogate species. Male isopods were exposed to a range of Vz or of BPA concentrations. After animal dissection, proteins were extracted from gut, hepatopancreas and testes. Protein profiles were analysed by electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI mass spectrometry. EDCs affected proteins involved in the energy metabolism (arginine kinase), proteins of the heat shock protein family (Hsp70 and GRP78) and most likely microtubule dynamics (tubulin). Different proteins expressed at different concentrations in different organs are indicative of the organ-specific effects of BPA and Vz. Additionally, several proteins were up-regulated at lower but not higher BPA or Vz concentrations, bringing new data to the non-monotonic response curve controversy. Furthermore, our findings suggest that some common responses to EDCs in both vertebrates and invertebrates may exist.

  19. Hierarchical organization of the cuticle of the subsocial desert isopod, Hemilepistus reaumurii.

    PubMed

    Ayari, Anas; Raimond, Maryline; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Nasri-Ammar, Karima

    2016-02-01

    The crustacean cuticle is a hierarchically organised material which provides protection and sites for muscle attachment. The physical properties of this exoskeleton envelope are adapted to the function and the eco-physiological requirements of the species. This paper aimed to study, using the TEM, the structure of the tubercle and the tergite cuticle of the arid species Hemilepistus reaumurii in a comparison with a subhumid isopod in order to relate some peculiar features to an adaptive process to environmental constraints. Results showed that wild H. reaumurii cuticles were twice as thick in comparison with Porcellio variabilis which is a subhumid zone isopod. It is suggested therefore that the thick cuticle of wild H. reaumurii can be an adaptation to terrestrial life and a protection against osmotic stress and water loss in an arid environment. In addition the inside of the tubercle showed a high number of lipid droplets stacked into an adipose tissue which suggest that tubercles were used for storage for nutritive material in wild H. reaumurii.

  20. Host origin and tissue microhabitat shaping the microbiota of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Jessica; Lesobre, Jérôme; Moumen, Bouziane; Bouchon, Didier

    2016-05-01

    We present the first in-depth investigation of the host-associated microbiota of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. This species is an important decomposer of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems and a major model organism for arthropod-Wolbachia symbioses due to its well-characterized association with feminizing Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene pyrotags were used to characterize its bacterial microbiota at multiple levels: (i) in individuals from laboratory lineages and field populations and (ii) in various host tissues. This integrative approach allowed us to reveal an unexpectedly high bacterial diversity, placing this species in the same league as termites in terms of symbiotic diversity. Interestingly, both animal groups belong to the same ecological guild in terrestrial ecosystems. While Wolbachia represented the predominant taxon in infected individuals, it was not the only major player. Together, the most abundant taxa represented a large scope of symbiotic interactions, including bacterial pathogens, a reproductive parasite (Wolbachia) and potential nutritional symbionts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals from different populations harboured distinct bacterial communities, indicating a strong link between the host-associated microbiota and environmental bacteria, possibly due to terrestrial isopod nutritional ecology. Overall, this work highlights the need for more studies of host-microbiota interactions and bacterial diversity in non-insect arthropods.

  1. Bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio dilatatus.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Bouchon, Didier; Ceyrac, Laura; Raimond, Roland; Thierry, Magali; Le Clec'h, Winka; Marcadé, Isabelle; Caubet, Yves; Grève, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    In the terrestrial isopod species Porcellio dilatatus, unidirectional Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI) between two morphs (P. d. dilatatus and P. d. petiti) caused by a Wolbachia strain (wPet) infecting the morph P. d. petiti has been previously described by experiments initiated four decades ago. Here, we studied another Wolbachia that has been recently detected in a population of the morph P. d. dilatatus. The MLST markers reveal that this Wolbachia is a new strain called wDil distinct from wPet also belonging to the isopod clade of Wolbachia. Quantifications of both Wolbachia strains in the gonads of the two P. dilatatus morphs revealed that all males exhibit similar Wolbachia titers while the titers in females depend on the Wolbachia strain they host. Crossing experiments showed that both wDil and wPet induced partial unidirectional CI with different intensities. Moreover, these two strains induced bidirectional CI when individuals were both infected with one of the two different Wolbachia strains. This way, we demonstrated that P. dilatatus can be infected by two closely related Wolbachia strains (wDil and wPet), that seem to have different modification-rescue systems.

  2. Patterns of urban mercury contamination detected by bioindication with terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Sager, Manfred; Werner, Richard; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2012-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a trace element with high toxicological impact on potential receptors, including human beings. Global Hg emissions are predicted to increase significantly during the next 40 years. After emission, the metal is transported by air currents and precipitations, leading to increasing depositions even in areas far from emission sources. In the terrestrial environment, Hg is subjected to redistribution and transformation into different inorganic and metal-organic species that are taken up by vegetation and soil organisms. In the present study, the woodlouse (Porcellio scaber) was used as a biological indicator of total Hg pollution in the city of Dornbirn (province of Vorarlberg), Austria. Woodlice were collected from 30 sampling points scattered over the city area, 25 of them situated within a rectangular transect crossing the city area from west-northwest to east-southeast, starting near the Rheintal motorway and ending at the slopes of the Bregenzer Wald hills. In addition to woodlice, soil substrate samples were collected at nine of the selected sampling points. Total Hg concentrations were measured in isopod tissues and soil substrate samples by means of an Hg analyzer. Total Hg concentrations in isopod tissues were significantly correlated with Hg soil contents (P < 0.05). Moreover, a gradient of increasing Hg concentrations was observed in isopod samples along the transect across Dornbirn, with the lowest concentrations detected in woodlouse samples near the Rheintal motorway and the highest levels toward the ascending slopes of the Bregenzer Wald hills. This gradient of increasing Hg concentrations across the city matches a concomitant increase in wet precipitations along the same direction, indicating that deposition by wet precipitation may be an important source for Hg contamination in the city of Dornbirn. Overall, the degree of Hg contamination across the study area can be regarded as rather low, i.e., comparable with concentrations observed

  3. The genus Bipolaris

    PubMed Central

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species’ synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. PMID:25492990

  4. The Terrestrial Isopod Microbiome: An All-in-One Toolbox for Animal-Microbe Interactions of Ecological Relevance.

    PubMed

    Bouchon, Didier; Zimmer, Martin; Dittmer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial isopods comprise a group of crustaceans that have evolved a terrestrial lifestyle and represent keystone species in terrestrial ecosystems, contributing to the decomposition of organic matter and regulating the microbial food web. Since their nutrition is based on plant detritus, it has long been suspected that bacterial symbionts located in the digestive tissues might play an important role in host nutrition via the provisioning of digestive enzymes, thereby enabling the utilization of recalcitrant food compounds (e.g., cellulose or lignins). If this were the case, then (i) the acquisition of these bacteria might have been an important evolutionary prerequisite for the colonization of land by isopods, and (ii) these bacterial symbionts would directly mediate the role of their hosts in ecosystem functioning. Several bacterial symbionts have indeed been discovered in the midgut caeca of terrestrial isopods and some of them might be specific to this group of animals (i.e., Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum, Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum, and Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis), while others are well-known intracellular pathogens (Rickettsiella spp.) or reproductive parasites (Wolbachia sp.). Moreover, a recent investigation of the microbiota in Armadillidium vulgare has revealed that this species harbors a highly diverse bacterial community which varies between host populations

  5. The Terrestrial Isopod Microbiome: An All-in-One Toolbox for Animal–Microbe Interactions of Ecological Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Bouchon, Didier; Zimmer, Martin; Dittmer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host–microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial isopods comprise a group of crustaceans that have evolved a terrestrial lifestyle and represent keystone species in terrestrial ecosystems, contributing to the decomposition of organic matter and regulating the microbial food web. Since their nutrition is based on plant detritus, it has long been suspected that bacterial symbionts located in the digestive tissues might play an important role in host nutrition via the provisioning of digestive enzymes, thereby enabling the utilization of recalcitrant food compounds (e.g., cellulose or lignins). If this were the case, then (i) the acquisition of these bacteria might have been an important evolutionary prerequisite for the colonization of land by isopods, and (ii) these bacterial symbionts would directly mediate the role of their hosts in ecosystem functioning. Several bacterial symbionts have indeed been discovered in the midgut caeca of terrestrial isopods and some of them might be specific to this group of animals (i.e., Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum, Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum, and Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis), while others are well-known intracellular pathogens (Rickettsiella spp.) or reproductive parasites (Wolbachia sp.). Moreover, a recent investigation of the microbiota in Armadillidium vulgare has revealed that this species harbors a highly diverse bacterial community which varies between host populations

  6. Toxicity and sublethal effects of No. 2 fuel oil on the supralittoral isopod Lygia exotica.

    PubMed

    Dillon, T M; Neff, J M; Warner, J S

    1978-09-01

    1. No. 2 fuel oil was of relatively low toxicity to the intertidal isopod Lygia exotica as indicated by the TLm values of over 100% for the WSF and 73 ppm at 24 and 48 hours and 36.5 ppm at 96 hours for the OWD. 2. Respiration was not significantly affected by short term exposure to several concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil prepared as either a WSF or OWD. 3. Lygia contamined by a spill of No. 2 fuel oil and Bunker C residual oil contained high concentrations of dibenzothiophenes. It is not known whether the dibenzothiophenes were accumulated by the Lygia tissues or absorbed to the exoskeleton. Therefore, the high mortality of Lygia following the spill cannot yet be attributed to the dibenzothiophenes.

  7. Simulating population recovery of an aquatic isopod: Effects of timing of stress and landscape structure.

    PubMed

    Galic, Nika; Baveco, Hans; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Thorbek, Pernille; Bruns, Eric; van den Brink, Paul J

    2012-04-01

    In agroecosystems, organisms may regularly be exposed to anthropogenic stressors, e.g. pesticides. Species' sensitivity to stress depends on toxicity, life-history, and landscape structure. We developed an individual-based model of an isopod, Asellus aquaticus, to explore how timing of stress events affects population dynamics in a seasonal environment. Furthermore, we tested the relevance of habitat connectivity and spatial distribution of stress for the recovery of a local and total population. The simulation results indicated that population recovery is mainly driven by reproductive periods. Furthermore, high habitat connectivity led to faster recovery both for local and total populations. However, effects of landscape structure disappeared for homogeneously stressed populations, where local survivors increased recovery rate. Finally, local populations recovered faster, implying that assessing recovery in the field needs careful consideration of spatial scale for sampling. We emphasize the need for a coherent definition of recovery for more relevant ecosystem risk assessment and management.

  8. Spectroscopic parameters of the cuticle and ethanol extracts of the fluorescent cave isopod Mesoniscusgraniger (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Giurginca, Andrei; Šustr, Vladimír; Tajovský, Karel; Giurginca, Maria; Matei, Iulia

    2015-01-01

    The body surface of the terrestrial isopod Mesoniscusgraniger (Frivaldsky, 1863) showed blue autofluorescence under UV light (330-385 nm), using epifluorescence microscopy and also in living individuals under a UV lamp with excitation light of 365 nm. Some morphological cuticular structures expressed a more intense autofluorescence than other body parts. For this reason, only the cuticle was analyzed. The parameters of autofluorescence were investigated using spectroscopic methods (molecular spectroscopy in infrared, ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) in samples of two subspecies of Mesoniscusgraniger preserved in ethanol. Samples excited by UV light (from 350 to 380 nm) emitted blue light of wavelengths 419, 420, 441, 470 and 505 nm (solid phase) and 420, 435 and 463 (ethanol extract). The results showed that the autofluorescence observed from living individuals may be due to some β-carboline or coumarin derivatives, some crosslinking structures, dityrosine, or due to other compounds showing similar excitation-emission characteristics.

  9. Developmental toxicity of endocrine disrupters bisphenol A and vinclozolin in a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Lemos, M F L; van Gestel, C A M; Soares, A M V M

    2010-08-01

    Studies of the effects of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on invertebrates are still largely underrepresented. This work aims to fill this gap by assessing the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (common rough woodlouse). Male adult and sexually undifferentiated juvenile woodlice were exposed to the toxicants. Effects on molting regime and growth were investigated independently for males and female woodlice after sexual differentiation. Both chemicals elicited developmental toxicity to P. scaber by causing overall decreased growth. Nevertheless, BPA induced molting, whereas Vz delayed it. Although the LC50 values for juvenile and adult survival were fairly similar, juvenile woodlice showed an increased chronic sensitivity to both chemicals, and female woodlice were most the sensitive to BPA. We recommend the use of adults, juveniles, female, and male woodlice, as well as a large range of toxicant concentrations, to provide valuable information regarding differential dose responses, effects, and threshold values for EDCs.

  10. Diel infestation dynamics of gnathiid isopod larvae parasitic on Caribbean reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkel, Paul C.; Schaumburg, Collin S.; Mathenia, Jeremy K.

    2006-11-01

    Infestation dynamics of parasitic gnathiid isopods on Caribbean reefs were studied throughout the 24-h diel cycle. Gnathiid infestation on caged longfin damselfish ( Stegastes diencaeus) peaked strongly at dawn, remained low during the remainder of the day, and increased again at night until about midnight. Gnathiids were less abundant during the pre-dawn period. Peak loads on fish retrieved at dawn were the highest reported in any study thus far. The dawn peak consisted almost exclusively of individuals from the smallest size class, whereas nocturnal activity consisted almost exclusively of individuals of the largest size class. Because of the high rates of infestation at night and dawn, and the high variation in parasite loads on fish collected during that time, reduction of parasite infestation may play an important role in the selection of nocturnal and crepuscular shelter holes and settlement sites by reef fishes.

  11. Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

  12. The Mutualistic Side of Wolbachia–Isopod Interactions: Wolbachia Mediated Protection Against Pathogenic Intracellular Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Altinli, Mine; Pigeault, Romain; Chevalier, Frédéric D.; Grève, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Sicard, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is a vertically transmitted endosymbiont whose radiative success is mainly related to various host reproductive manipulations that led to consider this symbiont as a conflictual reproductive parasite. However, lately, some Wolbachia have been shown to act as beneficial symbionts by protecting hosts against a broad range of parasites. Still, this protection has been mostly demonstrated in artificial Wolbachia-host associations between partners that did not co-evolved together. Here, we tested in two terrestrial isopod species Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio dilatatus whether resident Wolbachia (native or non-native) could confer protection during infections with Listeria ivanovii and Salmonella typhimurium and also during a transinfection with a Wolbachia strain that kills the recipient host (i.e., wVulC in P. dilatatus). Survival analyses showed that (i) A. vulgare lines hosting their native Wolbachia (wVulC) always exhibited higher survival than asymbiotic ones when infected with pathogenic bacteria (ii) P. dilatatus lines hosting their native wDil Wolbachia strain survived the S. typhimurium infection better, while lines hosting non-native wCon Wolbachia strain survived the L. ivanovii and also the transinfection with wVulC from A. vulgare better. By studying L. ivanovii and S. typhimurium loads in the hemolymph of the different host-Wolbachia systems, we showed that (i) the difference in survival between lines after L. ivanovii infections were not linked to the difference between their pathogenic bacterial loads, and (ii) the difference in survival after S. typhimurium infections corresponds to lower loads of pathogenic bacteria. Overall, our results demonstrate a beneficial effect of Wolbachia on survival of terrestrial isopods when infected with pathogenic intracellular bacteria. This protective effect may rely on different mechanisms depending on the resident symbiont and the invasive bacteria interacting together within the hosts. PMID:26733946

  13. Role of suction in sandy beach habitats and the distributions of three amphipod and isopod species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassa, Shinji; Yang, Soonbo; Watabe, Yoichi; Kajihara, Naoto; Takada, Yoshitake

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beach ecology has progressed rapidly with the emergence of several theories developed on the basis of understanding of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes on sandy beach habitats. However, the possible role of dynamic geophysical processes in the sediments remains poorly understood. The present study aims to explore the role of such geophysical processes in the sediments in forming the habitat environment and how they influence the species distributions. We conducted sets of integrated observations and surveys on intertidal and supratidal geophysical environments and the distributions of three amphipod and isopod species at four exposed sandy beaches located on the Japan Sea coast of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. The field results combined with a series of laboratory soil tests demonstrate that suction governed the variability of habitat environments observed, involving the degree of saturation, density, and hardness of the cross-shore intertidal and supratidal sediments, depending on the severity of the suction-dynamics-induced sediment compaction. While the observed species abundances were consistent with existing theories relating to intertidal and supratidal species, the observed magnitudes of suction were responsible for the distribution limits of the amphipods Haustorioides japonicus and Talorchestia brito and the isopod Excirolana chiltoni manifested consistently throughout the different beaches. The results of controlled laboratory experiments and field tests further revealed three distinctive suction-induced mechanisms, associated with their burrowing and physiology and the stability of the burrows. The novel role of such suction-induced geophysical processes in forming the habitat environment and influencing the species distributions may advance our understanding of sandy beach ecology in intertidal and supratidal zones.

  14. The energetics of reproduction and parental care in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis.

    PubMed

    Lardies, Marco A; Cotoras, Ivania S; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2004-12-01

    Parental care is a behavioral strategy that contributes to increased fitness of progeny. Among terrestrial arthropods, many isopods provide extensive parental care. Few studies have quantified the underlying cost of parental care in terms of energy. We used the terrestrial woodlouse Porcellio laevis (Latreille) as a study model to examine how energetic acquisition and expenditure in females is affected during the incubation period and how parental care affects energy balance in this species. We determined the basic reproductive biology (i.e. fecundity, reproductive output, egg volume, egg loss), energy expenditure (i.e. metabolic rate), and energy acquisition (i.e. food consumption, digestibility) of ovigerous females in different stages of embryonic development. Non-ovigerous females were used as the control group. Our results show that P. laevis displays variability in life-history traits compared with populations from other zones around the world. Ovigerous females exhibited a lower ingestion rate and lower digestibility than control females, thus indicating a lower capacity for energy acquisition. Furthermore, energy expenditure was higher in ovigerous females when compared to non-ovigerous females. In particular, females in early embryonic development stored 5.1-fold less daily energy than females without eggs. The results presented here show that the parental care provided by female P. laevis is energetically costly. Overall, our work brings us much closer to understanding the proximate mechanisms of the costs of parental care in terrestrial isopods. Both proximal mechanisms and consequences of providing care on future reproduction, should be considered in explaining the evolution of parental care.

  15. Fish mucus versus parasitic gnathiid isopods as sources of energy and sunscreens for a cleaner fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckes, Maxi; Dove, Sophie; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2015-09-01

    The cleaning behaviour of the bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is extensively used as a model system for understanding cooperation. It feeds mainly on blood-sucking gnathiid isopods and also on the epidermal mucus of client fish; the nutritional quality of these foods, however, is unknown. The epidermal mucus of reef fish contains ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs), which are only obtained via the diet; nevertheless, while La. dimidiatus has high amounts of MAAs in its mucus, their source is unknown. Therefore, the energetic value (calories and protein estimated using carbon and nitrogen) and MAA level in gnathiids and mucus from several clients [parrotfishes, wrasses (Labridae), and a snapper (Lutjanidae)] were determined. The energetic value of mucus and gnathiids varied among fishes. Overall, carbon, nitrogen, calories, and protein per dry weight were higher in the mucus of most client species compared to gnathiids. Thus, depending on the client species, mucus may be energetically more advantageous for cleaner wrasse to feed on than gnathiids. UV absorbance, a confirmed proxy for MAA levels, indicated high MAA levels in mucus, whereas gnathiids had no detectable MAAs. This suggests that La. dimidiatus obtain MAAs from mucus but not from gnathiids. Hence, in addition to energy, the mucus of some clients also provides La. dimidiatus with the added bonus of UV-absorbing compounds. This may explain why cleaner fish prefer to feed on mucus over gnathiid isopods. The likely costs and benefits to clients of the removal of UV protecting mucus and parasitic gnathiids, respectively, and the variation in benefits gained by cleaner fish from feeding on these foods may explain some variation in cooperation levels in cleaning interactions.

  16. Do predator cues influence turn alternation behavior in terrestrial isopods Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille?

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kevin G; Kight, Scott L

    2014-07-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) make more alternating maze turns in response to negative stimuli, a navigational behavior that corrects divergence from a straight line. The present study investigates this behavioral pattern in two species, Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille, in response to short-term vs. long-term exposure to indirect cues from predatory ants. Neither isopod species increased the number of alternating turns in response to short-term indirect exposure to ants, but both species made significantly more alternating turns following continuous indirect exposure to ants for a period of one-week. These results are surprising given differences in behavioral and morphological predator defenses between these species (the Armadillidiidae curl into defensive postures when attacked, whereas the Porcellionidae flee). The marked similarity in alternating turn behavior of the two families suggests evolutionary conservation of antipredator navigation mechanisms.

  17. Influence of soil pH on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Lofts, Stephen; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-12-01

    The effects of soil pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were evaluated. Isopods were exposed to a natural soil amended with CaCO3 to reach 3 different pH(CaCl2) levels (4.5, 6.2, and 7.3) and to standard LUFA 2.2 soil (pH 5.5) spiked with ZnO NPs (30 nm), non-nano ZnO (200 nm), and ionic Zn as ZnCl₂. Toxicity was expressed based on total Zn concentration in soil, as well as total Zn and free Zn²⁺ ion concentrations in porewater. Compared with ZnO-spiked soils, the ZnCl₂-spiked soils had lower pH and higher porewater Ca²⁺ and Zn levels. Isopod survival did not differ between Zn forms and soils, but survival was higher for isopods exposed to ZnO NPs at pH 4.5. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for biomass change showed similar trends for all Zn forms in all soils, with higher values at intermediate pH. Median lethal concentration (LC50) and EC50 values based on porewater Zn or free Zn ion concentrations were much lower for ZnO than for ionic zinc. Zn body concentrations increased in a dose-related manner, but no effect of soil pH was found. It is suggested not only that dissolved or free Zn in porewater contributed to uptake and toxicity, but also that oral uptake (i.e., ingestion of soil particles) could be an important additional route of exposure.

  18. The agnarid terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Agnaridae) of the province of Qazvin, Iran, with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Eshaghi, Behjat; Kiabi, Bahram H; Kashani, Ghasem M

    2015-01-01

    Six species of terrestrial isopods from the province of Qazvin, central Iran, are recorded. Three species, Hemilepistusklugii (Brandt, 1833), Protracheoniscusehsani Kashani, 2014 and Mongoloniscuspersicus Kashani, 2014, were previously reported from the province. Hemilepistuselongatus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Protracheoniscusmajor (Dollfus, 1903) are recorded for the first time, and one species, Protracheoniscussarii sp. n., is described as new. The diagnostic characters of the new species are figured.

  19. Parasitism of the isopod Artystone trysibia in the fish Chaetostoma dermorhynchum from the Tena River (Amazonian region, Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Junoy, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The isopod Artystone trysibia Schioedte, 1866 is described by using a collection of specimens that were found parasitizing loricariid fish Chaetostoma dermorhynchum Boulenger, 1887 in the Tena River (Napo province, Ecuador, Amazonian region). Additionally to freshly collected specimens, complementary data of the parasite was obtained from preserved fishes at Ecuadorian museums. This is the first record of A. trysibia in Ecuador, and the most upstream location for the species. The new host fish, Chaetostoma dermorhynchum, is used locally as food.

  20. Isopod Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulka, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Describes an inquiry-based science activity in which students investigate the preferred food sources of sowbugs. Students design their own experiment, perform a first trial, and refine their procedure before conducting a second trial with more accurate results. (SAH)

  1. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Stanek, Katja; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2006-09-01

    In parallel laboratory experiments, we determined the effect of a typical representative of organophosphorous pesticides, diazinon, on AChE activity, lipid, protein and glycogen content, weight change, feeding activity and mortality of juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). Organophosphorous pesticides (OP) are among the most extensively used pesticides, which have replaced organochlorine pesticides. OPs inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in neurotoxicity. They have more widespread effects on non-target organisms than do organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to link effect of diazinon on target enzyme to energy reserves and to integrated biomarker responses in juvenile and adult P. scaber. The non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) for AChE activity after diazinon exposure in two weeks toxicity study with isopods was below 5 microg/g diazinon. There was a good agreement between concentrations at which AChE and survival were affected (10 microg/g diazinon in juveniles, 100 microg/g diazinon in adults). We revealed a link among AChE activity, protein content and mortality. Glycogen and lipid content, feeding activity and weight change were not affected in two weeks diazinon exposure up to 100 microg/g diazinon. Juveniles were affected at concentrations that were an order of magnitude lower than those provoking similar effects on adults. Recommendations are made for future toxicity studies with terrestrial isopods.

  2. Reproductive toxicity of the endocrine disrupters vinclozolin and bisphenol A in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille, 1804).

    PubMed

    Lemos, M F L; van Gestel, C A M; Soares, A M V M

    2010-02-01

    Endocrine Disruptor Compounds (EDCs) have been largely studied concerning their effects on vertebrates. Nevertheless, invertebrates as targets for these chemicals have been neglected and few studies are available. Specifically for edaphic invertebrates, data concerning the effects of EDCs is residual. Influences of EDCs on the reproduction systems of these organisms, with consequences at the population level, are expected but have not been confirmed. This work aimed to study the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) on the reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Isopods were coupled and exposed to increasing concentrations of Vz and BPA and the females' reproductive cycle followed for 56d. Both compounds elicited reproductive toxicity. Vz and BPA decreased female reproductive allocation. Vz reduced pregnancy duration; increased the abortion percentage; decreased the number of pregnancies; and decreased the number of juveniles per female while BPA increased abortions at the lowest and highest test concentrations. The reproductive endpoints presented in here are indicative of the possible impact that this type of compounds might have on isopod population dynamics, which may eventually lead to population decline.

  3. Demography of some non-native isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a Mid-Atlantic forest, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, Elisabeth; Szlavecz, Katalin; Dombos, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduced species dominate the terrestrial isopod fauna in most inland habitats of North America, including urban landscapes. These non-native species are often very abundant and thus potentially play a significant role in detritus processing. We monitored isopod assemblages in an urban forest for a year to examine the relationship between surface activity and abiotic environmental factors, and to analyze reproductive characteristics that might contribute to their successful establishment. Using pitfall trap samples we recorded five species, two of which, Trachelipus rathkii and Cylisticus convexus, were highly abundant. We determined size, sex and reproductive state of each individual. Surface activity of both species reflected variability in abiotic stress factors for isopods, such as soil moisture and soil temperature. Early spring the main trigger was soil temperature while later in the season increasing temperature and decreasing soil moisture jointly affected population dynamics. Activity significantly correlated with soil moisture. The temporal pattern of sex ratios supported the secondary sex ratio hypothesis. Males dominated the samples on the onset of the mating season in search of females. The pattern was reversed as females searched for suitable microsites for their offspring. Size independent fecundity decreased as conditions became more stressful late in the season. PMID:26261445

  4. Feeding behaviour of the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus Brandt, 1833 (Crustacea, Isopoda) in response to changes in food quality and contamination.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Susana; Sampaio, Alexandra; Brandão, Ana; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2006-10-01

    Soil decomposition is mainly dependent on the nature and characteristics of organic matter within the soil, the environmental conditions and the activity of microorganisms and soil fauna. Isopods play an important role in decomposition through litter fragmentation and stimulating and/or ingesting fungi and bacteria. The aim of this study was to jointly evaluate the effect of different food types and the effect of heavy metal contamination of those foods through isopod feeding performance assays. These studies used the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. After feeding with different leaf types for the study on feeding performance, alder leaves were chosen for the contamination experiments. Feeding parameters like consumption, assimilation, egestion and growth ratios were calculated and compared among treatments and food type. Lower quality food decreased isopods performance. Exotic food types were shown to be less preferred than alder or oak leaves. Contaminated food also resulted in a decrease in performance among the feeding parameters studies, although isopods can tolerate in certain cases high amounts of heavy metals. For this reason it is possible that in future this crustacean can be used as bioindicators of soil contamination or in the evaluation of contaminated sites or remediation processes.

  5. Breeding biology and microhabitat utilization of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa Rathke, in the Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemaa, Heikki

    1986-03-01

    The life history and distribution of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa were investigated at five rocky shore biotopes in the Isle of Man. I. granulosa breeds throughout the year in the Irish Sea. The breeding activity is highest in the early summer after the sexual maturation of the overwintered animals. At that period about 4% of the females were infested by Clypeoniscus sp. (Isopoda) which destroys the brood. A small proportion of the juveniles released in the early summer mature and breed in the autumn. In the winter Idotea populations consisted of juveniles, immature adults and old individuals which produce another brood. These large sized animals die off before the summer. Consequently, the age and size of the breeding I. granulosa fluctuates seasonally. The number of eggs is linearly related to the female length. The fecundity is highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn in all female size classes. I. granulosa inhabits an array of structurally different intertidal algae including the filamentous Cladophora rupestris, understory turfs Gigartina stellata, Laurencia pinnatifida and Corallina officinalis and the fucoids Fucus serratus and Ascophyllum nodosum. The distribution pattern of I. granulosa in examined intertidal communities is modified by the physiognomy of the algal microhabitats, by seasonal and spatial variation in wave agitation and by the breeding cycle of the population itself. Both the life history characteristics and distribution patterns are explained as adaptations to the spatially and temporally heterogeneous intertidal shores.

  6. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear.

  7. Molecular insight into lignocellulose digestion by a marine isopod in the absence of gut microbes.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew J; Cragg, Simon M; Li, Yi; Dymond, Jo; Guille, Matthew J; Bowles, Dianna J; Bruce, Neil C; Graham, Ian A; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2010-03-23

    The digestion of lignocellulose is attracting attention both in terms of basic research into its metabolism by microorganisms and animals, and also as a means of converting plant biomass into biofuels. Limnoriid wood borers are unusual because, unlike other wood-feeding animals, they do not rely on symbiotic microbes to help digest lignocellulose. The absence of microbes in the digestive tract suggests that limnoriid wood borers produce all the enzymes necessary for lignocellulose digestion themselves. In this study we report that analysis of ESTs from the digestive system of Limnoria quadripunctata reveals a transcriptome dominated by glycosyl hydrolase genes. Indeed, > 20% of all ESTs represent genes encoding putative cellulases, including glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases. These have not previously been reported in animal genomes, but are key digestive enzymes produced by wood-degrading fungi and symbiotic protists in termite guts. We propose that limnoriid GH7 genes are important for the efficient digestion of lignocellulose in the absence of gut microbes. Hemocyanin transcripts were highly abundant in the hepatopancreas transcriptome. Based on recent studies indicating that these proteins may function as phenoloxidases in isopods, we discuss a possible role for hemocyanins in lignin decomposition.

  8. Male dimorphism in the harem-forming gnathiid isopod Elaphognathia discolor (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishi, Eijiroh

    2011-08-01

    Previously unreported males of a gnathiid isopod were found in reproductive aggregations of the harem-forming gnathiid Elaphognathia discolor. Although the male gnathiids were small in size and morphologically different from E. discolor males, the male sexual organ, appendix masculina, was similar to that of E. discolor males, and possible conspecific larvae and females of the small male gnathiid were never found. In the laboratory, the small male gnathiids as well as male E. discolor successfully copulated with female E. discolor, and the development of embryos in female brood pouches was observed. Offspring of small male gnathiids develop to adults of E. discolor after molting three times, or small male gnathiids after molting two times. Thus, the small male gnathiid was concluded to be an alternative male form compared to the regular large male form of E. discolor. This male polymorphism was thought to have a genetic basis, since no small male specimens appeared in offspring of regular E. discolor males. Field sampling showed that a regular large male formed a harem composed of one large male and several females and never coexisted with other large males as previously reported. However, small males were often found together with large males. Therefore, small males are thought to be sneakers intruding into harems dominated by large males.

  9. The glycosylated androgenic hormone of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Strub, Jean-Marc; Félix, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-05-01

    It appears from grafting experiments that the androgenic hormone (AH) of terrestrial isopods has a narrow species-specificity [J. Crust. Biol. 19 (1999) 684], even if AH of different species shared common epitopes [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125 (2002) 218]. To date only the glycosylated AH of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare has been deciphered by us [Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 839 (1998) 111; Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 727] and [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 264 (1999) 419] have confirmed the primary structure of this protein. We reported in the present paper the characterization of the AH in another species Porcellio scaber by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectrometry, and molecular cloning. We found only one glycoform which consisted of two peptide chains, A and B, of 31 and 44 amino acids, respectively, with A chain carrying on Asn18 a N-glycosylated moiety, size of which has been determined by MALDI-MS measurements. The expected structure of the glycosylation was proposed. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AH precursor was mainly identical to the one obtained independently by another group [Zool. Sci. 20 (2003) 75]. We also showed that AH gene is exclusively expressed in androgenic glands. Sequence comparison with A. vulgare and P. scaber (population of Japan) AH was discussed.

  10. Effect of forced fasting on magnesium and manganese regulation in a terrestrial isopod, Porcellio spinicornis Say

    SciTech Connect

    Bercovitz, K.; Alikhan, M.A. )

    1989-07-01

    The amount of toxic and non-toxic elements assimilated by primary consumers from their environment depends as much on the form, as on concentration of these elements in the food. In superficially contaminated sites, the majority of elements detected in plant material are present as a blanket deposit of fine particles on leaf surfaces, and these are easily removed as the consumed material passes through the alimentary canal. In contrast, trace metals stored in the plant tissue are not readily available as they have been taken up via roots and are firmly bound within the plant tissue. Earlier studies have shown that mean concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) in whole woodlice are correlated with levels in their diet. Both metals are regulated by terrestrial isopods during their intermoult- and moult-cycles. The present study provides information on the regulation of Mg and Mn tissue concentrations during forced fasting in adult, intermoult male and female Porcellio spinicornis Say (Porcellionidae, Isopoda). Mg, the principal cation in the soft tissues is a well known activator of many enzymes of the glycolytic systems. Mn, on the other hand, plays a special role in digestive and catabolic processes.

  11. Multi-infections of feminizing Wolbachia strains in natural populations of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec'h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occurring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females.

  12. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work.

  13. Molecular insight into lignocellulose digestion by a marine isopod in the absence of gut microbes

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew J.; Cragg, Simon M.; Li, Yi; Dymond, Jo; Guille, Matthew J.; Bowles, Dianna J.; Bruce, Neil C.; Graham, Ian A.; McQueen-Mason, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    The digestion of lignocellulose is attracting attention both in terms of basic research into its metabolism by microorganisms and animals, and also as a means of converting plant biomass into biofuels. Limnoriid wood borers are unusual because, unlike other wood-feeding animals, they do not rely on symbiotic microbes to help digest lignocellulose. The absence of microbes in the digestive tract suggests that limnoriid wood borers produce all the enzymes necessary for lignocellulose digestion themselves. In this study we report that analysis of ESTs from the digestive system of Limnoria quadripunctata reveals a transcriptome dominated by glycosyl hydrolase genes. Indeed, > 20% of all ESTs represent genes encoding putative cellulases, including glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases. These have not previously been reported in animal genomes, but are key digestive enzymes produced by wood-degrading fungi and symbiotic protists in termite guts. We propose that limnoriid GH7 genes are important for the efficient digestion of lignocellulose in the absence of gut microbes. Hemocyanin transcripts were highly abundant in the hepatopancreas transcriptome. Based on recent studies indicating that these proteins may function as phenoloxidases in isopods, we discuss a possible role for hemocyanins in lignin decomposition. PMID:20212162

  14. Cannibalism and predation as paths for horizontal passage of Wolbachia between terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Le Clec'h, Winka; Chevalier, Frédéric D; Genty, Lise; Bertaux, Joanne; Bouchon, Didier; Sicard, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia are the most widespread endosymbionts in arthropods and nematodes. Mainly maternally inherited, these so-called sex parasites have selected several strategies that increase their vertical dispersion in host populations. However, the lack of congruence between the Wolbachia and their host phylogenies suggests frequent horizontal transfers. One way that could be used for horizontal Wolbachia transfers between individuals is predation. The aim of this study was to test whether horizontal passage of Wolbachia is possible when an uninfected terrestrial isopod eats an infected one. After having eaten Armadillidium vulgare harbouring Wolbachia, the predator-recipients (the two woodlice A. vulgare and Porcellio dilatatus dilatatus) that were initially Wolbachia-free were tested positive for the presence of Wolbachia both by quantitative PCR and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH). Even if the titers were low compared to vertically infected individuals, this constitutes the first demonstration of Wolbachia occurrence in various organs of an initially uninfected host after eating an infected one.

  15. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; de Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia ( wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  16. Organization of the large mitochondrial genome in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed Central

    Raimond, R; Marcadé, I; Bouchon, D; Rigaud, T; Bossy, J P; Souty-Grosset, C

    1999-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in animals is generally a circular molecule of approximately 15 kb, but there are many exceptions such as linear molecules and larger ones. RFLP studies indicated that the mtDNA in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare varied from 20 to 42 kb. This variation depended on the restriction enzyme used, and on the restriction profile generated by a given enzyme. The DNA fragments had characteristic electrophoretic behaviors. Digestions with two endonucleases always generated fewer fragments than expected; denaturation of restriction profiles reduced the size of two bands by half; densitometry indicated that a number of small fragments were present in stoichiometry, which has approximately twice the expected concentration. Finally, hybridization to a 550-bp 16S rDNA probe often revealed two copies of this gene. These results cannot be due to the genetic rearrangements generally invoked to explain large mtDNA. We propose that the large A. vulgare mtDNA is produced by the tripling of a 14-kb monomer with a singular rearrangement: one monomer is linear and the other two form a circular dimer. Densitometry suggested that these two molecular structures were present in different proportions within a single individual. The absence of mutations within the dimers also suggests that replication occurs during the monomer phase. PMID:9872960

  17. Multi-Infections of Feminizing Wolbachia Strains in Natural Populations of the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec’h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occuring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  18. Diel ontogenetic shift in parasitic activity in a gnathiid isopod on Caribbean coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkel, P. C.; Ziemba, R. E.; Sears, W. T.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2009-06-01

    Ontogenetic niche shifts are characteristic of organisms with complex life cycles such as many marine invertebrates. Research has focused primarily on changes in habitat or diet. However, ontogenetic changes can also occur in the temporal pattern of foraging. Gnathiid isopods feed on fish blood throughout their larval stages and are the primary food item for cleaning organisms on coral reefs. At sites in Australia and the Caribbean, gnathiid larvae exhibit size-related differences in diel activity. However, it is unclear whether this is due to interspecific or intraspecific variation in behavior. Fish were deployed in cages near sunset on shallow reefs off St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands and allowed to be infected with larval gnathiids. Larvae collected from fish retrieved near midnight developed into adults, with most developing into females. In contrast, approximately 80% of gnathiids collected after first light developed into second or third stage larvae, and nearly all of the remaining, large, individuals developed into males. Comparison of ITS2 gene regions from individuals collected in emergence traps from the same reefs during the day versus during the night revealed no differences in this highly variable region. Thus, gnathiid larvae at this locality shift their time of activity as they develop, and larvae developing into males remain active over a longer time period than those developing into females.

  19. Genus I. Leptospira

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...

  20. Facilitation and predation structure a grassland detrital food web: the responses of soil nematodes to isopod processing of litter.

    PubMed

    Bastow, Justin L

    2011-09-01

    1. Detritus can support successive consumers, whose interactions may be structured by changes in the condition of their shared resource. One model of such species interactions is a processing chain, in which consumers feeding on the resource in a less processed state change the resource condition for subsequent consumers. 2. In a series of experiments, the hypothesis was tested that a common detritivore, the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, affects soil nematodes through the processing of plant litter. Different detrital resources were added to soil from a California coastal prairie in order to simulate litter processing by the detritivore. Treatments that included only whole grass litter corresponded to detrital food webs lacking detritivores, while treatments that included mixtures of P. scaber faeces and grass litter corresponded to different densities or feeding rates of P. scaber. 3. Simulated litter processing by P. scaber increased the abundance of bacterivorous nematodes by between 32% and 202% after 24-44 days in laboratory experiments, but had no effect on fungivorous or predaceous nematodes. 4. In a subsequent field experiment, however, fungivorous nematodes were suppressed by isopod litter processing while bacterivores showed no response. Instead, P. scaber processing of litter increased the abundance of predaceous nematodes in the field experiment by 176%. 5. When simulated litter processing of litter was crossed in laboratory experiments with predaceous nematode addition (comparable to the response of predators in the field experiment), the abundance of bacterivores was increased by isopod processing of litter (by an average of 122%), but suppressed by elevated densities of predaceous nematodes (by an average of 41%). 6. This suggests that litter processing by P. scaber facilitates the bacterial channel of the soil food web, but that predaceous nematodes suppress the response of bacterivores in the field. Processing chain interactions may

  1. Long-term toxicity of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for the terrestrial isopods Oniscus asellus and Porcellio scaber

    SciTech Connect

    Brummelen, T.C. van; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Verweij, R.A.

    1996-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a common component of soil pollution, yet little is known of the ecotoxicological risks these compounds may pose to life in soil. This article reports the ecotoxicity of five PAHs for two terrestrial isopod species. Isopods were exposed to food contaminated with four different concentrations of either fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene (up to 4 {micro}mol/g), benz[a]anthracene, or benzo[a]pyrene (up to 1.25 {micro}mol/.g). Exposure of Porcellio scaber lasted 16 weeks, and no adverse effects on survival, growth, or total protein (only females tested) were observed in any of the treatments. A small but significant reduction in growth of Oniscus asellus was observed at 47 weeks of exposure to 0.125 {micro}mol benz[a]anthracene-g{sup {minus}1} dry weight and higher concentrations. A significant stimulation of the reproduction of O. asellus was observed in some of the phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene treatments; a larger proportion of the females were gravid, which resulted in a higher number of juveniles per female. Exposure did not significantly affect brood size, weight of the mother after release of the juveniles, or the survival of the juveniles upon starvation. Total protein content of females was significantly reduced at 0.4 {micro}mol fluorene g{sup {minus}1} dry weight and higher concentrations. Growth and protein content of isopods is likely to be affected by PAH exposure only at highly contaminated sites. The ecological consequences of stimulated reproduction and possible DNA damage are poorly understood and require further attention because soil invertebrates may be exposed to PAHs over many generations.

  2. Bioaccumulation of cadmium and lead and its effects on hepatopancreas morphology in three terrestrial isopod crustacean species.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V; Sinatra, F; Copat, C; Oliveri Conti, G; Ferrante, M

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) bioaccumulation in three species of oniscidean isopods - Armadillidium granulatum Brandt, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) and Porcellio laevis Latreille which were exposed for three weeks to a contaminated diet, and to determine the morphological and ultrastructural changes in hepatopancreas. Metal accumulation, determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), was linearly associated with the exposed concentration and was a function of the metal and the species tested. All three species accumulated lower levels of Pb than Cd. A. vulgare accumulated the largest concentration of Pb, especially at the higher doses, whereas P. laevis showed the greatest Cd accumulation, and the highest Cd concentration was lethal for all exposed species. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cd induced significant changes both in the general morphology of tubules and in the ultrastructural organization of epithelial cells in hepatopancreas. Some Pb/Cd induced alterations include: brush border disorganization; reduction of the basal labyrinth formed by the plasma membrane; condensation of some cytoplasm areas and of chromatin; rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial alterations; increase of secondary lysosomes and of type B granules in S cells. Some of the ultrastructural changes observed overlap with those induced by prolonged starvation, whereas others can be useful biomarkers of heavy metal toxicity. This study has confirmed that in terrestrial isopods, the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific manner; therefore ecological monitoring and assessment studies should consider each species individually. The research has confirmed that in the terrestrial isopods the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific way; therefore each species should first be evaluated in view of its employ in biomonitoring programs.

  3. Contrasting Phylogeography of Sandy vs. Rocky Supralittoral Isopods in the Megadiverse and Geologically Dynamic Gulf of California and Adjacent Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Lee, Eun Jung; Mateos, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies of animals with low vagility and restricted to patchy habitats of the supralittoral zone, can uncover unknown diversity and shed light on processes that shaped evolution along a continent’s edge. The Pacific coast between southern California and central Mexico, including the megadiverse Gulf of California, offers a remarkable setting to study biological diversification in the supralittoral. A complex geological history coupled with cyclical fluctuations in temperature and sea level provided ample opportunities for diversification of supralittoral organisms. Indeed, a previous phylogeographic study of Ligia, a supralittoral isopod that has limited dispersal abilities and is restricted to rocky patches, revealed high levels of morphologically cryptic diversity. Herein, we examined phylogeographic patterns of Tylos, another supralittoral isopod with limited dispersal potential, but whose habitat (i.e., sandy shores) appears to be more extensive and connected than that of Ligia. We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. These analyses revealed multiple highly divergent lineages with discrete regional distributions, despite the recognition of a single valid species for this region. A traditional species-diagnostic morphological trait distinguished several of these lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Tylos inside the Gulf of California show a deep and complex history. In contrast, patterns along the Pacific region between southern California and the Baja Peninsula indicate a recent range expansion, probably postglacial and related to changes in sea surface temperature (SST). In general, the phylogeographic patterns of Tylos differed from those of Ligia. Differences in the extension and connectivity of the habitats occupied by Tylos and Ligia may account for the different degrees of population isolation experienced by these two isopods and their contrasting phylogeographic

  4. Seawater temperature effect on metal accumulation and toxicity in the subantarctic Macquarie Island isopod, Exosphaeroma gigas.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alexander; King, Catherine K; Hill, Nicole A; Cooper, Ashley; Townsend, Ashley T; Mondon, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    Very little is currently known of subantarctic nearshore invertebrates' sensitivity to environmental metals and the role of temperature in this relationship. This study investigated Cu and Zn toxicity in the common subantarctic intertidal isopod, Exosphaeroma gigas, and the influence of temperature on Cu toxicity and bioaccumulation kinetics. Adult E. gigas are insensitive to Cu and Zn at concentrations of 3200 and 7400μg/L respectively in non-renewal tests at 5.5°C (ambient subtidal temperature) over 14days. Under renewed exposures over the same temperature and time period the LC50 for copper was 2204μg/L. A 10-fold increase in Cu body burden occurred relative to zinc, indicating E. gigas has different strategies for regulating the two metals. Copper toxicity and time to mortality both increased with elevated temperature. However, temperature did not significantly affect Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constants derived from biodynamic modelling at lower Cu concentrations. These results may be attributable to E. gigas being an intertidal species with physiological mechanisms adapted to fluctuating environmental conditions. Cu concentrations required to elicit a toxicity response indicates that E. gigas would not be directly threatened by current levels of Cu or Zn present in Macquarie Island intertidal habitats, with the associated elevated temperature fluctuations. This study provides evidence that the sensitivity of this subantarctic intertidal species to metal contaminants is not as high as expected, and which has significance for the derivation of relevant guidelines specific to this distinct subpolar region of the world.

  5. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Cave, Surface, and Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans of the Species Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Bethany A; Gross, Joshua B; Speiser, Daniel I; Oakley, Todd H; Patel, Nipam H; Gould, Douglas B; Protas, Meredith E

    2015-01-01

    Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the isopod, Asellus aquaticus. This species includes multiple cave and surface populations that have numerous morphological differences between them. A key feature is that hybrids between cave and surface individuals are viable, which enables genetic crosses and linkage analyses. Here, we advance this system by analyzing single animal transcriptomes of Asellus aquaticus. We use high throughput sequencing of non-normalized cDNA derived from the head of a surface-dwelling male, the head of a cave-dwelling male, the head of a hybrid male (produced by crossing a surface individual with a cave individual), and a pooled sample of surface embryos and hatchlings. Assembling reads from surface and cave head RNA pools yielded an integrated transcriptome comprised of 23,984 contigs. Using this integrated assembly as a reference transcriptome, we aligned reads from surface-, cave- and hybrid- head tissue and pooled surface embryos and hatchlings. Our approach identified 742 SNPs and placed four new candidate genes to an existing linkage map for A. aquaticus. In addition, we examined SNPs for allele-specific expression differences in the hybrid individual. All of these resources will facilitate identification of genes and associated changes responsible for cave adaptation in A. aquaticus and, in concert with analyses of other species, will inform our understanding of the evolutionary processes accompanying adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  6. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Cave, Surface, and Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans of the Species Asellus aquaticus

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Bethany A.; Gross, Joshua B.; Speiser, Daniel I.; Oakley, Todd H.; Patel, Nipam H.; Gould, Douglas B.; Protas, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the isopod, Asellus aquaticus. This species includes multiple cave and surface populations that have numerous morphological differences between them. A key feature is that hybrids between cave and surface individuals are viable, which enables genetic crosses and linkage analyses. Here, we advance this system by analyzing single animal transcriptomes of Asellus aquaticus. We use high throughput sequencing of non-normalized cDNA derived from the head of a surface-dwelling male, the head of a cave-dwelling male, the head of a hybrid male (produced by crossing a surface individual with a cave individual), and a pooled sample of surface embryos and hatchlings. Assembling reads from surface and cave head RNA pools yielded an integrated transcriptome comprised of 23,984 contigs. Using this integrated assembly as a reference transcriptome, we aligned reads from surface-, cave- and hybrid- head tissue and pooled surface embryos and hatchlings. Our approach identified 742 SNPs and placed four new candidate genes to an existing linkage map for A. aquaticus. In addition, we examined SNPs for allele-specific expression differences in the hybrid individual. All of these resources will facilitate identification of genes and associated changes responsible for cave adaptation in A. aquaticus and, in concert with analyses of other species, will inform our understanding of the evolutionary processes accompanying adaptation to the subterranean environment. PMID:26462237

  7. Testis follicles ultrastructure of three species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the research, carried out on three species of terrestrial isopods - Armadillidium granulatum, Halophiloscia hirsuta and Trichoniscus alexandrae - is to bring a first consistent contribution to the knowledge of the ultrastructural organization of the testis follicles. The testis follicles are seat of a remarkable dynamic activity of their cell components (somatic cells and germ cells) that results in a continuous variation, related to the trend of spermatogenesis, of their morphology, organization and of the relationships between the two cell populations. The somatic cells, known in literature as follicular cells, nurse cells or Sertoli cells, are arranged at the periphery of the follicle to form an epithelial layer of variable thickness resting on a thin basal lamina in turn surrounded by a discontinuous network of muscle cells. In A. granulatum and H. hirsuta, two types of Sertoli cells are present: a first type, the nurse cells, envelop the spermatids in cavities within their cytoplasm and through their secretion activity play a fundamental role in the formation of the spermatophores; moreover, they phagocytizes the residual cytoplasm of spermatids. A second type of Sertoli cells shows features that leave clearly identify its supporting role to the spermatophores in formation. In T. alexandrae, instead, only one type of Sertoli cells, the nurse cell, is present, whose features are widely superimposable to those observed in the other two species. Moreover, two septa of Sertoli cells depart from the periphery of the testis follicle to constitute an articulated compartmentalization of the follicle itself, probably targeted to realize at its inside a series of microenvironments functionally diversified in order to meets the needs of the different stages of the spermatogenic cycle.

  8. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipusrathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticusconvexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species' brood pouch: in Trachelipusrathkii, a 'clinger' type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticusconvexus, a 'roller' type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites' cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipusrathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticusconvexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine structure of the oostegites and

  9. Physiological properties of the gut lumen of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea): adaptive to digesting lignocellulose?

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin; Brune, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Since any given trait of an organism is considered to represent either an adaptation to the environment or a phylogenetic constraint, most physiological gut characteristics should be adaptive in terms of optimizing digestion and utilization of the respective food source. Among the Crustacea, the taxon Oniscidea (Isopoda) is the only suborder that includes, and essentially consists of, species inhabiting terrestrial environments, feeding on food sources different from those of most other Crustacea (i.e., terrestrial leaf litter). Microelectrodes were used to assay physiological characteristics of the gut lumen from representatives of four families of terrestrial isopods: Trichoniscus pusillus (Trichoniscidae), Oniscus asellus (Oniscidae), Porcellio scaber (Porcellionidae), and Trachelipus rathkii (Trachelipodidae). Microsensor measurements of oxygen pressure (Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes) revealed that O2-consuming processes inside the gut lumen created steep radial oxygen gradients. Although all guts were oxic in the periphery, the radial center of the posterior hindgut was micro-oxic or even anoxic in the adults of the larger species. The entire gut lumen of all examined species was strongly oxidizing (Pt microelectrodes; apparent redox potential, Eh: +600-700 mV). Such conditions would allow for the coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, with both oxidative and fermentative activities contributing to digestion. Although bacterial O2 consumption was also observed in the midgut glands (hepatopancreas), they remained entirely oxic, probably owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio and high oxygen fluxes across the hepatopancreatic epithelium into the gland lumen. Measurements with pH microelectrodes (LIX-type) showed a slight pH gradient from acidic conditions in the anterior hindgut to neutral conditions in the posterior hindgut of O. asellus, P. scaber and T. rathkii. By contrast, the pH in the hindgut lumen of T. pusillus was almost

  10. Patterns of the Non-Indigenous Isopod Cirolana harfordi in Sydney Harbour

    PubMed Central

    Bugnot, Ana B.; Coleman, Ross A.; Figueira, Will F.; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    Biological introductions can alter the ecology of local assemblages and are an important driver of global environmental change. The first step towards understanding the impact of a non-indigenous species is to study its distribution and associations in the invaded area. In Sydney Harbour, the non-indigenous isopod Cirolana harfordi has been reported in densities up to 0.5 individuals per cm2 in mussel-beds. Abundances of this species have, however, been largely overlooked in other key habitats. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the abundances and distribution of C. harfordi across different habitats representative of Sydney Harbour. Results showed that C. harfordi occurred in oyster and mussel-beds, being particularly abundant in oyster-beds. We also aimed to determine the role of C. harfordi as a predator, scavenger and detritus feeder by investigating the relationships between densities of C. harfordi and (i) the structure of the resident assemblages, and (ii) deposited organic matter in oyster-beds. Densities of C. harfordi were not related to the structure of the assemblages, nor amounts of deposited organic matter. These findings suggested little or no ecological impacts of C. harfordi in oyster-beds. These relationships may, however, affect other variables such as growth of individuals, or be disguised by high variability of assemblages among different locations. Future studies should, therefore, test the impacts of C. harfordi on the size of organisms in the assemblage and use manipulative experiments to control for spatial variation. This study is the first published work on the ecology of the invasion of C. harfordi and provides the starting-point for the study of the impacts of this species in Sydney Harbour. PMID:24466227

  11. Host tissues as microhabitats for Wolbachia and quantitative insights into the bacterial community in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, J; Beltran-Bech, S; Lesobre, J; Raimond, M; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D

    2014-05-01

    Animal-bacterial symbioses are highly dynamic in terms of multipartite interactions, both between the host and its symbionts as well as between the different bacteria constituting the symbiotic community. These interactions will be reflected by the titres of the individual bacterial taxa, for example via host regulation of bacterial loads or competition for resources between symbionts. Moreover, different host tissues represent heterogeneous microhabitats for bacteria, meaning that host-associated bacteria might establish tissue-specific bacterial communities. Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria, infecting a large number of arthropods and filarial nematodes. However, relatively little is known regarding direct interactions between Wolbachia and other bacteria. This study represents the first quantitative investigation of tissue-specific Wolbachia-microbiota interactions in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. To this end, we obtained a more complete picture of the Wolbachia distribution patterns across all major host tissues, integrating all three feminizing Wolbachia strains (wVulM, wVulC, wVulP) identified to date in this host. Interestingly, the different Wolbachia strains exhibited strain-specific tissue distribution patterns, with wVulM reaching lower titres in most tissues. These patterns were consistent across different host genetic backgrounds and might reflect different co-evolutionary histories between the Wolbachia strains and A. vulgare. Moreover, Wolbachia-infected females carried higher total bacterial loads in several, but not all, tissues, irrespective of the Wolbachia strain. Taken together, this quantitative approach indicates that Wolbachia is part of a potentially more diverse bacterial community, as exemplified by the presence of highly abundant bacterial taxa in the midgut caeca of several A. vulgare populations.

  12. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipus rathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticus convexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species’ brood pouch: in Trachelipus rathkii, a ‘clinger’ type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticus convexus, a ‘roller’ type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites’ cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipus rathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticus convexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine

  13. The link between antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase and physiological condition of a control population of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber).

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Lešer, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in a control population of terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) are correlated with the physiological condition of the isopods. For this purpose, the activities of these enzymes were analysed in isopods from a stock population and in parallel, the physiological condition of the same specimens was assessed using a histological approach based on epithelial thickness and lipid droplets. We found a correlation between antioxidant enzymes and the physiological condition of the isopods. This implies that these enzymes could be used as predictive indicators of the physiological condition in a stock population before comprehensive toxicological studies are conducted and also in control group after the experiment. When a control group is found to be very heterogeneous in terms of physiological condition, the experiment should be repeated with a larger number of experimental animals. The findings of this study will contribute to more accurate experimental design of toxicity tests when using biomarkers. This should encourage other researchers to increase their effort to know the physiological state of their test organisms.

  14. Deep down: Isopod biodiversity of the Kuril-Kamchatka abyssal area including a comparison with data of previous expeditions of the RV Vityaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Malyutina, Marina V.; Golovan, Olga A.; Brenke, Nils; Riehl, Torben; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    This study focusses on the isopod biodiversity in the abyssal area southeast of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. The KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) expedition in summer 2012 collected altogether 10,169 isopods from 21 C-EBS hauls at 12 stations, belonging to 19 families, 73 genera and 207 species from the depth range between 4830 and 5780 m. Munnopsidae and Desmosomatidae were the most abundant and species-rich families, Eurycope (Munnopsidae) and Macrostylis (Macrostylidae) the most abundant genera. An nMDS plot on the basis of the Cosine similarity index reveals no clear pattern and all hauls to be different from each other. We compared our data with 12 stations from the same depth range sampled by the Russian RV Vityaz about 50 years ago and were able to identify several species collected by the RV Vityaz. The identified isopod species belonged to the families Munnopsidae, Macrostylidae, Haploniscidae, Desmosomatidae, Ischnomesidae and Nannoniscidae. Of the 333 individuals collected by the RV Vityaz, Haploniscidae and Munnopsidae were the most abundant families. Desmosomatidae were only represented by <1% of the isopod individuals. However, the rarefaction curves of both the KuramBio and the Vityaz samples are not approaching an asymptote, indicating that even after repeated sampling just a part of the local fauna has been recorded so far.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum” Ps, a Bacterial Symbiont in the Hepatopancreas of the Terrestrial Isopod Porcellio scaber

    PubMed Central

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Toenshoff, Elena R.; Schulz, Frederik; Schuster, Lisa; Domann, Daryl; Horn, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    “Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum” Ps is an extracellular symbiont residing in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Its genome is highly similar to that of the close relative “Ca. Hepatoplasma crinochetorum” Av from Armadillidium vulgare. However, instead of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system, it encodes a type I restriction modification system. PMID:26272556

  16. Effects of soil and dietary exposures to Ag nanoparticles and AgNO₃ in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Ag-NPs and AgNO3 on the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were determined upon soil and dietary exposures. Isopods avoided Ag in soil, with EC50 values of ∼16.0 and 14.0 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Feeding inhibition tests in soil showed EC50s for effects on consumption ratio of 127 and 56.7 mg Ag/kg, respectively. Although similar EC50s for effects on biomass were observed for nanoparticulate and ionic Ag (114 and 120 mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively), at higher concentrations greater biomass loss was found for AgNO3. Upon dietary exposure, AgNO3 was more toxic, with EC50 for effects on biomass change being >1500 and 233 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. The difference in toxicity between Ag-NPs and AgNO3 could not be explained from Ag body concentrations. This suggests that the relation between toxicity and bioavailability of Ag-NPs differs from that of ionic Ag in soils.

  17. "Candidatus hepatoplasma crinochetorum," a new, stalk-forming lineage of Mollicutes colonizing the midgut glands of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Stingl, Ulrich; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Geisler, Sabine; Brune, Andreas; Zimmer, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Uncultivated bacteria that densely colonize the midgut glands (hepatopancreas) of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) were identified by cloning and sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these symbionts represent a novel lineage of the Mollicutes and are only distantly related (<82% sequence identity) to members of the Mycoplasmatales and Entomoplasmatales. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a specific oligonucleotide probe confirmed that the amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences indeed originated from a homogeneous population of symbionts intimately associated with the epithelial surface of the hepatopancreas. The same probe also detected morphotypically identical symbionts in other crinochete isopods. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed uniform spherical bacterial cells without a cell wall, sometimes interacting with the microvilli of the brush border by means of stalk-like cytoplasmic appendages, which also appeared to be involved in cell division through budding. Based on the isolated phylogenetic position and unique cytological properties, the provisional name "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" is proposed for this new taxon of Mollicutes colonizing the hepatopancreas of P. scaber.

  18. Joint effects of three plant protection products to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus and the collembolan Folsomia candida.

    PubMed

    Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2010-08-01

    The effects of simultaneous application of plant protection products are of concern since the uses of different products pose an additional risk to non-target soil organisms. The effects of binary combinations of dimethoate, glyphosate and spirodiclofen, an insecticide an herbicide and an acaricide, on the avoidance behaviour of the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus and the reproductive effort of Folsomia candida were assessed using the two reference models of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA). Results of single exposure to the three pesticides indicated a clear dose related avoidance response of the isopods in the highest concentrations tested of the three as well as a strong decrease in collembolan adult survival and concomitant number of juveniles produced. In the combined experiments, antagonism was found in 7 out of the 12 combinations, four combinations followed the reference models, and only in one combination synergism was detected (lower doses of glyphosate and spirodiclofen applied to P. pruinosus). In conclusion, it seems that mixing and applying these products, at the recommended field application rate, does not lead to enhanced toxicity, hence limited risk is associated with the joint application of these pesticides.

  19. Cannibalism as an interacting phenotype: precannibalistic aggression is influenced by social partners in the endangered Socorro Isopod (Thermosphaeroma thermophilum).

    PubMed

    Bleakley, B H; Welter, S M; McCauley-Cole, K; Shuster, S M; Moore, A J

    2013-04-01

    Models for the evolution of cannibalism highlight the importance of asymmetries between individuals in initiating cannibalistic attacks. Studies may include measures of body size but typically group individuals into size/age classes or compare populations. Such broad comparisons may obscure the details of interactions that ultimately determine how socially contingent characteristics evolve. We propose that understanding cannibalism is facilitated by using an interacting phenotypes perspective that includes the influences of the phenotype of a social partner on the behaviour of a focal individual and focuses on variation in individual pairwise interactions. We investigated how relative body size, a composite trait between a focal individual and its social partner, and the sex of the partners influenced precannibalistic aggression in the endangered Socorro isopod, Thermosphaeroma thermophilum. We also investigated whether differences in mating interest among males and females influenced cannibalism in mixed sex pairs. We studied these questions in three populations that differ markedly in range of body size and opportunities for interactions among individuals. We found that relative body size influences the probability of and latency to attack. We observed differences in the likelihood of and latency to attack based on both an individual's sex and the sex of its partner but found no evidence of sexual conflict. The instigation of precannibalistic aggression in these isopods is therefore a property of both an individual and its social partner. Our results suggest that interacting phenotype models would be improved by incorporating a new conditional ψ, which describes the strength of a social partner's influence on focal behaviour.

  20. The influence of metal speciation on the bioavailability and sub-cellular distribution of cadmium to the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio dilatatus.

    PubMed

    Calhôa, Carla Filipa; Monteiro, Marta S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Mann, Reinier M

    2011-04-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential toxic metal that is able to bioaccumulate in both flora fauna and has the potential to biomagnify in some food chains. However, the form in which cadmium is presented to consumers can alter the bioavailability and possibly the internal distribution of assimilated Cd. Previous studies in our laboratory highlighted differences in Cd assimilation among isopods when they were provided with a plant-based food with either Cd biologically incorporated into plant tissue or superficially amended with ionic Cd(2+). Cd is known for its high affinity for sulphur ligands in cysteine residues which form the basis for metal-binding proteins such as metallothionein. This study compares Cd assimilation efficiency (AE) in Porcellio dilatatus fed with food amended with either cadmium cysteinate or cadmium nitrate in an examination of the influence of Cd speciation on metal bioavailability followed by an examination of the sub-cellular distribution using a centrifugal fractionation protocol. As hypothesized the AE of Cd among isopods fed with Cd(NO(3))(2) (64%, SE=5%) was higher than AE for isopods fed with Cd(Cys)(2) (20%, SE=3%). The sub-cellular distribution also depended on the Cd species provided. Those isopods fed Cd(Cys)(2) allocated significantly more Cd to the cell debris and organelles fractions at the expense of allocation to metal-rich granules (MRG). The significance of the difference in sub-cellular distribution with regard to toxicity is discussed. This paper demonstrates that the assimilation and internal detoxification of Cd is dependent on the chemical form of Cd presented to the isopod.

  1. 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis', an intracellular bacterium from the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2004-03-01

    Intracellular bacteria were observed in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopic observations were used to determine the taxonomic position of these intracellular bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis and a complex developmental cycle affiliate these bacteria to the order Chlamydiales, within which they form a distinctive lineage, close to the family Simkaniaceae. They share <92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with their closest relative and <88 % similarity with other members of the order Chlamydiales. A specific signature oligonucleotide sequence was identified and used as a probe, enabling the identification of intracellular bacteria in infected hepatopancreatic tissue. According to the distinctive morphology of their elementary bodies, which are rod-shaped rather than spherical and contain translucent oblong structures, their genomic properties and their crustacean host, the name 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis' is proposed for intracellular bacteria in the hepatopancreas of P. scaber.

  2. A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from Oʻahu and Kauaʻi revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Molokaʻi, Lanaʻi, and Hawaiʻi), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kauaʻi) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A

  3. Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Mateos, Mariana; Santamaria, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ligia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico. We expect to find high levels of allopatric diversity. In addition, we expect the phylogeographic patterns to show signatures of past vicariant events that occurred in this geologically dynamic region. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA). We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We found many divergent clades that, in general, group according to geography. Some of the most striking features of the Ligia phylogeographic pattern include: (1) deep mid-peninsular phylogeographic breaks on the Pacific and Gulf sides of Baja peninsula; (2) within the Gulf lineages, the northern peninsula is most closely related to the northern mainland, while the southern peninsula is most closely related to the central-southern mainland; and, (3) the southernmost portion of the peninsula (Cape Region) is most closely related to the southernmost portion of mainland. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the phylogenetic relationships of Ligia populations in the study area. This study probably represents the finest-scale phylogeographic examination for any organism to date in this region. Presence of highly divergent lineages suggests multiple Ligia species exist in this region. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Gulf of California and Baja peninsula are incongruent with a widely accepted vicariant scenario among phylogeographers, but consistent with aspects of alternative geological hypotheses and phylo- and biogeographic patterns of

  4. Analysis of CaCO3 deposit formation and degradation during the molt cycle of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Fabritius, Helge; Ziegler, Andreas

    2003-05-01

    Terrestrial isopods store cuticular calcium in large sternal deposits composed of an amorphous CaCO(3) compound. A large part of the deposits consists of numerous small spherules that increase the exposed surface to facilitate resorption of CaCO(3) during cuticle mineralization. It is not known how these spherules are formed and how they are dissolved. This paper presents for the first time an analysis of ultrastructural changes occurring in the sternal CaCO(3) deposits of a terrestrial isopod during their formation and degradation. Our results indicate that formation of the spherules takes place in a specialized aggregation zone, in which 10- to 30-nm-thick granules form agglomerations that then increase in size to form spherules that reveal a concentric growth pattern. Degradation of the deposits occurs in a manner that exposes a maximum of surface area on all levels of their structural organization.

  5. Upon exposure to Cu nanoparticles, accumulation of copper in the isopod Porcellio scaber is due to the dissolved Cu ions inside the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Golobič, Miha; Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Romih, Tea; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne

    2012-11-06

    The fate of nanoparticles in organisms is of significant interest. In the current work, we used a test system with terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) fed with food spiked with Cu NPs or soluble Cu salt for 14 days. Two different doses were used for spiking to yield final concentrations of 2000 and 5000 μg Cu/g dry food. After the exposure period, part of the exposed group of animals was transferred to clean food to depurate. Cu content was analyzed in the digestive glands, gut, and the 'rest' of the body. Similar patterns of (i) assimilated and depurated amounts of Cu, (ii) Cu body distribution, and (iii) effect on isopods feeding behavior were observed regardless of whether the animals were fed with Cu NPs or soluble Cu salt spiked food. Thus, Cu ions and not Cu NPs were assimilated by the digestive gland cells. Solubilization of the Cu NPs applied to the leaves was also analyzed with chemical methods and recombinant Cu-sensing bacteria. The comparison of the in vitro data on solubilization of Cu NPs and in vivo data on Cu accumulation in the animal tissues showed that about 99% of accumulated copper ions was dissolved from ingested Cu NPs in the digestive system of isopods.

  6. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment.

  7. The distribution and abundance of Sphaeroma terebrans, a wood-boring isopod of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) habitat within Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, R.A.; Bell, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the distribution, abundance, and demography of a wood boring isopod, Sphaeroma terebrans Bate, 1866, within the prop roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., in eight sites within Tampa Bay, Florida. Sphaeroma terebrans in Tampa Bay displayed reproductive activity year-round and bay-wide synchrony in their density pattern. On average approximately 60% (range: 25%-86%) of the intertidal aerial roots surveyed were occupied by S. terebrans. Although infestation levels by S. terebrans in Tampa Bay were similar to that of more tropical regions, the distribution of S. terebrans was not continuous throughout the study sites. A substantially higher occurrence and density of S. terebrans was found in the northern compared to more southern study sites within the Bay. Additionally, some seemingly suitable areas of the bay (i.e., Pinellas Point, Skyway, Fort Desoto) were actually unoccupied on some dates. Although sites differed in the frequency with which roots were attacked, the density of burrows and isopods in an occupied root was similar, with most attacked roots containing 3-5 burrows. The results of a transplantation experiment indicated that neither abiotic factors nor substrate quality limit the burrowing capabilities or survival of adult S. terebrans in the areas where they are absent. Instead, dispersal limitation, linked with differential juvenile survival, most likely controls isopod distribution and abundance within Tampa Bay.

  8. The genus Vitex: A review

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347927

  9. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  10. Litarcturus kexueiae sp. nov., a new deep-sea isopod from the Okinawa Trough (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera, Antarcturidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenliang; Sha, Zhongli

    2015-09-11

    A new species of the genus Litarcturus Brandt, 1990, L. kexueiae sp. nov., collected from deep sea of the Okinawa Trough, is described and illustrated. It is readily distinguished from the other seven species of the genus by bearing long supraocular spines about as long as the head and posterolateral pleotelsonic spines overreaching the pleotelson apex.

  11. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed Central

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  12. "Candidatus Bacilloplasma," a novel lineage of Mollicutes associated with the hindgut wall of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2007-09-01

    Pointed, rod-shaped bacteria colonizing the cuticular surface of the hindgut of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) were investigated by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopy. The results of phylogenetic analysis, and the absence of a cell wall, affiliated these bacteria with the class Mollicutes, within which they represent a novel and deeply branched lineage, sharing less than 82.6% sequence similarity to known Mollicutes. The lineage has been positioned as a sister group to the clade comprising the Spiroplasma group, the Mycoplasma pneumoniae group, and the Mycoplasma hominis group. The specific signature sequence was identified and used as a probe in in situ hybridization, which confirmed that the retrieved sequences originate from the attached rod-shaped bacteria from the hindgut of P. scaber and made it possible to detect these bacteria in their natural environment. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed a spherically shaped structure at the tapered end of the rod-shaped bacteria, enabling their specific and exclusive attachment to the tip of the cuticular spines on the inner surface of the gut. Specific adaptation to the gut environment, as well as phylogenetic positioning, indicate the long-term association and probable coevolution of the bacteria and the host. Taking into account their pointed, rod-shaped morphology and their phylogenetic position, the name "Candidatus Bacilloplasma" has been proposed for this new lineage of bacteria specifically associated with the gut surface of P. scaber.

  13. Long-term exposure of the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus to nickel: Costs in the energy budget and detoxification enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nuno G C; Cardoso, Diogo N; Morgado, Rui; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Terrestrial isopods from the species Porcellionides pruinosus were exposed to the maximum allowed nickel concentration in the Canadian framework guideline (50 mg Ni/kg soil) and to 5× this concentration (250 mg Ni/kg soil). The exposure lasted for 28 days and was followed by a recovery period of 14 days where organisms were changed to clean soil. Organisms were sampled after 24 h, 48 h, 96 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days of exposure, and at days 35 and 42 during the recovery period. For each sampling time the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were determined as well as lipid peroxidation rate (LPO) along with lipids, carbohydrates, proteins content, energy available (Ea), energy consumption (Ec) and cellular energy allocation (CEA). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated for each sampling time as well as for each one of the above parameters. In addition, mortality was also recorded throughout the assay. The results obtained showed that nickel induced oxidative stress, evidenced by results on GST, GPx, CAT or LPO, but also on changes in the energy reserves content of these organisms. In addition, this study showed that these organisms possess a specific strategy to handle nickel toxicity. In this case, biomarkers were associated with costs in the energy budget, and the increase of energy reserves has a compensation for that cost.

  14. Cell membrane integrity and internalization of ingested TiO(2) nanoparticles by digestive gland cells of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Novak, Sara; Drobne, Damjana; Valant, Janez; Pipan-Tkalec, Živa; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Falnoga, Ingrid; Mazej, Darja; Remškar, Maja

    2012-05-01

    The present study was motivated by the paucity of reports on cellular internalization of ingested titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles (nano-TiO(2)). The model invertebrate (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) was exposed to food dosed with nano-TiO(2) containing 100, 1,000, 3,000, or 5,000 µg nano-TiO(2) per gram of food. After 14 d of exposure, the amount of Ti in the entire body was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses of tissue cross sections were performed by particle induced X-ray emission. In addition, a series of toxicological markers including feeding parameters, weight change, and survival, as well as cytotoxic effects such as digestive gland cell membrane stability, were monitored. Internalization of ingested nano-TiO(2) by the isopod's digestive gland epithelial cells was shown to depend on cell membrane integrity. Cell membranes were found to be destabilized by TiO(2) particles, and at higher extracellular concentrations of nano-TiO(2), the nanoparticles were internalized.

  15. Ultrastructure and mineral composition of the cornea cuticle in the compound eyes of a supralittoral and a marine isopod.

    PubMed

    Alagboso, Francisca I; Reisecker, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Ziegler, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The cuticle of the cornea in Crustacea is an interesting example of a composite material compromising between two distinct functions. As part of the dioptric apparatus of the ommatidia within the complex eye it forms transparent micro-lenses that should as well maintain the mechanical stability of the head capsule. We analyzed the ultrastructure and composition of the isopod cornea cuticle of the terrestrial species Ligia oceanica and the marine Sphaeroma serratum. We used a variety of tissue preparation methods, electron microscopic techniques as well as electron microprobe analysis and Raman spectroscopic imaging. The results reveal various structural adaptations that likely increase light transmission. These are an increase in the thickness of the epicuticle, a reduction of the thickness of the outer layer of calcite, a spatial restriction of pore canals to interommatidial regions, and, for S. serratum only, an increase in calcite crystal size. In both species protein-chitin fibrils within the proximal exocuticle form a peculiar reticular structure that does not occur within the cuticle of the head capsule. In L. oceanica differential mineralization results in a spherically shaped interface between mineralized and unmineralized endocuticle, likely an adaptation to increase the refractive power of the cornea maintaining the mechanical stability of the cuticle between the ommatidia. The results show that the habitat and differences in the general structure of the animal's cuticle affect the way in which the cornea is adapted to its optical function.

  16. Altered physiological conditions of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber as a measure of subchronic TiO2 effects.

    PubMed

    Srpčič, Anja Menard; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) show low toxic potential against a variety of environmental organisms when measured by conventional toxicity endpoints. However, the question is whether the conventional measures of toxicity can define the adverse effects of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to asses the potential toxic and cytotoxic effects of the ingested nano-TiO2 (anatase, <25 nm) on a terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber. In addition to conventional toxicity parameters, the physiological condition of the animals was assessed. Following 28-day feeding exposure to nano-TiO2 at concentrations up to 5,000 μg nano-TiO2/g leaf dry weight, no toxic or cytotoxic effects were demonstrated. However, the physiological condition of the animals was affected in a dose-dependent manner. The physiological state of organisms is an important parameter to assess the potential population implications due to the exposure to nanomaterials. Therefore, we suggest that only if both, the physiological state of the animals exposed to nano-TiO2 and the conventional toxicity markers show no effects, the exposure dose can be interpreted as non-hazardous.

  17. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellioscaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellioscaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment.

  18. Prolonged feeding of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) on TiO (2) nanoparicles. Absence of toxic effect.

    PubMed

    Novak, Sara; Drobne, Damjana; Menard, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide are one of most widely used nanomaterials in different products in everyday use and in industry, but very little is known about their effects on non- target cells and tissues. Terrestrial isopods were exposed to food dosed with nano-TiO(2) to give final nominal concentration 1000 and 2000 µg TiO(2)/g dry weight of food. The effects of ingested nano-TiO(2) on the model invertebrate Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3 and 7 days) and prolonged (14 and 28 days) dietary exposure was assessed by conventional toxicity measures such as feeding rate, weight change and mortality. Cell membrane destabilization was also investigated. No severe toxicity effects were observed after 3, 7, 14 or 28 days of dietary exposure to nano-TiO(2), but some animals, particularly those exposed to lower concentrations of nanoparticles, had severely destabilized digestive cell membranes. It was concluded that strong destabilization of the cell membrane was sporadic, and neither concentration- nor time-related. Further research is needed to confirm this sporadic toxic effect of nanoparticles.

  19. First record of Wolbachia in South American terrestrial isopods: Prevalence and diversity in two species of Balloniscus (Crustacea, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Almerão, Mauricio Pereira; Fagundes, Nelson Jurandi Rosa; de Araújo, Paula Beatriz; Verne, Sébastien; Grandjean, Frédéric; Bouchon, Didier; Araújo, Aldo Mellender

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus (B. sellowii and B. glaber) were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii, but uninfected populations could be found in both species. Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber. AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts. PMID:23413179

  20. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, sex ratio distorters and population genetics in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, T; Bouchon, D; Souty-Grosset, C; Raimond, R

    1999-01-01

    Two maternally inherited sex ratio distorters (SRD) impose female-biased sex ratios on the wood louse Armadillidium vulgare by feminizing putative males. These SRD are (i) an intracytoplasmic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia, and (ii) another non-Mendelian element of unknown nature: the f element. Mitochondrial DNA variation was investigated in A. vulgare field populations to trace the evolution of host-SRD relationships and to investigate the effect of SRD on host cytoplasmic polymorphism. The Wolbachia endosymbionts showed no polymorphism in their ITS2 sequence and were associated with two closely related mitochondrial types. This situation probably reflects a single infection event followed by a slight differentiation of mitochondria. There was no association between the f element and a given mitochondrial type, which may confirm the fact that this element can be partially paternally transmitted. The spreading of a maternally inherited SRD in a population should reduce the mitochondrial diversity by a hitchhiking process. In A. vulgare, however, a within-population mtDNA polymorphism was often found, because of the deficient spread of Wolbachia and the partial paternal inheritance of the f element. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that A. vulgare populations are genetically structured, but without isolation by distance. PMID:10430591

  1. The medicinal chemistry of genus Aralia.

    PubMed

    Clement, Jason A; Clement, Ella S H

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aralia contains many plants used medicinally in Asia and the Americas. Although many members of this genus are used medicinally, the vast majority of this genus has not been explored chemically. The species of Aralia that have been explored chemically have yielded compounds of several classes, including triterpenoid saponins, sterols, diterpenoids, and acetylenic lipids. Many of the biologically active components found in genus Aralia have been evaluated for their potential as lead compounds for drug discovery. This review will explore the medicinal chemistry of compounds reported from genus Aralia, and future prospects for this genus will be considered.

  2. Genetic diversity in Gossypium genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall objectives of this paper are to report on cotton germplasm resources, morphobiological and agronomic diversity of Gossypium genus and review efforts on molecular genetic diversity of cotton gene pools as well as on the challenges and perspectives of exploiting genetic diversity in cotton...

  3. Size at the onset of maturity (SOM) revealed in length-weight relationships of brackish amphipods and isopods: An information theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Emanuela; Mancinelli, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    In amphipods and other small-sized crustaceans, allometric relationships are conventionally analysed by fitting the standard model Y = a·Xb (X and Y are, e.g., body length and weight, respectively) whose scaling exponent b is assumed to be constant. However, breakpoints in allometric relationships have long been documented in large-sized crustaceans, ultimately determined by ontogenetic, abrupt variations in the value of b. Here, the existence of breakpoints in length-weight relationships was investigated in four amphipod (i.e., Gammarus aequicauda, Gammarus insensibilis, Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, and Dexamine spinosa) and three isopod species (i.e., Lekanesphaera hookeri, Sphaeroma serratum, and Cymodoce truncata) from three Mediterranean lagoons. The power of two candidate linear models fitted to log10-transformed data - a simple model assuming a constant exponent b and a segmented model assuming b to vary after a breakpoint - was compared using a parsimonious selection strategy based on the Akaike information criterion. The segmented model with a breakpoint provided the most accurate fitting of length-weight data in the majority of the species analysed; non-conclusive results were obtained only for D. spinosa and C. truncata, of which a limited number of specimens was examined. Model parameters were consistent for amphipod and isopod species collected across the three different habitats; the generality of the results was further supported by a literature search confirming that the identified breakpoints corresponded with ontogenetic discontinuities related with sexual maturation in all the species investigated. In this study, segmented regression models were revealed to provide a statistically accurate and biologically meaningful description of length-weight relationships of common amphipod and isopod species. The methodological limitations of the approach are considered, while the practical implications for secondary production estimates are discussed.

  4. Pyrene metabolites in the hepatopancreas and gut of the isopod Porcellio scaber, a new biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Stroomberg, G.J.; Knecht, J.A. de; Ariese, F.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Velthorst, N.H.

    1999-10-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the formation of pyrene metabolites by the isopod Porcellio scaber as a possible tool in the environmental risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in terrestrial ecosystems. The formation of pyrene metabolites was studied after either pulse exposure to a single high dose, or prolonged exposure (14 d) to a lower dosage. Exposure studies were carried out with unlabeled or radiolabeled pyrene, ion pair chromatography was used for analysis, and reference conjugates were synthesized. The authors also measured pyrene metabolites in field-exposed animals, to explore their use as biomarkers of PAH exposure. Analysis of the hepatopancreas and gut of single isopods revealed the formation of five products, one of which was 1-hydroxypyrene. Four of the remaining products were identified as phase 2 metabolites of 1-hydroxypyrene, with UV absorption and fluorescence characteristics similar to that of pyrene. One metabolite was identified as pyrene-1-glucoside, which is in accordance with high rates of glucosidation, reported for these isopods. Another conjugate was identified as pyrene-1-sulfate. None of the metabolites coeluted with a pyrene-1-glucuronide reference obtained from fish bile. A fifth metabolite detected by on-line scintillation detection did not exhibit any absorption at 340 nm, possibly because one of the aromatic rings of pyrene had lost its aromatic character. Although pyrene is not known for its toxicity, it usually co-occurs with other PAHs that are transformed into toxic products. Investigating the metabolism of pyrene can provide information with regard to the biotransformation capacity of invertebrate species and uptake and elimination kinetics. Because pyrene is one of the most predominant PAHs in the environment, analysis of its metabolites provides an extra tool for the environmental risk assessment of ecosystems with regard to PAH exposure, bioavailability, and biotransformation.

  5. Observations on the Activity and Life History of the Scavenging Isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) from Loch Fyne, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Y. M.; Moore, P. G.

    1996-02-01

    The activity and life history of the cirolanid isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg has been studied using (primarily) fish-baited traps deployed at a deep-water station (190 m) in Loch Fyne, Scotland. A voracious scavenger, it burrows into soft mud, emerging to feed when suitable food odours are detected in the water. Isopods were attracted significantly to baited vs. non-baited traps. Underwater video observations revealed that most animals were active in the vicinity of traps, that capture efficiency was low, but retention complete. Only traps on the sea-bed captured mancas or juveniles in any numbers. Any seasonal pattern in catch rate through the year was confounded by high variability. Only one (manca-)brooding female was ever caught in a trap (in April). It is assumed that brooding females desist from feeding. The sex ratio of isopods in most trap collections was thus significantly male dominated. Mancas were trapped during February to August. Growth rate was slowest in adults and was similar for males and females. The maximum growth rate occurred during autumn associated with the seasonal cycle in bottom water temperatures. Longevity was estimated (by following peaks in the size-frequency distributions with time) to be c. 2·5 years, with sexual maturity (based on oostegites/spurred appendix masculinae) achieved after c. 19 months. Semelparity is suggested. A low incidence of an unnamed epicaridean parasite is reported from the Clyde population. Natatolana borealisalso carried peritrich ciliate epizoites on their antennae. Possible predators are swimming crabs and gadid fish, e.g. whiting and cod.

  6. The Effect of Temperature on Synchronization of Brood Development of the Bopyrid Isopod Parasite Probopyrus pandalicola with Molting of Its Host, the Daggerblade Grass Shrimp Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Brigette A; Curran, Mary Carla

    2015-08-01

    The bopyrid isopod Probopyrus pandalicola is a hematophagous ectoparasite that sexually sterilizes some palaemonid shrimps, including female daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. The reproduction of parasitic isopods is thought to occur synchronously with host molting because the brood would be unsuccessful if molting occurred before the larvae were free swimming. Temperature affects the length of the molting cycle of shrimp, and therefore may also affect the incubation time of isopod broods. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of temperature on brood development of the parasite and on the degree of synchronization with the molting of its host. Parasitized P. pugio were monitored daily at 2 experimental temperatures, 23 and 15 C, in temperature-controlled chambers for the duration of a full parasite reproductive cycle. Developmental stage was determined by the visible coloration of the brood through the exoskeleton of the host, and was designated as egg, embryo I, embryo II, or epicaridium larvae. Temperature significantly affected median brood incubation time, which was only 11 days at 23 C, as compared to 35 days at 15 C. The final developmental stage (epicaridium larvae) was 3 times shorter at 23 C (median 3 days; n = 45) than at 15 C (median 9 days; n = 15). Temperature significantly affected the intermolt period of parasitized shrimp, which was shorter at 23 C (median 12 days) than at 15 C (median 37 days). A smaller percentage of the intermolt period elapsed between larval release and shrimp molting at 23 C (0.0%) than at 15 C (3.1%), indicating closer synchronization between host molting and parasite reproduction at the warmer temperature. At 15 C, the isopods utilized a smaller proportion of the time that was available for brood incubation during the intermolt period of their host. Brood size ranged from 391 to 4,596 young and was positively correlated with parasite and host size. Because development progressed more rapidly

  7. Natural products from the genus tephrosia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinning; Yan, Tao; Gao, Chenghai; Cao, Wenhao; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-27

    The genus Tephrosia, belonging to the Leguminosae family, is a large pantropical genus of more than 350 species, many of which have important traditional uses in agriculture. This review not only outlines the source, chemistry and biological evaluations of natural products from the genus Tephrosia worldwide that have appeared in literature from 1910 to December 2013, but also covers work related to proposed biosynthetic pathways and synthesis of some natural products from the genus Tephrosia, with 105 citations and 168 new compounds.

  8. Biomarkers and energy reserves in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus: the effects of long-term exposure to dimethoate.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nuno G C; Morgado, Rui; Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods from the species Porcellionides pruinosus were exposed to the recommended field dose application (0.4 mg/kg soil) and a sublethal concentration (10mg/kg soil) of dimethoate at two temperatures that can be generally found in several countries (20°C and 25°C) and are commonly used as reference temperatures. The organisms were exposed for 28 days and sampled at the following time points: 24h, 48 h, 96 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, 28 days; organisms were then changed to clean soil for a recovery period of 14 days during which organisms were sampled on day 35 and 42. For each sampling time, the enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined as well as the following: total lipid, carbohydrate and protein content; energy available (Ea); energy consumption (Ec); cellular energy allocation (CEA) and lipid peroxidation rate (LPO). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated for each sampling time and for each of the above parameters. Mortality was also recorded during the study. The results obtained showed that dimethoate causes toxicity by several mechanisms. This study found evidence for the inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which has been previously reported, and also evidence of oxidative stress, which altered the levels of GST, CAT or LPO. In addition, the study showed that the two concentrations used of dimethoate caused the activation of different general detoxification mechanisms, and also that the same concentration at different temperatures induced different toxicity responses.

  9. Precursor structure, distribution and possible functions of pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille).

    PubMed

    Fouda, Maged Mohamed Ali; Hiragaki, Susumu; Tufail, Muhammad; Shao, Qi-Miao; Takeda, Makio

    2010-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) is an 18 amino acid neuropeptide that induces pigment migration in Decapoda and serves as a circadian neurotransmitter in the locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila. In this study, a cDNA encoding PDH was cloned from adult brains of the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Av). The cDNA comprising 529 bp encodes a peptide (AvPDH) that consists of a putative 26 amino acid signal peptide, and a 34 amino acid PDH-precursor-related peptide containing an 18 amino acid mature peptide. The peptide shows a high sequence identity (55-77%) to crustacean β-PDHs and insect PDFs. The tissue-specific expression pattern was examined by reverse transcription PCR. The transcript is expressed in the brain strongly and ventral nerve cord weakly, but the signal was not detected in the intestinal tract. A similar expression profile appeared in Western blot analyses. Western blot analyses with timed samples showed more intense expression of PDH-like antigen at night. PDH-like immunohistochemical reactivity (PDH-ir) was detected in the optic lobe, anteromedian protocerebrum, accessory lobe, tritocerebrum, and suboesophageal ganglion but the reactivity was faint or nil in the pseudofrontal organ (sinus gland). These results were substantiated by in situ hybridization. Co-localization using anti-Gryllus bimaculatus (Gb)-PDF, anti-Bombyx mori (Bm)-CLK, and anti-Bm-CYC showed a co-localization of these antigens in the optic lobe and SOG. The results provide the first structural and immunocytochemical identification of PDH neurons in terrestrial isopods, and the co-localization of PDH with CLK and CYC supports its possible involvement in circadian clock. A day/night rhythm of PDH content is also a new feature.

  10. Genus dependence of superstring amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Simon

    2006-11-15

    The problem of the consistency of the finiteness of the supermoduli space integral in the limit of vanishing super-fixed point distance and the genus-dependence of the integral over the super-Schottky coordinates in the fundamental region containing a neighborhood of |K{sub n}|=0 is resolved. Given a choice of the categories of isometric circles representing the integration region, the exponential form of bounds for superstring amplitudes is derived.

  11. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    PubMed Central

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  12. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora.

    PubMed

    Badali, H; Gueidan, C; Najafzadeh, M J; Bonifaz, A; van den Ende, A H G Gerrits; de Hoog, G S

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha and beta-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans.

  13. Bioavailability of cobalt and iron from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Romih, Tea; Drašler, Barbara; Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Golobič, Miha; Makovec, Darko; Susič, Robert; Kogej, Ksenija

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether citric acid adsorbed onto cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) influences the bioavailability of their constituents Co and Fe. Dissolution of Co and Fe was assessed by two measures: (i) in aqueous suspension using chemical analysis, prior to application onto the food of test organisms; and (ii) in vivo, measuring the bioavailability in the model terrestrial invertebrate (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). The isopods were exposed to citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs for 2 weeks, and tissue accumulation of Co and Fe was assessed. This was compared to pristine CoFe2O4 NPs, and CoCl2 and Fe(III) salts as positive controls. The combined data shows that citric acid enhances free metal ion concentration from CoFe2O4 NPs in aqueous suspension, although in vivo, very similar amounts of assimilated Co were found in isopods exposed to both types of NPs. Therefore, evaluation of the dissolution in suspension by chemical means is not a good predictor of metal assimilation of this model organism; body assimilation of Co and Fe is rather governed by the physiological capacity of P. scaber for the uptake of these metals. Moreover, we propose that citric acid, due to its chelating properties, may hinder the uptake of Co that dissolves from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs, if citric acid is present in sufficient quantity.

  14. Functional morphology of parasitic isopods: understanding morphological adaptations of attachment and feeding structures in Nerocila as a pre-requisite for reconstructing the evolution of Cymothoidae

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Joachim T.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites significantly influence food webs and ecosystems and occur all over the world in almost every animal group. Within crustaceans there are numerous examples of ectoparasites; for example, representatives of the isopod group Cymothoidae. These obligatory parasitic isopods are relatively poorly studied regarding their functional morphology. Here we present new details of the morphological adaptations to parasitism of the cymothoiid ingroup Nerocila with up-to-date imaging methods (macro photography, stereo imaging, fluorescence photography, micro CT, and histology). Central aspects of the study were (1) the morphology of the mouthparts and (2) the attachment on the host, hence the morphology of the thoracopods. The mouthparts (labrum, mandibles, paragnaths, maxillulae, maxillae, maxillipeds) form a distinct mouth cone and are most likely used for true sucking. The mouthparts are tightly “folded” around each other and provide functional rails for the only two moving mouthparts, mandible and maxillula. Both are not moving in an ancestral-type median-lateral movement, but are strongly tilted to move more in a proximal-distal axis. New details concerning the attachment demonstrate that the angular arrangement of the thoracopods is differentiated to impede removal by the host. The increased understanding of morphological adaptation to parasitism of modern forms will be useful in identifying disarticulated (not attached to the host) fossil parasites. PMID:27441121

  15. Conquered from the deep sea? A new deep-sea isopod species from the Antarctic shelf shows pattern of recent colonization.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Torben; Kaiser, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, is amongst the most rapidly changing environments of the world. Its benthic inhabitants are barely known and the BIOPEARL 2 project was one of the first to biologically explore this region. Collected during this expedition, Macrostylis roaldi sp. nov. is described as the first isopod discovered on the Amundsen-Sea shelf. Amongst many characteristic features, the most obvious characters unique for M. roaldi are the rather short pleotelson and short operculum as well as the trapezoid shape of the pleotelson in adult males. We used DNA barcodes (COI) and additional mitochondrial markers (12S, 16S) to reciprocally illuminate morphological results and nucleotide variability. In contrast to many other deep-sea isopods, this species is common and shows a wide distribution. Its range spreads from Pine Island Bay at inner shelf right to the shelf break and across 1,000 m bathymetrically. Its gene pool is homogenized across space and depth. This is indicative for a genetic bottleneck or a recent colonization history. Our results suggest further that migratory or dispersal capabilities of some species of brooding macrobenthos have been underestimated. This might be relevant for the species' potential to cope with effects of climate change. To determine where this species could have survived the last glacial period, alternative refuge possibilities are discussed.

  16. Mancae of the parasitic cymothoid isopod, Anilocra apogonae: early life history, host-specificity, and effect on growth and survival of preferred young cardinal fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelman, R. M.; Grutter, A. S.

    2008-09-01

    Juvenile parasitic cymothoid isopods (mancae) can injure or kill fishes, yet few studies have investigated their biology. While the definitive host of the adult cymothoids is usually a single host from a particular fish species, mancae may use so-called optional intermediate hosts before settling on the definitive host. Little, however, is known about these early interactions. The cymothoid isopod, Anilocra apogonae, infests the definitive host, Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus. This study examined their host preference among potential optional intermediate hosts. Their effect on the growth and mortality of the young of three apogonid fishes, including the definitive host, was investigated. The number of mancae produced per brood was positively correlated with female length. When given a choice of intermediate hosts, significantly more mancae attached to Apogon trimaculatus (Apogonidae) than to Apogon nigrofasciatus. When presented with Ap. trimaculatus and Pomacentrus amboinensis (Pomacentridae), mancae only attached to Ap. trimaculatus suggesting that mancae may show a taxonomic affiliation with preferred hosts. Mancae fed on all three apogonid species, with C. quinquelineatus being fed on earlier than Ap. trimaculatus and Ap. nigrofasciatus. Mancae feeding frequency, adjusted for fish survival, was lowest on C. quinquelineatus and highest on Ap. trimaculatus. Infested apogonids had reduced growth and increased mortality compared with uninfested fish. A. apogonae mancae can use several species of young apogonid fishes as optional intermediate hosts. Via reduced growth and increased mortality, mancae have the potential to negatively influence definitive host populations and also other young species of apogonid fishes.

  17. Conquered from the Deep Sea? A New Deep-Sea Isopod Species from the Antarctic Shelf Shows Pattern of Recent Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Torben; Kaiser, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, is amongst the most rapidly changing environments of the world. Its benthic inhabitants are barely known and the BIOPEARL 2 project was one of the first to biologically explore this region. Collected during this expedition, Macrostylis roaldi sp. nov. is described as the first isopod discovered on the Amundsen-Sea shelf. Amongst many characteristic features, the most obvious characters unique for M. roaldi are the rather short pleotelson and short operculum as well as the trapezoid shape of the pleotelson in adult males. We used DNA barcodes (COI) and additional mitochondrial markers (12S, 16S) to reciprocally illuminate morphological results and nucleotide variability. In contrast to many other deep-sea isopods, this species is common and shows a wide distribution. Its range spreads from Pine Island Bay at inner shelf right to the shelf break and across 1,000 m bathymetrically. Its gene pool is homogenized across space and depth. This is indicative for a genetic bottleneck or a recent colonization history. Our results suggest further that migratory or dispersal capabilities of some species of brooding macrobenthos have been underestimated. This might be relevant for the species’ potential to cope with effects of climate change. To determine where this species could have survived the last glacial period, alternative refuge possibilities are discussed. PMID:23145160

  18. The genus Thermotoga: Recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Frock, Andrew D.; Notey, Jaspreet S.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Thermotoga comprises extremely thermophilic (Topt ≥ 70°C) and hyperthermophilic (Topt ≥ 80°C) bacteria that have been extensively studied for insights into the basis for life at elevated temperatures and for biotechnological opportunities (e.g., biohydrogen production, biocatalysis). Over the past decade, genome sequences have become available for a number of Thermotoga species, leading to functional genomics efforts to understand growth physiology as well as genomics-based identification and characterization of novel high temperature biocatalysts. Discussed here are recent developments along these lines for this novel group of microorganisms. PMID:20718299

  19. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 7. Genus Nothocyphon, new genus.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2015-07-06

    The new genus Nothocyphon (type species: Helodes (Cyphon ?) lindensis Blackburn, 1892) is proposed for small Contacyphon-like Australian beetles. The included species exhibit a generalized body structure, lacking the derived character expressions of related genera. Male tergite 9 is very weakly developed, membranous and bare. This is derived but as a reduction only weakly supports the monophyly of Nothocyphon.The new genus includes 39 species, with 37 newly described herein: Nothocyphon alces, n. sp., N. amita, n. sp., N. amphora, n. sp., N. armatus, n. sp., N. armstrongi, n. sp., N. auritus, n. sp., N. banksiae, n. sp., N. biserratus, n. sp., N. brevihamatus, n. sp., N. crux, n. sp., N. denticulatus, n. sp., N. donnabuangi, n. sp., N. esau, n. sp., N. frater (Blackburn), n. comb., N. horridus, n. sp., N. ímitator, n. sp., N. isolaeregis, n. sp., N. lanceolatus, n. sp., N. lindensis (Blackburn), n. comb., N. multidentatus, n. sp., N. naso, n. sp., N. nungatta, n. sp., N. pacificus, n. sp., N. patruelis, n. sp., N. platyphallus, n. sp., N. plicatus, n. sp., N. radula, n. sp., N. sarcophilus, n. sp., N. scutiger, n. sp., N. serratipenis, n. sp., N. signatus, n. sp., N. soror, n. sp., N. taeniatus, n. sp., N. taurus, n. sp., N. thylacinus, n. sp., N. triangulum, n. sp., N. vandiemeni, n. sp., N. wattsi, n. sp., N. ypsilon, n. sp.Lectotypes are designated for N. frater (Blackburn) and N. lindensis (Blackburn). All species are redescribed or described, and illustrated. Several informal species groups are recognized, and identification keys to males are provided.

  20. ' Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum' gen. nov., sp. nov., a new, stalk-forming lineage of Rickettsiales colonizing the midgut glands of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Stingl, Ulrich; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Zimmer, Martin; Brune, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    The midgut glands (hepatopancreas) of terrestrial isopods are densely colonized by hitherto uncultivated bacteria. In the case of the Common Woodlouse, Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda), the symbionts represent a novel lineage in the alpha-subdivision of Proteobacteria. Based on comparative sequence analysis of their 16S rRNA genes, their closest (albeit distant) relatives were among the Rickettsiales, which are intracellular symbionts or pathogens of many animals. Transmission electron microscopy and in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes revealed a homogeneous population of symbionts intimately associated with the endothelium of the hepatopancreas, which apparently interact with the microvilli of the brush border by means of a stalk-like cytoplasmic appendage. Based on isolated phylogenetic position and unique cytological properties, the provisional name ' Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum' is proposed to classify this new taxon of Rickettsiales colonizing the hepatopancreas of P. scaber.

  1. Molecular data reveal a highly diverse species flock within the munnopsoid deep-sea isopod Betamorpha fusiformis (Barnard, 1920) (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellota) in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Malyutina, Marina; Brandt, Angelika; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2007-08-01

    Based on our current knowledge about population genetics, phylogeography and speciation, we begin to understand that the deep sea harbours more species than suggested in the past. Deep-sea soft-sediment environment in particular hosts a diverse and highly endemic invertebrate fauna. Very little is known about evolutionary processes that generate this remarkable species richness, the genetic variability and spatial distribution of deep-sea animals. In this study, phylogeographic patterns and the genetic variability among eight populations of the abundant and widespread deep-sea isopod morphospecies Betamorpha fusiformis [Barnard, K.H., 1920. Contributions to the crustacean fauna of South Africa. 6. Further additions to the list of marine isopods. Annals of the South African Museum 17, 319-438] were examined. A fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene of 50 specimens and the complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene of 7 specimens were sequenced. The molecular data reveal high levels of genetic variability of both genes between populations, giving evidence for distinct monophyletic groups of haplotypes with average p-distances ranging from 0.0470 to 0.1440 ( d-distances: 0.0592-0.2850) of the 16S rDNA, and 18S rDNA p-distances ranging between 0.0032 and 0.0174 ( d-distances: 0.0033-0.0195). Intermediate values are absent. Our results show that widely distributed benthic deep-sea organisms of a homogeneous phenotype can be differentiated into genetically highly divergent populations. Sympatry of some genotypes indicates the existence of cryptic speciation. Flocks of closely related but genetically distinct species probably exist in other widespread benthic deep-sea asellotes and other Peracarida. Based on existing data we hypothesize that many widespread morphospecies are complexes of cryptic biological species (patchwork hypothesis).

  2. Metabolic responses to high pCO2 conditions at a CO2 vent site in juveniles of a marine isopod species assemblage.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lucy M; Ricevuto, Elena; Massa Gallucci, Alexia; Lorenti, Maurizio; Gambi, Maria-Cristina; Calosi, Piero

    2016-01-01

    We are starting to understand the relationship between metabolic rate responses and species' ability to respond to exposure to high pCO2. However, most of our knowledge has come from investigations of single species. The examination of metabolic responses of closely related species with differing distributions around natural elevated CO2 areas may be useful to inform our understanding of their adaptive significance. Furthermore, little is known about the physiological responses of marine invertebrate juveniles to high pCO2, despite the fact they are known to be sensitive to other stressors, often acting as bottlenecks for future species success. We conducted an in situ transplant experiment using juveniles of isopods found living inside and around a high pCO2 vent (Ischia, Italy): the CO2 'tolerant' Dynamene bifida and 'sensitive' Cymodoce truncata and Dynamene torelliae. This allowed us to test for any generality of the hypothesis that pCO2 sensitive marine invertebrates may be those that experience trade-offs between energy metabolism and cellular homoeostasis under high pCO2 conditions. Both sensitive species were able to maintain their energy metabolism under high pCO2 conditions, but in C. truncata this may occur at the expense of [carbonic anhydrase], confirming our hypothesis. By comparison, the tolerant D. bifida appeared metabolically well adapted to high pCO2, being able to upregulate ATP production without recourse to anaerobiosis. These isopods are important keystone species; however, given they differ in their metabolic responses to future pCO2, shifts in the structure of the marine ecosystems they inhabit may be expected under future ocean acidification conditions.

  3. [Pseudomonas genus bacteria on weeds].

    PubMed

    Gvozdiak, R I; Iakovleva, L M; Pasichnik, L A; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown in the work that the weeds (couch-grass and ryegrass) may be affected by bacterial diseases in natural conditions, Pseudomonas genus bacteria being their agents. The isolated bacteria are highly-aggressive in respect of the host-plant and a wide range of cultivated plants: wheat, rye, oats, barley, apple-tree and pear-tree. In contrast to highly aggressive bacteria isolated from the affected weeds, bacteria-epi phytes isolated from formally healthy plants (common amaranth, orache, flat-leaved spurge, field sow thistle, matricary, common coltsfoot, narrow-leaved vetch) and identified as P. syringae pv. coronafaciens, were characterized by weak aggression. A wide range of ecological niches of bacteria evidently promote their revival and distribution everywhere in nature.

  4. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  5. Eight new species in the genus Alphabaculovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This taxonomic proposal recommends the addition of eight new species to the genus Alphabaculovirus of the family Baculoviridae. Placement of these new species within genus Alphabaculovirus is based on the following criteria: host species of the insect order Lepidoptera; circular double-stranded DNA...

  6. Sugawara construction for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    1999-04-01

    By the classical genus zero Sugawara construction one obtains representations of the Virasoro algebra from admissible representations of affine Lie algebras (Kac-Moody algebras of affine type). In this lecture, the classical construction is recalled first. Then, after giving a review on the global multi-point algebras of Krichever-Novikov type for compact Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus, the higher genus Sugawara construction is introduced. Finally, the lecture reports on results obtained in a joint work with O. K. Sheinman. We were able to show that also in the higher genus, multi-point situation one obtains (from representations of the global algebras of affine type) representations of a centrally extended algebra of meromorphic vector fields on Riemann surfaces. The latter algebra is a generalization of the Virasoro algebra to higher genus.

  7. Beta Genus Papillomaviruses and Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Howley, Peter M.; Pfister, Herbert J.

    2015-01-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. PMID:25724416

  8. Industrial importance of the genus Brevibacterium.

    PubMed

    Onraedt, Annelies; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2005-04-01

    The genus Brevibacterium has long been difficult for taxonomists to classify due to its close morphological similarity to other genera. Since it was proposed in 1953, the genus has often been redefined. The genus is best known for its important role in the ripening of certain cheeses (B. linens) and for its supposed over-production of L: -amino acids. Other interesting industrial applications, including the production of ectoine, have recently been proposed. The general characteristics, the occurrence and the recent taxonomy of Brevibacterium are reviewed here. Furthermore, known and potential industrial applications for Brevibacterium species are briefly discussed.

  9. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped. PMID:24526846

  10. Borneocola (Zingiberaceae), a new genus from Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Yen Yen; Takano, Atsuko; Ibrahim, Halijah; Záveská, Eliška; Aziz, Fazimah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus from Borneo, Borneocola Y.Y.Sam, is described here. The genus currently contains eight species previously classified as members of the Scaphochlamys Baker. The finding is based on the results of the morphological and molecular studies of Scaphochlamys throughout its geographical range and its closely allied sister groups, Distichochlamys M.F.Newman and Myxochlamys A.Takano & Nagam. Borneocola is nested within the tribe Zingibereae and its monophyly is strongly supported by both ITS and matK sequence data. The genus is characterised by several thin, translucent and marcescent floral bracts, absence of coloured streaks on the labellum and capitate stigma with two dorsal knobs. The genus is distributed in northwest Borneo and all species are very rare and highly endemic. PMID:28127243

  11. Evolutionary history of the genus Trisopterus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elena G; Cunha, Regina L; Sevilla, Rafael G; Ghanavi, Hamid R; Krey, Grigorios; Bautista, José M

    2012-03-01

    The group of small poor cods and pouts from the genus Trisopterus, belonging to the Gadidae family, comprises four described benthopelagic species that occur across the North-eastern Atlantic, from the Baltic Sea to the coast of Morocco, and the Mediterranean. Here, we combined molecular data from mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes to confirm the taxonomic status of the described species and to disentangle the evolutionary history of the genus. Our analyses supported the monophyly of the genus Trisopterus and confirmed the recently described species Trisopterus capelanus. A relaxed molecular clock analysis estimated an Oligocene origin for the group (~30 million years ago; mya) indicating this genus as one of the most ancestral within the Gadidae family. The closure and re-opening of the Strait of Gibraltar after the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) probably triggered the speciation process that resulted in the recently described T. capelanus.

  12. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.

  13. The Genus Hafnia: from Soup to Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    The genus Hafnia, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, consists of gram-negative bacteria that are occasionally implicated in both intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans. Despite the fact that the genus currently contains only a single species (H. alvei), more extensive phylogenetic depth (two or more species) is apparent based upon DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. Hafnia causes a variety of systemic infections, including septicemia and pneumonia; however, its role as a gastrointestinal pathogen is controversial. Many of the data supporting a role for hafniae as enteric pathogens were incorrectly attributed to this genus rather than to the actual pathogen, Escherichia albertii. There are numerous gaps in our understanding of this genus, including ecologic habitats and population genetics, disease-producing role in animals, phenetic and genetic methods useful in distinguishing genomospecies within the H. alvei complex, and bona fide pathogenicity factors. PMID:16418520

  14. THE GENUS TRIGONELLA – PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.C; Agrawal, M.; Sharma, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Trigonella is an annual plant distributed in the Mediterranean region and it comprises several species. The present report deals with the dietary, medicinal, biochemical biological and various pharmacological properties. PMID:22556778

  15. Cryptic speciation in a benthic isopod from Patagonian and Falkland Island waters and the impact of glaciations on its population structure

    PubMed Central

    Leese, Florian; Kop, Anna; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Held, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Background The Falkland Islands and Patagonia are traditionally assigned to the Magellan Biogeographic Province. Most marine species in Falkland waters are also reported from southern Patagonia. It remains unclear if relatively immobile, marine benthic, shallow-water species maintain gene flow, and by what mechanism. Recurrent fluctuations in sea level during glacial cycles are regarded as a possible mechanism that might have allowed genetic exchange between the regions. However, the realized genetic exchange between the Falkland Islands and Patagonia has never been estimated. Results This study analyses the genetic structure of three populations of the marine shallow-water isopod Serolis paradoxa (Fabricius, 1775) from the Falkland Islands and southern Patagonia (central Strait of Magellan and the Atlantic opening) applying seven nuclear microsatellites and a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Both marker systems report highest genetic diversity for the population from the central Strait of Magellan and lowest for the Falkland Islands. The estimated effective population sizes were large for all populations studied. Significant differentiation was observed among all three populations. The magnitude of differentiation between Patagonia and the Falkland Islands (16S: uncorrected p-distance 2.1%; microsatellites: standardized F'ST > 0.86) was an order of magnitude higher than between populations from within Patagonia. This indicates that there is currently no effective gene flow for nominal S. paradoxa between these two regions and it has been absent for time exceeding the last glacial maximum. We argue that specimens from the Strait of Magellan and the Falkland Islands very likely represent two distinct species that separated in the mid-Pleistocene (about 1 MY BP). Conclusion The results of this study indicate limited gene flow between distant populations of the brooding isopod Serolis paradoxa. The patterns of genetic diversity suggest that the only

  16. Mcphersonarcys, a new genus for Pentatomaaequalis Say (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new monotypic genus, Mcphersonarcys, is erected to hold Pentatoma aequalis Say, a species formerly placed in the genus Hymenarcys. Based on the distribution of 19 character-states Hymenarcys forms a clade with its sister genus Coenus. Both genera are related to the large genus Euschistus. Mcphe...

  17. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new “genomic” species and 16 new “genomic” subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different “genomic” species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus. PMID:28282461

  18. An intra-species demonstration of the independence of distance and time in turn alternation of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert N

    2008-05-01

    In a study of turn alternation in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (woodlouse), smaller individuals (<11 mm long) took significantly longer to traverse a 60-mm open-ended post-forced-turn runway following a 90 degrees forced turn, than larger subjects (>11 mm long). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in their probability of alternating, or in the magnitude of alternating turns as reflected in the size of the free-turn angles they turned on emerging from the runway. Nor was there a significant relationship for either group between the time taken to traverse the runway and either the probability of alternating or the size of a free-turn angle. In a second experiment, significant alternation occurred after woodlice emerged from runways that were 30 and 60 mm long, but not when they were 100 or 145 mm long. Their free-turn angles also became smaller as the runway length increased. Overall, the results of the three experiments supported the long-held view that, for reasons not yet understood, distance and time cannot necessarily be equated in the determination of invertebrate turn alternation.

  19. Responses of the hepatopancreatic B cells of a terrestrial isopod, Oniscus asellus, to metals accumulated from a contaminated habitat: A morphometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, A.J.; Gregory, Z.D.E.; Winters, C. )

    1990-03-01

    The four-lobed hepatopancreas of terrestrial isopods is a highly specialized enzyme secretory, digestive and absorptive region of the midgut. The walls of these blindending tubes are composed of two distinctive epithelial cell types: large, lipid-rich B-cells projecting into the lumen; and small S cells containg (Cu+S)-rich granules. This study investigated the possible stressful effects of accumulated Pb and Zn on the metabolically highly responsive, B-cells. Three major objectives were pursued. First, quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) was employed to determine whether the accumulation of Pb and Zn changes the Fe concentration within individual Fe-granules. Second, simple morphometric techniques were applied to transmission electron micrographs to determine whether competition between essential (Fe) and pollutant (Pb,Zn) metals for binding ligands resulted in an increased granule volume per individual cell. Third, to measure the effect of Pb and Zn accumulation of the amount of stored lipid, in the form of discrete droplets, within the B-cells.

  20. Androgenic gland hormone is a sex-reversing factor but cannot be a sex-determining factor in the female crustacean isopods Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S

    1999-09-01

    Sex reversal of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare, has been induced by implantation of the androgenic gland (AG) into individuals after the initiation of morphological sex differentiation. The focus of the present study is to examine whether female gonads are reversed by the androgenic gland hormone (AGH) during the sexually undifferentiated period through postembryonic development in A. vulgare. Instead of injections of AGH, three AGs were implanted into each genetic female at various developmental stages to induce sex reversal. Before implantation fresh AGs were treated with ethanol to stop AGH synthesis, but then still contained AGH. These AGs have been referred to as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Development of a testis was used as an indicator of gonadal sex reversal. The gonads of genetic females were transformed into testes by implantations of t-AGs during the sex differentiation period. However, when genetic females received implants at sexually undifferentiated stages, development of their gonads was not reversed in the male direction. These results suggest that after the onset of gonadal sex differentiation, AGH is a sex-reversing factor that can turn a female gonad into a male gonad. AGH cannot be a sex-determining factor in female A. vulgare, as undifferentiated gonads of genetic females are not sex reversed by the hormone.

  1. The diversity of terrestrial isopods in the natural reserve “Saline di Trapani e Paceco” (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in northwestern Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Giuseppina; Pezzino, Elisa; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Caruso, Domenico; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ecosystems comprising coastal lakes and ponds are important areas for preserving biodiversity. The natural reserve “Saline di Trapani e Paceco” is an interesting natural area in Sicily, formed by the remaining strips of land among salt pans near the coastline. From January 2008 to January 2010, pitfall trapping was conducted in five sampling sites inside the study area. The community of terrestrial isopods was assessed using the main diversity indices. Twenty-four species were collected, only one of them endemic to western Sicily: Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi, Lombardo & Caruso, 1992. Two species are new to Sicily: Armadilloniscus candidus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Armadilloniscus ellipticus (Harger, 1878). This is high species richness for a single reserve in Sicily. The extended sampling period also allowed us to study species phenology. Most of the species exhibited higher activity in spring than in autumn while some species also exhibited lower activity in the summer. The species richness revealed that the study area is in an acceptable conservation status; Shannon and Pielou indices also confirmed a more or less even distribution of individuals belonging to different species. PMID:22536110

  2. A novel form of pigment-dispersing hormone in the central nervous system of the intertidal marine isopod, Eurydice pulchra (leach).

    PubMed

    Wilcockson, David C; Zhang, Lin; Hastings, Michael H; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Webster, Simon G

    2011-02-15

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is well known as a circadian clock output factor, which drives daily activity rhythms in many insects. The role of its homologue, pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH), in the regulation of circadian and/or circatidal rhythmicity in crustaceans is, however, poorly understood. The intertidal isopod crustacean, Eurydice pulchra has well-defined circatidal (12.4-hour) activity rhythms. In this study we show that this runs parallel to a circadian (24-hour) cycle of chromatophore dispersion. As a first step in determining the potential role of PDH in these rhythms, we have identified a novel form of PDH expressed in this species. Because conventional homology cloning was unsuccessful, we employed immuno-identification and Edman microsequencing to determine the primary structure of this peptide. From this, cDNA cloning identified the nucleotide encoding sequence and thus facilitated description of PDH neurons by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We show them to be morphologically similar to those that co-ordinate circadian activity rhythms in insects. In animals expressing both tidal (activity) and circadian (chromatophore) rhythms, however, there was no evidence for a corresponding periodicity in the expression of pdh transcript, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in Eurydice heads. It is therefore suggested that any role for PDH in daily/tidal timing in Eurydice is not mediated at the transcriptional level, rather rhythms in neurohemal release may be important in such co-ordination.

  3. Redescription of Lagenophrys cochinensis Santhakumari & Gopalan, 1980 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Lagenophryidae), an Ectosymbiont of Marine Isopods, including new information on morphology, geographic distribution, and intraspecific variation.

    PubMed

    Clamp, John C

    2006-01-01

    Lagenophrys cochinensis is a peritrich ciliate originally reported as an ectocommensal of the wood-boring isopods Sphaeroma terebrans, Sphaeroma triste, and Sphaeroma annandalei and the tanaidacean Apseudes chilkensis in estuaries of southern India. In the present study, it was found to occur also on Sphaeroma quoyanum, Sphaeroma walkeri, and Exosphaeroma planulum. New material was used to make permanent preparations, allowing a comprehensive description of the morphology of L. cochinensis for the first time. The macronucleus of L. cochinensis was found to have an elongate shape that spans the width of the cell body, unlike the compact macronucleus originally described. In addition, the loricae of all samples examined were subcircular or shorter than wide, not longer than wide as originally described. Polykinetid 3 of the infundibular infraciliature consisted of three rows of kinetosomes, only the third species of Lagenophrys found to have more than two rows in polykinetid 3 so far. Samples of L. cochinensis on S. quoyanum from New Zealand and California appeared to represent a population distinct from others. The species has a cosmopolitan distribution, probably owing to the ease with which its hosts are transported from one estuary to another in drifting wood or on hulls of ships.

  4. On the way to identify microorganisms in drinking water distribution networks via DNA analysis of the gut content of freshwater isopods.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Michael; Keller, Adrian; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Warnecke, Hans-Joachim

    2015-05-10

    Pure drinking water is the basis for a healthy society. In Germany the drinking water regulations demand for analysis of water via detection of certain microbiological parameters by cultivation only. However, not all prokaryotes can be detected by these standard methods. How to gain more and better information about the bacteria present in drinking water and its distribution systems? The biofilms in drinking water distribution systems are built by bacteria and therefore represent a valuable source of information about the species present. Unfortunately, these biofilms are badly accessible. We thus exploited the circumstance that a lot of metazoans graze the biofilms, so that the content of their guts partly reflects the respective biofilm biocenosis. Therefore, we collected omnivorous isopods, prepared their guts and examined and characterized their contents based on 16S und 18S rDNA analysis. These molecularbiological investigations provide a profound basis for the characterization of the biocenosis and thereby biologically assess the drinking water ecosystems. Combined with a thorough identification of the species and the knowledge of their habitats, this approach can provide useful indications for the assessment of drinking-water quality and the early detection of problems in the distribution system.

  5. Taxonomy and Chemotaxonomy of the Genus Hypericum

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara L.; Robson, Norman K. B.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Hypericum L. (St. John’s Wort, Hypericaceae) includes, at the most recent count, 469 species that are either naturally occurring on, or which have been introduced to, every continent in the world, except Antarctica. These species occur as herbs, shrubs, and infrequently trees, and are found in a variety of habitats in temperate regions and in high mountains in the tropics, avoiding only zones of extreme aridity, temperature and/or salinity. Monographic work on the genus has resulted in the recognition and description of 36 taxonomic sections, delineated by specific combinations of morphological characteristics and biogeographic distribution ranges. Hypericum perforatum L. (Common St. John’s wort, section Hypericum), one of the best-known members of the genus, is an important medicinal herb of which extracts are taken for their reported activity against mild to moderate depression. Many other species have been incorporated in traditional medicine systems in countries around the world, or are sold as ornamentals. Several classes of interesting bioactive secondary metabolites, including naphthodianthrones (e.g. hypericin and pseudohypericin), flavonol glycosides (e.g. isoquercitrin and hyperoside), biflavonoids (e.g. amentoflavone), phloroglucinol derivatives (e.g. hyperforin and adhyperforin) and xanthones have been identified from members of the genus. A general overview of the taxonomy of the genus and the distribution of relevant secondary metabolites is presented. PMID:22662019

  6. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  7. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  8. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Kaila; Hastings, Amy P.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group. Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum) may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus. Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar. PMID:23646289

  9. Review of the genus Tenuipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the most speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are incomplete, and lack important information necessary for accurate species identification. The objective of this study was to re-describe specie...

  10. The genus Sipha in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of the aphid genus Sipha are reported in North America and are reviewed herein. Of these species, three are adventive: Sipha elegans del Guercio, Sipha glyceriae (Kaltenbach), and Sipha maydis Passerini. Sipha maydis was discovered in California in 2007 and now has been found in Georgia...

  11. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Hong, S.-B.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Varga, J.; Yaguchi, T.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus. PMID:25505353

  12. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C.H.; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta gen. & sp. n. is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided. PMID:27389563

  13. Genus III. Actinokineospora Hasegawa 1988a, 449vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinokineospora is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the suborder Pseudonocardineae is discussed. Methods for isolation,...

  14. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  15. Calocybella, a new genus for Rugosomyces pudicus (Agaricales, Lyophyllaceae) and emendation of the genus Gerhardtia.

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Alfredo; Consiglio, Giovanni; Setti, Ledo; Ercole, Enrico

    2015-06-01

    Calocybella is a new genus established to accommodate Rugosomyces pudicus. Phylogenetic analyses based on a LSU-ITS sequence dataset place Calocybella sister to Gerhardtia from which it differs morphologically in the presence of clamp-connections and reddening context. The genus Gerhardtia is emended to also include taxa with smooth spores. According to our morphological analysis of voucher material, Calocybe juncicola s. auct. is shown to be Calocybella pudica.

  16. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  17. Create the genus Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 we submitted a proposal to create this new genus with six members. The Executive Committee (EC) of the ICTV did not support its creation at that time due to the placement of the pelarspovirus genus branch within a larger monophyletic lineage of many of the members of the carmovirus genus wh...

  18. A note on the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Recovery of the first nearly complete thoracopygon of the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge Brezinski from the Chouteau Formation of central Missouri aids in evaluating the paleoecology and taxonomic affinities of this genus. Dixiphopyge is an isopygous trilobite, suboval in outline, and possessing nine thoracic segments. At the apex of each axial ring is a hollow tubercle that may represent the base of a short spine. Dixiphopyge inhabited muddy biostrome environments. In an enrolled position Dixiphopyge is interpreted to have looked somewhat like a porcupine with its spines radiating outward, presumably to inhibit its consumption by predators. Previous subfamily assignment of Dixiphopyge in the Otarioninae with Cyphaspis and Namuropyge may have been incorrect, because the latter two genera possess broad preglabellar fields and are micropygous.

  19. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codesido, Santiago; Gu, Jie; Mariño, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C{^3}/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  20. Taxonomy of Marine Bacteria: the Genus Beneckea

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Paul; Baumann, Linda; Mandel, M.

    1971-01-01

    One-hundred-and-forty-five isolates of marine origin were submitted to an extensive physiological, nutritional, and morphological characterization. All strains were gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight or curved rods which were motile by means of flagella. Glucose was fermented with the production of acid but no gas. Sodium but no organic growth factors were required. None of the strains were able to denitrify or fix molecular nitrogen. The results of nutritional and physiological tests were submitted to a numerical analysis. On the basis of phenotypic similarity, nine groups were established. These groups could be distinguished from one another by multiple, unrelated, phenotypic traits. Six groups which had deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) containing 45 to 48 moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) were assigned to a redefined genus Beneckea. All of the strains in this genus, when grown in liquid medium, had a single, polar flagellum. When grown on a solid medium, many strains had peritrichous flagella. Two groups were similar to previously described species and were designated B. alginolytica and B. natriegens. The remaining four groups were designated B. campbellii, B. neptuna, B. nereida, and B. pelagia. An additional group of phenotypically similar strains having the properties of the genus Beneckea was not included in the numerical analysis. These strains were readily separable from species of this genus and were designated B. parahaemolytica. Of the remaining groups, one was identified as Photobacterium fischeri. The other group (B-2) which had about 41 moles% GC content in its DNA could not be placed into existing genera. Images PMID:4935323

  1. Phytochemical, ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological profile of genus Pistacia.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdur; Patel, Seema; Uddin, Ghias; Siddiqui, Bina S; Ahmad, Bashir; Muhammad, Naveed; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2017-02-01

    Pistacia genus belong to family Anacardiaceae and it is versatile in that its member species have food (P. vera), medicinal (P. lentiscus) and ornamental (P. chinensis) values. Various species of this genus have folkloric uses with credible mention in diverse pharmacopeia. As a trove of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, monoterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, fatty acids, and sterols, this genus has garnered pharmaceutical attention in recent times. With adequate clinical studies, this genus might be exploited for therapy of a multitude of inflammatory diseases, as promised by preliminary studies. In this regard, the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, biological potencies, risks, and scopes of Pistacia genus have been reviewed here.

  2. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  3. The Pangenome of the genus Clostridium.

    PubMed

    Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2017-03-21

    We present the pangenome for the genus Clostridium sensu stricto, which was obtained using highly curated and annotated genomes from 16 species, some of these cause disease, while others are used for the production of added-value chemicals. Multilocus sequencing analysis revealed that species of this genus group into at least two clades that include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains, suggesting that pathogenicity is dispersed across the phylogenetic tree. The core genome of the genus includes 546 protein families, which mainly comprise those involved in protein translation and DNA repair. The GS-GOGAT may represent the central pathway for generating organic nitrogen from inorganic nitrogen sources. Glycerol and glucose metabolism genes are well represented in the core genome together with a set of energy conservation systems. A metabolic network comprising proteins/enzymes, RNAs and metabolites, whose topological structure is a non-random and scale-free network with hierarchically structured modules was built. These modules shed light on the interactions between RNAs, proteins and metabolites, revealing biological features of transcription and translation, cell wall biosynthesis, C1 metabolism and N metabolism. Network analysis identified four nodes that function as hubs and bottlenecks, namely, coenzyme A, HPr kinases, S-adenosylmethionine and the ribonuclease P-protein, suggesting pivotal roles for them in Clostridium. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethnopharmacology of the plants of genus Ajuga.

    PubMed

    Israili, Zafar H; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2009-10-01

    The plants of genus Ajuga are evergreen, clump-forming rhizomatous perennial or annual herbaceous flowering species, with Ajuga being one of the 266 genera of the family Lamiaceae. There are at least 301 species of the genus Ajuga with many variations. These plants, growing in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and North America, are used in gardens as ground cover or border for their foliage and beautiful flowers. Many of these plants have been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for fever, toothache, dysentery, malaria, high blood pressure, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, as anthelmintic, diuretic and antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antimycobacterial agents. They are also used as insect growth inhibitor s. A large number of compounds have been isolated from the Ajuga plants, including phytoecdysteroids, neo-clerodane-diterpenes and diterpenoids, triterpenes, sterols, anthocyanidin-glucosides and iridoid glycosides, withanolides, flavonoids, triglycerides and essential oils. These compounds possess a broad spectrum of biological, pharmacological and medicinal properties, such as anabolic, analgesic, antibacterial, antiestrogenic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antileukemic, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antioxidant, antipyretic, cardiotonic, cytotoxic, hypoglycemic, and vasorelaxing activity, as well as antifeedant and insect growth-inhibitory properties. Thus, genus Ajuga has significant medicinal and economic importance.

  5. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus.

  6. Genetic and morphometric comparisons of squat lobster, Munidopsis scobina (Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheidae) populations, with notes on the phylogeny of the genus Munidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, Simon; Rogers, Alex; Tyler, Paul; Gage, John; Jollivet, Didier

    2000-01-01

    Specimens of the galatheid Munidopsis scobina were collected from two stations on the continental slope off Oman, at depths of 900 and 1000 m, using an Agassiz trawl. Starch gel electrophoresis, across 10 enzyme loci, was carried out on 427 specimens. Genetic variability was calculated for both populations using a number of parameters. F-statistics were used to estimate genetic variance within ( FIS) and between ( FST) populations. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were detected at one locus ( Gotb). Analyses of FIS revealed significant differences from zero at Gotb and Pgm, as a result of heterozygote deficiency. No relationship was observed between size of individuals and genotype. The number of genetically effective migrants per deme per generation ( Nem) was calculated using both FST and private alleles methods. Nem values were theoretically sufficient to offset the effects of genetic drift. Additional morphometric analyses were carried out on Munidopsis scobina from the two populations. Individuals were sexed ( n=2476 individuals) and ten parameters measured ( n=1238). All specimens were examined for parasites (either bopyrid isopod or rhizocephalan). Significant male-biased sex ratios were observed in both populations ( p<0.01). In addition, significant differences in size-frequency distributions ( p<0.01) were recorded both within sites between sexes, and within sexes between sites; possibly related to a size-dependent response to hypoxia. Significant differences also were observed in mean cheliped length between sexes ( p<0.01), potentially indicating that male M. scobina exhibit agonistic behaviour. The genetic relationships of Munidopsis scobina to four other species of Munidopsis ( M. crassa, M. parfaiti, M. spinihirsuta and M. subsquamosa) and the confamilial Galathea squamifera were also examined using allozyme loci. Within the genus Munidopsis, pairwise comparisons of genetic identity were within the normal range expected for

  7. Molecular phylogenetic study in genus Hydra.

    PubMed

    Kawaida, Hitomi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Tachida, Hidenori; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka

    2010-11-15

    Among 8000-9000 species of Cnidaria, only several dozens of species of Hydrozoa have been found in the fresh water. Hydra is such a fresh water polyp and has been used as a good material for research in developmental biology, regeneration and pattern formation. Although the genus Hydra has only a few ten species, its distribution is cosmopolitan. The phylogenetic relationship between hydra species is fascinating from the aspect of evolutionary biology and biogeography. However, only a few molecular phylogenetic studies have been reported on hydra. Therefore, we conducted a molecular phylogenetic study of the genus Hydra based on mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide sequences using a hydra collection that has been kept in the National Institute of Genetics (NIG) of Japan. The results support the idea that four species groups comprise the genus Hydra. Within the viridissima group (green hydra) and braueri group, genetic distances between strains were relatively large. In contrast, genetic distances between strains among the vulgaris and oligactis groups were small irrespective of their geographic distribution. The vulgaris group strains were classified at least (as far as our investigated samples) into three sub-groups, vulgaris sub-group, carnea sub-group, and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group. All of the vulgaris sub-group and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group strains were collected in Eurasia. The carnea sub-group strains in NIG collection were all collected in North America. A few newly collected samples in Japan, however, suggested belonging to the carnea sub-group according to the molecular phylogenic analysis. This suggests a trans-Pacific distribution of the carnea sub-group hydra.

  8. Genus Paracoccidioides: Species Recognition and Biogeographic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Martins; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (species S1, PS2, PS3), and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes. Methodology/Principal Findings Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis on GP43, ARF and PRP8 intein genes successfully distinguished isolates into four different species. Morphological evaluation indicated that elongated conidia were observed exclusively in P. lutzii isolates, while all other species (S1, PS2 and PS3) were indistinguishable. To evaluate the biogeographic events that led to the current geographic distribution of Paracoccidioides species and their sister species, Nested Clade and Likelihood Analysis of Geographic Range Evolution (LAGRANGE) analyses were applied. The radiation of Paracoccidioides started in northwest South America, around 11–32 million years ago, as calculated on the basis of ARF substitution rate, in the BEAST program. Vicariance was responsible for the divergence among S1, PS2 and P. lutzii and a recent dispersal generated the PS3 species, restricted to Colombia. Taking into account the ancestral areas revealed by the LAGRANGE analysis and the major geographic distribution of L. loboi in the Amazon basin, a region strongly affected by the Andes uplift and marine incursions in the Cenozoic era, we also speculate about the effect of these geological events on the vicariance between Paracoccidioides and L. loboi. Conclusions/Significance The use of at least 3 SNPs, but not morphological criteria, as markers allows us to distinguish among the four cryptic species of the genus Paracoccidioides. The work also presents a biogeographic study speculating on how these species might have diverged in South America, thus contributing to elucidating evolutionary aspects of the genus Paracoccidioides. PMID:22666382

  9. The Genus Diphasiastrum and Its Lycopodium Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Elsa Steinunn; Kowal, Natalia Magdalena; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2015-08-01

    The genus Diphasiastrum includes at least 23 species distributed primarily across the northern temperate and subarctic areas of the world. These plants produce an array of lycopodium alkaloids, and some species such as Diphasiastrum complanatum have been used in traditional medicine for ages for various conditions. Hybridization is common in this group of plants and they have always been a challenge for taxonomists and other scientists studying them. To date, 11 Diphasiastrum species have been reported to produce lycopodium alkaloids. In this review, reported alkaloids and their distribution patterns across these species along with taxonomical and bioactivity considerations are reviewed and discussed.

  10. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loup, Mackenzie

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  11. A review: Ethnobotanical survey of genus Leucas

    PubMed Central

    Das, Surya Narayan; Patro, Varanasi Jaganath; Dinda, Subas Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Plants of genus Leucas (Lamiaceae) are widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and India. The plant is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases such as cough, cold, diarrhea, and inflammatory skin disorder. A variety of phytoconstituents have been isolated from the Leucas species, which include lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, terpenes, fatty acids, and aliphatic long-chain compounds. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities have been reported in the extracts of these plants and their phytoconstituents. An overview of the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological investigations on the Leucas species is presented in this review. PMID:23055635

  12. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    SciTech Connect

    Loup, M.

    1995-09-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  13. The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.

  14. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

  15. Genus-two characters of the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. H.; Koh, I. G.

    1989-05-01

    As a first step in studying conformal theories on a higher-genus Riemann surface, we construct genus-two characters of the Ising model from their behavior in zero- and nonzero-homology pinching limits, the Goddard-Kent-Olive coset-space construction, and the branching coefficients in the level-two A(1)1 Kac-Moody characters on the higher-genus Riemann surface.

  16. Iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus

    PubMed Central

    Zappa, Sébastien; Bauer, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Metals are utilized for a variety of critical cellular functions and are essential for survival. However cells are faced with the conundrum of needing metals coupled with e fact that some metals, iron in particular are toxic if present in excess. Maintaining metal homeostasis is therefore of critical importance to cells. In this review we have systematically analyzed sequenced genomes of three members of the Rhodobacter genus, R. capsulatus SB1003, R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 and R. ferroxidans SW2 to determine how these species undertake iron homeostasis. We focused our analysis on elemental ferrous and ferric iron uptake genes as well as genes involved in the utilization of iron from heme. We also discuss how Rhodobacter species manage iron toxicity through export and sequestration of iron. Finally we discuss the various putative strategies set up by these Rhodobacter species to regulate iron homeostasis and the potential novel means of regulation. Overall, this genomic analysis highlights surprisingly diverse features involved in iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus. PMID:24382933

  17. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other Penicillium subgenera. Subsequently, in combination with the recent adoption of the one fungus one name concept, Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was transferred to Talaromyces. At the time, the new combinations were made based only on phylogenetic information. As such, the aim of this study was to provide a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. We provide morphological descriptions for each of these species, as well as notes on their identification using morphology and DNA sequences. For molecular identification, BenA is proposed as a secondary molecular marker to the accepted ITS barcode for fungi. PMID:25492983

  18. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches. PMID:27648105

  19. [Taxonomy and ecology of the genus Candida].

    PubMed

    Schauer, F; Hanschke, R

    1999-01-01

    Candida is a heterogeneous genus which contains about a quarter of all yeast species. It includes not only species of uncertain affiliation but also unrelated strains whose phylogenetic relationships have not been resolved. A great variety of CoQ types are present in the genus, the mol % G + C ranges from 30-63%, and species that were found to sporulate have teleomorphic counterparts in 11 different genera. Candida species are mainly associated with plants, rotting vegetation, with insects which feed on plants or with food. In line with this, 71% of Candida species utilize xylose (wood degradation), 57% of species use cellobiose (cellulose degradation), 29% oxidize aliphatic hydrocarbons (components of plant cuticula), 27% of species degrade starch as a plant storage material, and 7% utilize methanol as a possible metabolite from pectin catabolism. 85% of species require individual vitamins produced mainly in plant materials. 65% of Candida species are not able to grow at temperatures of 37 degrees C. In comparison only relatively few species occur normally in humans and other warm blooded animals. About 16% of type strains and selected strains for comparative purposes (CBS) were isolated from human specimens. Perhaps up to 10% of Candida species may be of medical importance, though this has so far only been clearly demonstrated for less than 5% of currently known species.

  20. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha).

    PubMed

    Żyła, Dagmara; Homan, Agnieszka; Franielczyk, Barbara; Wegierek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: Oviparosiphumjakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and Oviparosiphumbaissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphumbaissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae.

  1. Molecular phylogenetics of the hummingbird genus Coeligena.

    PubMed

    Parra, Juan Luis; Remsen, J V; Alvarez-Rebolledo, Mauricio; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2009-11-01

    Advances in the understanding of biological radiations along tropical mountains depend on the knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here we present a species-level molecular phylogeny based on a multilocus dataset for the Andean hummingbird genus Coeligena. We compare this phylogeny to previous hypotheses of evolutionary relationships and use it as a framework to understand patterns in the evolution of sexual dichromatism and in the biogeography of speciation within the Andes. Previous phylogenetic hypotheses based mostly on similarities in coloration conflicted with our molecular phylogeny, emphasizing the unreliability of color characters for phylogenetic inference. Two major clades, one monochromatic and the other dichromatic, were found in Coeligena. Closely related species were either allopatric or parapatric on opposite mountain slopes. No sister lineages replaced each other along an elevational gradient. Our results indicate the importance of geographic isolation for speciation in this group and the potential interaction between isolation and sexual selection to promote diversification.

  2. [CITRULLINUREIDASE GENE DIVERSITY IN THE GENUS FRANCISELLA].

    PubMed

    Timofeev, V S; Bakhteeva, I V; Pavlov, V M; Mokrievich, A N

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the results, of the in silico analysis of the genetic diversity of the citrullinureidase gene (ctu) in two species of bacteria of the genus Francisella: tularensis (ssp. tularensis, holarctica, mediasiatica, novicida) and philomiragia. The strains of the Central Asiatic subspecies possessing the citrullinureidase activity differ in the gene ctu from the ssp tularensis Schu by three nucleotide substitutions leading to two insignificant amino acid substitutions in the encoded polypeptide. In the strain F. tularensis of the ssp. holarctica the gene ctu encodes inactive enzyme, which is probably due to amino acid substitutions: 151 Gly --> Asp, 183 Pro --> Leu, 222 Asp --> Asn. Except for the Japan biovar bacteria, in all strains of the Holarctic subspecies there are two stop codons in the gene ctu. The bacteria of the subspecies novicida contain the ctu gene only in the strain 3523, whereas the other strains contain the gene FTN_0827 encoding the C-N hydrolase, which probably provides the citrullinureidase activity.

  3. Proteolytic Activity in the Genus Ficus 1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donald C.; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro C.; Whitaker, John R.

    1968-01-01

    The latices of only 13 of a total of 46 species of Ficus examined contained appreciable proteolytic activity. Therefore, high proteolytic activity in the latex is not a distinguishing feature of the genus. The latex of F. stenocarpa had the highest specific activity followed closely by the latices of F. carica and F. glabrata. Latices of 6 species of Ficus were examined by chromatography on CM-cellulose and compared with the results obtained for 9 varieties of F. carica. All of the latices were found to contain multiple proteolytic enzymes. Chromatographically, the multiple enzyme components of the several varieties of F. carica were more similar than those of the several species examined. The latices of 16 varieties of F. carica were all different as determined by free boundary electrophoresis although the specific proteolytic activity of the latices was reasonably constant. PMID:16656886

  4. Environmental Origin of the Genus Bordetella

    PubMed Central

    Hamidou Soumana, Illiassou; Linz, Bodo; Harvill, Eric T.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the genus Bordetella include human and animal pathogens that cause a variety of respiratory infections, including whooping cough in humans. Despite the long known ability to switch between a within-animal and an extra-host lifestyle under laboratory growth conditions, no extra-host niches of pathogenic Bordetella species have been defined. To better understand the distribution of Bordetella species in the environment, we probed the NCBI nucleotide database with the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequences from pathogenic Bordetella species. Bacteria of the genus Bordetella were frequently found in soil, water, sediment, and plants. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that Bordetella recovered from environmental samples are evolutionarily ancestral to animal-associated species. Sequences from environmental samples had a significantly higher genetic diversity, were located closer to the root of the phylogenetic tree and were present in all 10 identified sequence clades, while only four sequence clades possessed animal-associated species. The pathogenic bordetellae appear to have evolved from ancestors in soil and/or water. We show that, despite being animal-adapted pathogens, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Bordetella hinzii have preserved the ability to grow and proliferate in soil. Our data implicate soil as a probable environmental origin of Bordetella species, including the animal-pathogenic lineages. Soil may further constitute an environmental niche, allowing for persistence and dissemination of the bacterial pathogens. Spread of pathogenic bordetellae from an environmental reservoir such as soil may potentially explain their wide distribution as well as frequent disease outbreaks that start without an obvious infectious source. PMID:28174558

  5. Small RNAs in the genus Clostridium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Jones, Shawn W; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2011-01-25

    The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny.

  6. A new genus and species of Nematalycidae (Acari: Endeostigmata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osperalycus tenerphagus, a new genus and species of Nematalycidae (Acari: Endeostigmata), is described from Ohio, USA, using light microscopy and low temperature scanning electron microscopy. Specimens were extracted from two different loam soils. This genus can be readily distinguished from the oth...

  7. The genus Eleodes Eschscholtz (Coleoptera: tenebrionidae) in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    False wireworms are larvae of the darkling beetle genus Eleodes Eschscholtz, some of which are agricultural pests of dryland wheat. Because of the large numbers of species in the genus (approximately 235), identifications can be problematic. Hence, regional keys are of great utility. Within the s...

  8. Genus IV. Actinosynnema Hasegawa, Lechevalier and Lechevalier 1978, 304al

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinosynnema is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the family Actinosynnemataceae is discussed. Methods for isolation, pr...

  9. Genus XIII. Umezawaea Labeda and Kroppenstedt 2007, 2761vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently compose the actinobacterial genus Umezawaea is presented. The phylogenetic position of the lone species within this genus, Umezawaea tangerina relative to the species in other genera within the family Actinosynnemataceae is discu...

  10. Revision of the genus Raoiella (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) of the world.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flat mites in the genus Raoiella have attracted recent world-wide interest due to the rapid spread of a major pest of various palm trees and other monocot species, the red palm mite, R. indica. This focus on the species R. indica has created a need to better understand the genus. Despite the econo...

  11. Development of DNA barcodes of genus Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important group of insects that contains 43 known species worldwide. Some species within this genus are important agricultural pests in North America. Annual economic impacts in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., from Lygus spp. due to yield losses and control ...

  12. The genus Gnaphalium L. (Compositae): phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing; Wang, Wei; Piao, Huishan; Xu, Weiqiang; Shi, Haibo; Zhao, Chengai

    2013-07-15

    The genus Gnaphalium, a herb distributed worldwide, comprises approximately 200 species of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family that belongs to the tribe Gnaphalieae. Some species are traditionally used as wild vegetables and in folk medicine. This review focuses on the phytochemical investigations and biological studies of plants from the genus Gnaphalium over the past few decades. More than 125 chemical constituents have been isolated from the genus Gnaphalium, including flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosterols, anthraquinones, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, and other compounds. The extracts of this genus, as well as compounds isolated from it, have been demonstrated to possess multiple pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal, anti-complement, antitussive and expectorant, insect antifeedant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antihypouricemic properties. The present review compiles the information available on this genus because of its relevance to food and ethnopharmacology and the potential therapeutic uses of these species.

  13. The Foraminiferal Genus Orbitolina in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglass, Raymond Charles

    1960-01-01

    The foraminiferal genus Orbitolina has been useful as an index fossil in the Cretaceous rocks of the circumglobal equatorial belt for nearly a century. In Europe and the Near and Middle East enough work has been done on the species to allow their use for approximate correlations within the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The study of American specimens of Orbitolina, had been almost neglected although they were used in a rather cursory fashion for markers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity strata. Three species had been described and assigned to Orbitolina in the United States, but the validity of each of the species had been questioned. A study of the genus Orbitolina, its type species, its morphology and the stratigraphic and geographic distribution in North America are presented in this report. Stratigraphic sections were measured throughout the area of Lower Cretaceous outcrop in Texas, New Mexico. and Arizona, and samples of Orbitolina were taken from these measured sections. Several thousand thin sections were prepared from which 8 species of Orbitolina, 7 of them new, were recognized. Orbitolina texana (Roemer) was found to be confined to the lower part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Orbitolina, minuta n. sp. is essentially confined to the upper part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Four of the species are known only from the Arizona and New Mexico region. The species of Orbitolina are useful stratigraphically, but all their characters-internal as well as external-must be considered. The use of thin sections for the study of Orbitolina is essential. One of the first things that had to be determined was the correct concept of the genus Orbitolina. The type species had not been determined by earlier authors, although four species had been suggested at various times. With careful study of the early literature, it became apparent that the type species is Orbitulites lenticulata Lamarck, 1816=Madreporites lenticularis Blumenbach, 1805

  14. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  15. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters. PMID:22443110

  16. The Genus Aeromonas: Taxonomy, Pathogenicity, and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers. PMID:20065325

  17. Color evolution in the hummingbird genus coeligena.

    PubMed

    Parra, Juan Luis

    2010-02-01

    The remarkable diversity of coloration and species present in hummingbirds has been considered the result of sexual selection. I evaluate if color differences among species in the genus Coeligena are consistent with expectations from sexual selection theory. If sexual selection on color is important for speciation, closely related species should be markedly different in the colors of feather patches associated with aggression and breeding. I evaluate this prediction through a statistical assessment of the phylogenetic signal of colors from five feather patches: crown, gorget, belly, upper back, and rump. The first two are associated with aggressive and courtship displays and are expected to be under sexual selection, whereas the others are not. Contrary to expectations, the crown and gorget were the only patches with significant phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, I assess if populations of dichromatic species are more divergent in coloration and therefore have reduced gene flow. Color distances among dichromatic subspecies were larger than among monochromatic subspecies, but the magnitude of phenotypic differentiation was not related to levels of gene flow. These results support a role for sexual selection in shaping color variation among populations, but these differences alone are not sufficient to explain speciation.

  18. Tropical forests and the genus Homo.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Patrick; Boivin, Nicole; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Petraglia, Michael; Stock, Jay

    2016-11-01

    Tropical forests constitute some of the most diverse and complex terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. From the Miocene onward, they have acted as a backdrop to the ongoing evolution of our closest living relatives, the great apes, and provided the cradle for the emergence of early hominins, who retained arboreal physiological adaptations at least into the Late Pliocene. There also now exists growing evidence, from the Late Pleistocene onward, for tool-assisted intensification of tropical forest occupation and resource extraction by our own species, Homo sapiens. However, between the Late Pliocene and Late Pleistocene there is an apparent gap in clear and convincing evidence for the use of tropical forests by hominins, including early members of our own genus. In discussions of Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene hominin evolution, including the emergence and later expansion of Homo species across the globe, tropical forest adaptations tend to be eclipsed by open, savanna environments. Thus far, it is not clear whether this Early-Middle Pleistocene lacuna in Homo-rainforest interaction is real and representative of an adaptive shift with the emergence of our species or if it is simply reflective of preservation bias.

  19. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains.

  20. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  1. The genus Allium--Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Alliums have been grown for many centuries for their characteristic, pungent flavor and medicinal properties. The present review, which includes references published up to the middle of 1984, is primarily concerned with the chemical composition, flavor, and physiological properties of these crops, their extracts, and processed products. Special emphasis is placed upon the relationship between the organoleptically and biologically active components of onion and garlic. Following a brief historical introduction, current production of commercially important alliums is described and their botanical origins and interrelationships are explained. Following consideration of the major economic diseases and pests of alliums, the agronomic, husbandry, and practices associated with their cultivation are described, particular emphasis being placed upon the storage and processing of onion and garlic. The detailed, overall chemical composition and nutritional value of members of the genus Allium are presented in Section 7; after an outline of the origin and nature of flavor components and precursors, the flavor volatiles of individual members are presented. The effects of agronomic, environmental, and processing practices on chemical and flavor content and quality are considered in Section 9. The following section deals critically with the human and animal studies which have been conducted into the medical and therapeutic properties of alliums, emphasis being placed upon the studies into the antiatherosclerotic effect of onion and garlic and their essential oils. After a study of antimicrobial properties of alliums and their effects on insects and animals, an overview is presented which highlights unexplored or inadequately studied areas and suggests rewarding areas for future research.

  2. METABOLIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GENUS BRUCELLA I.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Margaret E.; Cameron, H. S.

    1961-01-01

    Meyer, Margaret E. (University of California, Davis), and H. S. Cameron. Metabolic characterization of the genus Brucella. I. Statistical evaluation of the oxidative rates by which type I of each species can be identified. J. Bacteriol. 82:387–395. 1961.—The oxidative uptake rates on 11 amino acid and seven carbohydrate substrates were determined for 75 strains of brucellae that had been identified by the conventional determinative methods as Brucella melitensis type I, Brucella abortus type I, or Brucella suis type I. By calculating the standard deviation of the oxidative rates, it was demonstrated that a metabolic pattern that is characteristic and definitive for each of the species was formed by their differential oxidative utilization of substrate groups, and that qualitative as well as quantitative metabolic differences exist among the Brucella species. B. melitensis oxidized l-alanine, l-asparagine, and l-glutamic acid, but not l-arginine, dl-citrulline, l-lysine, dl-ornithine, l-arabinose, d-galactose, d-ribose, or d-xylose. B. abortus differed qualitatively from B. melitensis in that it oxidized the carbohydrate substrates. B. suis differed quantitatively from both of these species in its consistently low oxidative rates of l-alanine, l-asparagine, and l-glutamic acid, and its high rates of utilization of the carbohydrate substrates. It differed qualitatively in that it oxidized the four amino acid substrates that are components of the urea cycle. PMID:13770011

  3. The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.

    PubMed

    Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C

    2011-02-01

    Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids.

  4. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  5. Identity of Baker's species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cong; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-05-13

    Baker's (1915) species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus Melichar are revised. One species, Pythamus melichari Baker 1915, is placed in a new genus, Pythochandra Wei & Webb, gen. n.. The four varieties of P. melichari described by Baker (1915, 1923) (borneensis, bilobatus, decoratus and singaporensis) are elevated to species level and placed in the new genus stat. n., comb. n.. All species are briefly described and a key is provided for their separation. Two other species, Pythamus productus Baker and P. decoratus Baker, known only from females, are retained in Pythamus pending further studies.

  6. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.

    PubMed

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  7. A new Neotropical genus of Blastini (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae).

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Román-P, Cristian

    2015-08-17

    A monotypic genus of Psocidae (Amphigerontiinae: Blastini) from Santiago de Cali, Colombia, is here described and illustrated. It differs from Chaetopsocidus Badonnel, from the Páramo de Monserrate, near Bogotá, in having setae on the forewing veins.

  8. Complete Genome Sequences of Six Strains of the Genus Methylobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, Christopher J; Bringel, Francoise O.; Christoserdova, Ludmila; Moulin, Lionel; UI Hague, Muhammad Farhan; Fleischman, Darrell E.; Gruffaz, Christelle; Jourand, Philippe; Knief, Claudia; Lee, Ming-Chun; Muller, Emilie E. L.; Nadalig, Thierry; Peyraud, Remi; Roselli, Sandro; Russ, Lina; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Ivanov, Pavel S.; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Lajus, Aurelie; Medigue, Claudine; Nolan, Matt; Woyke, Tanja; Stolyar, Sergey; Vorholt, Julia A.; Vuilleumier, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  9. Complete genome sequences of six strains of the genus methylobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, Christopher J; Bringel, Francoise O.; Christoserdova, Ludmila; Moulin, Lionel; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Fleischman, Darrell E.; Gruffaz, Christelle; Jourand, Philippe; Knief, Claudia; Lee, Ming-Chun; Muller, Emilie E. L.; Nadalig, Thierry; Peyraud, Remi; Roselli, Sandro; Russ, Lina; Aguero, Fernan; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Lajus, Aurelie; Medigue, Claudine; Nolan, Matt; Woyke, Tanja; Stolyar, Sergey; Vorholt, Julia A.; Vuilleumier, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  10. The Genus Letrouitia (Letrouitiaceae: Lichenized Ascomycota) New to Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haixia; Qian, Zigang; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yanyun; Ye, Xin; Harada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The genus Letrouitia is newly recorded for Cambodia, including the four species as L. domingensis, L. leprolytoides, L. sayeri, and L. subvulpina. A brief description and illustrations are provided. PMID:26190924

  11. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  12. METABOLIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GENUS BRUCELLA III.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Margaret E.

    1961-01-01

    Meyer, Margaret E. (University of California, Davis). Metabolic characterization of the genus Brucella. III. Oxidative metabolism of strains that show anomalous characteristics by conventional determinative methods. J. Bacteriol. 82:401–410. 1961.—The oxidative metabolic patterns were determined on 83 strains of brucellae that had been described as “atypical” because they differed in one or more characteristics or because they had been isolated from an abnormal host (other than the natural reservoir for that species). Of the 83 strains examined, 44 displayed the metabolic pattern for Brucella melitensis. A comparison was then made between the results of identifying these strains metabolically and by the conventional methods. It was found that a few strains of B. melitensis showed a decreased tolerance to basic fuchsin and thionin, but none of the strains that was identified metabolically as B. melitensis produced H2S or required CO2. No biotypes have been reported for this species, since only slight quantitative variation in dye tolerances occurs among strains of B. melitensis, and no metabolic variants were found. It is concluded that B. melitensis is a homogenous species and can be identified with certainty by its oxidative metabolic pattern, irrespective of its host or geographic source. Of the remaining strains, 38 displayed the metabolic pattern singular for Brucella abortus. Evidence was presented to support the conclusion that in this species the characteristics of dye tolerance, H2S production, and CO2 required for initial growth vary independently of each other, and strains that differ from the species description by these criteria can be identified correctly by their oxidative metabolic pattern. Of the 83 atypical strains examined, 24 were strains of Brucella described as a new species, Brucella intermedia (Renoux). Of these 24 strains, 10 were identified as Brucella melitensis, 13 as Brucella abortus, and one as Brucella suis. Evidence was

  13. The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Kathariou, Sophia; Tiedje, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium are low G + C, Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that have been repeatedly isolated from ancient Siberian permafrost. In addition, Exiguobacterium spp. have been isolated from markedly diverse sources, including Greenland Glacial ice, hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, the rhizosphere of plants, and the environment of food processing plants. Strains of this hereto little known bacterium that have been retrieved from such different (and often extreme) environments are worthy of attention as they are likely to be specifically adapted to such environments and to carry variations in the genome which may correspond to psychrophilic and thermophilic adaptations. However, comparative genomic investigations of Exiguobacterium spp. from different sources have been limited. In this study, we employed different molecular approaches for the comparative analysis of 24 isolates from markedly diverse environments including ancient Siberian permafrost and hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with I-CeuI (an intron-encoded endonuclease), AscI and NotI were optimized for the determination of genomic fingerprints of nuclease-producing isolates. The application of a DNA macroarray for 82 putative stress-response genes yielded strain-specific hybridization profiles. Cluster analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, PFGE I-CeuI restriction patterns and hybridization profiles suggested that Exiguobacterium strains formed two distinct divisions that generally agreed with temperature ranges for growth. With few exceptions (e.g., Greenland ice isolate GIC31), psychrotrophic and thermophilic isolates belonged to different divisions.

  14. Skadisotoma, a new genus of Isotomidae (Collembola) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Fjellberg, Arne

    2015-06-13

    A new species and genus, Skadisotoma inpericulosa, is described from south-eastern Australia. It possesses some characters that are found in Tomoceridae, such as a long cylindrical dens that is medially bent and a mucro with at least six teeth of different sizes and three setae but in other characters it resembles an isotomid. In this it shows similarities to the Boreal genus Mucronia Fjellberg, but differs from it in the possession of spines on the dens and in some chaetotaxic characters.

  15. A review of the genus Lamellipalpodes Maulik (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    PubMed

    Bocakova, Milada; Bocak, Ladislav; Gimmel, Matthew L; Friedlova, Tereza

    2015-03-02

    The Ototretinae genus Lamellipalpodes Maulik, 1921 is reviewed. Four species are proposed as new to science, L. bajhangensis Bocakova sp. nov., L. holzschuhi Bocakova sp. nov. and L. godawarensis Bocakova sp. nov., all from Nepal, and L. yunnanensis Bocakova sp. nov. from China (Yunnan) and northern Laos. Six species are redescribed. Illustrations of diagnostic characters are included, with a checklist and a key to Lamellipalpodes species. The genus is newly recorded from China and Laos.

  16. The harvestman genus Taracus Simon 1879, and the new genus Oskoron (Opiliones: Ischyropsalidoidea: Taracidae).

    PubMed

    Shear, William A; Warfel, Joseph G

    2016-11-01

    The ischyropsalidoid genus Taracus Simon 1879 is reviewed and all previously named species are redescribed. Taracus nigripes Goodnight & Goodnight, 1943 is synonymized with T. packardi Simon 1879, and T. malkini Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 with Oskoron spinosus (Banks) 1894; the type locality of T. gertschi Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 is corrected from "eastern Oregon" to Rose Lake, Idaho, based on original labelling. The following new species of Taracus are described: T. carmanah (Vancouver Island), T. marchingtoni (Oregon), T. taylori, T. spesavius (both Nevada), T. timpanogos (Utah), T. audisioae, T. ubicki, and T. fluvipileus (all California). A new genus Oskoron is based upon O. spinosus (Banks) 1894, originally described in Taracus, and also includes two new species, O. brevichelis (Oregon, Washington) and O. crawfordi (Washington). New locality records extend the known distribution of Taracus to the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia and the US states of Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada and New Mexico. Schönhofer's (2013) proposal of a family Taracidae for Taracus, Hesperonemastoma Gruber 1970 and Crosbycus Roewer 1914 is discussed.

  17. Genus identification of toxic plant by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Shuji; Nishi, Katsuji

    2011-03-01

    Some plants have toxicities that are dangerous for humans. In the case of poisoning by toxic plants, a rapid and easy screening test is required for accurate medical treatment or forensic investigation. In this study, we designed specific primer pairs for identification of toxic plants, such as subgenus Aconitum, genus Ricinus, genus Illicium, and genus Scopolia, by internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Allied species of target plants, foods, and human DNA were not detected, but each primer pair provided a specific PCR product from the target plant using real-time PCR. This method can detect the subgenus Aconitum, genus Ricinus, and genus Scopolia with template DNA of 10 pg, respectively, and genus Illicium with 1 pg. Furthermore, each primer pair provided the exact PCR product from digested target plants in artificial gastric fluid. When a trace unknown plant sample in forensic investigation is collected from stomach contents, this PCR assay may be useful for screening toxic plants.

  18. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  19. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  20. Molecular systematics of the Middle American genus Hypopachus (Anura: Microhylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Eli; Smith, Eric N.; de Sá, Rafael O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first phylogenetic study on the widespread Middle American microhylid frog genus Hypopachus. Partial sequences of mitochondrial (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes (1275 bp total) were analyzed from 43 samples of Hypopachus, three currently recognized species of Gastrophryne, and seven arthroleptid, brevicipitid and microhylid outgroup taxa. Maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) optimality criteria were used for phylogenetic analyses, and BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Population-level analyses were conducted with the programs NETWORK and Arlequin. Results confirm the placement of Hypopachus and Gastrophryne as sister taxa, but the latter genus was strongly supported as paraphyletic. The African phrynomerine genus Phrynomantis was recovered as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Chiasmocleis, rendering our well-supported clade of gastrophrynines paraphyletic. Hypopachus barberi was supported as a disjunctly distributed highland species, and we recovered a basal split in lowland populations of Hypopachus variolosus from the Pacific versant of Mexico and elsewhere in the Mesoamerican lowlands. Dating analyses from BEAST estimate speciation within the genus Hypopachus occurred in the late Miocene/early Pliocene for most clades. Previous studies have not found bioacoustic or morphological differences among these lowland clades, and our molecular data support the continued recognition of two species in the genus Hypopachus. PMID:21798357

  1. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bratkov, Viktor M.; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M.; Zdraveva, Petranka K.; Krasteva, Ilina N.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus. PMID:27041870

  2. Guyanagarika, a new ectomycorrhizal genus of Agaricales from the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Marisol; Henkel, Terry W; Aime, Mary Catherine; Smith, Matthew E; Matheny, Patrick Brandon

    2016-12-01

    A new genus and three new species of Agaricales are described from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana in the central Guiana Shield. All three of these new species fruit on the ground in association with species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree genus Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) and one species has been shown to form ectomycorrhizas. Multi-locus molecular phylogenetic analyses place Guyanagarika gen. nov. within the Catathelasma clade, a lineage in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales. We formally recognize this 'Catathelasma clade' as an expanded family Catathelasmataceae that includes the genera Callistosporium, Catathelasma, Guyanagarika, Macrocybe, Pleurocollybia, and Pseudolaccaria. Within the Catathelasmataceae, Catathelasma and Guyanagarika represent independent origins of the ectomycorrhizal habit. Guyanagarika is the first documented case of an ECM Agaricales genus known only from the Neotropics.

  3. Evidence for Ecological Flexibility in the Cosmopolitan Genus Curtobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Alexander B.; Arevalo, Philip; Polz, Martin F.; Berlemont, Renaud; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium, as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether the abundance of this genus was because of its role as a plant pathogen or another ecological role. By collating >24,000 16S rRNA sequences with 120 genomes across the Microbacteriaceae family, we show that Curtobacterium has a global distribution with a predominant presence in soil ecosystems. Moreover, this genus harbors a high diversity of genomic potential for the degradation of carbohydrates, specifically with regards to structural polysaccharides. We conclude that Curtobacterium may be responsible for the degradation of organic matter within litter communities. PMID:27920771

  4. The genus Odontophrynus (Anura: Odontophrynidae): a larval perspective.

    PubMed

    Filipe Augusto C, Do Nascimento; Tamí, Mott; José A, Langone; Christine A, Davis; Rafael O, De Sá

    2013-01-01

    The genus Odontophrynus consists of 11 species of medium-sized frogs distributed across south and east South America. This study examines and describes the chondrocrania and oral cavities of O. americanus, O. maisuma, O. carvalhoi, and O. cultripes, and review current knowledge about the larval external morphology of the genus. Twenty-one tadpoles were cleared and double-stained for chondrocranium description and five tadpoles were dissected for analysis in a scanning electron microscope. The presence of a tectum parientale may be considered here as a putative synapomorphy of the genus. The O. americanus and O. cultripes species groups were partially differentiated by the length of the processus pseudopterigoideus, shape of divergence of the hypobranchial plates, number of postnarial papillae, and number of projections of the lateral ridge papillae. The larvae of O. occidentalis species group, in turn, differed from others by presenting a greater total length.

  5. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization.

  6. The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

  7. Phylogenetic position of the Dalmatian genus Phoxinellus and description of the newly proposed genus Delminichthys (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Freyhof, Jörg; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Bogutskaya, Nina G; Pitra, Christian; Ludwig, Arne

    2006-02-01

    The Dalmatian cyprinid genus Phoxinellus is characterized by reductive characters most likely associated with the environmental conditions of small karstic streams, where all species of this genus occur. Based on 33 morphological traits, nuclear and mtDNA sequences Phoxinellus was found to be paraphyletic and included three not closely related monophyletic units. The scientific name Phoxinellus should therefore be restricted to species having plain coloration, small or absent postcleithrum, no genital papilla and an almost entirely naked body such as P. alepidotus, P. dalmaticus, and P. pseudalepidotus. Species that also have a small or absent postcleithrum and no genital papilla but display a dark stripe from the head to the caudal peduncle, and are entirely covered by distinct, not overlapping scales should be positioned closely to Telestes. Thus, we suggest inclusion of Phoxinellus croaticus, P. fontinalis and Paraphoxinus metohiensis in the genus Telestes. The Phoxinellus species that have a irregularly spotted color pattern, a large postcleithrum, an increased number of precaudal anal-fin pterygiophores, and a large genital papilla in females represent its own evolutionary line closely related to the Balkan species of Pseudophoxinus. For this monophyletic group, we propose to introduce a new genus: Delminichthys. This genus includes the species D. adspersus, D. ghetaldii, D. krbavensis and D. jadovensis.

  8. Calabi-Yau Geometry and Higher Genus Mirror Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si

    2011-12-01

    We study closed string mirror symmetry on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds at higher genus. String theory predicts the existence of two sets of geometric invariants, from the A-model and the B-model on Calabi-Yau manifolds, each indexed by a non-negative integer called genus. The A-model has been mathematically established at all genera by the Gromov-Witten theory, but little is known in mathematics for B-model beyond genus zero. We develop a mathematical theory of higher genus B-model from perturbative quantization techniques of gauge theory. The relevant gauge theory is the Kodaira-Spencer gauge theory, which is originally discovered by Bershadsky-Cecotti-Ooguri-Vafa as the closed string field theory of B-twisted topological string on Calabi-Yau three-folds. We generalize this to Calabi-Yau manifolds of arbitrary dimensions including also gravitational descendants, which we call BCOV theory. We give the geometric description of the perturbative quantization of BCOV theory in terms of deformation-obstruction theory. The vanishing of the relevant obstruction classes will enable us to construct the higher genus B-model. We carry out this construction on the elliptic curve and establish the corresponding higher genus B-model. Furthermore, we show that the B-model invariants constructed from BCOV theory on the elliptic curve can be identified with descendant Gromov-Witten invariants on the mirror elliptic curve. This gives the first compact Calabi-Yau example where mirror symmetry can be established at all genera.

  9. Rapid identification of Zygosaccharomyces with genus-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Hulin, Michelle; Wheals, Alan

    2014-03-03

    There has been a recent and rapid increase in the number of species of the genus Zygosaccharomyces which now comprises Z. bailii, Z. bisporus, Z. gambellarensis, Z. kombuchaensis, Z. lentus, Z. machadoi, Z. mellis, Z. parabaillii, Z. pseudobailii, Z. pseudorouxii, Z. rouxii, Z. sapae, and Z. siamensis. Z. pseudorouxii is an unofficial name given to isolates closely related to the newly-described species Z. sapae. The Zygosaccharomyces genus contains species that are important as food and beverage spoilage organisms and others are associated with fermentations and sweet foodstuffs, such as honey. Their economic significance means that the ability to identify them rapidly is of significant importance. Although Z. rouxii and Z. bailii have been genome-sequenced the extent of sequence data for the others, especially the newly-discovered species, is sometimes extremely limited which makes identification slow. However, parts of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 rDNA region contain sequences of sufficient similarity within the genus and of sufficient difference with outgroups, to be potential regions for the design of genus-wide specific primers. We report here the development of genus-specific primers that can detect all the major Zygosaccharomyces species including all those associated with foods; the rare and localised species Z. machadoi and Z. gambellarensis are not detected. The size of the single amplicon produced varies between species and in some cases is sufficiently different to assign provisional species identification. Sequence data from rDNA regions are available for virtually all described yeast species in all genera, thus, prior to having sufficient sequence data from structural genes, rDNA regions may provide more generally suitable candidates for both genus-specific and species-specific primer design.

  10. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi. PMID:23794899

  11. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi.

  12. Genome Sequence of Type Strains of Genus Stenotrophomonas

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant P.; Midha, Samriti; Kumar, Sanjeet; Patil, Prabhu B.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic resource of type strains and historically important strains of genus Stenotrophomonas allowed us to reveal the existence of 18 distinct species by applying modern phylogenomic criterions. Apart from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, S. africana represents another species of clinical importance. Interestingly, Pseudomonas hibsicola, P. beteli, and S. pavani that are of plant origin are closer to S. maltophilia than the majority of the environmental isolates. The genus has an open pan-genome. By providing the case study on genes encoding metallo-β-lactamase and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats (CRISPR) regions, we have tried to show the importance of this genomic dataset in understanding its ecology. PMID:27014232

  13. Kitasatosporia, a new genus of the order Actinomycetales.

    PubMed

    Omura, S; Takahashi, Y; Iwai, Y; Tanaka, H

    1982-08-01

    The morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics of a new actinomycete strain producing a new antibiotic, setamycin are described. The strain forms aerial mycelia. There is no fragmentation of vegetative mycelia. Since the cell wall type is a new one containing both LL- and meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid, glycine and galactose, strain KM-6054 could not be classified in any previously named genera of the order Actinomycetales. Thus, it is considered to be a member of a new genus, for which the name Kitasatosporia is proposed. The type species (monotype) of this genus is K. setalba. The type strain of K. setalba is strain KM-6054 (ATCC 33774).

  14. Review of the leafhopper genus Evinus Dlabola (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    The leafhopper genus Evinus Dlabola (Deltocephalinae: Macrostelini) is reviewed. Seven new species are described including E. angulatus sp. nov., E. hainanensis sp. nov., E. longus sp. nov., E. obscurus sp. nov., E. planus sp. nov., E. sinuatus sp. nov. E. tenuis sp. nov. One previously described species, E. peri Anufriev, newly recorded from China, is redescribed. The species of the genus have so far been recorded from Iran, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and China; here several new species from Thailand are added. A checklist and a key to species (males) are also provided.

  15. Divergent karyotypes of the annual killifish genus Nothobranchius (Cyprinodontiformes, Nothobranchiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Krysanov, Eugene; Demidova, Tatiana; Nagy, Bela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyotypes of two species of the African annual killifish genus Nothobranchius Peters, 1868, Nothobranchius brieni Poll, 1938 and Nothobranchius sp. from Kasenga (D.R. Congo) are described. Both species displayed diploid chromosome number 2n = 49/50 for males and females respectively with multiple-sex chromosome system type X1X2Y/X1X1X2X2. The karyotypes of studied species are considerably different from those previously reported for the genus Nothobranchius and similar to the Actinopterygii conservative karyotype. PMID:27830051

  16. The genus Unixenus Jones, 1944 (Diplopoda, Penicillata, Polyxenida) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Short, Megan; Huynh, Cuong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The penicillate genus Unixenus Jones, 1944 is widespread, with species found in Africa, Madagascar, India and Australia. Each of the two Australian species was originally described from single samples from Western Australia. In this study, collections of Penicillata from museums in all states of Australia were examined to provide further details of the two described species, to revise the diagnoses for both the genus and the species, and to better understand the distribution of the two species in Australia. In addition, two new species Unixenus karajinensis sp. n. and Unixenus corticolus sp. n. are described. PMID:22303098

  17. The genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): description of a new species, and notes on the genus in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Fabio Arturo; Medina U, Claudia Alejandra

    2015-04-23

    The state of knowledge of the genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 in Colombia is reviewed and updated since the revision of the genus by Génier (1996), and the species list for Colombia of Medina et al. (2001). Two new distributional records for Colombia are confirmed; Ontherus politus Génier 1996 and Ontherus gilli Génier 1996. An updated species list of Ontherus for Colombia is presented with comments on the species with doubtful distribution in Colombia. O. felicitae n. sp., a new species from the mexicanus species group, is described from Western Andes of Colombia.

  18. The South American genus Lagideus (Hymenoptera: Pergidae: Syzygoniinae), a supplement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six new species of the Neotropical pergid genus Lagideus are described and illustrated: Lagideus boyaca, L. magdalena, L. schmidti, and L. flavus from Colombia and L. tapanti and L. isidro from Costa Rica. Lagideus romius Smith is newly recorded from Colombia and the female lancet is illustrated. ...

  19. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed.

  20. The transfer of the genus Lytocaryum to Syagrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract In this paper we formally transfer all four known species of Lytocaryum to the genus Syagrus based on recent molecular analyses, which show it as a monophyletic group either nested within Syagrus making Syagrus paraphyletic or sister to it. Because of these conflicting results bet...

  1. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  2. Phylogeny, phylogeography and genetic diversity of Pisum genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tribe Fabeae (formerly Vicieae) contains some of humanity's most important grain legume crops, namely Lathyrus; Lens; Pisum; Vicia and the monotypic genus Vavilovia. Our study based on molecular data, have positioned Pisum between Vicia and Lathyrus and being closely allied to Vavilovia. Study of p...

  3. First case of neonatal bacteremia due to Dyella genus.

    PubMed

    Hakima, Nesrine; Bidet, Philippe; Lopez, Maureen; Rioualen, Stéphane; Carol, Agnès; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2017-02-01

    We describe the first case of sepsis due to a yet unnamed species of Dyella genus associated to gastrointestinal perforation in a premature newborn. The rarity of such environmental bacteria in human infection, their misidentification with classical methods and their antibiotic resistance represent real challenges for both microbiologists and clinicians.

  4. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia).

    PubMed

    Young, Mark T; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-10-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian-Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene-Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range.

  5. Digitomyces, a new genus of hyphomycetes with cheiroid conidia.

    PubMed

    Mercado Sierra, Angel; Calduch, Misericordia; Gené, Josepa; Guarro, Josep; Delgado, Gregorio

    2003-01-01

    The new anamorphic genus Digitomyces, based on Dictyosporium verrucosum, is proposed. It is characterized by micronematous or semimacronematous conidiophores, integrated or discrete, holoblastic, determinate conidiogenous cells, and olivaceous to pale brown, verrucose, cheiroid conidia, with a truncate basal cell and (2-)3 arms. The new taxon is compared with morphologically similar anamorph genera.

  6. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae).

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

    2014-01-01

    Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibatesbolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibatesminimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given.

  7. Gondwanamyia, a new empidoid (Diptera) genus of uncertain placement

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Bradley J.; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Brooks, Scott E.; Plant, Adrian R.; Saigusa, Toyohei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new minute-size empidoid fly genus, Gondwanamyia gen. n. and two new species (Gondwanamyia chilensis Cumming & Saigusa, sp. n., Gondwanamyia zealandica Sinclair & Brooks, sp. n.) are described, illustrated, and their distributions mapped. The family and subfamily assignments remain uncertain, but features of the female terminalia potentially suggest Trichopezinae (Brachystomatidae). PMID:27833421

  8. A new genus of Coelotinae (Araneae, Agelenidae) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Li, Shuqiang; Zhao, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One new genus of the spider subfamily Coelotinae, Flexicoelotes gen. n., with five new species is described from southern China: Flexicoelotes huyunensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes jiaohanyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes jinlongyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes pingzhaiensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes xingwangensis sp. n. (male and female). PMID:26798279

  9. A new genus of Coelotinae (Araneae, Agelenidae) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Li, Shuqiang; Zhao, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    One new genus of the spider subfamily Coelotinae, Flexicoelotes gen. n., with five new species is described from southern China: Flexicoelotes huyunensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes jiaohanyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes jinlongyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes pingzhaiensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes xingwangensis sp. n. (male and female).

  10. Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...

  11. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark T.; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-01-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian–Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian–lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene–Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range. PMID:26064545

  12. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed. PMID:22207793

  13. A review of the genus Dudaia Hedicke, 1923 (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of the Afrotropical genus Dudaia Hedicke, 1923 of the subfamily Copromyzinae are revised. The status of Afroborborus Curran, 1931 as a junior synonym of Dudaia is corroborated. Twelve species have been described hitherto, two of them are proposed here to be junior synonyms: Copromyza (Dudaia...

  14. Troglobitic scorpions: a new genus and species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira; de Leão Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce

    2004-12-01

    A new genus and species of troglobitic buthid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in Brazil. This is the first cavernicolous scorpion ever found in Brazil, and only the second to be found in South America. Some considerations on troglobitic scorpions are proposed.

  15. Mountain scorpions: a new genus and species from Tibet (China).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Qi, Jian-xin

    2006-04-01

    A new genus and species of mountain liochelid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in Tibet (China). This is the first liochelid scorpion found in the high Himalayan Mountains of Tibet, and the first example of the family to be collected out of its typical tropical and subtropical areas of distribution. Some considerations on mountain scorpions are proposed.

  16. Humicolous microcharmid scorpions: a new genus and species from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2004-01-01

    A new genus and species of humicolous microcharmid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in the Ankarana Reserve, Madagascar. New considerations regarding the taxonomy and morphology of micro-buthoid Malagasy scorpions are proposed, based mainly on the study of the peg-shaped sensillae of the pectines by scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Australopithecus sediba and the earliest origins of the genus Homo.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Discovered in 2008, the site of Malapa has yielded a remarkable assemblage of early hominin remains attributed to the species Australopithecus sediba. The species shows unexpected and unpredicted mosaicism in its anatomy. Several commentators have questioned the specific status of Au. sediba arguing that it does not exceed the variation of Au. africanus. This opinion however, does not take into account that Au. sediba differs from Au. africanus in both craniodental and postcranial characters to a greater degree than Au.africanus differs from Au. afarensis in these same characters. Au. sediba has also been questioned as a potential ancestor of the genus Homo due to the perception that earlier specimens of the genus have been found than the c198 Ma date of the Malapa sample. This opinion however, does not take into account either the poor condition of these fossils, as well as the numerous problems with both the criteria used to associate them with the genus Homo, nor the questionable provenance of each of these specimens. This argument also does not acknowledge that Malapa is almost certainly not the first chronological appearance of Au. sediba, it is only the first known fossil occurrence. Au. sediba should therefore be considered a strong potential candidate ancestor of the genus Homo until better preserved specimens are discovered that would refute such a hypothesis.

  18. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16–19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as “endangered” as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general. PMID:25878546

  19. Vitilevumyia, an enigmatic new genus of Stratiomyidae from Fiji (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. nov. (type species, V. bobwoodleyi, sp. nov.) is described from the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. ...

  20. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species

    PubMed Central

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  1. Genus X. Lechevalieria Labeda, Hatano, Kroppenstedt and Tamura 2001, 1049vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently compose the actinobacterial genus Lechevalieria is presented. The phylogenetic position of the taxa within this genus, including Lecehvalieria aerocolonigenes, Lechevalieria flava, Lechevalieria fradiae, and Lechevalieria xinjian...

  2. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  3. Casuarinacola, a new genus of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Casuarina (Casuarinaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus, Casuarinacola comprising four new species, namely C. equisetifoliae, C. acutialata, C. melanomaculata and C. warrigalensis, of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae), specific to the host genus Casuarina sensu stricto (Casuarinaceae) from Australia, are described. They are characteri...

  4. Genus VIII. Kibdelosporangium Shearer, Colman, Ferrin, Nisbet and Nash 1986, 48

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology, physiology, systematics, ecology, and natural products of the species that currently compose the actinobacterial genus Kibdelosporangium is presented. The phylogenetic position of the taxa within this genus, including Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. aridum, Kibdelosporangium aridum ...

  5. Description of two new species of the leafhopper genus Karachiota (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Dikraneurini ) from China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Meng

    2015-02-04

    Two new species of the dikraneurine leafhopper genus Karachiota Ahmed are reported from China: Karachiota recurva sp. nov. and Karachiota aristata sp. nov.. A key of all species of the genus is provided. 

  6. Genus Goodfellowiella (Labeda and Kroppenstedt 2006) Labeda, Kroppenstedt, Euzeby and Tindall 2008, 1048vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Goodfellowiella is presented. The phylogenetic position of the lone species within this genus, Goodfellowiella coeruleoviolacea relative to the other genera within the family Pseudonocardinaea i...

  7. Insights into the genus Diaporthe: phylogenetic species delimitation in the D. eres species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Diaporthe comprises pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species with both temperate and tropical distributions. Cryptic diversification, phenotypic plasticity and extensive host associations have long complicated accurate identifications of species in this genus. The delimitation of the ge...

  8. First record of the genus Phradis Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tersilochinae) from the Neotropical Region

    PubMed Central

    Khalaim, Andrey I.; Bordera, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Abstract One new species of the genus Phradis, Phradis peruvianus sp. n., from the mountainous part of Peruvian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. This is the first record of the genus from South America and the Neotropical region. PMID:22371684

  9. A review of the leafhopper genus Scaphotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae), with description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wu; Viraktamath, C A; Zhang, Yalin; Webb, M D

    2009-09-01

    The leafhopper genus Scaphotettix Matsumura is redescribed, and three new species are described and Illustrated: S. striatus Dai and Zhang, sp. nov. from Java (on bamboo) and China; S. bispinosus Dai and Zhang, sp. nov from China; and S. pectinatus Dai and Zhang, sp. nov. from Vietnam. Most other species of Scaphotettix were re-examined and found to belong to a new genus also described herein, Scaphomonus Viraktamath, gen. nov.. The new genus is compared with the superficially similar Melanetettix Knight and Fletcher, Scaphodhara Viraktamath and Mohan, and Scaphoideus Uhler and a new species, Scaphomonus vateriae Viraktamath, sp. nov. from India, is described and Illustrated. In addition, the following new combinations are proposed (all previously placed in Scaphotettix): Scaphomonus agumbensis (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. arcuatus (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. freytagi (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. indicus (Distant) comb, nov.; S. longistylus (Li and Wang) comb, nov.; S. mainadicus (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. quadrifidus (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. redundans (Distant) comb, nov.; and S. splinterus (Li and Wang) comb. nov. Three species, Scaphotettix fanjingensis Li and Wang, Scaphotettix redstripeus Li and Wang, and Scaphotettix sienderus Li and Wang, do not belong to the genus Scaphotettix and are not treated further. Keys are provided for species of both Scaphotettix and Scaphomonus.

  10. Description of Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, a preternatural new genus and species of Trichoplastini (Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, is described. This genus is characterized by having a fuscina along the dorsal margin of the clypeus. This three-pronged protrusion is unique within Hymenoptera. The genus is also characterized by the possession of a corniculum, and the shared poss...

  11. The tryphosine genus Cheirimedon in Australian waters (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassidae, Tryphosinae).

    PubMed

    Kilgallen, N M; Lowry, J K

    2015-09-11

    The genus Cheirimedon is reviewed and the monotypic genus Tryphosoides placed in its synonymy. We describe fourteen new species of Cheirimedon, all from Australian waters, bringing the total number of species in the genus to 22. Full synonymies and distribution data are provided for all taxa. A key to the world species is provided.

  12. Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Indexing of the Cronobacter genus (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cronobacter is a recently defined genus synonymous with Enterobacter sakazakii. This new genus currently comprises 6 genomospecies. To extend our understanding of the genetic relationship between Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 and the other species of this genus, microarray-based comparative genomi...

  13. Mitochondrial DNA-based genetic diversity of genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Lygus is widely distributed in North American and Eurasian continents. It is the most-studied genus in the family Miridae. However, very less information on the genetic diversity of this genus is available. Studying genetic variation among Lygus pest species and thereby constructing a ...

  14. A new species of the genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Philonthina) from the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    López-García, Margarita M; Méndez-Rojas, Diana M

    2014-05-09

    The monotypic genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 was described based on a species from Panama and since the original description nearly nothing has been added to its taxonomical knowledge. The aim of the present paper is to describe a new species of the genus from Colombia and to report the genus for the first time from South America, adding some biological notes of the species.

  15. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants in genus Hedysarum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In China, several species (Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz., Hedysarum limprichtii Hlbr., Hedysarum vicioider Turcz. var. Taipeicum Hand.-Mazz. Liu, Hedysarum smithianum, et al.) of genus Hedysarum have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, these plants are used to increase the energy of the body. To date, 155 compounds, including flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, lignanoids, nitrogen compounds, sterols, carbohydrates, fatty compounds, and benzofuran, have been isolated from plants of the genus Hedysarum. Various chemical constituents contribute to the antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive properties of these plants. Hedysarum species are used to treat infestation with gastrointestinal nematodes and may support the immune system and peripheral nervous system. In the present review, we summarize the research on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Hedysarum species, which will be useful for better utilization of these important species in TCM. PMID:23866043

  16. Fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma: from barcodes to biodiversity* §

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-01

    Hypocrea/Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised humans and animals, while others can cause damage to cultivated mushroom. With the recent advent of a reliable, BarCode-aided identification system for all known taxa of Trichoderma and Hypocrea, it became now possible to study some of the biological fundamentals of the diversity in this fungal genus in more detail. In this article, we will therefore review recent progress in (1) the understanding of the geographic distribution of individual taxa; (2) mechanisms of speciation leading to development of mushroom diseases and facultative human mycoses; and (3) the possible correlation of specific traits of secondary metabolism and molecular phylogeny. PMID:18837102

  17. Genomic encyclopedia of type strains of the genus Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes.

  18. A review of the cicada genus Kosemia Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Shengping; Hayashi, Masami; Wei, Cong

    2015-01-21

    The genus Kosemia Matsumura is reviewed based on investigation of the described species and the descriptions of two new species, Kosemia castanea sp. n. and Kosemia guanzhongensis sp. n., from Shaanxi Province, China. Two species formerly belonging to the genus Cicadetta Kolenati, C. chinensis (Distant) and C. mogannia (Distant), are transferred to Kosemia Matsumura to become K. chinensis (Distant), comb. n. and K. mogannia (Distant), comb. n.. The male of K. chinensis (Distant), comb. n. is discovered and described for the first time. Melampsalta bifuscata Liu, 1940 is recognized to be a junior synonym of K. chinensis. Leptopsalta rubicosta Chou & Lei, 1997 and Lycurgus sinensis Jacobi, 1944 are recognized to be junior synonyms of K. mogannia. Kosemia radiator (Uhler, 1896) is removed from the Chinese cicada fauna. A key to species of Kosemia is provided. 

  19. Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Crespo, J; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Esclapez, J; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Camacho, M; Richardson, D J; Bonete, M J

    2016-01-01

    A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter.

  20. Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains of the Genus Bifidobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes. PMID:25085493

  1. Revision of the genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij, 1976 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae)

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The monophyletic genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij in Kryzhanovskij & Reichardt, 1976 is revised herein. All three species Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832), H. lutshniki (Reichardt, 1941) and H. cyprius (Dahlgren, 1981) are found to be correctly assigned to the genus and their monophyly is supported by the synapomorphy of the presence of prosternal foveae. The three species are re-described and supplemented with colour photographs as well as SEM micrographs outlining their differences. Male genitalia drawing of H. subvirescens and H. lutshniki are provided and a key to the species is given. Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832) is newly reported from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Jordan, Cyprus and Mongolia. The lectotypes and paralectotypes of the following species are designated herein: Saprinus foveisternus Schmidt, 1884, Saprinus syriacus Marseul, 1855 and Saprinus viridulus Marseul, 1855. PMID:25147473

  2. Nutrient partitioning and seedling development in the genus Leucaena

    SciTech Connect

    Dovel, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Slow establishment of the genus Leucaena from seed has been attributed to law seedling vigor and late nodulation. Observation of early seedling growth indicated that partitioning of a large proportion of resources to the root of young Leucaena seedlings could account, in part, for the slow initial shoot growth observed in this genus. Therefore, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the partitioning of stored seed reserves, photosynthate, and nitrogen in developing Leucaena seedlings. The effects of nodulation and nitrogen fertilization on partitioning of nutrients in the seedling were also examined. Seed reserves were initially used for radicle growth in dark grown seedlings; however, partitioning soon shifted to the hypocotyl. By four days after imbibition, hypocotyl weight exceeded radicle weight in both species tested (L. leucocephala and L. retusa), at all temperatures above 20/sup 0/C. Two experiments were conducted examining the carbon partitioning of L. leucocephala cultivar K-8 using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse labeling techniques.

  3. Resemblance and divergence: the "new" members of the genus Bordetella.

    PubMed

    Gross, Roy; Keidel, Kristina; Schmitt, Karin

    2010-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough, belongs to the bacterial pathogens first described in the so-called golden era of microbiology more than 100 years ago. In the course of the following decades, several other closely related pathogens were described which are nowadays classified in the genus Bordetella together with B. pertussis. These are the human and animal pathogens B. parapertussis, B. bronchiseptica and B. avium which are of high medical or veterinary interest, and which, together with B. pertussis, are referred to as the "classical" Bordetella species. Only in the past 15 years, several additional species were classified in the genus, frequently isolated from patients with underlying disease, animals or from the environment. Very little is known about most of these bacteria. In the present review, the current knowledge about these "new" Bordetella species is briefly summarized.

  4. Exploitation of genus Rhodosporidium for microbial lipid production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingyang; Liu, Dehua

    2017-03-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms are receiving significant attention worldwide for their utility in biodiesel production and the potentiality to produce some specialty-type lipids. There is an increasing interest in isolation/adaption of robust microbe strains and design of innovative fermentation processes to make microbial lipid production a more efficient and economically feasible bio-process. Currently, the genus Rhodosporidium has been considered an important candidate, for the reason that several strains belonging to this genus have shown excellent capabilities of lipid accumulation, broad adaptabilities to various substrates, and co-production of some carotenoids. This paper reviews the current trends in the exploitation of Rhodosporidium species for microbial lipid production, including the utilization of various (single or mixed, pure or waste-derived) substrates, progress of genetic modification and metabolic engineering, innovations in fermentation mode, lipid characterizations and their potential applications. Finally, the constraints and perspectives of cultivating Rhodosporidium species for lipid production are also discussed.

  5. [Adaptation of yeasts of the genus Debaryomyces to protocatechuic acid].

    PubMed

    Karasevich, Iu N

    1980-01-01

    Among five yeast strains belonging to the genus Debaryomyces that were unable of utilizing aromatic compounds (phenols and hydroxybenzoic acids), three strains, viz. D. kloeckeri BKM-Y-1044, D. marama BKM-Y-100 and D. marama BKM-Y-2045, were adapted to protocatechuic acid. The adapted yeasts utilized protocatechuic acid if its concentration in the medium was 0.1%, but did not utilize it, or did at a very low rate, if the concentration of protocatechuic acid was decreased to 0.05%. The mechanism of adaptation is rare mutations occurring in succession, and the process takes therefore several months. The adaptation seems to be based on reversion of inactivated genes for enzymes involved in the preparative metabolism of protocatechuic acid. Three typical yeast species of the Debaryomyces genus are proposed (D. hansenii, D. kloeckeri and D. konokotinae) which include all of the Debaryomyces species and strains available at the Institute of Microbiology of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

  6. What do we know by now about the genus Naegleria?

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2014-11-01

    In this short overview of the genus Naegleria a brief historical sketch is given since the discovery of this amoeboflagellate in 1899 and the finding in 1970 that one species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in man. Eight different types of this pathogen are known which have an uneven distribution over the world. Until now 47 different Naegleria spp. are described, of which two other species cause disease in experimental animals, and their geographical dispersal is indicated. The presence of group I introns in the SSU and in the LSU rDNA in the genus is discussed, as well as the possibility of sex or mating. It is also mentioned that the genome of N. fowleri should not be compared to that of Naegleria gruberi, to know why the former is pathogenic, but to the genome of its closest relative Naegleria lovaniensis.

  7. Taxonomy of the genus Lycalopex (Carnivora: Canidae) in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zunino, G.E.; Vaccaro, O.B.; Canevari, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Previously treated as species of Pseudalopex, Argentine members of the genus Lycalopex (L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, and L. culpaeus) are examined to clarify the taxonomic status of each named form. Principal components analyses of 26 cranial measurements of 151 adult specimens and 11 pelage characters of 111 specimens, clearly distinguish L. culpaeus from the other two taxa. Lycalopex griseus and L. gymnocercus show clinal variation in cranial measurements and pelage characters. Qualitative cranial characters, used as diagnostic for L. griseus and L. gymnocercus, revealed great nongeographic variation. We conclude that L. griseus and L. gymnocercus are conspecific, and should be known as L. gymnocercus. Therefore, we recognize only two species of the genus Lycalopex (L. culpaeus and L. gymnocercus) in Argentina. We also use this opportunity to review synonymies of the recognized species of Lycalopex.

  8. Taxonomy of mayapple rust: the genus Allodus resurrected.

    PubMed

    Minnis, Andrew M; McTaggart, Alistair R; Rossman, Amy Y; Aime, M Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Mayapple rust is a common, disfiguring disease that is widespread in temperate eastern North America wherever the host, Podophyllum peltatum, occurs. Puccinia podophylli, the etiological agent of this rust, has been shown to be distantly related to both Puccinia and Uromyces as exemplified by their types. A systematic study was made to determine the generic classification of P. podophylli. Phylogenetic analyses of two rDNA loci from multiple specimens support the recognition of this taxon as a separate genus of Pucciniaceae. Based on historical literature and type material, P. podophylli was found to represent the type of the forgotten genus Allodus and it is correctly named Allodus podophylli. A neotype is designated for Puccinia podophylli Schwein. (≡ Allodus podophylli) and a lectotype is designated for Aecidium podophylli.

  9. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves

    PubMed Central

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  10. Distribution of beta-glucanases within the genus Bacillus.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D F; Priest, F G; Todd, C; Goodfellow, M

    1980-01-01

    Representative strains (368) from 36 species in the genus Bacillus were screened for the secretion of beta-glucanases. (1 leads to 6)-beta-glucanases active on pustulan were produced by a minority of the organisms studied (4%), but (1 leads to 3)-beta-glucanases which hydrolyzed laminarin and pachyman were more widespread and were secreted by 56 and 44% of the strains, respectively. PMID:7458311

  11. A review of the genus Scaponopselaphus Scheerpeltz (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Scaponopselaphus Scheerpeltz was originally described to accommodate the species Trigonopselaphus mutator Sharp. New information In this paper, I review Scaponopselaphus and describe a new species from Colombia as Scaponopselaphus diaspartos n. sp. Illustrations are provided for the identification of specimens and the presence of spatulate setae on first mesotarsomere is shown to be a unique characteristic of Scaponopselaphus within Xanthopygina. PMID:25892923

  12. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus

    PubMed Central

    Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W.; Olden, Julian D.; Abbott, Cathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  13. A revision of the spirit loaches, genus Lepidocephalus (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Deein, Gridsada; Tangjitjaroen, Weerapongse; Page, Lawrence M

    2014-03-17

    Lepidocephalus has been assumed to include only two species and confined to peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia. However, based on records and collections reported herein, the genus contains five species and is most common in the Chao Phraya basin of Thailand. Large rivers seem to be the preferred habitat, and difficulty in collecting these rivers may account for the paucity of specimens in collections. The known range of these five species includes western and southern Borneo, Java, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, and central Thailand.

  14. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibates bolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibates minimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  15. Uapaca genus (Euphorbiaceae), a good source of betulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Nyasse, Barthelemy; Nono, Jean-Jules; Nganso, Yves; Ngantchou, Igor; Schneider, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Betulinic acid, isolated in substantial amounts from stem barks of five distinct species of Uapaca could be considered as an important chemotaxomic marker of the Uapaca genus. It inhibited Trypanosoma brucei GAPDH with an IC(50) value of 240 microM and has been shown to be a competitive reversible inhibitor (Ki=200+/-10 microM) of this enzyme with respect to its cofactor NAD(+).

  16. The diatom genus Actinocyclus in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J. Platt; Krebs, William N.

    1995-01-01

    Ten new and four known taxa of the diatom genus Actinocyclus are described, illustrated, and (or) noted from middle Miocene lake deposits in the Western United States. A key is presented to help separate the taxa based on morphological criteria visible in the light microscope. The geologic ranges of Actinocyclus species in the Western United States are discussed based on examination of over 100 localities of diatomaceous lacustrine deposits.

  17. Revision of the genus Pseudeurybata Hennig (Diptera, Micropezidae, Taeniapterinae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, S A

    2016-06-29

    The previously monotypic genus Pseudeurybata Hennig is revised to include seven species from Central America and Mexico and one species from South America. Pseudeurybata rufilabris (Enderlein) and Pseudeurybata compeditus (Hennig) are given as new combinations and a lectotype is designated for P. rufilabris (Enderlein). Pseudeurybata browni and P. alces from Costa Rica, P. guatemalensis from Guatemala, P. dasypogon from Mexico, and P. zeta from Colombia and Ecuador are described as new. All species are keyed and illustrated.

  18. [The spread of nematodes from Toxocara genus in the world].

    PubMed

    Borecka, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Twenty seven species belong to the genus Toxocara. Most of the species infect Carnivora from families: Canidae, Felidae, Viverridae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae and Herpestidae. The most widespread species are: T. canis, T. cati and T. vitulorum. The life cycle of Toxocara spp. is connected with young animals and adults with the lowered immune response. Three of the Toxocara species: T. canis, T. cati and T. pteropodis are the aetiological agents of human toxocariasis.

  19. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  20. Four New Species of the Genus Hemicriconemoides (Nematoda:Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pinochet, J.; Raski, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Four new species of the genus Hemicriconemoides (H. californianus n.sp., H. taiwanensis n.sp., H. annulatus n. sp., and H. nitida n.sp.) are described. The range of total length of H. mangiferae is increased on the basis of specimens collected in Israel, Observations on H. mangiferae and H. litchi support the validity of H. litchi as distinct from H. mangiferae. PMID:19308169

  1. Essential Oil and Volatile Components of the Genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The flowering plant genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) contains the well-known medicinally valuable species Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s wort). Species of Hypericum contain many bioactive constituents, including proanthocyanins, flavonoids, biflavonoids, xanthones, phenylpropanes and naphthodianthrones that are characterized by their relative hydrophilicity, as well as acylphloroglucinols and essential oil components that are more hydrophobic in nature. A concise review of the scientific literature pertaining to constituents of Hypericum essential oils and volatile fractions is presented. PMID:20923012

  2. General occurrence of the glucosinolate glucocochlearin within the Cochlearia genus.

    PubMed

    Dauvergne, Xavier; Cérantola, Stéphane; Salaün, Stéphanie; Magné, Christian; Kervarec, Nelly; Bessières, Marie-Anne; Deslandes, Eric

    2006-09-04

    A natural compound, glucocochlearin, was isolated from the aerial parts of 10 different Cochlearia species. The purification of this compound was achieved through HPLC. The identity of the product was established mainly on the basis of spectroscopic NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, TOCSY, HMQC, HMBC, J-MOD) and high resolution mass spectroscopy data. This compound can be considered as a chemomarker of the genus Cochlearia.

  3. A new species of genus Nishada Moore, 1878 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rahul; Kirti, Jagbir S; Singh, Navneet

    2016-10-28

    Genus Nishada Moore (1878) was proposed as a monotypic genus, under subfamily Lithosiinae, family Lithosiidae (now Lithosiini), including only Nishada flabrifera Moore (1878) from Calcutta (now as Kolkata), India. The genus is distributed from China to India, Thailand, Malaysia and up to Australia. The Indian fauna of Nishada is reported from North-East Himalayas, West Bengal (Kolkata) and South India. Members of this genus are unmarked, yellow to brown with short and broad wings. Genus Nishada has been taxonomically dealt by many authors but awaits thorough revision.

  4. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Mytnik-Ejsmont, Joanna; Szlachetko, Dariusz L; Baranow, Przemysław; Jolliffe, Kevin; Górniak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae) for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided.

  5. Phylogenetic Placement and Taxonomy of the Genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mytnik-Ejsmont, Joanna; Szlachetko, Dariusz L.; Baranow, Przemysław; Jolliffe, Kevin; Górniak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae) for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided. PMID:25902058

  6. Diversity and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in the Genus Vigna

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Kohtaro; Takahashi, Yu; Muto, Chiaki; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae) is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations. The accessions were clustered into four groups: the most tolerant, tolerant, moderately susceptible, and susceptible. From the most tolerant group, we selected six accessions, all of which were wild accessions adapted to coastal environments, as promising sources of salt tolerance because of their consistently high relative shoot biomass and relative quantum yield. Interestingly, variations in leaf Na+ concentration were observed between the accessions in the most tolerant group, suggesting different mechanisms were responsible for their salt tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis with nuclear DNA sequences revealed that salt tolerance had evolved independently at least four times in the genus Vigna, within a relatively short period. The findings suggested that simple genetic changes in a few genes might have greatly affected salt tolerances. The elucidation of genetic mechanisms of salt tolerances in the selected accessions may contribute to improving the poor salt tolerance in legume crops. PMID:27736995

  7. Ceratomyxa (Myxozoa: Bivalvulida): robust taxon or genus of convenience?

    PubMed

    Gunter, Nicole L; Whipps, Christopher M; Adlard, Robert D

    2009-10-01

    The genus Ceratomyxa (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) contains parasites that typically infect the gall bladders of marine teleosts. Species of this genus have also been recorded from elasmobranchs, while the best known species (Ceratomyxa shasta) is a systemic pathogen of fresh water salmonid fishes. Here we characterise 10 new species of Ceratomyxa from marine teleosts using morphometric and rDNA sequence data. A phylogeny of all Ceratomyxa species for which ssrDNA sequence is available was estimated by parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Mapping host fish taxonomy, geographic locality and morphology onto the phylogenetic tree provided some concordance of these characters to groups of Ceratomyxa species, but in no case was it consistent throughout the inferred phylogeny. The position of C. shasta as a sister species to the Ceratomyxa clade contradicts previous estimates of marine myxozoan phylogeny which suggested C. shasta was an unrelated lineage. Comparative DNA sequence data is available for more than 17% of some 200 described Ceratomyxa species and the genus now represents one of the most cohesive lineages within the Myxozoa. The independent branching of all atypical Ceratomyxa species and Palliatusindecorus, indicates a review of the diagnostic characters and possible division into more genera is warranted when further data are available.

  8. Genome structure and phylogeny in the genus Brucella.

    PubMed Central

    Michaux-Charachon, S; Bourg, G; Jumas-Bilak, E; Guigue-Talet, P; Allardet-Servent, A; O'Callaghan, D; Ramuz, M

    1997-01-01

    PacI and SpeI restriction maps were obtained for the two chromosomes of each of the six species of the genus Brucella: B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, B. canis, B. ovis, and B. neotomae. Three complementary techniques were used: hybridization with the two replicons as probes, cross-hybridization of restriction fragments, and a new mapping method. For each type strain, a unique I-SceI site was introduced in each of the two replicons, and the location of SpeI sites was determined by linearization at the unique site, partial digestion, and end labeling of the fragments. The restriction and genetic maps of the six species were highly conserved. However, numerous small insertions or deletions, ranging from 1 to 34 kb, were observed by comparison with the map of the reference strain of the genus, B. melitensis 16M. A 21-kb Spel fragment specific to B. ovis was found in the small chromosome of this species. A 640-kb inversion was demonstrated in the B. abortus small chromosome. All of these data allowed the construction of a phylogenetic tree, which reflects the traditional phenetic classification of the genus. PMID:9150220

  9. A descriptive morphology of the ant genus Procryptocerus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Serna, F; Mackay, W

    2010-01-01

    Morphology is the most direct approach biologists have to recognize uniqueness of insect species as compared to close relatives. Ants of the genus Procryptocerus possess important morphologic characters yet have not been explored for use in a taxonomic revision. The genus is characterized by the protrusion of the clypeus forming a broad nasus and antennal scrobes over the eyes. The toruli are located right posterior to the flanks of the nasus opposite to each other. The vertex is deflexed posteriorly in most species. An in-group comparison of the external morphology is presented focusing on the workers. A general morphology for gynes and males is also presented. Previously mentioned characters as well as new ones are presented, and their character states in different species are clarified. For the metasoma a new system of ant metasomal somite nomenclature is presented that is applicable to Aculeata in general. Finally, a Glossary of morphological terms is offered for the genus (available online). Most of the terminology can be used in other members of the Formicidae and Aculeata.

  10. Molecular Systematics of the Phoxinin Genus Pteronotropis (Otophysi: Cypriniformes)

    PubMed Central

    Mayden, Richard L.; Allen, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pteronotropis is widely distributed along the gulf slope of eastern North America from Louisiana to Florida and rivers in South Carolina along the Atlantic slope. Pteronotropis have very distinctive, flamboyant coloration. The habitats most frequently associated with these species include heavily vegetated backwater bayous to small sluggish or flowing tannin-stained streams. Although Pteronotropis is recognized as a valid genus, no phylogenetic analysis of all the species has corroborated its monophyly. In recent years, four additional species have been either described or elevated from synonymy: P. merlini, P. grandipinnis, P. stonei, and P. metallicus, with the wide-ranging P. hypselopterus complex. To examine relationships within this genus and test its monophyly, phylogenetic analyses were conducted using two nuclear genes, recombination activating gene 1, RAG1, and the first intron of S7 ribosomal protein gene in both maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. In no analysis was Pteronotropis, as currently recognized, recovered as monophyletic without the inclusion of the currently recognized Notropis harperi, herein referred to as Pteronotropis. Two major clades are supported: one inclusive of P. hubbsi, P. welaka, and P. harperi and the second inclusive of P. signipinnis, P. grandipinnis, P. hypselopterus plus P. merlini sister to P. euryzonus, and P. metallicus plus P. stonei. PMID:26114103

  11. The Malassezia Genus in Skin and Systemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

  12. Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

  13. Genome structure and phylogeny in the genus Brucella.

    PubMed

    Michaux-Charachon, S; Bourg, G; Jumas-Bilak, E; Guigue-Talet, P; Allardet-Servent, A; O'Callaghan, D; Ramuz, M

    1997-05-01

    PacI and SpeI restriction maps were obtained for the two chromosomes of each of the six species of the genus Brucella: B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, B. canis, B. ovis, and B. neotomae. Three complementary techniques were used: hybridization with the two replicons as probes, cross-hybridization of restriction fragments, and a new mapping method. For each type strain, a unique I-SceI site was introduced in each of the two replicons, and the location of SpeI sites was determined by linearization at the unique site, partial digestion, and end labeling of the fragments. The restriction and genetic maps of the six species were highly conserved. However, numerous small insertions or deletions, ranging from 1 to 34 kb, were observed by comparison with the map of the reference strain of the genus, B. melitensis 16M. A 21-kb Spel fragment specific to B. ovis was found in the small chromosome of this species. A 640-kb inversion was demonstrated in the B. abortus small chromosome. All of these data allowed the construction of a phylogenetic tree, which reflects the traditional phenetic classification of the genus.

  14. Evolution of corallivory in the gastropod genus Drupella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claremont, M.; Reid, D. G.; Williams, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    Although muricid gastropods in the genus Drupella are well-known consumers of Indo-Pacific corals, their evolutionary and ecological history is unclear, as is their relationship to the apparently facultative coral-feeder Ergalatax margariticola, which has been reported to feed upon corals in Hong Kong. We use a well resolved molecular phylogeny (reconstructed from one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes) to show that the monophyletic genus Drupella falls into the muricid subfamily Ergalataxinae and that the genus includes ` E. margariticola', which is composed of two cryptic species. We show that genetic structure within the here reassigned ` Drupella margariticola' species complex does not relate to feeding mode, but instead seems to correspond to broad patterns of habitat ecology found in other gastropod taxa. Our analyses suggest that Drupella originated in the late Miocene (approximately 9.6 Ma) and diversified approximately 5.0 Ma, much later than the appearance of modern coral reefs in the early Cenozoic. Thus, it is possible that corallivory in Drupella evolved in response to the major expansion and reorganization of reefs that took place in the early Miocene.

  15. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  16. Taxonomy, Epidemiology, and Clinical Relevance of the Genus Arcobacter

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases. PMID:21233511

  17. Homology of Melanoma-Inducing Loci in the Genus Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, M.

    1990-01-01

    Several species of the genus Xiphophorus are polymorphic for specific pigment patterns. Some of these give rise to malignant melanoma following the appropriate crossings. For one of these pattern loci from the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus the melanoma-inducing gene has been cloned and found to encode a novel receptor tyrosine kinase, designated Xmrk. Using molecular probes from this gene in Southern blot analyses on single fish DNA preparations from 600 specimens of different populations of various species of the genus Xiphophorus and their hybrids, either with or without melanoma-predisposing pattern, it was shown that all individuals contain the Xmrk gene as a proto-oncogene. It is located on the sex chromosome. All fish that carry a melanoma-predisposing locus which has been identified by Mendelian genetics contain an additional copy of Xmrk, closely linked to a specific melanophore pattern locus on the sex chromosome. The melanoma-inducing loci of the different species and populations are homologous. The additional copy of Xmrk obviously arose by a gene-duplication event, thereby acquiring the oncogenic potential. The homology of the melanoma-inducing loci points to a similar mechanism of tumor suppression in all feral fish populations of the different species of the genus Xiphophorus. PMID:1981761

  18. Taxonomic revision of the genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Borkenhagen, Kai; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Representatives of the fish genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from the Middle East and North Africa were previously placed in 14 different genus-group taxa (Barbellion, Barbus, Barynotus, Capoeta, Carasobarbus, Cyclocheilichthys, Kosswigobarbus, Labeobarbus, Luciobarbus, Pseudotor, Puntius, Systomus, Tor and Varicorhinus). The generic assignment of several species changed frequently, necessitating a re-evaluation of their taxonomic status. In this study, the genus Carasobarbus is revised based on comparative morphological examinations of about 1300 preserved specimens from collections of several museums and freshly collected material. The species Carasobarbus apoensis, Carasobarbus canis, Carasobarbus chantrei, Carasobarbus exulatus, Carasobarbus fritschii, Carasobarbus harterti, Carasobarbus kosswigi, Carasobarbus luteus and Carasobarbus sublimus form a monophyletic group that shares the following combination of characters: medium-sized barbels with a smooth last unbranched dorsal-fin ray, nine or 10 branched dorsal-fin rays and six branched anal fin-rays; scales large, shield-shaped, with many parallel radii; the lateral line containing 25 to 39 scales; the pharyngeal teeth hooked, 2.3.5-5.3.2 or 2.3.4-4.3.2; one or two pairs of barbels. The species are described in detail, their taxonomic status is re-evaluated and an identification key is provided. A lectotype of Systomus luteus Heckel, 1843 is designated. Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971, Kosswigobarbus Karaman, 1971, and Pseudotor Karaman, 1971 are subjective synonyms, and acting as First Reviser we gave precedence to the name Carasobarbus. PMID:24146585

  19. A Descriptive Morphology of the Ant Genus Procryptocerus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Serna, F.; Mackay, W.

    2010-01-01

    Morphology is the most direct approach biologists have to recognize uniqueness of insect species as compared to close relatives. Ants of the genus Procryptocerus possess important morphologic characters yet have not been explored for use in a taxonomic revision. The genus is characterized by the protrusion of the clypeus forming a broad nasus and antennal scrobes over the eyes. The toruli are located right posterior to the flanks of the nasus opposite to each other. The vertex is deflexed posteriorly in most species. An in-group comparison of the external morphology is presented focusing on the workers. A general morphology for gynes and males is also presented. Previously mentioned characters as well as new ones are presented, and their character states in different species are clarified. For the metasoma a new system of ant metasomal somite nomenclature is presented that is applicable to Aculeata in general. Finally, a Glossary of morphological terms is offered for the genus (available online). Most of the terminology can be used in other members of the Formicidae and Aculeata. PMID:20874568

  20. Molecular characterisation of the species of the genus Zygosaccharomyces.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Zorman, Tina; Belloch, Carmela; Querol, Amparo

    2003-09-01

    The restriction fragments polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA and the PCR fragment that comprised the internal transcribes spacers and the 5.8S rRNA gene, together with the electrophoretic karyotypes of 40 strains from the 10 species of the genus Zygosaccharomyces, including the new species Z. lentus were examined. The RFLP's of the ITS-5.8S region showed a specific restriction pattern for each species, including the new species Z. lentus. The only exception were the species Z. cidri and Z. fermentati that produced identical restriction profiles. The electrophoretic chromosome patterns confirmed the differences between the species of this genus, including the phylogenetic closest species Z. cidri and Z. fermentati. They present few chromosomes ranging from 3 bands (4 or 5 chromosomes) for Z. florentinus to 7 bands (8 to 10 chromosomes) for Z. cidri and Z. fermentati. The strain level resolution power of RFLP's of mtDNA of this genus enabled the characterisation of strains from the same species, even where they are isolated from the same substrate. However, in the cases of Z. bailii and Z. lentus, electrophoretic karyotyping there was considerable variation.

  1. Biogeography and divergence times of genus Macroptilium (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Espert, Shirley M.; Burghardt, Alicia D.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Macroptilium is a herbaceous legume genus with 18 currently accepted species, seven of them with economic importance due to their use as forage, green fertilizer and in medicine. The genus is strictly American, with an unknown biogeographic history. The aim of this study was to infer a biogeographic pattern of Macroptilium and to estimate its divergence times, using sequences from the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers. Methodology To study the historical biogeography of Macroptilium, two approaches were used: area optimization on a previously obtained phylogeny and a dispersal–vicariance analysis. Divergence times were calculated by Bayesian methods. Principal results The analyses revealed that Macroptilium has its origin in the middle Pliocene, with an estimated age that ranges from 2.9 to 4 million years. The biogeographic analyses placed its origin in South America, specifically on the Chaquean sub-region, where most of the cladogenetic events of the genus took place. Conclusions Macroptilium constitutes a further example of the geographic pattern displayed by numerous Neotropical taxa that moved north from South America to dominate the Central American lowlands after the land connection across the Isthmus of Panama was established. PMID:22476076

  2. Flavonoids as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Drosera.

    PubMed

    Braunberger, Christina; Zehl, Martin; Conrad, Jürgen; Wawrosch, Christoph; Strohbach, Jaqueline; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

    2015-10-01

    The botanical classification of the huge genus Drosera remains controversial since long. In the present study, the pattern of major phenolic compounds in ten Drosera species belonging to seven different subgenera and/or sections of the genus was investigated for chemotaxonomic allocation. The composition of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in Drosera adelae, Drosera burmannii, Drosera dielsiana, Drosera hilaris, Drosera montana, Drosera petiolaris, and Drosera pygmaea was elucidated for the first time. The scarce data on these compounds in Drosera binata, Drosera aliciae, and Drosera spatulata were complemented significantly. Detailed LC-DAD-MS, LC-NMR, and offline 1D and 2D NMR analyses resulted in the unambiguous identification of around 40 different substances, three of them (8-hydroxy-luteolin-8-O-arabinopyranoside, tricetin-7-O-xylopyranoside and 8-hydroxytricetin-8-O-arabinopyranoside) being natural products described for the first time. The distribution of the compounds characterized underlines their potential to serve as chemotaxonomic markers in this genus.

  3. Molecular Systematics of the Phoxinin Genus Pteronotropis (Otophysi: Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Mayden, Richard L; Allen, Jason S

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pteronotropis is widely distributed along the gulf slope of eastern North America from Louisiana to Florida and rivers in South Carolina along the Atlantic slope. Pteronotropis have very distinctive, flamboyant coloration. The habitats most frequently associated with these species include heavily vegetated backwater bayous to small sluggish or flowing tannin-stained streams. Although Pteronotropis is recognized as a valid genus, no phylogenetic analysis of all the species has corroborated its monophyly. In recent years, four additional species have been either described or elevated from synonymy: P. merlini, P. grandipinnis, P. stonei, and P. metallicus, with the wide-ranging P. hypselopterus complex. To examine relationships within this genus and test its monophyly, phylogenetic analyses were conducted using two nuclear genes, recombination activating gene 1, RAG1, and the first intron of S7 ribosomal protein gene in both maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. In no analysis was Pteronotropis, as currently recognized, recovered as monophyletic without the inclusion of the currently recognized Notropis harperi, herein referred to as Pteronotropis. Two major clades are supported: one inclusive of P. hubbsi, P. welaka, and P. harperi and the second inclusive of P. signipinnis, P. grandipinnis, P. hypselopterus plus P. merlini sister to P. euryzonus, and P. metallicus plus P. stonei.

  4. The Malassezia genus in skin and systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gaitanis, Georgios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  5. Review of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Framenau, Volker W

    2015-09-11

    Species of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator are reviewed including the type species, V. spenceri Hogg, 1900, from south-eastern Australia and V. immansuetus (Simon, 1909) comb. nov., a common species in south-west Western Australia. Venator marginatus Hogg, 1900 is only known from two female specimens and the genital morphology of this species does not conform to the diagnosis of genus as presented here. Therefore V. marginatus is considered incerta sedis. Venator includes medium-sized (9.0-22 mm body length) wolf spiders of overall brownish colouration, and with a black patch covering the anterior three quarters of the venter. They differ from all other wolf spiders in particular by genitalic characters, namely an elevated atrium of the female epigyne that forms a raised edged against the inverted T-shaped median septum. This edge often corresponds to a retrolateral incision on the tegular apophysis of the male pedipalp. The genus is mainly a representative of the Bassian fauna of the Australian continent where it occurs predominantly in dry sclerophyll forests.

  6. New species of Cordana and epitypification of the genus.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Gené, Josepa; Mena-Portales, Julio; Cano, Jose; Madrid, Hugo; Castañeda-Ruiz, Rafael F; Guarro, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Two interesting fungi belonging to the genus Cordana have been isolated recently in Spain from plant debris. Both are proposed here as new species, described and illustrated. Cordana mercadiana sp. nov. produces 0-1-septate conidia, with a prominent basal scar. Cordana verruculosa sp. nov. differs from the other species of the genus by its unique combination of aseptate, verruculose and small conidia. Both species are compared morphologically with other species of Cordana and their identities supported by the analysis of rDNA sequences. LSU sequence analysis revealed the congeneric relationship of Cordana and Pseudobotrytis; the members of both genera are in a well supported monophyletic lineage that appears to be related to the Coniochaetales but remains incertae sedis within the Sordariomycetes. To establish nomenclatural stability of the genus Cordana, an isolate of C. pauciseptata is designed here as epitype and the two species of Pseudobotrytis are transferred to Cordana. A dichotomous key is provided to identify the currently accepted species of Cordana.

  7. Review of the oriental leafhopper genus Lampridius (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae), with description of a related new genus.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wu; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2011-05-01

    The leafhopper genus Lampridius Distant, 1918 (type species: L. spectabilis Distant, 1918 ) is redescribed, and a second species, L. cuspidatus sp. nov. (Thailand: Loei), is described. A related new genus Paralampridius gen. nov. and four new species are described: P. mimicus sp. nov. (China: Guangdong, Hainan), P. rotundatus sp. nov. (Thailand: Loei), P. sinuatus sp. nov. (Thailand: Loei, Suphanburi, Petchaburi), and P. truncatus sp. nov. (Thailand: Chaiyaphum, Ubon Ratchathani). Both genera are tentatively included in the tribe Opsiini, although only Lampridius has paired aedeagal shafts with separate gonopores. All six species are illustrated, and a key is provided for their identification. Problems with the current tribal classification are discussed in light of the present discovery of closely related species that show variation in characters previously assumed to be stable at the tribal level in the subfamily Deltocephalinae.

  8. A revision of the genus Antepione Packard with description of the new genus Pionenta Ferris (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae).

    PubMed

    Ferris, Clifford D

    2010-12-14

    Based on genitalic studies, the new genus Pionenta is established for two taxa formerly placed under Antepione. The taxa hewesata and ochreata (and previously associated synonyms) are now synonomized as Pionenta ochreata. Three species of Antepione are now recognized: Antepione thisoaria, Antepione imitata, Antepione tiselaaria with the taxa comstocki, constans, and indiscretata synonomized under Antepione imitata. No new species are described. Adults and genitalia are illustrated, including type specimens.

  9. A revision of the genus Antepione Packard with description of the new genus Pionenta Ferris (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae)

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Clifford D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Based on genitalic studies, the new genus Pionenta is established for two taxa formerly placed under Antepione. The taxa hewesata and ochreata (and previously associated synonyms) are now synonomized as Pionenta ochreata. Three species of Antepione are now recognized: Antepione thisoaria, Antepione imitata, Antepione tiselaaria with the taxa comstocki, constans, and indiscretata synonomized under Antepione imitata. No new species are described. Adults and genitalia are illustrated, including type specimens. PMID:21594048

  10. Revisiting the taxonomy of the family Circoviridae: establishment of the genus Cyclovirus and removal of the genus Gyrovirus.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Breitbart, Mya; Harrach, Balázs; Segalés, Joaquim; Delwart, Eric; Biagini, Philippe; Varsani, Arvind

    2017-02-02

    The family Circoviridae contains viruses with covalently closed, circular, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genomes, including the smallest known autonomously replicating, capsid-encoding animal pathogens. Members of this family are known to cause fatal diseases in birds and pigs and have been historically classified in one of two genera: Circovirus, which contains avian and porcine pathogens, and Gyrovirus, which includes a single species (Chicken anemia virus). However, over the course of the past six years, viral metagenomic approaches as well as degenerate PCR detection in unconventional hosts and environmental samples have elucidated a broader host range, including fish, a diversity of mammals, and invertebrates, for members of the family Circoviridae. Notably, these methods have uncovered a distinct group of viruses that are closely related to members of the genus Circovirus and comprise a new genus, Cyclovirus. The discovery of new viruses and a re-evaluation of genomic features that characterize members of the Circoviridae prompted a revision of the classification criteria used for this family of animal viruses. Here we provide details on an updated Circoviridae taxonomy ratified by the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses in 2016, which establishes the genus Cyclovirus and reassigns the genus Gyrovirus to the family Anelloviridae, a separate lineage of animal viruses that also contains circular ssDNA genomes. In addition, we provide a new species demarcation threshold of 80% genome-wide pairwise identity for members of the family Circoviridae, based on pairwise identity distribution analysis, and list guidelines to distinguish between members of this family and other eukaryotic viruses with circular, ssDNA genomes.

  11. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus delineation using the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance (Qin et al. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights. J Bacteriol 2014; 196: :2210-5). Here, we extended the POCP analysis of the order Chlamydiales and pairwise compared all currently recognized species and candidate species of the family Chlamydiaceae as well as some species from other families. Using the taxonomy advised by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae, POCP analysis revealed that all pairwise comparisons of species from different families resulted in values lower than 50%, the proposed threshold for genus boundary. In contrast, all interspecies pairwise comparisons of species from the single genus within the family Chlamydiaceae resulted in POCP values higher than 70%. We conclude that the recommended genus classification of the family Chlamydiaceae is rational and that POCP analyses can provide a robust genomic index for the taxonomy of members of the order Chlamydiales in terms of genus demarcation.

  12. The genus Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Philopotaminae) in northeastern Brazil, including the description of three new species and an identification key for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Calor, Adolfo Ricardo; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 contains 35 described species distributed in southern and southeastern Brazil. Three new species of Alterosa from northeastern Brazil are described and illustrated, Alterosa amadoi sp. n., Alterosa castroalvesi sp. n. and Alterosa caymmii sp. n., the first records of the genus from northeastern Brazil. An identification key for all known species of the genus is also presented. PMID:23950667

  13. Reinstatement of the genus Colopalpus Pritchard and Baker (1958) and re-description of Colopalpus matthyssei Pritchard and Baker (1958), the type species of this genus (Acari, Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pritchard and Baker (1958) erected the genus Colopalpus with Tenuipalpus matthyssei (Pritchard and Baker) a species described from Laguna, The Philippines, as the type species. Meyer (1979) treated the genus as a junior synonym of Tenuipalpus Donnadieu. In this paper, we re-describe the female, male...

  14. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the genus Neoerysiphe (Erysiphaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Susumu; Havrylenko, Maria; Wolcan, Silvia M; Matsuda, Sanae; Niinomi, Seiko

    2008-06-01

    The genus Neoerysiphe belongs to the tribe Golovinomyceteae of the Erysiphaceae together with the genera Arthrocladiella and Golovinomyces. This is a relatively small genus, comprising only six species, and having ca 300 species from six plant families as hosts. To investigate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of the genus, we determined the nucleotide sequences of the rDNA ITS regions and the divergent domains D1 and D2 of the 28S rDNA. The 30 ITS sequences from Neoerysiphe are divided into three monophyletic groups that are represented by their host families. Groups 1 and 3 consist of N. galeopsidis from Lamiaceae and N. galii from Rubiaceae, respectively, and the genetic diversity within each group is extremely low. Group 2 is represented by N. cumminsiana from Asteraceae. This group also includes Oidium baccharidis, O. maquii, and Oidium spp. from Galinsoga (Asteraceae) and Aloysia (Verbenaceae), and is further divided into four subgroups. N. galeopsidis is distributed worldwide, but is especially common in western Eurasia from Central Asia to Europe. N. galii is also common in western Eurasia. In contrast, the specimens of group 2 were all collected in the New World, except for one specimen that was collected in Japan; this may indicate a close relationship of group 2 with the New World. Molecular clock calibration demonstrated that Neoerysiphe split from other genera of the Erysiphaceae ca 35-45M years ago (Mya), and that the three groups of Neoerysiphe diverged between 10 and 15Mya, in the Miocene. Aloysia citriodora is a new host for the Erysiphaceae and the fungus on this plant is described as O. aloysiae sp. nov.

  15. Evolutionary Roots and Diversification of the Genus Aeromonas

    PubMed Central

    Sanglas, Ariadna; Albarral, Vicenta; Farfán, Maribel; Lorén, J. G.; Fusté, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of diversification rates in the study of prokaryote evolution, they have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of microorganism taxa. The investigation of evolutionary patterns in prokaryotes constitutes a challenge due to a very scarce fossil record, limited morphological differentiation and frequently complex taxonomic relationships, which make even species recognition difficult. Although the speciation models and speciation rates in eukaryotes have traditionally been established by analyzing the fossil record data, this is frequently incomplete, and not always available. More recently, several methods based on molecular sequence data have been developed to estimate speciation and extinction rates from phylogenies reconstructed from contemporary taxa. In this work, we determined the divergence time and temporal diversification of the genus Aeromonas by applying these methods widely used with eukaryotic taxa. Our analysis involved 150 Aeromonas strains using the concatenated sequences of two housekeeping genes (approximately 2,000 bp). Dating and diversification model analyses were performed using two different approaches: obtaining the consensus sequence from the concatenated sequences corresponding to all the strains belonging to the same species, or generating the species tree from multiple alignments of each gene. We used BEAST to perform a Bayesian analysis to estimate both the phylogeny and the divergence times. A global molecular clock cannot be assumed for any gene. From the chronograms obtained, we carried out a diversification analysis using several approaches. The results suggest that the genus Aeromonas began to diverge approximately 250 millions of years (Ma) ago. All methods used to determine Aeromonas diversification gave similar results, suggesting that the speciation process in this bacterial genus followed a rate-constant (Yule) diversification model, although there is a small probability that a slight

  16. On the genus Cosmopelma Simon, 1889 (Araneae, Barychelidae).

    PubMed

    Mori, Andre; Bertani, Rogerio

    2016-07-13

    Among neotropical mygalomorph spider families, Barychelidae is one of the most neglected in taxonomic studies. Most genera have never been revised and only the original descriptions are available. Herein, one of these more obscure genera, Cosmopelma Simon, 1892, with two described species in Brazil and Venezuela, is revised. The type species C. decoratum Simon, 1889 is redescribed, and the male is described for first time. A new species, C. ceplac sp. nov., is described, and new occurrences are presented. Additionally, C. dentatum Fischel, 1927, whose holotype is lost, is considered a nomen dubium. Cosmopelma is an endemic genus, known only from the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil.

  17. Chemotaxonomy of mints of genus Mentha by applying Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rösch, P; Kiefer, W; Popp, J

    2002-01-01

    The characterization of mints is often problematic because Mentha is a taxonomically complex genus. In order to provide a fast and easy characterization method, we use a combination of micro-Raman spectroscopy and hierarchical cluster analysis. A classification trial of different mint taxa is possible for one collection time. For spectra measured at different points during the growing season, a more sophisticated pretreatment of the data is necessary to receive good discrimination between the species, as well as between the subspecies and varieties of the mints.

  18. A new genus to accommodate Gymnopus acervatus (Agaricales).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Karen W; Mather, David A; Petersen, Ronald H

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenies based on ITS and LSU nrDNA sequences show Agaricus (Gymnopus) acervatus as unique within the Gymnopus/Rhodocollybia complex. These phylogenies imply that a separate genus is necessary, and Connopus is proposed. Infraspecific morphological and DNA-based variation within C. acervatus suggests that a western North American clade might be reproductively isolated from the eastern North American/Scandinavian clade and that in this species complex the European and eastern North American clade might be conspecific. A Scandinavian exemplar is selected for bar-coding. Two GenBank sequences with name-phylogenetic placement inconsistencies are identified.

  19. A third species of Polyspatha, an Africanendemic genus of Commelinaceae

    PubMed Central

    Faden, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Polyspatha oligospatha Faden, the third species in a small African endemic genus of Commelinaceae, is described. It is widespread but has been overlooked because of its small stature and resemblance to small plants of Polyspatha paniculata. It differs from both Polyspatha paniculata and Polyspatha hirsuta, the two other species, by its leaf pubescence, fewer, more widely spaced and usually patent spathes, deeply ridged seeds with numerous knobby, transversely interrupted ridges, and morning anthesis. It occurs throughout the Congolian forests from Cameroon to Uganda, but it is also disjunct in Ivory Coast, across the Dahomey gap. PMID:22171175

  20. [Bioactive secondary metabolites produced by plants of the genus Physalis].

    PubMed

    Agata, Karolina; Kusiak, Joanna; Stępień, Bartłomiej; Bergier, Katarzyna; Kuźniak, Elżbieta

    2010-12-30

    Plants from the genus Physalis L. (family Solanaceae), native to warm and subtropical regions of Central and South America, are particularly rich in secondary metabolites, e.g.: withanolides, physalins, calystegines, tropane and nortropane alkaloids. Due to the high biological activities of these compounds, in the tropics Physalis plants have been used for centuries as medicinal herbs in the treatment of urinary and skin diseases, gonorrhea, ulcers, sores and as a vermicidal drug. This review describes the main categories of secondary metabolites, their distribution, chemistry, biosynthesis as well as biological activities. Particular attention is given to their potent anticancer activities.

  1. Revision of the genus Trypogeus Lacordaire, 1869 (Cerambycidae, Dorcasominae)

    PubMed Central

    Vives, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ten species of the genus Trypogeus Lacordaire are revised. Trypogeus apicalis Fisher, 1936, is proposed as a new synonym of Trypogeus javanicus Aurivillius, 1925. A neotype for Trypogeus sericeus (Gressitt, 1951) and lectotypes for Toxotus fuscus Nonfried, 1894 and Trypogeus javanicus are designated. Trypogeus fuscus auct. nec Nonfried is a misidentification of Philus ophthalmicus Pascoe. All the species are described and keys are given for distinguishing the species. Photographs of the types of all the Trypogeus species are published for the first time. PMID:26019663

  2. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cynthia Layse F.; Falcão, Heloina de S.; Lima, Gedson R. de M.; Montenegro, Camila de A.; Lira, Narlize S.; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Rodrigues, Luis C.; de Souza, Maria de Fátima V.; Barbosa-Filho, José M.; Batista, Leônia M.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted. PMID:21845096

  3. The Genus Phyllanthus: An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological Review

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xin; Wu, Ling-Fang; Guo, Hong-Ling; Chen, Wen-Jing; Cui, Ya-Ping; Qi, Qi; Li, Shi; Liang, Wen-Yi; Yang, Guang-Hui; Shao, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Dan; She, Gai-Mei; You, Yun; Zhang, Lan-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The plants of the genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) have been used as traditional medicinal materials for a long time in China, India, Brazil, and the Southeast Asian countries. They can be used for the treatment of digestive disease, jaundice, and renal calculus. This review discusses the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of Phyllanthus over the past few decades. More than 510 compounds have been isolated, the majority of which are lignins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, and tannins. The researches of their remarkable antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities have become hot topics. More pharmacological screenings and phytochemical investigations are required to support the traditional uses and develop leading compounds. PMID:27200104

  4. Characteristic gamma-lactone odor production of the genus Pityrosporum.

    PubMed Central

    Labows, J N; McGinley, K J; Leyden, J J; Webster, G F

    1979-01-01

    Mass spectrometric-gas chromatographic analysis of culture headspaces revealed that members of the genous Pityrosporum produce volatile gamma-lactones during growth on lipid-containing media. Representative members of other yeast genera found on humans failed to produce these compounds. Addition of lecithin, oleic acids, triolein, or human sebum to the culture media stimulated gamma-lactone production by Pityrosporum species. All yeasts tested produced isopentanol and phenylethanol. Production of gamma-lactones may serve as a valuable characteristic in the identification of organisms of the genus Pityrosporum. PMID:533274

  5. Two new species of Acervus (Pezizales) with a key to species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wen-Ying; Luo, Jing; Zhao, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the genus Acervus from China are reviewed briefly. Six of the seven known species of the genus are currently recorded in this country. Acervus beijingense and A. changchunense are described as new based on morphological features and molecular data, and A. flavidus with minor emendation is added to the Chinese fungus flora. Phylogenetic relationships among four of the seven species of the genus are investigated based on the 28S rDNA sequence analysis. Species of the genus formed a single clade with high bootstrap support. The sequences of A. epispartius forma epispartius and that of A. flavidus obtained from materials in different geographical regions together formed a group with 100% bootstrap support. Ascospore size and shape are important criteria in the taxonomy of the genus and are phylogenetically informative. A dichotomous key to all described species of the genus is provided.

  6. Systematics of the seed beetle genus Decellebruchus Borowiec, 1987 (Coleoptera, Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Nápoles, Jesús Romero

    2016-01-01

    Keys to species, descriptions, synonymy, host plants, and geographical distributions are presented for the three species in the genus Decellebruchus (Borowiec 1987); of those, Decellebruchus walker (Pic 1912) was the only species included at the time of the genus denomination, Decellebruchus atrolineatus (Pic 1921) is transferred to this genus, and Decellebruchus lunae is described as a new species. The shortest and most parsimonious phylogenetic tree for genera with pectinate antennae had a length of 33, consistency index 87, and retention index 81.

  7. Terpenes from the soft corals of the genus Sarcophyton: chemistry and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lin-Fu; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2013-12-01

    This review covers structural diversity and biological activities of terpenes from soft corals of the genus of Sarcophyton, reported from 1995 to July, 2011. During this period, besides undefined species, 16 species of the genus Sarcophyton, from different geographical areas, had been chemically examined. Two hundred and five terpenes had been isolated from this genus, including eleven sesquiterpenes, 165 diterpenes, 29 biscembranoids, some of which had novel skeletons. They exhibited various biological features, such as antifeedant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antifouling activities.

  8. A new genus and species of freshwater crab from Madagascar (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamoidea, Potamonautidae).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Kirstin S; Cumberlidge, Neil; Koppin, Jennifer C

    2014-11-12

    A new genus and species of freshwater crab is described from Madagascar. The new species is morphologically closest to the three species of the genus Foza Reed & Cumberlidge, 2006, but can easily be distinguished by having a completely smooth carapace with an unarmed anterolateral margin and a mandible with a distinctly shortened anterior lobe. This unusual suite of characters is sufficient to warrant the recognition of a new monotypic genus to accommodate this species.

  9. A new genus and new species of family Antedonidae (Echinodermata: Crinoidea) from southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Obuchi, Masami; Omori, Akihito

    2015-06-12

    A new genus and new species of antedonid comatulid is described from southern Japan. Belonometra n. gen. has a unique appearance with ten long arms, numerous cirri, and remarkably long and crowded pinnules. The new genus shares some characters with subfamily Heliometrinae. However, the comparative length of pinnules, which is a diagnostic character to determine subfamily Antedonidae, is different. The subfamily into which the new genus should be placed is unclear.

  10. Synopsis of the Argentinian scarab genus Pseudogeniates Ohaus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Mary Liz; Ocampo, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The scarab beetle genus Pseudogeniates Ohaus (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Rutelini) is endemic to Argentina. The genus includes three species: Pseudogeniates cordobaensis Soula, Pseudogeniates intermedius Ohaus, and Pseudogeniates richterianus Ohaus. We characterize the genus, provide a key to species, redescribe and diagnose each species, provide spatial and temporal distributions, and discuss distributions of the species in relation to eco-regions and areas of endemism in Argentina. PMID:23372412

  11. Synopsis of the Argentinian scarab genus Pseudogeniates Ohaus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae).

    PubMed

    Jameson, Mary Liz; Ocampo, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The scarab beetle genus Pseudogeniates Ohaus (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Rutelini) is endemic to Argentina. The genus includes three species: Pseudogeniates cordobaensis Soula, Pseudogeniates intermedius Ohaus, and Pseudogeniates richterianus Ohaus. We characterize the genus, provide a key to species, redescribe and diagnose each species, provide spatial and temporal distributions, and discuss distributions of the species in relation to eco-regions and areas of endemism in Argentina.

  12. Re-establishment of the genus Ania Lindl. (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Yan, Hai-Fei; Niu, Miao; Tu, Tie-Yao; Li, Shi-Jin; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Ania Lindl. is a small genus of the tribe Collabieae subtribe Collabiinae (Orchidaceae). For the last 150 years, it has generally been treated as a synonym of Tainia Blume. In this study, we critically re-examined morphological characters that have been used to distinguish Ania from Tainia, and assessed the phylogeny of Tainia using morphological and palynological characters. Sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS, chloroplast trnL intron and combined DNA data sets were analysed to clarify the delimitation and the phylogeny of these groups. The morphological and palynological survey revealed a number of useful diagnostic characters which permit a clear definition of Ania, after the exclusion of a single taxonomically questionable species. Results confirmed that Ania is distinct from Tainia. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on molecular data provided the greatest resolution and produced a morphologically well differentiated clade of Ania. In addition to morphological and suggested palynological characters, the phylogenies were also supported by karyological evidence. Our results support the independent generic status of Ania. The genus name Ania is revived and re-established.

  13. Re-Establishment of the Genus Ania Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Yan, Hai-Fei; Niu, Miao; Tu, Tie-Yao; Li, Shi-Jin; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Ania Lindl. is a small genus of the tribe Collabieae subtribe Collabiinae (Orchidaceae). For the last 150 years, it has generally been treated as a synonym of Tainia Blume. In this study, we critically re-examined morphological characters that have been used to distinguish Ania from Tainia, and assessed the phylogeny of Tainia using morphological and palynological characters. Sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS, chloroplast trnL intron and combined DNA data sets were analysed to clarify the delimitation and the phylogeny of these groups. The morphological and palynological survey revealed a number of useful diagnostic characters which permit a clear definition of Ania, after the exclusion of a single taxonomically questionable species. Results confirmed that Ania is distinct from Tainia. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on molecular data provided the greatest resolution and produced a morphologically well differentiated clade of Ania. In addition to morphological and suggested palynological characters, the phylogenies were also supported by karyological evidence. Our results support the independent generic status of Ania. The genus name Ania is revived and re-established. PMID:25047255

  14. Molecular species delimitation in the genus Eumerus (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Chroni, A; Djan, M; Vidaković, D Obreht; Petanidou, T; Vujić, A

    2017-02-01

    Eumerus is one of the most diverse genera of hoverfly worldwide. Species delimitation within genus is considered to be difficult due to: (a) lack of an efficient key; (b) non-defined taxonomical status of a large number of species; and (c) blurred nomenclature. Here, we present the first molecular study to delimit species of the genus by using a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) gene. We assessed 75 specimens assigned to 28 taxa originating from two biogeographic zones: 22 from the western Palaearctic and six from the Afrotropical region. Two datasets were generated based on different sequence lengths to explore the significance of availability of more polymorphic sites for species delimitation; dataset A with a total length of 647 bp and dataset B with 746 bp. Various tree inference approaches and Poisson tree processes models were applied to evaluate the putative 'taxonomical' vs. 'molecular' taxa clusters. All analyses resulted in high taxonomic resolution and clear species delimitation for both the dataset lengths. Furthermore, we revealed a high number of mitochondrial haplotypes and high intraspecific variability. We report two major monophyletic clades, and seven 'molecular' groups of taxa formed, which are congruent with morphology-based taxonomy. Our results support the use of the mitochondrial COI gene in species diagnosis of Eumerus.

  15. A Revision of the Neotropical Caddisfly Genus Rhyacopsyche (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasmund, A. M.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    The Neotropical genus Rhyacopsyche, Müller 1879, was last reviewed in 1971 when 5 species were known. Since that time, the genus has gradually grown to 13 species. Recent material collected throughout South America has uncovered at least 22 new species. Taxonomic knowledge of the caddisflies of this region is not only useful for understanding local aquatic ecosystems, but essential in establishing biomonitoring programs. Hydroptilids, or microcaddisflies, are among the smallest Trichoptera and are therefore often unintentionally ignored in collection surveys. Relatively little is known of Rhyacopsyche. Larvae construct silken cases, sometimes using sand particles, and attach themselves to the side of rocks by silken threads which are at least as long as the case, and sometimes twice as long. The attached final-instar larvae float freely, either singly or in clusters, in fast flowing water. Identification is dependent on male genitalia and is facilitated by standard genitalic preparations for Trichoptera. Detailed illustrations have been produced for all species as well as diagnoses, descriptions and a taxonomic key. A preliminary assignment of newly described species to three currently recognized groups is proposed.

  16. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  17. Diversification and reticulation in the circumboreal fern genus Cryptogramma.

    PubMed

    Metzgar, Jordan S; Alverson, Edward R; Chen, Sinian; Vaganov, Alexey V; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the evolutionary complexity that resulted from cryptic diversification and polyploidy in parsley ferns (Cryptogramma). A total of 14 species were included in our data set, with six outgroup species and eight Cryptogramma species. DNA sequence data from six plastid loci (rbcL, rbcL-accD, rbcL-atpB, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR and trnP-petG) were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to provide the first rigorous assessment of diversification in the genus, including testing the monophyly of the genus and sections. Cryptogramma and Coniogramme are recovered as reciprocally monophyletic sister genera. We established the monophyly of both sections within Cryptogramma. Furthermore, our sequence data reveal that described species reflect mostly allopatric reciprocally monophyletic lineages that are independent evolutionary trajectories. Using sequence data from the nuclear locus (gapCp) we find that the European C. crispa is an autotetraploid with a partially diploidized genome, while the North American tetraploid Cryptogramma sitchensis is an allopolyploid derived from C. acrostichoides and C. raddeana. Subsequent backcrossing between C. sitchensis and C. acrostichoides has allowed the introgression of C. raddeana alleles into northern populations of C. acrostichoides.

  18. Swedish Plectida (Nematoda). Part 9. The genus Leptolaimoides Vitiello, 1971.

    PubMed

    Holovachov, Oleksandr

    2015-05-01

    Three known and two new species of Leptolaimoides are described from bottom sediments collected in Skagerrak off the west coast of Sweden. The following known species are redescribed: Leptolaimoides haploopis Jensen, 1978, L. tubulosus Vitiello, 1971 and L. hexatubulosus Hoang Lai-Phu et al., 2009. Leptolaimoides filicaudatus sp. n. is characterised by the 431-543 µm long body; cephalic sensilla papilliform; amphid 23-26 µm long, located 9-10 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 35-37 µm from anterior end; lateral field simple along most of body, areolated on tail, arising 36-40 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male without tubular and without alveolar supplements; spicules arcuate and 16 µm long. Leptolaimoides leptomicron sp. n. is characterised by the 776-847 µm long body; cephalic sensilla papilliform; amphid 15-17 µm long, located 9-13 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 40-46 µm from anterior end; lateral field areolated, arising 26-28 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with three tubular and without alveolar supplements, spicules arcuate and 28-29 µm long. The diagnosis of the genus Leptolaimoides is emended and a tabular compendium and dichotomous identification key to species of the genus Leptolaimoides are provided.

  19. Evolution of alkaloid biosynthesis in the genus Narcissus.

    PubMed

    Berkov, Strahil; Martínez-Francés, Vanessa; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles; Ríos, Segundo

    2014-03-01

    In an attempt to reveal the relationships between alkaloid biosynthesis and phylogeny, we investigated by GC-MS the alkaloid patterns of 22 species and 3 hybrids (from 45 locations) from seven main sections of the genus Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae). The results indicate that the first alkaloids to evolve in the genus Narcissus were of the lycorine- and homolycorine-type. The alkaloid pattern of the Nevadensis section supports its recent separation from the Pseudonarcissus section. The plants of Narcissus pallidulus (Ganymedes section) show a predominance of Sceletium-type compounds, which are quite rare in the Amaryllidaceae family. Two successful evolutionary strategies involving alkaloid biosynthesis and leading to an expansion in taxa and occupied area were determined. Firstly, a diversification of alkaloid patterns and a high alkaloid concentration in the organs of the large Narcissus species (in the Pseudonarcissus section) resulted in an improved chemical defence in diverse habitats. Secondly, both plant size and alkaloid biosynthesis were reduced (in the Bulbocodium and Apodanthi sections) relegated to dry pastures and rocky places.

  20. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE GENUS SPONGITES (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA) FROM CHILE(1).

    PubMed

    Vidal, Rodrigo; Meneses, Isabel; Smith, Macarena

    2008-02-01

    Both the records and the descriptions of the crustose species of coralline algae on the southeastern coast of South America are from the early 1900s. Unlike other algae species on the coast of Chile, the biogeography and distribution of crustose corallines have not been studied despite their abundance. Through recent studies, it has been determined that the genus Spongites is the most conspicuous genus along the rocky intertidal of the Chilean coasts. It is also common to the entire coast of the Southern Hemisphere; however, the relationship between species and the possible reasons for their distribution is unknown. We used nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers and SEM observations of morphological characters to examine Spongites samples from the Southern Hemisphere and to establish the phylogeographic relationships of Chilean Spongites with specimens from other southern coasts. The combination of these analyses revealed the following: (i) a monophyletic clade that represents the Chilean Spongites and (ii) a paraphyletic clade for South African, New Zealand, and Argentine samples. Consequently, we postulate two nonexclusive hypotheses regarding the relationship of Spongites species in the Southern Hemisphere: (i) a complex history of extinction, speciation, and recolonization that might have erased original Gondwanan split patterns, and (ii) an Antarctic Peninsula origin for the Chilean Spongites species.

  1. Timely approaches to identify probiotic species of the genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer’s interest in placing “healthy” food on the market based on the consumer’s ambitions to live healthy. Due to this trend, health benefits of products containing probiotic strains such as lactobacilli are promoted and probiotic strains have been established in many different products with their numbers increasing steadily. Probiotics are used as starter cultures in dairy products such as cheese or yoghurts and in addition they are also utilized in non-dairy products such as fermented vegetables, fermented meat and pharmaceuticals, thereby, covering a large variety of products. To assure quality management, several pheno-, physico- and genotyping methods have been established to unambiguously identify probiotic lactobacilli. These methods are often specific enough to identify the probiotic strains at genus and species levels. However, the probiotic ability is often strain dependent and it is impossible to distinguish strains by basic microbiological methods. Therefore, this review aims to critically summarize and evaluate conventional identification methods for the genus Lactobacillus, complemented by techniques that are currently being developed. PMID:24063519

  2. Species limits in the Andean toad genus Osornophryne (Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Páez-Moscoso, Diego J; Guayasamin, Juan M

    2012-12-01

    As Darwin observed, the differentiation among varieties, subspecies, and species seems, often times, arbitrary. Nowadays, however, novel tools provide the possibility of testing hypotheses of species. Using the Andean toad genus Osornophryne, we address the following questions: (1) How many species are within the genus? (2) Are morphological and molecular traits congruent when delimiting species? (3) Which morphological traits are the most divergent among species? We use recently developed methods for testing species boundaries and relationships using a multilocus data set consisting of two mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S; 1647bp aligned matrix), one exon (RAG-1; 923 aligned matrix), and one intron (RPL3Int5; 1410bp aligned matrix). As another line of evidence for species delimitation, we integrated analyses of 12 morphometric variables and 10 discrete traits commonly used in amphibian systematics. The molecular and morphological approaches support the validity of most of the described species in Osornophryne. We find, however, contradictory lines of evidence regarding the status of O. angel. Within O. guacamayo, we found a genetically divergent population that, we argue, represents a new species. We consider that O. bufoniformis represents a species complex that deserves further study. We highlight the importance of incorporating morphological data when delimiting species, especially for lineages that have a recent origin and have not achieved reciprocal monophyly in molecular phylogenies. Finally, the most divergent morphological traits among Osornophryne species are associated with locomotion (finger, toes and limbs) and feeding (head), suggesting an association between morphology and the ecological habits of the species.

  3. [Surface proteins of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium].

    PubMed

    Dylus, Ewa; Buda, Barbara; Górska-Frączek, Sabina; Brzozowska, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej

    2013-05-13

    Beneficial effects due to the presence of probiotic bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium in the human intestinal tract are still an interesting object of study. So far activities have been confirmed of bifidobacteria in stimulation of the host immune system, stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis, improvement of bowel motility, alleviation of symptoms of lactose intolerance, cholesterol lowering capacity, prevention and treatment of diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome, alleviation of allergy or atopic dermatitis, maintenance of homeostasis of the intestine, and stimulation of the development of normal intestinal microflora in infants. A multitude of therapeutic properties encourages researchers to investigate the possibility of using the potential of Bifidobacterium in the prevention and treatment of other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and depression. Although it is known that the beneficial effects are due to intestinal mucosal colonization by these bacteria, the cell components responsible for the colonization are still not determined. In addition to the beneficial effects of probiotic administration, there were also negative effects including sepsis. Therefore research has been directed to identify specific components of Bifidobacterium responsible for probiotic effects. Currently researchers are focused on identifying, isolating and evaluating the properties of surface proteins that are probably involved in the adhesion of bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium, improving colonization. This paper is an overview of current knowledge on Bifidobacterium surface proteins. The ways of transport and anchoring proteins in Gram-positive bacterial cells, the assembly of cell wall, and a description of the genus Bifidobacterium are presented.

  4. Diversity and Karyotypic Evolution in the Genus Neacomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Willam O; Pieczarka, Julio C; Rossi, Rogério V; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda; Miranda, Cleuton L; da Silva, Cláudia R; Cardoso, Elizandra M; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y

    2015-01-01

    Neacomys (Sigmodontinae) comprises 8 species mainly found in the Amazonian region. We describe 5 new karyotypes from Brazilian Amazonia: 2 cytotypes for N. paracou (2n = 56/FNa = 62-66), 1 for N. dubosti (2n = 64/FNa = 68), and 2 for Neacomys sp. (2n = 58/FNa = 64-70), with differences in the 18S rDNA. Telomeric probes did not show ITS. We provide a phylogeny using Cytb, and the analysis suggests that 2n = 56 with a high FNa is ancestral for the genus, as found in N. paracou, being retained by the ancestral forms of the other species, with an increase in 2n occurring independently in N. spinosus and N. dubosti. Alternatively, an increase in 2n may have occurred in the ancestral taxon of the other species, followed by independent 2n-reduction events in Neacomys sp. and in the ancestral species of N. tenuipes, N. guianae, N. musseri, and N. minutus. Finally, a drastic reduction event in the diploid number occurred in the ancestral species of N. musseri and N. minutus which exhibit the lowest 2n of the genus. The karyotypic variations found in both intra- and interspecific samples, associated with the molecular phylogeny, suggest a chromosomal evolution with amplification/deletion of constitutive heterochromatin and rearrangements including fusions, fissions, and pericentric inversions.

  5. New karyotypes of Atlantic tree rats, genus Phyllomys (Rodentia: Echimyidae).

    PubMed

    Araújo, Naiara Pereira; Loss, Ana Carolina; Cordeiro-Junior, Dirceu A; da Silva, Kátia Regina; Leite, Yuri L R; Svartman, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Phyllomys (Echimyidae, Rodentia) is a genus of Neotropical rodents with available cytogenetic data restricted to six out of 13 species, mainly based on simple staining methods, without detailed analyses. In this work, we present new karyotypes for Phyllomys lamarum (diploid number 2n = 56, fundamental number or number of autosomal arms FN = 102) and Phyllomys sp. (2n = 74, FN = 140) from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. We provide the first GTG- and CBG-banding patterns, silver-staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric and 45S rDNA probes of Phyllomys. In addition to examining their chromosomes and phenotypic characters, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from the specimens analyzed to confirm their taxonomic identification. The comparison of the distinctive chromosome complements of our specimens with those of other species of Phyllomys already published allowed us to conclude that chromosome data may be very useful for the taxonomy of the genus, as no two species analyzed presented the same diploid and fundamental numbers (2n and FN).

  6. Evolution and dispersal of the genus Homo: A landscape approach.

    PubMed

    Winder, Isabelle C; Devès, Maud H; King, Geoffrey C P; Bailey, Geoffrey N; Inglis, Robyn H; Meredith-Williams, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    The notion of the physical landscape as an arena of ecological interaction and human evolution is a powerful one, but its implementation at larger geographical and temporal scales is hampered by the challenges of reconstructing physical landscape settings in the geologically active regions where the earliest evidence is concentrated. We argue that the inherently dynamic nature of these unstable landscapes has made them important agents of biological change, creating complex topographies capable of selecting for, stimulating, obstructing or accelerating the latent and emerging properties of the human evolutionary trajectory. We use this approach, drawing on the concepts and methods of active tectonics, to develop a new perspective on the origins and dispersal of the Homo genus. We show how complex topography provides an easy evolutionary pathway to full terrestrialisation in the African context, and would have further equipped members of the genus Homo with a suite of adaptive characteristics that facilitated wide-ranging dispersal across ecological and climatic boundaries into Europe and Asia by following pathways of complex topography. We compare this hypothesis with alternative explanations for hominin dispersal, and evaluate it by mapping the distribution of topographic features at varying scales, and comparing the distribution of early Homo sites with the resulting maps and with other environmental variables.

  7. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    PubMed

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  8. Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of genus Tripterygium (Celastraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Brinker, Anita M.; Ma, Jun; Lipsky, Peter E.; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Plants in the genus Tripterygium, such as Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the use of Tripterygium extracts and of the main bioactive constituent, the diterpene triepoxide triptolide (1), to treat a variety of autoimmune and inflammation-related conditions. The main mode of action of the Tripterygium extracts and triptolide (1) is the inhibition of expression of proinflammatory genes such as those for interleukin-2 (IL-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). The efficacy and safety of certain types of Tripterygium extracts were confirmed in human clinical trials in the US and abroad. Over 300 compounds have been identified in the genus Tripterygium, and many of these have been evaluated for biological activity. The overall activity of the extract is based on the interaction between its components. Therefore, the safety and efficacy of the extract cannot be fully mimicked by any individual constituent. This review discusses the biochemical composition and biological and pharmacological activities of Tripterygium extracts, and their main bioactive components. PMID:17250858

  9. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  10. A new genus and species of Placusini from a high mountain in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Jiménez, Quiyari J.; Santiago-Navarro, Rosny

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species are described from the Cofre de Perote volcano, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Although the new genus is very similar to Placusa, it presents tergite VIII completely modified to form a horn, in both females and males, in addition to other differences in mouthparts. A map and illustrations are provided, as well as an identification key to the genera of Placusini. No morphological characters are apparent to separate Kirtusa Pace from Euvira Sharp in our genus key. The specimens of the new genus were collected using Lindgren and cross traps baited with a mix of semiochemicals: ipsenol, ipsdienol and lanierone. PMID:28138285

  11. A new species of the genus Microgecko Nikolsky, 1907 (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Gholamifard, Ali; Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrullah; Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar; Khosravani, Azar; Yousefkhani, Seyyed Saeed Hosseinian; Oraei, Hamzeh

    2016-03-20

    The dwarf geckos of the recently revived genus Microgecko Nikolsky, 1907 comprise four species, ranging from western Iran to northwestern India. Iran hosts three species of the four recognized species of the genus Microgecko. Here, we describe a new species of this genus based on two and single specimens from southeastern and southern Iran, respectively. Combinations of scalation characters and distinct morphology, coloration and habitat peculiarities in calcareous mountains distinguish Microgecko chabaharensis sp. nov. from its congeners. Detailed information and an updated identification key for the genus Microgecko are also presented.

  12. A new genus of moss inhabiting flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Nicaragua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nicaltica new genus and new species (N. selvanegra), from Nicaragua are described and illustrated. Nicaltica is compared to Kiskeya Konstantinov and Chamorro, Monotalla Bechyne, and Normaltica Konstantinov....

  13. First record of the genus Kuwaita (Annelida: Lumbrineridae) in Europe with the description of a new species and new ultramorphological data for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias, Andrés; Carrera-Parra, Luis F

    2014-11-21

    A new species of the genus Kuwaita Mohammad, 1973, collected intertidally from a northern Spain estuary (Bay of Biscay), is described. Kuwaita hanneloreae sp. nov. constitutes the first evidence of this genus in European waters and is characterised by: prostomium with three small antennae protruding from nuchal fold, lack of eyes; simple multidentate hooded hooks with long hood in anterior chaetigers, and short hood in posterior ones with well defined proximal and distal teeth with several teeth between them; posterior chaetigers with very small nephridial papillae; branchiae reduced to little knobs in posterior parapodia; maxillary apparatus with five pairs of maxillae, MIII bidentate with distal tooth bigger than proximal one. We present brief notes on its ecology and remarks on the presence and ultrastructure of a notopodial sense organ newly recorded for the genus. Furthermore, an updated key of the genus Kuwaita is included.

  14. Descriptions of four kleptoparasitic spiders of the genus Mysmenopsis (Araneae, Mysmenidae) and their potential host spider species in the genus Linothele (Araneae, Dipluridae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Dupérré, Nadine; Tapia, Elicio

    2015-06-12

    Four new species of the genus Mysmenopsis are described: M. onorei n. sp., M. otonga n. sp., M. fernandoi n. sp. and M. chiquita n. sp. All species were collected in diplurid webs and are therefore assumed to be kleptoparasitic. Five potential host species of the genus Linothele (Dipluridae) that were collected with the symbionts are also described: Linothele yanachanka n. sp., L. pukachumpi n. sp., L. zaia n. sp., L. tsachilas n. sp. and L. quori n. sp.

  15. Carajathemis simone, new genus and species from Brazil (Odonata: Libellulidae).

    PubMed

    Machado, Angelo B M

    2012-12-01

    Carajathemis simone n. gen., n.sp. from the state of Pará, Brazil, is described and illustrated based on 22 specimens collected in a "canga" (laterite) lake within the forest at the Flona de Carajás, Parauapebas Municipality. The new libellulid genus fits in the subfamily Sympetrinae and the male keys out to Erythemis in Garrison et al. (2006). The new taxon has a combination of characters that makes it different from all genera of Sympetrinae including Erythemis. The species is remarkable by its large size, pleural striping and especially by the complex and strongly dimorphic leg armature. It seems to be restricted to shallow, rainfall-dependent, iron-rich lakes.

  16. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    PubMed

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts.

  17. The genus Paracholula (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Rhyparochromidae: Rhyparochrominae: Myodochini).

    PubMed

    Peredo, Luis Cervantes; Santacruz, Jezabel Baez

    2014-01-07

    The genus Paracholula Harrington has been represented by two species, P. picta (Fab) and P. thoracica (Distant), both recorded from Mexico. Individuals of one population from Guerrero were studied and compared with individuals of both species from different collections, including the types. Using scanning electron micrographs of different structures, and observation of the male genitalia of some individuals, together with a close examination of all the individuals from the population from Guerrero, we discovered, that there is great variation in all the structures and that some characters that were used to separate the two species are present within the population from Guerrero. Therefore we synonymize both species, stating that the valid name for this species is Paracholula picta (Fab). Descriptions and illustrations of all the immature stages from the Guerrero population are included. Notes about host plants, biology and distributional records are also included.

  18. THE GENUS VEILLONELLA. 3. HYDROGEN SULFIDE PRODUCTION BY GROWING CULTURES.

    PubMed

    ROGOSA, M; BISHOP, F S

    1964-07-01

    Rogosa, Morrison (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and Ferial S. Bishop. The genus Veillonella. III. Hydrogen sulfide production by growing cultures. J. Bacteriol. 88:37-41. 1964.-The conditions necessary for H(2)S production by 105 strains of Veillonella, from a variety of sources and comprising seven anti-genic groups, are presented and discussed. All strains, during 1 to 2 days of growth, produced H(2)S in a defined medium supplemented with proper amounts of l-cysteine, l-cystine, reduced glutathione, thiosulfate, thiocyanate, or thioglycolate. Erratic or negative results were obtained with some commonly used media containing yeast extract and casein digest, but which were not supplemented with appropriate substrates for H(2)S production. Previous literature descriptions of V. alcalescens as not producing H(2)S are incorrect; H(2)S production, or the previously presumed lack of it, cannot be used as a criterion differentiating V. alcalescens from V. parvula.

  19. Members of the methanotrophic genus Methylomarinum inhabit inland mud pots

    PubMed Central

    Fradet, Danielle T.; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Proteobacteria capable of converting the greenhouse gas methane to biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide represent a small but important sink in global methane inventories. Currently, 23 genera of methane oxidizing (methanotrophic) proteobacteria have been described, although many are represented by only a single validly described species. Here we describe a new methanotrophic isolate that shares phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic relatedness with the marine methanotroph Methylomarinum vadi. However, the new isolate derives from a terrestrial saline mud pot at the northern terminus of the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR). This new cultivar expands our knowledge of the ecology of Methylomarinum, ultimately towards a fuller understanding of the role of this genus in global methane cycling. PMID:27478692

  20. Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in South Carolina Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Nelder, Mark P.; Swanson, Dustin A.; Adler, Peter H.; Grogan, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals. PMID:20569132

  1. Revision of the Genus Hemicriconemoides Chitwood &Birchfield, 1957 (Nematoda: Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, D. R.; Raski, D. J.; Van Gundy, S. D.

    1969-01-01

    In the present study, evaluations of the nominal species and descriptions (H. parvus, H. intermedius, H. insignis, H. microdoratus and H. brevicaudatus) are made of five new species. H. squamosus is proposed as a species inquirenda; H. mangiferae is judged a valid species. H. litchi and H. birchfieldi are synonymized with H. mangiferae and H. ureshinoensis with H. kanayaensis. H. strictathecatus is considered a valid species. A key to the species of the genus is given. The limitation of use of male diagnostic characters in a mixture of populations of Hemicriconemoides with some other criconematids is discussed. The life cycle of H. chitwoodi has four complete molts; one in the egg, three in soil, two of which have spines. The adult female has a sheath cuticle from an incomplete fifth molt. PMID:19325667

  2. Molecular systematics and global phylogeography of angel sharks (genus Squatina).

    PubMed

    Stelbrink, Björn; von Rintelen, Thomas; Cliff, Geremy; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    Angel sharks of the genus Squatina represent a group comprising 22 extant benthic species inhabiting continental shelves and upper slopes. In the present study, a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of 17 Squatina species based on two mitochondrial markers (COI and 16S rRNA) is provided. The phylogenetic reconstructions are used to test biogeographic patterns. In addition, a molecular clock analysis is conducted to estimate divergence times of the emerged clades. All analyses show Squatina to be monophyletic. Four geographic clades are recognized, of which the Europe-North Africa-Asia clade is probably a result of the Tethys Sea closure. A second sister group relationship emerged in the analyses, including S. californica (eastern North Pacific) and S. dumeril (western North Atlantic), probably related to the rise of the Panamanian isthmus. The molecular clock analysis show that both lineage divergences coincide with the estimated time of these two geological events.

  3. Evolutionary patterns of diversification in the Andean hummingbird genus Adelomyia.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Jaime A; Smith, Thomas B

    2011-08-01

    The patterns of genetic diversity and morphological variation are of central importance in understanding the evolutionary process that drive diversification. We use molecular, morphological, and ecological data to explore the influence of geography and ecology in promoting speciation in the widespread Andean hummingbird genus Adelomyia. Six monophyletic clades were recovered which show distributional limits at well-defined geographic barriers. Percentage sequence divergence ranged between 5.8% and 8.2% between phylogroups separated by large (>4000 km) and small (<50 km) distances respectively, suggesting that geographic isolation may be influential at very different scales. We show that morphological traits in independent phylogroups are more related to environmental heterogeneity than to geographic barriers. We provide a molecular reconstruction of relationships within Adelomyia and recommend its use in future comparative studies of historical biogeography and diversification in the Andes.

  4. Baudoinia, a new genus to accommodate Torula compniacensis.

    PubMed

    Scott, James A; Untereiner, Wendy A; Ewaze, Juliet O; Wong, Bess; Doyle, David

    2007-01-01

    Baudoinia gen. nov. is described to accommodate Torula compniacensis. Reported originally from the walls of buildings near brandy maturation warehouses in Cognac, France, species of Baudoinia are cosmopolitan colonists of exposed surfaces subjected to large diurnal temperature shifts, episodic high relative humidity and wetting, and ambient airborne ethanol. Morphologically B. compniacensis resembles some anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae in possessing dark brown, nonseptate or uniseptate conidia with coarsely roughened walls that are borne acropetally in unbranched chains and released by schizolytic dehiscence. Analysis of partial nuclear rDNA SSU sequences positions B. compniacensis in the order Capnodiales and reveals that it is most closely related to the microcolonial genus Friedmanniomyces. Heat resistance is induced by brief sublethal temperature exposure.

  5. A new genus of Boletaceae from eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Halling, Roy E; Baroni, Timothy J; Binder, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Bothia is described as a new genus in the Boletaceae based on Boletinus castanellus described by C.H. Peck from eastern North America. A widespread, occasionally encountered taxon, Bothia castanella possesses a combination of macro- and microscopic features that has prompted past placement in seven different genera. Yet, as a species it is readily recognizable with its chestnut brown, dry pileus, decurrent, pale brown hymenophore with radially elongated tubes, a short, sometimes eccentric, exannulate stipe, yellow brown spore deposit and constant association with Quercus. Phylogenetic analyses of large subunit rDNA and BLAST searches using the ITS region confirm the placement of B. castanella as a unique generic lineage in the Boletaceae.

  6. Phylogeny and biogeography of the remarkable genus Bondarzewia (Basidiomycota, Russulales)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie; Chen, Jia-Jia; Wang, Min; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Cui, Bao-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Bondarzewia is a conspicuous and widely distributed mushroom genus, but little is known about its origin and biogeography. Here, we investigated the systematics and biogeography of Bondarzewia species using multi-locus phylogenetic analysis. Four genetic markers, including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large nuclear ribosomal RNA subunit (nLSU), elongation factor 1-α (tef1) and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of Bondarzewia. We performed Bayesian evolutionary analysis on the gene datasets of the largest and second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2). From the results, we inferred that the maximum crown age of Bondarzewia is approximately 25.5 million-years-ago (Mya) and that tropical East Asia is likely to be its ancestral area, with three possible expansions leading to its distribution in North America, Europe and Oceania. PMID:27680391

  7. The Genus Carissa: An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review.

    PubMed

    Kaunda, Joseph Sakah; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2017-02-27

    Carissa L. is a genus of the family Apocynaceae, with about 36 species as evergreen shrubs or small trees native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Most of Carissa plants have been employed and utilized in traditional medicine for various ailments, such as headache, chest complains, rheumatism, oedema, gonorrhoea, syphilis, rabies. So far, only nine Carissa species have been phytochemically studied, which led to the identification of 123 compounds including terpenes, flavonoids, lignans, sterols, simple phenolic compounds, fatty acids and esters, and so on. Pharmacological studies on Carissa species have also indicated various bioactive potentials. This review covers the peer-reviewed articles between 1954 and 2016, retrieved from Pubmed, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Wikipedia and Baidu, using "Carissa" as search term ("all fields") and with no specific time frame set for search. Fifteen important medicinal or ornamental Carissa species were selected and summarized on their botanical characteristics, geographical distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities.

  8. Development of SSR markers for the genus Patellifolia (Chenopodiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigall, Marion; Bülow, Lorenz; Schubert, Jörg; Frese, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed to promote studies on the patterns of genetic diversity within Patellifolia patellaris (Chenopodiaceae) and the relationship between the three species of the genus Patellifolia. Methods and Results: The genomic sequence from P. procumbens was screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 3648 SSRs were identified. A subset of 53 SSR markers was validated, of which 25 proved to be polymorphic in the three species except for the P. webbiana–specific marker JKIPat16. The number of alleles ranged from 85 in P. patellaris, 187 in P. procumbens, and 202 in P. webbiana. Conclusions: The set of 25 new markers will facilitate studies of the relationships between the three Patellifolia species and of the spatial and temporal distribution of genetic diversity within the species. PMID:27610279

  9. Revision of the genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae)

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 is revised herein. It now contains seven species; one new combination is proposed: Pachylopus glaucus = Exaesiopus glaucus (Bickhardt, 1914), comb. n., and one species is described as new: Exaesiopus therondi sp. n. from Afghanistan. Subspecies Exaesiopus grossipes berberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 is sunk in synonymy with Exaesiopus grossipes (Marseul, 1855), syn. n. Lectotypes and paralectotypes, respectively, for Saprinus grossipes Marseul, 1855, Exaesiopus grossipes berberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 and a neotype for Pachylopus glaucus Bickhardt, 1914 are designated. Exaesiopus grossipes is re-described; other species are provided with diagnostic descriptions and supplemented by SEM micrographs, colour images, and line drawings of their male genitalia. A key to species is given. Exaesiopus glaucus (Bickhardt, 1914) is newly recorded from the Republic of South Africa; Exaesiopus torvus Reichardt, 1926 is new to Uzbekistan and Russia; Exaesiopus atrovirens Reichardt, 1926 is new to Ukraine and Tajikistan; and Exaesiopus henoni (Schmidt, 1896) is new to Libya and Djibouti. PMID:25685017

  10. New primate genus from the Miocene of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Tauber, Adán A.; Rosenberger, Alfred L.; Swisher, Carl C.; Palacios, María E.

    2006-01-01

    Killikaike blakei is a new genus and species of anthropoid from the late Early Miocene of southeastern Argentina based on the most pristine fossil platyrrhine skull and dentition known so far. It is part of the New World platyrrhine clade (Family Cebidae; Subfamily Cebinae) including modern squirrel (Saimiri) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus) and their fossil relatives known from Early to Middle Miocene and subrecent periods. Living cebines are relatively large-brained, adroit predatory foragers and live within complex social groups, and wild capuchins exhibit a wide range of behaviors associated with enhanced intelligence. We show that K. blakei lacks diagnostic derived characteristics of the lower face and premolar dentition that are shared by modern cebines, but its strongly vaulted frontal bone and capacious anterior cranial fossa indicate the early evolution of an enlarged forebrain. PMID:16567649

  11. Lantibiotics, class I bacteriocins from the genus Bacillus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2011-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides exhibit high levels of antimicrobial activity against a broad range of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Compared with bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria, antimicrobial peptides from the genus Bacillus have been relatively less recognized despite their broad antimicrobial spectra. These peptides can be classified into two different groups based on whether they are ribosomally (bacteriocins) or nonribosomally (polymyxins and iturins) synthesized. Because of their broad spectra and high activity, antimicrobial peptides from Bacillus spp. may have great potential for applications in the food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries to prevent or control spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this review, we introduce ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, the lantibiotic bacteriocins produced by members of Bacillus. In addition, the biosynthesis, genetic organization, mode of action, and regulation of subtilin, a well-investigated lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis, are discussed.

  12. Evolution of a genetic incompatibility in the genus Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Scarpino, Samuel V; Hunt, Patrick J; Garcia-De-Leon, Francisco J; Juenger, Thomas E; Schartl, Manfred; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Genetic incompatibilities are commonly observed between hybridizing species. Although this type of isolating mechanism has received considerable attention, we have few examples describing how genetic incompatibilities evolve. We investigated the evolution of two loci involved in a classic example of a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) incompatibility in Xiphophorus, a genus of freshwater fishes from northern Central America. Hybrids develop a lethal melanoma due to the interaction of two loci, an oncogene and its repressor. We cloned and sequenced the putative repressor locus in 25 Xiphophorus species and an outgroup species, and determined the status of the oncogene in those species from the literature. Using phylogenetic analyses, we find evidence that a repeat region in the proximal promoter of the repressor is coevolving with the oncogene. The data support a hypothesis that departs from the standard BDM model: it appears the alleles that cause the incompatibilities have coevolved simultaneously within lineages, rather than in allopatric or temporal isolation.

  13. Beneficial and harmful roles of bacteria from the Clostridium genus.

    PubMed

    Samul, Dorota; Worsztynowicz, Paulina; Leja, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria of the Clostridium genus are often described only as a biological threat and a foe of mankind. However, many of them have positive properties and thanks to them they may be used in many industry branches (e.g., in solvents and alcohol production, in medicine, and also in esthetic cosmetology). During the last 10 years interest in application of C. botulinum and C. tetani in medicine significantly increased. Currently, the structure and biochemical properties of neurotoxins produced by these bacterial species, as well as possibilities of application of such toxins as botulinum as a therapeutic factor in humans, are being intensely researched. The main aim of this article is to demonstrate that bacteria from Clostridium spp. are not only pathogens and the enemy of humanity but they also have many important beneficial properties which make them usable among many chemical, medical, and cosmetic applications.

  14. Revision of the genus Prionotropis Fieber, 1853 (Orthoptera: Pamphagidae: Thrinchinae).

    PubMed

    Massa, Bruno; Ünal, Mustafa; Lo Verde, Gabriella

    2015-12-23

    The genus Prionotropis Fieber, 1853 is revised. It is distributed in scattered areas of the Mediterranean region from Turkey in the East to Spain in the West. Overall, seven species are listed, namely P. maculinervis (Stål, 1878) (Turkey; P. urfensis Ramme, 1933 is here considered its synonym), P. willemsorum n. sp. (Greece, Epirus; previously considered P. appula), P. appula (O.G. Costa, 1836) (South Italy), P. hystrix (Germar, 1817) (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Croatia, North-East Italy; P. hystrix sontiaca is here synonymized), P. rhodanica Uvarov, 1923 resurrected status (France, Crau, Rhone delta; here considered a valid species), P. azami Uvarov, 1923 n. status (France, Var region; here considered a valid species), and P. flexuosa (Serville, 1838) (Spain; the ssp. pereezi Bolívar, 1921 and sulphurans Bolívar, 1921 are here considered its synonyms). A key to species is presented.

  15. An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of the Genus Meconopsis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Bai, Ruifeng; Zhao, Baosheng; Feng, Xiao; Zhao, Yunfang; Tu, Pengfei; Chai, Xingyun

    2016-01-01

    The Meconopsis plants (Chinese: ), belonging to the family Papaveraceae, have been used as traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) for thousands of years. Meconopsis has the effects of clearing heat, reducing swelling, and easing pain, and is mainly prescribed for heat syndromes, hepatitis, pneumonia, and pain in joints. Phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of major isoquinoline alkaloids and flavonoids. Modern pharmacological research has demonstrated its antitumor, hepatoprotective, analgestic, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, antitussive, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, resource availability, in-depth in vivo pharmacological study and qualitative and quantitative analysis are still insufficient and deserve further efforts. This paper provides a comprehensive advance on the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of the genus, in hopes of promoting a better understanding of their medicinal values.

  16. Conservation Strategies in the Genus Hypericum via Cryogenic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bruňáková, Katarína; Čellárová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the genus Hypericum, cryoconservation offers a strategy for maintenance of remarkable biodiversity, emerging from large inter- and intra-specific variability in morphological and phytochemical characteristics. Long-term cryostorage thus represents a proper tool for preservation of genetic resources of endangered and threatened Hypericum species or new somaclonal variants with unique properties. Many representatives of the genus are known as producers of pharmacologically important polyketides, namely naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinols. As a part of numerous in vitro collections, the nearly cosmopolitan Hypericum perforatum – Saint John’s wort – has become a suitable model system for application of biotechnological approaches providing an attractive alternative to the traditional methods for secondary metabolite production. The necessary requirements for efficient cryopreservation include a high survival rate along with an unchanged biochemical profile of plants regenerated from cryopreserved cells. Understanding of the processes which are critical for recovery of H. perforatum cells after the cryogenic treatment enables establishment of cryopreservation protocols applicable to a broad number of Hypericum species. Among them, several endemic taxa attract a particular attention due to their unique characteristics or yet unrevealed spectrum of bioactive compounds. In this review, recent advances in the conventional two-step and vitrification-based cryopreservation techniques are presented in relation to the recovery rate and biosynthetic capacity of Hypericum spp. The pre-cryogenic treatments which were identified to be crucial for successful post-cryogenic recovery are discussed. Being a part of genetic predisposition, the freezing tolerance as a necessary precondition for successful post-cryogenic recovery is pointed out. Additionally, a beneficial influence of cold stress on modulating naphthodianthrone biosynthesis is outlined. PMID:27200032

  17. Phylogeny and biogeography of the amphi-Pacific genus Aphananthe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei-Qing; Li, De-Zhu; Wen, Jun; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Aphananthe is a small genus of five species showing an intriguing amphi-Pacific distribution in eastern, southern and southeastern Asia, Australia, and Mexico, also with one species in Madagascar. The phylogenetic relationships of Aphananthe were reconstructed with two nuclear (ITS & ETS) and two plastid (psbA-trnH & trnL-trnF) regions. Clade divergence times were estimated with a Bayesian approach, and the ancestral areas were inferred using the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis and Bayesian Binary MCMC analyses. Aphananthe was supported to be monophyletic, with the eastern Asian A. aspera resolved as sister to a clade of the remaining four species. Aphananthe was inferred to have originated in the Late Cretaceous (71.5 mya, with 95% HPD: 66.6-81.3 mya), and the crown age of the genus was dated to be in the early Miocene (19.1 mya, with 95% HPD: 12.4-28.9 mya). The fossil record indicates that Aphananthe was present in the high latitude thermophilic forests in the early Tertiary, and experienced extinctions from the middle Tertiary onwards. Aphananthe originated in Europe based on the inference that included fossil and extant species, but eastern Asia was estimated to be the ancestral area of the clade of the extant species of Aphananthe. Both the West Gondwanan vicariance hypothesis and the boreotropics hypothesis could be excluded as explanation for its amphi-Pacific distribution. Long-distance dispersals out of eastern Asia into North America, southern and southeastern Asia and Australia, and Madagascar during the Miocene account for its wide intercontinental disjunct distribution.

  18. Phylogeny and biogeography of the amphi-Pacific genus Aphananthe

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei-Qing; Li, De-Zhu; Wen, Jun; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Aphananthe is a small genus of five species showing an intriguing amphi-Pacific distribution in eastern, southern and southeastern Asia, Australia, and Mexico, also with one species in Madagascar. The phylogenetic relationships of Aphananthe were reconstructed with two nuclear (ITS & ETS) and two plastid (psbA-trnH & trnL-trnF) regions. Clade divergence times were estimated with a Bayesian approach, and the ancestral areas were inferred using the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis and Bayesian Binary MCMC analyses. Aphananthe was supported to be monophyletic, with the eastern Asian A. aspera resolved as sister to a clade of the remaining four species. Aphananthe was inferred to have originated in the Late Cretaceous (71.5 mya, with 95% HPD: 66.6–81.3 mya), and the crown age of the genus was dated to be in the early Miocene (19.1 mya, with 95% HPD: 12.4–28.9 mya). The fossil record indicates that Aphananthe was present in the high latitude thermophilic forests in the early Tertiary, and experienced extinctions from the middle Tertiary onwards. Aphananthe originated in Europe based on the inference that included fossil and extant species, but eastern Asia was estimated to be the ancestral area of the clade of the extant species of Aphananthe. Both the West Gondwanan vicariance hypothesis and the boreotropics hypothesis could be excluded as explanation for its amphi-Pacific distribution. Long-distance dispersals out of eastern Asia into North America, southern and southeastern Asia and Australia, and Madagascar during the Miocene account for its wide intercontinental disjunct distribution. PMID:28170425

  19. A revision of the genus Atelecrinus PH Carpenter (Echinodermata: Crinoidea).

    PubMed

    Messing, Charles G

    2013-01-01

    The unusual bathyal comatulid crinoid genus Atelecrinus is widespread in the Atlantic and tropical Pacific Oceans and currently includes three recognized species. A re-assessment based on examination of new and existing specimens requires establishment of two new genera and five new species, and returns three junior synonyms to species-level status. Paratelecrinus is erected to accommodate Atelecrinus wyvilli PH Carpenter, A. conifer AH Clark, A. cubensis PH Carpenter, P. orthotriremis, new species, P. amenouzume new species, P. laticonulus new species and P. telo new species. Adelatelecrinus is erected to accommodate Atelecrinus sulcatus AH Clark and Adelatelecrinus vallatus new species. Atelecrinus retains A. balanoides PH Carpenter and A. helgae AH Clark, which restricts the genus to the Atlantic. In both Paratelecrinus and Adelatelecrinus, the basals articulate with the centrodorsal via ligament bundles anchored in deep ringlike interradial pits that project into the centrodorsal cavity, whereas in Atelecrinus the centrodorsal rim has shallow interradial concavities and attaches to the basals via a tight junction with no obvious ligament bundles. The spoon-shaped aboral fossa in the basals of Paratelecrinus appears to be unique among articulate crinoids and differs from the smooth fossa found in both Atelecrinus and Adelatelecrinus. New material extends the range of the family to the Indian Ocean. A few species are now known from enough specimens to identify some ontogenetic and distributional variations. Proximal ray morphology varies substantially with size in P. cubensis and P. orthotriremis. A. balanoides generally occurs in deeper water in the Lesser Antilles than in the Bahamas and Strait of Florida, while P. orthotriremis occurs in shallower water in the Lesser Antilles and deeper in the Bahamas.

  20. Conservation Strategies in the Genus Hypericum via Cryogenic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bruňáková, Katarína; Čellárová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the genus Hypericum, cryoconservation offers a strategy for maintenance of remarkable biodiversity, emerging from large inter- and intra-specific variability in morphological and phytochemical characteristics. Long-term cryostorage thus represents a proper tool for preservation of genetic resources of endangered and threatened Hypericum species or new somaclonal variants with unique properties. Many representatives of the genus are known as producers of pharmacologically important polyketides, namely naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinols. As a part of numerous in vitro collections, the nearly cosmopolitan Hypericum perforatum - Saint John's wort - has become a suitable model system for application of biotechnological approaches providing an attractive alternative to the traditional methods for secondary metabolite production. The necessary requirements for efficient cryopreservation include a high survival rate along with an unchanged biochemical profile of plants regenerated from cryopreserved cells. Understanding of the processes which are critical for recovery of H. perforatum cells after the cryogenic treatment enables establishment of cryopreservation protocols applicable to a broad number of Hypericum species. Among them, several endemic taxa attract a particular attention due to their unique characteristics or yet unrevealed spectrum of bioactive compounds. In this review, recent advances in the conventional two-step and vitrification-based cryopreservation techniques are presented in relation to the recovery rate and biosynthetic capacity of Hypericum spp. The pre-cryogenic treatments which were identified to be crucial for successful post-cryogenic recovery are discussed. Being a part of genetic predisposition, the freezing tolerance as a necessary precondition for successful post-cryogenic recovery is pointed out. Additionally, a beneficial influence of cold stress on modulating naphthodianthrone biosynthesis is outlined.

  1. Oligotyping reveals community level habitat selection within the genus Vibrio.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Victor T; Reveillaud, Julie; Zettler, Erik; Mincer, Tracy J; Murphy, Leslie; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    The genus Vibrio is a metabolically diverse group of facultative anaerobic bacteria, common in aquatic environments and marine hosts. The genus contains several species of importance to human health and aquaculture, including the causative agents of human cholera and fish vibriosis. Vibrios display a wide variety of known life histories, from opportunistic pathogens to long-standing symbionts with individual host species. Studying Vibrio ecology has been challenging as individual species often display a wide range of habitat preferences, and groups of vibrios can act as socially cohesive groups. Although strong associations with salinity, temperature and other environmental variables have been established, the degree of habitat or host specificity at both the individual and community levels is unknown. Here we use oligotyping analyses in combination with a large collection of existing Vibrio 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence data to reveal patterns of Vibrio ecology across a wide range of environmental, host, and abiotic substrate associated habitats. Our data show that individual taxa often display a wide range of habitat preferences yet tend to be highly abundant in either substrate-associated or free-living environments. Our analyses show that Vibrio communities share considerable overlap between two distinct hosts (i.e., sponge and fish), yet are distinct from the abiotic plastic substrates. Lastly, evidence for habitat specificity at the community level exists in some habitats, despite considerable stochasticity in others. In addition to providing insights into Vibrio ecology across a broad range of habitats, our study shows the utility of oligotyping as a facile, high-throughput and unbiased method for large-scale analyses of publically available sequence data repositories and suggests its wide application could greatly extend the range of possibilities to explore microbial ecology.

  2. Revision of the genus Morphosphaera Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Feng; Bezdĕk, Jan

    2016-10-28

    The genus Morphosphaera Baly, 1861 is revised. Eleven species are considered as valid, including, M. takizawai sp. nov. (Mt. Basor, 90 km N of Gua Musang, Malaysia, W. Kelantan), described from Malaysia and Indonesia. Color photos of habitus and drawings of diagnostic characters from eleven species are presented. The following synonymies are proposed: M. sodalis Chen, 1935 and M. brunnea Maulik, 1936 are junior synonyms of M. albipennis Allard, 1889; M. margaritacea Laboissière, 1930, M. viridipennis Laboissière, 1930, and M. prava Maulik, 1936 are junior synonyms of M. coomani Laboissière, 1930; M. gracilicornis Chen, 1963 is a junior synonym of M. maculicollis Baly, 1861; M. cavaleriei Laboissière, 1930, M. cincticollis Laboissière, 1930, M. marginata Laboissière, 1930, M. purpurea Laboissière, 1930, M. gingkoae Gressitt & Kimoto, 1963, and M. metallescens Gressitt & Kimoto, 1963 are junior synonyms of M. sumatrana Jacoby, 1886. The type material of M. impunctata Allard, 1890 from the Philippines was not found and its taxonomic status remains uncertain. Morphosphaera peregrina Weise, 1913 is transferred to the genus Borneola Mohamedsaid, 1998 nov. comb. A neotype is designated for Chrysomela japonica Hornstedt, 1788. Lectotypes are designated for the following species: Adorium chrysomeloides Bates, 1866, A. japonicum Baly, 1874, Morphosphaera albipennis Allard, 1889, M. bimaculata Chûjô, 1938, M. caerulea Jacoby, 1896, M. cavaleriei Laboissière, 1930, M. collaris Laboissière, 1930, M. formosa Laboissière, 1930, M. marginata Laboissière, 1930, M. montivaga Maulik, 1936, M. prava Maulik, 1936, M. purpurea Laboissière, 1930, M. sumatrana Jacoby, 1886, M. viridipennis Laboissière, 1930, and Galerucida simplex Weise, 1922.

  3. Conservation of Meningococcal Antigens in the Genus Neisseria

    PubMed Central

    Muzzi, Alessandro; Mora, Marirosa; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Donati, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neisseria meningitidis, one of the major causes of bacterial meningitis and sepsis, is a member of the genus Neisseria, which includes species that colonize the mucosae of many animals. Three meningococcal proteins, factor H-binding protein (fHbp), neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA), and N. meningitidis adhesin A (NadA), have been described as antigens protective against N. meningitidis of serogroup B, and they have been employed as vaccine components in preclinical and clinical studies. In the vaccine formulation, fHbp and NHBA were fused to the GNA2091 and GNA1030 proteins, respectively, to enhance protein stability and immunogenicity. To determine the possible impact of vaccination on commensal neisseriae, we determined the presence, distribution, and conservation of these antigens in the available genome sequences of the genus Neisseria, finding that fHbp, NHBA, and NadA were conserved only in species colonizing humans, while GNA1030 and GNA2091 were conserved in many human and nonhuman neisseriae. Sequence analysis showed that homologous recombination contributed to shape the evolution and distribution of both NHBA and fHbp, three major variants of which have been defined. fHbp variant 3 was probably the ancestral form of meningococcal fHbp, while fHbp variant 1 from N. cinerea was introduced into N. meningitidis by a recombination event. fHbp variant 2 was the result of a recombination event inserting a stretch of 483 bp from variant 1 into the variant 3 background. These data indicate that a high rate of exchange of genetic material between neisseriae that colonize the human upper respiratory tract exists. PMID:23760461

  4. Review of the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu lato in China, with the description of a new genus and four new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Chen, Xue-xin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new genus is split off the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae): Maculibracon gen. n. with type species Maculibracon abruptus sp. n. The genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu stricto is redefined, a key to both genera and to their species in China, Thailand and Vietnam is included. Craspedolcus obscuriventris Enderlein, 1920, (syn. n.) is a new synonym of Craspedolcus vagatus (Smith, 1858), as Ipobracon maculicosta Enderlein, 1920 and Iphiaulax bhotanensis Cameron, 1907 of Maculibracon simlaensis (Cameron, 1899), comb. n. The genus Craspedolcus is recorded from China for the first time with two species: Craspedolcus fraternus Enderlein, 1920, and Craspedolcus politus sp. n. The genus Maculibracon is represented by three species in China: Maculibracon simlaensis (Cameron, 1899), comb. n. (also present in Vietnam), Maculibracon hei sp. n. and Maculibracon luteonervis sp. n. and a fourth species is described from Thailand: Maculibracon abruptus sp. n. Hybogaster zebripterae Wang & Chen, 2008, from China (Fujian) is transferred to Iphiaulax Foerster, 1863, (comb. n.) and the following names are new combinations in Maculibracon gen. n.: Bracon lepcha Cameron, 1899; Bracon phaedo Cameron, 1899; Bracon simlaensis Cameron, 1899; Iphiaulax bhotanensis Cameron, 1907; Iphiaulax laertius Cameron, 1903; Iphiaulax leptopterus Cameron, 1903; Iphiaulax lineaticarinatus Cameron, 1907; Ipobracon lissotomus Roman, 1914; Ipobracon maculicosta Enderlein, 1920 and Iphiaulax pallidicornis Roman, 1914. Craspedolcus montezuma (Cameron, 1887) is provisionally transferred to the genus Digonogastra Viereck, 1912. PMID:28325963

  5. Phylogenetic investigation of the genus Raoiella (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae): Diversity, distribution, and world invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Raoiella is most well known because of the red palm mite, R. indica, a major pest of palms spreading aggressively throughout the Americas. Not much was known about the biology, geographic origins, or evolutionary history of the genus when R. indica emerged as a major invasive pest. This pa...

  6. A new click beetle genus from the Chilean Central Andes: Bohartina (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Elaterinae)

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Elizabeth T.

    2006-01-01

    Bohartina Arias, a new genus of Elateridae from forests in the Andean Cordillera of Central Chile, is here described and illustrated with 2 species: B. vilchesensis sp. nov. and B. palmae sp. nov. The genus Bohartina belongs to the subfamily Elaterinae and to the tribe Agriotini. PMID:19537982

  7. The South American Dung Beetle Genus Ennearabdus Lansberge (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Eucraniini)

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Federico C.

    2010-01-01

    The South American endemic dung beetle genus Ennearabdus Lansberge is revised. Description, diagnosis and illustrations are presented for the only known species of the genus, E. lobocephalus (Harold). A lectotype is designated for Onthophagus lobocephalus Harold, the type species of Ennearabdus. The biology, biogeography, conservation status, and distribution based on the predictive distribution model of E. lobocephalus are also discussed. PMID:20673117

  8. A New Click Beetle Genus from Southern Chile: Llanquihue (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Elaterinae, Pomachiliini)

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Elizabeth T.

    2008-01-01

    Llanquihue, a new genus of Elateridae from Southern Chile, is here described and illustrated with 2 species: Llanquihue vittipennis (Candèze) new comb., and L. carlota sp. nov. The genus Llanquihue belongs to the subfamily Elaterinae and to the tribe Pomachiliini. PMID:20233094

  9. Uncovering the diversity of the neotropical genus Elaphopsocus ('Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae): from one to ten species.

    PubMed

    Román-Palacios, Cristian; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2016-09-09

    For 75 years, the genus Elaphopsocus was considered a monotypic lineage of neotropical psocids. As a result of recent work in South America, this genus presently includes seven species from Brazil and Colombia. We here describe three new species from the East Colombian high Andes.

  10. Haruchlora maesi, a new emerald moth genus and species from Mesoamerica (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Viidalepp, Jaan; Lindt, Aare

    2014-09-30

    A new genus and species of Neotropical emerald geometrid moths, Haruchlora Viidalepp & Lindt, gen. nov., and Haruchlora maesi Viidalepp & Lindt, sp. nov. are described. The new genus differs from all other New World Geometrinae genera in having a bifid uncus, in characters of the pregenital segments of the male abdomen, and in the male genitalia. 

  11. A new species of the rare African wool carder bee genus Anthidioma (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of the genus Anthidioma Pasteels (Megachilidae: Anthidiini) is described and figured from a female collected in the Obib Dunes in Namibia. Anthidioma obibense, new species, is differentieated from the only other species of the genus, A. chalicodomoides, on the basis of its integumenta...

  12. A new species of Golinca Thomson (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae): first record of the genus for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valois, M; Silva, F

    2015-02-16

    Golinca trevisani Valois & Silva, new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Trichiini: Incina) from Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, and Amazonas, Brazil is described, representing the first record of the genus Golinca for Brazil. Diagnosis, illustrations of key morphological characters, the first male genitalia description in the genus, and a key for identification of four species of Golinca are provided.

  13. A new genus of the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from Hainan Island.

    PubMed

    Meng, Rui; Qin, Daozheng; Wang, Yinglun

    2015-05-12

    A new issid genus in the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) is erected for Fortunia jianfenglingensis Chen, Zhang et Chang, 2014 (China: Hainan). Male of the species is described and illustrated for the first time. A key for the 15 genera of Parahiraciini is provided. Morphological peculiarity and phylogenetic position of the new genus and the distribution of the tribe Parahiraciini are briefly discussed.

  14. A new genus of mimetic longhorned beetle from St. Lucia, Lesser Antilles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Rhinotragini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A species originally described as Fortuneleptura romei Touroult 2011 (Lepturinae) is placed in a new genus, Iyanola Lingafelter & Ivie (Cerambycinae: Rhinotragini). Along with the new genus description, the species is redescribed and additional collection data is recorded. A key to the genera and ...

  15. A new genus of predatory katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Listroscelidinae) from the Amazonian Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Diego Matheus De Mello; Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-09-12

    Most of the predatory katydids Listroscelidini species known were described from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Here a new genus and species from the Amazonian Rainforest is described. Based on its morphological characteristics, this new genus represents an intermediate form between two closely related genera, Listroscelis Serville and Monocerophora Walker.

  16. Revision of the southeast Asian soldier-fly genus Parastratiosphecomyia Brunetti, 1923 (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Parastratiosphecomyia Brunetti is revised with the description of two new species: P. freidbergi Woodley, sp. n. from India and P. rozkosnyi Woodley, sp. n. from Laos and Thailand. All four species in the genus are illustrated and a key to species is provided. Type localities of previous...

  17. The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Neorthopleurinae), with description of a new species from Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-23

    The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

  18. Two new species of the genus Sporobolomyces and a new Rhodotorula species from leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shivas, R G; Rodrigues de Miranda, L

    1983-06-01

    Two new species of the genus Sporobolomyces and one of the genus Rhodotorula are described. Sporobolomyces elongatus and Rhodotorula armeniaca spp. nov. were isolated from the surfaces of leaves of Callistemon viminalis (Soland ex Gaertn.) G. Don ex Loud. and Sporobolomyces foliicola from the leaves of Banksia collina R. Br. growing at Armidale.

  19. Genus IX. Kutzneria Stackebrandt, Kroppenstedt, Jahnke, Kemmerling and Gurtler 1994, 267vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Kutzneria is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the suborder Pseudonocardineae is discussed. Methods for isolation, preser...

  20. A new species of Andean semiaquatic lizard of the genus Potamites (Sauria, Gymnophtalmidae) from southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Germán; Vásquez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new lizard species of the genus Potamites from the montane forests of the Cordillera de Vilcabamba (Cusco region) and Apurimac River valley (Ayacucho region), between 1500 and 2000 meters of elevation, in southern Peru. The new species is distinguishable from all other species of the genus mainly by having highly keeled scattered scales on dorsum and females lacking femoral pores.

  1. Review of the genus Chrysoscota in Cambodia (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaikhan, Ulziijargal; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2016-08-23

    The genus Chrysoscota Hampson, 1900 in Cambodia is reviewed, with description of a new species, Chrysoscota kimsuni Bayarsaikhan & Bae, sp. n. is described as new to sciences, and C. cotriangulata Holloway, 2001 is reported as new for the country. Illustrations of adults and male and female genitalia are provided for both species, with a checklist of the genus Chrysoscota.

  2. Revision of the Genus Corallomycetella with Corallonectria gen. nov. for C. jatrophae (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Corallomycetella (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) has been defined to include red nectrioid fungi associated with rhizomorphs in nature and culture. With the recent collection of an unusual specimen having striated ascospores, the genus was re-examined using this and...

  3. Description of Four New Species of Genus Acanthaegilips Ashmead, 1897 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Anacharitinae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mata-Casanova, N; Selfa, J; Pujade-Villar, J

    2017-03-27

    There are four new species of the Neotropical Anacharitinae genus Acanthaegilips Ashmead, 1897: A. boyacensis sp. n., A. curvis sp. n., A. timidus sp. n., and A. truncatus sp. n. The diagnostic characters of this new species and data about their morphological variability and similarities with other Acantahegilips species are discussed. An updated key of genus Acanthaegilips is included.

  4. Brianmyia stuckenbergi, a new genus and species of Prosopochrysini from South Africa (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species of Stratiomyidae, Brianmyia stuckenbergi, gen. n., sp. n. is described from the Drakensberg Range, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The new genus is placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae, and is the first member of this tribe known from southern Afri...

  5. A study on the apterous genus Clytomelegena Pic, 1928 (Coleoptera, Disteniidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Meiying; Murzin, Sergey V

    2012-01-01

    The genus Noeconia Murzin, 1988 is synonymized with Clytomelegena Pic, 1928. Clytomelegena kabakovi (Murzin, 1988), comb. n. is newly recorded from China (Guangxi Prov.). And Laos (Attapeu Prov.) is a new locality of this genus. Both sexes are apterous. Photographs and genitalic descriptions of Clytomelegena kabakovi are presented for the first time.

  6. Resurrection of the genus Aphyllon for New World broomrapes (Orobanche s.l., Orobanchaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent phylogenetic studies support a monophyletic clade of New World broomrapes (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis and Nothaphyllon) sister to the Old World genus Phelipanche. I place the New World taxa in the genus Aphyllon, propose 21 new combinations, and provide a list of currently accepted taxa. PMID:28127248

  7. Nuclear DNA content variation within the genus Daucus (Apiaceae) determined by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Daucus (Apiaceae) comprises species from around the world, covering a wide climatic range, and showing great morphological plasticity. Both cultivated and wild forms are described within the genus. The aim of the present study was to estimate the genome size variability in the collection o...

  8. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Leontopodium (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) based on AFLP data

    PubMed Central

    SAFER, STEFAN; TREMETSBERGER, KARIN; GUO, YAN-PING; KOHL, GUDRUN; SAMUEL, MARY R.; STUESSY, TOD F.; STUPPNER, HERMANN

    2012-01-01

    The genus Leontopodium comprises 30–41 species. The centre of diversity is the Sino-Himalayan region in south-western China, where about 15 species occur. The two species native to Europe, L. alpinum (known as the common ‘Edelweiss’) and L. nivale, are part of the cultural heritage of the people living there. Despite its importance, very little is known about the systematics of the genus. Because recent molecular studies have shown that species within this genus are closely related and difficult to distinguish with rDNA and cpDNA data, we used AFLPs to obtain a more detailed understanding of the phylogeny of the genus. Our main aims were as follows: (1) to clarify species relationships within the genus; and (2) to reveal information about the biogeography of the genus. We used AFLPs with six primer combinations to investigate 216 individuals in 38 populations of 16 different species. With AFLPs, we were able to recognize 10 different groups, all of which had strong bootstrap support. These results were also congruent with the morphology-based taxonomy of the genus. Most private and rare fragments were found in the Yunnan region (south-western China) relative to Europe and Mongolia/central China, suggesting a long-lasting in situ history of populations in the centre of diversity of the genus. Our results illustrate the utility of AFLPs to resolve phylogenetic relationships between these closely related species. PMID:23258943

  9. Sources of the anti-implantation alkaloid yuehchukene in the genus Murraya.

    PubMed

    Kong, Y C; Ng, K H; But, P P; Li, Q; Yu, S X; Zhang, H T; Cheng, K F; Soejarto, D D; Kan, W S; Waterman, P G

    1986-02-01

    The genus Murraya has been widely used in traditional medicine in east Asia. In view of the recent isolation of the anti-implantation alkaloid yuehchukene from M. paniculata a search has now been made for other natural sources of this alkaloid within the genus. In this paper we report findings for nine taxa of Murraya.

  10. The description of Garudella Buffington & Forshage, new genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garudella, a remarkable new genus of eucoiline wasp, is described from Thailand and Laos. Three species of Garudella are described as well: G. acothonaspis, G. algor, and G. alicae. Several autapomorphies distinguish this genus from other eucoiline genera: a distinctly protracted and broadened prono...

  11. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  12. A new genus of Grapholitini from Africa related to Thaumatotibia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thaumatovalva, new genus, is described and illustrated from the Afrotropical region. As currently defined the genus includes four species: T. deprinsorum, new species, from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. albolineana, new species (type species), from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. spinai ...

  13. The genus Hypothenemus, with emphasis on H. hampei, the coffee berry borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Hypothenemus consists of approximately 180 species that occur worldwide throughout the tropics and in warm temperate areas. Female Hypothenemus adults burrow into their host plant and deposit eggs within galleries. All species in the genus are quite small (0.6-2.8 mm) and exhibit inbreed...

  14. A New Flea Species of the Genus Cleopsylla (Siphonaptera: Stephanocircidae) from Northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    López Berrizbeitia, M Fernanda; Hastriter, Michael W; Díaz, M Mónica

    2016-10-01

    A new species of flea of the genus Cleopsylla Rothschild, 1914 (Siphonaptera: Stephanocircidae) is described from sigmodontine rodents from northwestern Argentina. In Argentina, the genus was cited for the first time in 2008, but the species was erroneously identified. An identification key to species of Cleopsylla is presented.

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Alkaliphilic Bacteria Belonging to the Anaerobacillus Genus

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The draft genomes of the alkaliphilic, anaerobic bacteria, Anaerobacillus arseniciselenatis, A. alkalidiazotrophicus, and A. alkalilacustris, and a novel closely related isolate of the Anaerobacillus genus are reported here. These assembled genomes will help identify, at the molecular level, the phenotypic differences between the species of this poorly characterized genus. PMID:28104661

  16. A new genus and two new species of Tingidae (Heteroptera) from Central America.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Sara I

    2008-04-01

    A new genus, Ceratotingis, distributed in Central America, is described to accommodate two new species, C. rafaeli from Panama and C. costarriquense from Costa Rica and to include Macrotingis zeteki from Panama. This paper includes descriptions of the new genus and its species, a redescription of C. zeteki, an identification key, and habitus photographs.

  17. Cyanonectria, a new genus for “Nectria” cyanostoma and its Fusarium anamorph

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new genus Cyanonectria is proposed for Nectria cyanostoma (= Cyanonectria cyanostoma comb. nov.). This genus is characterized by Nectria-like, red perithecia that have a bluish-purple papilla and a Fusarium anamorph. DNA sequences (large subunit and internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear rD...

  18. Phylogeny, host-associations, and geographic distribution, of the genus Cryptosporella (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of the genus Cryptosporella (synonyms Ophiovalsa and Winterella) have been reported to occur on branches of trees from the families Betulaceae, Tiliaceae, and Ulmaceae, in Europe and North America. Fungi from this genus are microscopic, and function as dominant endophytes from trees of the f...

  19. The Amazing Ecology of Terrestrial Isopods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Christopher; Postema, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with their environment, and the best place to see these interactions is outside in natural habitats. Pillbugs (roly-polies) provide an excellent opportunity for students to learn ecological concepts through inquiry. Because of their fascinating behaviors, pillbugs are ideal organisms to introduce…

  20. Revisiting species delimitation within the genus Oxystele using DNA barcoding approach

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Bank, Herman; Herbert, Dai; Greenfield, Richard; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Oxystele, a member of the highly diverse marine gastropod superfamily Trochoidea, is endemic to southern Africa. Members of the genus include some of the most abundant molluscs on southern African shores and are important components of littoral biodiversity in rocky intertidal habitats. Species delimitation within the genus is still controversial, especially regarding the complex O. impervia / O. variegata. Here, we assessed species boundaries within the genus using DNA barcoding and phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We analysed 56 specimens using the mitochondrial gene COI. Our analysis delimits five molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), and distinguishes O. impervia from O. variegata. However, we reveal important discrepancies between MOTUs and morphology-based species identification and discuss alternative hypotheses that can account for this. Finally, we indicate the need for future study that includes additional genes, and the combination of both morphology and genetic techniques (e.g. AFLP or microsatellites) to get deeper insight into species delimitation within the genus. PMID:24453566