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Sample records for isopoda epicaridea bornnier

  1. Collecting and Preserving Marine and Freshwater Isopoda (Crustacea: Peracarida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Isopoda are the most diverse Crustacea. In order to encourage the study of isopod crustaceans and their use in biodiversity studies, systematics, ecology, physiology and more, one needs to know who the isopods are and where to find them. New information This is a short “how to” guide focusing on the free-living marine and freshwater isopods: where they live and how to collect and preserve them. The tools and techniques described here are simple, but invaluable in accessing the natural history of these remarkable creatures. PMID:26023284

  2. [Test for bioenergetic progress and specific energy metabolism in isopod crustaceans (Isopoda) of various ecology].

    PubMed

    Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Alekseeva, T A

    2002-01-01

    We studied energy metabolism of terrestrial and cavernicolous isopods and demonstrated much lower standard metabolism in the troglobionts as compared to other Isopoda representatives. The test for bioenergetic progress proved to be applicable for both aromorphosis and katamorphosis. Different patterns of the relationship between energy metabolism and temperature in stenothermal and eurythermal species have been proposed.

  3. The Australian fresh water isopod (Phreatoicidea: Isopoda) allows insights into the early mitogenomic evolution of isopods.

    PubMed

    Kilpert, Fabian; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2010-03-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the Australian fresh water isopod Eophreatoicus sp.-14 has been determined. The new species is a member of the taxon Phreatoicidea, a clade of particular interest, as it is often regarded as the sister group to all other Isopoda. Although the overall genome organization of Eophreatoicus sp.-14 conforms to the typical state of Metazoa--it is a circular ring of DNA hosting the usual 37 genes and one major non-coding region--it bears a number of derived characters that fall within the scope of "genome morphology". Earlier studies have indicated that the isopod mitochondrial gene order is not as conserved as that of other crustaceans. Indeed, the mt genome of Eophreatoicus sp.-14 shows an inversion of seven genes (including cox1), which is as far as we know unique. Even more interesting is the derived arrangement of nad1, trnL(CUN), rrnS, control region, cob, trnT, nad5 and trnF that is shared by nearly all available isopod mt genomes. A striking feature is the close proximity of the rearranged genes to the mt control region. Inferable gene translocation events are, however, more suitable to trace the evolution of mt genomes. Genes like nad1/trnL(CUN) and nad5/trnF, which retained their adjacent position after being rearranged, were most likely translocated together. A very good example for the need to understand the mechanisms of translocations is the remolding of trnL(UUR) to trnL(CUN). Both tRNA genes are adjacent and have a high sequence similarity, probably the result of a gene duplication and subsequent anticodon mutation. Modified secondary structures were found in three tRNAs of Eophreatoicus sp.-14, which are all characterized by the loss of the DHU-arm. This is common to crustaceans for tRNA Serine(AGY), while the arm-loss in tRNA Cysteine within Malacostraca is only shared by other isopods. Modification of the third tRNA, Isoleucine, is not known from any other related species. Nucleotide frequencies of

  4. A new species and two new records of Minicopenaeon Bourdon, 1981 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Bopyridae) from China.

    PubMed

    An, Jianmei; Boyko, Christopher B; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-07-01

    Three species of the parasitic isopod genus Minicopenaeon Bourdon, 1981 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Bopyridae) are reported from China, one new to science and two new records from mainland China. Minicopenaeon crosnieri (Bourdon, 1979) formerly known from Madagascar, the Philippines and Taiwan, is recorded from Zhejiang province. Minicopenaeon intermedium Bourdon, 1981 previously recorded from the Philippines and Japan, is recorded from China for the first time. The new species Minicopenaeon liuruiyui n. sp. is recorded from the East and South China Seas. As with other species of the genus, females of the new species have rudimentary coxal plates on the second pereomeres on the short side. The new species can be distinguished from other species by the presence of a widely open brood pouch, head with bilobate anterior edge and median concave groove, and male head with curved posterior margin of the pleon. A key to species of Minicopenaeon is provided and the subspecies M. intermedium curvatum Bourdon, 1981 is synonymised with M. intermedium Bourdon, 1981. Metapenaeopsis philippii (Bate, 1881) and M. coniger (Wood-Mason, 1891) are newly recorded as host species for bopyrids.

  5. Eco-morphological studies on pleopodal lungs and cuticle in Armadillidium species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Szabó, Péter; Mrak, Polona; Strus, Jasna; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) have adapted to land life by diverse morphological, physiological and behavioral changes. Woodlice species exhibit a large variety in this respect, their preferences ranging from moist to dry habitats. These moisture preference values are related to various morphological adaptations, rendering terrestrial isopods amenable to studying morphological adaptations to terrestrial life. We performed a comparison of four Armadillidium species (Armadillidium zenckeri, Armadillidium nasatum, Armadillidium versicolor, Armadillidium vulgare), by quantifying two morphological traits: the extent of the interfacial endothelium between the respiratory space and the hemolymph within pleopodal lungs and the thickness of tergite cuticle, which are 'key factors' in determining protection from desiccation. These values were measured from light micrographs of cross-sectioned lungs. The cosmopolitan A. vulgare, as a habitat generalist, seems to be the most resistant against desiccation and other environmental conditions, while A. zenckeri is the most sensitive one. Light microscopic studies revealed that the four species can be ordered similarly, if we compare them by the extension of the endothelial interface and cuticle thickness, suggesting that these morphological traits are important determinants of their distribution on habitat, microhabitat scales and through the existence of suitable habitats - together with many other factors - the geographical pattern of species occurence.

  6. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work.

  7. Effects of landfill leachate treatment on hepatopancreas of Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Manti, Anita; Canonico, Barbara; Mazzeo, Roberto; Santolini, Riccardo; Ciandrini, Eleonora; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Nannoni, Francesco; Protano, Giuseppe; Papa, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The major environmental impact of landfills is emission of pollutants via the leachate and gas pathways. The hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea, Latreille 1804) plays an important role in the bioaccumulation of contaminants, such as heavy metals. To evaluate the effects of landfill leachate treatment, 2 different approaches were applied: 1) the detection of accumulation of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Sb, Zn, Pb, Ni, V) in hepatopancreatic cells, and 2) the evaluation of biological effect of contaminants on fresh hepatopancreatic cells by flow-cytometric analyses. The presence of 2 different cell types (herein referred to as "small" [S] cells and "big" [B] cells, in agreement with the literature based on morphological examinations) was detected for the first time by flow cytometry, which also highlighted their different response to stress stimuli. In particular, B cells appeared more sensitive to landfill leachate treatment, being more damaged in the short term, while S cells seemed more adaptive. Furthermore, S cells could represent a pool from which they are able to differentiate into B cells. These findings were also confirmed by principal component analyses, underlining that S SYBR Green I bright cells correlate with specific chemicals (Ca, Cu, Co), confirming their resistance to stress stimuli, and suggesting that the decrease of specific cell types may prime other elements to replace them in a homeostasis-preservation framework.

  8. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans. PMID:24109435

  9. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway.

    PubMed

    Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans.

  10. Discontinuous ammonia excretion and glutamine storage in littoral Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda): testing tidal and circadian models.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Maya; Wright, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    A key evolutionary development facilitating land colonization in terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is the intermittent liberation of waste nitrogen as volatile ammonia. Intermittent ammonia release exploits glutamine (Gln) as an intermediary nitrogen store. Here, we explore the relationship between temporal patterns of ammonia release and Gln accumulation in three littoral oniscideans from Southern California. Results are interpreted in terms of water availability, habitat, activity patterns, and ancestry. A two-way experimental design was used to test whether ammonia excretion and Gln accumulation follow a tidal or diel periodicity. Ammonia excretion was studied in the laboratory using chambers with or without available seawater and using an acid trap to collect volatile ammonia. Ligia occidentalis releases ammonia directly into seawater and accumulates Gln during low tide (48.9 ± 6.5 μmol g⁻¹ at low tide, 24.1 ± 3.0 μmol g⁻¹ at high tide), indicating that excretion is tidally constrained. Alloniscus perconvexus and Tylos punctatus can excrete ammonia directly into seawater or utilize volatilization. Both species burrow in sand by day and show a diel excretory pattern, accumulating Gln nocturnally (31.8 ± 2.7 μmol g⁻¹ at dawn and 21.8 ± 2.3 μmol g⁻¹ at dusk for A. perconvexus; 85.7 ± 15.1 μmol g⁻¹ at dawn and 25.4 ± 2.9 μmol g⁻¹ at dusk for T. punctatus) and liberating ammonia diurnally. Glutaminase shows higher activity in terrestrial (0.54-0.86 U g⁻¹) compared to intertidal (0.25-0.31 U g⁻¹) species, consistent with the need to generate high PNH₃ for volatilization. The predominant isoform in Armadillidium vulgare is phosphate dependent and maleate independent; phosphate is a plausible regulator in vivo.

  11. Toxicity of imidacloprid to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Drobne, Damjana; Blazic, Mateja; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Leser, Vladka; Zidar, Primoz; Jemec, Anita; Trebse, Polonca

    2008-04-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide with neurotoxic action that, as a possible alternative for commonly used organophosphorus pesticides, has gained registration in about 120 countries for use in over 140 agricultural crops. Only few data are available on its toxicity for soil invertebrates. We therefore assessed the effects of imidacloprid on survival, weight gain, feeding rate, total protein content, glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), and digestive gland epithelial thickness in juveniles and adults of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. After two weeks of feeding on imidacloprid-dosed food, weight gain (NOEC 5 microg/g dry food) and feeding rate (NOEC 10 microg/g) in juveniles, and feeding rate (NOEC<10 microg/g) and digestive gland epithelial thickness (NOEC<10 microg/g) in adults were most affected. In juveniles induction of GST activity and increase of total protein content per wet animal weight was detected at 5 microg/g dry food, whereas in adults a reduction of GST was observed at 25 microg/g (NOEC 10 microg/g). An estimate of actual intake rates suggests that imidacloprid affects isopods at similar exposure concentrations as insects. The toxicity of imidacloprid was similar to that of the organophosphorus pesticide diazinon, tested earlier using the same methods [Stanek, K., Drobne, D., Trebse, P., 2006. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). Chemosphere 64, 1745-1752]. At actual environmental concentrations, diazinon poses a higher risk to P. scaber. Due to its increasing use in crop protection and higher persistence in soil, imidacloprid might however, be potentially more dangerous after long-term application. We conclude that toxicity testing with P. scaber provides relevant, repeatable, reproducible and comparable toxicity data that is useful for the risk assessment of pesticides in the terrestrial environment.

  12. Physiological properties of the gut lumen of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea): adaptive to digesting lignocellulose?

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin; Brune, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Since any given trait of an organism is considered to represent either an adaptation to the environment or a phylogenetic constraint, most physiological gut characteristics should be adaptive in terms of optimizing digestion and utilization of the respective food source. Among the Crustacea, the taxon Oniscidea (Isopoda) is the only suborder that includes, and essentially consists of, species inhabiting terrestrial environments, feeding on food sources different from those of most other Crustacea (i.e., terrestrial leaf litter). Microelectrodes were used to assay physiological characteristics of the gut lumen from representatives of four families of terrestrial isopods: Trichoniscus pusillus (Trichoniscidae), Oniscus asellus (Oniscidae), Porcellio scaber (Porcellionidae), and Trachelipus rathkii (Trachelipodidae). Microsensor measurements of oxygen pressure (Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes) revealed that O2-consuming processes inside the gut lumen created steep radial oxygen gradients. Although all guts were oxic in the periphery, the radial center of the posterior hindgut was micro-oxic or even anoxic in the adults of the larger species. The entire gut lumen of all examined species was strongly oxidizing (Pt microelectrodes; apparent redox potential, Eh: +600-700 mV). Such conditions would allow for the coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, with both oxidative and fermentative activities contributing to digestion. Although bacterial O2 consumption was also observed in the midgut glands (hepatopancreas), they remained entirely oxic, probably owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio and high oxygen fluxes across the hepatopancreatic epithelium into the gland lumen. Measurements with pH microelectrodes (LIX-type) showed a slight pH gradient from acidic conditions in the anterior hindgut to neutral conditions in the posterior hindgut of O. asellus, P. scaber and T. rathkii. By contrast, the pH in the hindgut lumen of T. pusillus was almost

  13. Nutrition in terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea): an evolutionary-ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin

    2002-11-01

    The nutritional morphology, physiology and ecology of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is significant in two respects. (1) Most oniscid isopods are truly terrestrial in terms of being totally independent of the aquatic environment. Thus, they have evolved adaptations to terrestrial food sources. (2) In many terrestrial ecosystems, isopods play an important role in decomposition processes through mechanical and chemical breakdown of plant litter and by enhancing microbial activity. While the latter aspect of nutrition is discussed only briefly in this review, I focus on the evolutionary ecology of feeding in terrestrial isopods. Due to their possessing chewing mouthparts, leaf litter is comminuted prior to being ingested, facilitating both enzymatic degradation during gut passage and microbial colonization of egested faeces. Digestion of food through endogenous enzymes produced in the caeca of the midgut glands (hepatopancreas) and through microbial enzymes, either ingested along with microbially colonized food or secreted by microbial endosymbionts, mainly takes place in the anterior part of the hindgut. Digestive processes include the activity of carbohydrases, proteases, dehydrogenases, esterases, lipases, arylamidases and oxidases, as well as the nutritional utilization of microbial cells. Absorption of nutrients is brought about by the hepatopancreas and/or the hindgut epithelium, the latter being also involved in osmoregulation and water balance. Minerals and metal cations are effectively extracted from the food, while overall assimilation efficiencies may be low. Heavy metals are stored in special organelles of the hepatopancreatic tissue. Nitrogenous waste products are excreted via ammonia in its gaseous form, with only little egested along with the faeces. Nonetheless, faeces are characterized by high nitrogen content and provide a favourable substrate for microbial colonization and growth. The presence of a dense microbial population on faecal

  14. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Stanek, Katja; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2006-09-01

    In parallel laboratory experiments, we determined the effect of a typical representative of organophosphorous pesticides, diazinon, on AChE activity, lipid, protein and glycogen content, weight change, feeding activity and mortality of juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). Organophosphorous pesticides (OP) are among the most extensively used pesticides, which have replaced organochlorine pesticides. OPs inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in neurotoxicity. They have more widespread effects on non-target organisms than do organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to link effect of diazinon on target enzyme to energy reserves and to integrated biomarker responses in juvenile and adult P. scaber. The non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) for AChE activity after diazinon exposure in two weeks toxicity study with isopods was below 5 microg/g diazinon. There was a good agreement between concentrations at which AChE and survival were affected (10 microg/g diazinon in juveniles, 100 microg/g diazinon in adults). We revealed a link among AChE activity, protein content and mortality. Glycogen and lipid content, feeding activity and weight change were not affected in two weeks diazinon exposure up to 100 microg/g diazinon. Juveniles were affected at concentrations that were an order of magnitude lower than those provoking similar effects on adults. Recommendations are made for future toxicity studies with terrestrial isopods.

  15. "Candidatus Bacilloplasma," a novel lineage of Mollicutes associated with the hindgut wall of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2007-09-01

    Pointed, rod-shaped bacteria colonizing the cuticular surface of the hindgut of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) were investigated by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopy. The results of phylogenetic analysis, and the absence of a cell wall, affiliated these bacteria with the class Mollicutes, within which they represent a novel and deeply branched lineage, sharing less than 82.6% sequence similarity to known Mollicutes. The lineage has been positioned as a sister group to the clade comprising the Spiroplasma group, the Mycoplasma pneumoniae group, and the Mycoplasma hominis group. The specific signature sequence was identified and used as a probe in in situ hybridization, which confirmed that the retrieved sequences originate from the attached rod-shaped bacteria from the hindgut of P. scaber and made it possible to detect these bacteria in their natural environment. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed a spherically shaped structure at the tapered end of the rod-shaped bacteria, enabling their specific and exclusive attachment to the tip of the cuticular spines on the inner surface of the gut. Specific adaptation to the gut environment, as well as phylogenetic positioning, indicate the long-term association and probable coevolution of the bacteria and the host. Taking into account their pointed, rod-shaped morphology and their phylogenetic position, the name "Candidatus Bacilloplasma" has been proposed for this new lineage of bacteria specifically associated with the gut surface of P. scaber.

  16. Prolonged feeding of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) on TiO (2) nanoparicles. Absence of toxic effect.

    PubMed

    Novak, Sara; Drobne, Damjana; Menard, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide are one of most widely used nanomaterials in different products in everyday use and in industry, but very little is known about their effects on non- target cells and tissues. Terrestrial isopods were exposed to food dosed with nano-TiO(2) to give final nominal concentration 1000 and 2000 µg TiO(2)/g dry weight of food. The effects of ingested nano-TiO(2) on the model invertebrate Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3 and 7 days) and prolonged (14 and 28 days) dietary exposure was assessed by conventional toxicity measures such as feeding rate, weight change and mortality. Cell membrane destabilization was also investigated. No severe toxicity effects were observed after 3, 7, 14 or 28 days of dietary exposure to nano-TiO(2), but some animals, particularly those exposed to lower concentrations of nanoparticles, had severely destabilized digestive cell membranes. It was concluded that strong destabilization of the cell membrane was sporadic, and neither concentration- nor time-related. Further research is needed to confirm this sporadic toxic effect of nanoparticles.

  17. Ultrastructural characterization and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 'Candidatus Rickettsiella isopodorum', a new lineage of intracellular bacteria infecting woodlice (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kleespies, Regina G; Federici, Brian A; Leclerque, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The taxonomic genus Rickettsiella (Gammaproteobacteria; Legionellales) comprises intracellular bacteria associated with a wide range of arthropods including insects, arachnids and crustaceans. The present study provides ultrastructural together with genetic evidence for a Rickettsiella bacterium in the common rough woodlouse, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Porcellionidae), occurring in Germany, and shows that this bacterium is very closely related to one of the same genus occurring in California that infects the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Armadillidiidae). Both bacterial isolates displayed the ultrastructural features described previously for crustacean-associated bacteria of the genus Rickettsiella, including the absence of well-defined associated protein crystals; occurrence of the latter is a typical characteristic of infection by this type of bacteria in insects, but has not been reported in crustaceans. A molecular systematic approach combining multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) with likelihood-based significance testing demonstrated that despite their distant geographic origins, both bacteria form a tight sub-clade within the genus Rickettsiella. In the 16S rRNA gene trees, this sub-clade includes other bacterial sequences from woodlice. Moreover, the bacterial specimens from P. scaber and A. vulgare are found genetically or morphologically different from each of the four currently recognized Rickettsiella species. Therefore, the designation 'Candidatus Rickettsiella isopodorum' is introduced for this new lineage of isopod-associated Rickettsiella bacteria.

  18. The first complete mitogenome of the South China deep-sea giant isopod Bathynomus sp. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cirolanidae) allows insights into the early mitogenomic evolution of isopods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanjun; Kou, Qi; Zhong, Zaixuan; Li, Xinzheng; He, Lisheng; He, Shunping; Gan, Xiaoni

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the South China deep-sea giant isopod Bathynomus sp. was determined, and this study is the first to explore in detail the mt genome of a deep-sea member of the order Isopoda. This species belongs to the genus Bathynomus, the members of which are saprophagous residents of the deep-sea benthic environment; based on their large size, Bathynomus is included in the "supergiant group" of isopods. The mt genome of Bathynomus sp. is 14,965 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, only 18 transfer RNA genes, and a noncoding control region 362 bp in length, which is the smallest control region discovered in Isopoda to date. Although the overall genome organization is typical for metazoans, the mt genome of Bathynomus sp. shows a number of derived characters, such as an inversion of 10 genes when compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Rearrangements in some genes (e.g., cob, trnT, nad5, and trnF) are shared by nearly all isopod mt genomes analyzed thus far, and when compared to the putative isopod ground pattern, five rearrangements were found in Bathynomus sp. Two tRNAs exhibit modified secondary structures: The TΨC arm is absent from trnQ, and trnC lacks the DHU. Within the class Malacostraca, trnC arm loss is only found in other isopods. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Bathynomus sp. (Cymothoida) and Sphaeroma serratum (Sphaeromatidea) form a single clade, although it is unclear whether Cymothoida is monophyletic or paraphyletic. Moreover, the evolutionary rate of Bathynomus sp. (dN/dS [nonsynonymous mutational rate/synonymous mutational rate] = 0.0705) is the slowest measured to date among Cymothoida, which may be associated with its relatively constant deep-sea environment. Overall, our results may provide useful information for understanding the evolution of deep-sea Isopoda species.

  19. Diversity and abundance of deep-sea Isopoda along the Southern Polar Front: Results from the SYSTCO I and II expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Löbbecke, A.; Brandt, A.; Brix, S.

    2014-10-01

    For the investigation of the diversity and composition of deep-sea Isopoda in the Polar Front of the Southern Ocean two expeditions were performed, ANtartic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity: colonization history and recent community patterns-SYSTem COupling (ANDEEP-SYSTCO I, 2007/2008) and SYSTCO II (2012). Samples were taken in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Polar Front (52°S) within a depth range between 2752 and 4327 m using an epibenthic sledge. From nine stations, located in four different geographic areas, a total of 107 species from 476 specimens were identified, 99% belonged to the suborder Asellota. Haploniscidae was the most dominant family in terms of abundance, followed by Munnopsidae and Desmosomatidae. However, Munnopsidae were the most diverse followed by Desmosomatidae and Haploniscidae. The majority of species (53%) did not occur frequently indicating a patchy distribution; only one species, Haploniscus spinifer Hansen, 1916, was found at almost all stations comprising more than 10% of all sampled specimens. Isopod abundance was generally low in the Polar Front compared to other regions of the Southern Ocean, like the Weddell Sea. Diversity strongly varied between stations even within the same sampling area, it was highest around a depth of 3000 m with 48 species found at station 13-16 at 0°E. Surface chl a concentration, received from satellite images as a measure for food supply, was compared with isopod abundance and diversity, however, no clear pattern could be observed. Analysis of the species composition of Isopoda revealed in general terms that deep-sea stations within the same depth range build one cluster. Also the sampling year, the geographic area or salinity turned out to be possible factors affecting species composition. The deep-sea area along the Southern Polar Front is characterized by low numbers of specimens but shelters a relatively high level of isopod diversity with species also known from other regions of the Atlantic.

  20. Composition and distribution of Munnopsidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota), collected during the KuramBio expedition 2012 from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutina, Marina V.; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The abyssal macrobenthos of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (KKT) area was sampled for the first time using a fine-meshed camera-epibenthic sledge (C-EBS) during the German-Russian KuramBio expedition 2012 (RV Sonne, 223 cruise). Crustaceans of the order Isopoda were one of the dominant macrobenthic taxa, and the family Munnopsidae was the most abundant and diverse among 17 collected asellotan families, comprising about 48% of all isopods. During the KuramBio expedition no less than 80 species of 28 genera and eight subfamilies of Munnopsidae were collected with 21 EBS hauls at 12 stations. About 80% species are new to science and half of the genera and the subfamily Lipomerinae are recorded for the first time in the Northwest Pacific. The most abundant and speciose subfamily was Eurycopinae (58% of all specimens and 29 % of species), followed by Ilyarachninae (12% and 16%). Most species are rare and occur with low abundance at one or few stations. Ten most numerous species belonging to the genera Eurycope (5 species), Microcope (2), Disconectes (1), Ilyarachna (1) and Aspidarachna (1) comprised 68% of all munnopsids. The species Eurycope sp.1 and Microcope ovata (Birstein, 1970) were the most abundant and frequent species, occurring at all stations. The highest abundance of Munnopsidae and high diversity, with 32 species, occurred at station 3-9 on the western slope of the KKT. The cluster analysis of the Bray-Curtis similarity shows a low similarity between stations. The least similar was station 1-10, with only 26% similarity with other stations. Low similarity also characterized station 3-9 (34%). The comparison with known data revealed differences in species composition of Munnopsidae of the abyssal plain of the KKT area and the fauna of adjacent bathyal and hadal zones. Similar ratios of the munnopsid subfamilies and genera and some similar species have been revealed for the KuramBio and ANDEEP areas.

  1. Personality affects defensive behaviour of Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Tuf, Ivan Hadrián; Drábková, Lucie; Šipoš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated individual behavioural patterns of isopods expressed as tonic immobility following some intrusive treatments. Common rough woodlice, Porcellio scaber, were kept individually in plastic boxes and tested for tonic immobility repeatedly. Reactivity, sensitivity (number of stimuli needed to respond), and endurance of tonic immobility (TI) according three types of treatments (touch, squeeze, drop) were evaluated. Touch was the weakest treatment and it was necessary to repeat it a number of times to obtain a response; while squeeze and drop induced TI more frequently. Nevertheless, duration of the response persisted for a longer time with the touch treatment. Within each set of the three treatment, the strongest response was the third one, regardless of treatment type. Duration of reaction was affected by the size of the woodlouse, the smallest individuals feigning death for the shortest time. Despite body size, we found a significant individual pattern of endurance of TI among tested woodlice, which was stable across treatments as well as across time (5 repetitions during a 3 week period). Porcellio scaber is one of the first species of terrestrial isopods with documented personality traits. PMID:26261447

  2. Nerocila species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2013-03-01

    Eleven Nerocila species are recorded from 22 marine fishes belonging to 15 families. Three, Nerocila arres, Nerocila depressa, and Nerocila loveni, are new for the Indian fauna. N. arres and Nerocila sigani, previously synonymized, are redescribed and their individuality is restored. Nerocila exocoeti, until now inadequately identified, is described and distinctly characterized. A neotype is designated. New hosts were identified for N. depressa, N. loveni, Nerocila phaiopleura, Nerocila serra, and Nerocila sundaica. Host-parasite relationships were considered. The parasitologic indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. A checklist of the nominal Nerocila species until now reported from Indian marine fishes was compiled.

  3. The ultrastructure of the midgut glands in Ligia italica (Isopoda) under different nutritional conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štrus, J.; Burkhardt, P.; Storch, V.

    1985-12-01

    After a period of food deprivation, Ligia italica were refed for 2 days with different diets and their midgut glands were examined under the electron microscope with special reference to the large cells. The predominant features are the following: extended glycogen fields after sucrose-diet; numerous lipid droplets and peroxisome-like vesicles after lipid-diet (butter); swollen mitochondria and a great number of pinocytotic vesicles after protein diet (curds); electron dense vesicles and myelin bodies after the uptake of Escherichia coli. In contrast to amphipods, the intertidal isopod L. italica is not able to digest cellulose, as the cell ultrastructure exhibits all features of starved animals, as well as that following feeding with lignin.

  4. Exoskeletal cuticle differentiation during intramarsupial development of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Mrak, Polona; Znidaršič, Nada; Zagar, Kristina; Ceh, Miran; Strus, Jasna

    2014-09-01

    Exoskeletal crustacean cuticle is a calcified apical extracellular matrix of epidermal cells, illustrating the chitin-based organic scaffold for biomineralization. Studies of cuticle formation during molting reveal significant dynamics and complexity of the assembly processes, while cuticle formation during embryogenesis is poorly investigated. This study reveals in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, the ultrastructural organization of the differentiating precuticular matrices and exoskeletal cuticles during embryonic and larval intramarsupial development. The composition of the epidermal matrices was obtained by WGA lectin labelling and EDXS analysis. At least two precuticular matrices, consisting of loosely arranged material with overlying electron dense lamina, are secreted by the epidermis in the mid-stage embryo. The prehatching embryo is the earliest developmental stage with a cuticular matrix consisting of an epicuticle and a procuticle, displaying WGA binding and forming cuticular scales. In newly hatched marsupial larva manca, a new cuticle is formed and calcium sequestration in the cuticle is evident. Progression of larval development leads to the cuticle thickening, structural differentiation of cuticular layers and prominent cuticle calcification. Morphological characteristics of exoskeleton renewal in marsupial manca are described. Elaborated cuticle in marsupial larvae indicates the importance of the exoskeleton in protection and support of the larval body in the marsupium and during the release of larvae in the external environment.

  5. Distributional pattern and population dynamics of Excirolana armata (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) in a Uruguayan sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alava, Anita; Defeo, Omar

    1991-11-01

    Spatial and temporal structural analysis of the isopod Excirolana armata Dana (Cirolanidae) was carried out at Barra del Chuy (Uruguay) during the period May 1988-April 1989. The role of environmental variables in controlling microspatial abundance and zonation was studied. Some aspects of the population dynamics were also determined. Greatest abundances were registered around the upper level of the swash zone. Quantitative analysis showed a strongly aggregated distribution of organisms and a differential length structure in relation to their level of occurrence in the beach; a tendency to occupy microhabitats in a narrow range of sediment penetrability and sediment water content values was also observed. E. armata showed seasonal growth with minimum growth rates during winter, increasing from spring onwards. Longevity was nearly 3 years. One recruitment event per year is suggested, with the main peak in late spring and summer.

  6. Survey of Biofouling an Australian Navy Ships: Crustacea; Isopoda and Amphipoda; Caprellidea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    rather twice as long as its breadth. The palm has a proximal grasping spine, an accessory spine and a minute distal poison spine, and triangular...from the posterior part of pereonite 2, the basal segment is quite short, the propodus is very large and oblong in form, tapering distally, the palm ...a triangular tooth at the distal angle of palm , with a narrow notch in between. The gills are oval to elliptical. Pereopod 5 is a little

  7. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Taiti, Stefano; Wynne, J. Judson

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscus manuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiioscia rapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered ‘disturbance relicts’ and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species. PMID:26261438

  8. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Taiti, Stefano; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-01-01

    Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscusmanuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiiosciarapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered 'disturbance relicts' and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species.

  9. A new species of Aspidophryxus (Isopoda, Dajidae), ectoparasitic on Mysidella hoshinoi (Mysidae) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Michitaka

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new dajid, Aspidophryxus izuensis sp. n., is described from seven females and six males found infesting the dorsal carapaces of specimens of Mysidella hoshinoi Shimomura, 2016 (Mysidae: Mysidellinae) associated with an unidentified species of sea anemone (Haloclavidae) from Izu-Oshima Island, Sagami Sea, central Japan. Aspidophryxus izuensis sp. n. differs from its congeners in having a body length about as long as wide, widest at the anterior part in females; an elongate frontal part of the cephalon, half as long as wide in females; the frontal margin of the cephalon exceeding the anterior margins of lateral lamellae in females; an unsegmented, vermiform, elongate pleon in females; and a uropod composed of a protopod and an inner and outer ramus in males. A key to worldwide species in the genus is provided. PMID:28228679

  10. Presence of F-actin in sperm head of Armadillidium peraccae (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Trovato, M; Mazzei, V; Sinatra, F; Longo, G

    2011-10-01

    Sperm of Armadillidium peraccae have been examined with cytochemical and immunocytochemical methods for fluorescence and electron microscopic visualization of cytoskeleton components. Sperm incubation in an antibody anti-β-tubulin shows only the presence of two centrioles located in the cytoplasmic region above the nucleus; no other microtubules are present in the sperm head. Instead, fluorescence microscopy of sperm incubated in FITC-phalloidin allowed to detect the presence of a large amount of F-actin in the apical region of the sperm head. The incubation of ultrathin sections of sperm embedded in Lowicryl K4M with a phalloidin-gold complex allowed a more precise localization of F-actin in the amorphous part of the acrosome and in the cytoplasmic region between acrosome and nucleus; F-actin is also present in the thin cytoplasmic layer between plasma membrane and nuclear envelope at the apical portion of the nucleus. Although the sperm was always found completely devoid of motility, the discovery of the presence of an actin cytoskeleton leads us to hypothesize a possible acquisition of motility by the sperm at the time of its interaction with the female gamete. Such a hypothesis is supported by what is known for ostracods whose aflagellate sperm implement a type of amoeboid movement only at the time of their interaction with the female gamete.

  11. A new species of Gnathia (Isopoda: Cymothoida: Gnathiidae) from Okinawajima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, southwestern Japan.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yuzo; Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Hirose, Euichi

    2007-12-01

    Gnathia limicola sp. nov. is described from Okinawajima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, southwestern Japan. Burrows of this species were found in a small intertidal creek bank on a muddy tidal flat near mangrove trees. Adult males differ from those of other Gnathia species in the following features: (1) fine setae cover peduncle articles 1 and 2 of antenna 1, peduncle articles 1-3 of antenna 2, and the erisma of the mandibles; (2) the ventral frontal border of the cephalon is medianly notched, and the lateral parts extend beyond the dorsal frontal border; and (3) the penes are fused into a thin rectangular blade directed posteriorly. Adult females and praniza larvae were also distinguished morphologically from other Gnathia species. Based on field and laboratory observations, the mating behavior of this species appears similar to that of Paragnathia formica (Hesse, 1862), which inhabits salt marshes in Europe and North Africa.

  12. Assimilation of zinc by Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) exposed to zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Bibic, A.; Drobne, D.; Strus, J.

    1997-05-01

    The ability of terrestrial isopods to accumulate high amounts of metals, to survive in industrially polluted areas and respond to environmental contaminants in a dose-dependent manner makes them one of the most favorite experimental organisms for terrestrial ecotoxicology. Understanding metal uptake, assimilation and loss by these animals is important to explain how they cope with polluted environments. Metal uptake depends on the rate of food consumption, on metal availability in the food, on the pH inside the gut and some other factors. Isopods respond to high metal concentrations in the food in different ways and try to avoid the negative effects of metal poisoning. Zinc is one of the metals present in high concentrations in industrially polluted areas. Zinc poisoning may be avoided by the regulation of the consumption rate, by behavioral response, by storing metals in the hepatopancreas as insoluble granules, and by fecal, and possibly urinary, excretion. Zinc in organisms is a constituent of more than 200 metalloenzymes and other metabolic compounds and assures stability of biological molecules and structures. High Zn levels in food cause a reduction of feeding rate, affect growth and reproduction, cause changes in the structure of the digestive glands and influence the duration of the molting cycle. The present study investigated zinc assimilation by Porcellio scaber exposed to leaves contaminated with radioactively labeled zinc at five different concentrations. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Redescription of Dynoides elegans (Boone, 1923) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Sphaeromatidae) from the north-eastern Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Wetzer, Regina; Mowery, Gracie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dynoides elegans (Boone, 1923) from southern California is reviewed, redescribed, and figured. The original species description did not include figures, making it difficult to attribute individuals to the species. Dynoides saldanai Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984 and Dynoides crenulatus Carvacho & Haasman, 1984 from the Pacific Coast of Mexico and Dynoides brevicornis Kussakin & Malyutina, 1987, from Furugelm Island, Peter the Great Gulf in the Sea of Japan, appear morphologically more similar to each other than to western Pacific species. A large pleonal process is present in about half of the Dynoides species, but is absent in this north-eastern Pacific clade and the north-western Pacific Dynoides brevicornis and Dynoides brevispina. Dynoides dentisinus Shen, 1929 possess a large pleonal spine. It is known from China, Japan, and Korea and is introduced in San Francisco Bay; it can be easily distinguished from Dynoides elegans by the presence of a pleonal process in the former. A key to the Pacific West Coast Dynoides is provided. PMID:28228672

  14. Evidence of self-organization in a gregarious land-dwelling crustacean (Isopoda: Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Broly, Pierre; Mullier, Romain; Devigne, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    How individuals modulate their behavior according to social context is a major issue in the understanding of group initiation, group stability and the distribution of individuals. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms of aggregation behavior in Porcellio scaber, a terrestrial isopod member of the Oniscidea, a unique and common group of terrestrial crustaceans. We performed binary choice tests using shelters with a wide range of population densities (from 10 to 150 individuals). First, the observed collective choices of shelters strengthen the demonstration of a social inter-attraction in terrestrial isopods; especially, in less than 10 min, the aggregation reaches its maximal value, and in less than 100 s, the collective choice is made, i.e., one shelter is selected. In addition, the distribution of individuals shows the existence of (1) quorum rules, by which an aggregate cannot emerge under a threshold value of individuals, and (2) a maximum population size, which leads to a splitting of the populations. These collective results are in agreement with the individual's probability of joining and leaving an aggregate attesting to a greater attractiveness of the group to migrants and greater retention of conspecifics with group size. In this respect, we show that the emergence of aggregation in terrestrial isopods is based on amplification mechanisms. And lastly, our results indicate how local cues about the spatial organization of individuals may favor this emergence and how individuals spatiotemporally reorganize toward a compact form reducing the exchange with the environment. This study provides the first evidence of self-organization in a gregarious crustacean, similar as has been widely emphasized in gregarious insects and eusocial insects.

  15. Prevalence of Nerocila depressa (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) on Sardinella albella from a Thai estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Printrakoon, Cheewarat; Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2011-02-01

    The isopod Nerocila depressa is present on 54% of the market-sized white sardines ( Sardinella albella) caught from an estuary in the Trat province of Thailand. The ventral part of the body, especially the upper pectoral fin, was the area most frequently infected by this parasite. Parasite length was positively correlated with fish length, which suggests that the parasites attach to the fish at a young age. At the site of attachment, the parasites erode the epidermis, dermis and muscular tissue of the Sardinella. Such pathology may cause mortality in many fish. Infestation of this parasite was proportional to the weight of the fish. This study reports a new host for N. depressa attachment and is the first report of S. albella infestation in the Trat province where other known host fish species are cultured.

  16. Male dimorphism in the harem-forming gnathiid isopod Elaphognathia discolor (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishi, Eijiroh

    2011-08-01

    Previously unreported males of a gnathiid isopod were found in reproductive aggregations of the harem-forming gnathiid Elaphognathia discolor. Although the male gnathiids were small in size and morphologically different from E. discolor males, the male sexual organ, appendix masculina, was similar to that of E. discolor males, and possible conspecific larvae and females of the small male gnathiid were never found. In the laboratory, the small male gnathiids as well as male E. discolor successfully copulated with female E. discolor, and the development of embryos in female brood pouches was observed. Offspring of small male gnathiids develop to adults of E. discolor after molting three times, or small male gnathiids after molting two times. Thus, the small male gnathiid was concluded to be an alternative male form compared to the regular large male form of E. discolor. This male polymorphism was thought to have a genetic basis, since no small male specimens appeared in offspring of regular E. discolor males. Field sampling showed that a regular large male formed a harem composed of one large male and several females and never coexisted with other large males as previously reported. However, small males were often found together with large males. Therefore, small males are thought to be sneakers intruding into harems dominated by large males.

  17. Biogeography of Wood-Boring Crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) Established in European Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Luísa M. S.; Merckelbach, Lucas M.; Cragg, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal), limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe. PMID:25313796

  18. Ecology and systematics of a new species of Uromunna (Crustacea: Isopoda) from Spanish eelgrass beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquete, Patricia; Wilson, George D. F.; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2014-06-01

    Uromunna naherba sp. nov. is described from eelgrass beds ( Zostera marina and Z. noltii) of the NW Iberian Peninsula. This is the second species of the genus reported from the NE Atlantic, after U. petiti. The new species was more abundant on rhizomes than on the leaves of the plants. Seasonal samples show that ovigerous females are present throughout the year, but become more abundant in late spring and summer, when adult males decrease in frequency. Ovigerous females appear in only one size class. Owing to the yearly productivity cycle of the eelgrasses, these data suggest that the species is semelparous and completes its lifecycle within 1 year. The taxonomic characters of the genus are discussed.

  19. Testis follicles ultrastructure of three species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the research, carried out on three species of terrestrial isopods - Armadillidium granulatum, Halophiloscia hirsuta and Trichoniscus alexandrae - is to bring a first consistent contribution to the knowledge of the ultrastructural organization of the testis follicles. The testis follicles are seat of a remarkable dynamic activity of their cell components (somatic cells and germ cells) that results in a continuous variation, related to the trend of spermatogenesis, of their morphology, organization and of the relationships between the two cell populations. The somatic cells, known in literature as follicular cells, nurse cells or Sertoli cells, are arranged at the periphery of the follicle to form an epithelial layer of variable thickness resting on a thin basal lamina in turn surrounded by a discontinuous network of muscle cells. In A. granulatum and H. hirsuta, two types of Sertoli cells are present: a first type, the nurse cells, envelop the spermatids in cavities within their cytoplasm and through their secretion activity play a fundamental role in the formation of the spermatophores; moreover, they phagocytizes the residual cytoplasm of spermatids. A second type of Sertoli cells shows features that leave clearly identify its supporting role to the spermatophores in formation. In T. alexandrae, instead, only one type of Sertoli cells, the nurse cell, is present, whose features are widely superimposable to those observed in the other two species. Moreover, two septa of Sertoli cells depart from the periphery of the testis follicle to constitute an articulated compartmentalization of the follicle itself, probably targeted to realize at its inside a series of microenvironments functionally diversified in order to meets the needs of the different stages of the spermatogenic cycle.

  20. Spectroscopic parameters of the cuticle and ethanol extracts of the fluorescent cave isopod Mesoniscusgraniger (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Giurginca, Andrei; Šustr, Vladimír; Tajovský, Karel; Giurginca, Maria; Matei, Iulia

    2015-01-01

    The body surface of the terrestrial isopod Mesoniscusgraniger (Frivaldsky, 1863) showed blue autofluorescence under UV light (330-385 nm), using epifluorescence microscopy and also in living individuals under a UV lamp with excitation light of 365 nm. Some morphological cuticular structures expressed a more intense autofluorescence than other body parts. For this reason, only the cuticle was analyzed. The parameters of autofluorescence were investigated using spectroscopic methods (molecular spectroscopy in infrared, ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) in samples of two subspecies of Mesoniscusgraniger preserved in ethanol. Samples excited by UV light (from 350 to 380 nm) emitted blue light of wavelengths 419, 420, 441, 470 and 505 nm (solid phase) and 420, 435 and 463 (ethanol extract). The results showed that the autofluorescence observed from living individuals may be due to some β-carboline or coumarin derivatives, some crosslinking structures, dityrosine, or due to other compounds showing similar excitation-emission characteristics.

  1. First record and redescription of the terrestrial isopod Hemilepistoidesmesserianus Borutzky, 1945 (Isopoda, Oniscidea) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Ghasem M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, Hemilepistoidesmesserianus Borutzky, 1945 is reported from Iran for the first time. This species is redescribed and diagnostic characters of both males and females are illustrated. This species is characterized by the tuberculation of all parts of the dorsal surface of the body and the male pleopod endopodite I with a triangular lobe at apex. A map with the distribution of species is presented.

  2. Assemblages of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a fragmented forest landscape in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tajovský, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Wytwer, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were collected in 13 forest fragments differing in area (within the range of 0.1 and 254.5 ha), shape and composition of forest vegetation (thermophilous oak, mesophilous oak-hornbeam, thermophilous oak-hornbeam, acidophilous oak, basiphilous oak, beech oak-hornbeam, moist mixed deciduous forest, plantations of deciduous and coniferous trees), all situated in the Český kras Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic, Central Europe. Number of sites sampled in each fragment of forest depended on its size and ranged from 1 to 7. Altogether 30 sites were sampled. Soil samples (5 per site collected twice a year) and pitfall trapping (5 traps per site in continuous operation throughout a year) during 2008-2009 yielded a total of 14 species of terrestrial isopods. The highest densities and highest epigeic activities of terrestrial isopods were recorded in the smallest fragments of woodland. Although a wider range of habitats were sampled in the larger fragments of woodland there was not a greater diversity of species there and the population densities and epigeic activities recorded there were lower. Porcellium collicola was most abundant in small fragments of woodland regardless the vegetation there. Armadillidium vulgare and Protracheoniscus politus were statistically more abundant in the larger fragments of woodland. The results indicate that forest fragmentation does not necessarily result in a decrease in the species richness of the isopod assemblages in such habitats.

  3. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipusrathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticusconvexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species' brood pouch: in Trachelipusrathkii, a 'clinger' type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticusconvexus, a 'roller' type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites' cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipusrathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticusconvexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine structure of the oostegites and cotyledons is hardly affected by the eco-morphological type, specifically the conglobating or non-conglobating character of the studied species.

  4. Toxicity of abamectin to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Kolar, Lucija; Jemec, Anita; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Valant, Janez; Hrzenjak, Rok; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh; Zidar, Primoz

    2010-06-01

    To determine effects of the antiparasitic veterinary drug abamectin on the isopod Porcellio scaber, animals were exposed for 21 days to Lufa 2.2 soil spiked at concentrations of 3-300 mg/kg dry soil. After exposure, abamectin residues in the isopods were analysed using a novel analytical method. Toxicity was evaluated on different levels of biological organisation: biochemical, cellular and the individual organism. Measurements included glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and stability of cell membranes in the digestive gland, animal mass gain or loss, food consumption, behaviour and mortality. LC50 for the effect of abamectin on survival of P. scaber was 71 mg/kg dry soil. The most obvious sublethal effects were reduced food consumption and decreased body mass (NOEC 3 mg/kg dry soil). Additionally, loss of digging activity and reduced GST activity (NOEC 30 mg/kg dry soil) and cell membrane destabilization (NOEC 10 mg/kg dry soil) were recorded. Abamectin only slightly accumulated in the isopods, with bioaccumulation factors always being <0.1. Based on these results and current information on environmental levels of abamectin, it is not likely that isopods will be affected by abamectin, but further studies with exposure through faeces are recommended.

  5. Metallothioneins and heat shock proteins 70 in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea) exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Giannetto, A; Brundo, M V; Maisano, M; Ferrante, M; Copat, C; Mauceri, A; Longo, G

    2015-06-01

    The heavy metals bioaccumulation capability in Armadillidium vulgare feeded with chestnut leaves contaminated with various sublethal concentrations of Cd and Pb, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The metal concentration found in the hepatopancreas of treated animals, as measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), affected the expression and localization of MT and HSP70 as shown by immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. The Cd content of the animals treated with the various concentrations of the metal has been always higher than that of chestnut leaves contaminated. The accumulation of Pb was, instead, always modest compared to the content of the chestnut leaves. The immunohistochemical investigation in hepatopancreas tissue of animals treated with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb, by using the anti-MT and anti-HSP70 antibodies, has provided a response clearly positive even if differentiated in relation to the metal and concentration tested. In particular, a positive response to anti-MT antibody was detected in B and S cells nuclei and S cells cytoplasm; the localization of HSP70 was particularly intense at the cell surface. Western blotting analysis showed significant up-regulation of the expression (about 2.6 fold) of HSP70 proteins in the hepatopancreas of animals exposed to highest Pb concentrations respect to control. Moreover, samples exposed to higher Cd and Pb concentrations showed a higher expression of MT (3.2 fold and 4 fold respectively) compared to control. In summary, our data beyond to clearly demonstrate for the first time the expression of MT in terrestrial isopods, suggest that A. vulgare would be a suitable organism for assessing Cd and Pb exposure in environments threatened by metal pollution as suggested by the modulation of the biomarkers MT and HSP70.

  6. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Lapanje, A; Drobne, D; Nolde, N; Valant, J; Muscet, B; Leser, V; Rupnik, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10microg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed.

  7. Copper tolerance and genetic diversity of Porcellionides sexfasciatus (ISOPODA) in a highly contaminated mine habitat.

    PubMed

    Costa, Dalila; Bouchon, Didier; van Straalen, Nico M; Sousa, José Paulo; Ribeiro, Rui

    2013-04-01

    Organisms inhabiting metal-contaminated areas may develop metal tolerance, with either phenotypic adjustments or genetic changes (adaptation) or with both. In the present study, three populations of the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides sexfasciatus, collected at an abandoned mine area, were compared to assess the effects of metal contamination on tolerance to lethal and sublethal levels of copper, through comparison of survival, avoidance, and feeding. The effects of metal contamination on genetic diversity were considered using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. No evidence of increased metal tolerance of the population inhabiting the contaminated site was found. There was no correlation between metal exposure and within-population genetic variance, but the three populations were clearly separated from each other. In conclusion, the populations of P. sexfasciatus in the mine landscape live rather isolated from each other and show no differential tolerance to Cu or indications of genetic erosion. Their phenotypic plasticity provides a means to survive despite exposure to extremely high metal concentrations in the soil.

  8. The Global Diversity of Parasitic Isopods Associated with Crustacean Hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason D.; Boyko, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans) are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ∼7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species) and intermediate (pelagic copepod) host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species), with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species), East Asian Sea (120 species), and Central Indian Ocean (44 species). The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts) are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species) followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively). Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids) exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species) with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts) show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species) and North East Atlantic (8 species). Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago) hold a wealth of undescribed species, reflecting our knowledge of host diversity patterns. PMID:22558143

  9. Nerocila benrosei n. sp. (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), an external parasite of hogfishes from the northern Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Bunkley-Williams, L; Williams, E H

    1999-12-01

    Nerocila benrosei n. sp. is described from the hogfish, Lachnolaimus maximus (Walbaum), and the Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus (Linnaeus), (Perciformes: Labridae) from the northern Bahamas. Nerocila benrosei differs from all species of Nerocila by having the body of females 1.4-1.9 times as wide as long, instead of 2.0-3.0 times, and pleopods 1 and 2 lacking accessory lamellae. It differs from the only species of Nerocila with which it overlaps geographically, N. lanceolata (Say, 1818), by having the lateral margins of pleonites 1-5 strongly produced ventrally, coxae 5-7 manifestly shorter than the posterolateral projection of the respective pereonite, and a vaulted dorsal surface. The species of Nerocila in the northwestern Atlantic have almost mutually exclusive geographic ranges: New England to Panama, including Bermuda and the northern coast of Cuba (Nerocila lanceolata); Brazil to Trinidad and Tobago (Nerocila fluviatilis Schiödte and Meinert, 1881); and the northern Bahamas and Bermuda (Nerocila benrosei). No species of Nerocila have been reported from the insular Caribbean. Nerocila benrosei appears to be highly host and site specific.

  10. The best timing of mate search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods.

  11. Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

  12. Heavy metal toxicity in Exosphaeroma gigas (Crustacea, Isopoda) from the coastal zone of Beagle Channel.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Comoglio, Laura; Amin, Oscar

    2007-11-01

    Acute toxicity of copper, cadmium, and zinc on isopod Exosphaeroma gigas was evaluated at 20 per thousand and 30 per thousand salinity. Six concentrations were assayed to estimate effective concentration of the toxicant that affects 50% of tested animal (EC50), while physiological responses and bioaccumulation were determined at 0.42 and 1.95 mg L(-1) of each metal. The following toxicity orders were obtained: Cd>or=Cu>Zn at 20 per thousand salinity and Cu>Zn>or=Cd at 30 per thousand salinity. Copper treatments showed a reduction in oxygen consumption at 30 per thousand salinity, while an opposite trend was observed at 20 per thousand salinity. Zinc caused dissimilar effects, while in cadmium significant reduction was only registered in 0.42(20 per thousand) mg L(-1). Ammonia excretion was generally higher in treatments than control at 20 per thousand salinity. At 30 per thousand salinity, excretion did not change in relation to control or diminished. In general terms, O:N atomic ratios indicated a preponderant protein metabolism. Bioaccumulation of assayed metals was higher at lowest salinity and increased with increasing toxic concentrations.

  13. Eleven nominal species of Burmoniscus are junior synonyms of B. kathmandius (Schmalfuss, 1983) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Karasawa, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Holotypes, paratypes, and specimens newly collected from the type localities (i.e., topotypes) of Burmoniscus aokii (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus boninensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus daitoensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus hachijoensis Nunomura, 2007, Burmoniscus japonicus (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus kagoshimaensis Nunomura, 2003, Burmoniscus murotoensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus okinawaensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus shibatai (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus tanabensis Nunomura, 2003, and Burmoniscus watanabei (Nunomura, 1986) were examined in order to clarify their taxonomic status. Observation of 13 morphological characters that were purposed to show species-level diagnostic variations in the original descriptions suggests that all eleven nominal species are identical, and molecular analysis based on three gene fragments supports this suggestion. Additionally, the morphology of the carpus of pereopod 1 and of the endo- and exopodites of pleopod 1 of these species are consistent with those of Burmoniscus kathmandius (Schmalfuss, 1983). The eleven above-mentioned species of Burmoniscus described from Japan are therefore relegated to junior synonyms of Burmoniscus kathmandius, originally reported from Nepal. PMID:27551227

  14. Composition and distribution of selected munnopsid genera (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) in Icelandic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, Sarah; Brandt, Angelika; Brix, Saskia; Fiorentino, Dario; Malyutina, Marina; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2014-02-01

    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a major topographic feature, extending from Greenland to Scotland. It constrains the water exchange between the northernmost North Atlantic Ocean and the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas (GIN Seas) and thus forms a potential barrier for faunal exchange from the Arctic to the North Atlantic (and vice versa). Recently an increase in Atlantic water inflow has been observed, leading to changes in physical parameters (i.e. temperature and salinity), which may have an impact on the resident fauna. In this study, we analyzed the composition and distribution of six selected genera of the isopod family Munnopsidae (Crustacea) occurring north and south of the GSR. We examined 82 epibenthic sledge samples and 26 additional sub-samples taken in the course of the Benthic Invertebrates of Icelandic Waters (BIOICE) and Icelandic Marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology (IceAGE) projects, respectively, covering a total depth range from 103 to 2752 m depth. Overall, 58 of the evaluated stations originated in the area north of the GSR, while the remaining 50 samples were collected south of the ridge. In total, 10517 individuals could be assigned to 15 species, most belonging to the genus EurycopeSars, 1864. Due to the presence of the GSR as well as differences in the environment, we expected significant dissimilarities in faunal composition between the two study areas. However, most species (8) occurred on both sides of the ridge, while four species were restricted to the region north of Iceland, and three to the region south of the ridge. Depth (or factors related to depth) appeared to be the most important factor in driving distributional patterns of the studied species. Temperature was also an important driver, but not to the same extent as depth. On the contrary, salinity and sediment type did not have much influence on munnopsid distribution patterns. Hence, the presence of the ridge does not restrict faunal exchange between the northern North Atlantic Ocean and GIN Seas for most of the investigated species, which may be explained by the good swimming abilities and the ecological flexibility of these munnopsid species.

  15. The Best Timing of Mate Search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

  16. The role of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in litter decomposition and soil organic matter stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalodova, Alexandra; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Armadilidum vulgare is common terrestrial isopod in Europe which is also important invasive species in North America. In ienvasive range it can reach densities up to 10 000 individuals per m square, consume all litter fall and substantially effect litter mineralisation and nutrient release. Here we are focusing on the effects of A. vulgare feeding on organic matter decomposition and stabilization. During 65 weeks laboratory experiment we observed the microbial activity of intact leaf litter (Acer pseudoplatanus), faecal pellets of terrestrial isopods (Armadillidium vulgare) produced from the same litter and unconsumed residues of this litter. Simultaneously we compared the response of microbial activity of excrements and litter to changes of humidity, temperature and addition of easily decomposable substances. Microbial respiration of faecal pellets was lower than microbial respiration of intact leaf litter or unconsumed litter residues. At the same time moisture and temperature fluctuations and addition of easily decomposable substances led to much higher increase in respiration in litter than in faecal pellets. As a conclusion, processing of litter by soil macrofauna slowed down microbial respiration and made it less sensitive to environmental fluctuation. 13C NMR spectra from excrements indicated preferential loss of polysaccharide-carbon and accumulation of lignin with some modification to the O-aromatic-C. Thermochemolysis showed that not only amount of lignin increased in litter but also its quality changed. Guaiacyl units were depleted, which indicate breakdown of guaiacyl associated with gut passage.

  17. Ligia italica (Isopoda, Oniscidea) as bioindicator of mercury pollution of marine rocky coasts.

    PubMed

    Longo, Guglielmo; Trovato, Michelanna; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita; Conti, Gea Oliveri

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the possible role of Ligia italica as a bioindicator for the monitoring of heavy metals pollution in the suppralittoral zone of marine rocky coasts. Between 2004 and 2011 specimens of L. italica were collected along the Eastern Sicilian coasts from sites known for their high pollution levels as they are near to an area where in September 2001 a refinery plant discharged into the sea some waste containing Hg. Other specimens were collected from the Vendicari Natural Reserve located about 30 miles from the polluted sites and used as control area. On a consistent number of animals, the concentration in toto of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. On other animals, investigations were carried out in order to check for ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas, that is the main metals storage organ in isopods. Results revealed the presence, in the animals collected in 2004 from the polluted sites, of considerable concentrations of Hg and of lower concentrations of other metals such as As, Pb and V. The Hg bioaccumulation resulted in remarkable ultrastructural alterations of the two cellular types (B and S cells) in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas. Surprisingly, a moderate amount of Hg was also found in specimens collected in 2004 from the Vendicari Natural Reserve, proving that the Hg pollution can also spread many miles away. Animals collected from the polluted sites in the following years showed a progressively decreasing Hg content, reaching very low levels in those from the last sampling. Also, the ultrastructural alterations found in the hepatopancreas of the animals from the last sample were quite irrelevant. In conclusion, Ligia italica can represent a good bioindicator and the ultrastructure of the hepatopancreas could be used as ultrastructural biomarker of heavy metals pollution in the supralittoral zones.

  18. Toxicity of copper to Porcellio scaber Latr. (Isopoda) under different nutritional status

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, S.; Fischer, E.; Hornung, E.

    1996-12-31

    Isopods are members of the soil fauna important in decomposition. Their role in the decomposition of leaf litter in forest soils has been reported for many years. Isopods are reported to contain high concentrations of cooper in their haemolymph (70 mg/ml) and in hepatopancreas (216 mg/g d.w.) (Gunnarson and Hedlund 1987). The role that copper plays in the physiology and ecology of terrestrial isopods was first examined in detail by Wieser, Dallinger and Dallinger and Wieser. Furthermore, Wieser and Wieser et al. showed that copper concentrations of terrestrial isopods reflect the degree of environmental soil and litter contamination. In the last decade, pollution of the environment with heavy metals has led many environmental scientists to search for suitable methods to monitor distribution and effects of such pollution. Laboratory tests using terrestrial isopods are recommended for assessing the ecotoxicological effects of chemicals. Isopods are able to accumulate large amounts of several metals in their hepatopancrea therefore they are useful biological indicators of metal pollution. Because of its worldwide distribution and the high metal accumulation capacity, Hopkin et al. proposed that Porcellio scaber could be a suitable {open_quotes}bioindicator{close_quotes} of metal contaminated soils. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. New potential host for Ryukyua globosa (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Parangipettai, Southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ramesh, Mathan; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2016-12-01

    In the present study Ryukyua globosa parasitic isopod on the marine fishes of the Parangipettai coast are reported. R. globosa was found attached in the gill chamber of Sardinella gibbosa. The attachment position of Ryukyua species differs from that of other member of this genus. Until now, R. globosa was only reported on Amblygaster sirm and A.leiogaster. S.gibbosa is a new host record for R.globosa. R. globosa, branchial parasites, already known from Japan and is now recorded from the Southeast coast of India.

  20. Amorphous and crystalline calcium carbonate distribution in the tergite cuticle of moulting Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Neues, Frank; Hild, Sabine; Epple, Matthias; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    The main mineral components of the isopod cuticle consists of crystalline magnesium calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate. During moulting isopods moult first the posterior and then the anterior half of the body. In terrestrial species calcium carbonate is subject to resorption, storage and recycling in order to retain significant fractions of the mineral during the moulting cycle. We used synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis and Raman spectroscopy to quantify the ACC/calcite ratio, the mineral phase distribution and the composition within the anterior and posterior tergite cuticle during eight different stages of the moulting cycle of Porcellio scaber. The results show that most of the amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is resorbed from the cuticle, whereas calcite remains in the old cuticle and is shed during moulting. During premoult resorption of ACC from the posterior cuticle is accompanied by an increase within the anterior tergites, and mineralization of the new posterior cuticle by resorption of mineral from the anterior cuticle. This suggests that one reason for using ACC in cuticle mineralization is to facilitate resorption and recycling of cuticular calcium carbonate. Furthermore we show that ACC precedes the formation of calcite in distal layers of the tergite cuticle.

  1. Riggia puyensis n. sp. (Isopoda: Cymothoidae) parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haro, C Rodríguez; Montes, M M; Marcotegui, P; Martorelli, S R

    2017-02-01

    A new isopod was found parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps from the Puyo and Bobonaza rivers. The parasite found belongs to the Cymothoidae family and could be located within the genus Riggia instead of Artystone by the presence of abdominal plates fused with the telson. The specimens found represent a new species, Riggia puyensis n. sp., and could be distinguished from Riggia cryptocularis by the presence of developed eyes. The main difference of the new specie from Riggia nana and Riggia brasiliensis is the size, bigger compared with the first and smaller compared with the last species. Riggia acuticaudata have the maxilliped with simple setae, the palp without spination, and maxillule with five spines (two terminal and three subterminal) instead in R. puyensis n. sp. the maxilliped have plumose setae, the palp have spination (with one apical spine, two setae on middle article and one in the basal article) and the maxillule have five spines: two terminal, two subterminal and other spine lower to the others. Riggia paranaensis have similar size, same number of segments in the antena, and similar maxilla to R. puyensis n. sp., but the antennule in the new specie have seven segments instead 6 in R. paranaensis, the antennule and antenna present spines not mentioned in R. paranaensis. Besides, the relative position of the mandible in R. puyensis n. sp. is different compared with R. paranaensis, the maxillule have the same number of spines but with different disposition, and the maxilliped have simple setae in R. paranaensis but those are plumose in the new specie.

  2. Riggia puyensis n. sp. (Isopoda: Cymothoidae) parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Haro, C; Montes, M M; Marcotegui, P; Martorelli, S R

    2017-03-01

    A new isopod was found parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps from the Puyo and Bobonaza rivers. The parasite found belongs to the Cymothoidae family and could be located within the genus Riggia instead of Artystone by the presence of abdominal plates fused with the telson. The specimens found represent a new species, Riggia puyensis n. sp., and could be distinguished from Riggia cryptocularis by the presence of developed eyes. The main difference of the new specie from Riggia nana and Riggia brasiliensis is the size, bigger compared with the first and smaller compared with the last species. Riggia acuticaudata have the maxilliped with simple setae, the palp without spination, and maxillule with five spines (two terminal and three subterminal) instead in R. puyensis n. sp. the maxilliped have plumose setae, the palp have spination (with one apical spine, two setae on middle article and one in the basal article) and the maxillule have five spines: two terminal, two subterminal and other spine lower to the others. Riggia paranaensis have similar size, same number of segments in the antena, and similar maxilla to R. puyensis n. sp., but the antennule in the new specie have seven segments instead 6 in R. paranaensis, the antennule and antenna present spines not mentioned in R. paranaensis. Besides, the relative position of the mandible in R. puyensis n. sp. is different compared with R. paranaensis, the maxillule have the same number of spines but with different disposition, and the maxilliped have simple setae in R. paranaensis but those are plumose in the new specie.

  3. Formation of the hindgut cuticular lining during embryonic development of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Mrak, Polona; Bogataj, Urban; Štrus, Jasna; Žnidaršič, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The hindgut and foregut in terrestrial isopod crustaceans are ectodermal parts of the digestive system and are lined by cuticle, an apical extracellular matrix secreted by epithelial cells. Morphogenesis of the digestive system was reported in previous studies, but differentiation of the gut cuticle was not followed in detail. This study is focused on ultrastructural analyses of hindgut apical matrices and cuticle in selected intramarsupial developmental stages of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in comparison to adult animals to obtain data on the hindgut cuticular lining differentiation. Our results show that in late embryos of stages 16 and 18 the apical matrix in the hindgut consists of loose material overlaid by a thin intensely ruffled electron dense lamina facing the lumen. The ultrastructural resemblance to the embryonic epidermal matrices described in several arthropods suggests a common principle in chitinous matrix differentiation. The hindgut matrix in the prehatching embryo of stage 19 shows characteristics of the hindgut cuticle, specifically alignment to the apical epithelial surface and a prominent electron dense layer of epicuticle. In the preceding embryonic stage – stage 18 – an electron dense lamina, closely apposed to the apical cell membrane, is evident and is considered as the first epicuticle formation. In marsupial mancae the advanced features of the hindgut cuticle and epithelium are evident: a more prominent epicuticular layer, formation of cuticular spines and an extensive apical labyrinth. In comparison to the hindgut cuticle of adults, the hindgut cuticle of marsupial manca and in particular the electron dense epicuticular layer are much thinner and the difference between cuticle architecture in the anterior chamber and in the papillate region is not yet distinguishable. Differences from the hindgut cuticle in adults imply not fully developed structure and function of the hindgut cuticle in marsupial manca, possibly related also to different environments, as mancae develop in marsupial fluid. Bacteria, evenly distributed within the homogenous electron dense material in the hindgut lumen, were observed only in one specimen of early marsupial manca. The morphological features of gut cuticle renewal are evident in the late marsupial mancae, and are similar to those observed in the exoskeleton. PMID:26261443

  4. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipus rathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticus convexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species’ brood pouch: in Trachelipus rathkii, a ‘clinger’ type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticus convexus, a ‘roller’ type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites’ cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipus rathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticus convexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine structure of the oostegites and cotyledons is hardly affected by the eco-morphological type, specifically the conglobating or non-conglobating character of the studied species. PMID:26261442

  5. Ligia italica (Isopoda, Oniscidea) as Bioindicator of Mercury Pollution of Marine Rocky Coasts

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Guglielmo; Trovato, Michelanna; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita; Conti, Gea Oliveri

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the possible role of Ligia italica as a bioindicator for the monitoring of heavy metals pollution in the suppralittoral zone of marine rocky coasts. Between 2004 and 2011 specimens of L. italica were collected along the Eastern Sicilian coasts from sites known for their high pollution levels as they are near to an area where in September 2001 a refinery plant discharged into the sea some waste containing Hg. Other specimens were collected from the Vendicari Natural Reserve located about 30 miles from the polluted sites and used as control area. On a consistent number of animals, the concentration in toto of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. On other animals, investigations were carried out in order to check for ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas, that is the main metals storage organ in isopods. Results revealed the presence, in the animals collected in 2004 from the polluted sites, of considerable concentrations of Hg and of lower concentrations of other metals such as As, Pb and V. The Hg bioaccumulation resulted in remarkable ultrastructural alterations of the two cellular types (B and S cells) in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas. Surprisingly, a moderate amount of Hg was also found in specimens collected in 2004 from the Vendicari Natural Reserve, proving that the Hg pollution can also spread many miles away. Animals collected from the polluted sites in the following years showed a progressively decreasing Hg content, reaching very low levels in those from the last sampling. Also, the ultrastructural alterations found in the hepatopancreas of the animals from the last sample were quite irrelevant. In conclusion, Ligia italica can represent a good bioindicator and the ultrastructure of the hepatopancreas could be used as ultrastructural biomarker of heavy metals pollution in the supralittoral zones. PMID:23472204

  6. New pigment pattern of the polychromatic Mesanthura protei, Kensley 1980 (Isopoda, Cymothoida, Anthuroidea) from Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Melvin; Rahim, Azman Bin Abdul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Binti Mohd

    2015-09-01

    A female Mesanthura protei, Kensley 1980 with a new polychromatic pigment pattern found from dead coral rubbles in the shallow water coral reef area of Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia is described. The present species is the fifth colour morph of M. protei. In addition, it is distinctive in having irregular spotted pigment pattern (1) between the eyes and (2) pereonites and pleonites dorsally.

  7. Calcium bodies of Titanethes albus (Crustacea: Isopoda): molt-related structural dynamics and calcified matrix-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Kostanjšek, Rok; Znidaršič, Nada; Zagar, Kristina; Ceh, Miran; Strus, Jasna

    2012-10-01

    Crustaceans form a variety of calcium deposits in which they store calcium necessary for the mineralization of their exoskeletons. Calcium bodies, organs containing large amounts of calcium, have been reported in some terrestrial isopod crustaceans, but have not yet been extensively studied. We analyzed the architecture of these organs during the molt cycle in the isopod Titanethes albus. Two pairs of calcium bodies are positioned ventrolaterally in posterior pereonites of T. albus. Individual organs are epithelial sacs that contain material arranged in concentric layers delimited by thin laminae. As demonstrated by electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization, abundant bacteria are present within the calcium bodies. Regardless of the molt cycle stage, crystalline concretions are present in the central areas of the calcium bodies. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry of the concretions demonstrated that they are composed predominantly of calcium and phosphorus and selected area electron diffraction indicated the presence of hydroxyapatite. In molting animals, a glassy layer of mineralized matrix is formed between the envelope and the outermost lamina of the calcium body. This layer consists of an amorphous calcium mineral which contains less phosphorus than the central concretions and is resorbed after molt. Since changes in the mineralized matrix are synchronized with the molt cycle, the calcium bodies likely function as a storage compartment that complements sternal deposits as a source of calcium for the mineralization of the exoskeleton. Bacteria associated with the mineralized matrix of calcium bodies are evidently involved in calcium dynamics.

  8. Gnathia pantherina sp. n. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidae), a temporary ectoparasite of some elasmobranch species from southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Smit, Nico J; Basson, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Haematophagous larvae of a gnathiid isopod were collected from the gills, nares and buccal cavity of a single leopard catshark Poroderma pantherinum (Smith, 1838) at Jeffreys Bay and five puffadder shysharks Haploblepharus edwardsii (Voight, 1832) and one blackspotted electric ray Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters, 1855, at the De Hoop Nature Reserve on the South African south coast. Larvae were kept in fresh seawater until their moult into adult stages. The morphology of the adult males did not conform to that of any known species and they are therefore described as Gnathia pantherina sp. n. The descriptions of the adult male, female and praniza larva are based on light and scanning electron microscopy observations. Characteristic features of this species include the large size of all the final life-cycle stages, the deeply divided mediofrontal process of the male, the morphology of the pylopods and maxillipedes of the female, and the number of teeth on the mandibles (eight) and maxillules (seven) of the praniza larvae.

  9. A new species of Dolicholana Bruce, 1986 (Isopoda, Cymothoidea, Cirolanidae), the first record of the genus from the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Ricardo J C; Souza-Filho, Jesser F

    2015-11-05

    The isopod genus Dolicholana Bruce, 1986, previously known only from the Indo-West Pacific, is recorded for the first time from the Atlantic Ocean. A new species, Dolicholana brucei sp. nov., is described from the northeastern Brazilian coast, and is the first record of the genus Dolicholana Bruce, 1986 for the Atlantic Ocean. The material was collected from the upper part of the continental slope off Rio Grande do Norte (150 m depth). The new species is characterized by pereopod 1 propodal palm being crenulate, ischium of pereopod 1 and 2 with a plumose seta on the anterior margin, peduncle of pleopods 3-5 bearing an accessory lobe acute on the distolateral angle, pleotelson posterior margin being rounded, and the uropodal endopod and the exopod apices distally being rounded. A revised key to the genus is provided.

  10. [First report in Panama on Nerocila californica Schioedte and Meinert 1881 (Isopoda: Cymothoidea) in Sciaenops ocellatus (L) (Pisces: Sciaenidae)].

    PubMed

    Garcés, H A

    1993-01-01

    One juvenile specimen of the isopod Nerocila californica (acuminata form) was found on the skin of a cage-raised red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, in Aguadulce, Cocle Province. This finding is the first report of the occurrence of Nerocila californica as ectoparasitic of fishes on the Pacific side of the Republic of Panama.

  11. Parallels between two geographically and ecologically disparate cave invasions by the same species, Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Konec, M; Prevorčnik, S; Sarbu, S M; Verovnik, R; Trontelj, P

    2015-04-01

    Caves are long-known examples of evolutionary replications where similar morphologies (troglomorphies) evolve independently as the result of strong natural selection of the extreme environment. Recently, this paradigm has been challenged based on observations that troglomorphies are inconsistent across taxa and different subterranean habitats. We investigated the degree of replicated phenotypic change in two independent cave invasions by the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus; the first in a sulphidic aquifer in Romania, the second in a sinking river in the Dinaric Karst in Slovenia. Both ancestral surface populations still live alongside the subterranean ones. Phylogenetic analyses show independence of the two colonization events, and microsatellite analysis shows no evidence of ongoing genetic exchange between surface and subterranean ecomorphs. The overall morphology has changed dramatically at both sites (50 of 62 morphometric traits). The amount of phenotypic change did not reflect differences in genetic diversity between the two ancestral populations. Multivariate analyses revealed divergent evolution in caves, not parallel or convergent as predicted by the current paradigm. Still, 18 traits changed in a parallel fashion, including eye and pigment loss and antennal elongation. These changes might be a consequence of darkness as the only common ecological feature, because Romanian caves are chemoautotrophic and rich in food, whereas Slovenian caves are not. Overall, these results show that morphologically alike surface populations can diverge after invading different subterranean habitats, and that only about one-third of all changing traits behave as troglomorphies in the traditional sense.

  12. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod ( Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalec, Živa Pipan; Drobne, Damjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Štrus, Jasna; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Remškar, Maja

    2011-10-01

    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  13. Bioaccumulation in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) as a measure of the EDTA remediation efficiency of metal-polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Udovic, Metka; Drobne, Damjana; Lestan, Domen

    2009-10-01

    Leaching using EDTA applied to a Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil significantly reduced soil metal concentrations and the pool of metals in labile soil fractions. Metal mobility (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), phytoavailability (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extraction) and human oral-bioavailability (Physiologically Based Extraction Test) were reduced by 85-92%, 68-91% and 88-95%, respectively. The metal accumulation capacity of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) was used as in vivo assay of metal bioavailability, before and after soil remediation. After feeding on metal contaminated soil for two weeks, P. scaber accumulated Pb, Zn and Cd in a concentration dependent manner. The amounts of accumulated metals were, however, higher than expected on the basis of extraction (in vitro) tests. The combined results of chemical extractions and the in vivo test with P. scaber provide a more relevant picture of the availability stripping of metals after soil remediation.

  14. 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis', an intracellular bacterium from the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2004-03-01

    Intracellular bacteria were observed in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopic observations were used to determine the taxonomic position of these intracellular bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis and a complex developmental cycle affiliate these bacteria to the order Chlamydiales, within which they form a distinctive lineage, close to the family Simkaniaceae. They share <92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with their closest relative and <88 % similarity with other members of the order Chlamydiales. A specific signature oligonucleotide sequence was identified and used as a probe, enabling the identification of intracellular bacteria in infected hepatopancreatic tissue. According to the distinctive morphology of their elementary bodies, which are rod-shaped rather than spherical and contain translucent oblong structures, their genomic properties and their crustacean host, the name 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis' is proposed for intracellular bacteria in the hepatopancreas of P. scaber.

  15. Mineral deposition in bacteria-filled and bacteria-free calcium bodies in the crustacean Hyloniscus riparius (Isopoda: Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Rozman, Alenka; Grdadolnik, Jože; Novak, Urban; Štrus, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Crustacean calcium bodies are epithelial sacs which contain a mineralized matrix. The objectives of this study were to describe the microscopic anatomy of calcium bodies in the terrestrial isopod Hyloniscus riparius and to establish whether they undergo molt-related structural changes. We performed 3D reconstruction of the calcium bodies from paraffin sections and analyzed their structure with light and electron microscopy. In addition, we analyzed the chemical composition of their mineralized matrices with micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two pairs of these organs are present in H. riparius. One pair is filled with bacteria while the other pair is not. In non-molting animals, the bacteria-filled calcium bodies contain apatite crystals and the bacteria-free calcium bodies enclose CaCO3-containing concretions with little organic matrix. During preparation for molt, an additional matrix layer is deposited in both pairs of calcium bodies. In the bacteria-filled calcium bodies it contains a mixture of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate, whereas only calcium carbonate is present in bacteria-free calcium bodies. After ecdysis, all mineral components in bacteria-free calcium bodies and the additional matrix layer in bacteria-filled calcium bodies are completely resorbed. During calcium resorption, the apical surface of the calcium body epithelium is deeply folded and electron dense granules are present in spaces between epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the presence of bacteria might be linked to calcium phosphate mineralization. Calcium bodies likely provide a source of calcium and potentially phosphate for the mineralization of the new cuticle after molt. Unlike other terrestrial isopods, H. riparius does not form sternal CaCO3 deposits and the bacteria-free calcium bodies might functionally replace them in this species.

  16. Sperm storage, sperm translocation and genitalia formation in females of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Peracarida, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andreas; Suzuki, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated sperm storage, sperm transfer from the oviduct to the seminal receptacle, and formation of the cuticular genitalia in female Armadillidium vulgare using light and electron microscopy. Apolysis of the genitalia within the oviduct forms a circum-genital lumen. During insemination this space is filled with immobile spermatozoa. Sperm transfer into the seminal receptacle takes place before oviposition. Within a peculiar proximal neck region of the oviduct spermatozoa are bundled and enveloped by a folded epicuticular layer. The envelope tightly surrounds the spermatozoa probably forming a seal against the main part of the circum-genital lumen. We propose that hydrostatic pressure produced by the muscle cells surrounding the oviduct leads to sperm transfer into the seminal receptacle. Within the seminal receptacle the sperm bundle forms a ring just around the orifice to the oviduct. At one side sheath-like extensions of epithelial cells surround the ring of spermatozoa holding it in place. At the other side oocytes would have access to the sperm during oviposition, probably allowing for fertilisation when they pass right through the ring of spermatozoa. After oviposition the new genitalia are formed from epicuticular folds, and cuticle secreted by the epithelial cells.

  17. Iranian terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae Verhoeff, 1949 with a description of a new species (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Ghasem M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, the terrestrial isopods of the family Cylisticidae in Iran are investigated. Geographical distributions of two formerly reported species from Iran, namely Cylisticoides angulatus Schmalfuss, 2003 and Cylisticus rotundifrons (Schmalfuss, 1986), are expanded. Cylisticus masalicus sp. n. is described and its diagnostic characters are figured. PMID:27199591

  18. Endogenous origin of endo-β-1,4-glucanase in common woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Milatovič, Maša; Strus, Jasna

    2010-11-01

    Because endogenous cellulases have been observed in arthropods, the potential ability to produce cellulose degrading enzymes was examined in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, an important decomposer of decayed plant material. cDNA fragments encoding portions of two novel endo-β-1,4-glucanase amino acid sequences were amplified by RT-PCR, and the amino acid sequences predicted were affiliated to endo-β-1,4-glucanases from other arthropods, where they cluster with endo-β-1,4-glucanases of decapod crustaceans. Hybridization in situ reveals the hepatopancreas to be the primary site of gene expression and provides direct evidence of the endogenous origin of endo-β-1,4-glucanase in P. scaber. Conservation of catalytically important amino acid residues suggests that both sequences translate into functional cellulases. Cellulolytic activity was detected in hepatopancreatic extract after separation by SDS-PAGE, which included CMC as substrate. This is the first evidence of endogenous cellulases in peracarid crustaceans and gives strong support for the involvement of isopod endo-β-1,4-glucanases in the degradation of cellulose in their diet.

  19. Litarcturus kexueiae sp. nov., a new deep-sea isopod from the Okinawa Trough (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera, Antarcturidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenliang; Sha, Zhongli

    2015-09-11

    A new species of the genus Litarcturus Brandt, 1990, L. kexueiae sp. nov., collected from deep sea of the Okinawa Trough, is described and illustrated. It is readily distinguished from the other seven species of the genus by bearing long supraocular spines about as long as the head and posterolateral pleotelsonic spines overreaching the pleotelson apex.

  20. Demography of some non-native isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a Mid-Atlantic forest, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, Elisabeth; Szlavecz, Katalin; Dombos, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduced species dominate the terrestrial isopod fauna in most inland habitats of North America, including urban landscapes. These non-native species are often very abundant and thus potentially play a significant role in detritus processing. We monitored isopod assemblages in an urban forest for a year to examine the relationship between surface activity and abiotic environmental factors, and to analyze reproductive characteristics that might contribute to their successful establishment. Using pitfall trap samples we recorded five species, two of which, Trachelipus rathkii and Cylisticus convexus, were highly abundant. We determined size, sex and reproductive state of each individual. Surface activity of both species reflected variability in abiotic stress factors for isopods, such as soil moisture and soil temperature. Early spring the main trigger was soil temperature while later in the season increasing temperature and decreasing soil moisture jointly affected population dynamics. Activity significantly correlated with soil moisture. The temporal pattern of sex ratios supported the secondary sex ratio hypothesis. Males dominated the samples on the onset of the mating season in search of females. The pattern was reversed as females searched for suitable microsites for their offspring. Size independent fecundity decreased as conditions became more stressful late in the season. PMID:26261445

  1. Population structure and reproductive biology of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Paula Beatriz; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

    2005-11-01

    Data were obtained on the population structure and reproduction of Atlantoscia floridana, one of the most common species of terrestrial isopods in the restinga (coastal dune) forests of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. During a 19-month period, a total of 7833 individuals were sampled: 2792 males, 3400 females and 1691 mancas. There was a significant difference between the size of both males and females collected in 2000 and 2001: the mean size was smaller in the second year when individuals in the larger size classes were lacking. Population density varied with season. The minimum population was 131 ind per m 2 individuals, the maximum 1040 ind per m 2 and the mean 450 per m 2. While the overall sex ratio was clearly female biased, the operational sex ratio favored males, and showed no changes with season. Because both ovigerous and post-ovigerous females were present throughout the year, reproduction is considered continuous; however, reproduction peaked during autumn and spring. Ovigerous females were measured (CW = cephalothorax width) and the number of eggs was counted. Fecundity (F) varied from 5 to 23 eggs ( x¯ = 11.18 ± 4) per female, and was expressed by the regression F = -18.48 + 22.59 CW, with the female cephalothorax width varying from 1.04 to 1.68 mm. Marsupial mortality was only 0.9%. Egg production was 588 eggs per m 2 in spring and 660 eggs per m 2 in autumn. Recruitment occurred in all months, and eggs, embryos and marsupial mancas were also present year-round. A. floridana is the dominant species of terrestrial isopod in the study area. Its most remarkable characteristic is its high reproductive investment.

  2. Paguristione uniuropodus, a new genus and a new species of Pseudioninae infesting hermit crabs from China (Crustacea, Isopoda, Bopyridae)

    PubMed Central

    An, Jianmei; Zhao, Qiuping; Markham, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Paguristione uniuropodus gen. n., sp. n. infests Paguristes sp. in the East China Sea. Paguristione gen. n. differs from the closely related genera Pseudione and Pagurion by its females having indistinct lateral plates on the last two pleomeres and its male with a long tapering pleon of six pleomeres, lacking both pleopoda and uropoda. PMID:27110188

  3. Dubinectes infirmus, a new species of deep-water Munnopsidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Argentine Basin, South Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Malyutina, Marina; Brandt, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dubinectes infirmus sp. n., Munnopsidae, is described from the Argentine Basin, southwest Atlantic, at depths between 4586–4607 m. The new species is distinguished by a narrow rim of the pleotelson posterior margin which is not raising over its dorsal surface; article 3 of the antennula is subequal in length to article 2; distomedial lobes of male pleopod 1 are of same size as distolateral lobes; stylet of male pleopod 2 is subequal in length to protopod; uropod exopod is more than a half of endopod length. Some generic characters which are weakly pronounced in the new species or have different state are defined more precisely in the revised diagnosis of Dubinectes. The modified diagnosis of the genus, a key to the species of Dubinectes as well as the distribution of the genus are presented. PMID:22207784

  4. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Bogyó, Dávid; Sattler, Thomas; Moretti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities. This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe(Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. Trichoniscus alemannicus, Cylindroiulus verhoeffi) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool.

  5. Behavioral evidence for internal factors affecting duration of conglobation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Crustacea). Short communication.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Hiroe; Moriyama, T

    2012-01-01

    Pill bugs individually walked an experimental pathway, then were induced to conglobate with a puff of air. After recovering, they were stimulated again. Sixty of 80 pill bugs conglobated both times, first moving either antennae (A) or legs (L) during recovery. Both AA and LL groups showed a significant positive correlation between first (t1) and second (t2) conglobation times. In the AL group, pathway locomotion time (t0) was significantly positively correlated to both t1 and t2. We conclude that pill bugs determine conglobation time based partly on their previous states.

  6. A review of the genus Heterodina Kensley & Schotte, 2005 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae) with description of a new species from Iran.

    PubMed

    Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Bruce, Niel L

    2014-11-16

    Heterodina Schotte & Kensley, 2005 is revised with Heterodina qeshmensis sp. nov., described from the subtidal zone of the Qeshm Island, southern Iran. Heterodina qeshmensis sp. nov. is characterized by: unornamented dorsal surfaces, wide and anteriorly concave epistome, and the appendix masculina with sub-parallel margins and not extending beyond the distal margin of the endopod. A key to the species is provided. The penial processes of Heterodina mccaini Schotte & Kensley, 2005 is also re-illustrated.

  7. First recorded cave-dwelling terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in Iran with a description of a new species .

    PubMed

    Kashani, Ghasem M; Malekhosseini, Mohammad-Javad; Sadeghi, Saber

    2013-11-08

    Cave-dwelling terrestrial isopods from the province of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad, southwestern Iran, are reported here. These include three accidental and one troglobitic species namely Protracheoniscus gakalicus n. sp., which is also the first recorded troglobitic species from the genus Protracheoniscus. The new species is readily distinguished by the lack of eyes and pigmentation.

  8. The agnarid terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Agnaridae) of the province of Qazvin, Iran, with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Eshaghi, Behjat; Kiabi, Bahram H; Kashani, Ghasem M

    2015-01-01

    Six species of terrestrial isopods from the province of Qazvin, central Iran, are recorded. Three species, Hemilepistusklugii (Brandt, 1833), Protracheoniscusehsani Kashani, 2014 and Mongoloniscuspersicus Kashani, 2014, were previously reported from the province. Hemilepistuselongatus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Protracheoniscusmajor (Dollfus, 1903) are recorded for the first time, and one species, Protracheoniscussarii sp. n., is described as new. The diagnostic characters of the new species are figured.

  9. Redescription of poorly known species of Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae), based on original type material

    PubMed Central

    Hadfield, Kerry A.; Bruce, Niel L.; Smit, Nico J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Due to the difficulty in accurately identifying cymothoids, these parasitic isopods are often incorrectly named or confused with other species. Within the genus Ceratothoa, a number of recent studies have aimed at clarifying some of the problematic species; however, several of the less studied species still require revision. This paper redescribes, from type material, several poorly known Ceratothoa species including Ceratothoa angulata, Ceratothoa capri, Ceratothoa carinata, Ceratothoa collaris, Ceratothoa gilberti, Ceratothoa gobii, Ceratothoa guttata, Ceratothoa italica, Ceratothoa oestroides, and Ceratothoa verrucosa, further resolving taxonomic uncertainties within the genus. PMID:27408544

  10. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Niel L

    2015-01-01

    The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota) is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region.

  11. Cirolana songkhla, a new species of brackish-water cirolanid isopod (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cirolanidae) from the lower Gulf of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rodcharoen, Eknarin; Bruce, Niel L; Pholpunthin, Pornsilp

    2014-01-01

    Cirolana songkhla sp. n. was collected from brackish-water habitats including lagoons and estuaries in the coastal zone of the lower Gulf of Thailand. C. songkhla sp. n. is described and fully illustrated; C. songkhla sp. n. can be recognized by the presence of abundant chromatophores dorsally, lack of ornamentation on the posterior pereonites, pleonites and pleotelson, the number of robust setae on the uropodal and pleotelson margins (uropod exopod lateral margin with 12-14 RS, mesial margin with 5-8 RS; endopod lateral margin with 8-10 RS, mesial margin with 11-13 RS; pleotelson with 12-15 RS) and lack of setae on the endopods of pleopods 3-5. A dichotomous key of brackish Cirolana species in Thailand is given.

  12. Molecular data reveal a highly diverse species flock within the munnopsoid deep-sea isopod Betamorpha fusiformis (Barnard, 1920) (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellota) in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Malyutina, Marina; Brandt, Angelika; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2007-08-01

    Based on our current knowledge about population genetics, phylogeography and speciation, we begin to understand that the deep sea harbours more species than suggested in the past. Deep-sea soft-sediment environment in particular hosts a diverse and highly endemic invertebrate fauna. Very little is known about evolutionary processes that generate this remarkable species richness, the genetic variability and spatial distribution of deep-sea animals. In this study, phylogeographic patterns and the genetic variability among eight populations of the abundant and widespread deep-sea isopod morphospecies Betamorpha fusiformis [Barnard, K.H., 1920. Contributions to the crustacean fauna of South Africa. 6. Further additions to the list of marine isopods. Annals of the South African Museum 17, 319-438] were examined. A fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene of 50 specimens and the complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene of 7 specimens were sequenced. The molecular data reveal high levels of genetic variability of both genes between populations, giving evidence for distinct monophyletic groups of haplotypes with average p-distances ranging from 0.0470 to 0.1440 ( d-distances: 0.0592-0.2850) of the 16S rDNA, and 18S rDNA p-distances ranging between 0.0032 and 0.0174 ( d-distances: 0.0033-0.0195). Intermediate values are absent. Our results show that widely distributed benthic deep-sea organisms of a homogeneous phenotype can be differentiated into genetically highly divergent populations. Sympatry of some genotypes indicates the existence of cryptic speciation. Flocks of closely related but genetically distinct species probably exist in other widespread benthic deep-sea asellotes and other Peracarida. Based on existing data we hypothesize that many widespread morphospecies are complexes of cryptic biological species (patchwork hypothesis).

  13. Association of Syscenus infelix (Crustacea: Isopoda: Aegidae) with benthopelagic rattail fishes, Nezumia spp. (Macrouridae), along the western North Atlantic continental slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.; Munroe, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    During submersible surveys along the continental slope (summers of 1991 and 1992, 184-847 m) between False Cape, Virginia, and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, USA, we observed the aegid isopod, Syscenus infelix Harger, attached to the macrourid Nezumia bairdii (Goode and Bean). This is the first report of S. infelix attached to fishes in the western North Atlantic. The association of this blind isopod with its host appears species specific. The large, conspicuous isopod always attached to a fish in the same location, the dorsal midline, immediately behind the first dorsal fin. Attachment appears to be long term, with the isopod forming a characteristic scar consisting of a distinct discolored oval depression with seven small, dark impressions that coalesce as the fish grows. Only one S. infelix was found on each host fish. The isopod occurred on 23.7% of N. bairdii observed from submersible on the middle continental slope off Virginia and North Carolina, compared with 16.6% of 1236 museum specimens of the same species (based on inspection for scars) collected at latitudes 26??-64??N. Prevalence of the fish-isopod association was not correlated with depth or latitude. We also found identical scars on preserved specimens of N. aequalis (2.6% of 660 specimens), N. sclerorhynchus (1.2% of 86 specimens), and N. suilla (14.3% of 7 specimens), mostly from areas outside the range of N. bairdii. No scars were found on museum specimens of N. atlantica (n = 27), N. cyrano (n = 57), or N. longebarbata (n = 7). The low incidence of isopod attachment on these species suggests that N. bairdii is the preferred host. Infestation by the isopod appears to result in erosion of host fish scales and tissue. We propose that S. infelix is an obligate associate of its host fish and should be considered parasitic.

  14. Infestation status of Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758) (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) skin parasite of the marine fish, sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) of Port Said Mediterranean Coastal Zone, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ramadan A M; Mohamadeen, Amaal; Ghobashy, Mahi A

    2011-08-01

    An isopod parasite of family Aegidea was collected from marine fish, Sardinella gibbosa (new hosts) over 2-years period from 2007 to 2008. The fish hosts were captured in the coastal waters of Port Said, Egypt. The Cymothoa sp. & Aega sp. were only collected from skin of the new host, Sardinella gibbosa, and described on the basis of female specimens. The morphological characteristics of were discussed in details. Comparing the present specimens with the previously reported Aega sp. showed that the present material belongs to the type species of the genus: Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758). Monthly and seasonal patterns in infestation rates [N=593, W +/- SD (range) =50.09 +/- 3.8 g]. Parasitic specificity and prevalence are given Mean prevalence, P = 24 +/- 5.5 and mean intensity, MI +/- SD =28.44 +/- 16.19 and total number of infestation were estimated 59 (10.35).

  15. Searching factors causing implausible non-monophyly: ssu rDNA phylogeny of Isopoda Asellota (Crustacea: Peracarida) and faster evolution in marine than in freshwater habitats.

    PubMed

    Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Holland, Barbara; Dreyer, Hermann; Hackethal, Beate

    2003-09-01

    This contribution addresses two questions: which alignment patterns are causing non-monophyly of the Asellota and what is the phylogenetic history of this group? The Asellota are small benthic crustaceans occurring in most aquatic habitats. In view of the complex morphological apomorphies known for this group, monophyly of the Asellota has never been questioned. Using ssu rDNA sequences of outgroups and of 16 asellote species from fresh water, littoral marine habitats and from deep-sea localities, the early divergence between the lineages in fresh water and in the ocean, and the monophyly of the deep-sea taxon Munnopsidae are confirmed. Relative substitution rates of freshwater species are much lower than in other isopod species, rates being highest in some littoral marine genera (Carpias and Jaera). Furthermore, more sequence sites are variable in marine than in freshwater species, the latter conserve outgroup character states. Monophyly is recovered with parsimony methods, but not with distance and maximum likelihood analyses, which tear apart the marine from the freshwater species. The information content of alignments was studied with spectra of supporting positions. The scarcity of signal (=apomorphic nucleotides) supporting monophyly of the Asellota is attributed to a short stem-line of this group or to erosion of signal in fast evolving marine species. Parametric boostrapping in combination with spectra indicates that a tree model cannot explain the data and that monophyly of the Asellota should not be rejected even though many topologies do not recover this taxon.

  16. Description of two ubiquitous species of Desmosomatidae (Isopoda: Asellota) from the Northwest Pacific Basin east of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench.

    PubMed

    Golovan, Olga A

    2015-11-05

    Two new species of Desmosomatidae, Eugerdella kurabyssalis sp. nov. and Parvochelus serricaudis sp. nov., are described from the Northwest Pacific open abyssal plain to the east of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. These species constituted about one fourth of all collected desmosomatid specimens of the KuramBio expedition (2012), indicating it may be the most abundant species of the family in this area. E. kurabyssalis sp. nov. is rather similar to E. minutula Mezhov, 1986 and E. theodori Brix, 2007, resembling them in the shape of its body segments and appendages, including the absence of the mandibular palp and morphology of the pereopod I. The new species can be distinguished from the mentioned species by the number of cusps of the mandibular incisor process and lacinia mobilis, the relatively stouter pereopods and different setation of the pereopod I ischium. P. serricaudis sp. nov. is the second species of the genus Parvochelus Brix & Kihara, 2015 (see Brix et al. 2015) and the first record of the genus from the Pacific Ocean and from the Northern Hemisphere. P. serricaudis sp. nov. can be distinguished from P. russus Brix & Kihara, 2015 by its relatively stouter pereopod I, presence of the mandibular palp and the shape of the maxilliped palp articles and female operculum. A discussion of the taxonomic characters and the modified diagnosis of the genus Parvochelus are presented.

  17. Shallow-Water Northern Hemisphere Jaera (Crustacea, Isopoda, Janiridae) Found on Whale Bones in the Southern Ocean Deep Sea: Ecology and Description of Jaera tyleri sp. nov

    PubMed Central

    Linse, Katrin; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Malyutina, Marina V.; Brandt, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    The skeleton of a natural whale fall discovered in the Southern Ocean at 1,445 m was densely covered by one small, janirid isopod. Jaera tyleri sp. nov. is the first of its genus found in the southern hemisphere and in the deep sea and is described herein. Morphological and molecular investigations revealed the systematic position of this species new to science. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S locus confirms that this species falls in a strongly supported monophyletic clade of Jaera species. The whale bone habitat of J. tyleri sp. nov. is quite different from those of other species of the genus Jaera. The analysis of bathymetric and distribution patterns of the Janiridae in general and Jaera specifically confirm the unusualness of the habitat for this isopod species. The abundance of J. tyleri sp. nov. on the whale bones and its absence from other nearby habitats suggests it to be a whale-fall specialist. The analysis of the size-frequency distributions of J. tyleri sp. nov. suggests multimodal population structure with continuous breeding activity throughout the year. The fecundity of the species is low but in line with reduced fecundity observed in polar and small-sized isopods. PMID:24663246

  18. An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Beveridge, Ian; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Bray, Rod A; Moravec, Frantisek; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Whittington, Ian D

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Over a 7-year period, parasites have been collected from 28 species of groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in the waters off New Caledonia. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 337 host-parasite combinations, including 146 parasite identifications at the species level. Results are included for isopods (5 species), copepods (19), monogeneans (56), digeneans (28), cestodes (12), and nematodes (12). When results are restricted to those 14 fish species for which more than five specimens were examined and to parasites identified at the species level, 109 host-parasite combinations were recorded, with 63 different species, of which monogeneans account for half (32 species), and an average of 4.5 parasite species per fish species. Digenean records were compared for 16 fish species shared with the study of Cribb et al. (2002); based on a total of 90 parasite records identified at the species level, New Caledonia has 17 new records and only seven species were already known from other locations. We hypothesize that the present results represent only a small part of the actual biodiversity, and we predict a biodiversity of 10 different parasite species and 30 host-parasite combinations per serranid. A comparison with a study on Heron Island (Queensland, Australia) by Lester and Sewell (1989) was attempted: of the four species of fish in common and in a total of 91 host-parasite combinations, only six parasites identified at the species level were shared. This suggests strongly that insufficient sampling impairs proper biogeographical or ecological comparisons. Probably only 3% of the parasite species of coral reef fish are already known in New Caledonia.

  19. Validation of Armadillo officinalis Dumèril, 1816 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) as a bioindicator: in vivo study of air benzene exposure.

    PubMed

    Agodi, A; Oliveri Conti, G; Barchitta, M; Quattrocchi, A; Lombardo, B M; Montesanto, G; Messina, G; Fiore, M; Ferrante, M

    2015-04-01

    This study tests the potential for using Armadillo officinalis as a bioindicator of exposure to and activation of benzene metabolic pathways using an in vivo model. A. officinalis specimens collected in a natural reserve were divided into a control and three test groups exposed to 2.00, 5.32 or 9.09 µg/m(3) benzene for 24h. Three independent tests were performed to assess model reproducibility. Animals were dissected to obtain three pooled tissue samples per group: hepatopancreas (HEP), other organs and tissues (OOT), and exoskeleton (EXO). Muconic acid (MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA), two human metabolites of benzene, and changes in mtDNA copy number, a human biomarker of benzene exposure, were determined in each sample; benzene was determined only in EXO. MA was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection, S-PMA by triple quadrupole mass spectrometer liquid chromatography with electro spray ionization (LC-MS-ESI-TQD), mtDNA by real-time quantitative PCR and end-point PCR, and benzene by quadrupole mass spectrometer head-space gas chromatography (HSGC-MS). MA and S-PMA levels rose both in HEP and OOT; EXO exhibited increasing benzene concentrations; and mtDNA copy number rose in HEP but not in OOT samples. Overall, our findings demonstrate that A. officinalis is a sensitive bioindicator of air benzene exposure and show for the first time its ability to reproduce human metabolic dynamics.

  20. Feeding rates of Balloniscus sellowii (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea): the effect of leaf litter decomposition and its relation to the phenolic and flavonoid content.

    PubMed

    Wood, Camila Timm; Schlindwein, Carolina Casco Duarte; Soares, Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves; Araujo, Paula Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the feeding rates of Balloniscus sellowii on leaves of different decomposition stages according to their phenolic and flavonoid content. Leaves from the visually most abundant plants were offered to isopods collected from the same source site. Schinus terebinthifolius,the plant species consumed at the highest rate, was used to verify feeding rates at different decomposition stages. Green leaves were left to decompose for one, two, or three months, and then were offered to isopods. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined for all decomposition stages. Consumption and egestion rates increased throughout decomposition, were highest for two-month-old leaves, and decreased again in the third month. The assimilation rate was highest for green leaves. The mode time of passage through the gut was two hours for all treatments. Ingestion of leaves occurred after two or three days for green leaves, and on the same day for one-, two- and three-month-old leaves. The speed of passage of leaves with different decomposition stages through the gut does not differ significantly when animals are fed continuously. However, it is possible that the amount retained in the gut during starvation differs depending on food quality. The digestibility value was corrected using a second food source to empty the gut of previously ingested food, so that all of the food from the experiment was egested. The digestibility value was highest for green leaves, whereas it was approximately 20% for all other stages. This was expected given that digestibility declines during decomposition as the metabolite content of the leaves decreases. The phenolic content was highest in the green leaves and lowest in three-month-old leaves. The flavonoid content was highest in green leaves and lowest after two months of decomposition. Animals ingested more phenolics when consumption was highest. The estimated amount of ingested flavonoids followed the same trend as assimilation rate. Flavonoids accounted for a large portion of total phenolics, and the estimated amount of flavonoids consumed was similar for one-, two- and three-month-old leaves. Our results suggest that the high phenolic and flavonoid concentrations in green leaves are feeding deterrents. Isopods may discriminate among concentrations of flavonoids and modify their consumption rates to maintain their intake of flavonoids when ingesting leaves with lower flavonoid content.

  1. Pigmentation patterns are useful for species identification of third-stage larvae of gnathiids (Crustacea: Isopoda) parasitising coastal elasmobranchs in southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yuzo

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies from southern Japan reported larval stages of eight gnathiid isopod species parasitising coastal elasmobranchs. Since gnathiid larvae of these different species closely resembled each other, it was necessary to obtain specimens of free-living adult males for identification to the species level. This was achieved by allowing larvae of the final stage to moult into adult males. From these males, specimens of a species new to science were discovered and described here as Gnathia rufescens n. sp. The main differentiating characteristics of G. rufescens n. sp. are: (i) the apex of pleotelson is oval shaped; (ii) the dorsal sulcus is wide in the posterior part; and (iii) the article 3 of the pylopod is not reduced in the male. Additionally, this paper summarises the specific pigmentation patterns of third-stage larvae of the new species and eight previously described species. Furthermore, host records and host use by the gnathiids were summarised based on data from 158 hosts and over 4,500 gnathiid samples; these are discussed with a focus on host-specificity of the nine gnathiid species studied.

  2. Feeding behaviour of the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus Brandt, 1833 (Crustacea, Isopoda) in response to changes in food quality and contamination.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Susana; Sampaio, Alexandra; Brandão, Ana; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2006-10-01

    Soil decomposition is mainly dependent on the nature and characteristics of organic matter within the soil, the environmental conditions and the activity of microorganisms and soil fauna. Isopods play an important role in decomposition through litter fragmentation and stimulating and/or ingesting fungi and bacteria. The aim of this study was to jointly evaluate the effect of different food types and the effect of heavy metal contamination of those foods through isopod feeding performance assays. These studies used the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. After feeding with different leaf types for the study on feeding performance, alder leaves were chosen for the contamination experiments. Feeding parameters like consumption, assimilation, egestion and growth ratios were calculated and compared among treatments and food type. Lower quality food decreased isopods performance. Exotic food types were shown to be less preferred than alder or oak leaves. Contaminated food also resulted in a decrease in performance among the feeding parameters studies, although isopods can tolerate in certain cases high amounts of heavy metals. For this reason it is possible that in future this crustacean can be used as bioindicators of soil contamination or in the evaluation of contaminated sites or remediation processes.

  3. Analysis of CaCO3 deposit formation and degradation during the molt cycle of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Fabritius, Helge; Ziegler, Andreas

    2003-05-01

    Terrestrial isopods store cuticular calcium in large sternal deposits composed of an amorphous CaCO(3) compound. A large part of the deposits consists of numerous small spherules that increase the exposed surface to facilitate resorption of CaCO(3) during cuticle mineralization. It is not known how these spherules are formed and how they are dissolved. This paper presents for the first time an analysis of ultrastructural changes occurring in the sternal CaCO(3) deposits of a terrestrial isopod during their formation and degradation. Our results indicate that formation of the spherules takes place in a specialized aggregation zone, in which 10- to 30-nm-thick granules form agglomerations that then increase in size to form spherules that reveal a concentric growth pattern. Degradation of the deposits occurs in a manner that exposes a maximum of surface area on all levels of their structural organization.

  4. Functionalization of biomineral reinforcement in crustacean cuticle: Calcite orientation in the partes incisivae of the mandibles of Porcellio scaber and the supralittoral species Tylos europaeus (Oniscidea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Huber, Julia; Griesshaber, Erika; Nindiyasari, Fitriana; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Ziegler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In arthropods the cuticle forms an exoskeleton with its physical and chemical properties adapted to functions of distinct skeletal elements. The cuticle of the partes incisivae (PI) in mandibles of terrestrial isopods is a composite of chitin-protein fibrils/fibres and minerals. It consists of an unmineralized tip, a middle region with organic fibrils reinforced mainly with amorphous calcium phosphate and a base region mineralized with amorphous calcium carbonate and calcite. In this study we extend our work on the structure and material properties of the incisive cuticle employing electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and investigate calcite orientation patterns in the PI of two terrestrial isopod species from different habitats. We trace small-scale differences in texture sharpness and calcite microstructure, and compare calcite organization and orientation patterns in the PI with those in the tergites of the same isopod species. We observe that in the PI calcite orientation, the degree of crystal alignment, and mode of crystalline domain assemblage is highly varied within short length scales. This contrasts to calcite organization in the tergite cuticle, where calcite has only one specific texture pattern. Such a large range in the variation of calcite organization has not been observed in other carbonate biological hard tissues, such as shells and teeth, where one specific texture and microstructure prevails. Thus, the investigated isopod species are able to control crystallization of the amorphous carbonate precursor in a differential way, most probably related to the function of the individual skeletal element and the animals' behavior.

  5. A new species of the giant deep-sea isopod genus Bathynomus A. Milne Edwards, 1879 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cirolanidae) from Hainan Island, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Kou, Qi; Chen, Jun; Li, Xinzheng; He, Lisheng; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-05

    Several specimens of the giant deep-sea isopod genus Bathynomus were collected by a deep-sea lander at a depth of 898 m from Hainan Island, northern South China Sea. After careful examination, this material and the specimens collected from Gulf of Aden, north-western Indian Ocean, previously reported as Bathynomus sp., were identified to be the same as a new species to the genus. Bathynomus jamesi sp. nov. can be distinguished from the congeners by the distal margin of pleotelson with 11 or 13 short straight spines and central spine not bifid; uropodal endopod and exopod with distolateral corner slightly pronounced; clypeus with lateral margins concave; and antennal flagellum extending when extended posteriorly reaches the pereonite 3. In addition, Bathynomus jamesi sp. nov. is also supported by molecular analyses based on mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The distribution range of the new species includes the western Pacific and north-western Indian Ocean. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. [Masculinization of prepubertal and pubertal females of Sphaeroma serratum Fabr., (Crustacea Isopoda Flabellifera) by implantation of an androgenic gland of pubertal male].

    PubMed

    Raimond, R; Juchault, P

    1983-04-01

    In Sphaeroma serratum, the differentiation of the male external sexual characteristics, as a result of an androgenic gland implant, proceeds more easily in females in vitellogenesis than in immature females. On the contrary, the transformation of the gonads is quicker and more obvious in immature females than in mature ones. This transformation which leads, in all cases, to an inversion of the ovary to a functional testicle able to produce spermatozoa, always occurs without any differentiation of an androgenic gland, contrary to what can be observed with Oniscoïds. The details of the external sexual differentiation of the grafted females can be related to the functioning of a protocerebral neurosecretory center having, as in males, an androinhibitory effect on the androgenic gland implant; the activity of this center, which seems to correspond to the center secreting VIH, would be particularly high with immature females and would become very low--or nonexistent--in females in vitellogenesis.

  7. Status of Exosphaeroma amplicauda (Stimpson, 1857), E. aphrodita (Boone, 1923) and description of three new species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Sphaeromatidae) from the north-eastern Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Adam R.; Bruce, Niel L.; Wetzer, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Exosphaeroma amplicauda (Stimpson, 1857) from the west coast of North America is reviewed and redescribed and revealed to be a group of closely related species. A neotype is designated and the species redescribed based on the neotype and topotypic specimens. Exosphaeroma amplicauda is known only from the coast of California, at Marin, Sonoma and San Mateo Counties. Exosphaeroma aphrodita (Boone, 1923), type locality La Jolla, California and previously considered nomen dubium is taken out of synonymy and re-validated. A further three species: Exosphaeroma paydenae sp. n., Exosphaeroma russellhansoni sp. n., and Exosphaeroma pentcheffi sp. n. are described herein. Sphaeroma octonctum Richardson, 1899 is placed into junior synonymy with Exosphaeroma amplicauda. A key to the Pacific West Coast Exosphaeroma is provided. PMID:26019675

  8. Sexual differentiation traits in functional males with female genital apertures (male symbol fga) in the woodlice Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Azzouna, Atf; Greve, Pierre; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-08-01

    This study reports the results of examination of the gonadal morphology and ultrastructural features of the androgenic hormone (AH)-producing androgenic gland cells of laboratory stocks of functional male woodlice, Armadillidium vulgare, with female genital apertures ( male symbol fga), with and without experimentally induced infections of the sex-ratio-distorting endobacterial parasite, Wolbachia. Males ( male symbol fga) have been reported in wild populations containing individuals infected with this maternally transmitted sex-ratio-distorting parasite. We report a reduction of testicular segment (utricle) number, androgenic gland cell hypertrophy, and electron-dense ultrastructural cytological features in male symbol fga males. The presence of the Wolbachia parasite had no effect on the features we examined. These results suggest that male symbol fga males are produced as the result of a delayed expression/action of the male sex-determining AH which causes a "lag-phase" delay in male differentiation in genetic males and is not due to the presence, in genetic females, of a hypothetical, epigenetic "M" gene as suggested by Rigaud and Juchault. Our results favor the interpretation of males as true genetic (ZZ) males in which the delayed AH action appears to involve cellular AH trafficking pathways which may be controlled by an impaired autosomal gene responsible for AH action.

  9. Observations on the Activity and Life History of the Scavenging Isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) from Loch Fyne, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Y. M.; Moore, P. G.

    1996-02-01

    The activity and life history of the cirolanid isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg has been studied using (primarily) fish-baited traps deployed at a deep-water station (190 m) in Loch Fyne, Scotland. A voracious scavenger, it burrows into soft mud, emerging to feed when suitable food odours are detected in the water. Isopods were attracted significantly to baited vs. non-baited traps. Underwater video observations revealed that most animals were active in the vicinity of traps, that capture efficiency was low, but retention complete. Only traps on the sea-bed captured mancas or juveniles in any numbers. Any seasonal pattern in catch rate through the year was confounded by high variability. Only one (manca-)brooding female was ever caught in a trap (in April). It is assumed that brooding females desist from feeding. The sex ratio of isopods in most trap collections was thus significantly male dominated. Mancas were trapped during February to August. Growth rate was slowest in adults and was similar for males and females. The maximum growth rate occurred during autumn associated with the seasonal cycle in bottom water temperatures. Longevity was estimated (by following peaks in the size-frequency distributions with time) to be c. 2·5 years, with sexual maturity (based on oostegites/spurred appendix masculinae) achieved after c. 19 months. Semelparity is suggested. A low incidence of an unnamed epicaridean parasite is reported from the Clyde population. Natatolana borealisalso carried peritrich ciliate epizoites on their antennae. Possible predators are swimming crabs and gadid fish, e.g. whiting and cod.

  10. A new species of Cymodoce from Iran (Crustacea: Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae) with remarks on the status of Cymodoce manorii (Nooruddin, 1965) comb. nov. and Cymodoce spinula Yousuf & Javed, 2001.

    PubMed

    Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah

    2016-02-25

    Cymodoce brucei sp. nov. is described from the intertidal zone of the Iranian coast of the Oman Sea. This species can be distinguished from all other Cymodoce in the Western Indian Ocean region, by a pleotelson with a large prominent tongue-like projection in midline of the posterior margin. The status of Cerceis manorii Nooruddin, 1965, and Cymodoce spinula Yousuf & Javed, 2001 both from Pakistan (Karachi) is determined and Cymodoce manorii (Nooruddin, 1965) comb. nov. is established.

  11. Elthusa nierstraszi nom. n., the replacement name for Elthusa parva (Nierstrasz, 1915), a junior secondary homonym of Elthusa parva (Richardson, 1910) (Isopoda, Cymothoidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hadfield, Kerry A.; Bruce, Niel L.; Smit, Nico J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The recent transfer of Elthusa parva (Richardson, 1910) from Ceratothoa created a homonymy with Elthusa parva (Nierstrasz, 1915). Elthusa parva (Richardson, 1910) has priority and Elthusa nierstraszi nom. n. is proposed as the new replacement name for the junior secondary homonym Elthusa parva (Nierstrasz, 1915). PMID:27829793

  12. The diversity of terrestrial isopods in the natural reserve “Saline di Trapani e Paceco” (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in northwestern Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Giuseppina; Pezzino, Elisa; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Caruso, Domenico; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ecosystems comprising coastal lakes and ponds are important areas for preserving biodiversity. The natural reserve “Saline di Trapani e Paceco” is an interesting natural area in Sicily, formed by the remaining strips of land among salt pans near the coastline. From January 2008 to January 2010, pitfall trapping was conducted in five sampling sites inside the study area. The community of terrestrial isopods was assessed using the main diversity indices. Twenty-four species were collected, only one of them endemic to western Sicily: Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi, Lombardo & Caruso, 1992. Two species are new to Sicily: Armadilloniscus candidus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Armadilloniscus ellipticus (Harger, 1878). This is high species richness for a single reserve in Sicily. The extended sampling period also allowed us to study species phenology. Most of the species exhibited higher activity in spring than in autumn while some species also exhibited lower activity in the summer. The species richness revealed that the study area is in an acceptable conservation status; Shannon and Pielou indices also confirmed a more or less even distribution of individuals belonging to different species. PMID:22536110

  13. Stenosoma stephenseni sp. n. (Isopoda, Idoteidae), from the southwestern Mediterranean, with a note on the nomenclatural status of Synisoma Collinge, 1917

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, António Múrias; Xavier, Raquel; Zenboudji, Saliha; Branco, Tristão; Branco, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent collections of isopods in Alboran Island and Algeria included several specimens of the species Stenosoma stephenseni sp. n. This is the fourteenth species described in the genus Stenosoma Leach, 1814. Examination of two specimens collected during the Danish oceanographic cruises of the Thor (1908–10) close to the Galite Islands, and identified as Stenosoma acuminatum Leach, 1814, revealed that both belong to Stenosoma stephenseni sp. n. In light of these findings, the Mediterranean records of Stenosoma acuminatum are revised, and it is proposed that Stenosoma acuminatum is a strictly Atlantic species. An updated diagnosis for the genus Stenosoma is given, together with a key for the identification of its species. The nomenclatural status of the name Synisoma Collinge, 1917 is addressed, and although it is in prevailing usage, it is shown that Stenosoma Leach, 1814 is the valid name of the genus. PMID:22287877

  14. A new family Lepidocharontidae with description of Lepidocharon gen. n., from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and redefinition of the Microparasellidae (Isopoda, Asellota)

    PubMed Central

    Galassi, Diana M. P.; Bruce, Niel L.; Fiasca, Barbara; Dole-Olivier, Marie-José

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lepidocharontidae Galassi & Bruce, fam. n. is erected, containing Lepidocharon Galassi & Bruce, gen. n. and two genera transferred from the family Microparasellidae Karaman, 1934: Microcharon Karaman, 1934 and Janinella Albuquerque, Boulanouar & Coineau, 2014. The genus Angeliera Chappuis & Delamare Deboutteville, 1952 is placed as genus incertae sedis in this family. The Lepidocharontidae is characterised by having rectangular or trapezoidal somites in dorsal view, a single free pleonite, a tendency to reduction of the coxal plates, and the unique uropodal morphology of a large and long uropodal protopod on which the slender uropodal exopod articulates separately and anteriorly to the endopod. Lepidocharon Galassi & Bruce, gen. n. has a 6-segmented antennula, a well-developed antennal scale (rudimentary exopod), long and slender pereiopods 1–7 directed outwards, coxal plates rudimentary, incorporated to the lateral side of the sternites, not discernible in dorsal view, the single pleonite narrower than pereionite 7, scale-like elements bordering the proximal part of male pleopod 1 on posterior side, and stylet-guiding grooves of male pleopod 1 which run parallel to the outer lateral margins of the same pleopod. Lepidocharon priapus Galassi & Bruce, sp. n., type species for the genus, and Lepidocharon lizardensis Galassi & Bruce, sp. n. are described from Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. The most similar genus is Microcharon, both genera sharing the same general organization of the male pleopods 1 and 2, topology and architecture of the stylet-guiding groove of male pleopod 1, morphology of female operculum, presence of 2 robust claws of different lengths on pereiopodal dactylus 1–7, not sexually dimorphic. Lepidocharon gen. n. differs from Microcharon in the shape of the pereionites, very reduced coxal plates, the presence of imbricate scale-like elements bordering the proximal postero-lateral margins of the male pleopod 1, and the topology of the pereiopods, which are ventro-laterally inserted and directed outwards in Lepidocharon gen. n. and dorso-laterally inserted and directed ventrally in Microcharon. Lepidocharon shares with the genus Janinella the morphology of the tergites and the reduced lacinia mobilis of the left mandible, but differs significantly from Janinella in having a well-developed antennal scale, very reduced coxal plates also in females bearing oostegites, the general morphology and spatial arrangement of the stylet-guiding groove of male pleopod 1 and the possession of a 6-segmented antennula. The family Microparasellidae is redefined as monotypic, the only genus being Microparasellus Karaman, 1933. PMID:27408557

  15. A new family Lepidocharontidae with description of Lepidocharon gen. n., from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and redefinition of the Microparasellidae (Isopoda, Asellota).

    PubMed

    Galassi, Diana M P; Bruce, Niel L; Fiasca, Barbara; Dole-Olivier, Marie-José

    2016-01-01

    Lepidocharontidae Galassi & Bruce, fam. n. is erected, containing Lepidocharon Galassi & Bruce, gen. n. and two genera transferred from the family Microparasellidae Karaman, 1934: Microcharon Karaman, 1934 and Janinella Albuquerque, Boulanouar & Coineau, 2014. The genus Angeliera Chappuis & Delamare Deboutteville, 1952 is placed as genus incertae sedis in this family. The Lepidocharontidae is characterised by having rectangular or trapezoidal somites in dorsal view, a single free pleonite, a tendency to reduction of the coxal plates, and the unique uropodal morphology of a large and long uropodal protopod on which the slender uropodal exopod articulates separately and anteriorly to the endopod. Lepidocharon Galassi & Bruce, gen. n. has a 6-segmented antennula, a well-developed antennal scale (rudimentary exopod), long and slender pereiopods 1-7 directed outwards, coxal plates rudimentary, incorporated to the lateral side of the sternites, not discernible in dorsal view, the single pleonite narrower than pereionite 7, scale-like elements bordering the proximal part of male pleopod 1 on posterior side, and stylet-guiding grooves of male pleopod 1 which run parallel to the outer lateral margins of the same pleopod. Lepidocharon priapus Galassi & Bruce, sp. n., type species for the genus, and Lepidocharon lizardensis Galassi & Bruce, sp. n. are described from Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. The most similar genus is Microcharon, both genera sharing the same general organization of the male pleopods 1 and 2, topology and architecture of the stylet-guiding groove of male pleopod 1, morphology of female operculum, presence of 2 robust claws of different lengths on pereiopodal dactylus 1-7, not sexually dimorphic. Lepidocharon gen. n. differs from Microcharon in the shape of the pereionites, very reduced coxal plates, the presence of imbricate scale-like elements bordering the proximal postero-lateral margins of the male pleopod 1, and the topology of the pereiopods, which are ventro-laterally inserted and directed outwards in Lepidocharon gen. n. and dorso-laterally inserted and directed ventrally in Microcharon. Lepidocharon shares with the genus Janinella the morphology of the tergites and the reduced lacinia mobilis of the left mandible, but differs significantly from Janinella in having a well-developed antennal scale, very reduced coxal plates also in females bearing oostegites, the general morphology and spatial arrangement of the stylet-guiding groove of male pleopod 1 and the possession of a 6-segmented antennula. The family Microparasellidae is redefined as monotypic, the only genus being Microparasellus Karaman, 1933.

  16. First occurrence of Argathona macronema (Bleeker, 1857) (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) on coral reef fishes along the Tuticorin coastal water, Gulf of Mannar.

    PubMed

    Chelladurai, Gurusamy; Mohanraj, Jayaraj; Jayanthi, Govinda Rajalu

    2017-03-01

    Isopod Parasites are considered as a major threat to the fishing industry, due to rigorous disease outbreaks. The parasites from the two economically important reef fish family Lutjanidae and Serranidae are analyzed i.e. Epinephelus malabaricus and Lutjanus rivulatus. The samples are obtained from the landings of Trawl net from Gulf of Mannar region of South east coast of India. They are severely infested by the isopod parasite Agrathona macronema in the Pectoral fins and ventral region of the body. This species is found to be the new record in the Gulf of Mannar region and deposited in the Marine laboratory of Kamaraj College. Length and weight of the host and parasites are measured. The parasites infested on 13 specimens of E. malabricus out of 8 and 17 out of 12 species of L. rivulatus. The prevalence of parasite on the grouper and snapper fish (61.53 and 70.58 %) and mean intensity (2.62 and 2.58 %) respectively. The prevalence was maximum in L. rivulatus and minimum in E. malbaricus may be to the host specificity. Further studies are needed to know the life cycle of the parasite, host preference, disease outbreak and its role in the coral reef ecosystem.

  17. A new genus of Stenetriidae Hansen, 1905 (Asellota: Isopoda: Crustacea) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia and the southwestern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Niel L; Cumming, R L

    2015-04-02

    Onychatrium gen. nov. is described, with five included species: Onychatrium forceps sp. nov., the type species and Onychatrium torosus sp. nov., both from the Great Barrier Reef; Onychatrium entale (Nordenstam, 1946) comb. nov., from Tapateuen (= Tabiteue Island), Gilbert Islands; Onychatrium thomasi (Bolstad & Kensley, 1999) comb. nov., from Madang, Papua New Guinea; and Onychatrium echiurum (Nobili, 1906) comb. nov., and species inquirenda from the Tumaotu Islands, Eastern French Polynesia. The primary distinguishing characters for Onychatrium gen. nov. are a trapezoid pseudosrostrum, the male pereopod 1 with elongate dactylus (4.7-7.3 as long as proximal width), propodus with strongly produced and acute lobe, carpus with a distally acute, flat, ventrally directed process (except O. torosus sp. nov., which has a short and truncate process) and the merus with a distally directed inferodistal lobe. The genus is known only from the southern Pacific, from the Tuamotus (eastern French Polynesia) to the Great Barrier Reef and northern Papua New Guinea.

  18. Long-Term Changes in Beach Fauna at Duck, North Carolina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    dysticus 23 23 23 24 Ganuas sp. 5 4 9 4 Leptocheirus plwnulosus 0 0 9 3 Monoculodes sp. 5 1 13 2 Corophium sp. 0 0 2 2 Isopoda Cyathura polita 6 3 6 5...Ferriesia sp. + Ainphipoda Lepi-dactylus dyaticus + + CkmimrMS sp. + + Leptocheirus plurnulosus + + Monoculodee sp. + + Corophium sp. + Isopoda Cyathura

  19. Effects of Surface Texture of Articulated Concrete Mattress Blocks on Their Habitat Value. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program Report 19

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    of trichoptera, chironomidae, ephemeroptera, odonata , collembola, amphipoda, isopoda, hydracarinia, gas- tropoda, bivalvia, naididae, hydrozoa...Ephemeroptera Baetis sp. CaenIs sp. Heptagenia sp. Isonychia sp. Stenocron sp. Odonata Neurocordulia moles ta (Continued) 21 Table 1 (Concluded) .Taxonomic

  20. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20–25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9–13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Conclusions Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that extinction of a coral reef fish species would eventually result in the coextinction of at least ten species of parasites. PMID:22947621

  1. Distribution of haploniscids (Isopoda, Asellota, Haploniscidae) in Icelandic waters, with description of Haploniscus astraphes n. sp. from the Iceland basin and the Southeast Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Brökeland, Wiebke; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2017-02-12

    Ten species of Haploniscidae Hansen, 1916 were sampled in Icelandic waters during expeditions in the framework of the BIOICE project. Nine of these were known from the North Atlantic Ocean, i.e. Haploniscus aduncus Lincoln, 1985, H. ampliatus Lincoln, 1985, Haploniscus angustus Lincoln, 1985, H. bicuspis (Sars, 1877), H. foresti Chardy, 1974, H. hamatus Lincoln, 1985, H. spinifer Hansen, 1916, Antennuloniscus simplex Lincoln, 1985 and Chauliodoniscus armadilloides (Hansen, 1916). All but H. bicuspis and H. angustus were restricted to the Atlantic Ocean south of the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroe Ridge (GIF Ridge), while H. bicuspis occurred at considerable depth ranges both north and south of the GIF Ridge. A new species, Haploniscus astraphes n. sp., is described based on material from the Denmark Strait, North Atlantic and the Guinea Basin, South Atlantic. H. astraphes n. sp. belongs to a group of Haploniscus species closely related to the genus Antennuloniscus and shares several characters with species from that genus, especially the spine row on pleopod 1, the stout sensory seta on the carpus of pereopod 7 and characters of the antennae. H. astraphes n. sp. is characterized by a rectangular body shape, the straight frontal margin of the head and the strongly convex posterior margin of the pleotelson.

  2. Amphibious Shelter-Builder Oniscidea Species from the New World with Description of a New Subfamily, a New Genus and a New Species from Brazilian Cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed. PMID:25992909

  3. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Leila A; Ferreira, Rodrigo L; Senna, André R

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed.

  4. Descriptions of two new species in the genus Macrostylis Sars, 1864 (Isopoda, Asellota, Macrostylidae) from the Weddell Sea (Southern Ocean), with a synonymisation of the genus Desmostylis Brandt, 1992 with Macrostylis

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Torben; Brandt, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Descriptions of Macrostylis antennamagna sp. n. and Macrostylis uniformis sp. n. are presented with notes on intraspecific variability and sexual dimorphism. Macrostylis uniformis sp. n. showes differences to Macrostylis antennamagna sp. n. in the length of the antenna 2, the shape of the pleotelson and length of uropods. The genus Desmostylis Brandt, 1992 (formerly including the two species Desmostylis obscurus Brandt, 1992 and Desmostylis gerdesi Brandt, 2002) is synonymised with the genus Macrostylis. Based on type material additional remarks and additions to the original descriptions are provided for both species. Results lead to following nomenclatorial changes: Macrostylis obscurus (Brandt, 1992), comb. n. and Macrostylis gerdesi (Brandt, 2002), comb. n. A setal nomenclature is proposed and the diagnosis for the family is revised. PMID:21594187

  5. First North American record of the Palaearctic rhinophorid Stevenia deceptoria (Loew) (Diptera: Rhinophoridae).

    PubMed

    O'hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Dahlem, Gregory A

    2015-12-16

    The Rhinophoridae (Diptera) have a cosmopolitan distribution and a known fauna of about 150 species (Cerretti & Pape 2007). So far as known, all species are parasitoids of terrestrial woodlice (sow bugs) of the order Isopoda (Oniscoidea) (Pape 2010). Female rhinophorids lay eggs in the vicinity of potential hosts and the planidial first instars parasitize sow bugs as they pass by (Pape 1998).

  6. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) along the north-central Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2007-10-01

    A survey was undertaken to identify metazoan ectoparasite species on the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), in 4 different locations off the north-central Portuguese coast. Parasites of 7 different taxa were found: Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae); Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae); Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae); Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymotholdae); and praniza larvae (Isopoda: Gnathiidae). Lernaeocera branchialis, a common European flounder parasite in the North and Baltic Seas, was not observed among the surveyed fish. Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Nerocila orbignyi are new host records. The high prevalence and intensity values recorded for L. pectoralis and A. cornuta suggest that both parasite species are common to the European flounder along the north-central Portuguese coast. In contrast, infection levels with respect to the other parasite taxa were, in most cases, comparatively lower, thereby indicating that they only occur occasionally among flounders in the surveyed area.

  7. Benthic and Sedimentological Studies of the Georgetown Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    12 . Stations . / 10 12 12 *..* 󈧎, .*1*i’ 2 943 2- ~,Palycheeta Gastropoda -;Ascidiacea Isopoda SPelecypoda 7] Bryozoa g chinodormata Mysidacea...3197 1 893 1 6427 1 Polychaeta 3159 1 1031 3 550 2 4740 2 Amphipoda 1490 3 330 5 81 4 1901 3 Bryozoa * 204 11 1198 2 247 3 1649 4 Ascidiacea 255 8 498 4...Cumacea 4 9.5 1 20.5 1 16 4 10 Anthozoa* 3 11 2 11 1 95 3 11 Bryozoa 2 13 3 10 1 16 3 12 Hemichordata* 2 13 1 20.5 1 16 2 13 Scaphapoda 2 13 - - - - 2 14

  8. Genome sequence of a crustacean iridovirus, IIV31, isolated from the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Yeping, Tan; Cruaud, Corinne; Asgari, Sassan; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A; Bigot, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. The invertebrate iridovirus 31 (IIV31) was originally isolated from adult pill bugs, Armadillidium vulgare (class Crustacea, order Isopoda, suborder Oniscidea), found in southern California on the campus of the University of California, Riverside, USA. IIV31 virions are icosahedral, have a diameter of about 135 nm, and contain a dsDNA genome 220.222 kbp in length, with 35.09 mol % G+C content and 203 ORFs. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the eighth genome sequence of an IIV reported.

  9. [Parasitic metazoans of Stenella coeruleoalba (Cetacea: Delphinidae) stranded along the coast of Latium, 1985-1991].

    PubMed

    Cerioni, S; Mariniello, L

    1996-12-01

    The striped dolphin represents the most common species of cetacean stranded along the Italian coasts. A parasitological survey on 17 specimens of Stenella coerulecaiba stranded along coasts of Latium from 1985 to 1991, has been carried out. The morphological study enabled the identification of the following parasites. The sites are reported in brackets. DIGENEA: Campula rochebruni (liver), Campula palliata (liver), Pholeter gastrophilus (pyloric stomach). CESTODA: Tetrabothrium forsteri (intestine), Strobilocephalus triangularis (intestine), Monorygma grimaldii, larvae (abdominal cavity, mesentery, testes), Phyliobothrium delphini, larvae (subcutaneous fat). NEMATODA: Skrjabinalius sp. (lungs). COPEPODA: Pennella sp. (skin). ISOPODA: Ceratothoa parallela (mouth, stomach). AMPHIPODA: Syncyamus aequus (blowhole).

  10. Seasonality of metazoan ectoparasites in marine European flounder Platichthys flesus (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2009-07-01

    Seasonal occurrence of metazoan ectoparasites is described for the first time in marine European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.). The parasitofauna, in this study monitored during 1 year, was found to be similar to that previously recorded for flounder. Moreover, specimens of Caligus sp. Müller, 1785 and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae), Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae), Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae) and Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), and also, a praniza larva (Isopoda: Gnathiidae), were isolated. From these, L. pectoralis and A. cornuta were the dominant parasites in all samples of flounder, while Caligus sp., H. confusus, N. orbignyi and the gnathiid praniza seemed to infect the flounder only occasionally. As far as the seasonality of infections is concerned, it differed considerably from that described for estuarine environments. Indeed, both prevalence and abundance of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta reached significant peaks in the summer, whereas the literature identifies the autumn as the season of maximum infection on estuarine flounder. Thus, the former period seems more favourable for the occurrence of epizooties of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta in flounder culturing systems running on seawater and operated in the studied or similar environments.

  11. Are flatfish nursery grounds richer in benthic prey?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, Noémie; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2009-08-01

    The density of macrobenthos was evaluated in the nursery grounds for flatfish of six estuarine systems along the coast of Portugal by comparison with adjacent non-nursery areas. The dry weight and density of macrobenthic fauna were significantly higher in the nursery grounds. Polychaeta, Bivalvia, Oligochaeta and Isopoda were found to be significantly more abundant in the nursery than in the non-nursery grounds. For Isopoda and Bivalvia, total dry weight was also significantly higher in the nursery areas. Correspondence analysis based on density showed that the nursery areas of the different estuaries grouped together relative to non-nursery sites, with a relative similarity in the abundance of Oligochaeta, Spionidae, Amage spp., Scrobicularia plana and Cerastoderma edule. Taking into consideration the generally opportunistic feeding ecology and low dietary selectivity of the flatfish species, the results indicated higher prey availability in the nursery grounds of the Portuguese estuaries, an important factor contributing to the quality of these areas. The relatively high macrobenthic productivity in the nursery areas might be linked to physical and biological interactions favouring the recruitment and maintenance of the communities.

  12. ' Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum' gen. nov., sp. nov., a new, stalk-forming lineage of Rickettsiales colonizing the midgut glands of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Stingl, Ulrich; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Zimmer, Martin; Brune, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    The midgut glands (hepatopancreas) of terrestrial isopods are densely colonized by hitherto uncultivated bacteria. In the case of the Common Woodlouse, Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda), the symbionts represent a novel lineage in the alpha-subdivision of Proteobacteria. Based on comparative sequence analysis of their 16S rRNA genes, their closest (albeit distant) relatives were among the Rickettsiales, which are intracellular symbionts or pathogens of many animals. Transmission electron microscopy and in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes revealed a homogeneous population of symbionts intimately associated with the endothelium of the hepatopancreas, which apparently interact with the microvilli of the brush border by means of a stalk-like cytoplasmic appendage. Based on isolated phylogenetic position and unique cytological properties, the provisional name ' Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum' is proposed to classify this new taxon of Rickettsiales colonizing the hepatopancreas of P. scaber.

  13. Long-term Hg pollution-induced structural shifts of bacterial community in the terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber) gut.

    PubMed

    Lapanje, Ales; Zrimec, Alexis; Drobne, Damjana; Rupnik, Maja

    2010-10-01

    In previous studies we detected lower species richness and lower Hg sensitivity of the bacteria present in egested guts of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) from chronically Hg polluted than from unpolluted environment. Basis for such results were further investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of mercury-resistant (Hgr) isolates and clone libraries. We observed up to 385 times higher numbers of Hgr bacteria in guts of animals from polluted than from unpolluted environment. The majority of Hgr strains contained merA genes. Sequencing of 16S rRNA clones from egested guts of animals from Hg-polluted environments showed elevated number of bacteria from Pseudomonas, Listeria and Bacteroidetes relatives groups. In animals from pristine environment number of bacteria from Achromobacter relatives, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus, Ochrobactrum relatives, Rhizobium/Agrobacterium, Bacillus and Microbacterium groups were elevated. Such bacterial community shifts in guts of animals from Hg-polluted environment could significantly contribute to P. scaber Hg tolerance.

  14. Long-Term Impact of Dredged Material Disposal in Lake Erie off Ashtabula, Ohio.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    908 Gastrotricha 0 53 122 0 455 53 577 N Rotatoria 2,334 1,910 3,305 439 3,456 4,244 7,200 Nematoda 21,432 101,962 32,687 37,428 40,833 123,394... Gastrotricha 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rotatoria 2,387 455, 0 12,732 2,842 12,732 Nematoda 0 3,410 6,366 3,183 3,410 9,549 Annelida - Oligochaeta 796 682 0 637 1,478 637...and to the higher Shepard Classes by the Isopoda and Gastrotricha . No obvious preference for any class of sediments was demonstrated by other meiofauna

  15. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lammel, D R; Azevedo, L C B; Paula, A M; Armas, R D; Baretta, D; Cardoso, E J B N

    2015-11-01

    Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  16. Epifauna of the Sea of Japan collected via a new epibenthic sledge equipped with camera and environmental sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, A.; Elsner, N.; Brenke, N.; Golovan, O.; Malyutina, M. V.; Riehl, T.; Schwabe, E.; Würzberg, L.

    2013-02-01

    Faunistic data from a newly designed camera-epibenthic sledge (C-EBS) are presented. These were collected during the joint Russian-German expedition SoJaBio (Sea of Japan Biodiversity Studies) on board the R.V. Akademik Lavrentyev from four transects (A-D) between 460 and 3660 m depth. In total, 244,531 macro- and megafaunal individuals were sampled with the classes Malacostraca (80,851 individuals), Polychaeta (36,253 ind.) and Ophiuroidea (34,004 ind.) being most abundant. Within the Malacostraca, Peracarida (75,716 ind.) were most abundant and within these, the Isopoda were the dominant taxon (27,931 ind.), followed by Amphipoda (21,403 ind.), Cumacea (13,971 ind.) and Tanaidacea (10,830 ind.). Mysidacea (1581 ind.) were least frequent. Bivalvia, Amphipoda, Cumacea and Mysidacea as well as inbenthic meiofaunal Nematoda occurred in higher numbers at the shallower stations and their numbers decreased with increasing depth. Polychaeta, Isopoda, and Tanaidacea, on the contrary, increased in abundance with increasing depth. Only one isopod species was sampled at abyssal depths in the Sea of Japan but at very high abundance: Eurycope spinifrons Gurjanova, 1933 (Asellota: Munnopsidae). Echinoderms occurred frequently at the shallower slope stations. Ophiuroids were dominating, followed by holothurians, and echinoids and asteroids which occurred in lower numbers and primarily at the shallower stations of transects A and B. Only 2163 individual anthozoans were recorded and these were mostly confined to the lower slope. The technical design of a new C-EBS is described. Next to temperature-insulated epi- and suprabenthic samplers, it is equipped with still and video cameras, which deliver information on seabed topography and megafaunal occurrence. Furthermore, Aanderaa CTD and SEAGUARD RCM allow for collection of physical parameters, such as near bottom oxygen composition, temperature and conductivity.

  17. PAH biotransformation in terrestrial invertebrates--a new phase II metabolite in isopods and springtails.

    PubMed

    Stroomberg, Gerard J; Zappey, Herman; Steen, Ruud J C A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Ariese, Freek; Velthorst, Nel H; van Straalen, Nico M

    2004-06-01

    Soil-living invertebrates are exposed to high concentrations of contaminants accumulating in dead organic matter, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The capacity for PAH biotransformation is not equally developed in all invertebrates. In this paper, we compare three species of invertebrates, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda), Eisenia andrei (Lumbricidae) and Folsomia candida (Collembola), for the metabolites formed upon exposure to pyrene. Metabolic products of pyrene biotransformation in extracts from whole animals or isopod hepatopancreas were compared to those found in fish bile (flounder and plaice). An optimized HPLC method was used with fluorescence detection; excitation/emission spectra were compared to reference samples of 1-hydroxypyrene and enzymatically synthesized conjugates. Enzymatic hydrolysis after fractionation was used to demonstrate that the conjugates originated from 1-hydroxypyrene. All three invertebrates were able to oxidize pyrene to 1-hydroxypyrene, however, isopods and collembolans stood out as more efficient metabolizers compared to earthworms. In contrast to fish, none of the invertebrates produced pyrene-1-glucuronide as a phase II conjugate. Both Collembola and Isopoda produced significant amounts of pyrene-1-glucoside, whereas isopods also produced pyrene-1-sulfate. A third, previously unknown, conjugate was found in both isopods and springtails, and was analysed further using electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. Based on the obtained mass spectra, a new conjugate is proposed: pyrene-1-O-(6"-O-malonyl)glucoside. The use of glucose-malonate as a conjugant in animal phase II biotransformation has not been described before, but is understandable in the microenvironment of soil-living invertebrates. In the earthworm, three other pyrene metabolites were observed, none of which was shared with the arthropods, although two were conjugates of 1-hydroxypyrene. Our study illustrates the great

  18. Abyssal macrofauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (Northwest Pacific) collected by means of a camera-epibenthic sledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, A.; Elsner, N. O.; Malyutina, M. V.; Brenke, N.; Golovan, O. A.; Lavrenteva, A. V.; Riehl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abyssal macrofaunal composition of 21 epibenthic sledge hauls from twelve stations taken in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (KKT) and at the adjacent abyssal plain, Northwest Pacific, is presented. Sampling with the fine meshed epibenthic sledge yielded higher abundances and species richness than was reported from previous expeditions from board of RV Vityaz. In total 84,651 invertebrates were sampled with RV Sonne between July and September of 2012 (31,854 invertebrates if standardised for 1000 m2 trawled distances) from 41 taxa of different taxonomic ranks (15 phyla, 28 classes, 7 orders) were sampled from a trawled area of 53,708 m² and have been analyzed. Few taxa were frequent and most taxa were rare in the samples, twelve taxa occurred with more than 1% frequency. Of these, the Polychaeta were most abundant followed by the benthic Copepoda and Isopoda. Total numbers of individuals varied between stations and were highest with 4238 individuals at station 2-10 close to the KKT in 4865 m depth and lowest with 374 individuals at station 6-11 in 5305 m depth. At this station also the lowest number of taxa occurred (18 taxa) while the highest number occurred with 31 taxa at station 3-9 in 4991 m depth. Numbers of individuals decreased with increasing depth between 4830 and 5780 m. Crustaceans of the superorder Peracarida were one of the dominating taxa with four orders occurring frequently in most samples. In total, Isopoda were most important and occurred with 59% of all peracarid orders sampled, followed by Amphipoda with 21%, Tanaidacea with 11%, Cumacea with 9%, and Mysidacea with <1%. The communities of the stations (and hauls) of the KKT abyssal area differ in terms of taxon composition from each other. A cluster analysis (nMDS) performed for all sampled stations revealed no clear pattern of community similarity between stations or hauls. All hauls close to the trench (2-9 and 2-10 close to the eastern slope of the KKT; and 3-9 and 4-3 at the western slope) were

  19. Factors influencing soil invertebrate communities in riparian grasslands of the central platte river floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, C.A.; Austin, J.E.; Buhl, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the Platte River Valley of central Nebraska, USA, riparian grasslands (also known as wet meadows) have been severely impacted by a reduction in river flows, causing lower ground-water levels and altered seasonal hydroperiods. The potential impacts of these hydrologic changes, as well as the environmental factors that influence wet meadow soil invertebrate communities, are not well understood. An understanding of the ecological processes that influence these invertebrate communities is crucial for maintaining and restoring wet meadows along the Platte River. Our objectives were to describe the soil invertebrate community of wet meadows throughout the growing season and to examine the relative roles of abiotic factors in determining patterns in invertebrate community structure. We conducted the study in 12 wet meadows along the Platte River during 1999 and 2000. We identified 73 invertebrate taxa; 39 were considered soil inhabitants. Total biomass was primarily composed of earthworms, Scarabaeidae, Isopoda, and Elateridae, with earthworms and Scarabaeidae accounting for >82%. Differences in river flow and precipitation patterns influenced some soil invertebrates. Earthworms and Scarabaeidae declined dramatically from 1999 (wet year) to 2000 (dry year). The topographic gradient created by the ridge-swale complex affected several soil invertebrate taxa; Scarabaeidae, Diplopoda, and Lepidoptera biomasses were greatest on drier ridges, while Tipulidae and Isopoda biomasscs were greatest in wetter sloughs. Responses of earthworm taxa to the topographic gradient were variable, but generally, greater biomasses occurred on ridges and mid-elevations. Water-table depth and soil moisture were the most important variables influencing wet meadow soil invertebrates. Because these communities are linked to the hydrologic processes of the Platte River, future alterations of wet meadow hydrology could shift the distribution patterns of many of these invertebrates and possibly

  20. Breeding biology and microhabitat utilization of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa Rathke, in the Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemaa, Heikki

    1986-03-01

    The life history and distribution of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa were investigated at five rocky shore biotopes in the Isle of Man. I. granulosa breeds throughout the year in the Irish Sea. The breeding activity is highest in the early summer after the sexual maturation of the overwintered animals. At that period about 4% of the females were infested by Clypeoniscus sp. (Isopoda) which destroys the brood. A small proportion of the juveniles released in the early summer mature and breed in the autumn. In the winter Idotea populations consisted of juveniles, immature adults and old individuals which produce another brood. These large sized animals die off before the summer. Consequently, the age and size of the breeding I. granulosa fluctuates seasonally. The number of eggs is linearly related to the female length. The fecundity is highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn in all female size classes. I. granulosa inhabits an array of structurally different intertidal algae including the filamentous Cladophora rupestris, understory turfs Gigartina stellata, Laurencia pinnatifida and Corallina officinalis and the fucoids Fucus serratus and Ascophyllum nodosum. The distribution pattern of I. granulosa in examined intertidal communities is modified by the physiognomy of the algal microhabitats, by seasonal and spatial variation in wave agitation and by the breeding cycle of the population itself. Both the life history characteristics and distribution patterns are explained as adaptations to the spatially and temporally heterogeneous intertidal shores.

  1. Epibenthic megacrustaceans from the continental margin, slope and abyssal plain of the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico: Factors responsible for variability in species composition and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Briones, Elva G.; Gaytán-Caballero, Adriana; Legendre, Pierre

    2008-12-01

    The community structure of megacrustaceans (orders Lophogastrida, Isopoda, and Decapoda) collected in trawls on the continental margin, upper slope and abyssal plain of the southern Gulf of Mexico was studied to determine to what extent broad-scale variation in community composition and diversity was influenced by geographic regions environmental variability and depth. Trawls were collected in the Mexican Ridges, the Campeche Bank, and the Sigsbee abyssal plain. There was variability in species composition, density and diversity among geographic regions and along the depth gradient. A total of 106 species were identified and grouped in three orders; five infraorders, 40 families, and 70 genera. This study extends the known geographic ranges of the species Homolodromia monstrosa and Ephyrina benedicti. The largest number of species was recorded in the Mexican Ridges and on the upper continental shelf; lower values were found on the continental margin and in the abyssal plain. The largest densities were recorded on the continental margin in the Mexican Ridges. Megacrustaceans show in general low frequencies and low abundances in trawls, characterizing them as rare components of benthic assemblages. Contrary to an accepted paradigm about deep-sea biodiversity, the highest H' diversity values were recorded in the Sigsbee abyssal plain, followed by values from the upper continental slope; diversity values were correlated with evenness. Canonical Redundancy analysis results showed a significant affinity to regions for 18 crustacean species; 33 species showed a significant affinity to both regions and depth zones within regions.

  2. Possible effects of global environmental changes on Antarctic benthos: a synthesis across five major taxa

    PubMed Central

    Ingels, Jeroen; Vanreusel, Ann; Brandt, Angelika; Catarino, Ana I; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Dubois, Philippe; Gooday, Andrew J; Martin, Patrick; Pasotti, Francesca; Robert, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Because of the unique conditions that exist around the Antarctic continent, Southern Ocean (SO) ecosystems are very susceptible to the growing impact of global climate change and other anthropogenic influences. Consequently, there is an urgent need to understand how SO marine life will cope with expected future changes in the environment. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity to environmental shifts, making it difficult to predict overall community or ecosystem responses. This emphasizes the need for an improved understanding of the Antarctic benthic ecosystem response to global climate change using a multitaxon approach with consideration of different levels of biological organization. Here, we provide a synthesis of the ability of five important Antarctic benthic taxa (Foraminifera, Nematoda, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Echinoidea) to cope with changes in the environment (temperature, pH, ice cover, ice scouring, food quantity, and quality) that are linked to climatic changes. Responses from individual to the taxon-specific community level to these drivers will vary with taxon but will include local species extinctions, invasions of warmer-water species, shifts in diversity, dominance, and trophic group composition, all with likely consequences for ecosystem functioning. Limitations in our current knowledge and understanding of climate change effects on the different levels are discussed. PMID:22423336

  3. Tundra ponds of the Yukon Delta, Alaska, and their macroinvertebrate communities.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Yukon Delta, a low alluvial tundra in western Alaska, has more than 105 thaw-basin ponds within its 70000 km2 area. In 1984 and 1985, 68 ponds in three interior areas of the Delta were surveyed to determine limnological features, macroinvertebrate fauna, and trophic character. Ponds ranged up to 90 ha in area, 2 m in depth, and 17 m in elevation, and occurred in various temporal stages of growth and senescence. Among the 18 major invertebrate taxa collected, in order of decreasing frequency of occurrence, Trichoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Pelecypoda, Isopoda, Coleoptera, Gastropoda, and Oligochaeta were found in over 50% of the ponds. Trichoptera, the only taxon occurring in all ponds, was represented by 22 species of 6 families. The average Delta pond had 6.6 of the nine more common taxa. This measure of faunal richness was similar among study areas but was higher in low-tundra (sea level) ponds and in older ponds on raised tundra. In comparison, lentic invertebrate communities in five other areas of Alaskan and Canadian tundra had fewer taxa and also lower average richness based on occurrence of the same nine taxa.

  4. Tolerance values of benthic macroinvertebrates for stream biomonitoring: assessment of assumptions underlying scoring systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Hsun; Lawrence, Justin E; Rios-Touma, Blanca; Resh, Vincent H

    2014-04-01

    Tolerance values (TVs) based on benthic macroinvertebrates are one of the most widely used tools for monitoring the biological impacts of water pollution, particularly in streams and rivers. We compiled TVs of benthic macroinvertebrates from 29 regions around the world to test 11 basic assumptions about pollution tolerance, that: (1) Arthropoda are < tolerant than non-Arthropoda; (2) Insecta < non-Insecta; (3) non-Oligochaeta < Oligochaeta; (4) other macroinvertebrates < Oligochaeta + Chironomidae; (5) other macroinvertebrate taxa < Isopoda + Gastropoda + Hirudinea; (6) Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera (EPT) < Odonata + Coleoptera + Heteroptera (OCH); (7) EPT < non-EPT insects; (8) Diptera < Insecta; (9) Bivalvia < Gastropoda; (10) Baetidae < other Ephemeroptera; and (11) Hydropsychidae < other Trichoptera. We found that the first eight of these 11 assumptions were supported despite regional variability. In addition, we examined the effect of Best Professional Judgment (BPJ) and non-independence of TVs among countries by performing all analyses using subsets of the original dataset. These subsets included a group based on those systems using TVs that were derived from techniques other than BPJ, and groups based on methods used for TV assignment. The results obtained from these subsets and the entire dataset are similar. We also made seven a priori hypotheses about the regional similarity of TVs based on geography. Only one of these was supported. Development of TVs and the reporting of how they are assigned need to be more rigorous and be better described.

  5. Marine netpen farming leads to infections with some unusual parasites.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L

    2000-03-01

    Marine netpen farming of salmonid fishes is a rapidly growing industry in several countries. With this relatively recent industry, new or unusual infections by parasitic pathogens have been observed. This is due to different hosts being reared in new geographic areas, or by indigenous species being reared in a different environmental condition, i.e. the marine netpen. Examples of the former include Kudoa thyrsites (Myxozoa) and Hemobaphes disphaerocephalus (Copepoda) infections in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in the Pacific Northwest, Ceratothoa gaudichaudii (Isopoda) infections in Atlantic salmon reared in Chile, Neoparamoeba (=Paramoeba) sp. (Sacromastigophora) from salmonids reared in Tasmania, and Stephanostomum tenue (Digenea) infections in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in Atlantic Canada. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in its native region, the Pacific Northwest, provides some examples of unusual or more severe infections than those normally seen in wild or freshwater reared chinook salmon. These include infections by Loma salmonae (Microsporidia), Gilguina squali (Cestoda) and the rosette agent, an undescribed fungus-like organism related to choanoflagellates. As the industry continues to expand, it is certain that more novel host-parasite relationships will be observed, providing challenges for fish farmers and parasitologists.

  6. Diversity of Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) in the World's Oceans – How Far Have We Come?

    PubMed Central

    Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena; Bamber, Roger; Anderson, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Tanaidaceans are small peracarid crustaceans which occur in all marine habitats, over the full range of depths, and rarely into fresh waters. Yet they have no obligate dispersive phase in their life-cycle. Populations are thus inevitably isolated, and allopatric speciation and high regional diversity are inevitable; cosmopolitan distributions are considered to be unlikely or non-existent. Options for passive dispersion are discussed. Tanaidaceans appear to have first evolved in shallow waters, the region of greatest diversification of the Apseudomorpha and some tanaidomorph families, while in deeper waters the apseudomorphs have subsequently evolved two or three distinct phyletic lines. The Neotanaidomorpha has evolved separately and diversified globally in deep waters, and the Tanaidomorpha has undergone the greatest evolution, diversification and adaptation, to the point where some of the deep-water taxa are recolonizing shallow waters. Analysis of their geographic distribution shows some level of regional isolation, but suffers from inclusion of polyphyletic taxa and a general lack of data, particularly for deep waters. It is concluded that the diversity of the tanaidomorphs in deeper waters and in certain ocean regions remains to be discovered; that the smaller taxa are largely understudied; and that numerous cryptic species remain to be distinguished. Thus the number of species currently recognized is likely to be an order of magnitude too low, and globally the Tanaidacea potentially rival the Amphipoda and Isopoda in diversity. PMID:22496741

  7. Fatty acid patterns of Southern Ocean shelf and deep sea peracarid crustaceans and a possible food source, foraminiferans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würzberg, Laura; Peters, Janna; Brandt, Angelika

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of diet composition in macrobenthic peracarid crustaceans from the Antarctic shelf and deep sea, the fatty acid (FA) composition of different species belonging to the orders Isopoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea and Tanaidacea was analysed. Multivariate analyses of the FA composition confirmed general differences between the orders, but also distinct differences within these orders. To gain information on the origin of the FAs found, the potential food sources sediment, POM and foraminiferans were included in the study. Most of the analysed amphipod species displayed high 18:1( n-9)-18:1( n-7) ratios, widely used as an indicator for a carnivorous component in the diet. Cumaceans were characterised by increased phytoplankton FA markers such as 20:5( n-3) (up to 29% of total FAs), suggesting a diet based on phytodetritus. High values of the FA 20:4( n-6) were found in some munnopsid isopods (up to 21% of total FAs) and some tanaidacean species (up to 19% of total FAs). 20:4( n-6) also occurred in high proportions in some foraminiferan samples (up to 21% of total fatty acids), but not in sediment and POM, possibly indicating the ingestion of foraminiferans by some peracarid crustaceans.

  8. A screen of maternally inherited microbial endosymbionts in oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Konecka, Edyta; Olszanowski, Ziemowit

    2015-08-01

    We determined the distribution of microbial endosymbionts as possible agents of parthenogenesis in Oribatida. We screened mites from 20 species of 14 families suspected to be parthenogenetic from the absence or rarity of males. Our research included parthenogenesis-inducing bacteria Wolbachia spp., Cardinium spp., Rickettsia spp., and additionally Arsenophonus, Spiroplasma and microsporidia that can also manipulate host reproduction. We detected the endosymbionts by PCR-based methods and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of fixed and stained preparations of host cells. We detected Wolbachia only in one Oribatida species, Oppiella nova, by identifying Wolbachia genes using PCR. TEM observations confirmed infection by the endosymbiont in O. nova and its lack in other Oribatida species. Sequence analysis of hcpA and fbpA genes showed that the Wolbachia strain from O. nova was different from strains characterized in some insects, crustaceans (Isopoda), mites (Tetranychidae), springtails (Hexapoda) and roundworms (Nematoda). The analysis strongly suggested that the Wolbachia sp. strain found in O. nova did not belong to supergroups A, B, C, D, E, F, H or M. We found that the sequences of Wolbachia from O. nova were clearly distantly related to sequences from the bacteria of the other supergroups. This observation makes O. nova a unique Wolbachia host in terms of the distinction of the strain. The role of these micro-organisms in O. nova remains unknown and is an issue to investigate.

  9. 'Venus trapped, Mars transits': Cu and Fe redox chemistry, cellular topography and in situ ligand binding in terrestrial isopod hepatopancreas.

    PubMed

    Kille, P; Morgan, A J; Powell, K; Mosselmans, J F W; Hart, D; Gunning, P; Hayes, A; Scarborough, D; McDonald, I; Charnock, J M

    2016-03-01

    Woodlice efficiently sequester copper (Cu) in 'cuprosomes' within hepatopancreatic 'S' cells. Binuclear 'B' cells in the hepatopancreas form iron (Fe) deposits; these cells apparently undergo an apocrine secretory diurnal cycle linked to nocturnal feeding. Synchrotron-based µ-focus X-ray spectroscopy undertaken on thin sections was used to characterize the ligands binding Cu and Fe in S and B cells of Oniscus asellus (Isopoda). Main findings were: (i) morphometry confirmed a diurnal B-cell apocrine cycle; (ii) X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping indicated that Cu was co-distributed with sulfur (mainly in S cells), and Fe was co-distributed with phosphate (mainly in B cells); (iii) XRF mapping revealed an intimate morphological relationship between the basal regions of adjacent S and B cells; (iv) molecular modelling and Fourier transform analyses indicated that Cu in the reduced Cu(+) state is mainly coordinated to thiol-rich ligands (Cu-S bond length 2.3 Å) in both cell types, while Fe in the oxidized Fe(3+) state is predominantly oxygen coordinated (estimated Fe-O bond length of approx. 2 Å), with an outer shell of Fe scatterers at approximately 3.05 Å; and (v) no significant differences occur in Cu or Fe speciation at key nodes in the apocrine cycle. Findings imply that S and B cells form integrated unit-pairs; a functional role for secretions from these cellular units in the digestion of recalcitrant dietary components is hypothesized.

  10. "Candidatus hepatoplasma crinochetorum," a new, stalk-forming lineage of Mollicutes colonizing the midgut glands of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Stingl, Ulrich; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Geisler, Sabine; Brune, Andreas; Zimmer, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Uncultivated bacteria that densely colonize the midgut glands (hepatopancreas) of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) were identified by cloning and sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these symbionts represent a novel lineage of the Mollicutes and are only distantly related (<82% sequence identity) to members of the Mycoplasmatales and Entomoplasmatales. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a specific oligonucleotide probe confirmed that the amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences indeed originated from a homogeneous population of symbionts intimately associated with the epithelial surface of the hepatopancreas. The same probe also detected morphotypically identical symbionts in other crinochete isopods. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed uniform spherical bacterial cells without a cell wall, sometimes interacting with the microvilli of the brush border by means of stalk-like cytoplasmic appendages, which also appeared to be involved in cell division through budding. Based on the isolated phylogenetic position and unique cytological properties, the provisional name "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" is proposed for this new taxon of Mollicutes colonizing the hepatopancreas of P. scaber.

  11. Bioavailability of cobalt and iron from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Romih, Tea; Drašler, Barbara; Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Golobič, Miha; Makovec, Darko; Susič, Robert; Kogej, Ksenija

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether citric acid adsorbed onto cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) influences the bioavailability of their constituents Co and Fe. Dissolution of Co and Fe was assessed by two measures: (i) in aqueous suspension using chemical analysis, prior to application onto the food of test organisms; and (ii) in vivo, measuring the bioavailability in the model terrestrial invertebrate (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). The isopods were exposed to citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs for 2 weeks, and tissue accumulation of Co and Fe was assessed. This was compared to pristine CoFe2O4 NPs, and CoCl2 and Fe(III) salts as positive controls. The combined data shows that citric acid enhances free metal ion concentration from CoFe2O4 NPs in aqueous suspension, although in vivo, very similar amounts of assimilated Co were found in isopods exposed to both types of NPs. Therefore, evaluation of the dissolution in suspension by chemical means is not a good predictor of metal assimilation of this model organism; body assimilation of Co and Fe is rather governed by the physiological capacity of P. scaber for the uptake of these metals. Moreover, we propose that citric acid, due to its chelating properties, may hinder the uptake of Co that dissolves from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs, if citric acid is present in sufficient quantity.

  12. Cell membrane integrity and internalization of ingested TiO(2) nanoparticles by digestive gland cells of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Novak, Sara; Drobne, Damjana; Valant, Janez; Pipan-Tkalec, Živa; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Falnoga, Ingrid; Mazej, Darja; Remškar, Maja

    2012-05-01

    The present study was motivated by the paucity of reports on cellular internalization of ingested titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles (nano-TiO(2)). The model invertebrate (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) was exposed to food dosed with nano-TiO(2) containing 100, 1,000, 3,000, or 5,000 µg nano-TiO(2) per gram of food. After 14 d of exposure, the amount of Ti in the entire body was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses of tissue cross sections were performed by particle induced X-ray emission. In addition, a series of toxicological markers including feeding parameters, weight change, and survival, as well as cytotoxic effects such as digestive gland cell membrane stability, were monitored. Internalization of ingested nano-TiO(2) by the isopod's digestive gland epithelial cells was shown to depend on cell membrane integrity. Cell membranes were found to be destabilized by TiO(2) particles, and at higher extracellular concentrations of nano-TiO(2), the nanoparticles were internalized.

  13. Effect of forced fasting on magnesium and manganese regulation in a terrestrial isopod, Porcellio spinicornis Say

    SciTech Connect

    Bercovitz, K.; Alikhan, M.A. )

    1989-07-01

    The amount of toxic and non-toxic elements assimilated by primary consumers from their environment depends as much on the form, as on concentration of these elements in the food. In superficially contaminated sites, the majority of elements detected in plant material are present as a blanket deposit of fine particles on leaf surfaces, and these are easily removed as the consumed material passes through the alimentary canal. In contrast, trace metals stored in the plant tissue are not readily available as they have been taken up via roots and are firmly bound within the plant tissue. Earlier studies have shown that mean concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) in whole woodlice are correlated with levels in their diet. Both metals are regulated by terrestrial isopods during their intermoult- and moult-cycles. The present study provides information on the regulation of Mg and Mn tissue concentrations during forced fasting in adult, intermoult male and female Porcellio spinicornis Say (Porcellionidae, Isopoda). Mg, the principal cation in the soft tissues is a well known activator of many enzymes of the glycolytic systems. Mn, on the other hand, plays a special role in digestive and catabolic processes.

  14. Possible effects of global environmental changes on Antarctic benthos: a synthesis across five major taxa.

    PubMed

    Ingels, Jeroen; Vanreusel, Ann; Brandt, Angelika; Catarino, Ana I; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Dubois, Philippe; Gooday, Andrew J; Martin, Patrick; Pasotti, Francesca; Robert, Henri

    2012-02-01

    Because of the unique conditions that exist around the Antarctic continent, Southern Ocean (SO) ecosystems are very susceptible to the growing impact of global climate change and other anthropogenic influences. Consequently, there is an urgent need to understand how SO marine life will cope with expected future changes in the environment. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity to environmental shifts, making it difficult to predict overall community or ecosystem responses. This emphasizes the need for an improved understanding of the Antarctic benthic ecosystem response to global climate change using a multitaxon approach with consideration of different levels of biological organization. Here, we provide a synthesis of the ability of five important Antarctic benthic taxa (Foraminifera, Nematoda, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Echinoidea) to cope with changes in the environment (temperature, pH, ice cover, ice scouring, food quantity, and quality) that are linked to climatic changes. Responses from individual to the taxon-specific community level to these drivers will vary with taxon but will include local species extinctions, invasions of warmer-water species, shifts in diversity, dominance, and trophic group composition, all with likely consequences for ecosystem functioning. Limitations in our current knowledge and understanding of climate change effects on the different levels are discussed.

  15. Diversity of Southern Ocean deep-sea benthos between cosmopolitism and cryptic speciation: new species from the ANDEEP expeditions.

    PubMed

    Schüller, Myriam; Brandt, Angelika; Ebbe, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The richness of life in parts of the earth that to us appear inhospitable and remote never fails to fascinate scientists and non-scientists alike. The largest ecosystem of the planet, the abyssal plains of the world ocean, makes up about 90 percent of the seafloor and thus nearly 78 percent of the Earth’s surface, yet only a minor fraction of this huge environment has been investigated. Authors have questioned repeatedly "how many species would live on earth and in the ocean" (Mora et al. 2011; May 2011), and recent estimations predict ~ 8.7 million (+/- 1.3 million SE) eukaryotic species globally, with 2.2 million of these being marine (Mora et al. 2011). To date, 91 % of all marine species still await description. Other authors concluded that marine biodiversity is grossly underestimated (Bouchet 2006) because so far, only one-third of all species descriptions concerns marine biota (Reaka-Kudla 1997; Groombridge & Jenkins 2000, Grassle 2001, Boltovskoy et al. 2005). We know that marine live thrives even in hadal trenches (Jamieson et al. 2009), that biogeographic ranges in the deep sea are dynamic (McClain & Mincks Hardy 2010) and that the origin of the modern deep-sea fauna is ancient (Thuy et al. 2012). For example, the origin of Isopoda dates back to Permo-Triassic times (232– 314 mya; Lins et al. 2012).

  16. A Comparison of the Pitfall Trap, Winkler Extractor and Berlese Funnel for Sampling Ground-Dwelling Arthropods in Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    PubMed Central

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Shiju, Raj T.; Vinod, KV.; Nithya, S.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the ground-dwelling arthropod diversity in tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF). Due to unique habitat conditions in TMCFs with continuously wet substrates and a waterlogged forest floor along with the innate biases of the pitfall trap, Berlese funnel and Winkler extractor are certain to make it difficult to choose the most appropriate method to sample the ground-dwelling arthropods in TMCFs. Among the three methods, the Winkler extractor was the most efficient method for quantitative data and pitfall trapping for qualitative data for most groups. Inclusion of floatation method as a complementary method along with the Winkler extractor would enable a comprehensive quantitative survey of ground-dwelling arthropods. Pitfall trapping is essential for both quantitative and qualitative sampling of Diplopoda, Opiliones, Orthoptera, and Diptera. The Winkler extractor was the best quantitative method for Psocoptera, Araneae, Isopoda, and Formicidae; and the Berlese funnel was best for Collembola and Chilopoda. For larval forms of different insect orders and the Acari, all the three methods were equally effective. PMID:21529148

  17. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  18. Density-Dependent Effects of an Invasive Ant on a Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Community.

    PubMed

    Cooling, M; Sim, D A; Lester, P J

    2015-02-01

    It is frequently assumed that an invasive species that is ecologically or economically damaging in one region, will typically be so in other environments. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) is listed among the world's worst invaders. It commonly displaces resident ant species where it occurs at high population densities, and may also reduce densities of other ground-dwelling arthropods. We investigated the effect of varying Argentine ant abundance on resident ant and nonant arthropod species richness and abundance in seven cities across its range in New Zealand. Pitfall traps were used to compare an invaded and uninvaded site in each city. Invaded sites were selected based on natural varying abundance of Argentine ant populations. Argentine ant density had a significant negative effect on epigaeic ant abundance and species richness, but hypogaeic ant abundance and species richness was unaffected. We observed a significant decrease in Diplopoda abundance with increasing Argentine ant abundance, while Coleoptera abundance increased. The effect on Amphipoda and Isopoda depended strongly on climate. The severity of the impact on negatively affected taxa was reduced in areas where Argentine ant densities were low. Surprisingly, Argentine ants had no effect on the abundance of the other arthropod taxa examined. Morphospecies richness for all nonant arthropod taxa was unaffected by Argentine ant abundance. Species that are established as invasive in one location therefore cannot be assumed to be invasive in other locations based on presence alone. Appropriate management decisions should reflect this knowledge.

  19. Evolution of ITS1 rDNA in the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: trematoda): 3' end sequence conservation and its phylogenetic utility.

    PubMed

    vd Schulenburg, J H; Englisch, U; Wägele, J W

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) elements of digenetic trematodes (Platyhelminthes) including unidentified digeneans isolated from Cyathura carinata (Crustacea: Isopoda) revealed DNA sequence similarities at more than half of the spacer at its 3' end. Primary sequence similarity was shown to be associated with secondary structure conservation, which suggested that similarity is due to identity by descent and not chance. Using an analysis of apomorphies, the sequence data were shown to produce a distinct phylogenetic signal. This was confirmed by the consistency of results of different tree reconstruction methods such as distance approaches, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. Morphological evidence additionally supported the phylogenetic tree based on ITS1 data and the inferred phylogenetic position of the unidentified digeneans of C. carinata met the expectations from known trematode life-cycle patterns. Although ribosomal ITS1 elements are generally believed to be too variable for phylogenetic analysis above the species or genus level, the overall consistency of the results of this study strongly suggests that this is not the case in digenetic trematodes. Here, 3' end ITS1 sequence data seem to provide a valuable tool for elucidating phylogenetic relationships of a broad range of phylogenetically distinct taxa.

  20. Impacts of golf courses on macroinvertebrate community structure in Precambrian shield streams.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jennifer G; Somers, Keith M; Dillon, Peter J; Paterson, Carolyn; Reid, Ron A

    2002-01-01

    The influence of golf course operation on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Precambrian Shield streams was evaluated using rapid bioassessment and the reference condition approach. Streams were sampled for water chemistry and invertebrates in 1999 and 2000, six on operational golf courses, and seven in forested reference locations. Correspondence analysis (CA) was used to determine the major patterns in the macroinvertebrate taxa, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate relationships with environmental variables. The reference streams were used to define the normal range of variation for a variety of summary indices to evaluate the golf course streams. In all cases, golf course streams were higher in nutrients and dissolved ions and more alkaline than the forested reference streams. There was considerable variability in the macroinvertebrate fauna from the golf course streams, which was related to differences in golf course land management practices and to the potential influence of highway runoff. Of the management practices evaluated, fertilizer application rates in particular were important, as was the presence of ponds upstream on the course. Invertebrate taxa with higher abundances in golf course streams included Turbellaria, Isopoda, Amphipoda, Zygoptera, and Trombidiformes. Taxa more common in the reference streams included Ephemeroptera, Megaloptera, Culicidae, and Plecoptera. There were marked differences in the overall benthic macroinvertebrate community in three of the six golf course streams studied relative to the forested reference streams, suggesting that golf course land management on the Precambrian Shield can be associated with significant differences in macroinvertebrate community structure.

  1. Total and monomethyl mercury in terrestrial arthropods from the central California coast.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Cruz; Weiss-Penzias, Peter S; Fork, Susanne; Flegal, A Russell

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of terrestrial arthropods. The 4-month sampling campaign took place around Monterey Bay, California. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations (x ± SD, dry weight) for the captured specimens ranged from 22 to 188 ng g(-1) in the Jerusalem crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae); 65-233 ng g(-1) in the camel crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae); 25-227 ng g(-1) in the pill bugs (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae); 19-563 ng g(-1) in the ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae); 140-441 ng g(-1) in the variegated meadowhawk dragonflies (Odonata: Libellulidae); 607-657 ng g(-1) in the pacific spiketail dragonflies (Odonata: Cordulegastridae); and 81-1,249 ng g(-1) in the wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae). A subset of samples analyzed for monomethyl mercury (MMHg) suggest detrital pill bugs have a higher MMHg/HgT ratio than predatory ground beetles.

  2. Bizarre behaviour, bizarre intruder and bizarre bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Di Saverio, Salomone; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Gazzotti, Filippo; Filicori, Filippo; Ansaloni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    An 82-year-old woman, with previous history of hiatal hernia, cholecystectomy and depression, has been admitted for worsening diffuse abdominal pain with constipation and vomiting for 4 days. She lived alone, without signs of dementia or cognitive impairment. The abdomen was distended and tender in middle quadrants. Abdominal x-ray revealed concentric distension of bowel loops. CT scan confirmed mechanical small bowel obstruction with a transition point in the right iliac fossa. At laparotomy, the obstruction was caused by an intraluminal mass. After enterotomy, a 5.5 cm large phytobezoar was extracted; immediately after, a small live insect jumped out from the vegetable mass crawling onto the surgical area. The specimen was sent for parasitology and identified as a crustacean isopod, terrestrial arthropod, classified in the phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Crustacea and order Isopoda. They usually live in humid, moist conditions, obtaining their nourishment from decomposing vegetable matter. They often colonise in greenhouse pot plants. No cases of parasitisation in vertebrate species have been reported to date. PMID:22798446

  3. Taxonomic Review of the Orders Mysida and Stygiomysida (Crustacea, Peracarida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The order Mysida (2 families, 178 genera, 1132 species) contains species across a broad range of habitats, such as subterranean, fresh, brackish, coastal, and surface to deep-sea habitats. The Stygiomysida (2 families, 2 genera, 16 species), however, are found primarily in subterranean waters, but always in waters with a marine influence. The Mysida and Stygiomysida body is divided into three main regions: cephalon, thorax, and abdomen. They are shrimp-like in appearance, containing morphological features earlier referred to as defining a "caridoid facies". The shrimp-like morphology was to some extent diagnostic for the historic Decapod taxon Schizopoda, containing the Nebalia, Mysida, Lophogastrida, and Euphausiacea. In 1904 the concept of Schizopoda was abandoned, and the Mysidacea (Mysida and Lophogastrida) along with Cumacea, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Tanaidacea were placed in a new taxon, the Peracarida. Later discoveries of groundwater mysids led to the establishment of Stygiomysida, but placement to either Lophogastrida or Mysida remained unclear. The presence of oostegites and absence of podobranchiae, coupled with non-statocyst bearing uropods have been used to classify the Stygiomysida as a primitive Mysida family, comparable to Petalophthalmidae. On the other hand, equally suggestive characters, but for a Lophogastrida affiliation, was suggested for the archaic foregut characters and again, non-statocyst bearing uropods. With the inclusion of DNA sequence data of ribosomal genes, sister group relationships between Stygiomysida, Lophogastrida, and Mictacea within the Peracarida are observed, which supports a classification of the Stygiomysida as a separate order removed from the Mysida. PMID:25927358

  4. Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus (Teleostei: Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo; Santos, Maria João

    2013-10-01

    Parasites are affected by the environment where their hosts live, having a specific distribution among their hosts and occupying a well-defined microhabitat. The present work aims to describe the metazoan ectoparasite fauna of Scomber scombrus, namely its distribution at the macro- and microhabitat levels. For that, fish from two different Portuguese regions, Matosinhos (n = 40) and Figueira da Foz (n = 39), were examined for macroectoparasites. S. scombrus of Matosinhos presented four different parasite species, whilst fish from Figueira da Foz presented five species. All parasites belonged to Monogenea, Copepoda, or Isopoda. The main differences between infection levels of fish from the two localities were found in Grubea cochlear (higher infection levels in Matosinhos) and Caligus pelamydis (where the highest values were found in Figueira da Foz). Regarding the microhabitat of the reported ectoparasites, it could be seen that every species has a very specific distribution within the host: G. cochlear and Kuhnia scombri have a preference for the inner medial areas of gills, Kuhnia sprostonae for the pseudobranchs, and C. pelamydis for the internal wall of opercula. The numerical and functional responses to interspecific competition were absent. These results support the idea that the parasite driving forces of community structure are the reinforcement of reproductive barriers and the enhancement of chances to mate.

  5. Identification of Sphaeroma terebrans via morphology and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene

    PubMed Central

    LI, Xiu-Feng; HAN, Chong; ZHONG, Cai-Rong; XU, Jun-Qiu; HUANG, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Sphaeroma terebrans, a wood-boring isopoda, is distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical mangroves. The taxonomy of S. terebrans is usually based on morphological characteristics, with its molecular identification still poorly understood. The number of teeth on the uropodal exopod and the length of the propodus of the seventh pereopod are considered as the major morphological characteristics in S. terebrans, which can cause difficulty in regards to accurate identification. In this study, we identified S. terebrans via molecular and morphological data. Furthermore, the validity of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of genus Sphaeroma, including species S. terebrans, S. retrolaeve, and S. serratum, was examined. The mitochondrial COI gene sequences of all specimens were sequenced and analysed. The interspecific Kimura 2-parameter distances were higher than intraspecific distances and no intraspecific-interspecific distance overlaps were observed. In addition, genetic distance and nucleotide diversity (π) exhibited no differences within S. terebrans. Our results revealed that the mitochondrial COI gene can serve as a valid DNA barcode for the identification of S. terebrans. Furthermore, the number of teeth on the uropodal exopod and the length of the propodus of the seventh pereopod were found to be unreliable taxonomic characteristics for S. terebrans. PMID:27686791

  6. Two new stygobiotic copepod species from the Tibesti area (Northern Chad) and a re-description of Pilocamptus schroederi (van Douwe, 1915).

    PubMed

    Brancelj, Anton

    2015-08-04

    Between 4th and 18th March 2014, an international group of biologists carried out a hydrobiological expedition to the Ounianga-Tibesti area of northern Chad (Africa). The Tibesti is a desert volcanic area, intersected by the beds of ancient rivers which were active in the Tertiary. In deep canyons there are small water bodies (gueltas/aguelmans), fed by rain and spring water. They are rich in zooplankton, benthos, and even fish, but their groundwater fauna has previously been unknown. Groundwater samples collected in the vicinity of one guelta contained Syncarida, Isopoda, and Copepoda. Among the latter, two new species were recognised, Haplocyclops (H.) henrii sp. nov. and Parastenocaris joi sp. nov., together with a third species, Pilocamptus schroederi (van Douwe, 1915), previously known only from the littoral zone and wet mosses of Lake Victoria. The Tibesti area is thus the third known location of P. schroederi. All these species have a Gondwanaland distribution and are probably relicts of the Tertiary fauna, formerly widespread in the Sahara. Together with descriptions of two new species, a detailed re-description of P. schroederi is presented, along with remarks on their ecology.

  7. Sea-land transitions in isopods: pattern of symbiont distribution in two species of intertidal isopods Ligia pallasii and Ligia occidentalis in the Eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Eberl, Renate

    2010-07-01

    Studies of microbial associations of intertidal isopods in the primitive genus Ligia (Oniscidea, Isopoda) can help our understanding of the formation of symbioses during sea-land transitions, as terrestrial Oniscidean isopods have previously been found to house symbionts in their hepatopancreas. Ligia pallasii and Ligia occidentalis co-occur in the high intertidal zone along the Eastern Pacific with a large zone of range overlap and both species showing patchy distributions. In 16S rRNA clone libraries mycoplasma-like bacteria (Firmicutes), related to symbionts described from terrestrial isopods, were the most common bacteria present in both host species. There was greater overall microbial diversity in Ligia pallasii compared with L. occidentalis. Populations of both Ligia species along an extensive area of the eastern Pacific coastline were screened for the presence of mycoplasma-like symbionts with symbiont-specific primers. Symbionts were present in all host populations from both species but not in all individuals. Phylogenetically, symbionts of intertidal isopods cluster together. Host habitat, in addition to host phylogeny appears to influence the phylogenetic relation of symbionts.

  8. Lunar influence on prey availability, diet shifts and niche overlap between Engraulidae larvae in tropical mangrove creeks.

    PubMed

    Lima, A R A; Barletta, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the lunar cycle on prey availability, diet shifts and overlap between larval Anchovia clupeoides and Cetengraulis edentulus was evaluated in mangrove creeks of the Goiana Estuary. Copepod eggs were highly abundant in the first and last quarter, at the full moon and zoea of Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae) in the new moon. The Engraulidae larvae fed on microcrustaceans, algae and early planktonic stages of benthic organisms. The relative importance of prey varied according to prey availability in all moon phases. Larval diets were more even in the full and new moons, when the relative importance of calanoid copepods and zoeae of U. cordatus as food items increased (index of relative importance, >80% IRI ). Mangrove creeks were very important feeding grounds for engraulid larvae during spring tides. Larval diets were more diverse in the first and last-quarter moon and included protozoeae of Caridean shrimp, larvae of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Veneridae), Isopoda, Gastropoda, ephippium of Daphnia sp. and nauplii of Cirripedia, Harpacticoidia and cyclopoid Copepoda. The last five items were not found in the creeks, suggesting feeding in the main channel. During neap tides, mangrove creeks were probably also used as refugia. These larvae are opportunistic and feed on highly available prey and both species feed on the same items, leading to high dietary overlap in all moon phases. The lunar cycle, which is related to the spring-neap tidal cycle, was the major driver of quantitative and qualitative changes in feeding of engraulid larvae on a short time scale.

  9. Composition and abundance of epibenthic-sledge catches in the South Polar Front of the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, A.; Havermans, C.; Janussen, D.; Jörger, K. M.; Meyer-Löbbecke, A.; Schnurr, S.; Schüller, M.; Schwabe, E.; Brandão, S. N.; Würzberg, L.

    2014-10-01

    An epibenthic sledge (EBS) was deployed at seven different deep-sea stations along the South Polar Front of the Atlantic in order to explore the composition and abundance of macrofaunal organisms and to identify the most abundant taxa in this transition zone to the Southern Ocean. In total 3,130 specimens were sampled by means of the EBS on board of RV Polarstern during the expedition ANT-XXVIII/3 in the austral summer of 2012. Benthic and suprabenthic Crustacea occurred to be most frequent in the samples. Among those, copepods were by far most numerous, with 1,585 specimens followed by the peracarid taxa Isopoda (236 ind.), Amphipoda (103 ind.), Tanaidacea (78 ind.) and Cumacea (50 ind.). Annelida were represented by a high number of specimens belonging to different polychaete taxa (404 ind.). The molluscan fauna was clearly dominated by Bivalvia (255 ind.), followed in numbers of specimens by Gastropoda (47 ind.). The deep-sea benthos sampled along the Southern Polar Front occurred in surprisingly low abundances, contrasting the largely high surface productivity of the area. Numbers of specimens across different macrofaunal taxa and especially of peracarid crustaceans underscored by far those from South Ocean sites at higher latitudes in the Weddell Sea.

  10. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  11. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Michael J; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences.

  12. Global diversity of fish parasitic isopod crustaceans of the family Cymothoidae

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico J.; Bruce, Niel L.; Hadfield, Kerry A.

    2014-01-01

    Of the 95 known families of Isopoda only a few are parasitic namely, Bopyridae, Cryptoniscidae, Cymothoidae, Dajidae, Entoniscidae, Gnathiidae and Tridentellidae. Representatives from the family Cymothoidae are obligate parasites of both marine and freshwater fishes and there are currently 40 recognised cymothoid genera worldwide. These isopods are large (>6 mm) parasites, thus easy to observe and collect, yet many aspects of their biodiversity and biology are still unknown. They are widely distributed around the world and occur in many different habitats, but mostly in shallow waters in tropical or subtropical areas. A number of adaptations to an obligatory parasitic existence have been observed, such as the body shape, which is influenced by the attachment site on the host. Cymothoids generally have a long, slender body tapering towards the ends and the efficient contour of the body offers minimum resistance to the water flow and can withstand the forces of this particular habitat. Other adaptations to this lifestyle include small sensory antennae and eyes; a very heavily thickened and calcified cuticle for protection; and sharply curved hooks on the ends of the pereopods which allows these parasites to attach to the host. Most cymothoids are highly site and host specific. Some of these parasitic cymothoids have been reported to parasitise the same host fish species for over 100 years, showing this species specificity. The site of attachment on the host (gills, mouth, external surfaces or inside the host flesh) can also be genus or species specific. This paper aims to provide a summary of our current knowledge of cymothoid biodiversity and will highlight their history of discovery, morphology, relationships and classification, taxonomic diversity and ecology. PMID:25180163

  13. Fish parasites in the bathyal zone: The halosaur Halosauropsis macrochir (Günther, 1878) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimpel, S.; Palm, H. W.; Busch, M. W.; Kellermanns, E.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 42 Halosauropsis macrochir from a single position on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) were collected for studies on parasites and feeding ecology. A total of 9 different parasite species were found, with most of them belonging to the Digenea (4 species) and Nematoda (3). The host specific Degeneria halosauri, (Digenea) and Cystidicolidae indet. (Nematoda) were the predominant species, reaching a prevalence of 100.0% and 57.1% with intensities of infection of 1-12 and 1-10, respectively. Less host specific parasites such as Gonocerca phycidis (Digenea) and Tetraphyllidea indet. (Cestoda) occurred at low rates of infection. The parasite fauna of this bathyal fish can be described as predominantly adult and host specific, with larval and less host specific components. A total of 16 different food groups were identified, most of them of benthic origin or associated with the benthopelagial. The predominant prey organisms belonged to the Crustacea (e.g., Copepoda, Gammaridea, Amphipoda and Isopoda), which serve as main parasite vectors for H. macrochir. This deep-sea fish seems to follow a general pattern of fish parasites in the deep sea, with most isolated parasites belonging to the digeneans, nematodes and a cestode. The parasite composition is caused by the narrow depth range of the species and the restricted distribution of the fish family Halosauridae. The species richness was found to be lower than other demersal fish from the deep sea and shallow waters, however, higher than those from deep-sea fish living in the pelagial.

  14. Distribution of benthic marine invertebrates at northern latitudes ― An evaluation applying multi-algorithm species distribution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Karin; Fiorentino, Dario; Schnurr, Sarah; Martinez Arbizu, Pedro; Huettmann, Falk; Holst, Sabine; Brix, Saskia; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2014-01-01

    Different techniques of species distribution modeling were applied to evaluate the distribution of eight benthic marine species in Icelandic waters. The species examined were Symplectoscyphus tricuspidatus, Stegopoma plicatile (both Hydrozoa), Prionospio cirrifera, Amphicteis gunneri (both Polychaeta), Desmosoma strombergi, Eurycope producta (both Isopoda), Andaniella pectinata and Harpinia crenulata (both Amphipoda). Information on 13 environmental variables (temperature mean, temperature mean SD, temperature minimum, temperature maximum, salinity mean, salinity mean SD, oxygen content, particulate organic carbon, seasonal variation index, bottom roughness, sediment thickness, acidification) and records of occurrences of these eight species was collated in an ArcGIS project. Modeling methods applied were MARS, TreeNet, and MaxENT. According to area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) model assessment values, models with moderate to outstanding discriminatory power were found for all species. There was a good overlap in the overall pattern of prediction for most species independent on the modeling technique. Among the three applied techniques MARS seemed to generalize most whereas TreeNet predictions very precisely reflected information from the training data set. The distribution of the selected benthic invertebrate species in Icelandic waters could be linked to a variety of environmental factors related to oceanography, seabed topography and human impact. Their multivariate interactions acted as a structuring force of species distribution, instead of just their one by one individual influence. The selected predictors varied between the different models for the same species. They substituted each other in different models. The expected distribution of the examined species was mapped for a seascape of known environmental settings. Such maps will serve as excellent references in future impact studies and enable the detection of changes in the distribution of

  15. Foraging Ecology of Fall-Migrating Shorebirds in the Illinois River Valley

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Randolph V.; Stafford, Joshua D.; Yetter, Aaron P.; Horath, Michelle M.; Hine, Christopher S.; Hoover, Jeffery P.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many shorebird species appear to be declining in North America, and food resources at stopover habitats may limit migratory bird populations. We investigated body condition of, and foraging habitat and diet selection by 4 species of shorebirds in the central Illinois River valley during fall migrations 2007 and 2008 (Killdeer [Charadrius vociferus], Least Sandpiper [Calidris minutilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], and Lesser Yellowlegs [Tringa flavipes]). All species except Killdeer were in good to excellent condition, based on size-corrected body mass and fat scores. Shorebird diets were dominated by invertebrate taxa from Orders Diptera and Coleoptera. Additionally, Isopoda, Hemiptera, Hirudinea, Nematoda, and Cyprinodontiformes contribution to diets varied by shorebird species and year. We evaluated diet and foraging habitat selection by comparing aggregate percent dry mass of food items in shorebird diets and core samples from foraging substrates. Invertebrate abundances at shorebird collection sites and random sites were generally similar, indicating that birds did not select foraging patches within wetlands based on invertebrate abundance. Conversely, we found considerable evidence for selection of some diet items within particular foraging sites, and consistent avoidance of Oligochaeta. We suspect the diet selectivity we observed was a function of overall invertebrate biomass (51.2±4.4 [SE] kg/ha; dry mass) at our study sites, which was greater than estimates reported in most other food selection studies. Diet selectivity in shorebirds may follow tenants of optimal foraging theory; that is, at low food abundances shorebirds forage opportunistically, with the likelihood of selectivity increasing as food availability increases. Nonetheless, relationships between the abundance, availability, and consumption of Oligochaetes for and by waterbirds should be the focus of future research, because estimates of foraging carrying capacity

  16. Mercury Concentration in the Tissue of Terrestrial Arthropods from the Central California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, C.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of arthropods in coastal California. This region receives significant input of fog which may contain enhanced levels of Hg. Currently there is a lack of data on Hg concentration in the tissue of arthropods (Insecta, Malacostraca, and Arachnida). The sample collection sites were Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Reserve in Moss Landing, and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. Samples collected between February and March, 2012 had total Hg (HgT) concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 27 - 39 ng/g in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae); 80 - 110 ng/g in the camel cricket (Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae); 21 - 219 ng/g in the ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae); 100 - 228 ng/g in the pill bug (Isopoda Armadillidiidae); and 285 - 423 ng/g in the wolf spider (Araneae Lycosidae). Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in dry weight were determine to be 4.3 -28.2 ng/g for the ground beetle; 45.5 - 87.8 ng/g for the pill bug, and 252.3 - 293.7 ng/g for the wolf spider. Samples collected in July, 2012 had HgT concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 110 - 168 ng/g in the camel cricket; 337 - 562 ng/g in the ground beetle; 25 - 227 ng/g in the pill bug; and 228 - 501 ng/g in the wolf spider. The preliminary data revealed an 18% increase in the concentration of HgT for wolf spiders, and a 146% increase for ground beetles in the summer when compared to those concentrations measured in the spring. It is hypothesized that coastal fog may be a contributor to this increase of Hg concentration in coastal California arthropods.

  17. Influence of season and site location on European cultured sea bass parasites in Corsican fish farms using indicator species analysis (IndVal).

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Laetitia; Foata, Joséphine; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    The parasites of 536 European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were studied between January 2012 and December 2013 in six Corsican fish farms. The indicator value (IndVal) method, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity, has been used in this study. Because of its resilience to changes in abundance, IndVal is a particularly effective tool for ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method showed how season can influence the occurrence of parasite species in cultured sea bass and also identified parasites as bioindicators relative to fish farm location. The combination of specificity and fidelity highlighted several parasite species as significant indicators. A randomization test identified five parasite species as having a significant indicator value for season (the monogenean Diplectanum aequans; the copepods Lernanthropus kroyeri and Caligus minimus; the isopod Ceratothoa oestroides, and the myxosporidian Ceratomyxa labracis). If gills parasites are compared, they can be seen to be indicator species for two different seasons. The only Monogenea species D. aequans had fidelity and specificity more pronounced in winter, whereas both copepod species and the Isopoda revealed highest rates of infestation corresponding with an increase of water temperature. Four species have a significant indicator value for site location (D. aequans, L. kroyeri, C. minimus, and C. oestroides). The fact that the farm 6 was isolated on the east coast of Corsica may not have allowed the parasite to infect other farms. The presence of copepods on a single farm can also be explained according to salinity variations. Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the monitoring and management of parasitism in cultured sea bass populations.

  18. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C.; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences. PMID:26417993

  19. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  20. Bacterial Community Associated with the Intestinal Tract of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Farmed in Lake Tai, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobing; Di, Panpan; Wang, Hongming; Li, Bailin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (CMC, Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically valuable species in South-East Asia that has been widely farmed in China. Characterization of the intestinal bacterial diversity of CMC will provide insights into the aquaculturing of CMCs. Based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes from culture-independent CMC gut bacteria, 124 out of 128 different clones reveal >95% nucleotide similarity to the species belonging to the four phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; one clone shows 91% sequence similarity to the member of TM7 (a candidate phylum without cultured representatives). Fluorescent in situ hybridization also reveals the abundance of Bacteroidetes in crab intestine. Electron micrographs show that spherical and filamentous bacteria are closely associated with the microvillus brush border of the midgut epithelium and are often inserted into the space between the microvilli using a stalk-like cell appendage. In contrast, the predominant rod-shaped bacteria in the hindgut are tightly attached to the epithelium surface by an unusual pili-like structure. Both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and metagenome library indicate that the CMC Mollicutes group 2 appears to be present in both the midgut and hindgut with no significant difference in abundance. The CMC Mollicutes group 1, however, was found mostly in the midgut of CMCs. The CMC gut Mollicutes phylotypes appear to be most closely related to Mollicutes symbionts detected in the gut of isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Overall, the results suggest that CMCs harbor diverse, novel and specific gut bacteria, which are likely to live in close relationships with the CMC host. PMID:25875449

  1. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cembranos, Ana; León, Alicia; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain). We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource. PMID:26871439

  2. Influence of Asellus aquaticus on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni and naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-15

    Water lice, Asellus aquaticus (isopoda), frequently occur in drinking water distribution systems where they are a nuisance to consumers and water utilities. Whether they are solely an aesthetic problem or also affect the microbial water quality is a matter of interest. We studied the influence of A. aquaticus on microbial water quality in non-chlorinated drinking water in controlled laboratory experiments. Pure cultures of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni as well as naturally occurring heterotrophic drinking water bacteria (measured as heterotrophic plate counts, HPC) were investigated in microcosms at 7 °C, containing non-sterilised drinking water, drinking water sediment and A. aquaticus collected from a non-chlorinated ground water based drinking water supply system. Concentrations of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni decreased over time, following a first order decay with half lives of 5.3, 18.4 and 1.3 days, respectively. A. aquaticus did not affect survival of indicators and pathogens substantially whereas HPC were influenced by presence of dead A. aquaticus. Growth rates increased with an average of 48% for bacteria grown on R-2A agar and an average of 83% for bacteria grown on yeast extract agar when dead A. aquaticus were present compared to no and living A. aquaticus present. A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were measured (up to 25 per living and 500 per dead A. aquaticus) and so were A. aquaticus associated heterotrophic bacteria (>1.8*10(4) CFU per living and >6*10(4) CFU per dead A. aquaticus). A. aquaticus did not serve as an optimised habitat that increased survival of indicators and pathogens, since A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were only measured as long as the bacteria were also present in the water and sediment.

  3. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T.; Schubart, Christoph D.; Müller, Carsten H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal’s life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task. PMID:26713228

  4. An evolutionary analysis of flightin reveals a conserved motif unique and widespread in Pancrustacea.

    PubMed

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2014-01-01

    Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more

  5. ‘Venus trapped, Mars transits': Cu and Fe redox chemistry, cellular topography and in situ ligand binding in terrestrial isopod hepatopancreas

    PubMed Central

    Kille, P.; Morgan, A. J.; Powell, K.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Hart, D.; Gunning, P.; Hayes, A.; Scarborough, D.; McDonald, I.; Charnock, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Woodlice efficiently sequester copper (Cu) in ‘cuprosomes' within hepatopancreatic ‘S' cells. Binuclear ‘B’ cells in the hepatopancreas form iron (Fe) deposits; these cells apparently undergo an apocrine secretory diurnal cycle linked to nocturnal feeding. Synchrotron-based µ-focus X-ray spectroscopy undertaken on thin sections was used to characterize the ligands binding Cu and Fe in S and B cells of Oniscus asellus (Isopoda). Main findings were: (i) morphometry confirmed a diurnal B-cell apocrine cycle; (ii) X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping indicated that Cu was co-distributed with sulfur (mainly in S cells), and Fe was co-distributed with phosphate (mainly in B cells); (iii) XRF mapping revealed an intimate morphological relationship between the basal regions of adjacent S and B cells; (iv) molecular modelling and Fourier transform analyses indicated that Cu in the reduced Cu+ state is mainly coordinated to thiol-rich ligands (Cu–S bond length 2.3 Å) in both cell types, while Fe in the oxidized Fe3+ state is predominantly oxygen coordinated (estimated Fe–O bond length of approx. 2 Å), with an outer shell of Fe scatterers at approximately 3.05 Å; and (v) no significant differences occur in Cu or Fe speciation at key nodes in the apocrine cycle. Findings imply that S and B cells form integrated unit-pairs; a functional role for secretions from these cellular units in the digestion of recalcitrant dietary components is hypothesized. PMID:26935951

  6. Feminizing Wolbachia: a transcriptomics approach with insights on the immune response genes in Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wolbachia are vertically transmitted bacteria known to be the most widespread endosymbiont in arthropods. They induce various alterations of the reproduction of their host, including feminization of genetic males in isopod crustaceans. In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the presence of Wolbachia is also associated with detrimental effects on host fertility and lifespan. Deleterious effects have been demonstrated on hemocyte density, phenoloxidase activity, and natural hemolymph septicemia, suggesting that infected individuals could have defective immune capacities. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in Wolbachia-A. vulgare interactions and its secondary immunocompetence modulation, we developed a transcriptomics strategy and compared A. vulgare gene expression between Wolbachia-infected animals (i.e., “symbiotic” animals) and uninfected ones (i.e., “asymbiotic” animals) as well as between animals challenged or not challenged by a pathogenic bacteria. Results Since very little genetic data is available on A. vulgare, we produced several EST libraries and generated a total of 28 606 ESTs. Analyses of these ESTs revealed that immune processes were over-represented in most experimental conditions (responses to a symbiont and to a pathogen). Considering canonical crustacean immune pathways, these genes encode antimicrobial peptides or are involved in pathogen recognition, detoxification, and autophagy. By RT-qPCR, we demonstrated a general trend towards gene under-expression in symbiotic whole animals and ovaries whereas the same gene set tends to be over-expressed in symbiotic immune tissues. Conclusion This study allowed us to generate the first reference transcriptome ever obtained in the Isopoda group and to identify genes involved in the major known crustacean immune pathways encompassing cellular and humoral responses. Expression of immune-related genes revealed a modulation of host immunity when females are

  7. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cembranos, Ana; León, Alicia; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain). We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource.

  8. Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-05-01

    conventional/IPM management). The mites represented about 50% of the arthropodofauna recorded, collembolans 30%, and 20% other microarthropods (Blattaria, Chilopoda, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diplura, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Homoptera, Pauropoda, Protura, Pseudoscopionida, Psocoptera, Symphyla, Thysanoptera). The mesofauna abundance was affected by the type of management (P=0.015) and soil texture (P=0.029). At the identification level considered, the biological indices calculated showed no substantial differences between different crop managements (H'=1.26, D=0.97 in organic vineyard, H'=1.30, D=0.89 in IPM vineyard). The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBSar, however, showed higher values in organic compared to IPM managed vineyards (QBSar 199 vs 98 in 2011 and 205 vs 188 in 2012, respectively) which are close to figures characteristic of preserved soils.

  9. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schroer, A F W; Belgers, J D M; Brock, T C M; Matser, A M; Maund, S J; Van den Brink, P J

    2004-04-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with previous data on pyrethroids. The midge Chaoborus obscuripes was most sensitive (48- and 96-h EC50 = 2.8 ng/L). Other insect larvae (Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera) and macrocrustacea (Amphipoda, Isopoda) were also relatively sensitive, with 48- and 96-h EC50 values between 10 and 100 ng/L. Generally, microcrustacea (Cladocera, Copepoda) and larvae of certain insect groups (Odonata and Chironomidae) were less sensitive, with 48-h EC50 values higher than 100 ng/L. Mollusca and Plathelminthes were insensitive and were unaffected at concentrations at and above the water solubility (5 microg/L). Generally, the EC50 values based on initial population responses in field enclosures were similar to values derived from laboratory tests with the same taxa. Also, the corresponding fifth and tenth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5 and HC10) were similar (laboratory HC5 = 2.7 ng/L and field HC5 = 4.1 ng/L; laboratory and field HC10 = 5.1 ng/L), at least when based on the same sensitive taxonomic groups (insects and crustaceans) and when a similar concentration range was taken into account. In the three field enclosure experiments and at a treatment level of 10 ng/L, consistent effects were observed for only one population (Chaoborus obscuripes), with recovery taking place within 3 to 6 weeks. The laboratory HC5 (2.7 ng/L) and HC10 (5.1 ng/L) based on acute EC50 values of all aquatic arthropod taxa were both lower than this 10 ng/L, a concentration that might represent the "regulatory acceptable concentration." The HC5 and HC10 values in this study in The Netherlands (based on static laboratory tests with freshwater arthropods) were very similar to those derived from a previous study in

  10. Global Diversity of Marine Isopods (Except Asellota and Crustacean Symbionts)

    PubMed Central

    Poore, Gary C. B.; Bruce, Niel L.

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10–1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from

  11. The ecology of saprophagous macroarthropods (millipedes, woodlice) in the context of global change.

    PubMed

    David, Jean-François; Handa, Ira Tanya

    2010-11-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda) and woodlice (Crustacea, Isopoda), with a total of about 15000 described species worldwide, contribute substantially to invertebrate biodiversity. These saprophagous macroarthropods, which are key regulators of plant litter decomposition, play an important role in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems in tropical and temperate areas. Herein we review current knowledge on the effects of climate, food quality and land cover on millipede and woodlouse species to explore their potential responses to global change. Essentially similar trends are observed in the two taxa. Experiments have shown that climate warming could result in higher rates of population growth and have positive effects on the abundance of some temperate species. This is consistent with signs of northward expansion in Europe, although the mechanisms of dispersal remain unclear. The generality of this finding is evaluated in relation to the life histories and geographical distributions of species. At low latitudes, interactions with more severe droughts are likely and could affect community composition. Elevated atmospheric CO₂ levels and changes in plant community composition are expected to alter leaf litter quality, a major determinant of macroarthropod fertility via the link with female adult body size. Although food quality changes have been shown to influence population growth rates significantly, it is proposed that the effects of warming will be probably more important during the coming decades. Land cover changes, mainly due to deforestation in the tropics and land abandonment in Europe, are critical to habitat specialists and could override any other effect of global change. Habitat destruction by man may be the main threat to macroarthropod species, many of which are narrow endemics. At the landscape scale, habitat heterogeneity could be a good option for conservation, even at the cost of some fragmentation. Two principal areas are identified which require

  12. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  13. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  14. Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae): evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusions In parallel to previous behavioral findings that B. latro has aerial olfaction, our results indicate that their central olfactory pathway is indeed most prominent. Similar findings from the closely related terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus suggest that in Coenobitidae, olfaction is a major sensory modality processed by the brain, and that for these animals, exploring the olfactory landscape is vital for survival in their terrestrial habitat. Future studies on terrestrial members of other crustacean taxa such as Isopoda, Amphipoda, Astacida, and Brachyura will shed light on how frequently the establishment of an aerial sense of olfaction evolved in Crustacea during the transition from sea to land. Amounting to ca. 1,000,000, the numbers of interneurons that analyse the olfactory input in B. latro brains surpasses that in other terrestrial arthropods, as e.g. the honeybee Apis mellifera or the moth Manduca sexta, by two orders of magnitude suggesting that B. latro in fact is a land-living arthropod that has devoted a substantial amount of nervous tissue to the sense of smell. PMID:20831795

  15. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui `Alauahio (Parareomyza montana).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Cappadonna, Justin; Steele, Claire; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Becker, Dusti; Swinnerton, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    ), which comprised 90% of all prey items for 50 adult birds and 98% of all prey for two nestlings. Caterpillars were also the most important prey for Maui ‘alauahio (43% for 104 adult birds) although spiders (Araneae, 16%), beetles (12%) and true bugs, planthoppers and psyllids (Hemiptera; 12%) were also important. Caterpillars were generally the most abundant type of arthropod in the foliage of koa and ‘ōhi‘a, although spiders, beetles and hemipterans were also common. Total arthropod biomass and caterpillar biomass at Nakula was as great, or greater, than that observed at Hanawi and Waikamoi per unit of foliage of both koa and ‘ōhi‘a. Spiders generally dominated the bark fauna on both koa and ‘ōhi‘a at all sites although isopods (Isopoda), millipedes (Myriapoda: Millipeda) and lacewings (Neuroptera) were also abundant at Waikamoi and Hanawi. Total arthropod biomass on bark, as well as the biomass of several individual taxa, was significantly lower at Nakula than the other sites. Our measurement of the density of beetle exit holes in dead koa branches found no difference between Nakula and Waikamoi. Finally, no difference existed in the abundance of arthropods (primarily caterpillars and moth pupae) within ‘ākala stems among sites. With the exception of bark surfaces, our results suggest that the arthropod prey base for birds on primary foraging substrates at Nakula is similar to that found at two sites within the current range of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio. However, our results should be viewed with caution because they are limited to the scale of individual branch, tree, or ‘ākala stem. To complete the assessment, our results should be scaled up to the landscape level by determining the density of each substrate within each site. Key arthropod prey of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio are available at Nakula and, as habitat restoration continues, food abundance should increase to the point at which populations of these birds can be supported.