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Sample records for isopod genus mesamphisopus

  1. Evidence for recombination between feminizing Wolbachia in the isopod genus Armadillidium.

    PubMed

    Verne, Sébastien; Johnson, Monique; Bouchon, Didier; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2007-08-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic alpha-Proteobacteria infecting a wide range of arthropods. Wolbachia induce feminization in many terrestrial isopod species, particularly in the genus Armadillidium (Crustacea, Oniscidea). The diversity of Wolbachia strains infecting Armadillidium species was examined. Results reveal that natural populations of A. vulgare contain three different Wolbachia strains (wVulC, wVulM and wVulP). The wsp gene and its 3'-adjacent region show evidence that two recombination events have occurred between two of these strains. In both cases, multiple statistical analyses suggest that a small gene fragment of a strain closely related to wVulM (minor parent) is inserted into the genome of another strain closely related to wVulC (major parent). Although multiple infections in a single individual have never been demonstrated in natural population, the existence of recombination between feminizing strains suggests that bi-infections are possible, or at least that bi-infections can be maintained sufficiently long enough to allow recombination. Recombination events increase genetic diversity of Wolbachia found in Armadillidium species and may play a role in the ability of Wolbachia strains to invade new hosts. PMID:17537593

  2. Global Diversification at the Harsh Sea-Land Interface: Mitochondrial Phylogeny of the Supralittoral Isopod Genus Tylos (Tylidae, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Lee, Eun J.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The supralittoral environment, at the transition between sea and land, is characterized by harsh conditions for life. Nonetheless, evolution of terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea), the only group of Crustacea fully adapted to live on land, appears to have involved a transitional step within the supralittoral. The two most basal oniscidean lineages (Ligiidae and Tylidae) have representatives that successfully colonized the supralittoral. One of them is the genus Tylos, which is found exclusively in supralittoral sandy beaches from tropical and subtropical coasts around the world. Comprehensive phylogenetic hypotheses for this genus are lacking, which are necessary for understanding the evolution and biogeography of a lineage that successfully diversified in the harsh sea-land interface. Herein, we studied the phylogenetic relationships among 17 of the 21 currently recognized species of the genus Tylos, based on sequences from four mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I, Cytochrome b, 16S rDNA, and 12S rDNA). Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified several lineages with deep divergences and discrete geographic distributions. Phylogenetic and distributional patterns of Tylos provide important clues on the biogeography and evolution of this group. Large divergences among the most basal clades are consistent with ancient splits. Due to the biological characteristics of Tylos, which likely prevent dispersal of these isopods across vast oceanic scales, we argue that tectonic events rather than trans-oceanic dispersal explain the distribution of Tylos in different continents. Overwater dispersal, however, likely enabled range expansions within some basins, and explains the colonization of volcanic oceanic islands. Present-day distributions were also likely influenced by sea level and climate changes. High levels of allopatric cryptic genetic differentiation are observed in different regions of the world, implying that the dispersal abilities of

  3. Isopods of the genus Ligia as potential biomonitors of trace metals from the gulf of California and pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Hurtado, Luis A; Leyva-García, Germán; Güido-Moreno, Adrián; Aguilera-Márquez, Daniela; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-02-01

    Supralittoral and high intertidal coastal zones are exposed to pollution from both marine and terrestrial sources and undergo higher deposition rates than the subtidal zone. It is therefore important to identify organisms for this section of the coastal area that can be tolerant to contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine if supralittoral isopods of the genus Ligia can be used as biomonitors, since they are abundant and widely distributed. For this purpose, concentrations of trace elements were determined in Ligia isopods in toto from 26 locations across the Gulf of California and Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula, which were collected during the summers of 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of trace elements followed the order of; Zn≥Cu>As>Cd>Pb>Hg. Elevated concentrations of copper (up to 1010 μg/g) were detected in Ligia from Santa Rosalía (SRo), a locality where industrial mining of copper has historically occurred. Industrial and municipal sewage discharges appear to have contributed to the high concentrations of zinc (326 μg/g) and lead (144 μg/g) found in organisms from Guaymas location. The high mercury concentration in organisms from Mazatlán (M) (2.01 μg/g) was associated with a thermoelectric plant. Natural sources of metals were also detected; coastal upwelling appears to be associated with high cadmium concentrations in Ligia from Punta Baja (PB) (256 μg/g) in the Pacific coast, whereas hydrothermal vents may have contributed to high concentrations of arsenic at Ensenada (E) (61 μg/g). Our results suggest that Ligia isopods reflect the natural and anthropogenic inputs of trace metals in the environment and could potentially be used as biomonitor organisms of the intertidal rocky shores of the Gulf of California and Pacific coast. PMID:25463869

  4. Isopods of the genus Ligia as potential biomonitors of trace metals from the gulf of California and pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Hurtado, Luis A; Leyva-García, Germán; Güido-Moreno, Adrián; Aguilera-Márquez, Daniela; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-02-01

    Supralittoral and high intertidal coastal zones are exposed to pollution from both marine and terrestrial sources and undergo higher deposition rates than the subtidal zone. It is therefore important to identify organisms for this section of the coastal area that can be tolerant to contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine if supralittoral isopods of the genus Ligia can be used as biomonitors, since they are abundant and widely distributed. For this purpose, concentrations of trace elements were determined in Ligia isopods in toto from 26 locations across the Gulf of California and Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula, which were collected during the summers of 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of trace elements followed the order of; Zn≥Cu>As>Cd>Pb>Hg. Elevated concentrations of copper (up to 1010 μg/g) were detected in Ligia from Santa Rosalía (SRo), a locality where industrial mining of copper has historically occurred. Industrial and municipal sewage discharges appear to have contributed to the high concentrations of zinc (326 μg/g) and lead (144 μg/g) found in organisms from Guaymas location. The high mercury concentration in organisms from Mazatlán (M) (2.01 μg/g) was associated with a thermoelectric plant. Natural sources of metals were also detected; coastal upwelling appears to be associated with high cadmium concentrations in Ligia from Punta Baja (PB) (256 μg/g) in the Pacific coast, whereas hydrothermal vents may have contributed to high concentrations of arsenic at Ensenada (E) (61 μg/g). Our results suggest that Ligia isopods reflect the natural and anthropogenic inputs of trace metals in the environment and could potentially be used as biomonitor organisms of the intertidal rocky shores of the Gulf of California and Pacific coast.

  5. Revision of the cirolanid isopod genus Odysseylana Malyutina, 1995 (Crustacea) with description of two new species from Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sidabalok, Conni M; Bruce, Niel L

    2015-09-25

    The genus Odysseylana Malyutina, 1995 is revised and a new diagnosis presented; two new species from Singapore are described: Odysseylana sakijang sp. nov. and Odysseylana temasek sp. nov. The monotypic genus Parilcirolana Yu & Li, 2001, is placed in synonymy, bringing total number of species in Odysseylana to four including the type species Odysseylana sirenkoi Malyutina, 1995 and Odysseylana setosa (Yu & Li, 2001) comb. nov. The genus is known only from coastal waters from Singapore to off Macau, western Pacific. The principal distinguishing character of Odysseylana are an elongate body shape (2.9-3.5 long as greatest width), head without a rostral point, pentagonal and flat frontal lamina; antenna peduncle articles 1-3 short, 4 and 5 subequal in length and longest; and pleopod 1 peduncle quadrate, and a slender pleopod 1 endopod.

  6. Patterns of taxonomic diversity among terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Sfenthourakis, Spyros; Taiti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the world catalog of terrestrial isopods some ten years ago by Schmalfuss has facilitated research on isopod diversity patterns at a global scale. Furthermore, even though we still lack a comprehensive and robust phylogeny of Oniscidea, we do have some useful approaches to phylogenetic relationships among major clades which can offer additional insights into isopod evolutionary dynamics. Taxonomic diversity is one of many approaches to biodiversity and, despite its sensitiveness to biases in taxonomic practice, has proved useful in exploring diversification dynamics of various taxa. In the present work, we attempt an analysis of taxonomic diversity patterns among Oniscidea based on an updated world list of species containing 3,710 species belonging to 527 genera and 37 families (data till April 2014). The analysis explores species diversity at the genus and family level, as well as the relationships between species per genera, species per families, and genera per families. In addition, we consider the structure of isopod taxonomic system under the fractal perspective that has been proposed as a measure of a taxon's diversification. Finally, we check whether there is any phylogenetic signal behind taxonomic diversity patterns. The results can be useful in a more detailed elaboration of Oniscidea systematics.

  7. Wolbachia in Neotropical terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Bianca L; Bouchon, Didier; Almerão, Maurício P; Araujo, Paula B

    2015-04-01

    Despite Wolbachia being widespread among terrestrial isopods, studies on this symbiotic relationship are still incipient in the Neotropical region. The aims of the present study were to investigate the presence and prevalence of Wolbachia in natural populations of terrestrial isopod species in South America, and to analyze the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia strains. A total of 1172 individuals representing 11 families and 35 species were analyzed. We observed distinct evolutionary scenarios according to the geographical origins of the species: strains harbored by most of the introduced species belong to the Oniclade in supergroup B and are identical to those found in their original ecozone (i.e. Palearctic). On the other hand, the strains found in native Neotropical terrestrial isopods showed low prevalence, high diversity and none of them belonged to the Oniclade, although most belonged to supergroup B. The dynamics of infection in Neotropical species seems to be the result of several events of loss and acquisition of the bacteria, which refutes the hypothesis of an ancestral acquisition of Wolbachia in Oniscidea. The presence of strains from supergroups A and F was also detected for the first time in terrestrial isopods, revealing a Wolbachia diversity previously unknown for this group of host.

  8. Active and passive migration in boring isopods Limnoria spp. (Crustacea, Peracarida) from kelp holdfasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Leonardo; Thiel, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Many boring isopods inhabit positively buoyant substrata (wood and algae), which float after detachment, permitting passive migration of inhabitants. Based on observations from previous studies, it was hypothesized that juvenile, subadult and male isopods migrate actively, and will rapidly abandon substrata after detachment. In contrast, reproductive females and small offspring were predicted to remain in floating substrata and thus have a high probability to disperse passively via rafting. In order to test this hypothesis, a colonization and an emigration experiment were conducted with giant kelp ( Macrocystis integrifolia), the holdfasts of which are inhabited by boring isopods from the genus Limnoria. A survey of benthic substrata in the kelp forest confirmed that limnoriids inhabited the holdfasts and did not occur in holdfast-free samples. Results of the colonization experiment showed that all life history stages of the boring isopods immigrated into young, largely uncolonized holdfasts, and after 16 weeks all holdfasts were densely colonized. In the emigration experiment, all life history stages of the isopods rapidly abandoned the detached holdfasts — already 5 min after detachment only few individuals remained in the floating holdfasts. After this initial rapid emigration of isopods, little changes in isopod abundance occurred during the following 24 h, and at the end of the experiment some individuals of all life history stages still remained in the holdfasts. These results indicate that all life history stages of Limnoria participate in both active migration and passive dispersal. It is discussed that storm-related dynamics within kelp forests may contribute to intense mixing of local populations of these burrow-dwelling isopods, and that most immigrants to young holdfasts probably are individuals emigrating from old holdfasts detached during storm events. The fact that some individuals of all life history stages and both sexes remain in floating

  9. First recorded cave-dwelling terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in Iran with a description of a new species .

    PubMed

    Kashani, Ghasem M; Malekhosseini, Mohammad-Javad; Sadeghi, Saber

    2013-11-08

    Cave-dwelling terrestrial isopods from the province of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad, southwestern Iran, are reported here. These include three accidental and one troglobitic species namely Protracheoniscus gakalicus n. sp., which is also the first recorded troglobitic species from the genus Protracheoniscus. The new species is readily distinguished by the lack of eyes and pigmentation.

  10. Description of two new species and redescription of one species of agnarid terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea, Agnaridae) from western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Ghasem M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study reports on three species of terrestrial isopods from western Iran. The genus Mongoloniscus Verhoeff, 1930 is recorded for the first time from Iran, with description of a new species: M. persicus sp. n. Protracheoniscus ehsani sp. n. is described and P. darevskii Borutzky, 1975 is redescribed based on Iranian specimens. The diagnostic characters of these species are figured and their geographical distribution is presented on a map. PMID:25317061

  11. Description of two new species and redescription of one species of agnarid terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea, Agnaridae) from western Iran.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Ghasem M

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports on three species of terrestrial isopods from western Iran. The genus Mongoloniscus Verhoeff, 1930 is recorded for the first time from Iran, with description of a new species: M. persicus sp. n. Protracheoniscus ehsani sp. n. is described and P. darevskii Borutzky, 1975 is redescribed based on Iranian specimens. The diagnostic characters of these species are figured and their geographical distribution is presented on a map.

  12. Bacteriophage WO in Wolbachia infecting terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Grève, Pierre; Félix, Christine; Martin, Gilbert

    2005-11-18

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular alpha-proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They are associated with a number of different reproductive phenotypes in arthropods and nematodes. In isopod crustacean, Wolbachia are responsible for feminization of genetic males in many species, and for cytoplasmic incompatibility in two species. In this paper, we report the first detection of phage WO from Wolbachia infecting terrestrial isopods. All Wolbachia strains tested in this study were infected with phage WO. Based on the orf7 phage sequence, we identified three different phage sequences in four Wolbachia strains. The phage of Wolbachia infecting Armadillidium vulgare seems to be not active, unlike other phages WO previously described in arthropods. PMID:16198306

  13. Bacteriophage WO in Wolbachia infecting terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Grève, Pierre; Félix, Christine; Martin, Gilbert

    2005-11-18

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular alpha-proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They are associated with a number of different reproductive phenotypes in arthropods and nematodes. In isopod crustacean, Wolbachia are responsible for feminization of genetic males in many species, and for cytoplasmic incompatibility in two species. In this paper, we report the first detection of phage WO from Wolbachia infecting terrestrial isopods. All Wolbachia strains tested in this study were infected with phage WO. Based on the orf7 phage sequence, we identified three different phage sequences in four Wolbachia strains. The phage of Wolbachia infecting Armadillidium vulgare seems to be not active, unlike other phages WO previously described in arthropods.

  14. Pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complexes on terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Raimond, Maryline; Prats, Olivier; Lafitte, Alexandra; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus, on the survival of eight terrestrial isopod species. The EPN species S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora reduced the survival of six isopod species while S. feltiae reduced survival for two species. Two terrestrial isopod species tested (Armadillidium vulgare and Armadillo officinalis) were found not to be affected by treatment with EPNs while the six other isopod species showed survival reduction with at least one EPN species. By using aposymbiotic S. carpocapsae (i.e. without Xenorhabdus symbionts), we showed that nematodes can be isopod pathogens on their own. Nevertheless, symbiotic nematodes were more pathogenic for isopods than aposymbiotic ones showing that bacteria acted synergistically with their nematodes to kill isopods. By direct injection of entomopathogenic bacteria into isopod hemolymph, we showed that bacteria had a pathogenic effect on terrestrial isopods even if they appeared unable to multiply within isopod hemolymphs. A developmental study of EPNs in isopods showed that two of them (S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora) were able to develop while S. feltiae could not. No EPN species were able to produce offspring emerging from isopods. We conclude that EPN and their bacteria can be pathogens for terrestrial isopods but that such hosts represent a reproductive dead-end for them. Thus, terrestrial isopods appear not to be alternative hosts for EPN populations maintained in the absence of insects. PMID:18346756

  15. Pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complexes on terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Raimond, Maryline; Prats, Olivier; Lafitte, Alexandra; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus, on the survival of eight terrestrial isopod species. The EPN species S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora reduced the survival of six isopod species while S. feltiae reduced survival for two species. Two terrestrial isopod species tested (Armadillidium vulgare and Armadillo officinalis) were found not to be affected by treatment with EPNs while the six other isopod species showed survival reduction with at least one EPN species. By using aposymbiotic S. carpocapsae (i.e. without Xenorhabdus symbionts), we showed that nematodes can be isopod pathogens on their own. Nevertheless, symbiotic nematodes were more pathogenic for isopods than aposymbiotic ones showing that bacteria acted synergistically with their nematodes to kill isopods. By direct injection of entomopathogenic bacteria into isopod hemolymph, we showed that bacteria had a pathogenic effect on terrestrial isopods even if they appeared unable to multiply within isopod hemolymphs. A developmental study of EPNs in isopods showed that two of them (S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora) were able to develop while S. feltiae could not. No EPN species were able to produce offspring emerging from isopods. We conclude that EPN and their bacteria can be pathogens for terrestrial isopods but that such hosts represent a reproductive dead-end for them. Thus, terrestrial isopods appear not to be alternative hosts for EPN populations maintained in the absence of insects.

  16. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellioscaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellioscaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellioscaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment.

  17. Morphological description of bacterial infection of digestive glands in the terrestrial isopod porcellio scaber (Isopoda, crustacea)

    PubMed

    Drobne; Strus; Znidarsic; Zidar

    1999-01-01

    Morphological studies of the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber revealed bacterial infection. The percentage of infected animals collected from the same site varied from 0 to 10% during the 4 years of study. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and light microscopy revealed that infected glands differed from those in healthy isopods. The most prominent sign was white spots between 100 and 200 &mgr;m in diameter along the entire gland. These spots were aggregations of vacuoles in the cells that were densely filled with bacteria in different phases of the developmental cycle that included the formation of small, dense, rod-shaped infective bacteria and much larger spherical multiplying cells filled with aggregates of polysomes and a chromatin network. Occasionally, large sphericles were filled with homogeneous electron-dense material. Bacteria were not observed in the cell nucleus. Small vacuoles of less than 5 &mgr;m were filled predominately with spherical bacteria but rod-shaped forms were also present in large numbers. Larger vacuoles of 10 to 20 &mgr;m in the main were densely filled with rod-shaped bacteria. According to the literature on the morphological characteristics of bacteria infecting invertebrates, those described in our study would be classified in the genus Rickettsiella. However, most recent investigations show that besides morphological investigations, genetic ones are also needed to define the taxonomic position of bacteria that infect invertebrates. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Cordaux, Richard; Pichon, Samuel; Hatira, Houda Ben Afia; Doublet, Vincent; Grève, Pierre; Marcadé, Isabelle; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, Faouzia; Bouchon, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca). We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod). Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca) establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors.

  19. Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Cordaux, Richard; Pichon, Samuel; Hatira, Houda Ben Afia; Doublet, Vincent; Grève, Pierre; Marcadé, Isabelle; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, Faouzia; Bouchon, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca). We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod). Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca) establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors. PMID:22536103

  20. Isopod and insect root borers may benefit Florida mangroves.

    PubMed

    Simberloff, D; Brown, B J; Lowrie, S

    1978-08-18

    Far from threatening the persistence and geographic extent of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) in Florida, wood-boring marine isopods may aid the plant to survive wave action by initiating branching of aerial prop roots. Evidence for a recent, sudden increase in density or range of one such isopod, Sphaeroma terebrans, is anecdotal and weak. Insect damage to mangrove aerial roots even before they descend to the water is at least as great as that wrought by isopods and also causes root branching. Aerial and submarine damage combine to stimulate root initiation so that, for every root produced aerially by the tree, at least 1.4 roots reach the substrate. Similar responses to herbivory, which have been reported for other plants, suggest that herbivores may both benefit and harm plants, and that their impact may be more difficult to assess in specific instances than has been realized.

  1. Iridovirus infection in terrestrial isopods from Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Lupetti, Pietro; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Ciolfi, Silvia; Marri, Laura; Gentile, Mariangela; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2013-10-01

    During our researches on systematics and ecology of terrestrial isopods, carried out in western Sicily, some specimens showing a blue-purple coloration were collected; they belonged to four species: Armadillidium decorum Brandt, 1833, Trichoniscus panormidensis Montesanto et al., 2011, Philoscia affinis Verhoeff, 1908, Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi et al., 1992. We hypothesized that such coloration could be due, as reported in literature, to characteristic paracrystalline arrays of virions inside the tissues of blue colored specimens. Ultrastructural observations by transmission electron microscopy, on tissues of A. decorum, showed the presence of electron-dense viral particles, with a diameter of nearly 0.12μm. Dual-axis tomography, performed on specimens of A. decorum, evidenced an icosahedral structure of viral particles matching with that of Isopod Iridescent Virus (IIV). Molecular analysis, on 254bp portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene, allowed to place the virus into IIV-31 group, already known for other oniscidean species. The symptoms of infected individuals and the course of the disease were followed in laboratory, indicating similarities with other studies on Isopod Iridoviruses. Moreover, some notes on reproduction of infected ovigerous females are reported. Our data support unequivocal and direct evidences for the first case of IIV infection in terrestrial isopods reported in Italy.

  2. Is size-assortative mating important for rapid pigment differentiation in a freshwater isopod?

    PubMed

    Hargeby, A; Erlandsson, J

    2006-11-01

    Identifying mechanisms behind assortative mating is central to the understanding of ecological divergence and speciation. Recent studies show that populations of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus can rapidly become locally differentiated when submerged Chara vegetation expands in lakes. In the novel Chara habitat, isopods have become lighter pigmented and smaller than in ancestral reed stands. In this study, we used a laboratory multiple-choice experiment to investigate assortative mating as a possible prezygotic reproductive barrier between Chara and reed isopods. Mating was assortative when Chara isopods were experimentally mixed with isopods from an adjacent reed site with large-size individuals, suggesting a partial prezygotic reproductive barrier. No deviation from random mating could, however, be detected when Chara isopods were mixed with smaller sized isopods from another reed site. In both experiments, assortative mating was apparently based on size, as Chara isopods were larger and reed isopods smaller in mixed pairs than in assortative pairs. Pigmentation did not have any clear influence on mating. We suggest that divergence in pigmentation evolved through natural selection in conjunction with size-assortative mating indirectly causing assortative mating between Chara and reed isopods. Size-assortative mating is likely a by-product of natural selection, but its importance may hypothetically be transient, if selection erodes the correlation between pigmentation and size over time.

  3. Pyrethroid pesticide effects on behavioral responses of aquatic isopods to danger cues.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Carolyn K; Poquette, Signe R; Whitlow, W Lindsay

    2014-04-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the behavioral responses of non-target organisms in order to determine whether phototactic responses of isopods to danger cues are altered as a function of exposure to the pyrethroid pesticides λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin. Experiments conducted on Gnorimosphaeroma oregonensis identified sublethal behavioral responses to pyrethroids, λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin at concentrations 0.15 ng/mL, 0.025 ng/mL, and 0.005 ng/mL. Experimental setup tested isopod phototactic responses across six treatments: control, pyrethroid, hemolymph, predator, hemolymph + pyrethroid, and predator + pyrethroid. Isopods exhibited no preference for phototactic responses in the control and pyrethroid treatments. When exposed to danger cues (hemolymph or predator), isopods exhibited significant negative phototaxis, as expected. When exposure to danger cues was combined with pyrethroids, isopods again exhibited no preference for phototactic response. Experiments indicate that pyrethroids diminish isopod's negatively phototactic response to danger cues.

  4. Size dependent differences in litter consumption of isopods: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Szekeres, Sándor; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A series of experiments were applied to test how leaf orientation within microcosms affect consumption rates (Experiment 1), and to discover intra-specific differences in leaf litter consumption (Experiment 2) of the common isopod species Porcellio scaber and Porcellionides pruinosus. A standardised microcosm setup was developed for feeding experiments to maintain standard conditions. A constant amount of freshly fallen black poplar litter was provided to three distinct size class (small, medium, large) of woodlice. We measured litter consumption after a fortnight. We maintained appr. constant isopod biomass for all treatments, and equal densities within each size class. We hypothesized that different size classes differ in their litter consumption, therefore such differences should occur even within populations of the species. We also hypothesized a marked difference in consumption rates for different leaf orientation within microcosms. Our results showed size-specific consumption patterns for Porcellio scaber: small adults showed the highest consumption rates (i.e. litter mass loss / isopod biomass) in high density microcosms, while medium-sized adults of lower densities ate the most litter in containers. Leaf orientation posed no significant effect on litter consumption. PMID:22536112

  5. Size dependent differences in litter consumption of isopods: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Szekeres, Sándor; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments were applied to test how leaf orientation within microcosms affect consumption rates (Experiment 1), and to discover intra-specific differences in leaf litter consumption (Experiment 2) of the common isopod species Porcellio scaber and Porcellionides pruinosus. A standardised microcosm setup was developed for feeding experiments to maintain standard conditions. A constant amount of freshly fallen black poplar litter was provided to three distinct size class (small, medium, large) of woodlice. We measured litter consumption after a fortnight. We maintained appr. constant isopod biomass for all treatments, and equal densities within each size class. We hypothesized that different size classes differ in their litter consumption, therefore such differences should occur even within populations of the species. We also hypothesized a marked difference in consumption rates for different leaf orientation within microcosms. Our results showed size-specific consumption patterns for Porcellio scaber: small adults showed the highest consumption rates (i.e. litter mass loss / isopod biomass) in high density microcosms, while medium-sized adults of lower densities ate the most litter in containers. Leaf orientation posed no significant effect on litter consumption.

  6. Transformations of mercury in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Jereb, Vesna; Horvat, Milena; Drobne, Damjana; Pihlar, Boris

    2003-03-20

    The biological cycle of mercury in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber was investigated. Testing the possibility of in vivo Hg(2+) methylation was divided into two methodologically different parts. Firstly, concentrations of total mercury and MeHg in isopods P. scaber and their environment from a Hg-unpolluted area were measured by the use of validated methods (CV AAS, CV AFS). The data obtained show that the percentage of MeHg in leaves, soil and faeces was less than 1%. In contrast, the percentage of MeHg in gut and hepatopancreas was increased to 14 and 77%, respectively, indicating methylation of Hg(2+) in the gut and its further accumulation in glands. To confirm this assumption, the second methodology was applied-a radiotracer technique with 203Hg(2+) of high specific activity. There are few radiotracer techniques for Hg-methylation assays; for our work we chose the method of Czuba et al. which includes alkaline leaching of Hg species, their extraction into dithizone-toluene, followed by specific separation of Hg dithizonates by thin-layer chromatography and gamma counting. All steps of the analytical protocol were checked and optimised by the use of aqueous solutions of 203Hg(2+) and Me(203)Hg(+). The most important finding was that cleaning-up the extract through a florisil column is not appropriate, because the column retains different percentages of Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) and consequently affects the accuracy of the final result. This optimised protocol was then applied to Hg transformation studies in the terrestrial isopod P. scaber. Leaching Hg species from P. scaber fed with 203Hg(2+) or Me(203)Hg(+) dosed food was completely efficient only at elevated temperatures. Preliminary results of methylation/demethlytion studies are rather variable but they show that both processes (Hg(2+)<-->MeHg(+)) take place in the isopod P. scaber. Additionally, an assessment of the mass balance of Hg in isopods P. scaber exposed to 203Hg(2+) indicates that volatile Hg

  7. Detection of Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria: rickettsiales) in three species of terrestrial isopods (crustacea: isopoda: oniscidea) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Bianca Laís; Almerão, Maurício Pereira; Bouchon, Didier; Araujo, Paula Beatriz

    2012-04-01

    Terrestrial isopods are widely infected with Wolbachia. However, little is known about the presence of bacteria in the Neotropical species. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis of presence of Wolbachia infection in the native species of terrestrial isopods, Atlantoscia floridana and Circoniscus bezzii, and in the introduced species Burmoniscus meeusei.

  8. Bacterial symbionts in the hepatopancreas of isopods: diversity and environmental transmission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Brune, Andreas; Zimmer, Martin

    2007-07-01

    The midgut glands (hepatopancreas) of terrestrial isopods contain bacterial symbionts. We analysed the phylogenetic diversity of hepatopancreatic bacteria in isopod species from various suborders colonizing marine, semiterrestrial, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Hepatopancreatic bacteria were absent in the marine isopod Idotea balthica (Valvifera). The symbiotic bacteria present in the midgut glands of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus (Asellota) were closely related to members of the proteobacterial genera Rhodobacter, Burkholderia, Aeromonas or Rickettsiella, but differed markedly between populations. By contrast, species of the suborder Oniscidea were consistently colonized by the same phylotypes of hepatopancreatic bacteria. While symbionts in the semiterrestrial isopod Ligia oceanica (Oniscidea) were close relatives of Pseudomonas sp. (Gammaproteobacteria), individuals of the terrestrial isopod Oniscus asellus (Oniscidea) harboured either 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum' (Mollicutes) or 'Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum' (Rickettsiales), previously described as symbionts of another terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber. These two uncultivated bacterial taxa were consistently present in each population of six and three different species of terrestrial isopods, respectively, collected in different geographical locations. However, infection rates of individuals within a population ranged between 10% and 100%, rendering vertical transmission unlikely. Rather, feeding experiments suggest that 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum' is environmentally transmitted to the progeny.

  9. Inverted repeats and genome architecture conversions of terrestrial isopods mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Helleu, Quentin; Raimond, Roland; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Marcadé, Isabelle

    2013-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is usually depicted as a circular molecule, however, there is increasing evidence that linearization of mtDNA evolved independently many times in organisms such as fungi, unicellular eukaryotes, and animals. Recent observations in various models with linear mtDNA revealed the presence of conserved inverted repeats (IR) at both ends that, when they become single-stranded, may be able to fold on themselves to create telomeric-hairpins involved in genome architecture conversions. The atypical mtDNA of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) composed of linear monomers and circular dimers is an interesting model to study genome architecture conversions. Here, we present the mtDNA control region sequences of two species of the genus Armadillidium: A. vulgare and A. pelagicum. All features of arthropods mtDNA control regions are present (origin of replication, poly-T stretch, GA and TA-rich blocks and one variable domain), plus a conserved IR. This IR can potentially fold into a hairpin structure and is present in two different orientations among the A. vulgare populations: either in one sense or in its reverse complement. This polymorphism, also observed in a single individual (heteroplasmy), might be a signature of genome architecture conversions from linear to circular monomeric mtDNA via successive opening and closing of the molecules. PMID:24068302

  10. Anaerobic bacteria in the gut of terrestrial isopod Crustacean Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Kostanjsek, R; Lapanje, A; Rupnik, M; Strus, J; Drobne, D; Avgustin, G

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria from Porcellio scaber hindgut were identified and, subsequently, isolated using molecular approach. Phylogenetic affiliation of bacteria associated with the hindgut wall was determined by analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences which were retrieved directly from washed hindguts of P. scaber. Sequences from bacteria related to obligate anaerobic bacteria from genera Bacteroides and Enterococcus were retrieved, as well as sequences from 'A1 subcluster' of the wall-less mollicutes. Bacteria from the genus Desulfotomaculum were isolated from gut wall and cultivated under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to previous reports which suggested the absence of anaerobic bacteria in the isopod digestive system due to short retention time of the food in the tube-like hindgut, frequent renewal of the gut cuticle during the moulting process, and unsuccessful attempts to isolate anaerobic bacteria from this environment our results indicate the presence of resident anaerobic bacteria in the gut of P. scaber, in spite of apparently unsuitable, i.e. predominantly oxic, conditions.

  11. Inverted repeats and genome architecture conversions of terrestrial isopods mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Helleu, Quentin; Raimond, Roland; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Marcadé, Isabelle

    2013-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is usually depicted as a circular molecule, however, there is increasing evidence that linearization of mtDNA evolved independently many times in organisms such as fungi, unicellular eukaryotes, and animals. Recent observations in various models with linear mtDNA revealed the presence of conserved inverted repeats (IR) at both ends that, when they become single-stranded, may be able to fold on themselves to create telomeric-hairpins involved in genome architecture conversions. The atypical mtDNA of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) composed of linear monomers and circular dimers is an interesting model to study genome architecture conversions. Here, we present the mtDNA control region sequences of two species of the genus Armadillidium: A. vulgare and A. pelagicum. All features of arthropods mtDNA control regions are present (origin of replication, poly-T stretch, GA and TA-rich blocks and one variable domain), plus a conserved IR. This IR can potentially fold into a hairpin structure and is present in two different orientations among the A. vulgare populations: either in one sense or in its reverse complement. This polymorphism, also observed in a single individual (heteroplasmy), might be a signature of genome architecture conversions from linear to circular monomeric mtDNA via successive opening and closing of the molecules.

  12. Fate of microplastics in the marine isopod Idotea emarginata.

    PubMed

    Hämer, Julia; Gutow, Lars; Köhler, Angela; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2014-11-18

    Plastic pollution is an emerging global threat for marine wildlife. Many species of birds, reptiles, and fishes are directly impaired by plastics as they can get entangled in ropes and drown or they can ingest plastic fragments which, in turn, may clog their stomachs and guts. Microplastics of less than 1 mm can be ingested by small invertebrates, but their fate in the digestive organs and their effects on the animals are yet not well understood. We embedded fluorescent microplastics in artificial agarose-based food and offered the food to marine isopods, Idotea emarginata. The isopods did not distinguish between food with and food without microplastics. Upon ingestion, the microplastics were present in the stomach and in the gut but not in the tubules of the midgut gland which is the principal organ of enzyme-secretion and nutrient resorption. The feces contained the same concentration of microplastics as the food which indicates that no accumulation of microplastics happens during the gut passage. Long-term bioassays of 6 weeks showed no distinct effects of continuous microplastic consumption on mortality, growth, and intermolt duration. I. emarginata are able to prevent intrusion of particles even smaller than 1 μm into the midgut gland which is facilitated by the complex structure of the stomach including a fine filter system. It separates the midgut gland tubules from the stomach and allows only the passage of fluids and chyme. Our results indicate that microplastics, as administered in the experiments, do not clog the digestive organs of isopods and do not have adverse effects on their life history parameters. PMID:25289587

  13. Fate of microplastics in the marine isopod Idotea emarginata.

    PubMed

    Hämer, Julia; Gutow, Lars; Köhler, Angela; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2014-11-18

    Plastic pollution is an emerging global threat for marine wildlife. Many species of birds, reptiles, and fishes are directly impaired by plastics as they can get entangled in ropes and drown or they can ingest plastic fragments which, in turn, may clog their stomachs and guts. Microplastics of less than 1 mm can be ingested by small invertebrates, but their fate in the digestive organs and their effects on the animals are yet not well understood. We embedded fluorescent microplastics in artificial agarose-based food and offered the food to marine isopods, Idotea emarginata. The isopods did not distinguish between food with and food without microplastics. Upon ingestion, the microplastics were present in the stomach and in the gut but not in the tubules of the midgut gland which is the principal organ of enzyme-secretion and nutrient resorption. The feces contained the same concentration of microplastics as the food which indicates that no accumulation of microplastics happens during the gut passage. Long-term bioassays of 6 weeks showed no distinct effects of continuous microplastic consumption on mortality, growth, and intermolt duration. I. emarginata are able to prevent intrusion of particles even smaller than 1 μm into the midgut gland which is facilitated by the complex structure of the stomach including a fine filter system. It separates the midgut gland tubules from the stomach and allows only the passage of fluids and chyme. Our results indicate that microplastics, as administered in the experiments, do not clog the digestive organs of isopods and do not have adverse effects on their life history parameters.

  14. [Comparison of the zymograms of isopod (Crustacea, Peracarides) digestive tubes].

    PubMed

    Sévilla, C; Lagarrigue, J G

    1975-09-15

    The zymograms of the digestive caeca and the intestine in seven species of Isopods are established. The glucidasic activities predominate. A relative proteasic poverty is noted as well as the absence of lipases however, the esterases exist. The enzymatic pattern of the gut suggests its participation in the alimentary digestion. The enzymes distribution allows us to establish relations with the food preference of the animals. Some particularities (trypsin, alpha and beta glucosidase) favour a comparison of the marine species with the supralittoral species on one hand and with terrestrial species on the other. This fact does not exclude however the systematic interest of the zymograms.

  15. Cyathura odaliscae, a new species of anthurid isopod (Crustacea: Peracarida) from a brackish habitat on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Heard, Richard W; Vargas, Rita

    2015-01-01

    During a preliminary survey of a brackish mangrove habitat in the Terraba River delta on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, several adult and subadult specimens of a new anthurid isopod, Cyathura odaliscae n. sp. were discovered. The specimens were collected from decaying wood in low salinity conditions (<5‰). The unique shape and complexity of the male copulatory stylet of C. odaliscae distinguishes it from the other 22 species for which males have been described. A combination of other characters (e.g., morphology of the mouth parts, body setation, shape of telson and first pereopod) is used to distinguish the female from the others within the genus. Illustrations of the known male copulatory stylets for the genus and a table listing diagnostic information, depth ranges, and general distribution for the 32 currently recognized species of Cyathura are provided.  PMID:25662134

  16. Tinggianthura alba: A New Genus and Species of Anthuridae (Isopoda, Cymothoida, Anthuroidea) from Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia with an Updated Key to the Genera of Anthuridae

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Melvin; Abdul Rahim, Azman; Haji Ross, Othman bin

    2014-01-01

    A new anthurid isopod from dead coral rubble and stones in the intertidal area of Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia, is described. It is placed in a new genus and species, Tinggianthura alba. Tinggianthura is characterized by: (1) subtriangular carpus shape of pereopods 4–7, (2) pereopod 1 propodus palm without prominent tooth or steps and (3) maxillipedal palp 2-articled. PMID:24914642

  17. Degradation of leaf litter phenolics by aquatic and terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin; Oliveira, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Elsa; Graça, Manuel A S

    2005-08-01

    To investigate species-specific decomposition rates of litter from native (Quercus faginea) and introduced (Eucalyptus globulus) tree species in Portugal, we monitored changes in the phenolic signature of leaf litter during decomposition as mediated by an aquatic, Proasellus coxalis (Isopoda: Asellota), and two terrestrial, Porcellio dispar and Eluma caelatum (Isopoda: Oniscidea), detritivores. Although the litter of Eucalyptus and Quercus did not differ in overall protein precipitation capacity, we detected differences in terms of contents of particular phenolic compounds and phenol oxidation products. Accordingly, we observed food-specific consumption rates in Proasellus, but not in the terrestrial isopods. Proasellus digested Eucalyptus at significantly higher rates than Quercus, whereas the opposite was the case for Eluma, and Porcellio digested both litter types equally well. Despite slight differences in detail, effects of Proasellus on changes in the signature of litter phenolics were similar for both litter types, whereas terrestrial isopods--Porcellio and Eluma, although they differed from each other--digestively degraded phenolic compounds in Eucalyptus and Quercus litter, respectively, in different ways. Overall, however, degradation of litter phenolics was similarly effective on both litter types. From these data, we conclude that decomposition of Eucalyptus litter does not proceed more slowly than of litter from native Portuguese trees.

  18. Tonic immobility in terrestrial isopods: intraspecific and interspecific variability.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Aline Ferreira; Bugs, Priscila Silva; Araujo, Paula Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Many arthropods, including terrestrial isopods, are capable of entering a state of tonic immobility upon a mechanical disturbance. Here we compare the responses to mechanical stimulation in three terrestrial isopods Balloniscus glaber, Balloniscus sellowii and Porcellio dilatatus. We applied three stimuli in a random order and recorded whether each individual was responsive (i.e. showed tonic immobility) or not and the duration of the response. In another trial we related the time needed to elicit tonic immobility and the duration of response of each individual. Balloniscus sellowii was the least responsive species and Porcellio dilatatus was the most, with 23% and 89% of the tested individuals, respectively, being responsive. Smaller Balloniscus sellowii were more responsive than larger individuals. Porcellio dilatatus responded more promptly than the Balloniscus spp. but it showed the shortest response. Neither sex, size nor the type of stimulus explained the variability found in the duration of tonic immobility. These results reveal a large variability in tonic immobility behavior, even between closely related species, which seems to reflect a species-specific response to predators with different foraging modes.

  19. Molecular evolution of the androgenic hormone in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Cerveau, Nicolas; Bouchon, Didier; Bergès, Thierry; Grève, Pierre

    2014-04-25

    In crustaceans, the androgenic gland (AG), thanks to the synthesis of the androgenic gland hormone (AGH), controls the differentiation of the primary and secondary male sexual characters. In this study, we amplified 12 new AGH cDNAs in species belonging to five different families of the infra-order Ligiamorpha of terrestrial isopods. Putative essential amino acids for the production of a functional AGH protein exhibit signatures of negative selection and are strictly conserved including typical proteolytic cleavage motifs, a putative N-linked glycosylation motif on the A chains and the eight Cys positions. An insulin-like growth factor motif was also identified in Armadillidium AGH sequences. The phylogenetic relationships of AGH sequences allowed one to distinguish two main clades, corresponding to members of the Armadillidiidae and the Porcellionidae families which are congruent with the narrow specificity of AG heterospecific grafting. An in-depth understanding of the regulation of AGH expression would help deciphering the interaction between Wolbachia, widespread feminizing endosymbiotic bacteria in isopods, and the sex differentiation of their hosts.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for the Isopod Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and Transferability in Terrestrial Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies. PMID:24098543

  1. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and transferability in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Isabelle; Valette, Victorien; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies. PMID:24098543

  2. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and transferability in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Isabelle; Valette, Victorien; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies.

  3. Assimilation efficiency and toxicokinetics of 14C-lindane in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus: the role of isopods in degradation of persistent soil pollutants.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Susana; Sousa, J P; Nogueira, A J A; Soares, A M V M

    2002-12-01

    An achievable way to evaluate the bioavailability of a certain toxic in the environment is to measure the concentration inside soil organisms. Non-target saprotrophic organisms like isopods are often exposed to agrochemicals or other kind of persistent chemicals. In this study the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus was exposed to a constant concentration of Lindane (gamma-HCH) via food. Using toxicokinetic models the bioaccumulation and fate of the pesticide by isopods was assessed and compared with previous studies, where an unexpected decrease in gamma-HCH concentration was observed. Animal body burdens showed higher values, and a lower assimilation rate constant, although the elimination rate constant was twice the value previously observed. It was also observed that a significant amount of gamma-HCH had an unknown fate. To discover its possible destiny, a factorial experiment was carried out using two types of CO2 traps and contaminated leaves in the presence and absence of isopods. It was concluded that isopod activity might have been responsible for a more rapid biotransformation of gamma-HCH in leaves, since the amount of the pesticide is reduced in their presence.

  4. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellio scaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment. PMID:25561844

  5. Terrestrial isopods -- a good choice for toxicity testing of pollutants in the terrestrial environment

    SciTech Connect

    Drobne, D.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial isopods are suitable invertebrates for testing the relative toxicities of chemicals present in the terrestrial environment. Terrestrial isopods respond in numerous ways to elevated concentrations of chemicals in their food, but only a few of these responses can be used as toxicological endpoints. The most suitable are changes in reproduction, food consumption, moult cycle duration, and structure of the digestive glands. These responses are able to provide accurate indications of sublethal toxicity. Toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods could be much more reliable through the use of positive controls. A positive control with a reference toxicant could also be supplemented by a reference endpoint. The most suitable reference endpoint is change of food consumption rate. Toxicity testing with terrestrial isopods is a very promising method for fast, routine, and inexpensive laboratory determination of the relative toxicities of chemicals in the terrestrial environment.

  6. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  7. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  8. Global Diversity of Marine Isopods (Except Asellota and Crustacean Symbionts)

    PubMed Central

    Poore, Gary C. B.; Bruce, Niel L.

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10–1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from

  9. Contemporary Parallel Diversification, Antipredator Adaptations and Phenotypic Integration in an Aquatic Isopod

    PubMed Central

    Eroukhmanoff, Fabrice; Svensson, Erik I.

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly being recognized that predation can be a strong diversifying agent promoting ecological divergence. Adaptations against different predatory regimes can emerge over short periods of time and include many different traits. We studied antipredator adaptations in two ecotypes of an isopod (Asellus aquaticus) that have, diverged in parallel in two Swedish lakes over the last two decades. We quantified differences in escape speed, morphology and behavior for isopods from different ecotypes present in these lakes. Isopods from the source habitat (reed) coexist with mainly invertebrate predators. They are more stream-profiled and have higher escape speeds than isopods in the newly colonized stonewort habitat, which has higher density of fish predators. Stonewort isopods also show more cautious behaviors and had higher levels of phenotypic integration between coloration and morphological traits than the reed isopods. Colonization of a novel habitat with a different predation regime has thus strengthened the correlations between pigmentation and morphology and weakened escape performance. The strong signature of parallelism for these phenotypic traits indicates that divergence is likely to be adaptive and is likely to have been driven by differences in predatory regimes. Furthermore, our results indicate that physical performance, behavior and morphology can change rapidly and in concert as new habitats are colonized. PMID:19587791

  10. Ommochrome genesis in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Negishi, S; Naito, J; Ikeda, R; Hasegawa, H; Nagamura, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1999-01-01

    The contents of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and the activities of the enzymes involved in ommochrome biosynthesis were measured in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. There was little difference between the Trp content in the albino mutant and that in the wild type, although the contents of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OH-Kyn), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OH-AA) and xanthommatin in the albino were significantly lower than those in the wild type. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) activity in the albino was extremely low, while the activities of Kyn-3-hydroxylase and kynureninase did not differ significantly between the two phenotypes. The extremely low activity of TDO is probably one of main reasons why almost no ommochrome pigment is produced in the albino mutant. PMID:10721113

  11. Global diversity of fish parasitic isopod crustaceans of the family Cymothoidae

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico J.; Bruce, Niel L.; Hadfield, Kerry A.

    2014-01-01

    Of the 95 known families of Isopoda only a few are parasitic namely, Bopyridae, Cryptoniscidae, Cymothoidae, Dajidae, Entoniscidae, Gnathiidae and Tridentellidae. Representatives from the family Cymothoidae are obligate parasites of both marine and freshwater fishes and there are currently 40 recognised cymothoid genera worldwide. These isopods are large (>6 mm) parasites, thus easy to observe and collect, yet many aspects of their biodiversity and biology are still unknown. They are widely distributed around the world and occur in many different habitats, but mostly in shallow waters in tropical or subtropical areas. A number of adaptations to an obligatory parasitic existence have been observed, such as the body shape, which is influenced by the attachment site on the host. Cymothoids generally have a long, slender body tapering towards the ends and the efficient contour of the body offers minimum resistance to the water flow and can withstand the forces of this particular habitat. Other adaptations to this lifestyle include small sensory antennae and eyes; a very heavily thickened and calcified cuticle for protection; and sharply curved hooks on the ends of the pereopods which allows these parasites to attach to the host. Most cymothoids are highly site and host specific. Some of these parasitic cymothoids have been reported to parasitise the same host fish species for over 100 years, showing this species specificity. The site of attachment on the host (gills, mouth, external surfaces or inside the host flesh) can also be genus or species specific. This paper aims to provide a summary of our current knowledge of cymothoid biodiversity and will highlight their history of discovery, morphology, relationships and classification, taxonomic diversity and ecology. PMID:25180163

  12. Traits underpinning desiccation resistance explain distribution patterns of terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Dias, André T C; Krab, Eveline J; Mariën, Janine; Zimmer, Martin; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Ellers, Jacintha; Wardle, David A; Berg, Matty P

    2013-07-01

    Predicted changes in soil water availability regimes with climate and land-use change will impact the community of functionally important soil organisms, such as macro-detritivores. Identifying and quantifying the functional traits that underlie interspecific differences in desiccation resistance will enhance our ability to predict both macro-detritivore community responses to changing water regimes and the consequences of the associated species shifts for organic matter turnover. Using path analysis, we tested (1) how interspecific differences in desiccation resistance among 22 northwestern European terrestrial isopod species could be explained by three underlying traits measured under standard laboratory conditions, namely, body ventral surface area, water loss rate and fatal water loss; (2) whether these relationships were robust to contrasting experimental conditions and to the phylogenetic relatedness effects being excluded; (3) whether desiccation resistance and hypothesized underlying traits could explain species distribution patterns in relation to site water availability. Water loss rate and (secondarily) fatal water loss together explained 90% of the interspecific variation in desiccation resistance. Our path model indicated that body surface area affects desiccation resistance only indirectly via changes in water loss rate. Our results also show that soil moisture determines isopod species distributions by filtering them according to traits underpinning desiccation resistance. These findings reveal that it is possible to use functional traits measured under standard conditions to predict soil biota responses to water availability in the field over broad spatial scales. Taken together, our results demonstrate an increasing need to generate mechanistic models to predict the effect of global changes on functionally important organisms.

  13. Biotope and biology of Armadillidium album Dollfuss, a terrestrial isopod of sandy beaches, in the SW Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vader, Wim; De Wolf, Lein

    The supralittoral isopod Armadillidium album Dollfus is common, although patchily distributed, under driftwood on the foreshore of broad sandy beaches on the outer coast of the Delta area in the SW Netherlands. The isopods are very tolerant of immersion in seawater, but are nevertheless confined to a narrow zone just above normal spring tides. A. album is a sexually reproducing isopod, with a single well-defined reproductive period in summer and a lifespan of two years. In spite of its very specialized biotope, the life cycle and reproductive strategy of A. album do not deviate substantially from those of related ubiquitous terrestrial isopods.

  14. Reduction and methylation of mercury in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) and its environment.

    PubMed

    Nolde, Natasa; Drobne, Damjana; Horvat, Milena; Jereb, Vesna

    2005-07-01

    Reduction and methylation of inorganic mercury in Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) and its environment were studied, using a purpose-built experimental setup where Hg cycling was followed using 203Hg2+ tracer in experiments without and with isopods. In experiment without isopods, daily reduction of 203Hg2+ to 203Hg0 under sterile and nonsterile conditions was measured for three weeks to assess the contribution of bacteria to this process. In experiments with isopods, daily release of 203Hg0 was measured for two weeks. Total mercury (T203Hg) and monomethylmercury (Me203Hg) in whole animals, gut, digestive glands (hepatopancreas), food (hazelnut leaves), and feces were measured to obtain the assimilation and distribution of mercury in the animals, to investigate the origin and fate of Me203Hg, and, finally, to assess the mass balance of mercury in the experimental system. Experiment without isopods showed the important role of bacteria in reduction of 203Hg2+ to 203Hg0, especially in the first day of the experiment. Experiments with isopods showed that formation of 203Hg0 depended on the 203Hg2+ concentration in the food. The contribution of the isopod's digestive flora in reduction of 203Hg2+ to 203Hg0 was negligible. Approximately 3% of T203Hg and 2% of Me203Hg consumed was assimilated by the animals. Methylation of 203Hg2+ occurred already in the leaves before they were consumed by the isopods. Assimilation of Me203Hg from the food surprisingly was low. Also, a loss of Me203Hg was noticed when comparing assimilated and excreted Me203Hg versus consumed Me203Hg. This may be explained by the assumption that demethylation of MeHg prevailed over methylation of Hg2+ in the animal's digestive system, leading to excretion of ingested mercury as Hg2+.

  15. Widespread atypical mitochondrial DNA structure in isopods (Crustacea, Peracarida) related to a constitutive heteroplasmy in terrestrial species.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Raimond, Roland; Grandjean, Frédéric; Lafitte, Alexandra; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Marcadé, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    Metazoan mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally composed of circular monomeric molecules. However, a few exceptions do exist and among them two terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellionides pruinosus have an atypical mtDNA composed of linear monomers associated with circular "head-to-head" dimers: a very unusual structure for animal mtDNA genome. To assess the distribution of this atypical mtDNA among isopods, we performed RFLP and Southern blot analyses on mtDNA of 16 terrestrial (Oniscidea family) and two aquatic isopod species: the marine Sphaeroma serratum (suborder Flabellifera, sister group of Oniscidea) and the freshwater Asellus aquaticus (Asellota, early derived taxon of isopod). The atypical mtDNA structure was observed in 15 terrestrial isopod species and A. aquaticus, suggesting a wide distribution of atypical mtDNA among isopods. However, a typical metazoan mtDNA structure was detected in the marine isopod S. serratum and the Oniscidea Ligia oceanica . Our results suggest two possible scenarios: an early origin of the atypical mtDNA in isopods followed by reversion to the typical ancestral mtDNA structure for several species, or a convergent appearance of the atypical mtDNA structure in two isopod suborders. We compare this distribution of the atypical mtDNA structure with the presence of a heteroplasmy also observed in the mtDNA of several terrestrial isopod species. We discuss if this transmitted heteroplasmy is vectored by the atypical mtDNA and its impact on the maintenance of the atypical mtDNA in isopods. PMID:22376074

  16. Widespread atypical mitochondrial DNA structure in isopods (Crustacea, Peracarida) related to a constitutive heteroplasmy in terrestrial species.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Raimond, Roland; Grandjean, Frédéric; Lafitte, Alexandra; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Marcadé, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    Metazoan mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally composed of circular monomeric molecules. However, a few exceptions do exist and among them two terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellionides pruinosus have an atypical mtDNA composed of linear monomers associated with circular "head-to-head" dimers: a very unusual structure for animal mtDNA genome. To assess the distribution of this atypical mtDNA among isopods, we performed RFLP and Southern blot analyses on mtDNA of 16 terrestrial (Oniscidea family) and two aquatic isopod species: the marine Sphaeroma serratum (suborder Flabellifera, sister group of Oniscidea) and the freshwater Asellus aquaticus (Asellota, early derived taxon of isopod). The atypical mtDNA structure was observed in 15 terrestrial isopod species and A. aquaticus, suggesting a wide distribution of atypical mtDNA among isopods. However, a typical metazoan mtDNA structure was detected in the marine isopod S. serratum and the Oniscidea Ligia oceanica . Our results suggest two possible scenarios: an early origin of the atypical mtDNA in isopods followed by reversion to the typical ancestral mtDNA structure for several species, or a convergent appearance of the atypical mtDNA structure in two isopod suborders. We compare this distribution of the atypical mtDNA structure with the presence of a heteroplasmy also observed in the mtDNA of several terrestrial isopod species. We discuss if this transmitted heteroplasmy is vectored by the atypical mtDNA and its impact on the maintenance of the atypical mtDNA in isopods.

  17. Genus vesiculoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vesiculovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae contains a numbers of viruses that have been taxonomically classified using a combination of serological relatedness, host range, genome organization, pathobiology and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data. There are 11 viruses assigned to the gen...

  18. Parasitic isopods from marine fishes off Nagapattinam coast, India.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ramesh, Mathan; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted from August 2013 to January 2014. Host fishes were collected from the Nagapattinam Coast, India. During the sampling period, 242 fishes were infested out of 1440 specimens examined from nine different species of marine fishes. A total of 267 parasitic isopods belonging to nine cymothoid species viz., Anilocra dimidiata (Bleeker 1857), Catoessa boscii (Bleeker 1857), Cymothoa indica (Schioedte and Meinert 1884), Joryma sawayah (Bowman and Tareen 1983), Nerocila arres (Bowman and Tareen 1983), N.loveni (Bovallius 1887) N. phaiopleura (Bleeker 1857), N. serra (Schioedte and Meinert 1881) and N.sundaica (Bleeker 1857) were collected. The Nerocila species were attached to the pectoral fin, the caudal peduncle and different regions of the body surface of the host fishes. The specimen belonging to the species Catoessa boscii, Cymothoa indica and Joryma sawayah were collected from the mouth and the branchial cavity of the infected fishes. Anilocra dimidiata was only found on the body surface of the host fish. The overall prevalence reached 16.80 %. A maximum prevalence was observed in C. boscii parasitizing Carangoides malabaricus (26.81 %) and a minimum prevalence in N. sundaica parasitizing Terapon puta (P = 7.31 %). The mean intensity ranged from 1 to 1.3. PMID:27605814

  19. Photosensitive neurogenic heart of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Horiguchi, Hiroko; Hariyama, Takahiko; Takano, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The heart of animals is regulated through the central nervous system in response to external sensory stimuli. We found, however, that the adult neurogenic heart of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica has photosensitivity. The beat frequency of the isolated heart decreased in response to a light stimulus. Magnitude of the response was stimulus intensity dependent and the heartbeat frequency decreased to less than 80% of the dark value during illumination of the white light with an intensity of 6.0 mW cm−2. The spectral sensitivity curve of the heart photoresponse peaked at a wavelength around 520 nm. In response to 530 nm monochromatic light, the relationship between light intensity and response magnitude was linear and the threshold intensity was 7.26×1012 quanta cm−2 s−1. Bursting activity of the cardiac ganglion, which is located in the heart and acts as the cardiac pacemaker deceased in frequency in response to illumination by white light. This fact suggests that the heart photoresponse of L. exotica results from the photosensitivity of the cardiac ganglion neurons. The photoresponse of the heart therefore contributes to regulation of cardiac output in addition to other regulatory systems. PMID:16959646

  20. Sound production in the aquatic isopod Cymodoce japonica (Crustacea: Peracarida).

    PubMed

    Nakamachi, Takeru; Ishida, Hideki; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2015-10-01

    A vast variety of acoustic behaviors and mechanisms occur in arthropods. Sound production, in particular, in insects and decapod crustaceans has been well documented. However, except for a brief, anecdotal statement, there has been no report on the acoustic behavior of aquatic isopods. We present the first empirical evidence in aquatic Isopoda that males of Cymodoce japonica produce sound by stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts. Sound production was associated with tail-lifting behavior, suggesting that stridulation occurs on thoracic and/or abdominal somites. Acoustic analysis revealed that syllable length was similar throughout the stridulation, at a mode of 2500-3000 Hz. With a scanning electron microscope, we identified file-like structures on the inner surface of the dorsal exoskeleton. Each file consisted of 188 ± 11.1 ridges at about 0.5 μm intervals; the theoretical frequency (number of ridges per syllable length) was estimated to be 2208-3646 Hz. This finding suggests that the stridulation sounds arose from these structures. Laboratory observations show that stridulation may play a role in the threatening of other males in the context of territorial and/or reproductive competitions.

  1. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Lapanje, A; Drobne, D; Nolde, N; Valant, J; Muscet, B; Leser, V; Rupnik, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10microg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed.

  2. Uptake and elimination of benzo[a]pyrene in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    van Brummelen, T C; van Straalen, N M

    1996-08-01

    In isopods from contaminated sites relatively low levels of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been observed, which may be caused by either a low bioavailability or a high elimination rate. To shed light on this, the uptake and elimination rates of benzo[a]pyrene were estimated for the isopod Porcellio scaber. The isopod was fed contaminated food (100 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt) for seven weeks followed by four weeks of untreated food. The hindguts of the animals were removed prior to analysis to exclude food material from the body. Benzo[a]pyrene concentrations were log-normally distributed among the individuals. The high inter-individual variation in benzo[a]pyrene content could not be explained from differences in sex, the estimated amount of food in the hindgut, or the body weight. A one-compartment model fitted to the isopod concentrations estimated an assimilation rate of 2.9 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt day, an elimination rate constant of 1.1/day and an equilibrium concentration of 2.5 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt. According to the model 68% of the isopod population had an equilibrium concentration between 1.0 and 7.2 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt day with a benzo[a]pyrene half-life ranging between 0.4 and 1.3 days. The assimilation efficiency was estimated at 20 to 40% of the ingested benzo[a]pyrene. The tissue distribution of benzo[a]pyrene was investigated in a separate experiment. Trace levels of benzo[a]pyrene were detected in haemolymph samples, demonstrating absorption and transport of the compound in the isopod. It is concluded that dietary benzo[a]pyrene is available for uptake to the isopod and that low residues of the compound observed in field isopods are the result of a high elimination rate rather than a reduced bioavailability. As PAHs from soil appear to be available to soil invertebrates, the widespread contamination of the soil from atmospheric emissions is of some concern, especially since the observed

  3. [Free amino acids of hemolymph of marine isopods, Sphaeroma hookers Sphaeroma serratum (Flabellifera) and Idotea balthica (Valvifera)].

    PubMed

    Charmantier, G; Charmantier, M; Voss-Foucart, M F; Jeuniaux, C

    1976-12-01

    The total concentration of the free amino acids in the hemolymph is higher (about twice the amount in three species of marine Isopods (Sphaeroma hookeri, S. serratum and Idotea balthica) than in Decapods. In the three species so far studied, the proportions of glycine and taurine are always rather high. In the Sphaeromatidae, serine is the most concentrated amino acid while the proline concentration is comparatively low. The situation is reversed in Idotea balthica. In Crustaceans, the free amino acid composition of the hemolymph thus appears, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to be a biochemical character of marine Isopods when compared to Oniscoids Isopods and to Decapods.

  4. Assemblages of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a fragmented forest landscape in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tajovský, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Wytwer, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were collected in 13 forest fragments differing in area (within the range of 0.1 and 254.5 ha), shape and composition of forest vegetation (thermophilous oak, mesophilous oak-hornbeam, thermophilous oak-hornbeam, acidophilous oak, basiphilous oak, beech oak-hornbeam, moist mixed deciduous forest, plantations of deciduous and coniferous trees), all situated in the Český kras Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic, Central Europe. Number of sites sampled in each fragment of forest depended on its size and ranged from 1 to 7. Altogether 30 sites were sampled. Soil samples (5 per site collected twice a year) and pitfall trapping (5 traps per site in continuous operation throughout a year) during 2008-2009 yielded a total of 14 species of terrestrial isopods. The highest densities and highest epigeic activities of terrestrial isopods were recorded in the smallest fragments of woodland. Although a wider range of habitats were sampled in the larger fragments of woodland there was not a greater diversity of species there and the population densities and epigeic activities recorded there were lower. Porcellium collicola was most abundant in small fragments of woodland regardless the vegetation there. Armadillidium vulgare and Protracheoniscus politus were statistically more abundant in the larger fragments of woodland. The results indicate that forest fragmentation does not necessarily result in a decrease in the species richness of the isopod assemblages in such habitats. PMID:22536108

  5. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND ENERGETICS OF THE BOPRYID ISOPOD PARASITE ORTHIONE GRIFFENIS IN MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The population structure and energetic burden of bopyrid isopod parasite Orthione griffenis on the eastern Pacific mud shrimp Upogebia pugettensis are estimated from size and weight relationships between parasite and host. U. pugettensis weight loss increases with O. griffenis weight but the high v...

  6. Pyrene biotransformation and kinetics in the hepatopancreas of the isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Stroomberg, G J; Ariese, F; Gestel, C A M van; Hattum Bv, B van; Velthorst, N H; Straalen, N M van

    2004-10-01

    Various techniques exist for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determination in environmental samples, but an adequate risk assessment of PAHs should include aspects such as bioavailability of the contaminant and biotransformation capacity of the species under investigation. In this study, we provided an analysis of the kinetics of pyrene in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Isopods were exposed to pyrene in their food (10 microg/g d/w) for 7 days followed by an elimination period of 7 days. The animals were dissected, and the hepatopancreases were analyzed for pyrene biotransformation products; nonmetabolised pyrene in the gut was also monitored. Concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in the hepatopancreas were very low. Almost all of the pyrene was found as three conjugates: pyrene-1-glucoside, pyrene-1-sulfate, and a third unknown 1-hydroxypyrene conjugate. Concentrations of the metabolites were extremely variable between individuals because of variable feeding activity. An apparent steady state was reached already after 24 hours of exposure, whereas elimination was complete 48 hours after ending the exposure. This rapid response to changes in the exposure concentration shows that terrestrial isopods have a high biotransformation capacity for PAHs. The data show that concentrations of parent PAHs will not provide a good indication of exposure in rapidly metabolizing invertebrates such as isopods; instead, pyrene metabolites may be considered a promising biomarker for bioavailability of PAH contamination in the field.

  7. Evidence for Permo-Triassic colonization of the deep sea by isopods.

    PubMed

    Lins, Luana S F; Ho, Simon Y W; Wilson, George D F; Lo, Nathan

    2012-12-23

    The deep sea is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth and is home to a highly diverse fauna, with polychaetes, molluscs and peracarid crustaceans as dominant groups. A number of studies have proposed that this fauna did not survive the anoxic events that occurred during the Mesozoic Era. Accordingly, the modern fauna is thought to be relatively young, perhaps having colonized the deep sea after the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. To test this hypothesis, we performed phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal 18S and 28S and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and 16S sequences from isopod crustaceans. Using a molecular clock calibrated with multiple isopod fossils, we estimated the timing of deep-sea colonization events by isopods. Our results show that some groups have an ancient origin in the deep sea, with the earliest estimated dates spanning 232-314 Myr ago. Therefore, anoxic events at the Permian-Triassic boundary and during the Mesozoic did not cause the extinction of all the deep-sea fauna; some species may have gone extinct while others survived and proliferated. The monophyly of the 'munnopsid radiation' within the isopods suggests that the ancestors of this group evolved in the deep sea and did not move to shallow-water refugia during anoxic events.

  8. Isopods failed to acclimate their thermal sensitivity of locomotor performance during predictable or stochastic cooling.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Matthew S; Cooper, Brandon S; Storm, Jonathan J; Sears, Michael W; Angilletta, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Most organisms experience environments that vary continuously over time, yet researchers generally study phenotypic responses to abrupt and sustained changes in environmental conditions. Gradual environmental changes, whether predictable or stochastic, might affect organisms differently than do abrupt changes. To explore this possibility, we exposed terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) collected from a highly seasonal environment to four thermal treatments: (1) a constant 20°C; (2) a constant 10°C; (3) a steady decline from 20° to 10°C; and (4) a stochastic decline from 20° to 10°C that mimicked natural conditions during autumn. After 45 days, we measured thermal sensitivities of running speed and thermal tolerances (critical thermal maximum and chill-coma recovery time). Contrary to our expectation, thermal treatments did not affect the thermal sensitivity of locomotion; isopods from all treatments ran fastest at 33° to 34°C and achieved more than 80% of their maximal speed over a range of 10° to 11°C. Isopods exposed to a stochastic decline in temperature tolerated cold the best, and isopods exposed to a constant temperature of 20°C tolerated cold the worst. No significant variation in heat tolerance was observed among groups. Therefore, thermal sensitivity and heat tolerance failed to acclimate to any type of thermal change, whereas cold tolerance acclimated more during stochastic change than it did during abrupt change.

  9. Toxicity of abamectin to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Kolar, Lucija; Jemec, Anita; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Valant, Janez; Hrzenjak, Rok; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh; Zidar, Primoz

    2010-06-01

    To determine effects of the antiparasitic veterinary drug abamectin on the isopod Porcellio scaber, animals were exposed for 21 days to Lufa 2.2 soil spiked at concentrations of 3-300 mg/kg dry soil. After exposure, abamectin residues in the isopods were analysed using a novel analytical method. Toxicity was evaluated on different levels of biological organisation: biochemical, cellular and the individual organism. Measurements included glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and stability of cell membranes in the digestive gland, animal mass gain or loss, food consumption, behaviour and mortality. LC50 for the effect of abamectin on survival of P. scaber was 71 mg/kg dry soil. The most obvious sublethal effects were reduced food consumption and decreased body mass (NOEC 3 mg/kg dry soil). Additionally, loss of digging activity and reduced GST activity (NOEC 30 mg/kg dry soil) and cell membrane destabilization (NOEC 10 mg/kg dry soil) were recorded. Abamectin only slightly accumulated in the isopods, with bioaccumulation factors always being <0.1. Based on these results and current information on environmental levels of abamectin, it is not likely that isopods will be affected by abamectin, but further studies with exposure through faeces are recommended.

  10. Assemblages of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a fragmented forest landscape in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tajovský, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Wytwer, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were collected in 13 forest fragments differing in area (within the range of 0.1 and 254.5 ha), shape and composition of forest vegetation (thermophilous oak, mesophilous oak-hornbeam, thermophilous oak-hornbeam, acidophilous oak, basiphilous oak, beech oak-hornbeam, moist mixed deciduous forest, plantations of deciduous and coniferous trees), all situated in the Český kras Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic, Central Europe. Number of sites sampled in each fragment of forest depended on its size and ranged from 1 to 7. Altogether 30 sites were sampled. Soil samples (5 per site collected twice a year) and pitfall trapping (5 traps per site in continuous operation throughout a year) during 2008-2009 yielded a total of 14 species of terrestrial isopods. The highest densities and highest epigeic activities of terrestrial isopods were recorded in the smallest fragments of woodland. Although a wider range of habitats were sampled in the larger fragments of woodland there was not a greater diversity of species there and the population densities and epigeic activities recorded there were lower. Porcellium collicola was most abundant in small fragments of woodland regardless the vegetation there. Armadillidium vulgare and Protracheoniscus politus were statistically more abundant in the larger fragments of woodland. The results indicate that forest fragmentation does not necessarily result in a decrease in the species richness of the isopod assemblages in such habitats.

  11. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the marine isopod Sphaeroma terebrans (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Baratti, Mariella; Filippelli, Mariateresa; Messana, Giuseppe; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Zane, Lorenzo

    2009-07-01

    Nine polymorphic microsatellites were characterized in the marine isopod Sphaeroma terebrans (Isopoda, Sphaeromatidae) for phylogeographic and parentage analyses. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 10. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.428 to 0.950, while expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.532 to 0.889. Heterozygote deficiency was detected for one locus, possibly the result of null alleles.

  12. Evidence for widespread Wolbachia infection in isopod crustaceans: molecular identification and host feminization.

    PubMed Central

    Bouchon, D; Rigaud, T; Juchault, P

    1998-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited, intracellular, alpha proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They cause three kinds of reproductive alterations in their hosts: cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. There have been many studies of the distribution of Wolbachia in arthropods, but very few crustacean species are known to be infected. We investigated the prevalence of Wolbachia in 85 species from five crustacean orders. Twenty-two isopod species were found to carry these bacteria. The bacteria were found mainly in terrestrial species, suggesting that Wolbachia came from a continental environment. The evolutionary relationships between these Wolbachia strains were determined by sequencing bacterial genes and by interspecific transfers. All the bacteria associated with isopods belonged to the Wolbachia B group, based on 16S rDNA sequence data. All the terrestrial isopod symbionts in this group except one formed an independent clade. The results of interspecific transfers show evidence of specialization of Wolbachia symbionts to their isopod hosts. They also suggest that host species plays a more important role than bacterial phylogeny in determining the phenotype induced by Wolbachia infection. PMID:9684374

  13. Nutrition in terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea): an evolutionary-ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin

    2002-11-01

    The nutritional morphology, physiology and ecology of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is significant in two respects. (1) Most oniscid isopods are truly terrestrial in terms of being totally independent of the aquatic environment. Thus, they have evolved adaptations to terrestrial food sources. (2) In many terrestrial ecosystems, isopods play an important role in decomposition processes through mechanical and chemical breakdown of plant litter and by enhancing microbial activity. While the latter aspect of nutrition is discussed only briefly in this review, I focus on the evolutionary ecology of feeding in terrestrial isopods. Due to their possessing chewing mouthparts, leaf litter is comminuted prior to being ingested, facilitating both enzymatic degradation during gut passage and microbial colonization of egested faeces. Digestion of food through endogenous enzymes produced in the caeca of the midgut glands (hepatopancreas) and through microbial enzymes, either ingested along with microbially colonized food or secreted by microbial endosymbionts, mainly takes place in the anterior part of the hindgut. Digestive processes include the activity of carbohydrases, proteases, dehydrogenases, esterases, lipases, arylamidases and oxidases, as well as the nutritional utilization of microbial cells. Absorption of nutrients is brought about by the hepatopancreas and/or the hindgut epithelium, the latter being also involved in osmoregulation and water balance. Minerals and metal cations are effectively extracted from the food, while overall assimilation efficiencies may be low. Heavy metals are stored in special organelles of the hepatopancreatic tissue. Nitrogenous waste products are excreted via ammonia in its gaseous form, with only little egested along with the faeces. Nonetheless, faeces are characterized by high nitrogen content and provide a favourable substrate for microbial colonization and growth. The presence of a dense microbial population on faecal

  14. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Bogyó, Dávid; Sattler, Thomas; Moretti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities. This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe(Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. Trichoniscus alemannicus, Cylindroiulus verhoeffi) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool. PMID:22536109

  15. Depth-related gradients in community structure and relatedness of bivalves and isopods in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Angelika; Linse, Katrin; Ellingsen, Kari E.; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2016-05-01

    Despite increased research over the last decade, diversity patterns in Antarctic deep-sea benthic taxa and their driving forces are only marginally known. Depth-related patterns of diversity and distribution of isopods and bivalves collected in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean are analysed. The data, sampled by epibenthic sledge at 40 deep-sea stations from the upper continental slope to the hadal zone (774-6348 m) over a wide area of the Southern Ocean, comprises 619 species of isopods and 81 species of bivalves. There were more species of isopods than bivalves in all samples, and species per station varied from 2 to 85 for isopods and from 0 to 18 for bivalves. Most species were rare, with 72% of isopod species restricted to one or two stations, and 45% of bivalves. Among less-rare species bivalves tended to have wider distributions than isopods. The species richness of isopods varied with depth, showing a weak unimodal curve with a peak at 2000-4000 m, while the richness of bivalves did not. Multivariate analyses indicate that there are two main assemblages in the Southern Ocean, one shallow and one deep. These overlap over a large depth-range (2000-4000 m). Comparing analyses based on the Sørensen resemblance measure and Γ+ (incorporating relatedness among species) indicates that rare species tend to have other closely related species within the same depth band. Analysis of relatedness among species indicates that the taxonomic variety of bivalves tends to decline at depth, whereas that of isopods is maintained. This, it is speculated, may indicate that the available energy at depth is insufficient to maintain a range of bivalve life-history strategies.

  16. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Bogyó, Dávid; Sattler, Thomas; Moretti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities. This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe(Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. Trichoniscus alemannicus, Cylindroiulus verhoeffi) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool. PMID:22536109

  17. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Bogyó, Dávid; Sattler, Thomas; Moretti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities. This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe(Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. Trichoniscus alemannicus, Cylindroiulus verhoeffi) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool.

  18. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans. PMID:24109435

  19. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway.

    PubMed

    Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans.

  20. Parallelism and historical contingency during rapid ecotype divergence in an isopod.

    PubMed

    Eroukhmanoff, F; Hargeby, A; Arnberg, N N; Hellgren, O; Bensch, S; Svensson, E I

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies on parallel evolution have focused on the relative role of selection and historical contingency during adaptive divergence. Here, we study geographically separate and genetically independent lake populations of a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus) in southern Sweden. In two of these lakes, a novel habitat was rapidly colonized by isopods from a source habitat. Rapid phenotypic changes in pigmentation, size and sexual behaviour have occurred, presumably in response to different predatory regimes. We partitioned the phenotypic variation arising from habitat ('selection': 81–94%), lake ('history': 0.1–6%) and lake × habitat interaction ('unique diversification': 0.4–13%) for several traits. There was a limited role for historical contingency but a strong signature of selection. We also found higher phenotypic variation in the source populations. Phenotype sorting during colonization and strong divergent selection might have contributed to these rapid changes. Consequently, phenotypic divergence was only weakly influenced by historical contingency. PMID:21462414

  1. Redescription of three cirolanid isopods (Crustacea: Peracarida) from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sidabalok, Conni M; Bruce, Niel L

    2016-01-01

    Three species of Cirolanidae described by Nierstrasz in 1931 are redescribed from the type material: Cirolana indica Nierstrasz, 1931, with new material from Singapore and Lombok Island, Indonesia; C. vanhoeffeni Nierstrasz, 1931; and C. stebbingi Nierstrasz, 1931, which is here transferred to the genus Politolana Bruce, 1981 based on the elongate body, long peduncle of pleopod 1, narrow and slender frontal lamina, flat and robust carpus of pereopod 7, long and acute robust setae on merus-propodus pereopod 1, secondary unguis on dactylus, and antenna peduncle articles 1-2 shorter than the subequal articles 3-5. PMID:27395130

  2. Adaptive variation in offspring size in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brody, M.S.; Lawlor, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the birth size of offspring of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was observed in laboratory experiments and in field populations. In the laboratory, larger offspring were produced when the mother's food supply was reduced. In field populations, larger offspring were produced during the summer, a period of reduced food availability. Smaller offspring are produced in the spring, when food is readily available. Females may be making larger young to increase survival during the more severe conditions of the summer breeding period.

  3. PAH biotransformation in terrestrial invertebrates--a new phase II metabolite in isopods and springtails.

    PubMed

    Stroomberg, Gerard J; Zappey, Herman; Steen, Ruud J C A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Ariese, Freek; Velthorst, Nel H; van Straalen, Nico M

    2004-06-01

    Soil-living invertebrates are exposed to high concentrations of contaminants accumulating in dead organic matter, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The capacity for PAH biotransformation is not equally developed in all invertebrates. In this paper, we compare three species of invertebrates, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda), Eisenia andrei (Lumbricidae) and Folsomia candida (Collembola), for the metabolites formed upon exposure to pyrene. Metabolic products of pyrene biotransformation in extracts from whole animals or isopod hepatopancreas were compared to those found in fish bile (flounder and plaice). An optimized HPLC method was used with fluorescence detection; excitation/emission spectra were compared to reference samples of 1-hydroxypyrene and enzymatically synthesized conjugates. Enzymatic hydrolysis after fractionation was used to demonstrate that the conjugates originated from 1-hydroxypyrene. All three invertebrates were able to oxidize pyrene to 1-hydroxypyrene, however, isopods and collembolans stood out as more efficient metabolizers compared to earthworms. In contrast to fish, none of the invertebrates produced pyrene-1-glucuronide as a phase II conjugate. Both Collembola and Isopoda produced significant amounts of pyrene-1-glucoside, whereas isopods also produced pyrene-1-sulfate. A third, previously unknown, conjugate was found in both isopods and springtails, and was analysed further using electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. Based on the obtained mass spectra, a new conjugate is proposed: pyrene-1-O-(6"-O-malonyl)glucoside. The use of glucose-malonate as a conjugant in animal phase II biotransformation has not been described before, but is understandable in the microenvironment of soil-living invertebrates. In the earthworm, three other pyrene metabolites were observed, none of which was shared with the arthropods, although two were conjugates of 1-hydroxypyrene. Our study illustrates the great

  4. Reproductive biology of the isopod Excirolana braziliensis at the southern edge of its geographical range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Gastón; Defeo, Omar

    2006-12-01

    A full analysis of the reproductive biology of the isopod Excirolana braziliensis Richardson 1912 was conducted in a sandy beach of Uruguay, located at the southernmost edge of its distributional range in the Atlantic Ocean. Reproductive and recruitment periods of E. braziliensis were concentrated in austral summer. Females with oostegites appeared in November, whereas total biomass, individual sizes and fecundity of ovigerous females peaked between December and January. These concurrent traits were responsible for the significant peak of juveniles in January. The size at maturity was 9.88 mm. Four embryonic developmental stages were described and identified: mean length linearly increased from stages I to III, whereas dry weight exponentially decreased from stages I to IV. The high reproductive output (0.41-0.58), reported for the first time in this isopod, exceeds the rates documented for other isopods. Reproduction of E. braziliensis at the southern edge of its range is semelparous: females produce one brood during the reproductive season, exhaust their energy reserves during incubation, and probably die at the end of the reproductive season. A macroscale comparison suggests that E. braziliensis at the southern edge of its range counteracts its narrow reproductive period by a short incubation period with larger individual mature female and embryo sizes, higher fecundity and a higher percentage of ovigerous females than in subtropical and tropical populations. These extreme reproductive indicators could be attributed to the internal retention of embryos that assures offspring survival, coupled with a high adaptation capability to environmental variations across its range.

  5. Toxicity interaction between chlorpyrifos, mancozeb and soil moisture to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Rui G; Gomes, Pedro A D; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Cardoso, Diogo N; Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-02-01

    A main source of uncertainty currently associated with environmental risk assessment of chemicals is the poor understanding of the influence of environmental factors on the toxicity of xenobiotics. Aiming to reduce this uncertainty, here we evaluate the joint-effects of two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and mancozeb) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus under different soil moisture regimes. A full factorial design, including three treatments of each pesticide and an untreated control, were performed under different soil moisture regimes: 25%, 50%, and 75% WHC. Our results showed that soil moisture had no effects on isopods survival, at the levels assessed in this experiment, neither regarding single pesticides nor mixture treatments. Additivity was always the most parsimonious result when both pesticides were present. Oppositely, both feeding activity and biomass change showed a higher sensitivity to soil moisture, with isopods generally showing worse performance when exposed to pesticides and dry or moist conditions. Most of the significant differences between soil moisture regimes were found in single pesticide treatments, yet different responses to mixtures could still be distinguished depending on the soil moisture assessed. This study shows that while soil moisture has the potential to influence the effects of the pesticide mixture itself, such effects might become less important in a context of complex combinations of stressors, as the major contribution comes from its individual interaction with each pesticide. Finally, the implications of our results are discussed in light of the current state of environmental risk assessment procedures and some future perspectives are advanced. PMID:26539709

  6. Increased abundance of terrestrial isopod populations in terrestrial ecosystems contaminated with petrochemical wastes.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, B C; Lochmiller, R L

    2000-07-01

    Arthropods are integral components of the food chain, and because many reside in close association to the soil and its contaminants, their communities may be sensitive indicators of ecotoxicity. We examined the influence of petrochemical contaminants on the abundance of several taxonomic groups of macroarthropods, with an emphasis on isopods, residing on two reference sites and three petrochemical-contaminated sites at an abandoned oil refinery site in southwestern Oklahoma. Relative densities of surface-dwelling macroarthropod assemblages were significantly greater on contaminated sites than reference sites. Differences in terrestrial isopod populations were particularly remarkable and consistent across study sites, with densities approaching 180-fold greater on contaminated than reference sites. Similarity comparisons indicated that abundances and composition of macroarthropod assemblages sampled on the contaminated sites were more similar to one another than to the communities residing on reference sites. Although preliminary, these initial results support the hypothesis that macroarthropod assemblages, in particular isopods, are sensitive to soil contaminants and could be a valuable approach to evaluating the effects of petrochemical contamination of soils on terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Comparison of the variable loop regions of myosin heavy chain genes from Antarctic and temperate isopods.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J M; Whiteley, N M; Magnay, J L; El Haj, A J

    2002-03-01

    The evolutionary adaptations of functional genes to life at low temperatures are not well characterised in marine and fresh water invertebrates. Temperature has been shown to affect the functional characteristics of fish muscles, with changes in the velocity of shortening and ATPase activity being associated with myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition and the structure of the surface loop regions. Two PCR products spanning loops 1 and 2 of a MyHC gene from an Antarctic isopod (Glyptonotus antarcticus) were sequenced and compared with those of a temperate isopod (Idotea resecata), slow and fast fibres from lobster (Homarus gammarus) and a cold water amphipod (Eulimnogammarus verrucosus), revealing specific differences between the species, possibly related to fibre type and habitat temperature. The loop 2 region from G. antarcticus myosin was cloned and used for Northern analysis of total RNA from the other species. The cloned myosin cDNA hybridised specifically to a 6.6-kb transcript, in G. antarcticus muscle. In contrast, cDNA probes for lobster slow myosin and actin hybridised to muscle RNA from all species, demonstrating that a distinct MyHC isoform is expressed in the Antarctic isopod, as opposed to the temperate species. The inter- and intra-specific sequence differences in loop 2 region suggest that this may be a site for muscle adaptation to enable function at the low temperatures found in the Southern Ocean. PMID:11959017

  8. Temperature, physiological time, and zinc toxicity in the isopod, Porcellio scaber

    SciTech Connect

    Donker, M.H.; Van Straalen, N.M.; Abdel-Lateif, H.M.; Khalil, M.A.; Bayoumi, B.M.

    1998-08-01

    Temperature is an important controlling factor in the metabolism of ectotherms, and it may interact with the toxicity of heavy metals in a variety of ways. In this work, a study on the effect of different zinc concentrations on growth of the isopod, Porcellio scaber was conducted using four temperature levels. The results demonstrated a significant effect for both zinc and temperature on the growth rate; the interaction between zinc and temperature was also significant. The Arrhenius function was used to describe the temperature-growth rate relationship, from which estimates for the activation energy were derived. A tendency for activation energy to decrease with increasing zinc concentration was observed. Isopods exposed to 13 {micro}mol Zn/g had the highest activation energy and the highest growth rate. To analyze the effect of temperature on the internal body concentration of zinc, the exposure time was transformed into physiological time, calibrated at 15 C, for all experimental groups using the activation energies estimated earlier. The rate of zinc accumulation was derived from the relationship between internal body concentration and physiological exposure time. Differences between isopods cultured at different temperatures could be explained well by the effect of physiological exposure time. The interaction between temperature and zinc toxicity seems to be due not to increased accumulation of zinc at higher temperatures as such but to a physiological interaction with the energy metabolism.

  9. Effects of ingested nano-sized titanium dioxide on terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber).

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Remskar, Maja; Sepcić, Kristina; Tisler, Tatjana

    2008-09-01

    The effects of ingested nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2; anatase, 15 nm) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3-d) dietary exposure were studied. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), in digestive glands were affected in a dose-independent manner, but higher-level isopod endpoints, including weight change, feeding rate, food assimilation efficiency, and survival, were not affected up to the highest tested concentration of TiO2 in food (3,000 microg/g). Exposure concentrations of 0.5, 2,000, and 3,000 microg nonsonicated TiO2/g food decreased CAT and GST activities, but intermediate concentrations (1, 10, 100, and 1,000 microg/g food) did not result in significant changes of enzyme activities. When the dispersion of TiO2 was sonicated, no effects on enzyme activities or higher-level biomarkers were observed. The experimental setup with terrestrial isopods designed for dissolved chemicals also is suitable for testing the effects of ingested nanoparticles, but the presentation of toxicity data needs to be adapted according to the mode of action of the nanoparticles and their specific characteristics.

  10. Toxicity interaction between chlorpyrifos, mancozeb and soil moisture to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Rui G; Gomes, Pedro A D; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Cardoso, Diogo N; Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-02-01

    A main source of uncertainty currently associated with environmental risk assessment of chemicals is the poor understanding of the influence of environmental factors on the toxicity of xenobiotics. Aiming to reduce this uncertainty, here we evaluate the joint-effects of two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and mancozeb) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus under different soil moisture regimes. A full factorial design, including three treatments of each pesticide and an untreated control, were performed under different soil moisture regimes: 25%, 50%, and 75% WHC. Our results showed that soil moisture had no effects on isopods survival, at the levels assessed in this experiment, neither regarding single pesticides nor mixture treatments. Additivity was always the most parsimonious result when both pesticides were present. Oppositely, both feeding activity and biomass change showed a higher sensitivity to soil moisture, with isopods generally showing worse performance when exposed to pesticides and dry or moist conditions. Most of the significant differences between soil moisture regimes were found in single pesticide treatments, yet different responses to mixtures could still be distinguished depending on the soil moisture assessed. This study shows that while soil moisture has the potential to influence the effects of the pesticide mixture itself, such effects might become less important in a context of complex combinations of stressors, as the major contribution comes from its individual interaction with each pesticide. Finally, the implications of our results are discussed in light of the current state of environmental risk assessment procedures and some future perspectives are advanced.

  11. Study of the functional morphology of mouthparts of parasitic isopods of marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Allayie, Sartaj Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective To carry out a comparative study of the mouthparts and the diet of eight isopod fish parasites. Methods A description of the mouthparts, together with their diet nature, was derived both by direct observation and an interpretation of their structure. The three-dimensional study of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites was done to reveal their morphology. Results Observations revealed that these species are wholly carnivorous. Result shows how they are adapted for tearing and bolting fish food material. The mouthparts consist of a labrum, paragnaths, paired mandibles, maxillules, maxillae and maxillipeds. The labrum and the paragnaths are the least developed but peculiarly the mandibles are asymmetrical, large, stout and highly modified. The analysis of gut contents indicated that Cymothoa indica and Joryma brachysoma diet consisted of 90% to 95% of animal blood. The diet of Mothocya renardi, Ryukyua circularis and Joryma hilsae were mainly composed of mucus (80%-90%). The stomach contents of Nerocila phaeopleura and Nerocila sundaica, were dominated by body muscles (75%-83%). Conclusions The possible functions of the mouthparts, especially in feeding are discussed in light of their structure. The morphology of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites are heavily modified with their feeding behavior.

  12. The effects of temperature, desiccation, and body mass on the locomotion of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio laevis.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Tara M; Claussen, Dennis L; Ladd, Gregory B; Buckner, Shizuka T

    2009-06-01

    Locomotion in terrestrial isopods is strongly influenced by body size and by abiotic factors. We determined the speeds of isopods of differing masses within a linear racetrack at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 degrees C. We also predicted maximum speeds based on the Froude number concept as originally applied to vertebrates. In addition we used a circular thermal gradient to examine the temperature preferences of isopods, and we measured the effects of desiccation on locomotion. Measured speeds of the isopods progressively increased with temperature with an overall Q(10) of 1.64 and scaling exponents ranging from 0.38 to 0.63. The predicted maximum speeds were remarkably close to the measured speeds at the highest test temperature although the scaling exponents were closer to 0.15. The isopods did not exhibit a strong thermal preference within the gradient; however, they did generally avoid temperatures above 25 degrees C. Moderate desiccation had no apparent effect on locomotor performance, but there was a progressive decrease in speed once animals had lost more than 10% of their initial body mass. Though largely restricted to moist habitats, P. laevis can easily withstand short exposures to desiccating conditions, and they are capable of effective locomotion over a wide range of temperatures. Since they are nonconglobating, active escape appears to be their primary defense when threatened under exposed conditions. Although their maximum speeds may be limited both by temperature and by their inability to change gait, these speeds are clearly adequate for survival.

  13. A new species of Dolicholana Bruce, 1986 (Isopoda, Cymothoidea, Cirolanidae), the first record of the genus from the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Ricardo J C; Souza-Filho, Jesser F

    2015-11-05

    The isopod genus Dolicholana Bruce, 1986, previously known only from the Indo-West Pacific, is recorded for the first time from the Atlantic Ocean. A new species, Dolicholana brucei sp. nov., is described from the northeastern Brazilian coast, and is the first record of the genus Dolicholana Bruce, 1986 for the Atlantic Ocean. The material was collected from the upper part of the continental slope off Rio Grande do Norte (150 m depth). The new species is characterized by pereopod 1 propodal palm being crenulate, ischium of pereopod 1 and 2 with a plumose seta on the anterior margin, peduncle of pleopods 3-5 bearing an accessory lobe acute on the distolateral angle, pleotelson posterior margin being rounded, and the uropodal endopod and the exopod apices distally being rounded. A revised key to the genus is provided.

  14. The genus Bipolaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on ...

  15. The Global Diversity of Parasitic Isopods Associated with Crustacean Hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason D.; Boyko, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans) are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ∼7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species) and intermediate (pelagic copepod) host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species), with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species), East Asian Sea (120 species), and Central Indian Ocean (44 species). The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts) are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species) followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively). Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids) exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species) with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts) show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species) and North East Atlantic (8 species). Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago) hold a wealth of

  16. The Immune Cellular Effectors of Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium vulgare: Meeting with Their Invaders, Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Bertaux, Joanne; Raimond, Maryline; Morel, Franck; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background Most of crustacean immune responses are well described for the aquatic forms whereas almost nothing is known for the isopods that evolved a terrestrial lifestyle. The latter are also infected at a high prevalence with Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium which affects the host immune system, possibly to improve its transmission. In contrast with insect models, the isopod Armadillidium vulgare is known to harbor Wolbachia inside the haemocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings In A. vulgare we characterized three haemocyte types (TEM, flow cytometry): the hyaline and semi-granular haemocytes were phagocytes, while semi-granular and granular haemocytes performed encapsulation. They were produced in the haematopoietic organs, from central stem cells, maturing as they moved toward the edge (TEM). In infected individuals, live Wolbachia (FISH) colonized 38% of the haemocytes but with low, variable densities (6.45±0.46 Wolbachia on average). So far they were not found in hyaline haemocytes (TEM). The haematopoietic organs contained 7.6±0.7×103 Wolbachia, both in stem cells and differentiating cells (FISH). While infected and uninfected one-year-old individuals had the same haemocyte density, in infected animals the proportion of granular haemocytes in particular decreased by one third (flow cytometry, Pearson's test = 12 822.98, df = 2, p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance The characteristics of the isopod immune system fell within the range of those known from aquatic crustaceans. The colonization of the haemocytes by Wolbachia seemed to stand from the haematopoietic organs, which may act as a reservoir to discharge Wolbachia in the haemolymph, a known route for horizontal transfer. Wolbachia infection did not affect the haemocyte density, but the quantity of granular haemocytes decreased by one third. This may account for the reduced prophenoloxidase activity observed previously in these animals. PMID:21533137

  17. Toxicity of imidacloprid to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Drobne, Damjana; Blazic, Mateja; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Leser, Vladka; Zidar, Primoz; Jemec, Anita; Trebse, Polonca

    2008-04-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide with neurotoxic action that, as a possible alternative for commonly used organophosphorus pesticides, has gained registration in about 120 countries for use in over 140 agricultural crops. Only few data are available on its toxicity for soil invertebrates. We therefore assessed the effects of imidacloprid on survival, weight gain, feeding rate, total protein content, glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), and digestive gland epithelial thickness in juveniles and adults of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. After two weeks of feeding on imidacloprid-dosed food, weight gain (NOEC 5 microg/g dry food) and feeding rate (NOEC 10 microg/g) in juveniles, and feeding rate (NOEC<10 microg/g) and digestive gland epithelial thickness (NOEC<10 microg/g) in adults were most affected. In juveniles induction of GST activity and increase of total protein content per wet animal weight was detected at 5 microg/g dry food, whereas in adults a reduction of GST was observed at 25 microg/g (NOEC 10 microg/g). An estimate of actual intake rates suggests that imidacloprid affects isopods at similar exposure concentrations as insects. The toxicity of imidacloprid was similar to that of the organophosphorus pesticide diazinon, tested earlier using the same methods [Stanek, K., Drobne, D., Trebse, P., 2006. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). Chemosphere 64, 1745-1752]. At actual environmental concentrations, diazinon poses a higher risk to P. scaber. Due to its increasing use in crop protection and higher persistence in soil, imidacloprid might however, be potentially more dangerous after long-term application. We conclude that toxicity testing with P. scaber provides relevant, repeatable, reproducible and comparable toxicity data that is useful for the risk assessment of pesticides in the terrestrial environment.

  18. Molt frequency of the isopod Porcellio scaber, as a measure of zinc-contaminated food

    SciTech Connect

    Drobne, D.; Strus, J.

    1996-02-01

    The effect of zinc-contaminated leaf litter (250--10,000 {micro}g/g dry wt.) diets on molting in Porcellio scaber, a terrestrial isopod was measured under controlled conditions. The duration of the premolt stage, the period between two successive ecdyses and the rate of molting, was followed during the exposure. Increased zinc concentration in the food caused prolongation of the molt cycle and decreased molt frequency. The duration of the premolt stage was not changed. Molt cycle was not affected drastically due to food deprivation. The application of molt cycle response to contaminated food in toxicity tests is discussed.

  19. Host origin and tissue microhabitat shaping the microbiota of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Jessica; Lesobre, Jérôme; Moumen, Bouziane; Bouchon, Didier

    2016-05-01

    We present the first in-depth investigation of the host-associated microbiota of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. This species is an important decomposer of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems and a major model organism for arthropod-Wolbachia symbioses due to its well-characterized association with feminizing Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene pyrotags were used to characterize its bacterial microbiota at multiple levels: (i) in individuals from laboratory lineages and field populations and (ii) in various host tissues. This integrative approach allowed us to reveal an unexpectedly high bacterial diversity, placing this species in the same league as termites in terms of symbiotic diversity. Interestingly, both animal groups belong to the same ecological guild in terrestrial ecosystems. While Wolbachia represented the predominant taxon in infected individuals, it was not the only major player. Together, the most abundant taxa represented a large scope of symbiotic interactions, including bacterial pathogens, a reproductive parasite (Wolbachia) and potential nutritional symbionts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals from different populations harboured distinct bacterial communities, indicating a strong link between the host-associated microbiota and environmental bacteria, possibly due to terrestrial isopod nutritional ecology. Overall, this work highlights the need for more studies of host-microbiota interactions and bacterial diversity in non-insect arthropods. PMID:27004796

  20. Mitochondrial genome haplotype hypervariation within the isopod parasitic nematode Thaumamermis cosgrovei.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sha; Hyman, Bradley C

    2007-06-01

    Characterization of mitochondrial genomes from individual Thaumamermis cosgrovei nematodes, obligate parasites of the isopod Armadillidium vulgare, revealed that numerous mtDNA haplotypes, ranging in size from 19 to 34 kb, are maintained in several spatially separated isopod populations. The magnitude and frequency of conspecific mtDNA size variation is unprecedented among all studied size-polymorphic metazoan mitochondrial genomes. To understand the molecular basis of this hypervariation, complete nucleotide sequences of two T. cosgrovei mtDNA haplotypes were determined. A hypervariable segment, residing between the atp6 and rrnL genes, contributes exclusively to T. cosgrovei mtDNA size variation. Within this region, mtDNA coding genes and putative nonfunctional sequences have accumulated substitutions and are duplicated and rearranged to varying extents. Hypervariation at this level has enabled a first insight into the life history of T. cosgrovei. In five A. vulgare hosts infected with multiple nematodes, four carried nematodes with identical mtDNA haplotypes, suggesting that hosts may become infected by ingesting a recently hatched egg clutch or become parasitized by individuals from the same brood prior to dispersal of siblings within the soil. PMID:17435228

  1. Body shape in terrestrial isopods: A morphological mechanism to resist desiccation?

    PubMed

    Broly, Pierre; Devigne, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2015-11-01

    Woodlice are fully terrestrial crustaceans and are known to be sensitive to water loss. Their half-ellipsoidal shapes represent simple models in which to investigate theoretical assumptions about organism morphology and rates of exchange with the environment. We examine the influence of surface area and mass on the desiccation rates in three eco-morphologically different species of woodlice: Oniscus asellus, Porcellio scaber, and Armadillidium vulgare. Our analysis indicates that the rate of water loss of an individual depends on both the initial weight and the body surface area. Interspecific and intraspecific analyses show that the mass-specific water loss rate of a species decreases along with the ratio of surface area to volume. In particular, we show that body shape explains the difference in mass-specific water loss rates between A. vulgare and P. scaber. This observation also explains several known ecological patterns, for example, the distribution and survivorship of individuals. However, in addition to body size and shape, water loss in terrestrial isopods depends also on the coefficient of permeability (i.e., a measure of water loss rate per surface unit), which is high in O. asellus and lower (and at similar levels) in P. scaber and A. vulgare. We discuss morphological, physiological, and behavioral aspects of water loss avoidance in terrestrial isopods. PMID:26289755

  2. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria. PMID:27312602

  3. Terrestrial isopods congregate under a low-level beta-emitter source.

    PubMed

    Kanao, Tomoko; Miyachi, Yukihisa; Yamada, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is ubiquitous, but very few experiments have investigated the biological effects of the natural background radiation at very low doses (>10 mGy/yr). We examined whether the background radiation, or radiation of a slightly higher level, has a role in evoking changes in behaviors of terrestrial isopods (woodlice). Upon exposure to a source giving 15 times the background level placed at one end of a box, a significant increase in the number of woodlice gathering under the beta-source was observed with time, as compared with the sham control. Terrestrial isopods have chemoreceptors (the olfactory system) on the terminal segment of their antennae. An additional experiment confirmed the involvement of these antennae in the radiation effect on behavior. After the excision of the antennae, no beta-taxis response was observed. The behavior of the group exposed to the source giving 30 times the background tended to decrease gradually in the area of the source, and the individuals aggregated in the area away from the source. Thus, the olfactory sensor in the antennae may be an important organ involved in the prompt response to radiation exposure, and the discrimination of the radiation field strengths of radioisotopes.

  4. Host origin and tissue microhabitat shaping the microbiota of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Jessica; Lesobre, Jérôme; Moumen, Bouziane; Bouchon, Didier

    2016-05-01

    We present the first in-depth investigation of the host-associated microbiota of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. This species is an important decomposer of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems and a major model organism for arthropod-Wolbachia symbioses due to its well-characterized association with feminizing Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene pyrotags were used to characterize its bacterial microbiota at multiple levels: (i) in individuals from laboratory lineages and field populations and (ii) in various host tissues. This integrative approach allowed us to reveal an unexpectedly high bacterial diversity, placing this species in the same league as termites in terms of symbiotic diversity. Interestingly, both animal groups belong to the same ecological guild in terrestrial ecosystems. While Wolbachia represented the predominant taxon in infected individuals, it was not the only major player. Together, the most abundant taxa represented a large scope of symbiotic interactions, including bacterial pathogens, a reproductive parasite (Wolbachia) and potential nutritional symbionts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals from different populations harboured distinct bacterial communities, indicating a strong link between the host-associated microbiota and environmental bacteria, possibly due to terrestrial isopod nutritional ecology. Overall, this work highlights the need for more studies of host-microbiota interactions and bacterial diversity in non-insect arthropods.

  5. Body shape in terrestrial isopods: A morphological mechanism to resist desiccation?

    PubMed

    Broly, Pierre; Devigne, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2015-11-01

    Woodlice are fully terrestrial crustaceans and are known to be sensitive to water loss. Their half-ellipsoidal shapes represent simple models in which to investigate theoretical assumptions about organism morphology and rates of exchange with the environment. We examine the influence of surface area and mass on the desiccation rates in three eco-morphologically different species of woodlice: Oniscus asellus, Porcellio scaber, and Armadillidium vulgare. Our analysis indicates that the rate of water loss of an individual depends on both the initial weight and the body surface area. Interspecific and intraspecific analyses show that the mass-specific water loss rate of a species decreases along with the ratio of surface area to volume. In particular, we show that body shape explains the difference in mass-specific water loss rates between A. vulgare and P. scaber. This observation also explains several known ecological patterns, for example, the distribution and survivorship of individuals. However, in addition to body size and shape, water loss in terrestrial isopods depends also on the coefficient of permeability (i.e., a measure of water loss rate per surface unit), which is high in O. asellus and lower (and at similar levels) in P. scaber and A. vulgare. We discuss morphological, physiological, and behavioral aspects of water loss avoidance in terrestrial isopods.

  6. Environmental- and growth stage-related differences in the susceptibility of terrestrial isopods to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Rui; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Tourinho, Paula; Ribeiro, Fabianne; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Global environmental changes are nowadays one of the most important issues affecting terrestrial ecosystems. One of its most significant expressions is the increasing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) arising from the human-induced depletion in ozone layer. Therefore, to investigate the effects of UVR on the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus a multiple biomarker approach was carried out. Two experiments were performed in order to analyze the importance of the exposure environment and the growth stage on the UV-induced damages. First, adult individuals were exposed to UVR in three exposure environments (soil, soil with leaves, and plaster). Thereafter, three growth stages using soil as the exposure condition were tested. Integrated biomarker responses (IBR) suggested that UV effects were higher in plaster, and mostly identified by changes in acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferases activities, lipid peroxidation rates, and total energy available. The effects in soil and soil with leaves were not so clear. In the growth stages' experiment, juveniles and pre-adults were found to be more affected than adults, with the greatest differences between irradiated and non-irradiated isopods occurring in energy-related parameters. Our findings suggest that soil surface-living macrofauna may be prone to deleterious effects caused by UVR, highlighting the importance of taking the media of exposure and growth stage in account.

  7. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria.

  8. Ultrastructure and mineral distribution in the tergal cuticle of the terrestrial isopod Titanethes albus. Adaptations to a karst cave biotope.

    PubMed

    Hild, Sabine; Neues, Frank; Znidarsic, Nada; Strus, Jasna; Epple, Matthias; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Composition and spatial distribution of organic and inorganic materials within the cuticle of isopods vary between species. These variations are related to the behaviour and habitat of the animal. The troglobiotic isopod Titanethes albus lives in the complete darkness of caves in the Slovenian Karst. This habitat provides constant temperature and saturated humidity throughout the year and inconsistent food supply. These conditions should have lead to functional adaptations of arthropod cuticles. However, studies on structure and composition of cave arthropod cuticles are rare and lacking for terrestrial isopods. We therefore analysed the tergite cuticle of T. albus using transmission and field-emission electron microscopy, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopic imaging, quantitative X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ultrastructure of the epicuticle suggests a poor resistance against water loss. A weak interconnection between the organic and mineral phase within the endo- and exocuticle, a comparatively thin apical calcite layer, and almost lack of magnesium within the calcite crystal lattice suggest that the mechanical strength of the cuticle is low in the cave isopod. This may possibly be of advantage in maintaining high cuticle flexibility and reducing metabolic expenditures. PMID:19632333

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Ps, a Bacterial Symbiont in the Hepatopancreas of the Terrestrial Isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Collingro, Astrid; Kostanjšek, Rok; Toenshoff, Elena R; Schulz, Frederik; Schuster, Lisa; Domann, Daryl; Horn, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Ps is an extracellular symbiont residing in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Its genome is highly similar to that of the close relative "Ca. Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Av from Armadillidium vulgare. However, instead of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system, it encodes a type I restriction modification system. PMID:26272556

  10. Isolation, characterization and PCR multiplexing of microsatellite loci for two sub-species of terrestrial isopod Porcellio dilatatus (Crustacea, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Michaud, Caroline; Chupeau, Cassandre; Bech, Nicolas; Thierry, Magali; Sicard, Mathieu; Greve, Pierre; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Several microsatellite markers have already been developed for different terrestrial isopod species such as Armadillidium vulgare, A. nasatum and Porcellionides pruinosus. In all these species, the endosymbiont Wolbachia has a feminizing effect that generates a female bias in sex ratio and reduces the number of reproductive males. Thus this can potentially decrease the genetic diversity of host populations. However, in some other isopod species, Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI); the most commonly described effect of Wolbachia in arthropods. The CI by rendering some crossings incompatible can reduce the gene flow and strengthen genetic differentiation between isopod populations. To date, the influence of Wolbachia inducing CI on population structure of terrestrial isopods has never been investigated. In this study, we developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers shared by two sub-species of Porcellio dilatatus. Crossings between the two sub-species are partially incompatible due to two CI-inducing Wolbachia strains. These new microsatellite markers will allow us to investigate the effect of CI on host genetic differentiation in this species complex. PMID:26943350

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Ps, a Bacterial Symbiont in the Hepatopancreas of the Terrestrial Isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Collingro, Astrid; Kostanjšek, Rok; Toenshoff, Elena R; Schulz, Frederik; Schuster, Lisa; Domann, Daryl; Horn, Matthias

    2015-08-13

    "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Ps is an extracellular symbiont residing in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Its genome is highly similar to that of the close relative "Ca. Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Av from Armadillidium vulgare. However, instead of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system, it encodes a type I restriction modification system.

  12. Iranian terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae Verhoeff, 1949 with a description of a new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Kashani, Ghasem M

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae in Iran are investigated. Geographical distributions of two formerly reported species from Iran, namely Cylisticoides angulatus Schmalfuss, 2003 and Cylisticus rotundifrons (Schmalfuss, 1986), are expanded. Cylisticus masalicus sp. n. is described and its diagnostic characters are figured.

  13. Iranian terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae Verhoeff, 1949 with a description of a new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Ghasem M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, the terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae in Iran are investigated. Geographical distributions of two formerly reported species from Iran, namely Cylisticoides angulatus Schmalfuss, 2003 and Cylisticus rotundifrons (Schmalfuss, 1986), are expanded. Cylisticus masalicus sp. n. is described and its diagnostic characters are figured. PMID:27199591

  14. Isolation, characterization and PCR multiplexing of microsatellite loci for two sub-species of terrestrial isopod Porcellio dilatatus (Crustacea, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Michaud, Caroline; Chupeau, Cassandre; Bech, Nicolas; Thierry, Magali; Sicard, Mathieu; Greve, Pierre; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Several microsatellite markers have already been developed for different terrestrial isopod species such as Armadillidium vulgare, A. nasatum and Porcellionides pruinosus. In all these species, the endosymbiont Wolbachia has a feminizing effect that generates a female bias in sex ratio and reduces the number of reproductive males. Thus this can potentially decrease the genetic diversity of host populations. However, in some other isopod species, Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI); the most commonly described effect of Wolbachia in arthropods. The CI by rendering some crossings incompatible can reduce the gene flow and strengthen genetic differentiation between isopod populations. To date, the influence of Wolbachia inducing CI on population structure of terrestrial isopods has never been investigated. In this study, we developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers shared by two sub-species of Porcellio dilatatus. Crossings between the two sub-species are partially incompatible due to two CI-inducing Wolbachia strains. These new microsatellite markers will allow us to investigate the effect of CI on host genetic differentiation in this species complex.

  15. Patterns of urban mercury contamination detected by bioindication with terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Sager, Manfred; Werner, Richard; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2012-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a trace element with high toxicological impact on potential receptors, including human beings. Global Hg emissions are predicted to increase significantly during the next 40 years. After emission, the metal is transported by air currents and precipitations, leading to increasing depositions even in areas far from emission sources. In the terrestrial environment, Hg is subjected to redistribution and transformation into different inorganic and metal-organic species that are taken up by vegetation and soil organisms. In the present study, the woodlouse (Porcellio scaber) was used as a biological indicator of total Hg pollution in the city of Dornbirn (province of Vorarlberg), Austria. Woodlice were collected from 30 sampling points scattered over the city area, 25 of them situated within a rectangular transect crossing the city area from west-northwest to east-southeast, starting near the Rheintal motorway and ending at the slopes of the Bregenzer Wald hills. In addition to woodlice, soil substrate samples were collected at nine of the selected sampling points. Total Hg concentrations were measured in isopod tissues and soil substrate samples by means of an Hg analyzer. Total Hg concentrations in isopod tissues were significantly correlated with Hg soil contents (P < 0.05). Moreover, a gradient of increasing Hg concentrations was observed in isopod samples along the transect across Dornbirn, with the lowest concentrations detected in woodlouse samples near the Rheintal motorway and the highest levels toward the ascending slopes of the Bregenzer Wald hills. This gradient of increasing Hg concentrations across the city matches a concomitant increase in wet precipitations along the same direction, indicating that deposition by wet precipitation may be an important source for Hg contamination in the city of Dornbirn. Overall, the degree of Hg contamination across the study area can be regarded as rather low, i.e., comparable with concentrations observed

  16. The genus Bipolaris

    PubMed Central

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species’ synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. PMID:25492990

  17. In field conditions, commercial pigment grade TiO2 was not harmful to terrestrial isopods but reduced leaf litter fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Kos, Monika; Drobne, Damjana; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Vukić, Jovan; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Loureiro, Susana; McShane, Heather V A

    2016-11-15

    We investigated the effects of a commercial pigment grade rutile TiO2 on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in three locations that differed in terms of abiotic and biotic conditions: the laboratory, open air, and the closed barn. Mortality and isopod energy reserves (digestive gland total proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) were not affected following 14days exposure to up to 1000mg TiO2 per kg dry leaves (mg/kg) under any experimental scenario. However, in the field tests, isopods consumption of TiO2-coated leaves was reduced compared to that of uncoated leaves and the decrease was not dose-dependent. The highest reduction was in the closed barn (45-56%) rather than in the open-air (38-40%). In laboratory-based food choice tests, isopods neither preferred nor avoided leaves coated with TiO2, suggesting that rather than sensing the TiO2 on the leaves directly, the isopods under open-air and barn exposure responded to altered attractiveness and/or palatability of the TiO2 amended leaves. We propose that this could be due to altered microbial population on the leaves, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. Although short-term exposure to atmospheric deposition of up to 1000mg/kg commercial TiO2 is unlikely to pose an immediate threat to isopod mortality and energy balance, reduced leaf feeding may have implications for the decomposition of plant material. PMID:27481455

  18. In field conditions, commercial pigment grade TiO2 was not harmful to terrestrial isopods but reduced leaf litter fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Kos, Monika; Drobne, Damjana; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Vukić, Jovan; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Loureiro, Susana; McShane, Heather V A

    2016-11-15

    We investigated the effects of a commercial pigment grade rutile TiO2 on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in three locations that differed in terms of abiotic and biotic conditions: the laboratory, open air, and the closed barn. Mortality and isopod energy reserves (digestive gland total proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) were not affected following 14days exposure to up to 1000mg TiO2 per kg dry leaves (mg/kg) under any experimental scenario. However, in the field tests, isopods consumption of TiO2-coated leaves was reduced compared to that of uncoated leaves and the decrease was not dose-dependent. The highest reduction was in the closed barn (45-56%) rather than in the open-air (38-40%). In laboratory-based food choice tests, isopods neither preferred nor avoided leaves coated with TiO2, suggesting that rather than sensing the TiO2 on the leaves directly, the isopods under open-air and barn exposure responded to altered attractiveness and/or palatability of the TiO2 amended leaves. We propose that this could be due to altered microbial population on the leaves, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. Although short-term exposure to atmospheric deposition of up to 1000mg/kg commercial TiO2 is unlikely to pose an immediate threat to isopod mortality and energy balance, reduced leaf feeding may have implications for the decomposition of plant material.

  19. Developmental Toxicity of Endocrine Disrupters Bisphenol A and Vinclozolin in a Terrestrial Isopod

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, C. A. M.; Soares, A. M. V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the effects of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on invertebrates are still largely underrepresented. This work aims to fill this gap by assessing the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (common rough woodlouse). Male adult and sexually undifferentiated juvenile woodlice were exposed to the toxicants. Effects on molting regime and growth were investigated independently for males and female woodlice after sexual differentiation. Both chemicals elicited developmental toxicity to P. scaber by causing overall decreased growth. Nevertheless, BPA induced molting, whereas Vz delayed it. Although the LC50 values for juvenile and adult survival were fairly similar, juvenile woodlice showed an increased chronic sensitivity to both chemicals, and female woodlice were most the sensitive to BPA. We recommend the use of adults, juveniles, female, and male woodlice, as well as a large range of toxicant concentrations, to provide valuable information regarding differential dose responses, effects, and threshold values for EDCs. PMID:20148245

  20. Platinum uptake by the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus in urban rivers.

    PubMed

    Rauch, S; Morrison, G M

    1999-09-01

    Platinum has been increasing in the environment as a result of emissions from catalytic converters. The platinum emitted is principally located in the vicinity of roads but might be transported to urban rivers through highway and urban run-off water. Platinum concentrations in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus were measured for two urban rivers and a stormwater detention pond. Concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 12.4 micrograms g-1 for direct analysis and from 0.16 to 4.5 micrograms g-1 after depuration. Analyses of water, pore water and sediments indicate that platinum in urban rivers is mostly found in the sediments and these provide the major contribution of platinum to Asellus aquaticus. Exposure experiments showed the importance of platinum speciation for uptake.

  1. The Terrestrial Isopod Microbiome: An All-in-One Toolbox for Animal–Microbe Interactions of Ecological Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Bouchon, Didier; Zimmer, Martin; Dittmer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host–microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial isopods comprise a group of crustaceans that have evolved a terrestrial lifestyle and represent keystone species in terrestrial ecosystems, contributing to the decomposition of organic matter and regulating the microbial food web. Since their nutrition is based on plant detritus, it has long been suspected that bacterial symbionts located in the digestive tissues might play an important role in host nutrition via the provisioning of digestive enzymes, thereby enabling the utilization of recalcitrant food compounds (e.g., cellulose or lignins). If this were the case, then (i) the acquisition of these bacteria might have been an important evolutionary prerequisite for the colonization of land by isopods, and (ii) these bacterial symbionts would directly mediate the role of their hosts in ecosystem functioning. Several bacterial symbionts have indeed been discovered in the midgut caeca of terrestrial isopods and some of them might be specific to this group of animals (i.e., Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum, Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum, and Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis), while others are well-known intracellular pathogens (Rickettsiella spp.) or reproductive parasites (Wolbachia sp.). Moreover, a recent investigation of the microbiota in Armadillidium vulgare has revealed that this species harbors a highly diverse bacterial community which varies between host populations

  2. Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

  3. Molecular systematics and biodiversity of oniscidean isopods in the groundwater calcretes of central Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Javidkar, Mohammad; Cooper, Steven J B; King, Rachael A; Humphreys, William F; Bertozzi, Terry; Stevens, Mark I; Austin, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater calcrete aquifers of central Western Australia have been shown to contain a high diversity of stygobiont (subterranean aquatic) invertebrates, with each species confined to an individual calcrete and the entire system resembling a 'subterranean archipelago' containing hundreds of isolated calcretes. Here, we utilised alternative sampling techniques above the water table and uncovered a significant fauna of subterranean terrestrial oniscidean isopods from the calcretes. We explored the diversity and evolution of this fauna using molecular analyses based on one mitochondrial gene, Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI), two Ribosomal RNA genes (28S and 18S), and one protein coding nuclear gene, Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase (LysRS). The results from 12 calcretes showed the existence of 36 divergent DNA lineages belonging to four oniscidean families (Paraplatyarthridae, Armadillidae, Stenoniscidae and Philosciidae). Using a combination of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods, we hypothesized the occurrence of at least 27 putative new species of subterranean oniscideans, of which 24 taxa appeared to be restricted to an individual calcrete, lending further support to the "subterranean island hypothesis". Three paraplatyarthrid species were present on adjacent calcretes and these exceptions possessed more ommatidia and body pigments compared with the calcrete-restricted taxa, and are likely to represent troglophiles. The occurrence of stenoniscid isopods in the calcretes of central Western Australia, a group previously only known from the marine littoral zone, suggests a link to the marine inundation of the Eucla basin during the Late Eocene. The current oniscidean subterranean fauna consists of groups known to be subtropical, littoral and benthic, reflecting different historical events that have shaped the evolution of the fauna in the calcretes. PMID:27469380

  4. Fish mucus versus parasitic gnathiid isopods as sources of energy and sunscreens for a cleaner fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckes, Maxi; Dove, Sophie; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2015-09-01

    The cleaning behaviour of the bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is extensively used as a model system for understanding cooperation. It feeds mainly on blood-sucking gnathiid isopods and also on the epidermal mucus of client fish; the nutritional quality of these foods, however, is unknown. The epidermal mucus of reef fish contains ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs), which are only obtained via the diet; nevertheless, while La. dimidiatus has high amounts of MAAs in its mucus, their source is unknown. Therefore, the energetic value (calories and protein estimated using carbon and nitrogen) and MAA level in gnathiids and mucus from several clients [parrotfishes, wrasses (Labridae), and a snapper (Lutjanidae)] were determined. The energetic value of mucus and gnathiids varied among fishes. Overall, carbon, nitrogen, calories, and protein per dry weight were higher in the mucus of most client species compared to gnathiids. Thus, depending on the client species, mucus may be energetically more advantageous for cleaner wrasse to feed on than gnathiids. UV absorbance, a confirmed proxy for MAA levels, indicated high MAA levels in mucus, whereas gnathiids had no detectable MAAs. This suggests that La. dimidiatus obtain MAAs from mucus but not from gnathiids. Hence, in addition to energy, the mucus of some clients also provides La. dimidiatus with the added bonus of UV-absorbing compounds. This may explain why cleaner fish prefer to feed on mucus over gnathiid isopods. The likely costs and benefits to clients of the removal of UV protecting mucus and parasitic gnathiids, respectively, and the variation in benefits gained by cleaner fish from feeding on these foods may explain some variation in cooperation levels in cleaning interactions.

  5. The Mutualistic Side of Wolbachia-Isopod Interactions: Wolbachia Mediated Protection Against Pathogenic Intracellular Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Altinli, Mine; Pigeault, Romain; Chevalier, Frédéric D; Grève, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Sicard, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is a vertically transmitted endosymbiont whose radiative success is mainly related to various host reproductive manipulations that led to consider this symbiont as a conflictual reproductive parasite. However, lately, some Wolbachia have been shown to act as beneficial symbionts by protecting hosts against a broad range of parasites. Still, this protection has been mostly demonstrated in artificial Wolbachia-host associations between partners that did not co-evolved together. Here, we tested in two terrestrial isopod species Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio dilatatus whether resident Wolbachia (native or non-native) could confer protection during infections with Listeria ivanovii and Salmonella typhimurium and also during a transinfection with a Wolbachia strain that kills the recipient host (i.e., wVulC in P. dilatatus). Survival analyses showed that (i) A. vulgare lines hosting their native Wolbachia (wVulC) always exhibited higher survival than asymbiotic ones when infected with pathogenic bacteria (ii) P. dilatatus lines hosting their native wDil Wolbachia strain survived the S. typhimurium infection better, while lines hosting non-native wCon Wolbachia strain survived the L. ivanovii and also the transinfection with wVulC from A. vulgare better. By studying L. ivanovii and S. typhimurium loads in the hemolymph of the different host-Wolbachia systems, we showed that (i) the difference in survival between lines after L. ivanovii infections were not linked to the difference between their pathogenic bacterial loads, and (ii) the difference in survival after S. typhimurium infections corresponds to lower loads of pathogenic bacteria. Overall, our results demonstrate a beneficial effect of Wolbachia on survival of terrestrial isopods when infected with pathogenic intracellular bacteria. This protective effect may rely on different mechanisms depending on the resident symbiont and the invasive bacteria interacting together within the hosts. PMID:26733946

  6. Molecular systematics and biodiversity of oniscidean isopods in the groundwater calcretes of central Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Javidkar, Mohammad; Cooper, Steven J B; King, Rachael A; Humphreys, William F; Bertozzi, Terry; Stevens, Mark I; Austin, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater calcrete aquifers of central Western Australia have been shown to contain a high diversity of stygobiont (subterranean aquatic) invertebrates, with each species confined to an individual calcrete and the entire system resembling a 'subterranean archipelago' containing hundreds of isolated calcretes. Here, we utilised alternative sampling techniques above the water table and uncovered a significant fauna of subterranean terrestrial oniscidean isopods from the calcretes. We explored the diversity and evolution of this fauna using molecular analyses based on one mitochondrial gene, Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI), two Ribosomal RNA genes (28S and 18S), and one protein coding nuclear gene, Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase (LysRS). The results from 12 calcretes showed the existence of 36 divergent DNA lineages belonging to four oniscidean families (Paraplatyarthridae, Armadillidae, Stenoniscidae and Philosciidae). Using a combination of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods, we hypothesized the occurrence of at least 27 putative new species of subterranean oniscideans, of which 24 taxa appeared to be restricted to an individual calcrete, lending further support to the "subterranean island hypothesis". Three paraplatyarthrid species were present on adjacent calcretes and these exceptions possessed more ommatidia and body pigments compared with the calcrete-restricted taxa, and are likely to represent troglophiles. The occurrence of stenoniscid isopods in the calcretes of central Western Australia, a group previously only known from the marine littoral zone, suggests a link to the marine inundation of the Eucla basin during the Late Eocene. The current oniscidean subterranean fauna consists of groups known to be subtropical, littoral and benthic, reflecting different historical events that have shaped the evolution of the fauna in the calcretes.

  7. The Mutualistic Side of Wolbachia–Isopod Interactions: Wolbachia Mediated Protection Against Pathogenic Intracellular Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Altinli, Mine; Pigeault, Romain; Chevalier, Frédéric D.; Grève, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Sicard, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is a vertically transmitted endosymbiont whose radiative success is mainly related to various host reproductive manipulations that led to consider this symbiont as a conflictual reproductive parasite. However, lately, some Wolbachia have been shown to act as beneficial symbionts by protecting hosts against a broad range of parasites. Still, this protection has been mostly demonstrated in artificial Wolbachia-host associations between partners that did not co-evolved together. Here, we tested in two terrestrial isopod species Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio dilatatus whether resident Wolbachia (native or non-native) could confer protection during infections with Listeria ivanovii and Salmonella typhimurium and also during a transinfection with a Wolbachia strain that kills the recipient host (i.e., wVulC in P. dilatatus). Survival analyses showed that (i) A. vulgare lines hosting their native Wolbachia (wVulC) always exhibited higher survival than asymbiotic ones when infected with pathogenic bacteria (ii) P. dilatatus lines hosting their native wDil Wolbachia strain survived the S. typhimurium infection better, while lines hosting non-native wCon Wolbachia strain survived the L. ivanovii and also the transinfection with wVulC from A. vulgare better. By studying L. ivanovii and S. typhimurium loads in the hemolymph of the different host-Wolbachia systems, we showed that (i) the difference in survival between lines after L. ivanovii infections were not linked to the difference between their pathogenic bacterial loads, and (ii) the difference in survival after S. typhimurium infections corresponds to lower loads of pathogenic bacteria. Overall, our results demonstrate a beneficial effect of Wolbachia on survival of terrestrial isopods when infected with pathogenic intracellular bacteria. This protective effect may rely on different mechanisms depending on the resident symbiont and the invasive bacteria interacting together within the hosts. PMID:26733946

  8. Lysosomal membrane stability in laboratory- and field-exposed terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Nolde, Natasa; Drobne, Damjana; Valant, Janez; Padovan, Ingrid; Horvat, Milena

    2006-08-01

    Two established methods for assessment of the cytotoxicity of contaminants, the lysosomal latency (LL) assay and the neutral red retention (NRR) assay, were successfully applied to in toto digestive gland tubes (hepatopancreas) of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). In vitro exposure of isolated gland tubes to copper was used as a positive control to determine the performance of the two methods. Lysosomal latency and the NRR assay were then used on in vivo (via food) laboratory-exposed animals and on field populations. Arbitrarily selected criteria for determination of the fitness of P. scaber were set on the basis of lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) as assessed with in toto digestive gland tubes. Decreased LMS was detected in animals from all polluted sites, but cytotoxicity data were not in agreement with concentrations of pollutants. Lysosomal membrane stability in the digestive gland tubes of animals from an environment in Idrija, Slovenia that was highly polluted with mercury (260 microg/g dry wt food and 1,600 microg/g dry wt soil) was less affected than LMS in laboratory animals fed with 5 and 50 microg Hg/g dry weight for 3 d. This probably indicates tolerance of P. scaber to mercury in the mercury-polluted environment and/or lower bioavailability of environmental mercury. In animals from the vicinity of a thermal power plant with environmental mercury concentrations three to four orders of magnitude lower than those in Idrija, LMS was severely affected. In general, the LL assay was more sensitive than the NRR assay. The LMS assay conducted on digestive gland tubes of terrestrial isopods is highly recommended for integrated biomarker studies.

  9. Influence of dimethoate on acetylcholinesterase activity and locomotor function in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Engenheiro, Elizabeth L; Hankard, Peter K; Sousa, José P; Lemos, Marco F; Weeks, Jason M; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2005-03-01

    Locomotor behavior in terrestrial organisms is crucial for burrowing, avoiding predators, food seeking, migration, and reproduction; therefore, it is a parameter with ecological relevance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a nervous system enzyme inhibited by several compounds and widely used as an exposure biomarker in several organisms. Moreover, changes in energy reserves also may indicate an exposure to a stress situation. The aim of this study is to link biomarkers of different levels of biological organization in isopods exposed to increasing doses of dimethoate in semifield conditions. Locomotor parameters, AChE activity, and energy reserves (lipid, glycogen, and protein contents) were evaluated in the isopod Porcellio dilatatus after 48-h and 10-d exposure to dimethoate-contaminated soil. Results showed a clear impairment of both locomotor and AChE activity during the entire study, although effects were more pronounced after 48 h. Most locomotor parameters and AChE activity showed a clear dose-response relationship. By contrast, no clear trend was observed on energetic components. A positive and significant relationship was found between AChE activity and those locomotor parameters indicating activity, and the opposite was observed with those locomotor parameters indicating confusion and disorientation. The results obtained in this study enhance the importance of linking biochemical responses to parameters with ecological relevance at individual level, the value of locomotor behavior as an important marker to assess effects of toxicants, and also the usefulness and the acquisition of ecological relevance by AChE as a biomarker, by linking it with ecologically relevant behavioral parameters.

  10. Do predator cues influence turn alternation behavior in terrestrial isopods Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille?

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kevin G; Kight, Scott L

    2014-07-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) make more alternating maze turns in response to negative stimuli, a navigational behavior that corrects divergence from a straight line. The present study investigates this behavioral pattern in two species, Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille, in response to short-term vs. long-term exposure to indirect cues from predatory ants. Neither isopod species increased the number of alternating turns in response to short-term indirect exposure to ants, but both species made significantly more alternating turns following continuous indirect exposure to ants for a period of one-week. These results are surprising given differences in behavioral and morphological predator defenses between these species (the Armadillidiidae curl into defensive postures when attacked, whereas the Porcellionidae flee). The marked similarity in alternating turn behavior of the two families suggests evolutionary conservation of antipredator navigation mechanisms. PMID:24954552

  11. Effects of microclimate on behavioural and life history traits of terrestrial isopods: implications for responses to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Dixie, Bernice; White, Hollie; Hassall, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The sensitivity of terrestrial isopods to changes in both temperature and moisture make them suitable models for examining possible responses of arthropod macro-decomposers to predicted climate change. Effects of changes in both temperature and relative humidity on aggregation, growth and survivorship of species of isopods contrasting in their morphological and physiological adaptations to moisture stress have been investigated in laboratory microcosms. All three traits were more sensitive to a reduction in relative humidity of 20–25% than they were to an increase in temperature of 5–6 °C. These results suggest that predicted changes in climate in south east England may reduce the extent to which soil animals stimulate microbial activity and hence carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soils in the future. This may help to mitigate the potential for a positive feedback between increased CO2 emissions from soils, and increased greenhouse effects causing an increase in soil temperatures. PMID:26261446

  12. Effects of microclimate on behavioural and life history traits of terrestrial isopods: implications for responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Dixie, Bernice; White, Hollie; Hassall, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of terrestrial isopods to changes in both temperature and moisture make them suitable models for examining possible responses of arthropod macro-decomposers to predicted climate change. Effects of changes in both temperature and relative humidity on aggregation, growth and survivorship of species of isopods contrasting in their morphological and physiological adaptations to moisture stress have been investigated in laboratory microcosms. All three traits were more sensitive to a reduction in relative humidity of 20-25% than they were to an increase in temperature of 5-6 °C. These results suggest that predicted changes in climate in south east England may reduce the extent to which soil animals stimulate microbial activity and hence carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soils in the future. This may help to mitigate the potential for a positive feedback between increased CO2 emissions from soils, and increased greenhouse effects causing an increase in soil temperatures.

  13. Do predator cues influence turn alternation behavior in terrestrial isopods Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille?

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kevin G; Kight, Scott L

    2014-07-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) make more alternating maze turns in response to negative stimuli, a navigational behavior that corrects divergence from a straight line. The present study investigates this behavioral pattern in two species, Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille, in response to short-term vs. long-term exposure to indirect cues from predatory ants. Neither isopod species increased the number of alternating turns in response to short-term indirect exposure to ants, but both species made significantly more alternating turns following continuous indirect exposure to ants for a period of one-week. These results are surprising given differences in behavioral and morphological predator defenses between these species (the Armadillidiidae curl into defensive postures when attacked, whereas the Porcellionidae flee). The marked similarity in alternating turn behavior of the two families suggests evolutionary conservation of antipredator navigation mechanisms.

  14. Influence of soil pH on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Lofts, Stephen; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-12-01

    The effects of soil pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were evaluated. Isopods were exposed to a natural soil amended with CaCO3 to reach 3 different pH(CaCl2) levels (4.5, 6.2, and 7.3) and to standard LUFA 2.2 soil (pH 5.5) spiked with ZnO NPs (30 nm), non-nano ZnO (200 nm), and ionic Zn as ZnCl₂. Toxicity was expressed based on total Zn concentration in soil, as well as total Zn and free Zn²⁺ ion concentrations in porewater. Compared with ZnO-spiked soils, the ZnCl₂-spiked soils had lower pH and higher porewater Ca²⁺ and Zn levels. Isopod survival did not differ between Zn forms and soils, but survival was higher for isopods exposed to ZnO NPs at pH 4.5. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for biomass change showed similar trends for all Zn forms in all soils, with higher values at intermediate pH. Median lethal concentration (LC50) and EC50 values based on porewater Zn or free Zn ion concentrations were much lower for ZnO than for ionic zinc. Zn body concentrations increased in a dose-related manner, but no effect of soil pH was found. It is suggested not only that dissolved or free Zn in porewater contributed to uptake and toxicity, but also that oral uptake (i.e., ingestion of soil particles) could be an important additional route of exposure.

  15. The agnarid terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Agnaridae) of the province of Qazvin, Iran, with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Eshaghi, Behjat; Kiabi, Bahram H; Kashani, Ghasem M

    2015-01-01

    Six species of terrestrial isopods from the province of Qazvin, central Iran, are recorded. Three species, Hemilepistusklugii (Brandt, 1833), Protracheoniscusehsani Kashani, 2014 and Mongoloniscuspersicus Kashani, 2014, were previously reported from the province. Hemilepistuselongatus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Protracheoniscusmajor (Dollfus, 1903) are recorded for the first time, and one species, Protracheoniscussarii sp. n., is described as new. The diagnostic characters of the new species are figured.

  16. Morphological and physiological development of anterior thoracic stretch receptors in two isopods, Armadillidium vulgare and Ligia exotica.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masazumi; Ohata, Ayako; Niida, Akiyoshi

    2007-07-01

    Abdominal muscle receptor organs (MROs) monitor the position and movement of abdomen in crustaceans. Thoracic segments of decapods are fused and immovable. It is speculated that MROs had retrograded simple shape, N-cells that lost receptor muscles, a receptor cell and accessory nerves. We focused on the effect of segmental movement in respect to thoracic N-cells and MROs in isopods that have movable thoracic segments. Armadillidium vulgare rolled up its body segments. Ligia exotica swam by quick movement of the posterior thoracic segments. Both isopods possessed N-cells and MROs in the thorax. N-cells were a simple structure, but N-cells from the second and third thoracic segments of A. vulgare had a muscle strand. MROs(T3-T4) (from the third and fourth thoracic segments) of A. vulgare had two receptor muscles. MROs(T3-T4) of L. exotica had one long receptor muscle. N-cells of both species and MROs of A. vulgare showed slowly adapting stretch-activated discharges. MROs of L. exotica showed both slowly and rapidly adapting discharges. The stretch-activated responses of N-cells and MROs inhibited each other. N-cells or MROs in the thorax of isopods are not related to the segmental structure. The morphology and physiology of N-cells and MROs are specialized to species-specific behaviors. PMID:17473927

  17. Reproductive toxicity of the endocrine disrupters vinclozolin and bisphenol A in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille, 1804).

    PubMed

    Lemos, M F L; van Gestel, C A M; Soares, A M V M

    2010-02-01

    Endocrine Disruptor Compounds (EDCs) have been largely studied concerning their effects on vertebrates. Nevertheless, invertebrates as targets for these chemicals have been neglected and few studies are available. Specifically for edaphic invertebrates, data concerning the effects of EDCs is residual. Influences of EDCs on the reproduction systems of these organisms, with consequences at the population level, are expected but have not been confirmed. This work aimed to study the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) on the reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Isopods were coupled and exposed to increasing concentrations of Vz and BPA and the females' reproductive cycle followed for 56d. Both compounds elicited reproductive toxicity. Vz and BPA decreased female reproductive allocation. Vz reduced pregnancy duration; increased the abortion percentage; decreased the number of pregnancies; and decreased the number of juveniles per female while BPA increased abortions at the lowest and highest test concentrations. The reproductive endpoints presented in here are indicative of the possible impact that this type of compounds might have on isopod population dynamics, which may eventually lead to population decline.

  18. Demography of some non-native isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a Mid-Atlantic forest, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, Elisabeth; Szlavecz, Katalin; Dombos, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduced species dominate the terrestrial isopod fauna in most inland habitats of North America, including urban landscapes. These non-native species are often very abundant and thus potentially play a significant role in detritus processing. We monitored isopod assemblages in an urban forest for a year to examine the relationship between surface activity and abiotic environmental factors, and to analyze reproductive characteristics that might contribute to their successful establishment. Using pitfall trap samples we recorded five species, two of which, Trachelipus rathkii and Cylisticus convexus, were highly abundant. We determined size, sex and reproductive state of each individual. Surface activity of both species reflected variability in abiotic stress factors for isopods, such as soil moisture and soil temperature. Early spring the main trigger was soil temperature while later in the season increasing temperature and decreasing soil moisture jointly affected population dynamics. Activity significantly correlated with soil moisture. The temporal pattern of sex ratios supported the secondary sex ratio hypothesis. Males dominated the samples on the onset of the mating season in search of females. The pattern was reversed as females searched for suitable microsites for their offspring. Size independent fecundity decreased as conditions became more stressful late in the season. PMID:26261445

  19. Multiple Conserved Heteroplasmic Sites in tRNA Genes in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Terrestrial Isopods (Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Chandler, Christopher H; Badawi, Myriam; Moumen, Bouziane; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-04-24

    Mitochondrial genome structure and organization are relatively conserved among metazoans. However, in many isopods, especially the terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea), the mitochondrial genome consists of both ∼14-kb linear monomers and ∼28-kb circular dimers. This unusual organization is associated with an ancient and conserved constitutive heteroplasmic site. This heteroplasmy affects the anticodon of a tRNA gene, allowing this single locus to function as a "dual" tRNA gene for two different amino acids. Here, we further explore the evolution of these unusual mitochondrial genomes by assembling complete mitochondrial sequences for two additional Oniscidean species, Trachelipus rathkei and Cylisticus convexus. Strikingly, we find evidence of two additional heteroplasmic sites that also alter tRNA anticodons, creating additional dual tRNA genes, and that are conserved across both species. These results suggest that the unique linear/circular organization of isopods' mitochondrial genomes may facilitate the evolution of stable mitochondrial heteroplasmies, and, conversely, once such heteroplasmies have evolved, they constrain the multimeric structure of the mitochondrial genome in these species. Finally, we outline some possible future research directions to identify the factors influencing mitochondrial genome evolution in this group.

  20. Demography of some non-native isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a Mid-Atlantic forest, USA.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Elisabeth; Szlavecz, Katalin; Dombos, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Introduced species dominate the terrestrial isopod fauna in most inland habitats of North America, including urban landscapes. These non-native species are often very abundant and thus potentially play a significant role in detritus processing. We monitored isopod assemblages in an urban forest for a year to examine the relationship between surface activity and abiotic environmental factors, and to analyze reproductive characteristics that might contribute to their successful establishment. Using pitfall trap samples we recorded five species, two of which, Trachelipusrathkii and Cylisticusconvexus, were highly abundant. We determined size, sex and reproductive state of each individual. Surface activity of both species reflected variability in abiotic stress factors for isopods, such as soil moisture and soil temperature. Early spring the main trigger was soil temperature while later in the season increasing temperature and decreasing soil moisture jointly affected population dynamics. Activity significantly correlated with soil moisture. The temporal pattern of sex ratios supported the secondary sex ratio hypothesis. Males dominated the samples on the onset of the mating season in search of females. The pattern was reversed as females searched for suitable microsites for their offspring. Size independent fecundity decreased as conditions became more stressful late in the season.

  1. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Stanek, Katja; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2006-09-01

    In parallel laboratory experiments, we determined the effect of a typical representative of organophosphorous pesticides, diazinon, on AChE activity, lipid, protein and glycogen content, weight change, feeding activity and mortality of juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). Organophosphorous pesticides (OP) are among the most extensively used pesticides, which have replaced organochlorine pesticides. OPs inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in neurotoxicity. They have more widespread effects on non-target organisms than do organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to link effect of diazinon on target enzyme to energy reserves and to integrated biomarker responses in juvenile and adult P. scaber. The non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) for AChE activity after diazinon exposure in two weeks toxicity study with isopods was below 5 microg/g diazinon. There was a good agreement between concentrations at which AChE and survival were affected (10 microg/g diazinon in juveniles, 100 microg/g diazinon in adults). We revealed a link among AChE activity, protein content and mortality. Glycogen and lipid content, feeding activity and weight change were not affected in two weeks diazinon exposure up to 100 microg/g diazinon. Juveniles were affected at concentrations that were an order of magnitude lower than those provoking similar effects on adults. Recommendations are made for future toxicity studies with terrestrial isopods.

  2. Demography of some non-native isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a Mid-Atlantic forest, USA.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Elisabeth; Szlavecz, Katalin; Dombos, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Introduced species dominate the terrestrial isopod fauna in most inland habitats of North America, including urban landscapes. These non-native species are often very abundant and thus potentially play a significant role in detritus processing. We monitored isopod assemblages in an urban forest for a year to examine the relationship between surface activity and abiotic environmental factors, and to analyze reproductive characteristics that might contribute to their successful establishment. Using pitfall trap samples we recorded five species, two of which, Trachelipusrathkii and Cylisticusconvexus, were highly abundant. We determined size, sex and reproductive state of each individual. Surface activity of both species reflected variability in abiotic stress factors for isopods, such as soil moisture and soil temperature. Early spring the main trigger was soil temperature while later in the season increasing temperature and decreasing soil moisture jointly affected population dynamics. Activity significantly correlated with soil moisture. The temporal pattern of sex ratios supported the secondary sex ratio hypothesis. Males dominated the samples on the onset of the mating season in search of females. The pattern was reversed as females searched for suitable microsites for their offspring. Size independent fecundity decreased as conditions became more stressful late in the season. PMID:26261445

  3. Feeding behaviour of the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus Brandt, 1833 (Crustacea, Isopoda) in response to changes in food quality and contamination.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Susana; Sampaio, Alexandra; Brandão, Ana; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2006-10-01

    Soil decomposition is mainly dependent on the nature and characteristics of organic matter within the soil, the environmental conditions and the activity of microorganisms and soil fauna. Isopods play an important role in decomposition through litter fragmentation and stimulating and/or ingesting fungi and bacteria. The aim of this study was to jointly evaluate the effect of different food types and the effect of heavy metal contamination of those foods through isopod feeding performance assays. These studies used the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. After feeding with different leaf types for the study on feeding performance, alder leaves were chosen for the contamination experiments. Feeding parameters like consumption, assimilation, egestion and growth ratios were calculated and compared among treatments and food type. Lower quality food decreased isopods performance. Exotic food types were shown to be less preferred than alder or oak leaves. Contaminated food also resulted in a decrease in performance among the feeding parameters studies, although isopods can tolerate in certain cases high amounts of heavy metals. For this reason it is possible that in future this crustacean can be used as bioindicators of soil contamination or in the evaluation of contaminated sites or remediation processes.

  4. Molecular insight into lignocellulose digestion by a marine isopod in the absence of gut microbes

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew J.; Cragg, Simon M.; Li, Yi; Dymond, Jo; Guille, Matthew J.; Bowles, Dianna J.; Bruce, Neil C.; Graham, Ian A.; McQueen-Mason, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    The digestion of lignocellulose is attracting attention both in terms of basic research into its metabolism by microorganisms and animals, and also as a means of converting plant biomass into biofuels. Limnoriid wood borers are unusual because, unlike other wood-feeding animals, they do not rely on symbiotic microbes to help digest lignocellulose. The absence of microbes in the digestive tract suggests that limnoriid wood borers produce all the enzymes necessary for lignocellulose digestion themselves. In this study we report that analysis of ESTs from the digestive system of Limnoria quadripunctata reveals a transcriptome dominated by glycosyl hydrolase genes. Indeed, > 20% of all ESTs represent genes encoding putative cellulases, including glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases. These have not previously been reported in animal genomes, but are key digestive enzymes produced by wood-degrading fungi and symbiotic protists in termite guts. We propose that limnoriid GH7 genes are important for the efficient digestion of lignocellulose in the absence of gut microbes. Hemocyanin transcripts were highly abundant in the hepatopancreas transcriptome. Based on recent studies indicating that these proteins may function as phenoloxidases in isopods, we discuss a possible role for hemocyanins in lignin decomposition. PMID:20212162

  5. Diel ontogenetic shift in parasitic activity in a gnathiid isopod on Caribbean coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkel, P. C.; Ziemba, R. E.; Sears, W. T.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2009-06-01

    Ontogenetic niche shifts are characteristic of organisms with complex life cycles such as many marine invertebrates. Research has focused primarily on changes in habitat or diet. However, ontogenetic changes can also occur in the temporal pattern of foraging. Gnathiid isopods feed on fish blood throughout their larval stages and are the primary food item for cleaning organisms on coral reefs. At sites in Australia and the Caribbean, gnathiid larvae exhibit size-related differences in diel activity. However, it is unclear whether this is due to interspecific or intraspecific variation in behavior. Fish were deployed in cages near sunset on shallow reefs off St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands and allowed to be infected with larval gnathiids. Larvae collected from fish retrieved near midnight developed into adults, with most developing into females. In contrast, approximately 80% of gnathiids collected after first light developed into second or third stage larvae, and nearly all of the remaining, large, individuals developed into males. Comparison of ITS2 gene regions from individuals collected in emergence traps from the same reefs during the day versus during the night revealed no differences in this highly variable region. Thus, gnathiid larvae at this locality shift their time of activity as they develop, and larvae developing into males remain active over a longer time period than those developing into females.

  6. Multi-Infections of Feminizing Wolbachia Strains in Natural Populations of the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec’h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occuring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  7. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; de Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia ( wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  8. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear.

  9. Biogeographic patterns in life history traits of the Pan-American sandy beach isopod Excirolana braziliensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Ricardo S.; Defeo, Omar

    2004-11-01

    Biogeographic patterns in life history traits of the Pan-American sandy beach isopod Excirolana braziliensis were analyzed to determine latitudinal variations along its distribution, from tropical (9°N) to temperate (39°S) sandy beaches in Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Population features exhibited systematic geographical patterns of variation: (1) an increase in individual sizes and growth rates towards temperate beaches, following an inverse relationship with mean water temperature of the surf zone; (2) a shift from almost continuous to seasonal growth from subtropical to temperate Atlantic beaches and a positive relationship between amplitude of intra-annual growth oscillations and temperature range; (3) a linear decrease in life span and an increase in natural mortality from temperate to subtropical beaches; and (4) an increase in the individual mass-at-size (length-mass relationship) from subtropical to temperate beaches. Analyses discriminated by sex were consistent with the patterns illustrated above. Local effects of temperature and beach morphodynamics are discussed. Our results demonstrate that the population dynamics of E. braziliensis is highly plastic over latitudinal gradients, with large-scale variations in temperature and concurrent environmental variables leading to an adjustment of the phenotype-environment relationship.

  10. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear. PMID:27320700

  11. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work. PMID:21335098

  12. Cannibalism and Predation as Paths for Horizontal Passage of Wolbachia between Terrestrial Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Le Clec’h, Winka; Chevalier, Frédéric D.; Genty, Lise; Bertaux, Joanne; Bouchon, Didier; Sicard, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia are the most widespread endosymbionts in arthropods and nematodes. Mainly maternally inherited, these so-called sex parasites have selected several strategies that increase their vertical dispersion in host populations. However, the lack of congruence between the Wolbachia and their host phylogenies suggests frequent horizontal transfers. One way that could be used for horizontal Wolbachia transfers between individuals is predation. The aim of this study was to test whether horizontal passage of Wolbachia is possible when an uninfected terrestrial isopod eats an infected one. After having eaten Armadillidium vulgare harbouring Wolbachia, the predator-recipients (the two woodlice A. vulgare and Porcellio dilatatus dilatatus) that were initially Wolbachia-free were tested positive for the presence of Wolbachia both by quantitative PCR and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH). Even if the titers were low compared to vertically infected individuals, this constitutes the first demonstration of Wolbachia occurrence in various organs of an initially uninfected host after eating an infected one. PMID:23593179

  13. Cannibalism and predation as paths for horizontal passage of Wolbachia between terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Le Clec'h, Winka; Chevalier, Frédéric D; Genty, Lise; Bertaux, Joanne; Bouchon, Didier; Sicard, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia are the most widespread endosymbionts in arthropods and nematodes. Mainly maternally inherited, these so-called sex parasites have selected several strategies that increase their vertical dispersion in host populations. However, the lack of congruence between the Wolbachia and their host phylogenies suggests frequent horizontal transfers. One way that could be used for horizontal Wolbachia transfers between individuals is predation. The aim of this study was to test whether horizontal passage of Wolbachia is possible when an uninfected terrestrial isopod eats an infected one. After having eaten Armadillidium vulgare harbouring Wolbachia, the predator-recipients (the two woodlice A. vulgare and Porcellio dilatatus dilatatus) that were initially Wolbachia-free were tested positive for the presence of Wolbachia both by quantitative PCR and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH). Even if the titers were low compared to vertically infected individuals, this constitutes the first demonstration of Wolbachia occurrence in various organs of an initially uninfected host after eating an infected one. PMID:23593179

  14. Multi-infections of feminizing Wolbachia strains in natural populations of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec'h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occurring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  15. Diel variation in ammonia excretion, glutamine levels, and hydration status in two species of terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jonathan C; Peña-Peralta, Mariasol

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods (suborder Oniscidea) excrete most nitrogen diurnally as volatile ammonia, and ammonia-loaded animals accumulate nonessential amino acids, which may constitute the major nocturnal nitrogen pool. This study explored the relationship between ammonia excretion, glutamine storage/mobilization, and water balance, in two sympatric species Ligidium lapetum (section Diplocheta), a hygric species; and Armadillidium vulgare (Section Crinocheta), a xeric species capable of water-vapor absorption (WVA). Ammonia excretion (12-h), tissue glutamine levels, and water contents were measured following field collection of animals at dusk and dawn. In both species, diurnal ammonia excretion exceeded nocturnal excretion four- to fivefold while glutamine levels increased four- to sevenfold during the night. Most glutamine was accumulated in the somatic tissues ("body wall"). While data support the role of glutamine in nocturnal nitrogen storage, potential nitrogen mobilization from glutamine breakdown (162 micromol g(-1) in A. vulgare) exceeds measured ammonia excretion (2.5 micromol g(-1)) over 60-fold. This may serve to generate the high hemolymph ammonia concentrations (and high P(NH3)) seen during volatilization. The energetic cost of ammonia volatilization is discussed in the light of these findings. Mean water contents were similar at dusk and dawn in both species, indicating that diel cycles of water depletion and replenishment were not occurring. PMID:15578188

  16. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; De Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia (wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered. PMID:20676599

  17. The glycosylated androgenic hormone of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Strub, Jean-Marc; Félix, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-05-01

    It appears from grafting experiments that the androgenic hormone (AH) of terrestrial isopods has a narrow species-specificity [J. Crust. Biol. 19 (1999) 684], even if AH of different species shared common epitopes [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125 (2002) 218]. To date only the glycosylated AH of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare has been deciphered by us [Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 839 (1998) 111; Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 727] and [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 264 (1999) 419] have confirmed the primary structure of this protein. We reported in the present paper the characterization of the AH in another species Porcellio scaber by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectrometry, and molecular cloning. We found only one glycoform which consisted of two peptide chains, A and B, of 31 and 44 amino acids, respectively, with A chain carrying on Asn18 a N-glycosylated moiety, size of which has been determined by MALDI-MS measurements. The expected structure of the glycosylation was proposed. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AH precursor was mainly identical to the one obtained independently by another group [Zool. Sci. 20 (2003) 75]. We also showed that AH gene is exclusively expressed in androgenic glands. Sequence comparison with A. vulgare and P. scaber (population of Japan) AH was discussed. PMID:15081839

  18. Characterization and cDNA cloning of androgenic gland hormone of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Okuno, A; Hasegawa, Y; Ohira, T; Katakura, Y; Nagasawa, H

    1999-10-22

    The sex differentiation in crustaceans is known to be controlled by a peptide hormone called androgenic gland hormone (AGH). AGH was extracted and purified from the androgenic glands (AGs) of the male isopod Armadillidium vulgare by high-performance liquid chromatography. AGH consisted of two peptide chains and their N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. A cDNA encoding AGH was cloned by PCR and sequenced. The cDNA had an open reading frame of 432 bp, which encoded a preproAGH consisting of a signal peptide (21 residues), B chain (44 residues), C peptide (46 residues), and A chain (29 residues). Through processing, the A and B chains might form a heterodimer interlinked by disulfide bonds. The A chain possessed a putative N-linked glycosylation site. A Northern blot analysis using the cDNA as a probe detected a hybridization signal with 0.8 kb in the RNA preparation only from the AGs. PMID:10529379

  19. Partial characterization of vitellin and localization of vitellogenin production in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Okuno, A; Katayama, H; Nagasawa, H

    2000-07-01

    Vitellins were purified separately from ovaries and eggs of the isopod, Armadillidium vulgare. Ovarian vitellin consisted of at least six proteins with relative molecular masses of 205, 200, 185, 180, 122 and 112 kDa. The larger four proteins disappeared in eggs within a week after oviposition and a 59-kDa protein appeared thereafter. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of these vitellin proteins were identical except for the ovarian 112 kDa, egg 112 kDa and 59 kDa proteins, and showed considerable similarity to those of known vitellogenins from other animals. Comparison of tryptic peptide maps of the 122 and 112 kDa proteins from eggs on reversed-phase HPLC and sequence identification of two randomly selected peaks having the same retention times indicated that two peptides were mostly similar in sequence. PCR-assisted cloning of the 5' region of a cDNA (591 bp) encoding vitellogenin revealed the presence of a signal peptide consisting of 16 amino acid residues and clarified the structural relationship among the protein components except for the ovarian 112 kDa and the egg 59 kDa proteins. Northern blot analysis revealed that the fat body is the main vitellogenin producing organ. PMID:11007182

  20. The glycosylated androgenic hormone of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Strub, Jean-Marc; Félix, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-05-01

    It appears from grafting experiments that the androgenic hormone (AH) of terrestrial isopods has a narrow species-specificity [J. Crust. Biol. 19 (1999) 684], even if AH of different species shared common epitopes [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125 (2002) 218]. To date only the glycosylated AH of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare has been deciphered by us [Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 839 (1998) 111; Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 727] and [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 264 (1999) 419] have confirmed the primary structure of this protein. We reported in the present paper the characterization of the AH in another species Porcellio scaber by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectrometry, and molecular cloning. We found only one glycoform which consisted of two peptide chains, A and B, of 31 and 44 amino acids, respectively, with A chain carrying on Asn18 a N-glycosylated moiety, size of which has been determined by MALDI-MS measurements. The expected structure of the glycosylation was proposed. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AH precursor was mainly identical to the one obtained independently by another group [Zool. Sci. 20 (2003) 75]. We also showed that AH gene is exclusively expressed in androgenic glands. Sequence comparison with A. vulgare and P. scaber (population of Japan) AH was discussed.

  1. Molecular insight into lignocellulose digestion by a marine isopod in the absence of gut microbes.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew J; Cragg, Simon M; Li, Yi; Dymond, Jo; Guille, Matthew J; Bowles, Dianna J; Bruce, Neil C; Graham, Ian A; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2010-03-23

    The digestion of lignocellulose is attracting attention both in terms of basic research into its metabolism by microorganisms and animals, and also as a means of converting plant biomass into biofuels. Limnoriid wood borers are unusual because, unlike other wood-feeding animals, they do not rely on symbiotic microbes to help digest lignocellulose. The absence of microbes in the digestive tract suggests that limnoriid wood borers produce all the enzymes necessary for lignocellulose digestion themselves. In this study we report that analysis of ESTs from the digestive system of Limnoria quadripunctata reveals a transcriptome dominated by glycosyl hydrolase genes. Indeed, > 20% of all ESTs represent genes encoding putative cellulases, including glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases. These have not previously been reported in animal genomes, but are key digestive enzymes produced by wood-degrading fungi and symbiotic protists in termite guts. We propose that limnoriid GH7 genes are important for the efficient digestion of lignocellulose in the absence of gut microbes. Hemocyanin transcripts were highly abundant in the hepatopancreas transcriptome. Based on recent studies indicating that these proteins may function as phenoloxidases in isopods, we discuss a possible role for hemocyanins in lignin decomposition.

  2. Spermiophagic activity in the female genital system of some species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Halophilosciidae).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Veronica; Longo, Guglielmo; Brundo, Maria Violetta

    2014-08-01

    The females of some species of the family Halophilosciidae receive in the course of mating a quantity of sperm considerably redundant with respect to the number of eggs that can be fertilized; this is possible thanks to the peculiar morpho-functional organization that characterizes their genital system and that allows them to store the sperm not only in the great seminal receptacle but also within the ovary. While most of the sperm stay free in the lumen of the seminal receptacle, a part of those present in the ovary undergoes a process of capture by the follicular cells with consequent internalization within endocellular cavities. This process concerns exclusively the immotile tail, that characterizes the peculiar spermatozoon of the isopods and which is essentially of proteic nature. After their capture the sperm tails undergo a gradual process of digestion, which seems to be apparently realized without the intervention of lysosomes. The possible role of this spermiophagic activity might be to represent a significant trophic paternal investment aimed at improving the fitness of the female and of the offsprings.

  3. Multi-infections of feminizing Wolbachia strains in natural populations of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec'h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occurring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females.

  4. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work.

  5. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; De Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia (wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  6. Diel variation in ammonia excretion, glutamine levels, and hydration status in two species of terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jonathan C; Peña-Peralta, Mariasol

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods (suborder Oniscidea) excrete most nitrogen diurnally as volatile ammonia, and ammonia-loaded animals accumulate nonessential amino acids, which may constitute the major nocturnal nitrogen pool. This study explored the relationship between ammonia excretion, glutamine storage/mobilization, and water balance, in two sympatric species Ligidium lapetum (section Diplocheta), a hygric species; and Armadillidium vulgare (Section Crinocheta), a xeric species capable of water-vapor absorption (WVA). Ammonia excretion (12-h), tissue glutamine levels, and water contents were measured following field collection of animals at dusk and dawn. In both species, diurnal ammonia excretion exceeded nocturnal excretion four- to fivefold while glutamine levels increased four- to sevenfold during the night. Most glutamine was accumulated in the somatic tissues ("body wall"). While data support the role of glutamine in nocturnal nitrogen storage, potential nitrogen mobilization from glutamine breakdown (162 micromol g(-1) in A. vulgare) exceeds measured ammonia excretion (2.5 micromol g(-1)) over 60-fold. This may serve to generate the high hemolymph ammonia concentrations (and high P(NH3)) seen during volatilization. The energetic cost of ammonia volatilization is discussed in the light of these findings. Mean water contents were similar at dusk and dawn in both species, indicating that diel cycles of water depletion and replenishment were not occurring.

  7. Quantitative assessment of effects of zinc on the histological structure of the hepatopancreas of terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, J P; Reinecke, A J

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of zinc exposure on the histological structure of the hepatopancreas of Porcellio laevis. Woodlice were experimentally exposed to various concentrations (1000, 4000, and 8000 mg. kg(-1)) of zinc sulphate. Hepatopancreas samples of exposed isopods were histologically prepared and analysed with Leica QWin image analysis software. The B-cells in hepatopancreases of zinc sulphate - exposed woodlice were reduced in size to varying degrees, compared to that of the control, Percentage Cellular Area (PCA) of the hepatopancreas samples revealed that zoning occurred through the length of hepatopancreas lobes. Analysis of the PCA data of hepatopancreases of P. laevis exposed to the zinc sulphate revealed that there was a decline in PCA, in all the zones, compared to those in the control. The Z3 zone (the part from the middle to three quarters to the back of the tubule) was shown to be the best suited, if PCAs are to be considered as a biomarker in woodlouse toxicity studies.

  8. An experimental field test of susceptibility to ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods among Caribbean reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Coile, A M; Sikkel, P C

    2013-06-01

    Susceptibility to infestation by a gnathiid isopod (Gnathia marleyi: Crustacea: Isopoda) was examined among 16 species from 9 families and 3 orders of common Caribbean reef fishes off St. John, United States Virgin Islands. Fish were placed in cages during times of peak gnathiid activity. Individuals from most (n=14) species were compared against a single species (French Grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum) that served as a standard and effectively controlled for the effects of habitat and variation in gnathiid abundance on exposure to and the likelihood and intensity of host infestation by gnathiids. All species were susceptible to infestation by gnathiids, with individual hosts harbouring up to 368 gnathiids. However, there was significant variation in levels of infestation among the 14 comparison species. Controlling for body size, nocturnal species from the families Haemulidae and Lutjanidae had the highest gnathiid infestation. Our finding that haemulids and lutjanids are particularly susceptible has important implications for the role of gnathiids in Caribbean reef food webs, given the role members of these families play in trophic connectivity between reefs and associated habitats. To our knowledge this is the first manipulative field study to examine variation among potential hosts in susceptibility to an ectoparasite in any terrestrial or aquatic system and is the greatest number of teleost hosts documented for any gnathiid species.

  9. Effect of forced fasting on magnesium and manganese regulation in a terrestrial isopod, Porcellio spinicornis Say

    SciTech Connect

    Bercovitz, K.; Alikhan, M.A. )

    1989-07-01

    The amount of toxic and non-toxic elements assimilated by primary consumers from their environment depends as much on the form, as on concentration of these elements in the food. In superficially contaminated sites, the majority of elements detected in plant material are present as a blanket deposit of fine particles on leaf surfaces, and these are easily removed as the consumed material passes through the alimentary canal. In contrast, trace metals stored in the plant tissue are not readily available as they have been taken up via roots and are firmly bound within the plant tissue. Earlier studies have shown that mean concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) in whole woodlice are correlated with levels in their diet. Both metals are regulated by terrestrial isopods during their intermoult- and moult-cycles. The present study provides information on the regulation of Mg and Mn tissue concentrations during forced fasting in adult, intermoult male and female Porcellio spinicornis Say (Porcellionidae, Isopoda). Mg, the principal cation in the soft tissues is a well known activator of many enzymes of the glycolytic systems. Mn, on the other hand, plays a special role in digestive and catabolic processes.

  10. Contrasting Phylogeography of Sandy vs. Rocky Supralittoral Isopods in the Megadiverse and Geologically Dynamic Gulf of California and Adjacent Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Lee, Eun Jung; Mateos, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies of animals with low vagility and restricted to patchy habitats of the supralittoral zone, can uncover unknown diversity and shed light on processes that shaped evolution along a continent’s edge. The Pacific coast between southern California and central Mexico, including the megadiverse Gulf of California, offers a remarkable setting to study biological diversification in the supralittoral. A complex geological history coupled with cyclical fluctuations in temperature and sea level provided ample opportunities for diversification of supralittoral organisms. Indeed, a previous phylogeographic study of Ligia, a supralittoral isopod that has limited dispersal abilities and is restricted to rocky patches, revealed high levels of morphologically cryptic diversity. Herein, we examined phylogeographic patterns of Tylos, another supralittoral isopod with limited dispersal potential, but whose habitat (i.e., sandy shores) appears to be more extensive and connected than that of Ligia. We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. These analyses revealed multiple highly divergent lineages with discrete regional distributions, despite the recognition of a single valid species for this region. A traditional species-diagnostic morphological trait distinguished several of these lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Tylos inside the Gulf of California show a deep and complex history. In contrast, patterns along the Pacific region between southern California and the Baja Peninsula indicate a recent range expansion, probably postglacial and related to changes in sea surface temperature (SST). In general, the phylogeographic patterns of Tylos differed from those of Ligia. Differences in the extension and connectivity of the habitats occupied by Tylos and Ligia may account for the different degrees of population isolation experienced by these two isopods and their contrasting phylogeographic

  11. Bioaccumulation of cadmium and lead and its effects on hepatopancreas morphology in three terrestrial isopod crustacean species.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V; Sinatra, F; Copat, C; Oliveri Conti, G; Ferrante, M

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) bioaccumulation in three species of oniscidean isopods - Armadillidium granulatum Brandt, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) and Porcellio laevis Latreille which were exposed for three weeks to a contaminated diet, and to determine the morphological and ultrastructural changes in hepatopancreas. Metal accumulation, determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), was linearly associated with the exposed concentration and was a function of the metal and the species tested. All three species accumulated lower levels of Pb than Cd. A. vulgare accumulated the largest concentration of Pb, especially at the higher doses, whereas P. laevis showed the greatest Cd accumulation, and the highest Cd concentration was lethal for all exposed species. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cd induced significant changes both in the general morphology of tubules and in the ultrastructural organization of epithelial cells in hepatopancreas. Some Pb/Cd induced alterations include: brush border disorganization; reduction of the basal labyrinth formed by the plasma membrane; condensation of some cytoplasm areas and of chromatin; rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial alterations; increase of secondary lysosomes and of type B granules in S cells. Some of the ultrastructural changes observed overlap with those induced by prolonged starvation, whereas others can be useful biomarkers of heavy metal toxicity. This study has confirmed that in terrestrial isopods, the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific manner; therefore ecological monitoring and assessment studies should consider each species individually. The research has confirmed that in the terrestrial isopods the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific way; therefore each species should first be evaluated in view of its employ in biomonitoring programs.

  12. Bioaccumulation of cadmium and lead and its effects on hepatopancreas morphology in three terrestrial isopod crustacean species.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V; Sinatra, F; Copat, C; Oliveri Conti, G; Ferrante, M

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) bioaccumulation in three species of oniscidean isopods - Armadillidium granulatum Brandt, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) and Porcellio laevis Latreille which were exposed for three weeks to a contaminated diet, and to determine the morphological and ultrastructural changes in hepatopancreas. Metal accumulation, determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), was linearly associated with the exposed concentration and was a function of the metal and the species tested. All three species accumulated lower levels of Pb than Cd. A. vulgare accumulated the largest concentration of Pb, especially at the higher doses, whereas P. laevis showed the greatest Cd accumulation, and the highest Cd concentration was lethal for all exposed species. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cd induced significant changes both in the general morphology of tubules and in the ultrastructural organization of epithelial cells in hepatopancreas. Some Pb/Cd induced alterations include: brush border disorganization; reduction of the basal labyrinth formed by the plasma membrane; condensation of some cytoplasm areas and of chromatin; rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial alterations; increase of secondary lysosomes and of type B granules in S cells. Some of the ultrastructural changes observed overlap with those induced by prolonged starvation, whereas others can be useful biomarkers of heavy metal toxicity. This study has confirmed that in terrestrial isopods, the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific manner; therefore ecological monitoring and assessment studies should consider each species individually. The research has confirmed that in the terrestrial isopods the accumulation of the different metals occurs in a species-specific way; therefore each species should first be evaluated in view of its employ in biomonitoring programs. PMID:25279851

  13. Facilitation and predation structure a grassland detrital food web: the responses of soil nematodes to isopod processing of litter.

    PubMed

    Bastow, Justin L

    2011-09-01

    1. Detritus can support successive consumers, whose interactions may be structured by changes in the condition of their shared resource. One model of such species interactions is a processing chain, in which consumers feeding on the resource in a less processed state change the resource condition for subsequent consumers. 2. In a series of experiments, the hypothesis was tested that a common detritivore, the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, affects soil nematodes through the processing of plant litter. Different detrital resources were added to soil from a California coastal prairie in order to simulate litter processing by the detritivore. Treatments that included only whole grass litter corresponded to detrital food webs lacking detritivores, while treatments that included mixtures of P. scaber faeces and grass litter corresponded to different densities or feeding rates of P. scaber. 3. Simulated litter processing by P. scaber increased the abundance of bacterivorous nematodes by between 32% and 202% after 24-44 days in laboratory experiments, but had no effect on fungivorous or predaceous nematodes. 4. In a subsequent field experiment, however, fungivorous nematodes were suppressed by isopod litter processing while bacterivores showed no response. Instead, P. scaber processing of litter increased the abundance of predaceous nematodes in the field experiment by 176%. 5. When simulated litter processing of litter was crossed in laboratory experiments with predaceous nematode addition (comparable to the response of predators in the field experiment), the abundance of bacterivores was increased by isopod processing of litter (by an average of 122%), but suppressed by elevated densities of predaceous nematodes (by an average of 41%). 6. This suggests that litter processing by P. scaber facilitates the bacterial channel of the soil food web, but that predaceous nematodes suppress the response of bacterivores in the field. Processing chain interactions may

  14. Long-term toxicity of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for the terrestrial isopods Oniscus asellus and Porcellio scaber

    SciTech Connect

    Brummelen, T.C. van; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Verweij, R.A.

    1996-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a common component of soil pollution, yet little is known of the ecotoxicological risks these compounds may pose to life in soil. This article reports the ecotoxicity of five PAHs for two terrestrial isopod species. Isopods were exposed to food contaminated with four different concentrations of either fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene (up to 4 {micro}mol/g), benz[a]anthracene, or benzo[a]pyrene (up to 1.25 {micro}mol/.g). Exposure of Porcellio scaber lasted 16 weeks, and no adverse effects on survival, growth, or total protein (only females tested) were observed in any of the treatments. A small but significant reduction in growth of Oniscus asellus was observed at 47 weeks of exposure to 0.125 {micro}mol benz[a]anthracene-g{sup {minus}1} dry weight and higher concentrations. A significant stimulation of the reproduction of O. asellus was observed in some of the phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene treatments; a larger proportion of the females were gravid, which resulted in a higher number of juveniles per female. Exposure did not significantly affect brood size, weight of the mother after release of the juveniles, or the survival of the juveniles upon starvation. Total protein content of females was significantly reduced at 0.4 {micro}mol fluorene g{sup {minus}1} dry weight and higher concentrations. Growth and protein content of isopods is likely to be affected by PAH exposure only at highly contaminated sites. The ecological consequences of stimulated reproduction and possible DNA damage are poorly understood and require further attention because soil invertebrates may be exposed to PAHs over many generations.

  15. Phoresy of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus by a non-host organism, the isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Eng, Michael S; Preisser, Evan L; Strong, Donald R

    2005-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are widespread in nature and commonly used in the biological control of insect pests. However, we understand little about how these organisms disperse. We show in a laboratory setting that the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus is phoretically dispersed by a non-host organism, the isopod Porcellio scaber. These species both inhabit tunnels excavated in the roots and lower stems of bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus) by the nematodes' primary prey, larvae of the ghost moth Hepialus californicus. Phoretic dispersal via P. scaber may play a role in the metapopulation dynamics of this nematode.

  16. Seawater temperature effect on metal accumulation and toxicity in the subantarctic Macquarie Island isopod, Exosphaeroma gigas.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alexander; King, Catherine K; Hill, Nicole A; Cooper, Ashley; Townsend, Ashley T; Mondon, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    Very little is currently known of subantarctic nearshore invertebrates' sensitivity to environmental metals and the role of temperature in this relationship. This study investigated Cu and Zn toxicity in the common subantarctic intertidal isopod, Exosphaeroma gigas, and the influence of temperature on Cu toxicity and bioaccumulation kinetics. Adult E. gigas are insensitive to Cu and Zn at concentrations of 3200 and 7400μg/L respectively in non-renewal tests at 5.5°C (ambient subtidal temperature) over 14days. Under renewed exposures over the same temperature and time period the LC50 for copper was 2204μg/L. A 10-fold increase in Cu body burden occurred relative to zinc, indicating E. gigas has different strategies for regulating the two metals. Copper toxicity and time to mortality both increased with elevated temperature. However, temperature did not significantly affect Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constants derived from biodynamic modelling at lower Cu concentrations. These results may be attributable to E. gigas being an intertidal species with physiological mechanisms adapted to fluctuating environmental conditions. Cu concentrations required to elicit a toxicity response indicates that E. gigas would not be directly threatened by current levels of Cu or Zn present in Macquarie Island intertidal habitats, with the associated elevated temperature fluctuations. This study provides evidence that the sensitivity of this subantarctic intertidal species to metal contaminants is not as high as expected, and which has significance for the derivation of relevant guidelines specific to this distinct subpolar region of the world. PMID:27367827

  17. Microscopical and functional aspects of calcium-transport and deposition in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andreas; Fabritius, Helge; Hagedorn, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea) are excellent model organisms to study epithelial calcium-transport and the regulation of biomineralization processes. They molt frequently and resorb cuticular CaCO(3) before the molt to prevent excessive loss of Ca(2+) ions when the old cuticle is shed. The resorbed mineral is stored in CaCO(3) deposits within the ecdysial gap of the first four anterior sternites. After the molt, the deposits are quickly resorbed to mineralise the posterior part of the new cuticle. The deposits contain numerous small spherules composed of an organic matrix and amorphous CaCO(3), which has a high solubility and, therefore, facilitates quick mobilization of Ca(2+) and HCO(3)(-) ions. During the formation and resorption of the deposits large amounts of Ca(2+), HCO(3)(-) and H(+) are transported across the anterior sternal epithelial cells. Within the last years, various light and electron microscopical techniques have been used to characterize the CaCO(3) deposits and the cellular mechanisms involved in biomineralization. The work on the CaCO(3) deposits includes studies on the ultrastructure of the deposits, the sequence of events during deposit formation and dissolution, and the mineral composition of the sternal deposits. The differentiation of the anterior sternal epithelial cells and the mechanisms of epithelial ion transport required for the mineralization and demineralisation of the deposits was studied using various analytical light and electron microscopical techniques including polarized light microscopy, immunocytochemistry, electron microprobe analysis, electron energy loss spectroscopy and electron spectroscopic imaging. Comparative analysis of deposit morphology and the differentiation of the sternal epithelia provide information on the evolution of CaCO(3) deposit formation in relation to the degree of adaptation to terrestrial environments.

  18. Host tissues as microhabitats for Wolbachia and quantitative insights into the bacterial community in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, J; Beltran-Bech, S; Lesobre, J; Raimond, M; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D

    2014-05-01

    Animal-bacterial symbioses are highly dynamic in terms of multipartite interactions, both between the host and its symbionts as well as between the different bacteria constituting the symbiotic community. These interactions will be reflected by the titres of the individual bacterial taxa, for example via host regulation of bacterial loads or competition for resources between symbionts. Moreover, different host tissues represent heterogeneous microhabitats for bacteria, meaning that host-associated bacteria might establish tissue-specific bacterial communities. Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria, infecting a large number of arthropods and filarial nematodes. However, relatively little is known regarding direct interactions between Wolbachia and other bacteria. This study represents the first quantitative investigation of tissue-specific Wolbachia-microbiota interactions in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. To this end, we obtained a more complete picture of the Wolbachia distribution patterns across all major host tissues, integrating all three feminizing Wolbachia strains (wVulM, wVulC, wVulP) identified to date in this host. Interestingly, the different Wolbachia strains exhibited strain-specific tissue distribution patterns, with wVulM reaching lower titres in most tissues. These patterns were consistent across different host genetic backgrounds and might reflect different co-evolutionary histories between the Wolbachia strains and A. vulgare. Moreover, Wolbachia-infected females carried higher total bacterial loads in several, but not all, tissues, irrespective of the Wolbachia strain. Taken together, this quantitative approach indicates that Wolbachia is part of a potentially more diverse bacterial community, as exemplified by the presence of highly abundant bacterial taxa in the midgut caeca of several A. vulgare populations. PMID:24750488

  19. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipus rathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticus convexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species’ brood pouch: in Trachelipus rathkii, a ‘clinger’ type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticus convexus, a ‘roller’ type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites’ cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipus rathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticus convexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine

  20. Patterns of the Non-Indigenous Isopod Cirolana harfordi in Sydney Harbour

    PubMed Central

    Bugnot, Ana B.; Coleman, Ross A.; Figueira, Will F.; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    Biological introductions can alter the ecology of local assemblages and are an important driver of global environmental change. The first step towards understanding the impact of a non-indigenous species is to study its distribution and associations in the invaded area. In Sydney Harbour, the non-indigenous isopod Cirolana harfordi has been reported in densities up to 0.5 individuals per cm2 in mussel-beds. Abundances of this species have, however, been largely overlooked in other key habitats. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the abundances and distribution of C. harfordi across different habitats representative of Sydney Harbour. Results showed that C. harfordi occurred in oyster and mussel-beds, being particularly abundant in oyster-beds. We also aimed to determine the role of C. harfordi as a predator, scavenger and detritus feeder by investigating the relationships between densities of C. harfordi and (i) the structure of the resident assemblages, and (ii) deposited organic matter in oyster-beds. Densities of C. harfordi were not related to the structure of the assemblages, nor amounts of deposited organic matter. These findings suggested little or no ecological impacts of C. harfordi in oyster-beds. These relationships may, however, affect other variables such as growth of individuals, or be disguised by high variability of assemblages among different locations. Future studies should, therefore, test the impacts of C. harfordi on the size of organisms in the assemblage and use manipulative experiments to control for spatial variation. This study is the first published work on the ecology of the invasion of C. harfordi and provides the starting-point for the study of the impacts of this species in Sydney Harbour. PMID:24466227

  1. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipusrathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticusconvexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species' brood pouch: in Trachelipusrathkii, a 'clinger' type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticusconvexus, a 'roller' type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites' cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipusrathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticusconvexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine structure of the oostegites and

  2. Physiological properties of the gut lumen of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea): adaptive to digesting lignocellulose?

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin; Brune, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Since any given trait of an organism is considered to represent either an adaptation to the environment or a phylogenetic constraint, most physiological gut characteristics should be adaptive in terms of optimizing digestion and utilization of the respective food source. Among the Crustacea, the taxon Oniscidea (Isopoda) is the only suborder that includes, and essentially consists of, species inhabiting terrestrial environments, feeding on food sources different from those of most other Crustacea (i.e., terrestrial leaf litter). Microelectrodes were used to assay physiological characteristics of the gut lumen from representatives of four families of terrestrial isopods: Trichoniscus pusillus (Trichoniscidae), Oniscus asellus (Oniscidae), Porcellio scaber (Porcellionidae), and Trachelipus rathkii (Trachelipodidae). Microsensor measurements of oxygen pressure (Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes) revealed that O2-consuming processes inside the gut lumen created steep radial oxygen gradients. Although all guts were oxic in the periphery, the radial center of the posterior hindgut was micro-oxic or even anoxic in the adults of the larger species. The entire gut lumen of all examined species was strongly oxidizing (Pt microelectrodes; apparent redox potential, Eh: +600-700 mV). Such conditions would allow for the coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, with both oxidative and fermentative activities contributing to digestion. Although bacterial O2 consumption was also observed in the midgut glands (hepatopancreas), they remained entirely oxic, probably owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio and high oxygen fluxes across the hepatopancreatic epithelium into the gland lumen. Measurements with pH microelectrodes (LIX-type) showed a slight pH gradient from acidic conditions in the anterior hindgut to neutral conditions in the posterior hindgut of O. asellus, P. scaber and T. rathkii. By contrast, the pH in the hindgut lumen of T. pusillus was almost

  3. Host tissues as microhabitats for Wolbachia and quantitative insights into the bacterial community in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, J; Beltran-Bech, S; Lesobre, J; Raimond, M; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D

    2014-05-01

    Animal-bacterial symbioses are highly dynamic in terms of multipartite interactions, both between the host and its symbionts as well as between the different bacteria constituting the symbiotic community. These interactions will be reflected by the titres of the individual bacterial taxa, for example via host regulation of bacterial loads or competition for resources between symbionts. Moreover, different host tissues represent heterogeneous microhabitats for bacteria, meaning that host-associated bacteria might establish tissue-specific bacterial communities. Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria, infecting a large number of arthropods and filarial nematodes. However, relatively little is known regarding direct interactions between Wolbachia and other bacteria. This study represents the first quantitative investigation of tissue-specific Wolbachia-microbiota interactions in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. To this end, we obtained a more complete picture of the Wolbachia distribution patterns across all major host tissues, integrating all three feminizing Wolbachia strains (wVulM, wVulC, wVulP) identified to date in this host. Interestingly, the different Wolbachia strains exhibited strain-specific tissue distribution patterns, with wVulM reaching lower titres in most tissues. These patterns were consistent across different host genetic backgrounds and might reflect different co-evolutionary histories between the Wolbachia strains and A. vulgare. Moreover, Wolbachia-infected females carried higher total bacterial loads in several, but not all, tissues, irrespective of the Wolbachia strain. Taken together, this quantitative approach indicates that Wolbachia is part of a potentially more diverse bacterial community, as exemplified by the presence of highly abundant bacterial taxa in the midgut caeca of several A. vulgare populations.

  4. Testis follicles ultrastructure of three species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the research, carried out on three species of terrestrial isopods - Armadillidium granulatum, Halophiloscia hirsuta and Trichoniscus alexandrae - is to bring a first consistent contribution to the knowledge of the ultrastructural organization of the testis follicles. The testis follicles are seat of a remarkable dynamic activity of their cell components (somatic cells and germ cells) that results in a continuous variation, related to the trend of spermatogenesis, of their morphology, organization and of the relationships between the two cell populations. The somatic cells, known in literature as follicular cells, nurse cells or Sertoli cells, are arranged at the periphery of the follicle to form an epithelial layer of variable thickness resting on a thin basal lamina in turn surrounded by a discontinuous network of muscle cells. In A. granulatum and H. hirsuta, two types of Sertoli cells are present: a first type, the nurse cells, envelop the spermatids in cavities within their cytoplasm and through their secretion activity play a fundamental role in the formation of the spermatophores; moreover, they phagocytizes the residual cytoplasm of spermatids. A second type of Sertoli cells shows features that leave clearly identify its supporting role to the spermatophores in formation. In T. alexandrae, instead, only one type of Sertoli cells, the nurse cell, is present, whose features are widely superimposable to those observed in the other two species. Moreover, two septa of Sertoli cells depart from the periphery of the testis follicle to constitute an articulated compartmentalization of the follicle itself, probably targeted to realize at its inside a series of microenvironments functionally diversified in order to meets the needs of the different stages of the spermatogenic cycle.

  5. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Cave, Surface, and Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans of the Species Asellus aquaticus

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Bethany A.; Gross, Joshua B.; Speiser, Daniel I.; Oakley, Todd H.; Patel, Nipam H.; Gould, Douglas B.; Protas, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the isopod, Asellus aquaticus. This species includes multiple cave and surface populations that have numerous morphological differences between them. A key feature is that hybrids between cave and surface individuals are viable, which enables genetic crosses and linkage analyses. Here, we advance this system by analyzing single animal transcriptomes of Asellus aquaticus. We use high throughput sequencing of non-normalized cDNA derived from the head of a surface-dwelling male, the head of a cave-dwelling male, the head of a hybrid male (produced by crossing a surface individual with a cave individual), and a pooled sample of surface embryos and hatchlings. Assembling reads from surface and cave head RNA pools yielded an integrated transcriptome comprised of 23,984 contigs. Using this integrated assembly as a reference transcriptome, we aligned reads from surface-, cave- and hybrid- head tissue and pooled surface embryos and hatchlings. Our approach identified 742 SNPs and placed four new candidate genes to an existing linkage map for A. aquaticus. In addition, we examined SNPs for allele-specific expression differences in the hybrid individual. All of these resources will facilitate identification of genes and associated changes responsible for cave adaptation in A. aquaticus and, in concert with analyses of other species, will inform our understanding of the evolutionary processes accompanying adaptation to the subterranean environment. PMID:26462237

  6. THE GENUS VEILLONELLA I.

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, M.

    1964-01-01

    Rogosa, M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.). The genus Veillonella. I. General cultural, ecological, and biochemical considerations. J. Bacteriol. 87:162–170. 1964.—Arguments are presented for excluding Veillonella discoides, V. reniformis, V. orbiculus, and V. vulvovaginitidis from the genus, and for restricting it to aerogenic organisms such as V. parvula and V. alcalescens. The genus Veillonella thus would comprise species which are anaerobic and nonmotile; are small, spherical, gram-negative cocci appearing as pairs, masses, and short chains; and are cytochrome-oxidase- and benzidine-negative. Veillonella would be further characterized in that glucose or any other carbohydrate is not fermented; indole is not produced; gelatin is not liquefied; nitrate is reduced; H2S is produced; propionic and acetic acids, CO2, and H2 are produced from lactate during growth; and pyruvic, oxaloacetic, malic, fumaric, and succinic acids are metabolized by resting cells, but citric, isocitric, and malonic acids are not. In addition to the above, a number of cultural, ecological, and biochemical characteristics are described. At present, V. parvula (the type species) and V. alcalescens would be retained as valid species. Errors in the descriptions of V. parvula and V. alcalescens are corrected by amended statements. These species are differentiated serologically. Also, V. alcalescens differs from V. parvula in having an absolute requirement for putrescine or cadaverine and in decomposing H2O2. PMID:14102850

  7. Multiple Conserved Heteroplasmic Sites in tRNA Genes in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Terrestrial Isopods (Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Christopher H.; Badawi, Myriam; Moumen, Bouziane; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome structure and organization are relatively conserved among metazoans. However, in many isopods, especially the terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea), the mitochondrial genome consists of both ∼14-kb linear monomers and ∼28-kb circular dimers. This unusual organization is associated with an ancient and conserved constitutive heteroplasmic site. This heteroplasmy affects the anticodon of a tRNA gene, allowing this single locus to function as a “dual” tRNA gene for two different amino acids. Here, we further explore the evolution of these unusual mitochondrial genomes by assembling complete mitochondrial sequences for two additional Oniscidean species, Trachelipus rathkei and Cylisticus convexus. Strikingly, we find evidence of two additional heteroplasmic sites that also alter tRNA anticodons, creating additional dual tRNA genes, and that are conserved across both species. These results suggest that the unique linear/circular organization of isopods’ mitochondrial genomes may facilitate the evolution of stable mitochondrial heteroplasmies, and, conversely, once such heteroplasmies have evolved, they constrain the multimeric structure of the mitochondrial genome in these species. Finally, we outline some possible future research directions to identify the factors influencing mitochondrial genome evolution in this group. PMID:25911226

  8. Immunohistochemical study of androgenic gland hormone: localization in the male reproductive system and species specificity in the terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yuriko; Okuno, Atsuro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-02-01

    Androgenic gland hormone (AGH) is responsible for male sexual differentiation in crustaceans. AGH of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, is a heterodimetric glycoprotein. To determine the distribution of AGH in the male reproductive system, an immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibodies raised against different components of the proAGH molecule of A. vulgare, for example, the whole molecule of recombinant proAGH expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli-rAGH), the N-terminal nonapeptide of the B chain, and the N-terminal octapeptide of the A chain. The androgenic gland (AG) showed strong immunoreactivity to all three of these antibodies, while the testis, the seminal vesicle, and the vas deferens did not show immunostaining. To examine the species specificity of AGH, the male reproductive systems in nine species of Oniscidea were examined immunohistochemically with antibody raised against E. coli-rAGH. A positive reaction was observed in the AGs of species belonging to the Armadillidiidae, Porcellionidae, and Scyphacidae families. Immunoreactivity was strongest in A. vulgare and was stronger in Armadillidiidae than in Porcellionidae or in Scyphacidae. These results suggest that structural similarity of AGH may exist among some terrestrial isopods, although AGH seems to harbor a relatively high degree of species specificity. PMID:11884067

  9. Reckless males, rational females: dynamic trade-off between food and shelter in the marine isopod Idotea balthica.

    PubMed

    Vesakoski, Outi; Merilaita, Sami; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2008-11-01

    Habitat choice of herbivores is expected to be a resolution of a trade-off between food and shelter. The resolution of this trade-off may, however, be dynamic within a species because distinct phenotypes may value these factors differently and the value may vary temporally. We studied this hypothesis in the marine herbivore Idotea balthica (Isopoda), by simultaneously manipulating both food and shelter, and investigated whether the resolution of the trade-off differed between sexes, colour morphs and day and night (i.e. high and low predation risk). Isopods chose between exposing and concealing backgrounds in which the quantity or quality of food varied. When choosing between the backgrounds in the absence of food, females preferred the concealment more than males did. However, in a trade-off situation the isopods traded shelter for food, and females more so than males. Thus, males' lower preference for the shelter was not counterbalanced by a stronger preference for food. The microhabitat use also differed between night and day showing adaptation to diurnally fluctuating predation risk. We suggest that microhabitat utilization of females is more strongly tied to variation in risk and resources than that of males, for whom other factors, such as seeking mates, may be more important. PMID:18692551

  10. Effects of soil and dietary exposures to Ag nanoparticles and AgNO₃ in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Ag-NPs and AgNO3 on the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were determined upon soil and dietary exposures. Isopods avoided Ag in soil, with EC50 values of ∼16.0 and 14.0 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Feeding inhibition tests in soil showed EC50s for effects on consumption ratio of 127 and 56.7 mg Ag/kg, respectively. Although similar EC50s for effects on biomass were observed for nanoparticulate and ionic Ag (114 and 120 mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively), at higher concentrations greater biomass loss was found for AgNO3. Upon dietary exposure, AgNO3 was more toxic, with EC50 for effects on biomass change being >1500 and 233 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. The difference in toxicity between Ag-NPs and AgNO3 could not be explained from Ag body concentrations. This suggests that the relation between toxicity and bioavailability of Ag-NPs differs from that of ionic Ag in soils.

  11. Deep down: Isopod biodiversity of the Kuril-Kamchatka abyssal area including a comparison with data of previous expeditions of the RV Vityaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Malyutina, Marina V.; Golovan, Olga A.; Brenke, Nils; Riehl, Torben; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    This study focusses on the isopod biodiversity in the abyssal area southeast of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. The KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) expedition in summer 2012 collected altogether 10,169 isopods from 21 C-EBS hauls at 12 stations, belonging to 19 families, 73 genera and 207 species from the depth range between 4830 and 5780 m. Munnopsidae and Desmosomatidae were the most abundant and species-rich families, Eurycope (Munnopsidae) and Macrostylis (Macrostylidae) the most abundant genera. An nMDS plot on the basis of the Cosine similarity index reveals no clear pattern and all hauls to be different from each other. We compared our data with 12 stations from the same depth range sampled by the Russian RV Vityaz about 50 years ago and were able to identify several species collected by the RV Vityaz. The identified isopod species belonged to the families Munnopsidae, Macrostylidae, Haploniscidae, Desmosomatidae, Ischnomesidae and Nannoniscidae. Of the 333 individuals collected by the RV Vityaz, Haploniscidae and Munnopsidae were the most abundant families. Desmosomatidae were only represented by <1% of the isopod individuals. However, the rarefaction curves of both the KuramBio and the Vityaz samples are not approaching an asymptote, indicating that even after repeated sampling just a part of the local fauna has been recorded so far.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum” Ps, a Bacterial Symbiont in the Hepatopancreas of the Terrestrial Isopod Porcellio scaber

    PubMed Central

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Toenshoff, Elena R.; Schulz, Frederik; Schuster, Lisa; Domann, Daryl; Horn, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    “Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum” Ps is an extracellular symbiont residing in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Its genome is highly similar to that of the close relative “Ca. Hepatoplasma crinochetorum” Av from Armadillidium vulgare. However, instead of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system, it encodes a type I restriction modification system. PMID:26272556

  13. The link between antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase and physiological condition of a control population of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber).

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Lešer, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in a control population of terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) are correlated with the physiological condition of the isopods. For this purpose, the activities of these enzymes were analysed in isopods from a stock population and in parallel, the physiological condition of the same specimens was assessed using a histological approach based on epithelial thickness and lipid droplets. We found a correlation between antioxidant enzymes and the physiological condition of the isopods. This implies that these enzymes could be used as predictive indicators of the physiological condition in a stock population before comprehensive toxicological studies are conducted and also in control group after the experiment. When a control group is found to be very heterogeneous in terms of physiological condition, the experiment should be repeated with a larger number of experimental animals. The findings of this study will contribute to more accurate experimental design of toxicity tests when using biomarkers. This should encourage other researchers to increase their effort to know the physiological state of their test organisms.

  14. The expression of one ankyrin pk2 allele of the WO prophage is correlated with the Wolbachia feminizing effect in isopods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The maternally inherited α-Proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis is an obligate endosymbiont of nematodes and arthropods, in which they induce a variety of reproductive alterations, including Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI) and feminization. The genome of the feminizing wVulC Wolbachia strain harboured by the isopod Armadillidium vulgare has been sequenced and is now at the final assembly step. It contains an unusually high number of ankyrin motif-containing genes, two of which are homologous to the phage-related pk1 and pk2 genes thought to contribute to the CI phenotype in Culex pipiens. These genes encode putative bacterial effectors mediating Wolbachia-host protein-protein interactions via their ankyrin motifs. Results To test whether these Wolbachia homologs are potentially involved in altering terrestrial isopod reproduction, we determined the distribution and expression of both pk1 and pk2 genes in the 3 Wolbachia strains that induce CI and in 5 inducing feminization of their isopod hosts. Aside from the genes being highly conserved, we found a substantial copy number variation among strains, and that is linked to prophage diversity. Transcriptional analyses revealed expression of one pk2 allele (pk2b2) only in the feminizing Wolbachia strains of isopods. Conclusions These results reveal the need to investigate the functions of Wolbachia ankyrin gene products, in particular those of Pk2, and their host targets with respect to host sex manipulation. PMID:22497736

  15. Zinc, among a 'cocktail' of metal pollutants, is responsible for the absence of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber from the vicinity of a primary smelting works.

    PubMed

    Hopkin, S P; Hames, C A

    1994-03-01

    : Porcellio scaber Latreille (Crustacea: Isopoda) of one month in age were reared for a year on leaf litter of field maple (Acer campestre) contaminated in the laboratory with a range of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead or zinc. The metals were applied topically to the leaves as nitrates. Growth and survival, numbers of live offspring produced by females that matured, and concentrations of metals in adult isopods at the end of the experiment were measured.'Critical concentrations' of metals in food at which all the isopods died before producing offspring were 100 μg Cd g(-1), 100 μg Cu g(-1), 2000 μg Pb g(-1) and 1000 μg Zn g(-1) (on a dry weight basis). The relative toxicities of the four metals in the laboratory were compared with concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in surface leaf litter in the vicinity of a primary smelting works at Avonmouth, South West England. The results support the hypothesis that the absence of Porcellio scaber from sites in the immediate vicinity of the factory is due to zinc poisoning. Although cadmium is approximately ten times more toxic to isopods than zinc in the laboratory, zinc is most likely to be killing isopods in the field because its concentration is always at least 30 times higher than cadmium in Avonmouth leaf litter, and more than 100 times higher at most sites.Populations of Porcellio scaber survive in field sites where surface leaf litter contains up to 5000 μg Zn g(-1). This is at least five times higher than the 'critical concentration' in laboratory experiments. Thus, the methodology for assessing metal toxicity described in this paper, exaggerates the potential effects of metals to isopods in the field. Such differences between laboratory and field toxicities of metals should be taken into account when environmental protection levels for metals are being proposed for soil invertebrates based on ecotoxicological tests conducted in the laboratory.

  16. The influence of metal speciation on the bioavailability and sub-cellular distribution of cadmium to the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio dilatatus.

    PubMed

    Calhôa, Carla Filipa; Monteiro, Marta S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Mann, Reinier M

    2011-04-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential toxic metal that is able to bioaccumulate in both flora fauna and has the potential to biomagnify in some food chains. However, the form in which cadmium is presented to consumers can alter the bioavailability and possibly the internal distribution of assimilated Cd. Previous studies in our laboratory highlighted differences in Cd assimilation among isopods when they were provided with a plant-based food with either Cd biologically incorporated into plant tissue or superficially amended with ionic Cd(2+). Cd is known for its high affinity for sulphur ligands in cysteine residues which form the basis for metal-binding proteins such as metallothionein. This study compares Cd assimilation efficiency (AE) in Porcellio dilatatus fed with food amended with either cadmium cysteinate or cadmium nitrate in an examination of the influence of Cd speciation on metal bioavailability followed by an examination of the sub-cellular distribution using a centrifugal fractionation protocol. As hypothesized the AE of Cd among isopods fed with Cd(NO(3))(2) (64%, SE=5%) was higher than AE for isopods fed with Cd(Cys)(2) (20%, SE=3%). The sub-cellular distribution also depended on the Cd species provided. Those isopods fed Cd(Cys)(2) allocated significantly more Cd to the cell debris and organelles fractions at the expense of allocation to metal-rich granules (MRG). The significance of the difference in sub-cellular distribution with regard to toxicity is discussed. This paper demonstrates that the assimilation and internal detoxification of Cd is dependent on the chemical form of Cd presented to the isopod.

  17. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber as a biomarker of organophosphorus compounds in food.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Katja; Gabrijelcic, Elizabeta; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide diazinon in juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). The woodlice were exposed to different concentrations of diazinon added to food (5, 10, 50, and 100 or 150 micrograms/g dry food). Weight change and food assimilation efficiency were determined two and four weeks after the exposure. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in surviving animals was measured at the end of the experiment. The results show that woodlice exposed to diazinon do not significantly differ from controls in growth and feeding rate. The reduction of AChE activity was observed at the lowest diazinon exposure (5 and 10 micrograms/g dry food). These results suggest that AChE activity might prove a useful biomarker, indicating low levels of organophosphates in food.

  18. 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis', an intracellular bacterium from the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2004-03-01

    Intracellular bacteria were observed in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopic observations were used to determine the taxonomic position of these intracellular bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis and a complex developmental cycle affiliate these bacteria to the order Chlamydiales, within which they form a distinctive lineage, close to the family Simkaniaceae. They share <92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with their closest relative and <88 % similarity with other members of the order Chlamydiales. A specific signature oligonucleotide sequence was identified and used as a probe, enabling the identification of intracellular bacteria in infected hepatopancreatic tissue. According to the distinctive morphology of their elementary bodies, which are rod-shaped rather than spherical and contain translucent oblong structures, their genomic properties and their crustacean host, the name 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis' is proposed for intracellular bacteria in the hepatopancreas of P. scaber.

  19. Consumption of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) by the isopod idotea chelipes (pallas) in lake Grevelingen, after the growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenendijk, A. M.

    Autumn and winter consumption of eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) by the isopod Idotea chelipes (Pallas) was calculated by means of estimating biomass of both Idotea and eelgrass in the field, and consumption experiments in the laboratory. During the research period, September 1978 to March 1979, Idotea was found to be most abundant (in terms of biomass) invertebrate species in the eelgrass beds of Lake Grevelingen. Calculations show that Idotea can only play a minor role in the breakdown of eelgrass after the growing season: only between 2.9 and 5.8% (maximally) of the standing crop of eelgrass at the 3 permanent plots was consumed by this invertebrate. The fast decline of the standing eelgrass crop after the growing season in mainly due to transport of large leaf fragments (>10 cm) from the eelgrass beds by wind and wave action.

  20. Assimilation and loss of sup 109 Cd and sup 65 Zn by the terrestrial isopods Oniscus asellus and Porcellio scaber

    SciTech Connect

    Hames, C.A.C.; Hopkin, S.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Terrestrial isopods (woodlice) have been the subject of numerous publications on the dynamics of metals in terrestrial invertebrates. They are of particular interest due to the ability of the hepatopancreas of woodlice to accumulate zinc, cadmium, lead and copper to very high concentrations. In a recent study, Hopkin showed that O. asellus from a zinc-contaminated site was able to excrete this metal at a faster rate than P. scaber when both species were fed an uncontaminated diet. In contrast, O. asellus had a greater affinity for cadmium and retained this metal to a much greater extent than P. scaber. In this paper, the rates of assimilation and excretion of two of these metals have been quantified by feeding O. asellus and P. scaber on leaves contaminated with radioactive isotopes of zinc and cadmium.

  1. Dynamics of an enzyme polymorphism in the isopod, Sphaeroma rugicauda (Leach). II. Sexual, gametic and fecundity selection.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J P; Heath, D J

    1983-10-01

    The estuarine isopod Sphaeroma rugicauda (Leach) exhibits a diallelic polymorphism at the locus coding for the enzyme Pgi. An investigation carried out during the animal's breeding season (June-July) in 1979 and 1980 indicated that the animals were mating at random. It also showed the s/s-homozygote females to be the earliest to release offspring and to be the most fecund of the three genotypes (f/f, f/s and s/s). Further, data from the wild population in 1980 and laboratory experiments indicated that male s-gametes were selected against in s/s females, resulting in offspring ratio distortions in f/s (male) X s/s (female) crosses, in favour of heterozygotes. The net effect of these selective pressures did not, however, significantly alter the genotype frequencies (found in the offspring) from expected values.

  2. Dynamics of an enzyme polymorphism in the isopod, Sphaeroma rugicauda (Leach). I. Temporal variation in genotype frequencies.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J P; Heath, D J

    1983-10-01

    A 27 month study (November, 1978 through January, 1981) of the diallelic enzyme locus, phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi), in the estuarine isopod Sphaeroma rugicauda (Leach) revealed seasonal changes in the frequencies of the three genotypes (fast/fast, fast/slow and slow/slow). A comparison of genotype frequencies in the newly-released offspring (August) to the frequencies in the same animals ten months later during the breeding season (June), revealed a decline in heterozygote frequency and a corresponding increase in the frequency of the s/s homozygote both of which appeared to be initiated at the onset of winter, a period characterised by low temperatures and salinity. Survivorship experiments in the laboratory suggested that the increase in frequency of the s/s homozygote, at least, could be explained by this genotype being favoured at low temperatures.

  3. Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Mateos, Mariana; Santamaria, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ligia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico. We expect to find high levels of allopatric diversity. In addition, we expect the phylogeographic patterns to show signatures of past vicariant events that occurred in this geologically dynamic region. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA). We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We found many divergent clades that, in general, group according to geography. Some of the most striking features of the Ligia phylogeographic pattern include: (1) deep mid-peninsular phylogeographic breaks on the Pacific and Gulf sides of Baja peninsula; (2) within the Gulf lineages, the northern peninsula is most closely related to the northern mainland, while the southern peninsula is most closely related to the central-southern mainland; and, (3) the southernmost portion of the peninsula (Cape Region) is most closely related to the southernmost portion of mainland. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the phylogenetic relationships of Ligia populations in the study area. This study probably represents the finest-scale phylogeographic examination for any organism to date in this region. Presence of highly divergent lineages suggests multiple Ligia species exist in this region. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Gulf of California and Baja peninsula are incongruent with a widely accepted vicariant scenario among phylogeographers, but consistent with aspects of alternative geological hypotheses and phylo- and biogeographic patterns of

  4. A complex evolutionary history in a remote archipelago: phylogeography and morphometrics of the Hawaiian endemic Ligia isopods.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O'ahu and Kaua'i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Hawai'i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai'i, O'ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua'i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic

  5. A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from Oʻahu and Kauaʻi revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Molokaʻi, Lanaʻi, and Hawaiʻi), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kauaʻi) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A

  6. Analysis of CaCO3 deposit formation and degradation during the molt cycle of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Fabritius, Helge; Ziegler, Andreas

    2003-05-01

    Terrestrial isopods store cuticular calcium in large sternal deposits composed of an amorphous CaCO(3) compound. A large part of the deposits consists of numerous small spherules that increase the exposed surface to facilitate resorption of CaCO(3) during cuticle mineralization. It is not known how these spherules are formed and how they are dissolved. This paper presents for the first time an analysis of ultrastructural changes occurring in the sternal CaCO(3) deposits of a terrestrial isopod during their formation and degradation. Our results indicate that formation of the spherules takes place in a specialized aggregation zone, in which 10- to 30-nm-thick granules form agglomerations that then increase in size to form spherules that reveal a concentric growth pattern. Degradation of the deposits occurs in a manner that exposes a maximum of surface area on all levels of their structural organization.

  7. A 4D-microscopic analysis of the germ band in the isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Malacostraca, Peracarida)-developmental and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Hejnol, Andreas; Schnabel, Ralf; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2006-12-01

    Malacostracan crustaceans have evolved a conserved stereotyped cell division pattern in the post-naupliar germ band. This cleavage pattern is unique in arthropods investigated so far, and allows a combined analysis of gene expression and cell lineage during segmentation and organ development at the level of individual cells. To investigate the cell lineage in the germ band of the isopod Porcellio scaber, we used a 4D-microscopy system, which enables us to analyse every cell event in the living embryo. The study was combined with the analysis of the expression of the gene engrailed (en) at different stages of germ band formation. Our findings confirm the results of earlier investigations of the cell division pattern in the posterior part of the isopod germ band. Furthermore, we can show that in the anterior region, in contrast to the posterior part, cleavage directions are variable and cell sorting takes place-similar to other arthropod germ bands. Additionally, the gene expression pattern of en in this region is not as regular as in the post-naupliar germ band, and only later becomes regulated into its characteristic stripe pattern. The comparison of the cell lineage of P. scaber with that of other malacostracan crustaceans shows an enhancement in the velocity of cell divisions relative to the arrangement of these cells in rows in the isopod germ band. The striking similarity of the formation of the genealogical units in the anterior part suggests a sister group relationship between the peracarid taxa Tanaidacea and Isopoda.

  8. Upon exposure to Cu nanoparticles, accumulation of copper in the isopod Porcellio scaber is due to the dissolved Cu ions inside the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Golobič, Miha; Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Romih, Tea; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne

    2012-11-01

    The fate of nanoparticles in organisms is of significant interest. In the current work, we used a test system with terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) fed with food spiked with Cu NPs or soluble Cu salt for 14 days. Two different doses were used for spiking to yield final concentrations of 2000 and 5000 μg Cu/g dry food. After the exposure period, part of the exposed group of animals was transferred to clean food to depurate. Cu content was analyzed in the digestive glands, gut, and the 'rest' of the body. Similar patterns of (i) assimilated and depurated amounts of Cu, (ii) Cu body distribution, and (iii) effect on isopods feeding behavior were observed regardless of whether the animals were fed with Cu NPs or soluble Cu salt spiked food. Thus, Cu ions and not Cu NPs were assimilated by the digestive gland cells. Solubilization of the Cu NPs applied to the leaves was also analyzed with chemical methods and recombinant Cu-sensing bacteria. The comparison of the in vitro data on solubilization of Cu NPs and in vivo data on Cu accumulation in the animal tissues showed that about 99% of accumulated copper ions was dissolved from ingested Cu NPs in the digestive system of isopods.

  9. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment. PMID:26581474

  10. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment.

  11. The distribution and abundance of Sphaeroma terebrans, a wood-boring isopod of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) habitat within Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, R.A.; Bell, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the distribution, abundance, and demography of a wood boring isopod, Sphaeroma terebrans Bate, 1866, within the prop roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., in eight sites within Tampa Bay, Florida. Sphaeroma terebrans in Tampa Bay displayed reproductive activity year-round and bay-wide synchrony in their density pattern. On average approximately 60% (range: 25%-86%) of the intertidal aerial roots surveyed were occupied by S. terebrans. Although infestation levels by S. terebrans in Tampa Bay were similar to that of more tropical regions, the distribution of S. terebrans was not continuous throughout the study sites. A substantially higher occurrence and density of S. terebrans was found in the northern compared to more southern study sites within the Bay. Additionally, some seemingly suitable areas of the bay (i.e., Pinellas Point, Skyway, Fort Desoto) were actually unoccupied on some dates. Although sites differed in the frequency with which roots were attacked, the density of burrows and isopods in an occupied root was similar, with most attacked roots containing 3-5 burrows. The results of a transplantation experiment indicated that neither abiotic factors nor substrate quality limit the burrowing capabilities or survival of adult S. terebrans in the areas where they are absent. Instead, dispersal limitation, linked with differential juvenile survival, most likely controls isopod distribution and abundance within Tampa Bay.

  12. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  13. Abelian duality at higher genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Chris

    2014-07-01

    In three dimensions, a free, periodic scalar field is related by duality to an abelian gauge field. Here I explore aspects of this duality when both theories are quantized on a Riemann surface of genus g. At higher genus, duality involves an identification of winding with momentum on the Jacobian variety of the Riemann surface. I also consider duality for monopole and loop operators on the surface and exhibit the operator algebra, a refinement of the Wilson-'t Hooft algebra.

  14. Litarcturus kexueiae sp. nov., a new deep-sea isopod from the Okinawa Trough (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera, Antarcturidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenliang; Sha, Zhongli

    2015-09-11

    A new species of the genus Litarcturus Brandt, 1990, L. kexueiae sp. nov., collected from deep sea of the Okinawa Trough, is described and illustrated. It is readily distinguished from the other seven species of the genus by bearing long supraocular spines about as long as the head and posterolateral pleotelsonic spines overreaching the pleotelson apex.

  15. Active osmoregulatory ion uptake across the pleopods of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas): electrophysiological measurements on isolated split endo- and exopodites mounted in a micro-ussing chamber.

    PubMed

    Postel, U; Becker, W; Brandt, A; Luck-Kopp, S; Riestenpatt, S; Weihrauch, D; Siebers, D

    2000-04-01

    The mechanism of active, osmoregulatory ion uptake was investigated in the pleopods of the marine isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas). Using isolated split half-podites of isopods acclimated to brackish water (20 salinity) mounted in a micro-Ussing chamber and symmetrically superfused with identical haemolymph-like salines, a mean short-circuit current I(sc) of -445 microA cm(-)(2) was measured in endopodites 3-5, corresponding to an inwardly directed transcellular movement of negative charge. Application of ouabain (5 mmol l(-)(1)) to the basolateral superfusate resulted in the almost total abolition of the I(sc) (reduced from -531 to -47 microA cm(-)(2)), suggesting that the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is the driving force for active, electrogenic uptake of NaCl. In contrast, mean I(sc) values close to zero were found in preparations of all exopodites and in endopodites 1 and 2. The specific activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase corresponded with these results. Specific activities were highest in posterior endopodites 3-5 and depended on ambient salinity. In all other rami, the activities were much lower and independent of ambient salinity. Activities in posterior endopodites 3-5 were lowest in isopods acclimated to 30 salinity (2-4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)), increased in individuals kept in 20 salinity (8.4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)) and were highest in isopods acclimated to 15 salinity (18.2 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)). When specimens were transferred from 30 to 40 salinity, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased in the posterior endopodites. The electrophysiological and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity measurements show that active electrogenic ion transport in this species occurs almost exclusively in posterior endopodites 3-5. The endopodite of the fifth pleopod of I. baltica exhibited a microscopic structure remarkably similar to that described for the lamellae of the phyllobranchiae of brachyurans. It is composed of two opposed epithelial

  16. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed Central

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  17. Spectroscopic parameters of the cuticle and ethanol extracts of the fluorescent cave isopod Mesoniscus graniger (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Giurginca, Andrei; Šustr, Vladimír; Tajovský, Karel; Giurginca, Maria; Matei, Iulia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The body surface of the terrestrial isopod Mesoniscus graniger (Frivaldsky, 1863) showed blue autofluorescence under UV light (330–385 nm), using epifluorescence microscopy and also in living individuals under a UV lamp with excitation light of 365 nm. Some morphological cuticular structures expressed a more intense autofluorescence than other body parts. For this reason, only the cuticle was analyzed. The parameters of autofluorescence were investigated using spectroscopic methods (molecular spectroscopy in infrared, ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) in samples of two subspecies of Mesoniscus graniger preserved in ethanol. Samples excited by UV light (from 350 to 380 nm) emitted blue light of wavelengths 419, 420, 441, 470 and 505 nm (solid phase) and 420, 435 and 463 (ethanol extract). The results showed that the autofluorescence observed from living individuals may be due to some β-carboline or coumarin derivatives, some crosslinking structures, dityrosine, or due to other compounds showing similar excitation-emission characteristics. PMID:26261444

  18. First record of Wolbachia in South American terrestrial isopods: Prevalence and diversity in two species of Balloniscus (Crustacea, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Almerão, Mauricio Pereira; Fagundes, Nelson Jurandi Rosa; de Araújo, Paula Beatriz; Verne, Sébastien; Grandjean, Frédéric; Bouchon, Didier; Araújo, Aldo Mellender

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus (B. sellowii and B. glaber) were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii, but uninfected populations could be found in both species. Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber. AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts. PMID:23413179

  19. Reduced survival and body size in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber from a metal-polluted environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, D T; Hopkin, S P

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods (woodlice) may show trade-offs in life history parameters when exposed to toxins. We have shown previously [Jones and Hopkin (1996) Functional Ecology 10, 741-750] that woodlice which survive to reproduce in sites heavily polluted with metals from an industrial smelting works do not alter their reproductive allocation. This study investigates whether there are differences in the survival and body size of Porcellio scaber from these same populations. Specimens were collected from eight sites at different distances from the Avonmouth smelter, UK. The sites represented a gradient of concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in the woodlice, from background levels to a grossly contaminated sites close to the smelter. In laboratory trials, the number of days survived by starved males showed a significant decline with increased concentrations of Zn in those animals. The maximum size of both sexes declined significantly from the least to the most polluted sites. The most polluted sites had significantly fewer large animals. The cost of detoxifying assimilated metals appears to be reduced energy reserves and smaller body size.

  20. Effects of starvation on body composition and cold tolerance in the collembolan Orchesella cincta and the isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, H A.; Nedved, O; Lavy, D

    1997-10-01

    The effects of long-term starvation on the body composition of the isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille) and the collembolan Orchesella cincta (L.) were studied, by determining the body composition in starved and fed animals. A period under summer conditions (19 degrees C, 75% RH and L/D 16/8 photoperiod), was followed by a period under winter conditions (5 degrees C, 75% RH and LD 6/18 photoperiod). O. cincta was held under summer conditions for 3weeks, during which its protein and lipid content decreased, while its water content increased. In P. scaber, the same occurred during the 6weeks they were kept under summer conditions. During subsequent weeks under winter conditions, changes in cold tolerance of the animals were investigated. Cold tolerance and haemolymph osmolality were measured once a week. Starved animals had lower cold tolerance than fed ones. For P. scaber a decreased haemolymph osmolality was found in starved animals compared to fed ones. This is assumed to be caused by a combination of the consumption of carbohydrates out of the haemolymph and of protein reserves and the accumulation of body water. O. cincta appeared to be capable of osmoregulation, as haemolymph osmolality did not differ between starved and fed animals, despite differences in body water content. Decreased cold tolerance in starved animals of both species may be caused by increased water content or, more probably, by the decrease in reserves needed to produce cryoprotective substances.

  1. Altered physiological conditions of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber as a measure of subchronic TiO2 effects.

    PubMed

    Srpčič, Anja Menard; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) show low toxic potential against a variety of environmental organisms when measured by conventional toxicity endpoints. However, the question is whether the conventional measures of toxicity can define the adverse effects of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to asses the potential toxic and cytotoxic effects of the ingested nano-TiO2 (anatase, <25 nm) on a terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber. In addition to conventional toxicity parameters, the physiological condition of the animals was assessed. Following 28-day feeding exposure to nano-TiO2 at concentrations up to 5,000 μg nano-TiO2/g leaf dry weight, no toxic or cytotoxic effects were demonstrated. However, the physiological condition of the animals was affected in a dose-dependent manner. The physiological state of organisms is an important parameter to assess the potential population implications due to the exposure to nanomaterials. Therefore, we suggest that only if both, the physiological state of the animals exposed to nano-TiO2 and the conventional toxicity markers show no effects, the exposure dose can be interpreted as non-hazardous.

  2. Behavioral response in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) offered a choice of uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated food.

    PubMed

    Zidar, Primoz; Bozic, Janko; Strus, Jasna

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to find out whether Porcellio scaber discriminates against Cd-contaminated food. The foraging behavior in animals offered uncontaminated and Cd-contaminated food simultaneously was quantified for 48-h employing computer-aided video tracking. To see whether the isopods' selection of less contaminated food could diminish the influence Cd on food consumption, growth, metal assimilation, moulting and mortality, Cd-dosed food (20, 45, 200 and 450 mg kg(-1) dry weight) was offered together with untreated food for 3 weeks. Data from the video tracking experiments revealed that animals visited Cd-dosed food as often as untreated food, but spent much less time near Cd-dosed food. Discrimination against Cd-contaminated food increased with previous experience with contaminated food and/or with increased Cd body burden. In 3 weeks exposure uncontaminated food preference rose with time of exposure and cadmium concentration in food and reached a maximal preference ratio of 65% (untreated food): 35% (Cd-dosed food). The decreased consumption of Cd-dosed food was compensated by the increased consumption of control food. Cadmium body burden increased with time of exposure and cadmium concentration in food consumed, while the influence of Cd on food consumption, growth and moulting was diminished.

  3. Transition from marine to terrestrial ecologies: changes in olfactory and tritocerebral neuropils in land-living isopods.

    PubMed

    Harzsch, S; Rieger, V; Krieger, J; Seefluth, F; Strausfeld, N J; Hansson, B S

    2011-05-01

    In addition to the ancestors of insects, representatives of five lineages of crustaceans have colonized land. Whereas insects have evolved sensilla that are specialized to allow the detection of airborne odors and have evolved olfactory sensory neurons that recognize specific airborne ligands, there is so far little evidence for aerial olfaction in terrestrial crustaceans. Here we ask the question whether terrestrial Isopoda have evolved the neuronal substrate for the problem of detecting far-field airborne chemicals. We show that conquest of land of Isopoda has been accompanied by a radical diminution of their first antennae and a concomitant loss of their deutocerebral olfactory lobes and olfactory computational networks. In terrestrial isopods, but not their marine cousins, tritocerebral neuropils serving the second antenna have evolved radical modifications. These include a complete loss of the malacostracan pattern of somatotopic representation, the evolution in some species of amorphous lobes and in others lobes equipped with microglomeruli, and yet in others the evolution of partitioned neuropils that suggest modality-specific segregation of second antenna inputs. Evidence suggests that Isopoda have evolved, and are in the process of evolving, several novel solutions to chemical perception on land and in air.

  4. First record of Wolbachia in South American terrestrial isopods: Prevalence and diversity in two species of Balloniscus (Crustacea, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Almerão, Mauricio Pereira; Fagundes, Nelson Jurandi Rosa; de Araújo, Paula Beatriz; Verne, Sébastien; Grandjean, Frédéric; Bouchon, Didier; Araújo, Aldo Mellender

    2012-12-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus (B. sellowii and B. glaber) were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii, but uninfected populations could be found in both species. Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber. AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts.

  5. The diversity of terrestrial isopods in the natural reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in northwestern Sicily.

    PubMed

    Messina, Giuseppina; Pezzino, Elisa; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Caruso, Domenico; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems comprising coastal lakes and ponds are important areas for preserving biodiversity. The natural reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" is an interesting natural area in Sicily, formed by the remaining strips of land among salt pans near the coastline. From January 2008 to January 2010, pitfall trapping was conducted in five sampling sites inside the study area. The community of terrestrial isopods was assessed using the main diversity indices. Twenty-four species were collected, only one of them endemic to western Sicily: Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi, Lombardo & Caruso, 1992. Two species are new to Sicily: Armadilloniscus candidus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Armadilloniscus ellipticus (Harger, 1878). This is high species richness for a single reserve in Sicily. The extended sampling period also allowed us to study species phenology. Most of the species exhibited higher activity in spring than in autumn while some species also exhibited lower activity in the summer. The species richness revealed that the study area is in an acceptable conservation status; Shannon and Pielou indices also confirmed a more or less even distribution of individuals belonging to different species.

  6. Prolonged feeding of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) on TiO (2) nanoparicles. Absence of toxic effect.

    PubMed

    Novak, Sara; Drobne, Damjana; Menard, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide are one of most widely used nanomaterials in different products in everyday use and in industry, but very little is known about their effects on non- target cells and tissues. Terrestrial isopods were exposed to food dosed with nano-TiO(2) to give final nominal concentration 1000 and 2000 µg TiO(2)/g dry weight of food. The effects of ingested nano-TiO(2) on the model invertebrate Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3 and 7 days) and prolonged (14 and 28 days) dietary exposure was assessed by conventional toxicity measures such as feeding rate, weight change and mortality. Cell membrane destabilization was also investigated. No severe toxicity effects were observed after 3, 7, 14 or 28 days of dietary exposure to nano-TiO(2), but some animals, particularly those exposed to lower concentrations of nanoparticles, had severely destabilized digestive cell membranes. It was concluded that strong destabilization of the cell membrane was sporadic, and neither concentration- nor time-related. Further research is needed to confirm this sporadic toxic effect of nanoparticles.

  7. "Candidatus Bacilloplasma," a novel lineage of Mollicutes associated with the hindgut wall of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2007-09-01

    Pointed, rod-shaped bacteria colonizing the cuticular surface of the hindgut of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) were investigated by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopy. The results of phylogenetic analysis, and the absence of a cell wall, affiliated these bacteria with the class Mollicutes, within which they represent a novel and deeply branched lineage, sharing less than 82.6% sequence similarity to known Mollicutes. The lineage has been positioned as a sister group to the clade comprising the Spiroplasma group, the Mycoplasma pneumoniae group, and the Mycoplasma hominis group. The specific signature sequence was identified and used as a probe in in situ hybridization, which confirmed that the retrieved sequences originate from the attached rod-shaped bacteria from the hindgut of P. scaber and made it possible to detect these bacteria in their natural environment. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed a spherically shaped structure at the tapered end of the rod-shaped bacteria, enabling their specific and exclusive attachment to the tip of the cuticular spines on the inner surface of the gut. Specific adaptation to the gut environment, as well as phylogenetic positioning, indicate the long-term association and probable coevolution of the bacteria and the host. Taking into account their pointed, rod-shaped morphology and their phylogenetic position, the name "Candidatus Bacilloplasma" has been proposed for this new lineage of bacteria specifically associated with the gut surface of P. scaber.

  8. Physiological plasticity is key to the presence of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Hannah L.; Nylund, Göran; Eriksson, Susanne P.

    2014-01-01

    The low salinity of the Baltic Sea presents a physiological challenge to marine species. The marine isopod Idotea baltica is notably dominant among the shallow sublittoral of the Baltic Sea in association with Fucus vesiculosus, with permanent populations documented in salinities as low as 3 psu. To investigate the role of physiological plasticity in the successful colonisation of the Baltic by I. baltica three populations from the Swedish coast were here studied, one from the Kattegat (Malmö) and two from the Baltic Sea (Kalmar and Öregrund). These three sites cover the geographic range of this species within the Baltic Sea on the Swedish coast, and also the salinity range of this species within the Baltic Sea (10-5 psu). Individuals from these populations were exposed in the laboratory to a fully crossed experiment with the factors salinity and food source, to test for differences in the physiology of these populations under different conditions that may indicate local adaptation, or no differences that indicate physiological plasticity to differing salinity and food source. Metabolic rate, growth and thermal tolerance responses did not differ between the three populations across salinity treatments after a 12 week exposure. The results of this study indicate that the physiology of adult I. baltica is highly plastic with regard to salinity; this plasticity is likely to have facilitated their colonisation of the Baltic Sea.

  9. Ultrastructure and mineral composition of the cornea cuticle in the compound eyes of a supralittoral and a marine isopod.

    PubMed

    Alagboso, Francisca I; Reisecker, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Ziegler, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The cuticle of the cornea in Crustacea is an interesting example of a composite material compromising between two distinct functions. As part of the dioptric apparatus of the ommatidia within the complex eye it forms transparent micro-lenses that should as well maintain the mechanical stability of the head capsule. We analyzed the ultrastructure and composition of the isopod cornea cuticle of the terrestrial species Ligia oceanica and the marine Sphaeroma serratum. We used a variety of tissue preparation methods, electron microscopic techniques as well as electron microprobe analysis and Raman spectroscopic imaging. The results reveal various structural adaptations that likely increase light transmission. These are an increase in the thickness of the epicuticle, a reduction of the thickness of the outer layer of calcite, a spatial restriction of pore canals to interommatidial regions, and, for S. serratum only, an increase in calcite crystal size. In both species protein-chitin fibrils within the proximal exocuticle form a peculiar reticular structure that does not occur within the cuticle of the head capsule. In L. oceanica differential mineralization results in a spherically shaped interface between mineralized and unmineralized endocuticle, likely an adaptation to increase the refractive power of the cornea maintaining the mechanical stability of the cuticle between the ommatidia. The results show that the habitat and differences in the general structure of the animal's cuticle affect the way in which the cornea is adapted to its optical function.

  10. [Sodium flux as a function of the salinity of the medium in the Isopod crustacean Sphaeroma serratum (Fabricius)].

    PubMed

    Thuet, P

    1981-09-01

    The crustacean isopod Sphaeroma serratum, in steady state towards its medium, shows intensive sodium fluxes which have been evaluated by several different technics. In normal sea water (SW) the Na influx reaches 37.9 +/- 9.8 and the outflux represents 35.1 +/- 9.3 microEq h-1 100 mg-1. Renewable internal Na constitute three kinetic compartments whose turnover rate are 228.9; 63.2 +/- 14.6; 13.0 +/- 4.3%. h-1 respectively. The volume of the faster kinetic compartment is equal to 32.0 +/- 2.7% of the wet weight and it is likely equivalent to the extracellular space. In half diluted sea water (SW 1/2) the Na influx is 9.6 +/- 1.5 while outflux is found to be 9.3 +/- 2.2 microEq h-1 100 mg-1. The potential difference between internal and external media is equal to -2.0 +/- 0.4 mV in SW and -5.1 +/- 1.0 mV in SW 1/2. The ratio of the unidirectional fluxes in SW matches the electrochemical gradient, however in SW 1/2 the existence of an active Na influx is plausible.

  11. Size at the onset of maturity (SOM) revealed in length-weight relationships of brackish amphipods and isopods: An information theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Emanuela; Mancinelli, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    In amphipods and other small-sized crustaceans, allometric relationships are conventionally analysed by fitting the standard model Y = a·Xb (X and Y are, e.g., body length and weight, respectively) whose scaling exponent b is assumed to be constant. However, breakpoints in allometric relationships have long been documented in large-sized crustaceans, ultimately determined by ontogenetic, abrupt variations in the value of b. Here, the existence of breakpoints in length-weight relationships was investigated in four amphipod (i.e., Gammarus aequicauda, Gammarus insensibilis, Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, and Dexamine spinosa) and three isopod species (i.e., Lekanesphaera hookeri, Sphaeroma serratum, and Cymodoce truncata) from three Mediterranean lagoons. The power of two candidate linear models fitted to log10-transformed data - a simple model assuming a constant exponent b and a segmented model assuming b to vary after a breakpoint - was compared using a parsimonious selection strategy based on the Akaike information criterion. The segmented model with a breakpoint provided the most accurate fitting of length-weight data in the majority of the species analysed; non-conclusive results were obtained only for D. spinosa and C. truncata, of which a limited number of specimens was examined. Model parameters were consistent for amphipod and isopod species collected across the three different habitats; the generality of the results was further supported by a literature search confirming that the identified breakpoints corresponded with ontogenetic discontinuities related with sexual maturation in all the species investigated. In this study, segmented regression models were revealed to provide a statistically accurate and biologically meaningful description of length-weight relationships of common amphipod and isopod species. The methodological limitations of the approach are considered, while the practical implications for secondary production estimates are discussed.

  12. Observations on the Activity and Life History of the Scavenging Isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) from Loch Fyne, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Y. M.; Moore, P. G.

    1996-02-01

    The activity and life history of the cirolanid isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg has been studied using (primarily) fish-baited traps deployed at a deep-water station (190 m) in Loch Fyne, Scotland. A voracious scavenger, it burrows into soft mud, emerging to feed when suitable food odours are detected in the water. Isopods were attracted significantly to baited vs. non-baited traps. Underwater video observations revealed that most animals were active in the vicinity of traps, that capture efficiency was low, but retention complete. Only traps on the sea-bed captured mancas or juveniles in any numbers. Any seasonal pattern in catch rate through the year was confounded by high variability. Only one (manca-)brooding female was ever caught in a trap (in April). It is assumed that brooding females desist from feeding. The sex ratio of isopods in most trap collections was thus significantly male dominated. Mancas were trapped during February to August. Growth rate was slowest in adults and was similar for males and females. The maximum growth rate occurred during autumn associated with the seasonal cycle in bottom water temperatures. Longevity was estimated (by following peaks in the size-frequency distributions with time) to be c. 2·5 years, with sexual maturity (based on oostegites/spurred appendix masculinae) achieved after c. 19 months. Semelparity is suggested. A low incidence of an unnamed epicaridean parasite is reported from the Clyde population. Natatolana borealisalso carried peritrich ciliate epizoites on their antennae. Possible predators are swimming crabs and gadid fish, e.g. whiting and cod.

  13. Pyrene metabolites in the hepatopancreas and gut of the isopod Porcellio scaber, a new biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Stroomberg, G.J.; Knecht, J.A. de; Ariese, F.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Velthorst, N.H.

    1999-10-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the formation of pyrene metabolites by the isopod Porcellio scaber as a possible tool in the environmental risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in terrestrial ecosystems. The formation of pyrene metabolites was studied after either pulse exposure to a single high dose, or prolonged exposure (14 d) to a lower dosage. Exposure studies were carried out with unlabeled or radiolabeled pyrene, ion pair chromatography was used for analysis, and reference conjugates were synthesized. The authors also measured pyrene metabolites in field-exposed animals, to explore their use as biomarkers of PAH exposure. Analysis of the hepatopancreas and gut of single isopods revealed the formation of five products, one of which was 1-hydroxypyrene. Four of the remaining products were identified as phase 2 metabolites of 1-hydroxypyrene, with UV absorption and fluorescence characteristics similar to that of pyrene. One metabolite was identified as pyrene-1-glucoside, which is in accordance with high rates of glucosidation, reported for these isopods. Another conjugate was identified as pyrene-1-sulfate. None of the metabolites coeluted with a pyrene-1-glucuronide reference obtained from fish bile. A fifth metabolite detected by on-line scintillation detection did not exhibit any absorption at 340 nm, possibly because one of the aromatic rings of pyrene had lost its aromatic character. Although pyrene is not known for its toxicity, it usually co-occurs with other PAHs that are transformed into toxic products. Investigating the metabolism of pyrene can provide information with regard to the biotransformation capacity of invertebrate species and uptake and elimination kinetics. Because pyrene is one of the most predominant PAHs in the environment, analysis of its metabolites provides an extra tool for the environmental risk assessment of ecosystems with regard to PAH exposure, bioavailability, and biotransformation.

  14. Natural products from the genus tephrosia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinning; Yan, Tao; Gao, Chenghai; Cao, Wenhao; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-01

    The genus Tephrosia, belonging to the Leguminosae family, is a large pantropical genus of more than 350 species, many of which have important traditional uses in agriculture. This review not only outlines the source, chemistry and biological evaluations of natural products from the genus Tephrosia worldwide that have appeared in literature from 1910 to December 2013, but also covers work related to proposed biosynthetic pathways and synthesis of some natural products from the genus Tephrosia, with 105 citations and 168 new compounds.

  15. Feminization of the Isopod Cylisticus convexus after Transinfection of the wVulC Wolbachia Strain of Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Myriam; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are able to manipulate the reproduction of their hosts by inducing parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility or feminization of genetic males. Despite extensive studies, no underlying molecular mechanism has been described to date. The goal of this study was to establish a system with a single Wolbachia strain that feminizes two different isopod species to enable comparative analyses aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of feminization. It was previously suggested that Wolbachia wVulC, which naturally induces feminization in Armadillidium vulgare, induces the development of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected Cylisticus convexus adult males. However, this does not demonstrate that wVulC induces feminization in C. convexus since feminization is the conversion of genetic males into functional females that occurs during development. Nevertheless, it suggests that C. convexus may represent a feminization model suitable for further development. Knowledge about C. convexus sexual differentiation is also essential for comparative analyses, as feminization is thought to take place just before or during sexual differentiation. Consequently, we first described gonad morphological differentiation of C. convexus and compared it with that of A. vulgare. Then, wVulC was injected into male and female C. convexus adult individuals. The feminizing effect was demonstrated by the combined appearance of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected adult males, as well as the presence of intersexes and female biases in progenies in which wVulC was vertically transmitted from transinfected mothers. The establishment of a new model of feminization of a Wolbachia strain in a heterologous host constitutes a useful tool towards the understanding of the molecular mechanism of feminization. PMID:26047139

  16. Feminization of the Isopod Cylisticus convexus after Transinfection of the wVulC Wolbachia Strain of Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Myriam; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are able to manipulate the reproduction of their hosts by inducing parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility or feminization of genetic males. Despite extensive studies, no underlying molecular mechanism has been described to date. The goal of this study was to establish a system with a single Wolbachia strain that feminizes two different isopod species to enable comparative analyses aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of feminization. It was previously suggested that Wolbachia wVulC, which naturally induces feminization in Armadillidium vulgare, induces the development of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected Cylisticus convexus adult males. However, this does not demonstrate that wVulC induces feminization in C. convexus since feminization is the conversion of genetic males into functional females that occurs during development. Nevertheless, it suggests that C. convexus may represent a feminization model suitable for further development. Knowledge about C. convexus sexual differentiation is also essential for comparative analyses, as feminization is thought to take place just before or during sexual differentiation. Consequently, we first described gonad morphological differentiation of C. convexus and compared it with that of A. vulgare. Then, wVulC was injected into male and female C. convexus adult individuals. The feminizing effect was demonstrated by the combined appearance of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected adult males, as well as the presence of intersexes and female biases in progenies in which wVulC was vertically transmitted from transinfected mothers. The establishment of a new model of feminization of a Wolbachia strain in a heterologous host constitutes a useful tool towards the understanding of the molecular mechanism of feminization. PMID:26047139

  17. Precursor structure, distribution and possible functions of pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille).

    PubMed

    Fouda, Maged Mohamed Ali; Hiragaki, Susumu; Tufail, Muhammad; Shao, Qi-Miao; Takeda, Makio

    2010-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) is an 18 amino acid neuropeptide that induces pigment migration in Decapoda and serves as a circadian neurotransmitter in the locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila. In this study, a cDNA encoding PDH was cloned from adult brains of the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Av). The cDNA comprising 529 bp encodes a peptide (AvPDH) that consists of a putative 26 amino acid signal peptide, and a 34 amino acid PDH-precursor-related peptide containing an 18 amino acid mature peptide. The peptide shows a high sequence identity (55-77%) to crustacean β-PDHs and insect PDFs. The tissue-specific expression pattern was examined by reverse transcription PCR. The transcript is expressed in the brain strongly and ventral nerve cord weakly, but the signal was not detected in the intestinal tract. A similar expression profile appeared in Western blot analyses. Western blot analyses with timed samples showed more intense expression of PDH-like antigen at night. PDH-like immunohistochemical reactivity (PDH-ir) was detected in the optic lobe, anteromedian protocerebrum, accessory lobe, tritocerebrum, and suboesophageal ganglion but the reactivity was faint or nil in the pseudofrontal organ (sinus gland). These results were substantiated by in situ hybridization. Co-localization using anti-Gryllus bimaculatus (Gb)-PDF, anti-Bombyx mori (Bm)-CLK, and anti-Bm-CYC showed a co-localization of these antigens in the optic lobe and SOG. The results provide the first structural and immunocytochemical identification of PDH neurons in terrestrial isopods, and the co-localization of PDH with CLK and CYC supports its possible involvement in circadian clock. A day/night rhythm of PDH content is also a new feature. PMID:20637211

  18. Distribution, life cycle and demography in a brackish water population of the isopod Cyathura carinata (Kröyer) (Crustacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, Einar B.; Persson, Lars-Eric

    1986-11-01

    Cyathura carinata, an infaunal, fossorial, isopod is a dominant member of a brackish, shallow water macrobenthic community on the south coast of Sweden. It has a bi-annual life-cycle. Breeding occurs in June-July, and a single brood of between 18-63 eggs per female is produced. The eggs take about 3-4 weeks to develop, the juveniles emerge in mid-late July. Initial recruitment in the study area was estimated to be 1480-1850 juveniles m -2 for 1981-1983 year classes. About 5% of the recruits survive to reproductive age two years later. Growth was characterized by fast growth during summer-autumn, stagnation in winter, and a slow start in spring. Females and males were not separated until just prior to reproduction (i.e. in June of the second year). At this stage males were larger than females and sex ratio was 1:1. During the breeding season, the abundance of males decreased rapidly due to post-reproductive death. Females continued to live, carrying the developing eggs in their brood pouches. Adult females die shortly after the young are released. The entire generation of reproductive adults (two years of age) has died by mid August. No evidence of the stated protogynous hermaphroditism was found in our study. Cohort production was 1·83 g wet wt m -2 for the 1980 cohort and 1·33 for the 1981 cohort. P/B-ratios were 2·12 for the 1980 cohort and 2·48 for the 1981 cohort. The P/B-ratios found were closest to those calculated by the method of Waters when an accurate estimate of mortality was available.

  19. Sexual sterilization of the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) by the bopyrid isopod Probopyrus pandalicola (Isopoda: Bopyridae).

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michele B; Curran, Mary Carla

    2015-02-01

    Probopyrus pandalicola is a bopyrid isopod that infects several palaemonid shrimp species, including the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio . The parasite can have several negative effects on its host, including loss of hemolymph, reduced reproductive potential, and decreased molting frequency and growth. To date, there are conflicting reports on whether Probopyrus pandalicola affects the reproductive capability of both male and female daggerblade grass shrimp. The purpose of this study was to determine whether infection by Probopyrus pandalicola resulted in the sexual sterilization of Palaemonetes pugio , and if the reproductive capability of male and/or female shrimp was restored after the bopyrid was removed. We found that parasitized and deparasitized males were able to fertilize the eggs of unparasitized females successfully, as 18.9 ± 7.1% and 42.7 ± 5.2% of the females paired with them became ovigerous in 4 wk, respectively. Neither parasitized nor deparasitized females became ovigerous when placed with unparasitized males during the 4-wk period. However, 45.4 ± 20.6% of deparasitized females did become ovigerous within 10 wk. Despite the fact that female shrimp are able to reproduce again when no longer parasitized, the majority of females remain infected with the bopyrid for their entire lives. Therefore, the sexual sterilization of female shrimp could potentially have a significant impact on estuarine food webs, as grass shrimp are conduits of detrital energy and a food source for many recreationally and commercially important species in estuaries on the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. [Relationship between water transfers and the salinity of the environment in the isopod crustacean Sphaeroma serratum (Fabricius)].

    PubMed

    Thuet, P

    1978-12-01

    The isopod Crustacean Sphaeroma serratum is isotonic to the medium in sea water and hypertonic in diluted media. The drinking rate is 15.9 microliter in SW and 3.2 microliter 24 h-1 100 mg-1 wet weight in 50% SW. The extracellular space is 28.4% in SW and 27.0% of the wet weight in 50% SW. The rate of urine production, calculated from the half time for the loss of sodium diatriazoate is 11.8 mg in SW and 42.9 mg 24 h-1 100 mg-1 wet weight in 50% SW. 95% of the diffusion fluxes of water take place through the pleopods: their surface is about 62.6 mm2 in a 100 mg weighing animal. The activation energy of water molecules is 15.0 kcal/mol between +5 degrees C and +15 degrees C and 6.7 kcal/mol between +15 degrees C and +25 degrees C. The diffusion permeability coefficient Pd is 1.71 X 10(-4) cm/sec in SW and 0.70 X 10(-4) cm/sec in 50% SW. The osmotic permeability coefficient Pos has a mean value of 1.91 X 10(-4) cm/sec in SW and 1.24 X 10(-4) cm/sec in 50% SW. Our results are compared with those obtained in other Crustaceans and in Fishes. Their validity is discussed (influence of unstirred layers, solute-solvent interaction). They are explained according to the different theories dealing with the water transit through the membranes.

  1. Genus dependence of superstring amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Simon

    2006-11-15

    The problem of the consistency of the finiteness of the supermoduli space integral in the limit of vanishing super-fixed point distance and the genus-dependence of the integral over the super-Schottky coordinates in the fundamental region containing a neighborhood of |K{sub n}|=0 is resolved. Given a choice of the categories of isometric circles representing the integration region, the exponential form of bounds for superstring amplitudes is derived.

  2. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    PubMed Central

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  3. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora.

    PubMed

    Badali, H; Gueidan, C; Najafzadeh, M J; Bonifaz, A; van den Ende, A H G Gerrits; de Hoog, G S

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha and beta-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans.

  4. Genus expansion of HOMFLY polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A. D.; Morozov, A. Yu.; Sleptsov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    In the planar limit of the' t Hooft expansion, the Wilson-loop vacuum average in the three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory (in other words, the HOMFLY polynomial) depends very simply on the representation (Young diagram), HR(A|q)|q=1 = (σ1(A)|R|. As a result, the (knot-dependent) Ooguri-Vafa partition function becomes a trivial τ -function of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy. We study higher-genus corrections to this formula for HR in the form of an expansion in powers of z = q - q-1. The expansion coefficients are expressed in terms of the eigenvalues of cut-and-join operators, i.e., symmetric group characters. Moreover, the z-expansion is naturally written in a product form. The representation in terms of cut-and-join operators relates to the Hurwitz theory and its sophisticated integrability. The obtained relations describe the form of the genus expansion for the HOMFLY polynomials, which for the corresponding matrix model is usually given using Virasoro-like constraints and the topological recursion. The genus expansion differs from the better-studied weak-coupling expansion at a finite number N of colors, which is described in terms of Vassiliev invariants and the Kontsevich integral.

  5. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei; Sleptsov, Alexei; Smirnov, Andrey

    2014-12-01

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero-Moser-Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  6. Natural medicine: the genus Angelica.

    PubMed

    Sarker, S D; Nahar, L

    2004-06-01

    More than 60 species of medicinal plants belong to the genus Angelica (Family: Apiaceae). Many of these species have long been used in ancient traditional medicine systems, especially in the far-east. Various herbal preparations containing Angelica species are available over-the-counter, not only in the far-eastern countries, but also in the western countries like USA, UK, Germany, etc. For centuries, many species of this genus, e.g. A. acutiloba, A. archangelica, A. atropupurea, A. dahurica, A. japonica, A. glauca, A. gigas, A. koreana, A. sinensis, A. sylvestris, etc., have been used traditionally as anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant and diaphoretic, and remedy for colds, flu, influenza, hepatitis, arthritis, indigestion, coughs, chronic bronchitis, pleurisy, typhoid, headaches, wind, fever, colic, travel sickness, rheumatism, bacterial and fungal infections and diseases of the urinary organs. Active principles isolated from these plants mainly include various types of coumarins, acetylenic compounds, chalcones, sesquiterpenes and polysaccharides. This review evaluates the importance of the genus Angelica in relation to its traditional medicinal uses, alternative medicinal uses in the modern society and potential for drug development, and summarises results of various scientific studies on Angelica species or Angelica-containing preparations for their bioactivities including, antimicrobial, anticancer, antitumour, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. PMID:15180579

  7. Polyploidy in the Arabidopsis genus.

    PubMed

    Bomblies, Kirsten; Madlung, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD), which gives rise to polyploids, is a unique type of mutation that duplicates all the genetic material in a genome. WGD provides an evolutionary opportunity by generating abundant genetic "raw material," and has been implicated in diversification, speciation, adaptive radiation, and invasiveness, and has also played an important role in crop breeding. However, WGD at least initially challenges basic biological functions by increasing cell size, altering relationships between cell volume and DNA content, and doubling the number of homologous chromosome copies that must be sorted during cell division. Newly polyploid lineages often have extensive changes in gene regulation, genome structure, and may suffer meiotic or mitotic chromosome mis-segregation. The abundance of species that persist in nature as polyploids shows that these problems are surmountable and/or that advantages of WGD might outweigh drawbacks. The molecularly especially tractable Arabidopsis genus has several ancient polyploidy events in its history and contains several independent more recent polyploids. This genus can thus provide important insights into molecular aspects of polyploid formation, establishment, and genome evolution. The ability to integrate ecological and evolutionary questions with molecular and genetic understanding makes comparative analyses in this genus particularly attractive and holds promise for advancing our general understanding of polyploid biology. Here, we highlight some of the findings from Arabidopsis that have given us insights into the origin and evolution of polyploids. PMID:24788061

  8. Conquered from the Deep Sea? A New Deep-Sea Isopod Species from the Antarctic Shelf Shows Pattern of Recent Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Torben; Kaiser, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, is amongst the most rapidly changing environments of the world. Its benthic inhabitants are barely known and the BIOPEARL 2 project was one of the first to biologically explore this region. Collected during this expedition, Macrostylis roaldi sp. nov. is described as the first isopod discovered on the Amundsen-Sea shelf. Amongst many characteristic features, the most obvious characters unique for M. roaldi are the rather short pleotelson and short operculum as well as the trapezoid shape of the pleotelson in adult males. We used DNA barcodes (COI) and additional mitochondrial markers (12S, 16S) to reciprocally illuminate morphological results and nucleotide variability. In contrast to many other deep-sea isopods, this species is common and shows a wide distribution. Its range spreads from Pine Island Bay at inner shelf right to the shelf break and across 1,000 m bathymetrically. Its gene pool is homogenized across space and depth. This is indicative for a genetic bottleneck or a recent colonization history. Our results suggest further that migratory or dispersal capabilities of some species of brooding macrobenthos have been underestimated. This might be relevant for the species’ potential to cope with effects of climate change. To determine where this species could have survived the last glacial period, alternative refuge possibilities are discussed. PMID:23145160

  9. Functional morphology of parasitic isopods: understanding morphological adaptations of attachment and feeding structures in Nerocila as a pre-requisite for reconstructing the evolution of Cymothoidae.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Christina; Haug, Joachim T

    2016-01-01

    Parasites significantly influence food webs and ecosystems and occur all over the world in almost every animal group. Within crustaceans there are numerous examples of ectoparasites; for example, representatives of the isopod group Cymothoidae. These obligatory parasitic isopods are relatively poorly studied regarding their functional morphology. Here we present new details of the morphological adaptations to parasitism of the cymothoiid ingroup Nerocila with up-to-date imaging methods (macro photography, stereo imaging, fluorescence photography, micro CT, and histology). Central aspects of the study were (1) the morphology of the mouthparts and (2) the attachment on the host, hence the morphology of the thoracopods. The mouthparts (labrum, mandibles, paragnaths, maxillulae, maxillae, maxillipeds) form a distinct mouth cone and are most likely used for true sucking. The mouthparts are tightly "folded" around each other and provide functional rails for the only two moving mouthparts, mandible and maxillula. Both are not moving in an ancestral-type median-lateral movement, but are strongly tilted to move more in a proximal-distal axis. New details concerning the attachment demonstrate that the angular arrangement of the thoracopods is differentiated to impede removal by the host. The increased understanding of morphological adaptation to parasitism of modern forms will be useful in identifying disarticulated (not attached to the host) fossil parasites. PMID:27441121

  10. Surface adsorption of metals onto the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and the isopod Porcellio scaber is negligible compared to absorption in the body.

    PubMed

    Vijver, Martina G; Wolterbeek, Hubert Th; Vink, Jos P M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2005-03-20

    In terrestrial organisms, bioaccumulation is usually based on a summation of the amount of metal adsorbed to the body wall and absorbed into the body. The relative proportions of metal adsorption and absorption are usually not quantified. In this study, the distinction between adsorbed and absorbed metals was investigated in two different terrestrial species exposed to metals for 2 weeks. The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus was chosen as representative for organisms mainly taking up metals via the dermal route, and the isopod Porcellio scaber as an organism taking up metals mainly via the alimentary tract. Cross-sections of whole animals were made using a cryostat and accumulated metals were localized by means of a phosphor screen (autoradiography). Radiolabels were used to determine the distribution of metals over the different organs and to distinguish between adsorption and absorption. Cd in the earthworm was mainly found in tissues of the chloragogenous region, whereas Zn was also found in various other organs and in the connective tissue. In the isopod, both Cd and Zn were mainly located in the hepatopancreas. Adsorbed amounts of Cd and Zn were negligible compared to internalized Cd and Zn concentrations for both organisms. Consequently, when focusing on effects of metal uptake for the organism itself, there is no need to correct for adsorption. This suggests that adsorption to the epidermis is not a rate limiting step in metal uptake by soil invertebrates.

  11. Functional morphology of parasitic isopods: understanding morphological adaptations of attachment and feeding structures in Nerocila as a pre-requisite for reconstructing the evolution of Cymothoidae

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Joachim T.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites significantly influence food webs and ecosystems and occur all over the world in almost every animal group. Within crustaceans there are numerous examples of ectoparasites; for example, representatives of the isopod group Cymothoidae. These obligatory parasitic isopods are relatively poorly studied regarding their functional morphology. Here we present new details of the morphological adaptations to parasitism of the cymothoiid ingroup Nerocila with up-to-date imaging methods (macro photography, stereo imaging, fluorescence photography, micro CT, and histology). Central aspects of the study were (1) the morphology of the mouthparts and (2) the attachment on the host, hence the morphology of the thoracopods. The mouthparts (labrum, mandibles, paragnaths, maxillulae, maxillae, maxillipeds) form a distinct mouth cone and are most likely used for true sucking. The mouthparts are tightly “folded” around each other and provide functional rails for the only two moving mouthparts, mandible and maxillula. Both are not moving in an ancestral-type median-lateral movement, but are strongly tilted to move more in a proximal-distal axis. New details concerning the attachment demonstrate that the angular arrangement of the thoracopods is differentiated to impede removal by the host. The increased understanding of morphological adaptation to parasitism of modern forms will be useful in identifying disarticulated (not attached to the host) fossil parasites. PMID:27441121

  12. Bioavailability of cobalt and iron from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Romih, Tea; Drašler, Barbara; Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Golobič, Miha; Makovec, Darko; Susič, Robert; Kogej, Ksenija

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether citric acid adsorbed onto cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) influences the bioavailability of their constituents Co and Fe. Dissolution of Co and Fe was assessed by two measures: (i) in aqueous suspension using chemical analysis, prior to application onto the food of test organisms; and (ii) in vivo, measuring the bioavailability in the model terrestrial invertebrate (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). The isopods were exposed to citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs for 2 weeks, and tissue accumulation of Co and Fe was assessed. This was compared to pristine CoFe2O4 NPs, and CoCl2 and Fe(III) salts as positive controls. The combined data shows that citric acid enhances free metal ion concentration from CoFe2O4 NPs in aqueous suspension, although in vivo, very similar amounts of assimilated Co were found in isopods exposed to both types of NPs. Therefore, evaluation of the dissolution in suspension by chemical means is not a good predictor of metal assimilation of this model organism; body assimilation of Co and Fe is rather governed by the physiological capacity of P. scaber for the uptake of these metals. Moreover, we propose that citric acid, due to its chelating properties, may hinder the uptake of Co that dissolves from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs, if citric acid is present in sufficient quantity.

  13. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-10-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus species are able to produce a large number of secondary metabolites. The profiles of biosynthetic families of secondary metabolites are species specific, whereas individual secondary metabolite families can occur in other species, even those phylogenetically and ecologically unrelated to Aspergillus. Furthermore, there is a high degree of chemo-consistency from isolate to isolate in a species even though certain metabolite gene clusters are silenced in some isolates. Genome sequencing projects have shown that the diversity of secondary metabolites is much larger in each species than previously thought. The potential of finding even further new bioactive drug candidates in Aspergillus is evident, despite the fact that many secondary metabolites have already been structure elucidated and chemotaxonomic studies have shown that many new secondary metabolites have yet to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different genera Aspergillus, Dichotomomyces, Phialosimplex, Polypaecilum and Cristaspora. Secondary metabolites common between the subgenera and sections of Aspergillus are surprisingly few, but many metabolites are common to a majority of species within the sections. We call small molecule extrolites in the same biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites appear to have evolved because of ecological challenges rather than being inherited from ancestral species, at least when comparing the species in the different

  14. The genus Thermotoga: Recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Frock, Andrew D.; Notey, Jaspreet S.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Thermotoga comprises extremely thermophilic (Topt ≥ 70°C) and hyperthermophilic (Topt ≥ 80°C) bacteria that have been extensively studied for insights into the basis for life at elevated temperatures and for biotechnological opportunities (e.g., biohydrogen production, biocatalysis). Over the past decade, genome sequences have become available for a number of Thermotoga species, leading to functional genomics efforts to understand growth physiology as well as genomics-based identification and characterization of novel high temperature biocatalysts. Discussed here are recent developments along these lines for this novel group of microorganisms. PMID:20718299

  15. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 7. Genus Nothocyphon, new genus.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2015-07-06

    The new genus Nothocyphon (type species: Helodes (Cyphon ?) lindensis Blackburn, 1892) is proposed for small Contacyphon-like Australian beetles. The included species exhibit a generalized body structure, lacking the derived character expressions of related genera. Male tergite 9 is very weakly developed, membranous and bare. This is derived but as a reduction only weakly supports the monophyly of Nothocyphon.The new genus includes 39 species, with 37 newly described herein: Nothocyphon alces, n. sp., N. amita, n. sp., N. amphora, n. sp., N. armatus, n. sp., N. armstrongi, n. sp., N. auritus, n. sp., N. banksiae, n. sp., N. biserratus, n. sp., N. brevihamatus, n. sp., N. crux, n. sp., N. denticulatus, n. sp., N. donnabuangi, n. sp., N. esau, n. sp., N. frater (Blackburn), n. comb., N. horridus, n. sp., N. ímitator, n. sp., N. isolaeregis, n. sp., N. lanceolatus, n. sp., N. lindensis (Blackburn), n. comb., N. multidentatus, n. sp., N. naso, n. sp., N. nungatta, n. sp., N. pacificus, n. sp., N. patruelis, n. sp., N. platyphallus, n. sp., N. plicatus, n. sp., N. radula, n. sp., N. sarcophilus, n. sp., N. scutiger, n. sp., N. serratipenis, n. sp., N. signatus, n. sp., N. soror, n. sp., N. taeniatus, n. sp., N. taurus, n. sp., N. thylacinus, n. sp., N. triangulum, n. sp., N. vandiemeni, n. sp., N. wattsi, n. sp., N. ypsilon, n. sp.Lectotypes are designated for N. frater (Blackburn) and N. lindensis (Blackburn). All species are redescribed or described, and illustrated. Several informal species groups are recognized, and identification keys to males are provided.

  16. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  17. Seasonal reproduction and feeding ecology of giant isopods Bathynomus giganteus from the continental slope of the Yucatán peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barradas-Ortiz, Cecilia; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique

    2003-04-01

    The reproduction and feeding habits of giant isopods Bathynomus giganteus [range in body length (BL): 43-363 mm] from the continental slope of the Yucatán Peninsula, México, were studied from samples collected at depths of 359-1050 m during three research cruises conducted in winter, spring, and summer of different years. Samples taken in winter and spring yielded a large proportion of mancas and juveniles, as well as high percentages of adult females with functional oostegites and males with appendices masculinae, suggesting a peak in reproductive activity during these seasons. In contrast, the virtual absence in the summer samples of (a) mancas and small juveniles, (b) females with functional oostegites, and (c) small adult males (210-290 mm BL) with appendices masculinae, suggests a low reproductive activity of B. giganteus during summer. Stomach contents analyses were conducted on five life phases (mancas, small juveniles, large juveniles, adult females and adult males) in winter and summer. Mancas and juveniles had fuller stomachs than adults during winter, and all isopods had emptier stomachs during summer than during winter. The diet of B. giganteus was broad, but the most important food categories in all life phases were fish and squid remains, underlining the main scavenging habits of B. giganteus. However, the remaining food categories show that this species is a facultative rather than a strict scavenger and suggest some ontogenetic dietary shifts. These results were further supported by diet (Horn's) overlap indices. In the winter, high diet overlap occurred between all life phases. In the summer, adult males had a low diet overlap with adult females and large juveniles. Adult males also had a low diet overlap between summer and winter. Results from this and other studies suggest that the main reproductive activity of B. giganteus in the Yucatán slope occurs during winter and spring, when the food supply on the upper-slope is highest, particularly

  18. Molecular data reveal a highly diverse species flock within the munnopsoid deep-sea isopod Betamorpha fusiformis (Barnard, 1920) (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellota) in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Malyutina, Marina; Brandt, Angelika; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2007-08-01

    Based on our current knowledge about population genetics, phylogeography and speciation, we begin to understand that the deep sea harbours more species than suggested in the past. Deep-sea soft-sediment environment in particular hosts a diverse and highly endemic invertebrate fauna. Very little is known about evolutionary processes that generate this remarkable species richness, the genetic variability and spatial distribution of deep-sea animals. In this study, phylogeographic patterns and the genetic variability among eight populations of the abundant and widespread deep-sea isopod morphospecies Betamorpha fusiformis [Barnard, K.H., 1920. Contributions to the crustacean fauna of South Africa. 6. Further additions to the list of marine isopods. Annals of the South African Museum 17, 319-438] were examined. A fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene of 50 specimens and the complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene of 7 specimens were sequenced. The molecular data reveal high levels of genetic variability of both genes between populations, giving evidence for distinct monophyletic groups of haplotypes with average p-distances ranging from 0.0470 to 0.1440 ( d-distances: 0.0592-0.2850) of the 16S rDNA, and 18S rDNA p-distances ranging between 0.0032 and 0.0174 ( d-distances: 0.0033-0.0195). Intermediate values are absent. Our results show that widely distributed benthic deep-sea organisms of a homogeneous phenotype can be differentiated into genetically highly divergent populations. Sympatry of some genotypes indicates the existence of cryptic speciation. Flocks of closely related but genetically distinct species probably exist in other widespread benthic deep-sea asellotes and other Peracarida. Based on existing data we hypothesize that many widespread morphospecies are complexes of cryptic biological species (patchwork hypothesis).

  19. Eight new species in the genus Alphabaculovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This taxonomic proposal recommends the addition of eight new species to the genus Alphabaculovirus of the family Baculoviridae. Placement of these new species within genus Alphabaculovirus is based on the following criteria: host species of the insect order Lepidoptera; circular double-stranded DNA...

  20. Three New Species of the Genus Ochroconis.

    PubMed

    Samerpitak, K; Gerrits van den Ende, A H G; Menken, S B J; de Hoog, G S

    2015-08-01

    Ochroconis bacilliformis, O. phaeophora and O. robusta, three novel species of the melanized genus Ochroconis (Sympoventuriaceae, Venturiales), are described, illustrated and distinguished phenotypically and molecularly from previously described species in the genus Ochroconis. Their potential significance for infection of cold-blooded vertebrates is discussed. PMID:26093392

  1. Phylogeny of the Genus Flavivirus

    PubMed Central

    Kuno, Goro; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Tsuchiya, K. Richard; Karabatsos, Nick; Cropp, C. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a comprehensive phylogenetic study to establish the genetic relationship among the viruses of the genus Flavivirus and to compare the classification based on molecular phylogeny with the existing serologic method. By using a combination of quantitative definitions (bootstrap support level and the pairwise nucleotide sequence identity), the viruses could be classified into clusters, clades, and species. Our phylogenetic study revealed for the first time that from the putative ancestor two branches, non-vector and vector-borne virus clusters, evolved and from the latter cluster emerged tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters. Provided that the theory of arthropod association being an acquired trait was correct, pairwise nucleotide sequence identity among these three clusters provided supporting data for a possibility that the non-vector cluster evolved first, followed by the separation of tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters in that order. Clades established in our study correlated significantly with existing antigenic complexes. We also resolved many of the past taxonomic problems by establishing phylogenetic relationships of the antigenically unclassified viruses with the well-established viruses and by identifying synonymous viruses. PMID:9420202

  2. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor.

  3. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.

  4. THE GENUS TRIGONELLA – PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.C; Agrawal, M.; Sharma, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Trigonella is an annual plant distributed in the Mediterranean region and it comprises several species. The present report deals with the dietary, medicinal, biochemical biological and various pharmacological properties. PMID:22556778

  5. [Identification of crude drugs from genus Leonurus].

    PubMed

    Chao, Z; He, B; Zhou, X; Ma, L

    1998-12-01

    The structure in cross section of stem and lamina of 9 species and 1 variety from genus Leonurus, whose herb used as Yimu Cao, were reported. Diagnostic characteristics were listed out in a key for identification.

  6. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped. PMID:24526846

  7. Mcphersonarcys, a new genus for Pentatomaaequalis Say (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new monotypic genus, Mcphersonarcys, is erected to hold Pentatoma aequalis Say, a species formerly placed in the genus Hymenarcys. Based on the distribution of 19 character-states Hymenarcys forms a clade with its sister genus Coenus. Both genera are related to the large genus Euschistus. Mcphe...

  8. Cryptic speciation in a benthic isopod from Patagonian and Falkland Island waters and the impact of glaciations on its population structure

    PubMed Central

    Leese, Florian; Kop, Anna; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Held, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Background The Falkland Islands and Patagonia are traditionally assigned to the Magellan Biogeographic Province. Most marine species in Falkland waters are also reported from southern Patagonia. It remains unclear if relatively immobile, marine benthic, shallow-water species maintain gene flow, and by what mechanism. Recurrent fluctuations in sea level during glacial cycles are regarded as a possible mechanism that might have allowed genetic exchange between the regions. However, the realized genetic exchange between the Falkland Islands and Patagonia has never been estimated. Results This study analyses the genetic structure of three populations of the marine shallow-water isopod Serolis paradoxa (Fabricius, 1775) from the Falkland Islands and southern Patagonia (central Strait of Magellan and the Atlantic opening) applying seven nuclear microsatellites and a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Both marker systems report highest genetic diversity for the population from the central Strait of Magellan and lowest for the Falkland Islands. The estimated effective population sizes were large for all populations studied. Significant differentiation was observed among all three populations. The magnitude of differentiation between Patagonia and the Falkland Islands (16S: uncorrected p-distance 2.1%; microsatellites: standardized F'ST > 0.86) was an order of magnitude higher than between populations from within Patagonia. This indicates that there is currently no effective gene flow for nominal S. paradoxa between these two regions and it has been absent for time exceeding the last glacial maximum. We argue that specimens from the Strait of Magellan and the Falkland Islands very likely represent two distinct species that separated in the mid-Pleistocene (about 1 MY BP). Conclusion The results of this study indicate limited gene flow between distant populations of the brooding isopod Serolis paradoxa. The patterns of genetic diversity suggest that the only

  9. Molecular phylogeny of the blowfly genus Chrysomya.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Kurahashi, H; Wells, J D

    2011-06-01

    Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a genus of blowfly commonly observed in tropical and subtropical countries of the Old World. Species in this genus are vectors of bacteria, protozoans and helminths, cause myiasis, are predators of other carrion insects, and are important forensic indicators. Hypotheses concerning the evolution of sex determination, larval anatomy and genome size in Chrysomya have been difficult to evaluate because a robust phylogeny of the genus was lacking. Similarly, the monophyly of subgenera was uncertain. The phylogeny of Chrysomya spp. was reconstructed based on 2386 bp of combined mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS) genes. Maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis (BA) differed only slightly in the resulting tree topology. Chrysomya was monophyletic. Monogenic reproduction is almost certainly derived rather than, as has been suggested, primitive within the genus, and tuberculate larvae probably evolved twice. Genome size is more likely to have decreased over evolutionary time rather than, as has been suggested, increased within the genus, but its correlation with developmental time was not observed. The subgenera Microcalliphora, Eucompsomyia and Achoetandrus were recovered as monophyletic.

  10. On the way to identify microorganisms in drinking water distribution networks via DNA analysis of the gut content of freshwater isopods.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Michael; Keller, Adrian; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Warnecke, Hans-Joachim

    2015-05-10

    Pure drinking water is the basis for a healthy society. In Germany the drinking water regulations demand for analysis of water via detection of certain microbiological parameters by cultivation only. However, not all prokaryotes can be detected by these standard methods. How to gain more and better information about the bacteria present in drinking water and its distribution systems? The biofilms in drinking water distribution systems are built by bacteria and therefore represent a valuable source of information about the species present. Unfortunately, these biofilms are badly accessible. We thus exploited the circumstance that a lot of metazoans graze the biofilms, so that the content of their guts partly reflects the respective biofilm biocenosis. Therefore, we collected omnivorous isopods, prepared their guts and examined and characterized their contents based on 16S und 18S rDNA analysis. These molecularbiological investigations provide a profound basis for the characterization of the biocenosis and thereby biologically assess the drinking water ecosystems. Combined with a thorough identification of the species and the knowledge of their habitats, this approach can provide useful indications for the assessment of drinking-water quality and the early detection of problems in the distribution system.

  11. On the way to identify microorganisms in drinking water distribution networks via DNA analysis of the gut content of freshwater isopods.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Michael; Keller, Adrian; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Warnecke, Hans-Joachim

    2015-05-10

    Pure drinking water is the basis for a healthy society. In Germany the drinking water regulations demand for analysis of water via detection of certain microbiological parameters by cultivation only. However, not all prokaryotes can be detected by these standard methods. How to gain more and better information about the bacteria present in drinking water and its distribution systems? The biofilms in drinking water distribution systems are built by bacteria and therefore represent a valuable source of information about the species present. Unfortunately, these biofilms are badly accessible. We thus exploited the circumstance that a lot of metazoans graze the biofilms, so that the content of their guts partly reflects the respective biofilm biocenosis. Therefore, we collected omnivorous isopods, prepared their guts and examined and characterized their contents based on 16S und 18S rDNA analysis. These molecularbiological investigations provide a profound basis for the characterization of the biocenosis and thereby biologically assess the drinking water ecosystems. Combined with a thorough identification of the species and the knowledge of their habitats, this approach can provide useful indications for the assessment of drinking-water quality and the early detection of problems in the distribution system. PMID:25558805

  12. A cost of Wolbachia-induced sex reversal and female-biased sex ratios: decrease in female fertility after sperm depletion in a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Thierry; Moreau, Jérôme

    2004-09-22

    A number of parasites are vertically transmitted to new host generations via female eggs. In such cases, host reproduction is an intimate component of parasite fitness and no cost of the infection on host reproduction is expected to evolve. A number of these parasites distort host sex ratios towards females, thereby increasing either parasite fitness or the proportion of the host that transmit the parasite. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia bacteria are responsible for sex reversion and female-biased sex ratios, changing genetic males into functional neo-females. Although sex ratio distortion is a powerful means for parasites to increase in frequency in host populations, it also has potential consequences on host biology, which may, in turn, have consequences for parasite prevalence. We used the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare to test whether the interaction between Wolbachia infection and the resulting excess of females would limit female fertility through the reduction in sperm number that they receive from males. We showed that multiple male mating induces sperm depletion, and that this sperm depletion affects fertility only in infected females. This decrease in fertility, associated with male mate choice, may limit the spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. PMID:15347518

  13. Inhibition of multidrug/xenobiotic resistance transporter by MK571 improves dye (Fura 2) accumulation in crustacean tissues from lobster, shrimp, and isopod.

    PubMed

    Lüders, Ann-Katrin; Saborowski, Reinhard; Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2009-09-01

    Multidrug/xenobiotic resistance transporters are present in living organisms as a first line defence system against small, potentially harmful molecules from the environment or from internal metabolic reactions. Multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP) are one type of ATP-Binding-Cassette (ABC) transporters, which also transport dyes such as Fura 2, a calcium chelating fluorescence indicator. The specific MRP inhibitor MK571 was used to investigate the fluorescence intensity of cells in tissues of the brain and the midgut gland of the crustaceans Homarus gammarus (lobster), Crangon crangon (brown shrimp) and Idotea emarginata (isopod) during incubation with Fura 2AM (1 microM). In the presence of the inhibitor MK571 (50 microM), the fluorescence of brain tissue significantly increased in all of the three species. The midgut gland of H. gammarus showed a significant increase of fluorescence, whereas there was no effect in the midgut glands of C. crangon and I. baltica. The half maximal concentration of MK571 was 50 microM as measured in the midgut gland of H. gammarus. In conclusion, MRP transporters are present in the three investigated crustacean nervous systems. Using the midgut glands of the three species, only in H. gammarus MK571 inhibited dye extrusion, indicating species-specific differences of transporter systems, their specificity, or tissue specific expression. PMID:19501673

  14. Expression of Ca2+-ATPase and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger is upregulated during epithelial Ca2+ transport in hypodermal cells of the isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, A; Weihrauch, D; Towle, D W; Hagedorn, M

    2002-09-01

    It is thought that a plasma membrane Ca(2+)-transport ATPase (PMCA) and a Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchange (NCE) mechanism are involved in epithelial Ca(2+) transport (ECT) in a variety of crustacean epithelia. The sternal epithelium of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber was used as a model for the analysis of Ca(2+)-extrusion mechanisms in the hypodermal epithelium. Using RT-PCR, we amplified a cDNA fragment of 1173 bp that encodes a protein sequence possessing 72% identity to the PMCA from Drosophila melanogaster and a cDNA fragment of 791 bp encoding a protein sequence with 50% identity to the NCE from Loligo opalescens. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression of both mRNAs increases from the non-Ca(2+)-transporting condition to the stages of CaCO(3) deposit formation and degradation. During Ca(2+)-transporting stages, the expression of PMCA and NCE was larger in the anterior sternal epithelium (ASE) than in the posterior sternal epithelium (PSE). The results demonstrate for the first time the expression of a PMCA and a NCE in the hypodermal epithelium of a crustacean and indicate a contribution of these transport mechanisms in ECT.

  15. Analysis of Ca(2+) uptake into the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of permeabilised sternal epithelial cells during the moulting cycle of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Monica; Ziegler, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    In terrestrial isopods, large amounts of Ca(2+) are transported across anterior sternal epithelial cells during moult-related deposition and resorption of CaCO(3) deposits. Because of its toxicity and function as a second messenger, resting cytosolic Ca(2+) levels must be maintained below critical concentrations during epithelial Ca(2+) transport, raising the possibility that organelles play a role during Ca(2+) transit. We therefore studied the uptake of Ca(2+) into Ca(2+)-sequestering organelles by monitoring the formation of birefringent calcium oxalate crystals in permeabilised anterior and posterior sternal epithelium cells of Porcellio scaber during Ca(2+)-transporting and non-transporting stages of the moulting cycle using polarised-light microscopy. The results indicate ATP-dependent uptake of Ca(2+) into organelles. Half-maximal crystal growth at a Ca(2+) activity, a(Ca), of 0.4 micromol l(-1) and blockade by cyclopiazonic acid suggest Ca(2+) uptake into the smooth endoplasmic reticulum by the smooth endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. Analytical electron microscopical techniques support this interpretation by revealing the accumulation of Ca(2+)-containing crystals in smooth membranous intracellular compartments. A comparison of different moulting stages demonstrated a virtual lack of crystal formation in the early premoult stage and a significant fivefold increase between mid premoult and the Ca(2+)-transporting stages of late premoult and intramoult. These results suggest a contribution of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum as a transient Ca(2+) store during intracellular Ca(2+) transit.

  16. An intra-species demonstration of the independence of distance and time in turn alternation of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert N

    2008-05-01

    In a study of turn alternation in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (woodlouse), smaller individuals (<11 mm long) took significantly longer to traverse a 60-mm open-ended post-forced-turn runway following a 90 degrees forced turn, than larger subjects (>11 mm long). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in their probability of alternating, or in the magnitude of alternating turns as reflected in the size of the free-turn angles they turned on emerging from the runway. Nor was there a significant relationship for either group between the time taken to traverse the runway and either the probability of alternating or the size of a free-turn angle. In a second experiment, significant alternation occurred after woodlice emerged from runways that were 30 and 60 mm long, but not when they were 100 or 145 mm long. Their free-turn angles also became smaller as the runway length increased. Overall, the results of the three experiments supported the long-held view that, for reasons not yet understood, distance and time cannot necessarily be equated in the determination of invertebrate turn alternation.

  17. Morphometric analysis of the calcium-transporting sternal epithelial cells of the terrestrial isopods Ligia oceanica, Ligidium hypnorum, and Porcellio scaber during molt.

    PubMed

    Glötzner, J; Ziegler, A

    2000-07-01

    Isopods shed first the posterior and then the anterior half of the body. Before molt, most terrestrial species resorb CaCO3 from the posterior mineralized cuticle. The mineral is stored in anterior sternal deposits, which are used to calcify the new posterior cuticle after molt. For Porcellio scaber it is known that the anterior sternal epithelium has specific structural differentiations for epithelial transport. These differentiations include the plasma membrane surface areas, and the volume fraction of the mitochondria. We analyzed the ultrastructure of the sternal epithelium and used a morphometric approach to study the variations of these parameters between species living in different terrestrial environments. In Ligidium hypnorum, which lives in moist environments, the plasma membrane surface area and volume fraction of mitochondria are much larger than in the semiterrestrial Ligia oceanica. This is in accordance with the relatively larger CaCO3 deposits and shorter time intervals for their formation and resorption in L. hypnorum. For P. scaber, which is adapted to mesic habitats, most values are between those of L. oceanica and L. hypnorum. However, P. scaber has even larger CaCO3 deposits which are formed and degraded within similar time intervals as in L. hypnorum. This unexpected result is considered from the standpoint of more effective mechanisms being present for epithelial ion transport.

  18. Immunocytochemical localization of Na+,K(+)-ATPase in the calcium-transporting sternal epithelium of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber L. (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, A

    1997-03-01

    Terrestrial isopods store large amounts of calcium carbonate between the epithelium and the old cuticle of the first four anterior sternites before molt. During the formation of these sternal CaCO3 deposits, large amounts of calcium are transported across the anterior sternal epithelium from the base to the apical side of the integument, and in the reverse direction during resorption of the deposit. A monoclonal antibody against the avian alpha-subunit of Na+,K(+)-ATPase was used to localize Na+,K(+)-ATPase in the anterior and the posterior sternal epithelium of Porcellio scaber. Semithin cryosections 0.5 micron thick were used for immunofluorescence microscopy and ultrathin cryosections for immunogold electron microscopy. The Na+,K(+)-ATPase was localized in the basolateral plasma membrane of the posterior and anterior sternal epithelium. The apical plasma membrane, including cytoplasmic extensions into the newly secreted cuticle, was virtually devoid of the enzyme. This pattern of immunolocalization was not affected by the direction of transepithelial calcium transport associated with the deposition and resorption phases of the molt cycle.

  19. Responses of the hepatopancreatic B cells of a terrestrial isopod, Oniscus asellus, to metals accumulated from a contaminated habitat: A morphometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, A.J.; Gregory, Z.D.E.; Winters, C. )

    1990-03-01

    The four-lobed hepatopancreas of terrestrial isopods is a highly specialized enzyme secretory, digestive and absorptive region of the midgut. The walls of these blindending tubes are composed of two distinctive epithelial cell types: large, lipid-rich B-cells projecting into the lumen; and small S cells containg (Cu+S)-rich granules. This study investigated the possible stressful effects of accumulated Pb and Zn on the metabolically highly responsive, B-cells. Three major objectives were pursued. First, quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) was employed to determine whether the accumulation of Pb and Zn changes the Fe concentration within individual Fe-granules. Second, simple morphometric techniques were applied to transmission electron micrographs to determine whether competition between essential (Fe) and pollutant (Pb,Zn) metals for binding ligands resulted in an increased granule volume per individual cell. Third, to measure the effect of Pb and Zn accumulation of the amount of stored lipid, in the form of discrete droplets, within the B-cells.

  20. A novel form of pigment-dispersing hormone in the central nervous system of the intertidal marine isopod, Eurydice pulchra (leach).

    PubMed

    Wilcockson, David C; Zhang, Lin; Hastings, Michael H; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Webster, Simon G

    2011-02-15

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is well known as a circadian clock output factor, which drives daily activity rhythms in many insects. The role of its homologue, pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH), in the regulation of circadian and/or circatidal rhythmicity in crustaceans is, however, poorly understood. The intertidal isopod crustacean, Eurydice pulchra has well-defined circatidal (12.4-hour) activity rhythms. In this study we show that this runs parallel to a circadian (24-hour) cycle of chromatophore dispersion. As a first step in determining the potential role of PDH in these rhythms, we have identified a novel form of PDH expressed in this species. Because conventional homology cloning was unsuccessful, we employed immuno-identification and Edman microsequencing to determine the primary structure of this peptide. From this, cDNA cloning identified the nucleotide encoding sequence and thus facilitated description of PDH neurons by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We show them to be morphologically similar to those that co-ordinate circadian activity rhythms in insects. In animals expressing both tidal (activity) and circadian (chromatophore) rhythms, however, there was no evidence for a corresponding periodicity in the expression of pdh transcript, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in Eurydice heads. It is therefore suggested that any role for PDH in daily/tidal timing in Eurydice is not mediated at the transcriptional level, rather rhythms in neurohemal release may be important in such co-ordination. PMID:21192084

  1. Redescription of Lagenophrys cochinensis Santhakumari & Gopalan, 1980 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Lagenophryidae), an Ectosymbiont of Marine Isopods, including new information on morphology, geographic distribution, and intraspecific variation.

    PubMed

    Clamp, John C

    2006-01-01

    Lagenophrys cochinensis is a peritrich ciliate originally reported as an ectocommensal of the wood-boring isopods Sphaeroma terebrans, Sphaeroma triste, and Sphaeroma annandalei and the tanaidacean Apseudes chilkensis in estuaries of southern India. In the present study, it was found to occur also on Sphaeroma quoyanum, Sphaeroma walkeri, and Exosphaeroma planulum. New material was used to make permanent preparations, allowing a comprehensive description of the morphology of L. cochinensis for the first time. The macronucleus of L. cochinensis was found to have an elongate shape that spans the width of the cell body, unlike the compact macronucleus originally described. In addition, the loricae of all samples examined were subcircular or shorter than wide, not longer than wide as originally described. Polykinetid 3 of the infundibular infraciliature consisted of three rows of kinetosomes, only the third species of Lagenophrys found to have more than two rows in polykinetid 3 so far. Samples of L. cochinensis on S. quoyanum from New Zealand and California appeared to represent a population distinct from others. The species has a cosmopolitan distribution, probably owing to the ease with which its hosts are transported from one estuary to another in drifting wood or on hulls of ships.

  2. Matrix models as CFT: Genus expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Ivan

    2010-10-01

    We show how the formulation of the matrix models as conformal field theories on a Riemann surfaces can be used to compute the genus expansion of the observables. Here we consider the simplest example of the Hermitian matrix model, where the classical solution is described by a hyperelliptic Riemann surface. To each branch point of the Riemann surface we associate an operator which represents a twist field dressed by the modes of the twisted boson. The partition function of the matrix model is computed as a correlation function of such dressed twist fields. The perturbative construction of the dressing operators yields a set of Feynman rules for the genus expansion, which involve vertices, propagators and tadpoles. The vertices are universal, the propagators and the tadpoles depend on the Riemann surface. As a demonstration we evaluate the genus-two free energy using the Feynman rules.

  3. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  4. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  5. The Lichen Genus Parmotrema in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  6. Extended studies of Baltomyces styrax in Idaho and expanded distribution of this isopod gut fungus in USA.

    PubMed

    Oman, Sarah J; White, Merlin M

    2012-01-01

    Trichomycetes or gut fungi are currently considered to be an ecological group consisting of both fungi and protists that inhabit the guts of arthropods from varied environments. Baltomyces styrax has been included as a member of the Asellariales, a small and understudied order of true gut fungi. Baltomyces styrax has remained monotypic and not been reported formally since it was first described by Cafaro in 1999 from one collection in Louisiana. Herein we report on subsequent collections of this fungus, from both lentic and lotic locations, over the past several years from four other states, most recently Idaho, where we have records over a 4 y span. We repeatedly collected at one lentic site in Idaho for 5 mo, which allowed an extended study of not only the life history of B. styrax but also the discovery of morphological characteristics that were not reported earlier. Therefore we are emending the species description and providing additional information on the ecology and host range of B. styrax as well as providing a context for comparison to Asellaria, the type genus of the Asellariales. We also extend the known host range and suggest that the fungus is much more widespread than current records indicate.

  7. Alone in the dark: Distribution, population structure and reproductive mode of the dominant isopod Eurycope spinifrons Gurjanova, 1933 (Isopoda: Asellota: Munnopsidae) from bathyal and abyssal depths of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Golovan, Olga A.; Malyutina, Marina V.; Brandt, Angelika

    2013-02-01

    Due to isolation and a period of severe anoxic conditions in geologically recent times, biodiversity is low in the deep Sea of Japan. Among a small group of species inhabiting depths below 2500, only one isopod species, Eurycope spinifrons, was found during the SoJaBio expedition in 2010, but it was the most abundant species of all benthic taxa. E. spinifrons was found with remarkably high numbers of individuals at the sampled stations below 2500 m, providing a rare opportunity to investigate aspects of population structure and reproduction of a deep-sea isopod. The distribution, population structure, fecundity and depth dependent density of E. spinifrons were studied. Brooding females were the longest in body size and least abundant, while mancae were the shortest and most abundant. The mean length of individuals showed little deviation among the stations below 2500 m, ranging from 4.21±0.29 mm in brooding females to 1.20±0.26 mm in free-living mancae. Iteroparity is demonstrated for E. spinifrons. It is argued that females have continuous reproduction which increases in the summer. The length of the brooding females is positively correlated with the number of eggs in the marsupium in our sample (r=0.291; p<0.05). Comparing the mean length of E. spinifrons between different stations revealed that specimens sampled at the upper slope (460 m) were significantly smaller in every developmental stage than those from stations below 2500 m. This finding confirms the existence of a threshold depth below which E. spinifrons was the only isopod species found. Thus, we argue that individuals at deeper stations grow bigger due to reduced competition in the deep Sea of Japan.

  8. The genus Sipha in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of the aphid genus Sipha are reported in North America and are reviewed herein. Of these species, three are adventive: Sipha elegans del Guercio, Sipha glyceriae (Kaltenbach), and Sipha maydis Passerini. Sipha maydis was discovered in California in 2007 and now has been found in Georgia...

  9. Fayochytriomyces, a new genus within Chytridiales.

    PubMed

    Davis, William J; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E; Powell, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    Chytriomyces is a complex genus in Chytridiales. The morphological concept of the genus expanded as new taxa were added, and studies of zoospore ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies have revealed the genus to be polyphyletic. One problematic taxon is C. spinosus Fay, a distinctive species characterized by whorls of spines on the zoosporangium and a large accumulation of vesicle material beneath the operculum. With light-, scanning-electron and transmission-electron microscopy, we examined a culture (WJD186) isolated from a muck sample collected from a temporary forest pond. We also analyzed the D1-D2 variable domains of the nuc 28S rDNA (28S) sequences to confirm the phylogenetic placement of the species relative to the type of Chytriomyces, C. hyalinus Karling. The morphology of culture WJD186 is consistent with features Fay described for C. spinosus, and the zoospore ultrastructure is consistent with the Group I-type zoospore characters of Chytriomycetaceae (Chytridiales). In our molecular phylogeny C. spinosus does not group with the type of Chytriomyces. Consequently, we erect a new genus in Chytriomycetaceae and present the new combination Fayochytriomyces spinosus. PMID:25572096

  10. Review of the genus Tenuipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the most speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are incomplete, and lack important information necessary for accurate species identification. The objective of this study was to re-describe specie...

  11. Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from the Genus Ligularia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Liao, Zhixin; Liu, Chao; Jia, Haiyang; Sun, Jinyue

    2016-06-01

    Ligularia speices are widely used in Asian folk medicines for the treatment of various human diseases. Eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes are abundant and typical secondary metabolites found in this genus. Over 500 eremophilanes reported from members of Ligularia are reviewed in this article together with bioactivity data in an effort to highlight the development in this field. PMID:27161126

  12. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period.

  13. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Hong, S.-B.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Varga, J.; Yaguchi, T.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus. PMID:25505353

  14. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period. PMID:22038004

  15. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C.H.; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta gen. & sp. n. is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided. PMID:27389563

  16. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided. PMID:27389563

  17. Genus III. Actinokineospora Hasegawa 1988a, 449vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinokineospora is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the suborder Pseudonocardineae is discussed. Methods for isolation,...

  18. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided.

  19. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  20. The recent arrival of the oceanic isopod Idotea metallica Bosc off Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea): an indication of a warming trend in the North Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, H.-D.; Gutow, L.; Janke, M.

    1998-09-01

    In 1988 a long-term study was started of the isopod fauna associated with surface drift material off Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea). In the summer of 1994 specimens of Idotea metallica Bosc were recorded for the first time. There is no evidence that this species has ever been present in the German Bight before. The samples contained males, both gravid and non-gravid females, and juveniles, indicating that the species reproduced successfully in the Helgoland region. Interbreeding of specimens from Helgoland and the western Mediterranean produced fertile off-spring. As a neustonic species, I. metallica shows a high natural capacity for dispersal. It thus seems unlikely that the arrival of the species in the North Sea resulted from an accidental introduction by man. We are probably witnessing an extension of the species’ geographical range by natural means of dispersal, as a response to recent changes in the ecological conditions of the German Bight. Temperature data measured by the Biologische Anstalt Helgoland since 1962 show that the last decade (except 1996) was characterized by unusually mild winters. Following the severe winter of 1996, I. metallica was again absent from the Helgoland region. After the subsequent mild winters (1997 and 1998), however, the species reappeared in the summer of 1998 with higher numbers than ever before. This suggests that the observed phenomena are closely connected with the recent temperature anomalies. I. metallica can be regarded as a potential immigrant to a warmer North Sea, and may be useful as a sensitive indicator of the predicted long-term warming trend.

  1. Create the genus Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 we submitted a proposal to create this new genus with six members. The Executive Committee (EC) of the ICTV did not support its creation at that time due to the placement of the pelarspovirus genus branch within a larger monophyletic lineage of many of the members of the carmovirus genus wh...

  2. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V., Jr.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  3. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Chi, Sensen; She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  4. A note on the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Recovery of the first nearly complete thoracopygon of the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge Brezinski from the Chouteau Formation of central Missouri aids in evaluating the paleoecology and taxonomic affinities of this genus. Dixiphopyge is an isopygous trilobite, suboval in outline, and possessing nine thoracic segments. At the apex of each axial ring is a hollow tubercle that may represent the base of a short spine. Dixiphopyge inhabited muddy biostrome environments. In an enrolled position Dixiphopyge is interpreted to have looked somewhat like a porcupine with its spines radiating outward, presumably to inhibit its consumption by predators. Previous subfamily assignment of Dixiphopyge in the Otarioninae with Cyphaspis and Namuropyge may have been incorrect, because the latter two genera possess broad preglabellar fields and are micropygous.

  5. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  6. Phytochemistry of the genus Skimmia (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Granica, Sebastian; Vitalini, Sara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The genus Skimmia is a rich source of interesting secondary metabolites, including 20 alkaloids derived from anthranilic acid, 45 coumarins, 21 limonoids, four cholestane derivatives, six pentacyclic triterpenes, six flavonoids, and two unusual fatty acid derivatives. Skimmia is employed in folk medicine e.g. against fever, inflammations, and rheumatism. Skimmia extracts, Skimmia essential oils and pure compounds isolated from Skimmia extracts have been experimentally shown to have various bioactivities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal. In this review we discuss the exact structures of compounds isolated from members of the genus Skimmia, bioactivities of Skimmia extracts and pure compounds derived from them, and systematic implications of the patterns of occurrence of these compounds. Moreover, research gaps and interesting avenues for future research are discussed briefly.

  7. Origin and evolution of the genus Homo.

    PubMed

    Wood, B

    1992-02-27

    It is remarkable that the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the earliest known representatives of our own genus, Homo, remain obscure. Advances in techniques for absolute dating and reassessments of the fossils themselves have rendered untenable a simple unilineal model of human evolution, in which Homo habilis succeeded the australopithecines and then evolved via H. erectus into H. sapiens-but no clear alternative consensus has yet emerged. PMID:1538759

  8. On hyperelliptic abelian functions of genus 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayashiki, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    The affine ring A of the affine Jacobian variety J(X)∖Θ of a hyperelliptic curve of genus 3 is studied as a D module. A conjecture on the minimal D-free resolution previously proposed is proved in this case. As a by-product a linear basis of A is explicitly constructed in terms of derivatives of Klein's hyperelliptic ℘-functions.

  9. Genomic characterization of the Yersinia genus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background New DNA sequencing technologies have enabled detailed comparative genomic analyses of entire genera of bacterial pathogens. Prior to this study, three species of the enterobacterial genus Yersinia that cause invasive human diseases (Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia enterocolitica) had been sequenced. However, there were no genomic data on the Yersinia species with more limited virulence potential, frequently found in soil and water environments. Results We used high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis instruments to obtain 25- to 42-fold average redundancy, whole-genome shotgun data from the type strains of eight species: Y. aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, and Y. ruckeri. The deepest branching species in the genus, Y. ruckeri, causative agent of red mouth disease in fish, has the smallest genome (3.7 Mb), although it shares the same core set of approximately 2,500 genes as the other members of the species, whose genomes range in size from 4.3 to 4.8 Mb. Yersinia genomes had a similar global partition of protein functions, as measured by the distribution of Cluster of Orthologous Groups families. Genome to genome variation in islands with genes encoding functions such as ureases, hydrogeneases and B-12 cofactor metabolite reactions may reflect adaptations to colonizing specific host habitats. Conclusions Rapid high-quality draft sequencing was used successfully to compare pathogenic and non-pathogenic members of the Yersinia genus. This work underscores the importance of the acquisition of horizontally transferred genes in the evolution of Y. pestis and points to virulence determinants that have been gained and lost on multiple occasions in the history of the genus. PMID:20047673

  10. Planckian vertices on high genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Alessandro

    1993-04-01

    We suggest a method to compute subleading contributions at planckian energies for superstring scattering amplitudes of any genus. In particular, we test the method at one-loop level by comparison with previous results for the Regge trajectory renormalization. Modular invariance of these asymptotic terms is also discussed. Permanent address: Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Università, Firenze and INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Florence, Italy.

  11. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  12. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus. PMID:23920228

  13. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. PMID:26837064

  14. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus.

  15. Genus Paracoccidioides: Species Recognition and Biogeographic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Martins; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (species S1, PS2, PS3), and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes. Methodology/Principal Findings Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis on GP43, ARF and PRP8 intein genes successfully distinguished isolates into four different species. Morphological evaluation indicated that elongated conidia were observed exclusively in P. lutzii isolates, while all other species (S1, PS2 and PS3) were indistinguishable. To evaluate the biogeographic events that led to the current geographic distribution of Paracoccidioides species and their sister species, Nested Clade and Likelihood Analysis of Geographic Range Evolution (LAGRANGE) analyses were applied. The radiation of Paracoccidioides started in northwest South America, around 11–32 million years ago, as calculated on the basis of ARF substitution rate, in the BEAST program. Vicariance was responsible for the divergence among S1, PS2 and P. lutzii and a recent dispersal generated the PS3 species, restricted to Colombia. Taking into account the ancestral areas revealed by the LAGRANGE analysis and the major geographic distribution of L. loboi in the Amazon basin, a region strongly affected by the Andes uplift and marine incursions in the Cenozoic era, we also speculate about the effect of these geological events on the vicariance between Paracoccidioides and L. loboi. Conclusions/Significance The use of at least 3 SNPs, but not morphological criteria, as markers allows us to distinguish among the four cryptic species of the genus Paracoccidioides. The work also presents a biogeographic study speculating on how these species might have diverged in South America, thus contributing to elucidating evolutionary aspects of the genus Paracoccidioides. PMID:22666382

  16. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    SciTech Connect

    Loup, M.

    1995-09-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  17. A review: Ethnobotanical survey of genus Leucas

    PubMed Central

    Das, Surya Narayan; Patro, Varanasi Jaganath; Dinda, Subas Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Plants of genus Leucas (Lamiaceae) are widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and India. The plant is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases such as cough, cold, diarrhea, and inflammatory skin disorder. A variety of phytoconstituents have been isolated from the Leucas species, which include lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, terpenes, fatty acids, and aliphatic long-chain compounds. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities have been reported in the extracts of these plants and their phytoconstituents. An overview of the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological investigations on the Leucas species is presented in this review. PMID:23055635

  18. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loup, Mackenzie

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  19. Double genus expansion for general Ω background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudenziati, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We will show how the refined holomorphic anomaly equation obeyed by the Nekrasov partition function at generic 𝜖1, 𝜖2 values becomes compatible, in a certain two-parameter expansion, with the assumption that both parameters are associated to genus counting. The underlying worldsheet theory will be analyzed and constrained in various ways, and we will provide both physical interpretation and some alternative evidence for this model. Finally, we will use the Gopakumar-Vafa formulation for the refined topological string in order to give a more quantitative description.

  20. The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.

  1. Rust fungi on Annonaceae: the genus Sphaerophragmium.

    PubMed

    Beenken, Ludwig; Berndt, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Seven species of the rust genus Sphaerophragmium occur on members of the tropical plant family Annonaceae. Uropyxis gerstneri is recombined to S. gerstneri. A new species, S. xylopiae, is described from Xylopia acutiflora. The host plant of S. boanense is identified as Mitrella sp. Sphaerophragmium pulchrum is transferred to Dicheirinia. The anatomy of telia with teliospores and parasitizing mycelium is described and illustrated in detail. A new type of M-haustorium, which emanates laterally from intracellular hypha, is detected in S. monodorae. An identification key is given.

  2. Genetic and morphometric comparisons of squat lobster, Munidopsis scobina (Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheidae) populations, with notes on the phylogeny of the genus Munidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, Simon; Rogers, Alex; Tyler, Paul; Gage, John; Jollivet, Didier

    2000-01-01

    Specimens of the galatheid Munidopsis scobina were collected from two stations on the continental slope off Oman, at depths of 900 and 1000 m, using an Agassiz trawl. Starch gel electrophoresis, across 10 enzyme loci, was carried out on 427 specimens. Genetic variability was calculated for both populations using a number of parameters. F-statistics were used to estimate genetic variance within ( FIS) and between ( FST) populations. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were detected at one locus ( Gotb). Analyses of FIS revealed significant differences from zero at Gotb and Pgm, as a result of heterozygote deficiency. No relationship was observed between size of individuals and genotype. The number of genetically effective migrants per deme per generation ( Nem) was calculated using both FST and private alleles methods. Nem values were theoretically sufficient to offset the effects of genetic drift. Additional morphometric analyses were carried out on Munidopsis scobina from the two populations. Individuals were sexed ( n=2476 individuals) and ten parameters measured ( n=1238). All specimens were examined for parasites (either bopyrid isopod or rhizocephalan). Significant male-biased sex ratios were observed in both populations ( p<0.01). In addition, significant differences in size-frequency distributions ( p<0.01) were recorded both within sites between sexes, and within sexes between sites; possibly related to a size-dependent response to hypoxia. Significant differences also were observed in mean cheliped length between sexes ( p<0.01), potentially indicating that male M. scobina exhibit agonistic behaviour. The genetic relationships of Munidopsis scobina to four other species of Munidopsis ( M. crassa, M. parfaiti, M. spinihirsuta and M. subsquamosa) and the confamilial Galathea squamifera were also examined using allozyme loci. Within the genus Munidopsis, pairwise comparisons of genetic identity were within the normal range expected for

  3. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

  4. Iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus

    PubMed Central

    Zappa, Sébastien; Bauer, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Metals are utilized for a variety of critical cellular functions and are essential for survival. However cells are faced with the conundrum of needing metals coupled with e fact that some metals, iron in particular are toxic if present in excess. Maintaining metal homeostasis is therefore of critical importance to cells. In this review we have systematically analyzed sequenced genomes of three members of the Rhodobacter genus, R. capsulatus SB1003, R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 and R. ferroxidans SW2 to determine how these species undertake iron homeostasis. We focused our analysis on elemental ferrous and ferric iron uptake genes as well as genes involved in the utilization of iron from heme. We also discuss how Rhodobacter species manage iron toxicity through export and sequestration of iron. Finally we discuss the various putative strategies set up by these Rhodobacter species to regulate iron homeostasis and the potential novel means of regulation. Overall, this genomic analysis highlights surprisingly diverse features involved in iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus. PMID:24382933

  5. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches. PMID:27648105

  6. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other Penicillium subgenera. Subsequently, in combination with the recent adoption of the one fungus one name concept, Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was transferred to Talaromyces. At the time, the new combinations were made based only on phylogenetic information. As such, the aim of this study was to provide a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. We provide morphological descriptions for each of these species, as well as notes on their identification using morphology and DNA sequences. For molecular identification, BenA is proposed as a secondary molecular marker to the accepted ITS barcode for fungi. PMID:25492983

  7. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Chi, Sensen; She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches. PMID:27648105

  8. The genus Geobacillus and their biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ali H; Lisowska, Beata K; Leak, David J

    2015-01-01

    The genus Geobacillus comprises a group of Gram-positive thermophilic bacteria, including obligate aerobes, denitrifiers, and facultative anaerobes that can grow over a range of 45-75°C. Originally classified as group five Bacillus spp., strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus came to prominence as contaminants of canned food and soon became the organism of choice for comparative studies of metabolism and enzymology between mesophiles and thermophiles. More recently, their catabolic versatility, particularly in the degradation of hemicellulose and starch, and rapid growth rates have raised their profile as organisms with potential for second-generation (lignocellulosic) biorefineries for biofuel or chemical production. The continued development of genetic tools to facilitate both fundamental investigation and metabolic engineering is now helping to realize this potential, for both metabolite production and optimized catabolism. In addition, this catabolic versatility provides a range of useful thermostable enzymes for industrial application. A number of genome-sequencing projects have been completed or are underway allowing comparative studies. These reveal a significant amount of genome rearrangement within the genus, the presence of large genomic islands encompassing all the hemicellulose utilization genes and a genomic island incorporating a set of long chain alkane monooxygenase genes. With G+C contents of 45-55%, thermostability appears to derive in part from the ability to synthesize protamine and spermine, which can condense DNA and raise its Tm.

  9. Magnaporthiopsis, a new genus in Magnaporthaceae (Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among taxa in the Magnaporthaceae are investigated based on DNA sequences of multiple genes including SSU, ITS, LSU, MCM7, RPB1 and TEF1. The genera Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are shown to be polyphyletic and their members are divided into four major groups based on the phylogenetic analyses. Considering morphological, biological and molecular data, we establish a new genus, Magnaporthiopsis. It is characterized by black and globose perithecia with a cylindrical neck, two-layered perithecial wall, clavate asci with a refractive apical ring, fusiform to fusoid and septate ascospores, simple hyphopodia, and Phialophora-like anamorph. Species in this genus are necrotrophic parasites infecting roots of grasses. Three new combinations, Magnaporthiopsis poae, M. rhizophila and M. incrustans, are proposed accordingly. Pyricularia is suggested as the generic name for the rice blast fungus over Magnaporthe, following Article 59.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. A new combination, Nakataea oryzae, is proposed for the rice stem rot fungus. PMID:23449077

  10. The genus Geobacillus and their biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ali H; Lisowska, Beata K; Leak, David J

    2015-01-01

    The genus Geobacillus comprises a group of Gram-positive thermophilic bacteria, including obligate aerobes, denitrifiers, and facultative anaerobes that can grow over a range of 45-75°C. Originally classified as group five Bacillus spp., strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus came to prominence as contaminants of canned food and soon became the organism of choice for comparative studies of metabolism and enzymology between mesophiles and thermophiles. More recently, their catabolic versatility, particularly in the degradation of hemicellulose and starch, and rapid growth rates have raised their profile as organisms with potential for second-generation (lignocellulosic) biorefineries for biofuel or chemical production. The continued development of genetic tools to facilitate both fundamental investigation and metabolic engineering is now helping to realize this potential, for both metabolite production and optimized catabolism. In addition, this catabolic versatility provides a range of useful thermostable enzymes for industrial application. A number of genome-sequencing projects have been completed or are underway allowing comparative studies. These reveal a significant amount of genome rearrangement within the genus, the presence of large genomic islands encompassing all the hemicellulose utilization genes and a genomic island incorporating a set of long chain alkane monooxygenase genes. With G+C contents of 45-55%, thermostability appears to derive in part from the ability to synthesize protamine and spermine, which can condense DNA and raise its Tm. PMID:26003932

  11. On the genus two free energies for semisimple Frobenius manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovin, Boris; Liu, Si-Qi; Zhang, Youjin

    2012-07-01

    We represent the genus two free energy of an arbitrary semisimple Frobenius manifold as the sum of contributions associated with dual graphs of certain stable algebraic curves of genus two plus the so-called "genus two G-function." Conjecturally, the genus two G-function vanishes for a series of important examples of Frobenius manifolds associated with simple singularities, as well as for ℙ1-orbifolds with positive Euler characteristics. We explain the reasons for the conjecture and prove it in particular cases.

  12. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  13. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha).

    PubMed

    Żyła, Dagmara; Homan, Agnieszka; Franielczyk, Barbara; Wegierek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: Oviparosiphumjakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and Oviparosiphumbaissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphumbaissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae.

  14. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha).

    PubMed

    Żyła, Dagmara; Homan, Agnieszka; Franielczyk, Barbara; Wegierek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: Oviparosiphumjakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and Oviparosiphumbaissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphumbaissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae. PMID:25755622

  15. Defense in the aeolidoidean genus Phyllodesmium (Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Alexander; Kehraus, Stefan; Bleidissel, Sabrina; Preisfeld, Gela; Schillo, Dorothee; Piel, Jörn; Brachmann, Alexander O; Wägele, Heike; König, Gabriele M

    2014-09-01

    The genus Phyllodesmium (Aeolidoidea, Gastropoda) comprises shell-less marine snails, whose defense strategies are not well investigated yet. Here we report results of the first chemical investigation of P. briareum, as well as a re-investigation of P. longicirrum and P. magnum. Briarane diterpenes were isolated from P. briareum, and their origin could be traced to its prey organism Briareum sp. (Octocorallia). Considerable enrichment of the soft coral secondary metabolites in the slug was shown. Re-investigation of P. magnum led to isolation of cembrane diterpenes, 2-phenylethylamide, and furano sesquiterpenes. Sequestration of chemicals seems to have influenced speciation and evolution of Phyllodesmium species. Structural similarity or dissimilarity of particular slug metabolites suggests a closer, or more distant relationship of the respective Phyllodesmium taxa. PMID:25244950

  16. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus

    PubMed Central

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females. PMID:26462693

  17. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  18. [Bergenia genus - content matters and biological activity].

    PubMed

    Hendrychová, Helena; Tůmová, Lenka

    2012-10-01

    Bergenia, a genus included in the family Saxifragaceae, is a valuable source of healing matters. About 30 Bergenia species are known all over the world. Scientific research is focused on five species mainly distributed in the mountains of Central and East Asia: Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb., Bergenia stracheyi Engl., Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch, Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl. and Bergenia himalaica Boriss. These taxons belong to the widely used medicinal herbs in the traditional Chinese, Nepalese and Indian medicine, for therapy of cough and pulmonary diseases, to stop bleeding, to increase immunity and to dissolve kidney or bladder stones. Bergenia consists of many different active compounds including bergenin, norbergenin, catechin, gallic acid, arbutin and other polyphenols. In the Czech Republic this species is commonly grown but it is not used for medical therapy. Individual parts of this plant demonstrate an interesting biological activity, and antibacterial, antiviral, cytoprotective and antioxidant effects. PMID:23256653

  19. The genus Aeromonas: taxonomy, pathogenicity, and infection.

    PubMed

    Janda, J Michael; Abbott, Sharon L

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers.

  20. The Lichen Genus Sticta in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A; Koh, Young Jin; Crişan, Florin

    2014-01-01

    Sticta (Schreber.) Ach. is one of the common lichen genera in tropical and subtropical regions, but not in the Korean Peninsula. For almost two decades, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study has been done on this genus. This study was based on the specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute, and the samples were identified on the basis of recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eight species of Sticta, including a newly recorded one are documented. These species include Sticta fuliginosa (Dicks.) Ach., Sticta gracilis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Sticta limbata (Sm.) Ach., Sticta nylanderiana Zahlbr., Sticta sublimbata (J. Steiner) Swinscow & Krog, Sticta weigelii (Ach.) Vain., Sticta wrightii Tuck., and Sticta yatabeana Müll. Arg. Detailed descriptions of S. nylanderiana, S. sublimbata, S. weigelii, and S. yatabeana with their morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics are provided. A key description of all known Sticta species of the Korean Peninsula is also presented. PMID:24808727

  1. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time.

  2. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:25544089

  3. Review of the genus Susuacanga (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae).

    PubMed

    Botero R, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The genus Susuacanga Martins, 1997 is redescribed. A new combination, S. blancaneaui (Bates, 1880) comb. nov. and a new synonymy, Eburia unicolor Bates, 1870 = S. octoguttata (Germar, 1821) are proposed. The genus is now composed of 12 species. The geographical distribution of S. opaca is expanded to include Belize. Photographs of Susuacanga species are included and a key to differentiate them is provided.

  4. The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces.

  5. Revision of the genus Raoiella (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) of the world.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flat mites in the genus Raoiella have attracted recent world-wide interest due to the rapid spread of a major pest of various palm trees and other monocot species, the red palm mite, R. indica. This focus on the species R. indica has created a need to better understand the genus. Despite the econo...

  6. Pelarspovirus, a proposed new genus in the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the family Tombusviridae encompasses thirteen viral genera that contain single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and isometric virions; the exception being the genus Umbravirus, whose members do not encode a coat protein (CP). A new genus, tentatively named Pelarspovirus, is proposed t...

  7. Genus IV. Actinosynnema Hasegawa, Lechevalier and Lechevalier 1978, 304al

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinosynnema is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the family Actinosynnemataceae is discussed. Methods for isolation, pr...

  8. Revision of the genus Miridiba Reitter, 1901 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae).

    PubMed

    Coca-Abia, Maria Milagro

    2008-06-01

    The genus Miridiba is here reviewed on the basis of external morphological and genital characters. This genus now contains 27 species, eight of which are new transfers from Holotrichia Hope, 1837; Holotrichia (Pledina) ; Melolontha Fabricius, 1775; and Neodontocnema . A type series of thirteen species is designed. Hippotrichia and Neodontocnema are described in detail.

  9. Three New Records of Lichen Genus Rhizocarpon from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yogesh; Koh, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes three new records of lichen genus Rhizocarpon (R. alpicola, R. grande and R. lavatum) from South Korea. Brief taxonomic description and comments are provided for the new records. An artificial key is also provided for known species of this genus in South Korea. PMID:23956659

  10. DNA barcoding in the rust genus Chrysomyxa and its implications for the phylogeny of the genus.

    PubMed

    Feau, Nicolas; Vialle, Agathe; Allaire, Mathieu; Maier, Wolfgang; Hamelin, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Chrysomyxa rusts are fungal pathogens widely present in the boreal forest. Taxonomic delimitation and precise species identification are difficult within this genus because several species display similar morphological features. We applied a DNA barcode system based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (NAD6) in 86 strains from 16 different Chrysomyxa species, including members of the Chrysomyxa ledi species complex. The nuclear ITS and 28S loci revealed higher resolving power than the mitochondrial genes. Amplification of the full CO1 barcode region failed due to the presence of introns limiting the dataset obtained with this barcode. In most cases the ITS barcodes were in agreement with taxonomic species based on phenotypic characters. Nevertheless we observed genetically distinct (different DNA barcodes) lineages within Chrysomyxa pyrolae and Chrysomyxa rhododendri, providing some evidence for allopatric speciation within these morphologically defined species. This finding, together with the observed pattern of host specificities of the studied rust fungi, suggest that species diversification within the C. ledi species complex might be governed by a set of factors such as specialisation to certain Ericaceae species as telial hosts and to a lesser extent specialization to different spruce species as aecial hosts. Moreover allopatric speciation by geographic disruption of species also seems to take place. When our data were integrated into a broader phylogenetic framework the Chrysomyxa genus unexpectedly was not resolved as a monophyletic group. Indeed the spruce cone rusts C. pyrolae and C. monesis coalesced with the pine needle rusts belonging to the genus Coleosporium, whereas the microcyclic species Chrysomyxa weirii was embedded within a clade comprising the genus Melampsora. PMID:21659458

  11. On RNA-RNA interaction structures of fixed topological genus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Benjamin M M; Han, Hillary S W; Reidys, Christian M

    2015-04-01

    Interacting RNA complexes are studied via bicellular maps using a filtration via their topological genus. Our main result is a new bijection for RNA-RNA interaction structures and a linear time uniform sampling algorithm for RNA complexes of fixed topological genus. The bijection allows to either reduce the topological genus of a bicellular map directly, or to lose connectivity by decomposing the complex into a pair of single stranded RNA structures. Our main result is proved bijectively. It provides an explicit algorithm of how to rewire the corresponding complexes and an unambiguous decomposition grammar. Using the concept of genus induction, we construct bicellular maps of fixed topological genus g uniformly in linear time. We present various statistics on these topological RNA complexes and compare our findings with biological complexes. Furthermore we show how to construct loop-energy based complexes using our decomposition grammar.

  12. F-theory on genus-one fibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Volker; Morrison, David R.

    2014-08-01

    We argue that M-theory compactified on an arbitrary genus-one fibration, that is, an elliptic fibration which need not have a section, always has an F-theory limit when the area of the genus-one fiber approaches zero. Such genus-one fibrations can be easily constructed as toric hypersurfaces, and various SU(5) × U(1) n and E 6 models are presented as examples. To each genus-one fibration one can associate a τ -function on the base as well as an SL(2 , ) representation which together define the IIB axio-dilaton and 7-brane content of the theory. The set of genus-one fibrations with the same τ -function and SL(2 , ) representation, known as the Tate-Shafarevich group, supplies an important degree of freedom in the corresponding F-theory model which has not been studied carefully until now.

  13. The Genus Veillonella IV. Serological Groupings, and Genus and Species Emendations

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, M.

    1965-01-01

    Rogosa, M. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.). The genus Veillonella. IV. Serological groupings, and genus and species emendations. J. Bacteriol. 90:704–709. 1965.—Seven serological groups of Veillonella were found. The generic and species descriptions are enlarged and corrected. The type species is Veillonella parvula (Veillon and Zuber) Prévot, 1933. The proposed species, subspecies (infraspecific serogroups), and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strains are: Veillonella parvula subsp. parvula subsp. nov. (antigenic group VI), ATCC 10790; Veillonella parvula subsp. rodentium subsp. nov. (antigenic group II), ATCC 17743; Veillonella parvula subsp. atypica subsp. nov. (antigenic group V), ATCC 17744; Veillonella alcalescens subsp. alcalescens subsp. nov. (antigenic group IV), ATCC 17745; Veillonella alcalescens subsp. ratti subsp. nov. (antigenic group III), ATCC 17746; Veillonella alcalescens subsp. criceti subsp. nov. (antigenic group I), ATCC 17747; and Veillonella alcalescens subsp. dispar subsp. nov. (antigenic group VII), ATCC 17748. The following species listed in Bergey's Manual (7th ed.) are rejected as members of the genus: V. discoides, V. reniformis, V. orbiculus, and V. vulvovaginitidis. PMID:16562069

  14. The Old-World genus Ceratothripoides (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with a new genus for related New-World species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key is provided to five Old World species that comprise the genus Ceratothripoides Bagnall, and the species C. revelatus (Priesner) is recalled from synonymy with C. brunneus Bagnall. Five New World species previously placed in this genus are here allocated to Retanathrips Mound & Nickle gen.n., w...

  15. The Foraminiferal Genus Orbitolina in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglass, Raymond Charles

    1960-01-01

    The foraminiferal genus Orbitolina has been useful as an index fossil in the Cretaceous rocks of the circumglobal equatorial belt for nearly a century. In Europe and the Near and Middle East enough work has been done on the species to allow their use for approximate correlations within the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The study of American specimens of Orbitolina, had been almost neglected although they were used in a rather cursory fashion for markers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity strata. Three species had been described and assigned to Orbitolina in the United States, but the validity of each of the species had been questioned. A study of the genus Orbitolina, its type species, its morphology and the stratigraphic and geographic distribution in North America are presented in this report. Stratigraphic sections were measured throughout the area of Lower Cretaceous outcrop in Texas, New Mexico. and Arizona, and samples of Orbitolina were taken from these measured sections. Several thousand thin sections were prepared from which 8 species of Orbitolina, 7 of them new, were recognized. Orbitolina texana (Roemer) was found to be confined to the lower part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Orbitolina, minuta n. sp. is essentially confined to the upper part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Four of the species are known only from the Arizona and New Mexico region. The species of Orbitolina are useful stratigraphically, but all their characters-internal as well as external-must be considered. The use of thin sections for the study of Orbitolina is essential. One of the first things that had to be determined was the correct concept of the genus Orbitolina. The type species had not been determined by earlier authors, although four species had been suggested at various times. With careful study of the early literature, it became apparent that the type species is Orbitulites lenticulata Lamarck, 1816=Madreporites lenticularis Blumenbach, 1805

  16. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2016-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2n vertices (n > 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a < b ≤ n, and singletons [h, h] for some h ≤ n, are realized as genus ranges. For graphs with 2n − 1 vertices (n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a < b ≤ n except [0, n], and [h, h] for some h ≤ n, are realized as genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  17. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  18. Genus vaccinium: medicine, cosmetics, and coatings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brandy J; Lin, Baochuan; Bongard, Jason E

    2010-06-01

    Vaccinium is a genus of shrubs several of which, including cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry, produce edible fruit. Consumption of the fruit of these plants and juices pressed from it has long been known to have healthful effects. A number of functional compounds have been extracted from the fruits and seeds of these plants. Anthocyanidins and related compounds have been reported to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts of the fruits have been applied to the inhibition of non-enzymatic glycosylation in anti-aging preparations. The oil of the cranberry seed is high in antioxidants and is a source of omega-3, -6, and -9 fatty acids making it an attractive cosmetics component. The inhibition of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis by extracts of these fruits has been described. Extracts of the plants have also been applied to the development of antimicrobial paints and coatings. Here, we provide an overview of the wide range of applications described for various compounds from and preparations of these plants and survey the recent patents related to those applications.

  19. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains.

  20. Large N duality beyond the genus expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Marcos; Pasquetti, Sara; Putrov, Pavel

    2010-07-01

    We study non-perturbative aspects of the large N duality between Chern-Simons theory and topological strings, and we find a rich structure of large N phase transitions in the complex plane of the 't Hooft parameter. These transitions are due to large N instanton effects, and they can be regarded as a deformation of the Stokes phenomenon. Moreover, we show that, for generic values of the 't Hooft coupling, instanton effects are not exponentially suppressed at large N and they correct the genus expansion. This phenomenon was first discovered in the context of matrix models, and we interpret it as a generalization of the oscillatory asymptotics along anti-Stokes lines. In the string dual, the instanton effects can be interpreted as corrections to the saddle string geometry due to discretized neighbouring geometries. As a mathematical application, we obtain the 1/ N asymptotics of the partition function of Chern-Simons theory on the lens space L(2, 1), and we test it numerically to high precision in order to exhibit the importance of instanton effects.

  1. The Genus Aeromonas: Taxonomy, Pathogenicity, and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers. PMID:20065325

  2. Mycorrhizal status of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae).

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R. M.; Smith, C. I.; Jastrow, J. D.; Bever, J. D.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-01-01

    The Cyperaccae have generally been considered nonmycorrhizal, although recent evidence suggests that mycotrophy may be considerably more widespread among sedges than was previously realized. This study surveyed 23 species of Carex occurring in upland and wetland habitats in northeastern Illinois. Mycorrhizal infection by arbuscular fungi was found in the roots of 16 species of Carex and appears to occur in response to many factors, both environmental and phylogenetic. While some species appear to be obligately nonmycorrhizal, edaphic influences may be responsible for infection in others. In five of the seven Carex species that were nonmycorrrhizal, a novel root character, the presence of bulbous-based root hairs, was identified. The taxonomically patchy distribution of the distinctive root hair trait suggests that these structures may have evolved several times within the genus. Evidence of multiple independent origins of the root hair trait lends support to the hypothesis that root hairs represent an adaptation to nonmycotrophy. Although taxonomic position does seem to be of importance in determining the mycorrhizal dependence of sedges, the pattern may be a patchwork of both mycorrhizal clades and clades that have adapted to the nonmycorrhizal state.

  3. A revision of the genus Mecistostethus Marseul (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini)

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.; Dégallier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We revise the genus Mecistostethus Marseul, sinking the monotypic genus Tarsilister Bruch as a junior synonym. Mecistostethus contains six valid species: Mecistostethus pilifer Marseul, Mecistostethus loretoensis (Bruch), comb. n., Mecistostethus seagorum sp. n., Mecistostethus carltoni sp. n., Mecistostethus marseuli sp. n., and Mecistostethus flechtmanni sp. n. The few existing records show the genus to be widespread in tropical and subtropical South America, from northern Argentina to western Amazonian Ecuador and French Guiana. Only a single host record associates one species with the ant Pachycondyla striata Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae), but it is possible that related ants host all the species. PMID:22933855

  4. The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.

    PubMed

    Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C

    2011-02-01

    Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids. PMID:21337498

  5. Genus Caulophyllum: An Overview of Chemistry and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Li, Guo-Yu; Liang, Jun; Yang, Bing-You; Lü, Shao-Wa; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Recently, some promising advances have been achieved in understanding the chemistry, pharmacology, and action mechanisms of constituents from genus Caulophyllum. Despite this, there is to date no systematic review of those of genus Caulophyllum. This review covers naturally occurring alkaloids and saponins and those resulting from synthetic novel taspine derivatives. The paper further discussed several aspects of this genus, including pharmacological properties, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, and cell membrane chromatography for activity screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a point of reference for pharmaceutical researchers to develop new drugs from constituents of Caulophyllum plants. PMID:24876877

  6. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  7. Identity of Baker's species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cong; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Baker's (1915) species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus Melichar are revised. One species, Pythamus melichari Baker 1915, is placed in a new genus, Pythochandra Wei & Webb, gen. n.. The four varieties of P. melichari described by Baker (1915, 1923) (borneensis, bilobatus, decoratus and singaporensis) are elevated to species level and placed in the new genus stat. n., comb. n.. All species are briefly described and a key is provided for their separation. Two other species, Pythamus productus Baker and P. decoratus Baker, known only from females, are retained in Pythamus pending further studies.

  8. The description of Banacuniculus Buffington, new genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new eucoiline genus Banacuniculus is described to accommodate several species previously placed in Ganaspidium: Banacuniculus hunteri (Crawford), new combination; B. merickeli (Miller), new combination; B. nigrimanus (Kieffer), new combination; B. utilis (Beardsley), new combination; these spec...

  9. Is Stringaspidiotus Macgillivray (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) An Accepted Genus?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Stringaspidiotus MacGillivray, 1921 is synonymized with Pseudaonidia Cockerell, 1897 as a junior subjective synonym and the type species of Stringaspidiotus (Aspidiotus (Pseudaonidia) curculiginis) is redescribed and illustrated....

  10. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.

    PubMed

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  11. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  12. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  13. The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Kathariou, Sophia; Tiedje, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium are low G + C, Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that have been repeatedly isolated from ancient Siberian permafrost. In addition, Exiguobacterium spp. have been isolated from markedly diverse sources, including Greenland Glacial ice, hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, the rhizosphere of plants, and the environment of food processing plants. Strains of this hereto little known bacterium that have been retrieved from such different (and often extreme) environments are worthy of attention as they are likely to be specifically adapted to such environments and to carry variations in the genome which may correspond to psychrophilic and thermophilic adaptations. However, comparative genomic investigations of Exiguobacterium spp. from different sources have been limited. In this study, we employed different molecular approaches for the comparative analysis of 24 isolates from markedly diverse environments including ancient Siberian permafrost and hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with I-CeuI (an intron-encoded endonuclease), AscI and NotI were optimized for the determination of genomic fingerprints of nuclease-producing isolates. The application of a DNA macroarray for 82 putative stress-response genes yielded strain-specific hybridization profiles. Cluster analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, PFGE I-CeuI restriction patterns and hybridization profiles suggested that Exiguobacterium strains formed two distinct divisions that generally agreed with temperature ranges for growth. With few exceptions (e.g., Greenland ice isolate GIC31), psychrotrophic and thermophilic isolates belonged to different divisions.

  14. The huntsman genus Decaphora Franganillo, 1931 (Araneae: Sparassidae: Sparianthinae).

    PubMed

    Rheims, Cristina Anne; Alayón, Giraldo

    2014-06-12

    The genus Decaphora Franganillo, 1931 is revised. Pseudosparianthis variabilis F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900, Pseudosparianthis cubana Banks, 1909 and Thelcticopis pestai (Reimoser, 1939) are transferred to the genus; and P. cubana is considered a senior synonym of the type species, Decaphora trabiformis Franganillo, 1931. In addition, the female of T. pestai and the male of P. variabilis are described for the first time; and a new species, Decaphora kohunlich spec. nov., is described from Mexico and Guatemala.

  15. Revision of the genus Paracooperia Travassos, 1935 (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Gibbons, L M

    1978-09-01

    Only five of the eight species assigned to the genus Paracooperia are considered valid and are redescribed. P. petrowi Memmedov, 1961 and P. indiana Ali and Deshpande, 1970 are considered synonyms of P. nodulosa (Schwartz, 1928) Travassos, 1937 and the synonymy of P. matoffi Le Roux, 1950 with P. nodulosa is confirmed. A key to the species of the genus is given and their hosts and geographical localities are listed.

  16. Chemical and pharmacological studies of the plants from genus Celastrus.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhan, Wen-Hong; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    The plants of genus Celastrus, distributed in Asia, have been used as natural insecticides and folk medicines to treat fever, chill, joint pain, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and bacterial infection in China for a long time. This contribution reviews the chemical constituents, isolated from the plants in genus Celastrus in the past few decades, and their biological activities. The compounds listed are sesquiterpenes (beta-agarofurans), diterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids.

  17. Shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra and shifted Hurwitz numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Quan

    2016-05-01

    We construct the shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra, which is isomorphic to the central subalgebra A ∞ of infinite symmetric group algebra and to the shifted Schur symmetrical function algebra Λ* defined by Okounkov and Olshanskii. As an application, we get some differential equations for the generating functions of the shifted Hurwitz numbers; thus, we can express the generating functions in terms of the shifted genus expanded cut-and-join operators.

  18. Reclassification of the members of the genus Tetrathiobacter Ghosh et al. 2005 to the genus Advenella Coenye et al. 2005.

    PubMed

    Gibello, A; Vela, A I; Martín, M; Barra-Caracciolo, A; Grenni, P; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2009-08-01

    The taxonomic position of the genera Advenella and Tetrathiobacter was examined. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the two genera are closely related, representing a monophyletic cluster with high sequence similarity (98.1-99.7%) within the family Alcaligenaceae. The phenotypic characteristics of the type strains of Advenella incenata, Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis and Tetrathiobacter mimigardefordensis were re-examined using the API 20NE, API ZYM and API 50CH systems. Phylogenetic data together with similarities in phenotypic characteristics, G+C content and cellular acid composition suggest that they should be classified in the same genus. On the basis of the data presented, the two species of the genus Tetrathiobacter should be transferred to the genus Advenella, since this genus has nomenclatural priority. Therefore, Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis and Tetrathiobacter mimigardefordensis should be transferred to the genus Advenella as Advenella kashmirensis comb. nov. (type strain WT001T=LMG 22695T=MTCC7002T) and Advenella mimigardefordensis comb. nov. (type strain DPN7T=DSM 17166T=LMG 22922T). Emended descriptions of Advenella incenata and the genus Advenella are also presented.

  19. Proposal of nine novel species of the genus Lysinimicrobium and emended description of the genus Lysinimicrobium.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Moriyuki; Shibata, Chiyo; Saitou, Satomi; Tamura, Tomohiko; Komaki, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Oguchi, Akio; Hosoyama, Akira; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Yamamura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Thirteen novel Gram-stain-positive bacteria were isolated from various samples collected from mangrove forests in Japan, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the 13 isolates formed a single clade with Lysinimicrobium mangrovi HI08-69T, with a similarity range of 97.6-99.5 %. The peptidoglycan of the isolates was of the A4α type with an interpeptide bridge comprising Ser-Glu and an l-Ser residue at position 1 of the peptide subunit. The predominant menaquinone was demethylmenaquinone DMK-9(H4) and the major fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. These chemotaxonomic characteristics corresponded to those of the genus Lysinimicrobium. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, along with average nucleotide identity values among the isolates, we concluded that the 13 isolates should be assigned to the following nine novel species of the genus Lysinimicrobium: Lysinimicrobium aestuarii sp. nov. (type strain HI12-104T = NBRC 109392T = DSM 28144T), Lysinimicrobium flavum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-45T = NBRC 109391T = DSM 28150T), Lysinimicrobium gelatinilyticum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-44T = NBRC 109390T = DSM 28149T), Lysinimicrobium iriomotense sp. nov. (type strain HI12-143T = NBRC 109399T = DSM 28146T), Lysinimicrobium luteum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-123T = NBRC 109395T = DSM 28147T), Lysinimicrobium pelophilum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-111T = NBRC 109393T = DSM 28148T), Lysinimicrobium rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain HI12-135T = NBRC 109397T = DSM 28152T), Lysinimicrobium soli sp. nov. (type strain HI12-122T = NBRC 109394T = DSM 28151T) and Lysinimicrobium subtropicum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-128T = NBRC 109396T = DSM 28145T). In addition, an emended description of the genus Lysinimicrobium is proposed. PMID:26354549

  20. Ultrastructural evidence for transepithelial calcium transport in the anterior sternal epithelium of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) during the formation and resorption of CaCO3 deposits

    PubMed

    Ziegler

    1996-05-20

    Before the molt, terrestrial isopods store large amounts of calcium carbonate between the epithelium and the old cuticle of the first four anterior sternites. In order to test whether the anterior sternal epithelium has specific structural differentiations indicative of transepithelial ion transport, the anterior sternal epithelium and, as a control, the posterior sternal epithelium were studied using electron-microscopical techniques. During the formation of calcium carbonate deposits, the basolateral plasma membrane of the anterior sternal epithelium forms an elaborate interconnected network of interstitial dilations and channels. Numerous osmiophilic granules occur within this basolateral intercellular network during resorption of the calcium carbonate deposits. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of the osmiophilic granules indicates that they contain calcium. During the resorption of the calcium carbonate deposits, the apical plasma membrane of the anterior sternal epithelium has many subcuticular folds. An interstitial network, osmiophilic granules, and apical, subcuticular folds do not occur in the posterior sternal epithelium. Taken together, these structural features are indicative of transepithelial ion transport and are probably necessary for the formation and resorption of the anterior sternal calcium carbonate deposits.

  1. Membrane particle distribution in the sternal epithelia of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber latr. (Crustacea, oniscidea) during CaCO(3) deposit formation and resorption, a freeze-etch analysis.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, A; Merz, E

    1999-10-01

    The anterior sternal epithelium of terrestrial isopods transports cuticular Ca(2+) to and from large sternal CaCO(3) deposits. We analyzed the anterior and posterior sternal epithelium by the means of the freeze-etch technique and measured the size distribution and density of intramembrane particles (IMPs) during three different molting stages. At least three IMP size classes around 4.5, 7.7, and 9.4 nm can be distinguished on the P-face of the apical and basolateral plasma membrane. An additional size class of around 12.8 nm is restricted to the apical compartment. In the anterior sternal epithelium, the density of these large particles changes by a factor of 1.9 during the molt cycle, suggesting a role in CaCO(3) formation and/or resorption. The density of the smaller IMPs rises transiently by a factor of 1.3 in the posterior sternal epithelium only. The IMP density of the basolateral plasma membrane increases significantly by a factor of 1.4 and 1.3 in the anterior and posterior sternal epithelia, respectively. The results indicate that increases in the IMP density contribute to the differentiation to an increased transport activity during the cyclic enlargements of the plasma membrane surface area in the anterior sternal epithelium.

  2. Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Sati, O. P.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Alnus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, phenols, steroids, and tannins. Diarylheptanoids are the dominant constituents within the genus Alnus, few of them exhibited antioxidant effects and inhibitory activity against nuclear factor kappaB activation, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, farnesyl protein transferase, cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, HIF-1 in AGS cells, and the HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect in MT-4 cells. Some ellagitannines showed hepatoprotective activity even in a dose of 1 mg/kg which is ten-fold smaller compared with the dose of traditional flavonoid-based drugs. The members of genus Alnus are well known for their traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases like cancer, hepatitis, inflammation of uterus, uterine cancer, rheumatism, dysentery, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, etc. The aim of the present review is to summarize the various researches related to the chemistry and pharmacology of genus Alnus. PMID:22279375

  3. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  4. Molecular systematics of the Middle American genus Hypopachus (Anura: Microhylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Eli; Smith, Eric N.; de Sá, Rafael O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first phylogenetic study on the widespread Middle American microhylid frog genus Hypopachus. Partial sequences of mitochondrial (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes (1275 bp total) were analyzed from 43 samples of Hypopachus, three currently recognized species of Gastrophryne, and seven arthroleptid, brevicipitid and microhylid outgroup taxa. Maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) optimality criteria were used for phylogenetic analyses, and BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Population-level analyses were conducted with the programs NETWORK and Arlequin. Results confirm the placement of Hypopachus and Gastrophryne as sister taxa, but the latter genus was strongly supported as paraphyletic. The African phrynomerine genus Phrynomantis was recovered as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Chiasmocleis, rendering our well-supported clade of gastrophrynines paraphyletic. Hypopachus barberi was supported as a disjunctly distributed highland species, and we recovered a basal split in lowland populations of Hypopachus variolosus from the Pacific versant of Mexico and elsewhere in the Mesoamerican lowlands. Dating analyses from BEAST estimate speciation within the genus Hypopachus occurred in the late Miocene/early Pliocene for most clades. Previous studies have not found bioacoustic or morphological differences among these lowland clades, and our molecular data support the continued recognition of two species in the genus Hypopachus. PMID:21798357

  5. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization. PMID:26552163

  6. Psathyloma, a new genus in Hymenogastraceae described from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Soop, Karl; Dima, Bálint; Szarkándi, János Gergő; Cooper, Jerry; Papp, Tamás; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Nagy, László G

    2016-01-01

    A new genus Psathyloma is described based on collections of agarics from New Zealand. We describe two new species in the genus, Ps. leucocarpum and Ps. catervatim, both of which have been known and tentatively named for a long time awaiting a formal description. Morphological traits and phylogenetic analyses reveal that Psathyloma forms a strongly supported sister clade to Hebeloma, Naucoria and Hymenogaster Morphologically Psathyloma resembles Hebeloma from which it differs mainly by producing smooth basidiospores with a germ pore. The geographical range of the genus has been demonstrated to include several regions in the southern hemisphere. A survey of published environmental sequences reveals that Psathyloma spp. were isolated from ectomycorrhizal root tips from Tasmania and Argentina, indicating an ectomycorrhizal association with southern beech.

  7. The genus Pseudotorellia Florin (Ginkgoales): Taxonomic and stratigraphic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiritchkova, A. I.; Nosova, N. V.

    2009-12-01

    The history of investigation of the common Jurassic and Cretaceous genus Pseudotorellia Florin (Ginkgoales) represented by needle-shaped, narrow linear or lanceolate leaves bearing several veins and characterized by a single type of epidermis, is considered. An extended diagnosis of the genus and its taxonomic composition with regard to the epidermal characters are reported; the stratigraphic and geographical range of its species and the genus evolution are refined. Three new species Pseudotorellia asiatica N. Nosova et Kiritchkova, sp. nov., P. ketoviana N. Nosova et Kiritchkova, sp. nov., and P. samylinae N. Nosova et Kiritchkova, sp. nov. described from the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) sediments, are proposed as the correlative taxa within the Caspian oil and gas province. The stratotype and reference sections of the Lower Jurassic sediments in the Mangyshlak Mountains are reported for the first time.

  8. The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

  9. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. PMID:25457944

  10. An updated review on medicinal herb genus Spilanthes.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Kishan Lal; Jadhav, Shailesh Kumar; Joshi, Veenu

    2011-11-01

    Herbal medicine has been used in medical practice for thousands of years and recognized especially as a valuable and readily available resource for healthcare in Asian nations. India is a vast repository of medicinal plants that can be developed as a safe and economical system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Unfortunately, most of the traditionally used medicinal plants are yet unexplored or have not been fully examined by modern medical science. Therefore, exploring traditionally reported medicinal plants to leverage their potential for the betterment of human health is of great importance. The present review examines a promising medicinal plant genus Spilanthes. In recent years, many new compounds and activities of this plant genus have been established. The present review therefore, aims to compile up-to-date and comprehensive information of genus Spilanthes with special emphasis on phytochemical and ethnomedical uses, scientifically documented pharmacological activities and tissue culture methods for conservation. PMID:22088581

  11. Ulopsina, a Remarkable new Ulopine Leafhopper Genus from China

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wu; Viraktamath, Chandra A.; Zhang, Yalin

    2012-01-01

    An unusual new cicadellid genus, Ulopsina gen. nov. and two new species, U. sinica sp. nov. and U. szwedoi sp. nov. from China are described, illustrated, and placed in the subfamily Ulopinae. The genus has characters of both the tribes Mesargini and Coloborrhinini, suggesting that the delimitation of these tribes may not be natural. The tribal placement of Ulopsina is uncertain. A checklist of the subfamily Ulopinae from China is also provided, and nine Chinese species designated under the genus Moonia are herein transferred to Mesargus, namely Mesargus albomaculata (Li) comb. nov., M. brevita (Cai et Shen) comb. nov., M. castanea (Kuoh) comb. nov., M. hei (Cai et Shen) comb. nov., M. hirsuta (Li) comb. nov., M. hyboma (Cai et Kuoh) comb. nov., M. maculigena (Kuoh) comb. nov., M. serrata (Li and Zhang) comb. nov., and M. spinapenis (Li and Zhang) comb. nov. PMID:22953732

  12. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bratkov, Viktor M.; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M.; Zdraveva, Petranka K.; Krasteva, Ilina N.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus. PMID:27041870

  13. A Review on the Terpenes from Genus Vitex.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jin-Long; Fang, Shi-Ming; Liu, Rui; Oppong, Mahmood Brobbey; Liu, Er-Wei; Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vitex, which belongs to the Verbenaceae family, includes approximately 250 species. Some species of the genus Vitex have traditionally been used for the treatment of headaches, ophthalmodynia, coughs, asthma, premenopausal syndrome, etc. Chemical investigations indicate that the characteristic constituents of the genus Vitex are terpenes, and 210 of these compounds, including monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and triterpenoids, have been obtained from 12 species. Pharmacological studies had shown that these terpenes possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and so on. In this paper, the identity of these terpenes and their pharmacological effects are reviewed, which can provide references for further research regarding the chemistry and utilization of the Vitex species. PMID:27608002

  14. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Bratkov, Viktor M; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M; Zdraveva, Petranka K; Krasteva, Ilina N

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus.

  15. Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus Prunella.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yubing; Xia, Bohou; Xie, Wenjian; Zhou, Yamin; Xie, Jiachi; Li, Hongquan; Liao, Duanfang; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun

    2016-08-01

    Prunella is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the Labiatae family. There are approximately 15 species worldwide, distributed widely in the temperate regions and tropical mountains of Europe and Asia. In the genus Prunella, P. vulgaris is the most studied, following a several thousand-year history as a traditional antipyretic and antidotal Chinese herb. Furthermore, since ancient times, P. vulgaris has been widely used as a cool tea ingredient and consumed as a vegetable. The genus Prunella contains triterpenoids and their saponins, phenolic acids, sterols and associated glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, volatile oil and saccharides. Modern pharmacological studies have revealed that Prunella possess antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, antihypertensive and hypoglycemic functions. The active components related to these functions are mainly triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and polysaccharides. This review mainly summarizes recent advances in traditional usage, chemical components and pharmacological functions.

  16. Phylogenetic placement of the ectomycorrhizal genus Cenococcum in Gloniaceae (Dothideomycetes).

    PubMed

    Spatafora, Joseph W; Owensby, C Alisha; Douhan, Greg W; Boehm, Eric W A; Schoch, Conrad L

    2012-01-01

    Cenococcum is a genus of ectomycorrhizal Ascomycota that has a broad host range and geographic distribution. It is not known to produce either meiotic or mitotic spores and is known to exist only in the form of hyphae, sclerotia and host-colonized ectomycorrhizal root tips. Due to its lack of sexual and asexual spores and reproductive structures, it has proven difficult to incorporate into traditional classification within Ascomycota. Molecular phylogenetic studies of ribosomal RNA placed Cenococcum in Dothideomycetes, but the definitive identification of closely related taxa remained elusive. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of five nuclear loci (SSU, LSU, TEF1, RPB1, RPB2) of Dothideomycetes that placed Cenococcum as a close relative of the genus Glonium of Gloniaceae (Pleosporomycetidae incertae sedis) with strong statistical support. Glonium is a genus of saprobic Dothideomycetes that produces darkly pigmented, carbonaceous, hysteriate apothecia and is not known to be biotrophic. Evolution of ectomycorhizae, Cenococcum and Dothideomycetes is discussed. PMID:22453119

  17. Calabi-Yau Geometry and Higher Genus Mirror Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si

    2011-12-01

    We study closed string mirror symmetry on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds at higher genus. String theory predicts the existence of two sets of geometric invariants, from the A-model and the B-model on Calabi-Yau manifolds, each indexed by a non-negative integer called genus. The A-model has been mathematically established at all genera by the Gromov-Witten theory, but little is known in mathematics for B-model beyond genus zero. We develop a mathematical theory of higher genus B-model from perturbative quantization techniques of gauge theory. The relevant gauge theory is the Kodaira-Spencer gauge theory, which is originally discovered by Bershadsky-Cecotti-Ooguri-Vafa as the closed string field theory of B-twisted topological string on Calabi-Yau three-folds. We generalize this to Calabi-Yau manifolds of arbitrary dimensions including also gravitational descendants, which we call BCOV theory. We give the geometric description of the perturbative quantization of BCOV theory in terms of deformation-obstruction theory. The vanishing of the relevant obstruction classes will enable us to construct the higher genus B-model. We carry out this construction on the elliptic curve and establish the corresponding higher genus B-model. Furthermore, we show that the B-model invariants constructed from BCOV theory on the elliptic curve can be identified with descendant Gromov-Witten invariants on the mirror elliptic curve. This gives the first compact Calabi-Yau example where mirror symmetry can be established at all genera.

  18. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi. PMID:23794899

  19. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi. PMID:23794899

  20. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi.

  1. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxfield, Henry; Ross, Simon F.; Way, Benson

    2016-06-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddle points for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  2. Revision of the genus Heteranassa Smith, 1899 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Omopterini)

    PubMed Central

    Homziak, Nicholas; Hopkins, Heidi; Miller, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heteranassa Smith (Erebidae, Omopterini), native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, includes two recognized species, namely Heteranassa mima (Harvey) and Heteranassa fraterna Smith. These are separated mainly by subtle differences in wing color and pattern, leading to speculation about the validity of the described species. This study examines variation in external and internal morphology across the geographic range of the genus, aiming to clarify species limits, describe morphology, and provide a comprehensive assessment of variation within the genus. Results indicate that Heteranassa fraterna syn. n., is a junior synonym of Heteranassa mima. PMID:26692786

  3. Notes on the genus Ismarus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing-xian; Chen, Hua-yan; Xu, Zai-fu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese species of the genus Ismarus Haliday, 1835, are revised for the first time. Three new species from the Oriental region of China and belonging to Ismarus halidayi-group are described and illustrated: Ismarus longus sp. n., Ismarus nigritrochanter sp. n. and Ismarus parvicellus sp. n. Two species are newly reported for the Chinese fauna: Ismarus dorsiger (Haliday, 1831) and Ismarus halidayi Foerster, 1850. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided. The type specimens are deposited in the Hymenopteran Collection of South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (SCAU). PMID:21852927

  4. Stapecolis, new genus of Ochlerini (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Discocephalinae).

    PubMed

    Garbelotto, Thereza De A; Campos, Luiz A; Grazia, Jocelia

    2016-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of the Herrichela clade (Ochlerini) was conducted to solve problems concerning the systematics of the genus Alitocoris Sailer; this recovered monophyletic groups which are considered to be new genera. Stapecolis gen. nov. is here proposed for two species (S. latus sp. nov. and S. bimaculatus sp. nov.) representing one of those monophyletic groups. The new genus is supported by ten synapomorphies, five of them pertaining to the morphology of the pygophore have not been found together in any other genera of Ochlerini. The female genitalia also has characteristics different from closely related genera. PMID:27470743

  5. Advances in Chemistry and Bioactivity of the Genus Chisocheton Blume.

    PubMed

    Shilpi, Jamil A; Saha, Sanjib; Chong, Soon-Lim; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-05-01

    Chisocheton is one of the genera of the family Meliaceae and consists of ca. 53 species; the distribution of most of those are confined to the Indo-Malay region. Species of broader geographic distribution have undergone extensive phytochemical investigations. Previous phytochemical investigations of this genus resulted in the isolation of mainly limonoids, apotirucallane, tirucallane, and dammarane triterpenes. Reported bioactivities of the isolated compounds include cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifeedant, and lipid droplet inhibitory activities. Aside from chemistry and biological activities, this review also deals briefly with botany, distribution, and uses of various species of this genus. PMID:26970405

  6. Genome Sequence of Type Strains of Genus Stenotrophomonas

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant P.; Midha, Samriti; Kumar, Sanjeet; Patil, Prabhu B.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic resource of type strains and historically important strains of genus Stenotrophomonas allowed us to reveal the existence of 18 distinct species by applying modern phylogenomic criterions. Apart from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, S. africana represents another species of clinical importance. Interestingly, Pseudomonas hibsicola, P. beteli, and S. pavani that are of plant origin are closer to S. maltophilia than the majority of the environmental isolates. The genus has an open pan-genome. By providing the case study on genes encoding metallo-β-lactamase and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats (CRISPR) regions, we have tried to show the importance of this genomic dataset in understanding its ecology. PMID:27014232

  7. Shape transitions of high-genus fluid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The morphologies of genus-2 to -8 fluid vesicles are studied by using dynamically triangulated membrane simulations with area-difference elasticity. It is revealed that the alignments of the membrane pores alter the vesicle shapes and the types of shape transitions for the genus g ≥ 3 . At a high reduced volume, a stomatocyte with a circular alignment of g + 1 pores continuously transforms into a discocyte with a line of g pores with increasing intrinsic area difference. In contrast, at a low volume, a stomatocyte transforms into a (g+1) -hedral shape and subsequently exhibits a discrete phase transition to a discocyte.

  8. Frigitilla gen. nov., a new genus of Amazonian Mutillidae (Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Bartholomay, Pedro R; Williams, Kevin A; Luz, David R; Morato, Elder F

    2015-01-01

    Mutilla frigidula Cresson, 1902 was transferred to Tobantilla by Williams et al. (2011), based on morphological similarities with females of that genus. Discovery of the male of this species indicated significant morphological differences from Tobantilla. We therefore erect the genus, Frigitilla gen. nov., for Mutilla frigidula. Herein, we describe the male of F. frigidula (Cresson, 1902), comb. nov., associate it with its host (Trypoxylon spp.), and discuss its relations to other mutillid genera. The impact of collecting method and specimen age on the integumental coloration of specimens is discussed, emphasizing the need to diagnose species on consistent structural features rather than differences in color pattern.

  9. Taxonomic Study of the Genus Apalacris Walker (Orthoptera: Catantopidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z M; Lin, L L; Niu, Y

    2016-02-01

    The research history of the genus Apalacris is reviewed; a key to all known species of the genus is given, and one new species, Apalacris eminifronta n. sp., and one new combination, Apalacris maculifemura (Lin & Zheng), are described. The new species is very closely related to Apalacris antennata Liang, but differs in the following characters: (1) tegmen longer, reaching apex of hind femur; (2) basal part of inner side of hind femur orange red; (3) frontal ridge more protruded, obviously depressed under median ocellus in lateral view; and (4) epiphallus bridge prominent, ancora shorter than anterior projection. PMID:26514365

  10. Taxonomic Study of the Lichen Genus Lobaria in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Mei-Rong; Wang, Xin Yu; Koh, Young Jin

    2012-01-01

    Lobaria (Schreb.) Hoffm is a common foliose lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula, yet until now, no revision study has been done on this genus. After careful examination of specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI), nine distinct species of Lobaria were confirmed. Morphological characteristics such as the presence or absence of isidia, or whether or not the surface was ridged or smooth, and chemical characteristics such as the result of the medulla reaction were of significant importance in the differentiation of species. Here, we provided detailed descriptions together with a key to all the known Korean species. PMID:22783127

  11. Revision of the genus Heteranassa Smith, 1899 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Omopterini).

    PubMed

    Homziak, Nicholas; Hopkins, Heidi; Miller, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    Heteranassa Smith (Erebidae, Omopterini), native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, includes two recognized species, namely Heteranassa mima (Harvey) and Heteranassa fraterna Smith. These are separated mainly by subtle differences in wing color and pattern, leading to speculation about the validity of the described species. This study examines variation in external and internal morphology across the geographic range of the genus, aiming to clarify species limits, describe morphology, and provide a comprehensive assessment of variation within the genus. Results indicate that Heteranassa fraterna syn. n., is a junior synonym of Heteranassa mima. PMID:26692786

  12. The genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): description of a new species, and notes on the genus in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Fabio Arturo; Medina U, Claudia Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The state of knowledge of the genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 in Colombia is reviewed and updated since the revision of the genus by Génier (1996), and the species list for Colombia of Medina et al. (2001). Two new distributional records for Colombia are confirmed; Ontherus politus Génier 1996 and Ontherus gilli Génier 1996. An updated species list of Ontherus for Colombia is presented with comments on the species with doubtful distribution in Colombia. O. felicitae n. sp., a new species from the mexicanus species group, is described from Western Andes of Colombia. PMID:25947792

  13. New teleomorph combinations in the entomopathogenic genus Metacordyceps.

    PubMed

    Kepler, R M; Sung, G-H; Ban, S; Nakagiri, A; Chen, M-J; Huang, B; Li, Z; Spatafora, J W

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metacordyceps contains arthropod pathogens in Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) that formerly were classified in Cordyceps sensu Kobayasi et Mains. Of the current arthropod pathogenic genera of Hypocreales, the genus Metacordyceps remains one of the most poorly understood and contains a number of teleomorphic morphologies convergent with species of Cordyceps s.s. (Cordycipitaceae) and Ophiocordyceps (Ophiocordycipitaceae). Of note, the anamorph genera Metarhizium and Pochonia were found to be associated only with Metacordyceps and demonstrated to be phylogenetically informative for the clade. Several species of Cordyceps considered to have uncertain placements (incertae sedis) in the current taxonomic framework of clavicipitoid fungi were collected during field expeditions mostly in eastern Asia. Species reclassified here in Metacordyceps include Cordyceps atrovirens Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps indigotica Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps khaoyaiensis Hywel-Jones, Cordyceps kusanagiensis Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps martialis Speg., Ophiocordyceps owariensis Kobayasi, Cordyceps pseudoatrovirens Kobayasi & Shimizu and Ophicordyceps owariensis f. viridescens (Uchiy. & Udagawa) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. Incorporation of these species in a multigene phylogenetic framework of the major clades of clavicipitoid fungi more than doubled the number of species in Metacordyceps and allowed for refinement of morphological concepts for the genus consistent with the phylogenetic structure. Based on these findings we then discuss evolution of this genus, subgeneric relationships, anamorph connections, and suggest additional species that should be confirmed for possible inclusion in Metacordyceps. PMID:22067304

  14. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia).

    PubMed

    Young, Mark T; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-10-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian-Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene-Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range. PMID:26064545

  15. Revision of the Neotropical genus Macreupelmus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary A P

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Macreupelmus Ashmead (Eupelmidae: Eupelminae) is revised based on females, males being unknown for the genus. The genus is redescribed, its phylogenetic relationships within Eupelminae discussed, and the species keyed, described and illustrated through macrophotography. Nine species are recognized-Macreupelmus auranticrus n. sp., M. aurantispina n. sp., M. brasiliensis Ashmead 1896, M. crassicornis (Cameron 1884), M. dromedarius (Cameron 1884), M. erwini n. sp., M. granulosus n. sp., M. laticlavius n. sp., and M. nigrispina n. sp. Excluded from the genus are Macreupelmus baccharidis Kieffer 1910 (transferred to Brasema Cameron as B. baccharidis (Kieffer) n. comb.), Macreupelmus bekilyi Risbec 1952 (transferred to Reikosiella (Hirticauda Bouček) as Reikosiella (Hirticauda) bekilyi (Risbec) n. comb.), and Macreupelmus pulchriceps Cameron 1905 (transferred to Eupelmus Dalman as E. (Eupelmus) pulchriceps (Cameron) n. comb.). The latter name is recognized as the senior synonym of Cerambycobius cushmani Crawford 1908 n. syn., Cerambycobius townsendi Crawford 1912 n. syn., and Eupelmus cyaniceps amicus Girault 1916 n. syn. Lectotypes are designated for M. brasiliensis, M. dromedarius and E. pulchriceps. PMID:27615911

  16. The microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, S.R.; Harris, S.C.; Slusark, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and taxonomy of the microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton in North America is reviewed. Males and females of I. clavata Morton, I. mazon Ross, and I. mexicana Harris and Contreras-Ramos are illustrated, and a key is provided for their separation. Females of I. mazon and I. mexicana are described for the first time; the female of I. clavata is redescribed.

  17. Vitilevumyia, an enigmatic new genus of Stratiomyidae from Fiji (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. nov. (type species, V. bobwoodleyi, sp. nov.) is described from the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. ...

  18. Protoplast culture of several members of the genus Physalis.

    PubMed

    Bapat, V A; Schieder, O

    1981-12-01

    High yields of protoplasts were obtained by enzymic treatment of mesophyll from five different species of the genus Physalis. Subsequent divisions and colony formation were achieved in all the species. However, numerous combinations of phytohormones failed to induce regeneration of shoots from callus tissue developed from protoplasts.

  19. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae).

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

    2014-01-01

    Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibatesbolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibatesminimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  20. A new Neotropical genus of Blastini (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae).

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Román-P, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    A monotypic genus of Psocidae (Amphigerontiinae: Blastini) from Santiago de Cali, Colombia, is here described and illustrated. It differs from Chaetopsocidus Badonnel, from the Páramo de Monserrate, near Bogotá, in having setae on the forewing veins. PMID:26623624

  1. The genus Myrmarachne (Araneae, Salticidae) in Flores, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Takeshi; Edwards, G B

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Myrmarachne are described (Myrmarachne acutidens sp. n., Myrmarachne epigealis sp. n.), and Myrmarachne macrognatha and Myrmarachne melanocephala are redescribed from Flores specimens. The females of Myrmarachne macrognatha are recorded for the first time. PMID:23794886

  2. Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...

  3. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia).

    PubMed

    Young, Mark T; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-10-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian-Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene-Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range.

  4. First report of the genus Retortamonas (Sarcomastigophora: Retortamonadidae) in birds.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Castro, A T; Herrera, S; Ponce, F

    2001-10-01

    In studies carried out on the parasites infecting ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Spain, trophozoites of Retortamonas sp. have been found in the intestinal contents of 28 out of 146 slaughtered ostriches. The species infecting ostriches could not be determined from the morphological data available. However, these findings are important as they constitute the first report of the genus Retortamonas in birds. PMID:11685262

  5. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16–19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as “endangered” as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general. PMID:25878546

  6. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  7. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed. PMID:22207793

  8. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16-19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as "endangered" as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general. PMID:25878546

  9. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16-19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as "endangered" as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general.

  10. On the equivariant algebraic Jacobian for curves of genus two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athorne, Chris

    2012-04-01

    We present a treatment of the algebraic description of the Jacobian of a generic genus two plane curve which exploits an SL2(k) equivariance and clarifies the structure of Flynn's 72 defining quadratic relations. The treatment is also applied to the Kummer variety.

  11. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark T.; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-01-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian–Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian–lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene–Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range. PMID:26064545

  12. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species

    PubMed Central

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  13. Is the New Primate Genus Rungwecebus a Baboon?

    PubMed Central

    Zinner, Dietmar; Arnold, Michael L.; Roos, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2005, a new primate species from Tanzania, the kipunji, was described and recognized as a member of the mangabey genus Lophocebus. However, molecular investigations based upon a number of papionins, including a limited sample of baboons of mainly unknown geographic origin, identified the kipunji as a sister taxon to Papio and not as a member of Lophocebus. Accordingly, the kipunji was separated into its own monotypic genus, Rungwecebus. Methodology/Principal Findings We compare available mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from the voucher specimen of Rungwecebus to other papionin lineages, including a set of geographically proximal (parapatric) baboon samples. Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio. Nuclear data support a Papio+Rungwecebus clade, but it remains questionable whether Rungwecebus represents a sister taxon to Papio, or whether it is nested within the genus as depicted by the mitochondrial phylogeny. Conclusions/Significance Our study clearly supports a close relationship between Rungwecebus and Papio and might indicate that the kipunji is congeneric with baboon species. However, due to its morphological and ecological uniqueness Rungwecebus more likely represents a sister lineage to Papio and experienced later introgressive hybridization. Presumably, male (proto-)kipunjis reproduced with sympatric female baboons. Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome. Since only one kipunji specimen was studied, it remains unclear whether all members of the new genus have been impacted by intergeneric introgression or rather only some populations. Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are

  14. Lactobacillus phylogenomics--towards a reclassification of the genus.

    PubMed

    Claesson, Marcus J; van Sinderen, Douwe; O'Toole, Paul W

    2008-12-01

    The extremely diverse genus Lactobacillus is the largest among the lactic acid bacteria, with over 145 recognized species. In this work, which to our knowledge is the largest comparative phylogenomics study of a single genus to date, 12 genomes of Lactobacillus strains were subjected to an array of whole-genome and single-marker phylogenetic approaches, to investigate the case for extracting subgeneric groups and to determine whether a single congruent phylogeny could be identified. We conclude that GroEL is a more robust single-gene phylogenetic marker for the genus Lactobacillus than the 16S rRNA gene, when no whole-genome information is available. Significant incongruence was found, both within a set of trees based on 141 core proteins and within those phylogenies based on numbers of orthologues, concatenated RNA polymerase subunits and single gene/protein markers. This is possibly due to different evolutionary rates, hidden paralogies or horizontal gene transfer. Such phylogenetic ambiguities are efficiently visualized with cluster-networks. Although the genus contains some highly unstable taxa, four subgeneric groups were distinguished. Qualitative and quantitative gene analysis of these groups resulted in three findings: there is a relatively small number of group-specific proteins, the majority of which are poorly characterized; major groupings are functionally better distinguishable by absent genes rather than gained/retained genes; and, finally, a gene cluster possibly involved in purine metabolism is uniquely present in four lactobacilli associated with meat. In conclusion, because of either significantly different branching patterns or the availability of too few members, three of the four identified groups could not serve as the basis for identifying candidate novel genera within the current genus. We therefore suggest targeted sequencing of key taxonomic species identified here, which are likely to add sufficient depth for a future reclassification

  15. Two new species of genus Hydrosmittia Ferrington & Sæther (Diptera: Chironomidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruilei; Liu, Wenbin; Ferrington, Leonard C Jr; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    The genus Hydrosmittia from China is reviewed. Two new species H. continalinea sp. n. and H. sipinata sp. n. are described and illustrated based on male imagines. Key to known male imagines of genus Hydrosmittia worldwide is provided. PMID:27395216

  16. Insights into the genus Diaporthe: phylogenetic species delimitation in the D. eres species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Diaporthe comprises pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species with both temperate and tropical distributions. Cryptic diversification, phenotypic plasticity and extensive host associations have long complicated accurate identifications of species in this genus. The delimitation of the ge...

  17. Genus X. Lechevalieria Labeda, Hatano, Kroppenstedt and Tamura 2001, 1049vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently compose the actinobacterial genus Lechevalieria is presented. The phylogenetic position of the taxa within this genus, including Lecehvalieria aerocolonigenes, Lechevalieria flava, Lechevalieria fradiae, and Lechevalieria xinjian...

  18. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  19. Vastarena, a new genus for the New Caledonian cicada Abroma pumila Distant (Insecta: Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Delorme, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    In New Caledonia, the species Abroma pumila (Distant, 1892) shows several incompatibilities with the genus type species A. guerinii (Signoret, 1860). A new genus, Vastarena, is proposed. PMID:27615969

  20. Casuarinacola, a new genus of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Casuarina (Casuarinaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus, Casuarinacola comprising four new species, namely C. equisetifoliae, C. acutialata, C. melanomaculata and C. warrigalensis, of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae), specific to the host genus Casuarina sensu stricto (Casuarinaceae) from Australia, are described. They are characteri...

  1. First record of the genus Phradis Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tersilochinae) from the Neotropical Region

    PubMed Central

    Khalaim, Andrey I.; Bordera, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Abstract One new species of the genus Phradis, Phradis peruvianus sp. n., from the mountainous part of Peruvian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. This is the first record of the genus from South America and the Neotropical region. PMID:22371684

  2. Mitochondrial DNA-based genetic diversity of genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Lygus is widely distributed in North American and Eurasian continents. It is the most-studied genus in the family Miridae. However, very less information on the genetic diversity of this genus is available. Studying genetic variation among Lygus pest species and thereby constructing a ...

  3. Description of Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, a preternatural new genus and species of Trichoplastini (Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, is described. This genus is characterized by having a fuscina along the dorsal margin of the clypeus. This three-pronged protrusion is unique within Hymenoptera. The genus is also characterized by the possession of a corniculum, and the shared poss...

  4. A new species of the genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Philonthina) from the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    López-García, Margarita M; Méndez-Rojas, Diana M

    2014-05-09

    The monotypic genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 was described based on a species from Panama and since the original description nearly nothing has been added to its taxonomical knowledge. The aim of the present paper is to describe a new species of the genus from Colombia and to report the genus for the first time from South America, adding some biological notes of the species.

  5. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves.

    PubMed

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  6. What do we know by now about the genus Naegleria?

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2014-11-01

    In this short overview of the genus Naegleria a brief historical sketch is given since the discovery of this amoeboflagellate in 1899 and the finding in 1970 that one species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in man. Eight different types of this pathogen are known which have an uneven distribution over the world. Until now 47 different Naegleria spp. are described, of which two other species cause disease in experimental animals, and their geographical dispersal is indicated. The presence of group I introns in the SSU and in the LSU rDNA in the genus is discussed, as well as the possibility of sex or mating. It is also mentioned that the genome of N. fowleri should not be compared to that of Naegleria gruberi, to know why the former is pathogenic, but to the genome of its closest relative Naegleria lovaniensis. PMID:25108159

  7. Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Crespo, J; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Esclapez, J; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Camacho, M; Richardson, D J; Bonete, M J

    2016-01-01

    A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter.

  8. Revision of the genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij, 1976 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae)

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The monophyletic genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij in Kryzhanovskij & Reichardt, 1976 is revised herein. All three species Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832), H. lutshniki (Reichardt, 1941) and H. cyprius (Dahlgren, 1981) are found to be correctly assigned to the genus and their monophyly is supported by the synapomorphy of the presence of prosternal foveae. The three species are re-described and supplemented with colour photographs as well as SEM micrographs outlining their differences. Male genitalia drawing of H. subvirescens and H. lutshniki are provided and a key to the species is given. Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832) is newly reported from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Jordan, Cyprus and Mongolia. The lectotypes and paralectotypes of the following species are designated herein: Saprinus foveisternus Schmidt, 1884, Saprinus syriacus Marseul, 1855 and Saprinus viridulus Marseul, 1855. PMID:25147473

  9. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves

    PubMed Central

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  10. Chemical constituents of the genus Prunus and their medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Poonam, V; Raunak; Kumar, G; Reddy L, C S; Jain, R; Sharma, S K; Prasad, A K; Parmar, V S

    2011-01-01

    Prunus is a genus of trees and shrubs, including the plums, cherries, peaches, apricots and almonds. Nearly five hundred seventy chemical compounds have so far been isolated from several Prunus species. This comprehensive review summarizes the isolation of chemical compounds reported during the period 1908 to June 2010. As per scrutiny of literature, we did not find any review on the chemistry or biology of genus Prunus or on the biological activities of its constituents. Extensive work has been done at the Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi by several groups on the isolation, identification, biological activity evaluation and synthesis of a large number of novel compounds from different Prunus species during the the last six decades (1940-2000), primarly by Seshadri, Nagarajan and Parmar et al. on P. domestica, P. cerasus, P. cerasoides, P. puddum and P. communis. This comprehensive review will benefit a large number of researchers in the fields of chemistry, botany, drug industries and pharmacology. PMID:21831039

  11. Identification of Yersinia enterocolitica within the genus Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, H; Hensel, A; Aleksic, S; Meyer, H

    2000-04-01

    In this report we describe a PCR strategy for the unambigous identification of biochemically presumptive typed Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica. A total of 269 isolates belonging to ten species of the genus Yersinia were investigated. In a first PCR only isolates classified as Y. enterocolitica (n = 113) gave rise to a specific amplification resulting in a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. By sequencing the 269 amplicons of a second pan-Yersinia PCR spanning a distinct 16S rRNA gene region, 20 different sequence clusters could be identified within the genus. By this, Y. enterocolitica isolates of American and European origin could be distinguished safely and already described sequence clusters of the species Y. frederiksenii were confirmed. New 16S rRNA gene sequence clusters were detected for the species Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. aldovae, Y. kristensenii, and Y. rohdei.

  12. Nutrient partitioning and seedling development in the genus Leucaena

    SciTech Connect

    Dovel, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Slow establishment of the genus Leucaena from seed has been attributed to law seedling vigor and late nodulation. Observation of early seedling growth indicated that partitioning of a large proportion of resources to the root of young Leucaena seedlings could account, in part, for the slow initial shoot growth observed in this genus. Therefore, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the partitioning of stored seed reserves, photosynthate, and nitrogen in developing Leucaena seedlings. The effects of nodulation and nitrogen fertilization on partitioning of nutrients in the seedling were also examined. Seed reserves were initially used for radicle growth in dark grown seedlings; however, partitioning soon shifted to the hypocotyl. By four days after imbibition, hypocotyl weight exceeded radicle weight in both species tested (L. leucocephala and L. retusa), at all temperatures above 20/sup 0/C. Two experiments were conducted examining the carbon partitioning of L. leucocephala cultivar K-8 using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse labeling techniques.

  13. Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Vinhal Costa Orsine, J; Vinhal da Costa, R; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Ma R

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are noted for their pharmacological and culinary properties. In this study, it was performed a critical literature review, focusing primarily on aspects of the chemical composition of these mushrooms whose pharmacological properties and nutritional composition characterize them as functional foods. It was also discussed articles conducted in vitro and in vivo proving the high antioxidant potential of the Agaricaceae family, in addition to articles which emphasize the toxicity characteristics and safety for its use in therapy or in human nutrition. These mushrooms exhibit numerous bioactive substances as well as safety regarding toxicity, which characterize them as functional foods. Despite the countless beneficial effects on human health, mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are little known by the population, making it necessary partnership and combined efforts among producers, industries and researchers in order to disseminate, research and consumption of these foods.

  14. [Screening potential DNA barcode regions of genus Papaver].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Yu-jing; Wu, Yan-sheng; Cao, Ying; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    DNA barcoding is an effective technique in species identification. To determine the candidate sequences which can be used as DNA barcode to identify in Papaver genus, five potential sequences (ITS, matK, psbA-trnH, rbcL, trnL-trnF) were screened. 69 sequences were downloaded from Genbank, including 21 ITS sequences, 10 matK sequences, 8 psbA-trnH sequences, 14 rbcL sequences and 16 trnL-trnF sequences. Mega 6.0 was used to analysis the comparison of sequences. By the methods of calculating the distances in intraspecific and interspecific divergences, evaluating DNA barcoding gap and constructing NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic trees. The sequence trnL-trnF performed best. In conclusion, trnL-trnF can be considered as a novel DNA barcode in Papaver genus, other four sequences can be as combination barcode for identification.

  15. What do we know by now about the genus Naegleria?

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2014-11-01

    In this short overview of the genus Naegleria a brief historical sketch is given since the discovery of this amoeboflagellate in 1899 and the finding in 1970 that one species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in man. Eight different types of this pathogen are known which have an uneven distribution over the world. Until now 47 different Naegleria spp. are described, of which two other species cause disease in experimental animals, and their geographical dispersal is indicated. The presence of group I introns in the SSU and in the LSU rDNA in the genus is discussed, as well as the possibility of sex or mating. It is also mentioned that the genome of N. fowleri should not be compared to that of Naegleria gruberi, to know why the former is pathogenic, but to the genome of its closest relative Naegleria lovaniensis.

  16. Taxonomy of the genus Lycalopex (Carnivora: Canidae) in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zunino, G.E.; Vaccaro, O.B.; Canevari, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Previously treated as species of Pseudalopex, Argentine members of the genus Lycalopex (L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, and L. culpaeus) are examined to clarify the taxonomic status of each named form. Principal components analyses of 26 cranial measurements of 151 adult specimens and 11 pelage characters of 111 specimens, clearly distinguish L. culpaeus from the other two taxa. Lycalopex griseus and L. gymnocercus show clinal variation in cranial measurements and pelage characters. Qualitative cranial characters, used as diagnostic for L. griseus and L. gymnocercus, revealed great nongeographic variation. We conclude that L. griseus and L. gymnocercus are conspecific, and should be known as L. gymnocercus. Therefore, we recognize only two species of the genus Lycalopex (L. culpaeus and L. gymnocercus) in Argentina. We also use this opportunity to review synonymies of the recognized species of Lycalopex.

  17. Genomic encyclopedia of type strains of the genus Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes.

  18. A review of recent research progress on the astragalus genus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxia; Qu, Lu; Dong, Yongzhe; Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Fang, Shiming; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2014-11-17

    Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for "qi deficiency" syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article. In pharmacological studies, crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of chemical and pharmacological studies on the Astragalus species over the last 10 years, which could be of value to new drug or food supplement research and development.

  19. [Screening potential DNA barcode regions of genus Papaver].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Yu-jing; Wu, Yan-sheng; Cao, Ying; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    DNA barcoding is an effective technique in species identification. To determine the candidate sequences which can be used as DNA barcode to identify in Papaver genus, five potential sequences (ITS, matK, psbA-trnH, rbcL, trnL-trnF) were screened. 69 sequences were downloaded from Genbank, including 21 ITS sequences, 10 matK sequences, 8 psbA-trnH sequences, 14 rbcL sequences and 16 trnL-trnF sequences. Mega 6.0 was used to analysis the comparison of sequences. By the methods of calculating the distances in intraspecific and interspecific divergences, evaluating DNA barcoding gap and constructing NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic trees. The sequence trnL-trnF performed best. In conclusion, trnL-trnF can be considered as a novel DNA barcode in Papaver genus, other four sequences can be as combination barcode for identification. PMID:26677693

  20. A Taxonomic Study of the Genus Myelochroa in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2012-01-01

    Myelochroa (Asahina) Elix & Hale is a common foliose lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded nearly two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the current study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Myelochroa in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confirmed the presence of twelve species of Myelochroa from S. Korea, including one new record, Myelochroa xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Elix & Hale. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characters together with a key to all known Myelochroa species are presented. PMID:23323045

  1. Notes on the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayala, Udenil; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung-Shin; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale is a somewhat rare lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded more than two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the present study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Hypotrachyna in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confirmed the presence of seven species of Hypotrachyna from South Korea, including one new record, Hypotrachyna nodakensis (Asahina) Hale. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characters together with a key to all known Hypotrachyna species are presented. PMID:23610534

  2. Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains of the Genus Bifidobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes. PMID:25085493

  3. Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Crespo, J; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Esclapez, J; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Camacho, M; Richardson, D J; Bonete, M J

    2016-01-01

    A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter. PMID:27134021

  4. Fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma: from barcodes to biodiversity* §

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-01

    Hypocrea/Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised humans and animals, while others can cause damage to cultivated mushroom. With the recent advent of a reliable, BarCode-aided identification system for all known taxa of Trichoderma and Hypocrea, it became now possible to study some of the biological fundamentals of the diversity in this fungal genus in more detail. In this article, we will therefore review recent progress in (1) the understanding of the geographic distribution of individual taxa; (2) mechanisms of speciation leading to development of mushroom diseases and facultative human mycoses; and (3) the possible correlation of specific traits of secondary metabolism and molecular phylogeny. PMID:18837102

  5. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25674928

  6. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  7. The genus Trichocnemis LeConte, 1851 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae)

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Ian; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Nearns, Eugenio H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The history of the genus Trichocnemis LeConte, 1851 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae) is discussed. Its taxonomic status in relation to the genera Ergates Audinet-Serville, 1832 and Callergates Lameere, 1904 is clarified. The synonymy of Macrotoma californica White, 1853, Macrotoma spiculigera White, 1853, and Trichocnemis spiculatus LeConte, 1851 is confirmed. A key to all three genera and their species is provided. PMID:21594014

  8. Essential Oil and Volatile Components of the Genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The flowering plant genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae) contains the well-known medicinally valuable species Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s wort). Species of Hypericum contain many bioactive constituents, including proanthocyanins, flavonoids, biflavonoids, xanthones, phenylpropanes and naphthodianthrones that are characterized by their relative hydrophilicity, as well as acylphloroglucinols and essential oil components that are more hydrophobic in nature. A concise review of the scientific literature pertaining to constituents of Hypericum essential oils and volatile fractions is presented. PMID:20923012

  9. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric R; Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W; Olden, Julian D; Abbott, Cathryn L

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  10. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibates bolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibates minimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  11. Evolutionary relationships in the medicinally important genus Fritillaria L. (Liliaceae).

    PubMed

    Day, Peter D; Berger, Madeleine; Hill, Laurence; Fay, Michael F; Leitch, Andrew R; Leitch, Ilia J; Kelly, Laura J

    2014-11-01

    Fritillaria (Liliaceae) is a genus of approximately 140 species of bulbous perennial plants that includes taxa of both horticultural and medicinal importance. As well as being commercially valuable, Fritillaria species have attracted attention because of their exceptionally large genome sizes, with all values recorded to date in excess of 30Gb. Despite such interest in the genus, phylogenetic relationships between the majority of species have remained untested. Here we present the first phylogenetic reconstruction of relationships to encompass most of the currently recognised species diversity in the genus. Three regions of the plastid genome were sequenced in 117 individuals of Fritillaria, representing 92 species (c. 66% of the genus) and in representatives of nine other genera of Liliaceae. Eleven low-copy nuclear gene regions were also screened in selected species for their potential utility. Phylogenetic analysis of a combined plastid dataset using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference provided support for the monophyly of the majority of currently recognised subgenera. However, subgenus Fritillaria, which is by far the largest of the subgenera and includes the most important species used in traditional Chinese medicine, is found to be polyphyletic. Moreover, several taxa that were represented by multiple individuals show evidence of species non-monophyly. The Japanese endemic subgenus Japonica, which contains the species with the largest recorded genome size for any diploid plant, is resolved as sister to the predominantly Middle Eastern and Central Asian subgenus Rhinopetalum. Whilst relationships between most of the major Fritillaria lineages can now be resolved, our results also highlight the need for data from additional independently evolving loci; an endeavour that may be particularly challenging in light of the huge nuclear genomes found in these plants.

  12. Nematodes of the genus Subulura (Subuluridae) parasitizing Coturnix (Galliformes).

    PubMed

    Barus, V; Sonin, M D

    1980-01-01

    Two nematode species of the genus Subulura, S. skrjabini and S. brumpti, have been recovered from Coturnix coturnix (a detailed redescription of the former is attached). The synonymy, geographic distribution and some morphological and metrical characters of these species are discussed. S. noctuae gallinae Semenov, 1926 and S. strongylina sensu López-Neyra (1945) are tentatively regarded as synonyms of S. differens (Sonsino, 1890).

  13. Mexican species of the genus Stethantyx Townes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tersilochinae)

    PubMed Central

    Khalaim, Andrey I.; Ruíz-Cancino, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Six species of the genus Stethantyx Townes are found to occur in Mexico. One species, S. mexicana sp. n., is described as new, and four recently described Neotropical species, S. alajuela Khalaim & Broad, S. heredia Khalaim & Broad, S. osa Khalaim & Broad and S. sanjosea Khalaim & Broad, are new records from Mexico. A key to species of Stethantyx occurring in Mexico is provided. PMID:24363592

  14. Species-specific accumulation of interspersed sequences in genus Saccharum.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shigeki

    2004-12-01

    The genus Saccharum consists of two wild and four cultivated species. Novel interspersed sequences were isolated from cultivated sugar cane S. officinarum. These sequences were accumulated in all four cultivated species and their wild ancestral species S. robustum, but were not detected in the other wild species S. spontaneum and the relative Erianthus arundinaceus. The species-specific accumulation of interspersed sequences would correlate to the domestication of sugar canes. PMID:15729004

  15. The diatom genus Actinocyclus in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J. Platt; Krebs, William N.

    1995-01-01

    Ten new and four known taxa of the diatom genus Actinocyclus are described, illustrated, and (or) noted from middle Miocene lake deposits in the Western United States. A key is presented to help separate the taxa based on morphological criteria visible in the light microscope. The geologic ranges of Actinocyclus species in the Western United States are discussed based on examination of over 100 localities of diatomaceous lacustrine deposits.

  16. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus

    PubMed Central

    Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W.; Olden, Julian D.; Abbott, Cathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  17. Revision of the genus Pseudeurybata Hennig (Diptera, Micropezidae, Taeniapterinae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, S A

    2016-01-01

    The previously monotypic genus Pseudeurybata Hennig is revised to include seven species from Central America and Mexico and one species from South America. Pseudeurybata rufilabris (Enderlein) and Pseudeurybata compeditus (Hennig) are given as new combinations and a lectotype is designated for P. rufilabris (Enderlein). Pseudeurybata browni and P. alces from Costa Rica, P. guatemalensis from Guatemala, P. dasypogon from Mexico, and P. zeta from Colombia and Ecuador are described as new. All species are keyed and illustrated. PMID:27395665

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Bifidobacterium Genus Using Glycolysis Enzyme Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Katelyn; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gastrointestinal tract that promote the establishment of a healthy microbial consortium in the gut of infants. Recent studies have established that the Bifidobacterium genus is a polymorphic phylogenetic clade, which encompasses a diversity of species and subspecies that encode a broad range of proteins implicated in complex and non-digestible carbohydrate uptake and catabolism, ranging from human breast milk oligosaccharides, to plant fibers. Recent genomic studies have created a need to properly place Bifidobacterium species in a phylogenetic tree. Current approaches, based on core-genome analyses come at the cost of intensive sequencing and demanding analytical processes. Here, we propose a typing method based on sequences of glycolysis genes and the proteins they encode, to provide insights into diversity, typing, and phylogeny in this complex and broad genus. We show that glycolysis genes occur broadly in these genomes, to encode the machinery necessary for the biochemical spine of the cell, and provide a robust phylogenetic marker. Furthermore, glycolytic sequences-based trees are congruent with both the classical 16S rRNA phylogeny, and core genome-based strain clustering. Furthermore, these glycolysis markers can also be used to provide insights into the adaptive evolution of this genus, especially with regards to trends toward a high GC content. This streamlined method may open new avenues for phylogenetic studies on a broad scale, given the widespread occurrence of the glycolysis pathway in bacteria, and the diversity of the sequences they encode. PMID:27242688

  19. On the genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 (Anthozoa, Rugosa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorowski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The rugose coral genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 is revised on the basis of data from the literature and the author's personal investigation of both topotypes of its type species B. conicum and related and/or similar taxa from other areas. The intraspecific variability of the type species, its neotype, the intra-generic framework and a new generic diagnosis are established. Many more than 100 taxa related and/or similar to Bothrophyllum were analyzed and the most important of them are discussed. Detailed analysis of the type species based on the neotype and supported by additional topotype specimens illustrated here, allows restriction of both the type species and the genus, and leads to the proposition that Bothrophyllum -like taxa with a shortened cardinal septum should be considered of subgeneric (not named) status. Detailed analysis of the specimens and species described and illustrated from the type site (Myachkovo Quarry, Moscow Basin) form the basis for further considerations. On the basis of that analysis and characters established for the type species, taxa from all other European, African, Asiatic and North American areas either named Bothrophyllum or bearing characters of that genus were analyzed. The supposed origin and discussion of the relationships conclude the paper. A list of synonyms and exclusions from Bothrophyllum and lists of species included, excluded, or possibly belonging to Bothrophyllum and Bothrophyllum -like corals with a shortened cardinal septum are presented.

  20. Nucleolar persistence during spermatogenesis of the genus Rhodnius (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; da Costa Castro, Nayara Fernanda; Lima, Anna Claudia Campaner; Ravazi, Amanda; Morielle-Souza, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Jader; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2014-08-01

    The Triatominae subfamily is comprised of 18 genera and six tribes. The tribe Rhodniini is comprised of two genera (Rhodnius and Psammolestes). Nucleolar persistence is defined by the presence of the nucleolus or nucleolar corpuscles during the meiotic metaphase. To date, this phenomenon has been described for 13 species of triatomine that are included in the genera Triatoma, Rhodnius, and Panstrongylus. Thus, because the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence has been described in only two species of the genus Rhodnius, we have analyzed the nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis of eight species of the genus Rhodnius (R. colombiensis, R. montenegrensis, R. nasutus, R. neglectus, R. neivai, R. pictipes, R. prolixus, and R. robustus), with a focus on nucleolar persistence. By means of cytogenetic analysis with silver ions, nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis is described in the eight species of Rhodnius analyzed. In all of them nucleolar behavior was similar and the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was often observed. Therefore, we confirm nucleolar persistence as a peculiarity of the genus Rhodnius. However, it is emphasized that new cytogenetic analysis should be performed in the Triatominae subfamily, more specifically among the 15 genera that do not exhibit the nucleolar behavior described, in order to assess whether this phenomenon is truly a synapomorphy of these hematophagous insects. PMID:24797865

  1. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Bifidobacterium Genus Using Glycolysis Enzyme Sequences.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Katelyn; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gastrointestinal tract that promote the establishment of a healthy microbial consortium in the gut of infants. Recent studies have established that the Bifidobacterium genus is a polymorphic phylogenetic clade, which encompasses a diversity of species and subspecies that encode a broad range of proteins implicated in complex and non-digestible carbohydrate uptake and catabolism, ranging from human breast milk oligosaccharides, to plant fibers. Recent genomic studies have created a need to properly place Bifidobacterium species in a phylogenetic tree. Current approaches, based on core-genome analyses come at the cost of intensive sequencing and demanding analytical processes. Here, we propose a typing method based on sequences of glycolysis genes and the proteins they encode, to provide insights into diversity, typing, and phylogeny in this complex and broad genus. We show that glycolysis genes occur broadly in these genomes, to encode the machinery necessary for the biochemical spine of the cell, and provide a robust phylogenetic marker. Furthermore, glycolytic sequences-based trees are congruent with both the classical 16S rRNA phylogeny, and core genome-based strain clustering. Furthermore, these glycolysis markers can also be used to provide insights into the adaptive evolution of this genus, especially with regards to trends toward a high GC content. This streamlined method may open new avenues for phylogenetic studies on a broad scale, given the widespread occurrence of the glycolysis pathway in bacteria, and the diversity of the sequences they encode. PMID:27242688

  2. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE NATURAL PRODUCTS OF THE GENUS CALLICARPA.

    PubMed

    Jones, William P; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2008-06-01

    About 20 species from Callicarpa have reported ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses, and several members of this genus are well known in the traditional medical systems of China and South Asia. Ethnomedical reports indicate their use in the treatment of hepatitis, rheumatism, fever, headache, indigestion, and other ailments. Several species of Callicarpa have been reported to be used against cancer (e.g., Callicarpa americana root to treat skin cancer and Callicarpa rubella bark to treat tumors of the large intestine). Extracts from about 14 species in this genus have been evaluated for biological activity, including antibacterial, antifungal, anti-insect growth, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic activities. In addition to amino acids, benzenoids, simple carbohydrates, and lipids, numerous diterpenes, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, phytosterols, sesquiterpenes, and triterpenes have been detected in or isolated from the genus Callicarpa. The essential oils of Callicarpa americana have recently been reported to have antialgal and phytotoxic activities, and several isolates from this species (and C. japonica) were identified as contributing to the mosquito bite-deterrent activity that was first indicated by folkloric usage. Recent bioassay-guided investigations of C. americana extracts have resulted in the isolation of several active compounds, mainly of the clerodane diterpene structural type. PMID:19830264

  3. Phylogeny and systematics of the anamorphic, entomopathogenic genus Beauveria.

    PubMed

    Rehner, Stephen A; Minnis, Andrew M; Sung, Gi-Ho; Luangsa-ard, J Jennifer; Devotto, Luis; Humber, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Beauveria is a cosmopolitan anamorphic genus of arthropod pathogens that includes the agronomically important species, B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, which are used as mycoinsecticides for the biological control of pest insects. Recent phylogenetic evidence demonstrates that Beauveria is monophyletic within the Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales), and both B. bassiana and B. brongniartii have been linked developmentally and phylogenetically to Cordyceps species. Despite recent interest in the genetic diversity and molecular ecology of Beauveria, particularly as it relates to their role as pathogens of insects in natural and agricultural environments, the genus has not received critical taxonomic review for several decades. A multilocus phylogeny of Beauveria based on partial sequences of RPB1, RPB2, TEF and the nuclear intergenic region, Bloc, is presented and used to assess diversity within the genus and to evaluate species concepts and their taxonomic status. B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, both which represent species complexes and which heretofore have lacked type specimens, are redescribed and types are proposed. In addition six new species are described including B. varroae and B. kipukae, which form a biphyletic, morphologically cryptic sister lineage to B. bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, which also is morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distant from B. bassiana, B. asiatica and B. australis, which are sister lineages to B. brongniartii, and B. sungii, an Asian species that is linked to an undetermined species of Cordyceps. The combination B. amorpha is validly published and an epitype is designated. PMID:21482632

  4. New species of Cordana and epitypification of the genus.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Gené, Josepa; Mena-Portales, Julio; Cano, Jose; Madrid, Hugo; Castañeda-Ruiz, Rafael F; Guarro, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Two interesting fungi belonging to the genus Cordana have been isolated recently in Spain from plant debris. Both are proposed here as new species, described and illustrated. Cordana mercadiana sp. nov. produces 0-1-septate conidia, with a prominent basal scar. Cordana verruculosa sp. nov. differs from the other species of the genus by its unique combination of aseptate, verruculose and small conidia. Both species are compared morphologically with other species of Cordana and their identities supported by the analysis of rDNA sequences. LSU sequence analysis revealed the congeneric relationship of Cordana and Pseudobotrytis; the members of both genera are in a well supported monophyletic lineage that appears to be related to the Coniochaetales but remains incertae sedis within the Sordariomycetes. To establish nomenclatural stability of the genus Cordana, an isolate of C. pauciseptata is designed here as epitype and the two species of Pseudobotrytis are transferred to Cordana. A dichotomous key is provided to identify the currently accepted species of Cordana.

  5. Origin and radiation of Southern Hemisphere coastal dolphins (genus Cephalorhynchus).

    PubMed

    Pichler, F B; Robineau, D; Goodall, R N; Meÿer, M A; Olivarría, C; Baker, C S

    2001-09-01

    The genus Cephalorhynchus (Gray 1846) consists of four species of small coastal dolphins distributed in cool temperate waters around the Southern Hemisphere. Each species is sympatric with other members of the subfamily Lissodelphininae but widely separated from other congeners. To describe the origin and radiation of these species, we examined 442 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 307 individuals from the genus Cephalorhynchus and compared these to sequences from other members of the subfamily Lissodelphininae. We investigate the hypotheses that Cephalorhynchus is a monophyletic genus or, alternatively, that the four species have arisen separately from pelagic Lissodelphine species and have converged morphologically. Our results support the monophyly of Cephalorhynchus within the Lissodelphininae and a pattern of radiation by colonization. We confirm a pattern of shallow but diagnosable species clades with Heaviside's dolphin as the basal branch. We further examine the monophyly of maternal haplotypes represented by our large population sample for each species. Based on this phylogeographic pattern, we propose that Cephalorhynchus originated in the waters of South Africa and, following the West Wind Drift, colonized New Zealand and then South America. The Chilean and Commerson's dolphins then speciated along the two coasts of South America, during the glaciation of Tierra del Fuego. Secondary radiations resulted in genetically isolated populations for both the Kerguelen Island Commerson's dolphin and the North Island Hector's dolphin. Our results suggest that coastal, depth-limited odontocetes are prone to population fragmentation, isolation and occasionally long-distance movements, perhaps following periods of climatic change. PMID:11555263

  6. Trends of karyotypic evolution in the genus Hipposideros (Chiroptera: Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Sreepada, K S; Naidu, K N; Gururaj, M E

    1993-01-01

    The karyotypes of Hipposideros speroris, H. pomona, H. lankadiva, H. ceneraceus, H. ater and H. fulvus were analysed using conventional and banding technqiues. All six species exhibited the same 2n (32) and FN (60). The genus is remarkable for its apparent karyotypic stability. These species have only biarmed autosomes, one of which is a submetacentric marker chromosome with an achromatic gap. G-banded autosomes showed that most have remained conservative in the course of evolution of the species. Structural changes seemed to have occurred more frequently in the sex elements of the karyotypes rather than in the autosomes, and non-Robertsonian changes had an appreciable role to play in karyotypic evolution. This trend is probably dictated by the maximization of the biarmed condition which reflects the formation of stabilised linkage groups from the inception of the genus. It is proposed that the ancestral lineage of the genus Hipposideros was derived from a Rhinolophoid ancester whose karyotype was akin to Rhinolophus luctus.

  7. Phylogenetic Placement and Taxonomy of the Genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mytnik-Ejsmont, Joanna; Szlachetko, Dariusz L.; Baranow, Przemysław; Jolliffe, Kevin; Górniak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae) for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided. PMID:25902058

  8. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Mytnik-Ejsmont, Joanna; Szlachetko, Dariusz L; Baranow, Przemysław; Jolliffe, Kevin; Górniak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae) for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided. PMID:25902058

  9. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Veloporphyrellus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Chun; Ortiz-Santana, Beatriz; Zeng, Nian-Kai; Feng, Bang; Yang, Zhu L

    2014-01-01

    Veloporphyrellus is a genus known from North and Central America, southeastern Asia, and Africa. Because species of this genus are phenotypically similar to some taxa in several genera, such as Boletellus, Leccinum, Strobilomyces, Suillus and Tylopilus s.l. belonging to Boletales, its phylogenetic disposition has never been addressed. We analyzed four DNA regions, the nuclear ribosomal LSU and tef-1α, and the mitochondrial mtSSU and atp6 genes, to investigate the phylogenetic disposition of Veloporphyrellus. Although the monophyly of the genus and its systematic placement within the Boletaceae was well supported, its relationship to other genera was not resolved. Morphologically Veloporphyrellus is distinguished from other boletoid genera by the combination of the pinkish or grayish pink hymenophore, the membranous veil hanging on the pilea margin, the trichoderm-like pileus covering and the smooth basidiospores. Five species, including two new species and two new combinations, are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Veloporphyrellus also is provided. PMID:24782497

  10. Nucleolar persistence during spermatogenesis of the genus Rhodnius (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; da Costa Castro, Nayara Fernanda; Lima, Anna Claudia Campaner; Ravazi, Amanda; Morielle-Souza, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Jader; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2014-08-01

    The Triatominae subfamily is comprised of 18 genera and six tribes. The tribe Rhodniini is comprised of two genera (Rhodnius and Psammolestes). Nucleolar persistence is defined by the presence of the nucleolus or nucleolar corpuscles during the meiotic metaphase. To date, this phenomenon has been described for 13 species of triatomine that are included in the genera Triatoma, Rhodnius, and Panstrongylus. Thus, because the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence has been described in only two species of the genus Rhodnius, we have analyzed the nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis of eight species of the genus Rhodnius (R. colombiensis, R. montenegrensis, R. nasutus, R. neglectus, R. neivai, R. pictipes, R. prolixus, and R. robustus), with a focus on nucleolar persistence. By means of cytogenetic analysis with silver ions, nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis is described in the eight species of Rhodnius analyzed. In all of them nucleolar behavior was similar and the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was often observed. Therefore, we confirm nucleolar persistence as a peculiarity of the genus Rhodnius. However, it is emphasized that new cytogenetic analysis should be performed in the Triatominae subfamily, more specifically among the 15 genera that do not exhibit the nucleolar behavior described, in order to assess whether this phenomenon is truly a synapomorphy of these hematophagous insects.

  11. Review of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Framenau, Volker W

    2015-09-11

    Species of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator are reviewed including the type species, V. spenceri Hogg, 1900, from south-eastern Australia and V. immansuetus (Simon, 1909) comb. nov., a common species in south-west Western Australia. Venator marginatus Hogg, 1900 is only known from two female specimens and the genital morphology of this species does not conform to the diagnosis of genus as presented here. Therefore V. marginatus is considered incerta sedis. Venator includes medium-sized (9.0-22 mm body length) wolf spiders of overall brownish colouration, and with a black patch covering the anterior three quarters of the venter. They differ from all other wolf spiders in particular by genitalic characters, namely an elevated atrium of the female epigyne that forms a raised edged against the inverted T-shaped median septum. This edge often corresponds to a retrolateral incision on the tegular apophysis of the male pedipalp. The genus is mainly a representative of the Bassian fauna of the Australian continent where it occurs predominantly in dry sclerophyll forests.

  12. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  13. Pelarspovirus, a proposed new genus in the family Tombusviridae.

    PubMed

    Scheets, Kay; Jordan, Ramon; White, K Andrew; Hernández, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    Currently, the family Tombusviridae encompasses thirteen viral genera that contain single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and isometric virions; the exception being the genus Umbravirus, whose members do not encode a coat protein (CP). A new genus, tentatively named Pelarspovirus, is proposed to be added to this family and would include five members, with Pelargonium line pattern virus recommended as the type species. Viruses assigned to this proposed genus have monopartite genomes encoding five open reading frames (ORFs) that include two 5'-proximal replication proteins, two centrally located movement proteins (MP1 and MP2) and a 3'-proximal CP that, at least for pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), has been shown to act also as suppressor of RNA silencing. Distinguishing characteristics of these viruses include i) production of a single, tricistronic subgenomic RNA for expression of MP and CP genes, ii) presence of a non-AUG start codon (CUG or GUG) initiating the MP2 ORF, iii) absence of AUG codons in any frame between the AUG initiation codons of MP1 and CP genes, and iv) sequence-based phylogenetic clustering of all encoded proteins in separate clades from those of other family members. PMID:26149249

  14. Taxonomy, epidemiology, and clinical relevance of the genus Arcobacter.

    PubMed

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases.

  15. Taxonomy, Epidemiology, and Clinical Relevance of the Genus Arcobacter

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases. PMID:21233511

  16. A Descriptive Morphology of the Ant Genus Procryptocerus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Serna, F.; Mackay, W.

    2010-01-01

    Morphology is the most direct approach biologists have to recognize uniqueness of insect species as compared to close relatives. Ants of the genus Procryptocerus possess important morphologic characters yet have not been explored for use in a taxonomic revision. The genus is characterized by the protrusion of the clypeus forming a broad nasus and antennal scrobes over the eyes. The toruli are located right posterior to the flanks of the nasus opposite to each other. The vertex is deflexed posteriorly in most species. An in-group comparison of the external morphology is presented focusing on the workers. A general morphology for gynes and males is also presented. Previously mentioned characters as well as new ones are presented, and their character states in different species are clarified. For the metasoma a new system of ant metasomal somite nomenclature is presented that is applicable to Aculeata in general. Finally, a Glossary of morphological terms is offered for the genus (available online). Most of the terminology can be used in other members of the Formicidae and Aculeata. PMID:20874568

  17. A descriptive morphology of the ant genus Procryptocerus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Serna, F; Mackay, W

    2010-01-01

    Morphology is the most direct approach biologists have to recognize uniqueness of insect species as compared to close relatives. Ants of the genus Procryptocerus possess important morphologic characters yet have not been explored for use in a taxonomic revision. The genus is characterized by the protrusion of the clypeus forming a broad nasus and antennal scrobes over the eyes. The toruli are located right posterior to the flanks of the nasus opposite to each other. The vertex is deflexed posteriorly in most species. An in-group comparison of the external morphology is presented focusing on the workers. A general morphology for gynes and males is also presented. Previously mentioned characters as well as new ones are presented, and their character states in different species are clarified. For the metasoma a new system of ant metasomal somite nomenclature is presented that is applicable to Aculeata in general. Finally, a Glossary of morphological terms is offered for the genus (available online). Most of the terminology can be used in other members of the Formicidae and Aculeata.

  18. Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

  19. Taxonomic revision of the genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Borkenhagen, Kai; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the fish genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from the Middle East and North Africa were previously placed in 14 different genus-group taxa (Barbellion, Barbus, Barynotus, Capoeta, Carasobarbus, Cyclocheilichthys, Kosswigobarbus, Labeobarbus, Luciobarbus, Pseudotor, Puntius, Systomus, Tor and Varicorhinus). The generic assignment of several species changed frequently, necessitating a re-evaluation of their taxonomic status. In this study, the genus Carasobarbus is revised based on comparative morphological examinations of about 1300 preserved specimens from collections of several museums and freshly collected material. The species Carasobarbus apoensis, Carasobarbus canis, Carasobarbus chantrei, Carasobarbus exulatus, Carasobarbus fritschii, Carasobarbus harterti, Carasobarbus kosswigi, Carasobarbus luteus and Carasobarbus sublimus form a monophyletic group that shares the following combination of characters: medium-sized barbels with a smooth last unbranched dorsal-fin ray, nine or 10 branched dorsal-fin rays and six branched anal fin-rays; scales large, shield-shaped, with many parallel radii; the lateral line containing 25 to 39 scales; the pharyngeal teeth hooked, 2.3.5-5.3.2 or 2.3.4-4.3.2; one or two pairs of barbels. The species are described in detail, their taxonomic status is re-evaluated and an identification key is provided. A lectotype of Systomus luteus Heckel, 1843 is designated. Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971, Kosswigobarbus Karaman, 1971, and Pseudotor Karaman, 1971 are subjective synonyms, and acting as First Reviser we gave precedence to the name Carasobarbus.

  20. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE NATURAL PRODUCTS OF THE GENUS CALLICARPA⊥

    PubMed Central

    JONES, WILLIAM P.; KINGHORN, A. DOUGLAS

    2009-01-01

    About 20 species from Callicarpa have reported ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses, and several members of this genus are well known in the traditional medical systems of China and South Asia. Ethnomedical reports indicate their use in the treatment of hepatitis, rheumatism, fever, headache, indigestion, and other ailments. Several species of Callicarpa have been reported to be used against cancer (e.g., Callicarpa americana root to treat skin cancer and Callicarpa rubella bark to treat tumors of the large intestine). Extracts from about 14 species in this genus have been evaluated for biological activity, including antibacterial, antifungal, anti-insect growth, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic activities. In addition to amino acids, benzenoids, simple carbohydrates, and lipids, numerous diterpenes, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, phytosterols, sesquiterpenes, and triterpenes have been detected in or isolated from the genus Callicarpa. The essential oils of Callicarpa americana have recently been reported to have antialgal and phytotoxic activities, and several isolates from this species (and C. japonica) were identified as contributing to the mosquito bite-deterrent activity that was first indicated by folkloric usage. Recent bioassay-guided investigations of C. americana extracts have resulted in the isolation of several active compounds, mainly of the clerodane diterpene structural type. PMID:19830264