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Sample records for isosulfan blue dye

  1. A Case of Severe Anaphylactic Reaction Secondary to Isosulfan Blue Dye Injection.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Damaris; Alvikas, Jurgis; Riker, Adam I

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis resulting from isosulfan blue dye are rare but warrant a thorough review given that lymph node mapping has become an increasingly common procedure, putting more patients at risk. Our patient was an 82-year-old female who underwent elective excision of a right forearm melanoma and right axillary sentinel lymph node mapping and suffered an anaphylactic reaction approximately 15 minutes after injection of isosulfan blue dye. The procedure was aborted. She was intubated; diphenhydramine and dexamethasone were administered; her blood pressure was stabilized with phenylephrine, epinephrine, and intravenous fluids; and she was transferred to the intensive care unit. She was extubated on postoperative day 1 and discharged home on postoperative day 2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the standard of care for staging several cancers, and isosulfan blue is the dye most commonly used for this procedure. Reactions to the dye occur in some patients; however, we recommend the continued use of isosulfan blue dye for lymph node mapping given the low incidence of adverse effects, with no reported mortalities. Physicians should be prepared for the potential risk of anaphylactic shock.

  2. A cautionary tale: anaphylaxis to isosulfan blue dye after 12 years and 3339 cases of lymphatic mapping.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Gabriel; Guth, Amber A; Pachter, H Leon; Roses, Daniel F

    2008-02-01

    Sentinel node biopsy has become the standard method for lymphatic staging in early-stage breast cancer and melanomas. The most commonly used technique uses both a radioactive tracer as well as blue dye, usually isosulfan blue. In this report, we discuss two episodes of anaphylaxis to isosulfan blue during lymphatic mapping, occurring 12 years and 3339 lymphatic mapping cases after adoption of the technique, and discuss management issues raised by these events.

  3. 10 % fluorescein sodium vs 1 % isosulfan blue in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lidong; Liu, Zhao; Liang, Mengdi; Wang, Li; Song, Xingli; Wang, Shui

    2016-11-03

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is well accepted to be a standard procedure in breast cancer surgery with clinically negative lymph nodes. Isosulfan blue is the first dye approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration for the localization of the lymphatic system. Few alternative tracers have been investigated. In this study, we aimed to compare the differences between 10 % fluorescein sodium and 1 % isosulfan blue in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy and to investigate the feasibility of using 10 % fluorescein sodium as a new dye for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. A total of 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the fluorescein sodium group and the isosulfan blue group (15 rabbits per group). Fluorescein sodium or isosulfan blue was injected subcutaneously into the second pair of mammary areolas. The average fading time of the second lymph nodes in the isosulfan blue group was significantly shorter than that in the fluorescein sodium group. Moreover, the detection rates of SLNs were higher in the fluorescein sodium group than in the isosulfan blue group. No significant differences between the fluorescein sodium group and isosulfan blue group were observed regarding the distances between the detected sentinel lymph nodes and second pair of mammary areolas, the distances between the second lymph nodes and second pair of mammary areolas, the number of detected sentinel lymph nodes and second lymph nodes, the average dyeing time of the sentinel and the second lymph nodes, and the average fading time of the second lymph nodes. In summary, we first reported that fluorescein sodium is a potential new tracer for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  4. Preparation of (99m)Tc-isosulfan blue for lymph node localization in rats (99m)Tc-isosulfan blue for lymph node localization.

    PubMed

    İlem-Özdemir, Derya; Yararbas, Ulkem; Zengel, Baha; Ertan, Gökhan; Asikoglu, Makbule

    2016-12-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the first regional lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a malignant tumor. Therefore, this node is a "sentinel" for second metastatic lymph node stations and for labeling regional tumor spread. For SLN detection, many surgeons preferred a combination of a preoperative injection of radiolabeled colloid and the intraoperative injection of blue dye. Under this combination protocol, nodes are considered to be "sentinel nodes" if they are radioactive and blue. The aim of this study is to develop a new single agent that combines both detection methods. For this purpose Isosulfan Blue (ISB) was radiolabeled by (99m)Tc with high labeling yield and stability. In vivo gamma scintigraphy studies were performed with rats. According to the scintigraphic studies, (99m)Tc-ISB shows rapid and high accumulation in both axillary (ALN) and popliteal lymph node (PLN). After the imaging study, extremity was opened and nodes were scanned for the radioactivity. According to performed study the lymph nodes were clearly seen to become blue and carried compound was sufficient to allow identification with a gamma probe. In conclusion, (99m)Tc-ISB has the potential to facilitate lymphatic mapping and subsequent sentinel node biopsy for solid malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of subareolar isosulfan blue injection on pulse oximeter readings.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Baha; Yararbas, Ulkem; Bingolballi, Ozge; Denecli, Ali Galip

    2014-02-01

    Besides several side effects including anaphylaxis, blue dyes are also known to cause false pulse oximeter readings. We aimed to examine the effects of subareolar isosulfan blue injection on pulse oximeter (SpO2) readings. The study group included 27 patients undergoing SLNB using both radiocolloid and isosulfan blue. Another group of 27 patients constituted the control group. Pulse oximeter readings were compared. SpO2 decline ≥4 % was defined as significant. All but one (96.2 %) of the patients in the study group showed SpO2 declines, compared to only one patient in the control group. Median ± Interqartile Range (IR) SpO2 decrease was 3.0 ± 4.0 % in the study and 0.0 ± 1.0 % in the control group (p < 0.001). There were significant (≥4 %) SpO2 decreases in 13 (48.1 %) patients in the study group. Statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups in all recordings between 15 and 180 min (p < 0.001). Initial time for SpO2 fall and the time to the lowest SpO2 recording were 10.0 ± 10.0 and 40.0 ± 30.0 min respectively. Using subareolar injection, the frequency of false readings is comparable with intraparenchymal injections, and is higher than intradermal injections. Time to peak SpO2 fall, and the recovery period, are delayed in the subareolar technique.

  6. Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping with Isosulfan Blue or Indocyanine Green in Colon Cancer Shows Comparable Results and Identifies Patients with Decreased Survival: A Prospective Single-Center Trial.

    PubMed

    Weixler, Benjamin; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle; Viehl, Carsten T; Guller, Ulrich; Rueff, Jessica; Zettl, Andreas; Zuber, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping was reported to improve lymph node staging in colon cancer. This study compares isosulfan blue (IB) with indocyanine green (ICG)-based SLN-mapping and assesses the prognostic value of isolated tumor cells (ITC) and micro-metastases in upstaged patients. A total of 220 stage I-III colon cancer patients were included in this prospective single-center study. In 170 patients, SLN-mapping was performed in vivo with IB and in 50 patients ex vivo with ICG. Three levels of each SLN were stained with H&E. If negative for tumor infiltration, immunostaining for cytokeratin (AE1/3; cytokeratin-19) was performed. SLN detection rate for IB and ICG was 100 and 98%, respectively. Accuracy and sensitivity was 88 and 75% for IB, 82 and 64% for ICG, respectively (p = 0.244). Overall, 149 (68%) patients were node negative. In these patients, ITC and micro-metastases were detected in 26% (31/129) with IB and 17% (5/29) with ICG (p = 0.469). Patients with ITC and micro-metastases did show decreased overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.96, p = 0.09) compared to node negative disease. This study demonstrates a high diagnostic accuracy for both the IB and the ICG SLN-mapping. SLN-mapping upstaged a quarter of patients with node negative colon cancer, and the detected ITC and micro-metastases were an independent negative prognostic marker in multivariate analysis.

  7. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  8. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    PubMed

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Evans Blue and other dyes as protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Suja; Shim, Yi Sup; Kim, Ki Chul; Lee, Keun-Hyeung; Cho, Hyeongjin

    2004-04-19

    Commonly used dyes including Evans Blue and Trypan Blue were examined for their inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), all of them showed inhibition of PTPases with different potencies. Of the 13 dyes tested, four exhibited IC(50) value of less than 10 microM, Evans Blue lowest IC(50) of 1.3 microM against PTP1B. Care must be taken in the use of dyes for clinical or biochemical experiments to avoid unwanted side effects. Some of the low molecular weight dyes might be useful as lead compounds for the development of potent and selective PTPase inhibitors.

  10. MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND BLEACHING BUILDINGS. PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1905 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. From the collection of Mr. George Durette, Photographer, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  11. Spectral and nonlinear studies of night blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindhu Sukumaran, V.; Ramalingam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this Letter the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye night blue are studied. The spectral characteristics of night blue dye doped poly(methylmethacrylate) modified with additive n-butyl acetate (nBA) are studied by recording its absorption and fluorescence spectra and the results are compared with the corresponding liquid mixture. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in nBA and dye doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique [S.-B., Mansoor, A.A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26 (1990) 760], by exciting with He Ne laser. The results obtained are intercompared. Both the samples of dye night blue show a negative nonlinear refractive index. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed due to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.

  12. Safety testing of blue vital dyes using cell culture models.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Fabrizio; Schiavone, Nicola; Papucci, Laura; Bitossi, Alice; Andreucci, Elena; Pontenani, Federica; Cutrì, Marco; Menchini, Ugo

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the safety of trypan blue, brilliant blue G (BBG), Evans blue (EB), patent blue, Chicago blue (CB), and bromophenol blue (BB), with and without halogen and xenon light exposure. All dyes were diluted in a balanced saline solution at a concentration of 0.5%. Cells of the human RPE line ARPE-19 and rat RGC5 were exposed to vital dyes for 5 min. Experiments with and without xenon or halogen illumination were performed. The viability of ARPE-19 and RGC5 cells was determined at 12, 24, or 120 h by a cell proliferation assay using WST-1 reagent. The apoptotic events as well as cell numbers were registered for 72 h and counted by time-lapse videomicroscopy. There was no evidence of ARPE-19 or RGC5 toxicity, immediate (0 and 24 h) or delayed (120 h), following exclusive exposure to each single dye. After halogen light exposure, ARPE-19 cell lines did not show any significant toxicity, except for when they were exposed to EB. After xenon illumination, ARPE-19 cells showed a marked decrease in cell viability when exposed to EB or CB and a moderate decrease when exposed to BBG and BB. After xenon illumination, RGC5 cells showed the highest decrease in cell viability when exposed to EB and CB; BB caused the same decrease in cell viability as in ARPE-19 cells. Interaction of light from endo-illumination source and blue vital dyes may increase the risk of retinal toxicity.

  13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer using methylene blue dye manifests a short learning curve among experienced surgeons: a prospective tabular cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis.

    PubMed

    East, Jeffrey M; Valentine, Christopher S P; Kanchev, Emil; Blake, Garfield O

    2009-01-27

    The benefits of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer patients with histologically negative axillary nodes, in whom axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is thereby avoided, are now established. Low false negative rate, certainly with blue dye technique, mostly reflects the established high inherent accuracy of SLNB and low axillary nodal metastatic load (subject to patient selection). SLN identification rate is influenced by volume, injection site and choice of mapping agent, axillary nodal metastatic load, SLN location and skill at axillary dissection. Being more subject to technical failure, SLN identification seems to be a more reasonable variable for learning curve assessment than false negative rate. Methylene blue is as good an SLN mapping agent as Isosulfan blue and is much cheaper. Addition of radio-colloid mapping to blue dye does not achieve a sufficiently higher identification rate to justify the cost. Methylene blue is therefore the agent of choice for SLN mapping in developing countries. The American Society of Breast Surgeons recommends that, for competence, surgeons should perform 20 SLNB but admits that the learning curve with a standardized technique may be "much shorter". One appropriate remedy for this dilemma is to plot individual learning curves. Using methylene blue dye, experienced breast surgeons performed SLNB in selected patients with breast cancer (primary tumor < 5 cm and clinically negative ipsilateral axilla). Intraoperative assessment and completion ALND were performed for standardization on the first 13 of 24 cases. SLN identification was plotted for each surgeon on a tabular cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart with sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) limits based on a target identification rate of 85%. The CUSUM plot crossed the SPRT limit line after 8 consecutive, positively identified SLN, signaling achievement of an acceptable level of competence. Tabular CUSUM charting, based on a justified choice of parameters

  14. Mutagenicity studies on two triphenylmethane dyes, bromophenol blue and tetrabromophenol blue.

    PubMed

    Lin, G H; Brusick, D J

    1992-08-01

    Bromophenol blue and tetrabromophenol blue are two triphenylmethane dyes. Triphenylmethane derivatives and their structurally related compounds, such as fluoresceins and xathenes, are widely used as industrial dyes for foods, drugs, cosmetics, textiles, printing inks or laboratory indicators. Since a number of these types of dyes have been reported to be genotoxic, safety concerns on these two dyes of interest have been raised. Consequently, a battery of genetic toxicology assays, including the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay, L5178Y TK+/- mouse lymphoma assay, mouse micronucleus test and mitotic recombination assay with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D5, has been performed on each of the two dyes. The results of the evaluations indicate that both bromophenol blue and tetrabromophenol blue were not active and can be considered non-genotoxic for the three genetic endpoints assessed (gene mutation, chromosome aberrations and primary DNA damage). Genetic activities in some structurally related compounds of these dyes have been reported but may be attributed to the presence of mutagenic impurities rather than the compound itself.

  15. Methyl blue and aniline blue versus patent blue and trypan blue as vital dyes in cataract surgery: capsule staining properties and cytotoxicity to human cultured corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Sebastian; Hofmann, Johanna; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Schuettauf, Frank; Haritoglou, Christos; Yoeruek, Efdal

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate capsule-staining properties and biocompatibility of the triarylmethane dyes methyl blue and aniline blue compared with patent blue and trypan blue on cultured human corneal endothelial cells. Centre for Ophthalmology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany. Experimental study. Human corneal endothelial cell cultures were harvested from human donor cells and exposed to various concentrations (0.025 to 5.0 mg/mL) of methyl blue, aniline blue, patent blue, and trypan blue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test after 24 hours of incubation. Calcein live cell staining was performed at the same time point. The dyes were also used to stain pig lens capsules in vitro by incubating the lenses for 1 minute with 3 concentrations (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/mL) of dye, after which the staining properties were evaluated. No significant cytotoxicity was detected for patent blue and methyl blue at any tested concentration. However, aniline blue exerted significant cytotoxicity at concentrations of 1.5 mg/mL or higher and trypan blue at 2.5 mg/mL or higher. Capsule staining of the tested triarylmethane dyes was suitable for performing capsulorhexis, but only at higher concentrations than with trypan blue. High concentrations and long incubation times of trypan blue and aniline blue showed significant cytotoxicity to human cultured endothelial cells in contrast to patent blue and methyl blue. All tested dyes were able to stain lens capsules sufficiently for capsulorhexis creation. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of carrageenan by means of photometric titration with Methylene Blue and Toluidine Blue dyes.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kaniewska, Agnieszka; Lamkiewicz, Jan; Shyichuk, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    A new approach to carrageenan quantitation was described. The method consists in titration of carrageenan solution by Methylene Blue dye or Toluidine Blue dye solution until a certain absorbance value. The optimal wavelengths are 660nm and 640nm when titrating with Methylene Blue dye and Toluidine Blue dye, respectively. Rectilinear calibration plots (R(2)>0.996) provide carrageenan determination in the concentration range from 2 to 60mg/L with relative standard deviation from 1 to 5%. The proposed method is simple and feasible in use due to optical dip probe providing in situ absorbance measurements. The proposed way of end-point recognition as pre-set voltage is applicable with any automatic titrator. The method was tested on model jelly dessert sachet. No interference was registered from typical ingredients of jellies such as sucrose, citric acid, sodium citrate, malic acid, potassium sorbate as well as blue colorant. The neutral polysaccharides such as guar gum and locust bean gum have insignificant interference when their content is fivefold as compared to that of carrageenan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. FTIR Spectroscopy Applied in Remazol Blue Dye Oxidation by Laccases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Hernández, J.; Zavala-Soto, M. E.; Bibbins-Martínez, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.; Díaz-Godinez, G.; Rojas-López, M.

    2008-04-01

    We have used FTIR with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) technique to analyze the decolourization process of Remazol Blue dye (RB19) caused by the oxidative activity of laccase enzyme. It is known that laccases catalyze the oxidation of a large range of phenolic compounds and aromatic amines carrying out one-electron oxidations, although also radicals could be formed which undergo subsequent nonenzymatic reactions. The enzyme laccase is a copper-containing polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.2) which has been tested as a potential alternative in detoxification of environmental pollutants such as dyes present in wastewaters generated for the textile industry. In order to ensure degradation or avoid formation of toxic compounds it is important to establish the mechanism by which laccase oxidizes dyes. In this research individual ATR-FTIR spectra have been recorded for several reaction times between 0 to 236 hours, and the temporal dependence of the reaction was analyzed through the relative diminution of the intensity of the infrared band at 1127 cm-1 (associated to C-N vibration), with respect to the intensity of the band at 1104 cm-1 (associated to S = O) from sulphoxide group. Decolourization process of this dye by laccase could be attributed to its accessibility on the secondary amino group, which is a potential point of attack of laccases, abstracting the hydrogen atom. This decolourization process of remazol blue dye by laccase enzyme might in a future replace the traditionally high chemical, energy and water consuming textile operations.

  18. Thermal-pressure-mediated hydrolysis of Reactive Blue 19 dye.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Maria; Farooq, Robina; Khalid, Abda; Farooq, Ather; Mahmood, Qaisar; Farooq, Umar; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Shaukat, Saleem Farooq

    2009-12-30

    The thermal-pressure-mediated hydrolysis rates and the degradation kinetics of environmentally persistent Reactive Blue (RB) 19 dye were studied. The dye decomposition was studied at 40-120 degrees C, pH 2-10, and atmospheric pressure range of 1-2 atm. The intermediates and end products formed during the degradation were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a possible degradation pathway of RB 19 was proposed. The stability of the dye in aqueous solution was influenced by changes in pH. At pH 4, half-life was 2247.5 min at 40 degrees C and it reduced to 339.4 min when the temperature was increased to 120 degrees C. Acidic conditions were more conducive to enhance hydrolysis rate than basic ones as the decomposition was optimum at pH 4. The kinetic studies indicated that the rate of hydrolysis apparently followed first order reaction. A linear relationship was observed between hydrolysis rate of RB 19 dye and increasing temperatures and pressures. Overall, 23% dye decomposition occurred in 120 minutes at pH 4, 120 degrees C and pressure of 2 atm. Along with thermal-pressure, a combination of techniques like physico-chemical, biological, enzymatic etc. may be more suitable choice for the effective treatment of RB19 dye.

  19. Adsorption studies of methylene blue dye on tunisian activated lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriaa, A.; Hamdi, N.; Srasra, E.

    2011-02-01

    Activated carbon prepared from natural lignin, providing from a geological deposit, was used as the adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate various experimental parameters like pH and contact time for the removal of this dye. Effective pH for MB removal was 11. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye was gradual process. Quasi equilibrium reached in 4 h. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data. Pseudo-second-order rate equation was able to provide realistic description of adsorption kinetics. The experimental isotherms data were also modelled by the Langmuir and Freundlich equation of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 147 mg/g. Activated lignin was shown to be a promising material for adsorption of MB from aqueous solutions.

  20. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks.

  1. Decolourization and biodegradation of Navy blue HER (Reactive Blue 171) dye from Marasmius sp. BBKAV79.

    PubMed

    Vantamuri, Adiveppa B; Kaliwal, Basappa B

    2017-05-01

    White rot fungus Marasmius sp. BBKAV79 (GenBank accession number-KP455496, KP455497) exhibited decolourization and degradation of Navy blue HER dye (concentration 50 mg l(-l)) within 24 h under shaking condition. In the present study, various investigated parameters like initial dye concentration, pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized to develop a faster decolourization process by Marasmius sp. BBKAV79. High-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis of the extracted product confirmed the biodegradation of Navy blue HER. The microbial toxicity and phytotoxicity assay revealed that the degradation of Navy blue HER produced nontoxic metabolites.

  2. Dyeing behaviours of amino heterocyclic compounds as blue oxidative hair dye precursors applied to keratin fibres.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Huang, Y; Su, J

    2011-04-01

    Several novel heterocyclic compounds based on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 2,3-dihydroindole have been investigated for their application of colour keratin fibres as blue oxidative dye precursors, especially to human hair. The colourants we studied contained anyone of these dyes (concentration range from 0.005% to 6%), and some common oxidative hair dyes, such as p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine sulphate. Experiments were carried out on the method of mixing hair colourants with H(2)O(2) gel at the ratio of 1 : 1, accompanied by pH = 8∼11. It is demonstrated that 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives could be considered as an excellent candidate for blue dyes, and N-methyl-7-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is the most outstanding one among this kind of compounds. They own significant advantages of colour purity, stability and fastness. On the other hand, 2,3-dihydroindoles show the similar colours but not stable and brilliant enough. © 2010 The Authors. ICS © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Bioremediation of methylene blue dye using Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441.

    PubMed

    Upendar, Ganta; Dutta, Susmita; Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Dutta, Abhishek

    2017-04-01

    Methylene blue (MB) commonly found in the textile industry effluent has been chosen as a model dye to investigate bioremediation using Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441. Both free cells and calcium alginate immobilized cells have been used to remove MB from the effluent. The operating variables of initial concentration of dye (20-60 mg/L), inoculum size (4-8%) and temperature (25-35 °C) have been varied judiciously during the kinetic study in a batch contactor. A maximum removal of 91.68% is obtained when 20 mg/L MB solution was inoculated with 8% inoculum and cultured for 6 h at 30 °C. Continuous removal of MB has been studied in a fixed bed contactor using immobilized cells as packing materials. Influent concentration (10-30 mg/L) was varied and breakthrough parameters have been determined. With increase in influent concentration from 10 mg/L to 30 mg/L, percentage removal of dye decreases from 72.44% to 49.62%.

  4. Interaction of lysozyme with dyes. II. Binding of bromophenol blue.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, M; Sheshadri, B S; Venkatappa, M P

    1984-07-01

    The binding of lysozyme with bromophenol blue (BPB) at various dye concentrations and pH was carried out at 25 degrees C by equilibrium dialysis, ultraviolet (UV) difference and circular dichroism (CD) spectral techniques. Binding isotherms at pH 5.0 show non-cooperative binding at low dye concentrations, which change over to cooperative binding at higher concentrations indicating biphasic nature. However, binding isotherms at pH 7.0 and 9.0 show cooperative binding only, at all concentrations of the dye. The number of available binding sites decreases with the increase of pH. Gibbs free energy change, calculated on the basis of Wyman's binding potential concept, decreases with the increase of pH. Binding isotherms at pH 5.0 obtained at a lower temperature of 8 degrees C, also indicate the biphasic nature similar to those observed at 25 degrees C, but with a slight decreased strength of binding. The UV difference spectra of the complex do not show any distinct peaks in the 285 to 297 nm region eliminating any possible interaction of BPB with tryptophan and tyrosine residues of the lysozyme molecule. The CD spectra of lysozyme-BPB complex show a decrease in ellipticities with reference to native lysozyme in the near UV and far UV regions. This indicates that the lysozyme-BPB complex has a lower helical content probably due to the conformational changes induced into the native enzyme. The appearance of new positive peaks at 315 nm in the near UV region and at 592 nm in the visible region of the CD spectra may be due to the induced asymmetry into the BPB molecule as a result of its binding to a cationic residue (probably a lysine residue) of lysozyme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Adsorption Capability of Cationic Dyes (Methylene Blue and Crystal Violet) onto Poly-γ-glutamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption capability of cationic dyes, which were methylene blue and crystal violet, by poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) in a single or binary solution system was investigated. The effect of the molecular weight of PGA, initial dye concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption of dyes was evaluated. The adsorption mechanism of dyes onto PGA was the interaction between -COOH group on the PGA surface and the polarity groups of dyes. These results indicated that PGA is useful for removal of dyes and cationic organic compounds from a single or binary solution system.

  6. Simultaneous adsorption of Remazol brilliant blue and Disperse orange dyes on red mud and isotherms for the mixed dye system.

    PubMed

    Gadigayya Mavinkattimath, Ratnamala; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Govindan, Srinikethan

    2017-06-27

    The paper presents the adsorption of Remazol brilliant blue (RBB) and Disperse orange 25 (DO25) dyes from aqueous solution of the mixture of dyes onto concentrated sulphuric acid-treated red mud (ATRM). First-order derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the analysis of RBB and DO25 in mixed dye aqueous solution to overcome the limitations arising due to interference in the zero-order spectral method. The optimum conditions to maximize RBB adsorption favoured the adsorption of RBB, and those for DO25 favoured DO25 adsorption from the mixed dye aqueous solutions. Presence of a second dye always inhibited the adsorption of a target dye. The uptake and percentage adsorption of each of the dyes onto ATRM from the aqueous solution of the mixture of dyes decreased considerably with increasing concentrations of the other dye showing the antagonistic effect. Monocomponent Langmuir isotherm fitted the mixed dye adsorption equilibrium data better than the monocomponent Freundlich isotherm. However, monocomponent models are suitable for the fixed concentration of the other dye. Modified Langmuir isotherm model adequately predicted the multi-component adsorption equilibrium data for RBB-DO25-ATRM adsorption system with a good accuracy and is more generic from the application point of view.

  7. Investigation of anaphylactic reaction after patent blue V dye injection.

    PubMed

    Barthelmes, L; Goyal, A; Sudheer, P; Mansel, R E

    2010-12-01

    Patent blue dye V (PBV) is in widespread use for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer and melanoma. At present, the best diagnostic approach in investigating possible anaphylaxis due to PBV is not defined. We reviewed our experience of patients and the cases reported in the literature that developed an anaphylactic reaction after injection of PBV and suggest a diagnostic protocol. From May 2006 to April 2009 six patients were known to the Cardiff anaesthetics department to have suffered a severe anaphylactic reaction after injection of PBV. We amalgamated the results of the investigations of our patients with those of 42 case reports published in the literature during the last 10 years. Of 40 patients with a documented allergy history 31 patients did not have a past medical history of allergy. The median interval between PBV administration and allergic reaction was 15 min (range 1 min-180 min). Of 20 patients with hypotension 18 received inotropes. 4 patients had a fall in blood pressure as their sole symptom. 23 patients had urticaria or other allergic skin manifestations, 8 had blue wheals. 5 patients had bronchospasm. 2 patients had a cardiac arrest. They were successfully resuscitated. The median dose of PBV was 2 ml (range 0.5 ml-5 ml). Tryptase levels were elevated in 14 of 26 tested patients. Skin prick testing was positive in 24 of 30 tested patients. Intradermal testing was positive in all 13 tested patients. Most patients experiencing a severe allergic reaction to PBV have no past medical history of allergy. The value of formal allergy skin testing for PBV-related allergy lies in excluding other agents as the causative factor to avoid their exposure in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Soluble lutein in combination with brilliant blue as a new dye for chromovitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Badaro, Emmerson; Furlani, Bruno; Prazeres, Juliana; Maia, Mauricio; Lima, Acácio Alves Souza; Souza-Martins, Diogo; Muccioli, Cristina; Lucatto, Luiz Filipe Adami; Belfort, Rubens

    2014-07-01

    A new dye for vitreoretinal surgery comprised of soluble lutein/zeaxanthin 1 % and brilliant blue 0.025 % is advantageous compared with other dyes currently used for chromovitrectomy, and showed no signs of toxicity at 1 month of follow-up. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a dye [soluble lutein/zeaxanthin (LZ) 1 % and brilliant blue (BB) 0.025 %] for improving removal of vitreous, epiretinal membranes (ERM), and internal limiting membranes (ILM) in humans. We prospectively evaluated 18 eyes treated surgically for a macular hole or ERM. Eighteen surgeons performed chromovitrectomy using the dye, and completed a questionnaire to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dye. . Examinations included best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure measurements and optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and autofluorescence performed at baseline and days 1, 7, and 30 postoperatively. The green dye was deposited on the posterior pole; vigorous dye flushing into the vitreous cavity was unnecessary. All surgeons reported that the ILM stained greenish-blue; 94.4 % reported ILM peeling adequate; the ERM stained poorly. No evidence of toxicity was observed. The new dye deposited on the posterior pole due to its higher density. The ability to stain the ILM was similar to BB. The new dye has ability to stain the vitreous, hyaloid, and especially the ILM satisfactorily. The new dye may be useful during chromovitrectomy.

  9. Blue-to-orange color-tunable laser emission from tailored boron-dipyrromethene dyes.

    PubMed

    Esnal, Ixone; Valois-Escamilla, Ismael; Gómez-Durán, César F A; Urías-Benavides, Arlette; Betancourt-Mendiola, María L; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo; Bañuelos, Jorge; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; Costela, Angel; Peña-Cabrera, Eduardo

    2013-12-16

    A series of meso-substituted boron-bipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes are synthesized and their laser and photophysical properties systematically studied. Laser emission covering a wide visible spectral region (from blue to orange) is obtained by just changing the electron donor character of the heteroatom at position 8. The additional presence of methyl groups at positions 3 and 5 results in dyes with a photostability similar to that of the unsubstituted dye but with much improved efficiency. Correlation of the lasing properties of the different dyes to their photophysical properties provides inklings to define synthetic strategies of new BODIPY dyes with enhanced efficiency and modulated wavelength emission over the visible spectral region.

  10. A comparative study on biosorption characteristics of certain fungi for bromophenol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Zeroual, Youssef; Kim, Beom Su; Kim, Choel Sang; Blaghen, Mohamed; Lee, Kang Min

    2006-07-01

    Laboratory investigations of the potential use of dried biomasses of Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., and Aspergillus fumigatus as biosorbents for the removal of bromophenol blue (BPB) dye from aqueous solutions were conducted. Kinetics studies indicated that the BPB dye uptake processes can be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The fungal biomasses exhibited the highest dye biosorption at pH 2.0. The Langmuir adsorption model appears to fit the dye biosorption better than the Freundlich model, with maximum dye uptake capacities ranging from 526 to 1,111 mg/g, depending on the biomass used.

  11. Metabolism of the phthalocyanine textile dye remazol turquoise blue by phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed

    Conneely; Smyth; McMullan

    1999-10-15

    The ability of a strain of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to decolourise the commercially important copper-phthalocyanine dye Remazol turquoise blue was investigated. The fungus was found to completely decolourise the dye at a concentration of 200 mg l(-1) within 7 days. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and polarographic analysis of culture supernatants indicated that degradation of the dye structure was occurring with the detection of one major organic breakdown product and the release of up to 50% dye-bound copper into culture supernatants during decolourisation. Biosorption of copper to the fungal biomass was found to occur during the initial stages of dye decolourisation.

  12. Photoacoustic microscopy using Evans Blue dye as a contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-02-01

    Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBC) as an endogenous contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we used Evans Blue (EB) dye as a contrast agent for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. EB has strong optical absorption at 610 nm and distributes uniformly in the blood stream by chemically binding to albumin. By intravenous injection of EB (6%, 200 μL), complete and continuous microvascular networks-especially capillaries-of the ears of nude mice were imaged. The diffusion of EB (3%, 100 μL) leaving the blood stream was monitored for 2 hours. At lower administration dose of EB (3%, 50 μL), the clearance of the EB-albumin complex was imaged for 10 days and quantitatively investigated using a two-compartment model.

  13. Myofiber Damage Evaluation by Evans Blue Dye Injection.

    PubMed

    Wooddell, Christine I; Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Griffin, Jacob B; Zhang, Guofeng

    2011-12-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) can be used in live mice to study muscle pathology or injury, including exercise-induced muscle damage. EBD is excluded from intact cell membranes but leaks into cells, including muscle fibers, when the cell membrane is ruptured. EBD can be visualized by its autofluorescence under a fluorescence microscope. EBD-stained myofibers can be quantified from microscope images of muscle cross-sections. These myofibers are often in clusters that lend themselves to morphometric analysis. When the damaged myofibers are interspersed among intact myofibers, however, a more suitable approach is to count individual myofibers in the field of view. A much faster approach to measure EBD in muscles from different strains of mice or between treatment groups is to extract the EBD from muscle samples and quantitate it using a spectrophotometric microplate reader. The advantages and disadvantages of using each of these approaches are discussed here. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:463-488 © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye, reactive blue 59 by aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Kolekar, Yogesh M; Nemade, Harshal N; Markad, Vijay L; Adav, Sunil S; Patole, Milind S; Kodam, Kisan M

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with development of aerobic granules from textile wastewater sludge and challenged with different concentration of reactive blue 59 (RB59) to test their dye degradation potential. The granules efficiently degraded reactive blue 59 and also sustained higher dye loading of up to 5.0 g l(-1). The significant induction of enzymes azoreductase and cytochrome P-450 indicated their prominent role in the dye degradation while genotoxicity studies demonstrated that the biotransformed product of the dye as non-toxic. The microbial community of the textile dyes degrading aerobic sludge granules analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), revealed significantly diverse dye degrading microbial community belonging to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is blue dye still required during sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Mirjam CL; Kovacs, Tibor; Baker, Rose; Hamed, Hisham; Kothari, Ash; Douek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background In early breast cancer, the optimal technique for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the combined technique (radioisotope and Patent Blue V) which achieves high identification rates. Despite this, many centres have decided to stop using blue dye due to blue-dye-related complications (tattoo, anaphylaxis). We evaluated the SLNB identification rate using the combined technique with and without Patent Blue V and the blue-dye-related complication rates. Methods Clinical and histological data were analysed on patients undergoing SLNB between March 2014 and April 2015. SLNB was performed following standard hospital protocols using the combined technique. Results A total of 208 patients underwent SLNB and 160 patients (342 nodes) with complete operation notes were available for final analysis. The identification rate with the combined technique was 98.8% (n = 158/160), with blue dye alone 92.5% (n = 148/160) and with radioisotope alone 97.5% (n = 156/160). A total of 76.9% (263/342) of nodes were radioactive and blue, 15.5% (53/342) only radioactive and 2.3% (8/342) only blue, 5.3% (18/342) were neither radioactive nor blue. No anaphylactic reactions were reported and blue skin staining was reported in six (3.8%) patients. Conclusion The combined technique should continue be the preferred technique for SLNB and should be standardised. Radioisotope alone (but not blue dye alone) has comparable sentinel node identification rates in experienced hands. National guidelines are required to optimise operative documentation. PMID:27729939

  16. Removing Trypan blue dye using nano-Zn modified Luffa sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Cicek, Semra; Gungor, Azize Alayli

    2017-02-01

    This study has presented specific features that are examined to remove the Trypan blue dye from the waste using Luffa sponge (LS) and modified Luffa sponge with zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs). Peroxidase enzyme was obtained from Euphorbia amygdaloides plant and it was used with the green synthesis of Zn nanoparticles. Luffa sponge was used to be a support material for immobilized nanoparticles and it also used in remediation work. The obtained membrane forms, fibrous materials, (LS, ZnNPs-LS) were characterized with SEM and XRD. LS and ZnNPs-LS were employed as adsorbent to be used for the removal of Trypan blue dye from aqueous via batch studies. Measurements were made for the equilibrium, pH, temperature, concentration of dye with UV-visible spectrometer (590 nm; for Trypan blue dye). The optimum removal of Trypan blue dye was found at pH 7, the equilibrium was attained within 30 min. The thermodynamic properties ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 showed that adsorption of Trypan blue dye onto LS and ZnNPs-LS were spontaneous and endothermic. The equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models and the sorption process was described by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 45.32 and 47.3 mg/g for LS and LS-ZnNPs at 303 ± 1 °K, respectively.

  17. Removing Trypan blue dye using nano-Zn modified Luffa sponge.

    PubMed

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Cicek, Semra; Gungor, Azize Alayli

    2017-02-05

    This study has presented specific features that are examined to remove the Trypan blue dye from the waste using Luffa sponge (LS) and modified Luffa sponge with zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs). Peroxidase enzyme was obtained from Euphorbia amygdaloides plant and it was used with the green synthesis of Zn nanoparticles. Luffa sponge was used to be a support material for immobilized nanoparticles and it also used in remediation work. The obtained membrane forms, fibrous materials, (LS, ZnNPs-LS) were characterized with SEM and XRD. LS and ZnNPs-LS were employed as adsorbent to be used for the removal of Trypan blue dye from aqueous via batch studies. Measurements were made for the equilibrium, pH, temperature, concentration of dye with UV-visible spectrometer (590nm; for Trypan blue dye). The optimum removal of Trypan blue dye was found at pH7, the equilibrium was attained within 30min. The thermodynamic properties ΔG(0), ΔH(0), and ΔS(0) showed that adsorption of Trypan blue dye onto LS and ZnNPs-LS were spontaneous and endothermic. The equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models and the sorption process was described by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 45.32 and 47.3mg/g for LS and LS-ZnNPs at 303±1°K, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of dyeing diesel fuel {open_quotes}blue{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, E.J.; Hardy, D.R.; Turner, L.M.; Martin, C.J.

    1995-04-01

    The recent requirement that a blue dye be added to all high sulfur, off-highway diesel fuels raised many concerns among diesel fuel users about the detrimental effects on the fuel of the addition of the blue dye. In order to assess the immediate effect of the blue dye on contamination, the Naval Research Laboratory examined 6 F-76 fuels and all 15 possible 50:50 combinations of these fuels. All fuels were filtered before dyeing to set existing contamination levels to 0 mgs/L. Each fuel was dyed with 30ppm, w/v, of blue dye and allowed to stand for 24 hours in the dark at ambient laboratory conditions. A modified D5452, {open_quotes}Test Method for Particulate Contamination in Aviation Fuels by Laboratory Filtration{close_quotes} was used to gravimetrically determine the amount of filterable contamination formed in the fuels. The results of these tests, which show that the blue dye caused an immediate detrimental effect in all 6 fuels and 15 fuel combinations, will be given.

  19. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction for photocatalytic degradation of victoria blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Khatri, Taslimahemad; Bawa, Harpreet; Kaur, Jashandeep

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction has been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method for photocatalytic degradation of Victoria blue dye. The synthesized samples were subjected to XRD for microstructural characterization and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation. The typical X-ray diffraction pattern shows exhaustive evolution of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO and α-Fe2O3 having crystalline in the range of 34-54 nm. The synthesized samples were applied for degradation of victoria blue dye under UV illumination. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction showed higher photocatalytic activity for dye degradation compared to bare ZnO. This rise in photocatalytic activity can be attributed to enhanced charge separation derived from coupling of ZnO and Fe2O3. In this manuscript, the effect of photocatalyst dose, irradiation time and initial dye concentration on photodegradation of dye is reported in detail.

  20. Electrocoagulation of blue reactive, red disperse and mixed dyes, and application in treating textile effluent.

    PubMed

    Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn; Polgumhang, Suprangpak; Tongdaung, Warangkana; Karakat, Benjawan; Nuyut, Thanawin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of electrocoagulation in removing color from synthetic and real textile wastewater. Two representative dye molecules were selected for the synthetic dye wastewater: a blue reactive dye (Reactive Blue 140) and a disperse dye (Disperse Red 1). The electrochemical technique showed satisfactory color removal efficiency and reliable performance in treating both individual and mixed dye types. The removal efficiency and energy consumption data showed that, for a given current density, iron was superior to aluminum in treating both the reactive dye and the disperse dye. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the energy cost in achieving >95% color removal was on the order of 1 kWh m(-3) for both dyes. The effect of changing the initial pH of the samples on the removal efficiency and energy consumption was also studied. It was found that the design parameters used for the synthetic wastewater were less effective for treatment of real textile wastewater, with 1 in 5 tests on real wastewater failing. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Organic inorganic dye filler for polymer: blue-coloured layered double hydroxides into polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Rafael; Taviot-Guého, Christine; Illaik, Abdallah; Wypych, Fernando; Leroux, Fabrice

    2008-10-15

    A series of blue dye molecules, Evans blue (EB), Chicago sky blue (CB), Niagara blue (NB) were incorporated by direct co-precipitation within the galleries of negatively charge layered double hydroxide (LDH). The materials of cation composition Zn/Al = 2 lead to well-defined organic inorganic assemblies. The molecular arrangement of the interleaved dye molecule is proposed by 1D electronic density projection along the stacking direction for the hydrothermally treated samples with alternatively a highly inclined orientation of EB and CB and a parallel-bilayer arrangement for NB. Blue coloured LDH assemblies were subsequently dispersed into polystyrene (PS). It was found that the hybrid fillers do not interfere in the radical polymerization of styrene, giving rise to similar molecular weight and polydispersity than filler free PS, while higher glass transition temperatures were obtained for the nanocomposites. This was consistent with the rheological behaviour with the observation for LDH/NB filler based nanocomposite of shear thinning exponent different from zero, underlining frictional interaction between filler and PS chain. The absorption maximum slightly blue-shifted for the hybrid filler in comparison to the corresponding organic dye was found unmodified for the PS nanocomposite, thus giving rise to blue coloured plastic films, reminiscent somehow of the blue Maya effect.

  2. Added value of blue dye in sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Snoj, M; Golouh, R; Movrin-Stanovnik, T; Vidergar-Kralj, B

    2003-12-01

    Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer is a new rapidly advancing minimal invasive procedure which enables nodal staging of clinically node negative breast cancer patients without performing complete axillary dissection. There are still controversies over the added value of Blue Dye when lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe are used. In our series, 91 consecutive patients with invasive breast carcinoma were operated by a single surgeon, using lymphoscintigraphy, gamma probe and Blue Dye. The sentinel nodes (SLN) were histologically examined by HE and immunohistochemistry. Lymphoscintigraphy was succesful in 81 patients (89%). After the injection of Blue Dye, SLN could be identified in all 91 patients. Metastases in the SLN were present in 35 patients. We retrieved 128 SLN, of these 93 were hot and blue, 19 only hot and 16 only blue. The distribution of metastatic and nonmetastatic SLN between these three labeling groups was not different (P = 0.9361). We could not show any difference in the metastatic involvement of SLN in patients in whom preoperative lymphoscintigraphy could visualise the SLN preoperatively compared to those in whom it could not (P = 0.7315). False negativity calculated in our initial series of 36 patients was 0%. Our study showed added value of Blue Dye in detection of metastatic and nonmetastatic SLN.

  3. Anaphylaxis and other adverse reactions to blue dyes: a case series.

    PubMed

    Howard, J D; Moo, V; Sivalingam, P

    2011-03-01

    We report three cases of anaphylaxis during anaesthesia confirmed on intradermal testing to be related to patent blue V dye (Guerbet - Chemical Abstract Service 3536-49-0). All three cases were associated with moderate to severe hypotension. Two cases had delayed onset, and two were associated with a rash. None of the cases were associated with bronchospasm. In all three patients the interference with pulse oximetry readings contributed to difficulties in management. We recommend the use of a test dose of blue dye prior to surgery, as suggested in the manufacturer's product information. We also recommend high vigilance for possible allergic reactions when patent blue dyes are used for sentinel lymph node mapping, because the presentations may be atypical and the reduced pulse oximetry readings may be a distraction.

  4. Brilliant Blue Dyes in Daily Food: How Could Purinergic System Be Affected?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Leonardo Gomes Braga; Ferreira, Natiele Carla da Silva; Soares-Bezerra, Rômulo José

    2016-01-01

    Dyes were first obtained from the extraction of plant sources in the Neolithic period to produce dyed clothes. At the beginning of the 19th century, synthetic dyes were produced to color clothes on a large scale. Other applications for synthetic dyes include the pharmaceutical and food industries, which are important interference factors in our lives and health. Herein, we analyzed the possible implications of some dyes that are already described as antagonists of purinergic receptors, including special Brilliant Blue G and its derivative FD&C Blue No. 1. Purinergic receptor family is widely expressed in the body and is critical to relate to much cellular homeostasis maintenance as well as inflammation and cell death. In this review, we discuss previous studies and show purinergic signaling as an important issue to be aware of in food additives development and their correlations with the physiological functions. PMID:27833914

  5. [Micro and nondestructive analysis of blue dyes from silk fabrics and decorative painting of historic building].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Wei, Xi-Ning; Lei, Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Dye analysis is important to the understanding of fabric color degradation and technical development of ancient printing and dyeing. In the present study, thin layer chromatography and Raman spectroscopy were used for the analysis of blue dyes from 6 silk fabric of Tang dynasty and decorative painting of Jian Fu Gong, Forbidden City. The applicability of these two methods in the cultural heritages was also studied. The results indicate that all these blue substances are indigo; indigo was not only used as dye in ancient fabrics, but also as pigment in decorative painting of historic building, so it is used widely. Both analytic methods have advantages and disadvantages; Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive analysis; thin layer chromatography needs small amount of sample, but could give more information.

  6. Removal of methylene blue from dye effluent using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder (ACLP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman bin Mohamed; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Aminu, Nasiru; Salihi, Ibrahim Umar

    2015-07-01

    Methylene blue (MB), a common environmental pollutant discharged from dye effluents were removed from synthetic effluents in this study using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder. Effects of operating parameters such as pH, initial Methylene blue concentration, adsorbent weight and contact time were examined on methylene blue removal whereas stirring speed was constant at 100 rpm. Results show that low pH (3-4) had more Methylene blue removal than high pH. Methylene blue removal decreased when initial concentration was increased but increased when adsorbent weight was increased. Removal of Methylene blue by Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder was rapid and significantly above 80% in all initial concentrations examined. At optimum conditions of pH 3, 20 minutes contact time and adsorbent weight of 60 mg for Methylene blue initial concentration of 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 60 mg/L, Methylene blue removal of 84.7%, 83.9% and 81.2% were obtained respectively. Results suggest that Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder could be potential adsorbents for Methylene blue removal from dye effluents.

  7. The tissue distribution of Evans blue dye in a sheep model of sentinel node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael; Farshid, Gelareh; Kollias, James; Chatterton, Barry E; Tsopelas, Chris

    2006-09-01

    Tc-Evans blue is a 'single dose' agent for lymphatic mapping combining radioactivity and blue dye for sentinel node identification. The mechanism and distribution of blue dye retention in the lymph node is not clearly understood. To demonstrate the cellular distribution of Tc-Evans blue in sheep sentinel lymph nodes by measuring the radioactivity of different tissue components and correlating this with pathological examination. Tc-Evans blue was used to identify sheep lymph nodes. Part of each node was sent for pathological examination including imprint cytology, and frozen and permanent section examination. Sections were examined without stains, with only red stains and conventional haematoxylin & eosin staining. The remaining nodal tissue was homogenized and components separated by enzymatic digestion and density gradient centrifugation. Fractions representing each tissue component were counted in a gamma counter and the distribution of Tc-Evans blue calculated. A dispersed population of blue staining cells was found. Their distribution, number and size indicated that they were histiocytes such as macrophages or antigen presenting cells. Radioactivity was distributed throughout the lymph node. Over 70% remained in the plasma, 19% in the leukocyte layer, and 10% was associated with erythrocytes and undigested tissue. The accumulation of radioactivity and blue colour in the lymph nodes indicates the mechanism of retention is a result of the binding interaction between Tc-Evans blue-protein and lymph node histiocytes including macrophages and antigen presenting cells.

  8. 'Blue' voltage-sensitive dyes for studying spatiotemporal dynamics in the brain: visualizing cortical waves.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xinling; Wu, Jian-Young

    2017-07-01

    Among many distinct contributions made by Amiram Grinvald's group, the "Blue dyes" is a special gift for visualizing cortical population neuronal activity. The excitation wavelength of blue dyes has minimal overlap with the absorption of hemoglobin, and hence has minimal pulsation artifacts. This advantage leads to high signal-to-noise ratio optical recordings of cortical activity, with sensitivity as good as that of local field potential recordings. High sensitivity imaging allows for recording of spontaneous and evoked activity in single trials without spatial or temporal averaging, and has benefitted many scientists in their research projects. Single trial recording is particularly important for studying the cortex, because spontaneous and ongoing activities interact with sensory evoked events, creating rich dynamics in the wave patterns. Signal averaging in space and time would diminish the dynamic components in the patterns. Here, we discuss how the blue dyes help to achieve high-sensitivity voltage-sensitive dye imaging of spontaneous and evoked cortical activities. Spontaneous cortical activity has a constantly changing spatial pattern and temporal frequency, making it impossible to average in space and time. Amiran Grinvald's invention of blue dyes made it possible to examine the spatiotemporal patterns of cortical dynamics, about 15 years before the first useful genetically coded voltage proteins became available.

  9. Adsorption of Two Dyes by Mg(OH)2: Procion Blue HB and Remazol Brilliant Blue R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouberka, Zohra; Bentaleb, Kahina; Benabbou, Khalil A.; Maschke, Ulrich

    The use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. Mg(OH)2 sludge was produced from precipitation of magnesium ions (Mg2+) with NaOH in pH = 10 and investigated as a low-cost adsorbent. This paper deals with the removal of textile dyes from aqueous solutions by Mg(OH)2. Reactive Procion blue HB (PR) and Acid Remazol brilliant blue R (RB) were used as model compounds. The adsorption capacity was found as 43.47 and 26.89 mg/g at initial pH 6.5.

  10. Fast and considerable adsorption of methylene blue dye onto graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Chunjiao; Zhou, Weichang; Lei, Aihua; Zhang, Qinglin; Wan, Qiang; Zou, Bingsuo

    2011-07-01

    The quite efficient adsorption of methylene blue dye from an aqueous solution by graphene oxide was studied. The favorable electrostatic attraction is the main interaction between methylene blue and graphene oxide. As graphene oxide has the special nanostructural properties and negatively charged surface, the positively charged methylene blue molecules can be easily adsorbed on it. In the aqueous solution of methylene blue at 293 K, the adsorption data could be fitted by the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption amount of 1.939 mg/mg and a Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant of 18.486 mL/mg. The adsorption amount increased with the increase of the solution pH (3-11), was not affected significantly by KCl under the examined condition and the adsorption process was exothermic in nature. The fast and considerable adsorption of graphene oxide could be regarded as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal in wastewater treatment process.

  11. Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions using Eichhornia crassipes.

    PubMed

    Wanyonyi, Wycliffe Chisutia; Onyari, John Mmari; Shiundu, Paul Mwanza

    2013-09-01

    Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution using dried roots, stems, and leaves of Eichhornia crassipes biomass obtained from Lake Victoria was studied. Batch experimental results revealed that the adsorption process was highly dependent on adsorbent dosage, initial MB concentration, E. crassipes particle size and aqueous solution temperature. The isotherm data fitted Freundlich mathematical models with maximum dye adsorption of 35.37 mg g(-1). Roots adsorbed over 99 % of the MB in <5 min. Sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. Results provide evidence that E. crassipes is an effective and inexpensive biomaterial for dye removal from aqueous dye solutions and industrial effluents.

  12. Removal of an anionic dye (Acid Blue 92) by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan.

    PubMed

    Szyguła, Agata; Guibal, Eric; Ariño Palacín, María; Ruiz, Montserrat; Sastre, Ana Maria

    2009-07-01

    Chitosan (a biopolymer) is an aminopolysaccharide that can be used for the treatment of colored solutions by coagulation-flocculation (as an alternative to more conventional processes such as sorption). Acid Blue 92 (a sulfonic dye) was selected as a model dye for verifying chitosan's ability to treat textile wastewater. A preliminary experiment demonstrated that chitosan was more efficient at color removal in tap water than in demineralized water, and that a substantially lower concentration of chitosan could be used with tap water. Dye removal reached up to 99% under optimum concentration; i.e., in terms of the acidic solutions and the stoichiometric ratio between the amine groups of the biopolymer and the sulfonic groups in the dye. The flocs were recovered and the dye was efficiently removed using alkaline solutions (0.001-1 M NaOH solutions) and the biopolymer, re-dissolved in acetic acid solution, was reused in a further treatment cycle.

  13. Removal of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) using macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Marungrueng, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

    2006-02-01

    The macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have adsorption capacity for a basic dye, Astrazon Blue FGRL. For the whole range of concentrations employed in this work (20-1280 mgl(-1)), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model where the rate constants decreased as initial dye concentrations increased. At low dye concentrations (20-80 mgl(-1)), an increase in the adsorbent dosage resulted in a higher removal percentage of the dye, but a lower amount of dye adsorbed per unit mass (q). The adsorption isotherm followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich models within the temperature range employed in this work (18-70 degrees C). The highest maximum adsorption capacity (q(m)) was obtained at 50 degrees C. The enthalpy of adsorption was estimated at 14.87 kJmol(-1) suggesting a chemical adsorption mechanism.

  14. Novel Blue Organic Dye for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieving High Efficiency in Cobalt-Based Electrolytes and by Co-Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Saygili, Yasemin; Cong, Jiayan; Eriksson, Anna; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Jinbao; Polanski, Enrico; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2016-12-07

    Blue and green dyes as well as NIR-absorbing dyes have attracted great interest because of their excellent ability of absorbing the incident photons in the red and near-infrared range region. A novel blue D-π-A dye (Dyenamo Blue), based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-core, has been designed and synthesized. Assembled with the cobalt bipyridine-based electrolytes, the device with Dyenamo Blue achieved a satisfying efficiency of 7.3% under one sun (AM1.5 G). The co-sensitization strategy was further applied on this blue organic dye together with a red D-π-A dye (D35). The successful co-sensitization outperformed a panchromatic light absorption and improved the photocurrent density; this in addition to the open-circuit potential result in an efficiency of 8.7%. The extended absorption of the sensitization and the slower recombination reaction between the blue dye and TiO2 surface inhibited by the additional red sensitizer could be the two main reasons for the higher performance. In conclusion, from the results, the highly efficient cobalt-based DSSCs could be achieved with the co-sensitization between red and blue D-π-A organic dyes with a proper design, which showed us the possibility of applying this strategy for future high-performance solar cells.

  15. Kinetics of basic dye (methylene blue) biosorption by giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza).

    PubMed

    Waranusantigul, P; Pokethitiyook, P; Kruatrachue, M; Upatham, E S

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater containing pigments and/or dyes can cause serious water pollution problems in the form of reduced light penetration and photosynthesis, and the toxicity from heavy metals associated with pigments and/or dyes. Laboratory investigations, of the potential use of dried Spirodela polyrrhiza biomass as an adsorbent for the removal of the basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solution were conducted. A series of experiments were undertaken in an agitated batch adsorber to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. sorbent dosage, pH, and contact time. The results showed that as the amount of the dried S. polyrrhiza increased, the percentage of dye sorption increased accordingly. At pH 2.0 the sorption of dye was not favorable, while the sorption at other pHs (3.0-11.0) was remarkable. There was no significant difference in the dye concentration remaining when the pH was increased from 3.0 to 11.0. The dye removal time was influenced by the initial dye concentration, and the process followed the first-order rate kinetics. The rate constants for intraparticle diffusion were 1.00 and 3.27 mg/g/min1/2 for 300 and 500 mg/l of dye, respectively.

  16. Decolorization of azo dyes (Direct Blue 151 and Direct Red 31) by moderately alkaliphilic bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Lalnunhlimi, Sylvine; Krishnaswamy, Veenagayathri

    2016-01-01

    Removal of synthetic dyes is one of the main challenges before releasing the wastes discharged by textile industries. Biodegradation of azo dyes by alkaliphilic bacterial consortium is one of the environmental-friendly methods used for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Hence, this study presents isolation of a bacterial consortium from soil samples of saline environment and its use for the decolorization of azo dyes, Direct Blue 151 (DB 151) and Direct Red 31 (DR 31). The decolorization of azo dyes was studied at various concentrations (100-300mg/L). The bacterial consortium, when subjected to an application of 200mg/L of the dyes, decolorized DB 151 and DR 31 by 97.57% and 95.25% respectively, within 5 days. The growth of the bacterial consortium was optimized with pH, temperature, and carbon and nitrogen sources; and decolorization of azo dyes was analyzed. In this study, the decolorization efficiency of mixed dyes was improved with yeast extract and sucrose, which were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Such an alkaliphilic bacterial consortium can be used in the removal of azo dyes from contaminated saline environment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Decolorization of azo dyes (Direct Blue 151 and Direct Red 31) by moderately alkaliphilic bacterial consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lalnunhlimi, Sylvine; Krishnaswamy, Veenagayathri

    2016-01-01

    Removal of synthetic dyes is one of the main challenges before releasing the wastes discharged by textile industries. Biodegradation of azo dyes by alkaliphilic bacterial consortium is one of the environmental-friendly methods used for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Hence, this study presents isolation of a bacterial consortium from soil samples of saline environment and its use for the decolorization of azo dyes, Direct Blue 151 (DB 151) and Direct Red 31 (DR 31). The decolorization of azo dyes was studied at various concentrations (100–300 mg/L). The bacterial consortium, when subjected to an application of 200 mg/L of the dyes, decolorized DB 151 and DR 31 by 97.57% and 95.25% respectively, within 5 days. The growth of the bacterial consortium was optimized with pH, temperature, and carbon and nitrogen sources; and decolorization of azo dyes was analyzed. In this study, the decolorization efficiency of mixed dyes was improved with yeast extract and sucrose, which were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Such an alkaliphilic bacterial consortium can be used in the removal of azo dyes from contaminated saline environment. PMID:26887225

  18. Rosin with bromophenol blue ® dye as holographic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Torres, J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Ibarra, T. J.; Luna-Moreno, D.

    2001-04-01

    Bromophenol blue ® (BPB) dyed with the rosin and isopropyl alcohol produces a film with a uniform yellow appearance, which can be deposited on glass plates by simple technique. This mixture shows good photosensitivity in the blue light ( λ=457 nm line) employing argon-ion laser and presents high resolution for holographic application. Consequently, it is possible to obtain holographic elements, e.g., gratings.

  19. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated.

  20. How Long Will I Be Blue? Prolonged Skin Staining Following Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Using Intradermal Patent Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    Gumus, Metehan; Gumus, Hatice; Jones, Sue E; Jones, Peter A; Sever, Ali R; Weeks, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Blue dye used for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients may cause prolonged skin discoloration at the site of injection. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of such skin discoloration. Patients and Methods 236 consecutive patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery and SLNB for breast cancer were reviewed prospectively from January 2007 to December 2009. Results Of the 236 patients, 2 had undergone bilateral surgery, and 41 had been examined in consecutive yearly reviews. Blue discoloration remained visible at the injection site after 12, 24, and > 36 months in 36.5, 23.6, and 8.6% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion The use of patent blue for identification of the sentinel lymph node in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery may result in prolonged discoloration of the skin at the injection site. PMID:24415970

  1. Dimethylformamide interferes with Coomassie dye staining of proteins on blue native gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, V; Oommen, Anna; Ramachandran, Anup

    2014-06-15

    Blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) is used extensively for characterization of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and uses the binding of Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 to visualize proteins. Oxidative modification of sulfhydryl groups of such proteins can be evaluated by labeling with iodoacetamide conjugated to biotin (BIAM) and detected with streptavidin peroxidase on Western blots following BN-PAGE. However, dissolving BIAM in dimethylformamide, a recommended solvent, reduces Coomassie blue G staining to proteins during BN-PAGE. This interference is prevented by dissolving BIAM in dimethyl sulfoxide. Precautions in the use of the dye for protein staining subsequent to BIAM labeling are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microwave atmospheric pressure plasma jets for wastewater treatment: Degradation of methylene blue as a model dye.

    PubMed

    García, María C; Mora, Manuel; Esquivel, Dolores; Foster, John E; Rodero, Antonio; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Romero-Salguero, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution as a model dye using a non thermal microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. Argon has been used as feed gas and aqueous solutions with different concentrations of the dye were treated using the effluent from plasma jet in a remote exposure. The removal efficiency increased as the dye concentration decreased from 250 to 5 ppm. Methylene blue degrades after different treatment times, depending on the experimental plasma conditions. Thus, kinetic constants up to 0.177 min(-1) were obtained. The higher the Ar flow, the faster the degradation rate. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to gather information about the species present in the gas phase, specifically excited argon atoms. Argon excited species and hydrogen peroxide play an important role in the degradation of the dye. In fact, the conversion of methylene blue was directly related to the density of argon excited species in the gas phase and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous liquid phase. Values of energy yield at 50% dye conversion of 0.296 g/kWh were achieved. Also, the use of two plasma applicators in parallel has been proven to improve energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of Poly(Diallyldimethylammonium Chloride) via Spectrophotometric Titration with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G Dye.

    PubMed

    Shyichuk, Alexander; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Lamkiewicz, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) is used as organic coagulant in water purification and auxiliary agent in paper production. Determination of PDDA in aqueous solutions is carried out usually by means of polyelectrolyte titration using streaming current detector or o-Toluidine Blue dye for endpoint recognition. The proposed method of PDDA assay takes advantage of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G dye having strong affinity to cationic macromolecules. Titration of PDDA solution with the dye is carried out measuring absorbance at 585 nm. Inflection points of the obtained zigzag photometric curves have good repeatability provided that titration rate is low enough to attain endpoint for 1 hour or more. The method assures rectilinear calibration (R² = 0.999 5) in the broad range of PDDA concentrations from 0.3 to 9.6 mg · dm⁻³.

  4. An evaluation of the effect of methylene blue dye pH on apical leakage.

    PubMed

    Starkey, D L; Anderson, R W; Pashley, D H

    1993-09-01

    The effect of varying the pH of 2% methylene blue dye on apical leakage was evaluated. Eighty-four roots of extracted human teeth were used in this study. The roots were endodontically cleaned and shaped, obturated, apically resected, and amalgam or Temporary Endodontic Restorative Material retro-fillings were placed. The roots were immersed for 7 days in dye solutions of controlled pH of 1, 2, 3, 5 or 7, or in a 2% unbuffered deionized water solution of methylene blue. The results demonstrated significantly less leakage in the pH 1 and 2 amalgam groups. All other amalgam groups and the Temporary Endodontic Restorative Material groups showed no significant differences attributable to pH. Temporary Endodontic Restorative Material retrofilling groups demonstrated statistically significantly less apical leakage at each pH evaluated than the amalgam-retrofilled groups. Additionally, a significant buffering effect of the root structure on the dye solutions was measured.

  5. Decolorization and biodegradation of textile dye Navy blue HER by Trichosporon beigelii NCIM-3326.

    PubMed

    Saratale, R G; Saratale, G D; Chang, J S; Govindwar, S P

    2009-07-30

    Navy blue HER was decolorized and degraded within 24h by Trichosporon beigelii NCIM-3326 under static condition. In the present study, we investigated various physicochemical parameters such as agitation, temperature, pH, cell concentration, initial dye concentration and different carbon and nitrogen sources to achieve maximum dye degradation by T. beigelii. Sequentially, decolorization and decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) of Navy blue HER by T. beigelii were measured. Among five strains T. beigelii gave the better performance on the decolorization of Navy blue HER along with a 95% TOC reduction within 24h. A significant increase in the activities of NADH-DCIP (dichlorophenolindophenol) reductase and azoreductase in the cells obtained after complete decolorization presumably indicates involvement of these enzymes in decolorization process. UV-vis, TLC, HPLC and FTIR analysis of extracted products confirmed the biodegradation of Navy blue HER. Phytotoxicity study demonstrated no toxicity of the biodegraded products with respect to plants viz. Phaseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare. In addition to Navy blue HER, this strain also shows ability to decolorize various industrial dyes, including Red HE7B, Golden yellow 4BD, Green HE4BD, Orange HE2R, Malachite green, Crystal violet and Methyl violet.

  6. New holographic recording material: bromothymol blue dye with rosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, J. C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.

    2002-08-01

    The characterisation of a solution made up of bromothymol blue (BTB) combined with rosin and diluted in isopropyl alcohol, as a holographic recording material was carried out. This process was based on the recording of diffraction grating, under a range of recording parameters such as: BTB concentration, rosin concentration, a range of interference angles for grating generation, as well as a range of illumination wavelengths, and finally a study of the development process using a range of development times. The holographic gratings produced using this material show a high sensitivity to blue and blueish green illumination ( λ=457, 476 and 488 nm), i.e. using an Argon Ion laser as well as a high-spatial resolution of the order of 1100 l/mm, thus demonstrating that it is feasible to obtain other HOEs using the proposed material.

  7. Biodegradation of direct blue 129 diazo dye by Spirodela polyrrhiza: An artificial neural networks modeling.

    PubMed

    Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R; Moradi, Z; Vafaei, F

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza was examined for direct blue 129 (DB129) azo dye. The dye removal efficiency was optimized under the variable conditions of the operational parameters including removal time, initial dye concentration, pH, temperature and amount of plant. The study reflected the significantly enhanced dye removal efficiency of S. polyrrhiza by increasing the temperature, initial dye concentration and amount of plant. Intriguingly, artificial neural network (ANN) predicted the removal time as the most dominant parameter on DB129 removal efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of dye treatment on some physiologic indices of S. polyrrhiza including growth rate, photosynthetic pigments content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were studied. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content and in multiplication of fronds after exposure to dye solution. In contrast, malondialdehyde content as well as catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities significantly increased that was probably due to the ability of plant to overcome oxidative stress. As a result of DB129 biodegradation, a number of intermediate compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. Accordingly, the probable degradation pathway of DB129 in S. polyrrhiza was postulated.

  8. Adsorption of reactive blue BF-5G dye by soybean hulls: kinetics, equilibrium and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Honorio, Jacqueline Ferandin; Veit, Márcia Teresinha; Gonçalves, Gilberto da Cunha; de Campos, Élvio Antonio; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia Regina

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry is known for the high use of chemicals, such as dyes, and large volumes of effluent that contaminate waters, a fact that has encouraged research and improved treatment techniques. In this study, we used unprocessed soybean hulls for the removal of reactive blue BF-5G dye. The point of zero charge of soybean hulls was 6.76. Regarding the speed of agitation in the adsorption process, the resistance to mass transfer that occurs in the boundary layer was eliminated at 100 rpm. Kinetics showed an experimental amount of dye adsorbed at equilibrium of 57.473 mg g(-1) obtained under the following conditions: dye initial concentration = 400 mg L(-1); diameter of particle = 0.725 mm; dosage = 6 g L(-1); pH 2; 100 rpm; temperature = 30 °C; and duration of 24 hours. The pseudo-second order best showed the dye removal kinetics. The adsorption isotherms performed at different temperatures (20, 30, 40 and 50 °C) showed little variation in the concentration range assessed, being properly adjusted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum capacity of dye adsorption was 72.427 mg g(-1) at 30 °C. Since soybean hull is a low-cost industrial byproduct, it proved to be a potential adsorbent for the removal of the textile dye assessed.

  9. Occupational asthma caused by FD&C blue dye no. 2.

    PubMed

    Miller, M E; Lummus, Z L; Bernstein, D I

    1996-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old male who experienced cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and nasal congestion immediately upon exposure to FD&C Blue Dye No. 2 (Indigotine) at work. The patient had worked for 10 years mixing and grinding powdered synthetic red, yellow, and blue dyes for use in foods; symptoms had occurred for 2 years and only with exposure to Indigotine (C16H8N2Na2O8S2), a free flowing blue powder. Prick testing to Indigotine (20 mg/mL) was negative. ELISA failed to detect specific IgE, IgA, IgM, or IgG to Indigotine-HSA conjugates. Bronchial challenge was done according to the method of Pepys et al. beginning with 4 x 10(-4) lactose dilution of Indigotine powder. After 5 minutes of exposure to 4 gm Indigotine/100 gm lactose, the patient developed dyspnea and audible wheezing. At 20 minutes postexposure, there was a 20% decline in FEV1 from prechallenge baseline; no late phase response was observed. A second bronchial challenge with sodium sulfate, the major nondye product additive was negative. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of occupational asthma due to FD&C Blue Dye No. 2. The pathogenesis is uncertain but does not appear to be IgE mediated.

  10. Improved Coomassie Blue Dye-Based Fast Staining Protocol for Proteins Separated by SDS-PAGE

    PubMed Central

    Májek, Pavel; Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Pecánková, Klára; Dyr, Jan E.

    2013-01-01

    The time required to visualize proteins using Coomassie Blue dye has been significantly reduced with the introduction of fast staining protocols based on staining with a Coomassie Blue dye solution at boiling temperatures. However, fast stainings suffer from high gel backgrounds, reducing the signal-to-noise ratio and limiting the number of detectable spots in the case of 2D SDS-PAGE. The aim of this work was to eliminate the high gel background, and thus improve fast staining protocols based on Coomassie Blue dye. We show that merely replacing water with a 4 mM EDTA washing solution at boiling temperatures, results in a transparent gel background within 50 to 60 minutes of destaining. Moreover, when a combination of imidazole-zinc reverse staining and Coomassie Blue-based fast staining is used the sensitivity is improved significantly; nanogram amounts of proteins can be detected using 1D SDS-PAGE, and about 30% to 60% more spots can be detected with 2D SDS-PAGE in plasma, platelet, and rat brain tissue samples. This work represents an optimized fast staining protocol with improved sensitivity, requiring between 60 to 75 minutes to complete protein visualization. PMID:24278455

  11. Improved coomassie blue dye-based fast staining protocol for proteins separated by SDS-PAGE.

    PubMed

    Májek, Pavel; Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Pecánková, Klára; Dyr, Jan E

    2013-01-01

    The time required to visualize proteins using Coomassie Blue dye has been significantly reduced with the introduction of fast staining protocols based on staining with a Coomassie Blue dye solution at boiling temperatures. However, fast stainings suffer from high gel backgrounds, reducing the signal-to-noise ratio and limiting the number of detectable spots in the case of 2D SDS-PAGE. The aim of this work was to eliminate the high gel background, and thus improve fast staining protocols based on Coomassie Blue dye. We show that merely replacing water with a 4 mM EDTA washing solution at boiling temperatures, results in a transparent gel background within 50 to 60 minutes of destaining. Moreover, when a combination of imidazole-zinc reverse staining and Coomassie Blue-based fast staining is used the sensitivity is improved significantly; nanogram amounts of proteins can be detected using 1D SDS-PAGE, and about 30% to 60% more spots can be detected with 2D SDS-PAGE in plasma, platelet, and rat brain tissue samples. This work represents an optimized fast staining protocol with improved sensitivity, requiring between 60 to 75 minutes to complete protein visualization.

  12. Comparative in vitro safety analysis of dyes for chromovitrectomy: indocyanine green, brilliant blue green, bromophenol blue, and infracyanine green.

    PubMed

    Balaiya, Sankarathi; Brar, Vikram S; Murthy, Ravi K; Chalam, Kakarla V

    2011-06-01

    Vital dyes such as infracyanine green (IfCG), brilliant blue green (BBG), and bromophenol blue (BPB) have been used as an alternative to indocyanine green (ICG) during chromovitrectomy. We compared the in vitro toxicity of IfCG, BBG, and BPB with ICG on the retinal pigment epithelial cells and retinal ganglion cells at various concentrations to optimize the safe dose and duration of exposure. Cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) and human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were exposed to 2 concentrations (0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL) of ICG, IfCG, BBG, and BPB at various time intervals (1, 5, 15, and 30 minutes). Cell viability was quantified with neutral red assay, and mode of cell death was evaluated with flow cytometry-based Annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Exposure to ICG resulted in 48%-74% reduction in neutral red uptake in both RGC-5 and ARPE-19 cells, after an exposure time of ≥5 minutes compared with control (P < 0.001). Infracyanine green, BBG, and BPB were significantly less toxic on the 2 cell lines at exposure times <15 minutes. (Reduction in cell viability ranged from 6.9% ± 3.3% to 29.3% ± 7.4% when compared with control, P > 0.5.) However, among the newer dyes, BBG caused necrosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells and retinal ganglion cells as the exposure time period increased beyond 5 minutes. Newer vital dyes, IfCG, BBG, and BPB, are significantly less toxic on retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells' cell lines when compared with ICG. Infracyanine green was least toxic among the three newer dyes studied.

  13. Mechanism of complexation of the phenothiazine dye methylene blue with fullerene C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchelnikov, A. S.; Kostyukov, V. V.; Yevstigneev, M. P.; Prylutskyy, Yu. I.

    2013-04-01

    The complexation of fullerene C60 with the aromatic dye methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution was studied. Spectrophotometric titration revealed a reasonably strong interaction between C60 and MB molecules with an equilibrium constant K = 2110 L/mol and the binding of up to five dye molecules with the surface of C60. The energy analysis of the MB-C60 system showed that the intermolecular and hydrophobic interactions were dominant in the energy profile of the complexation, and while the electrostatic factor played an insignificant role.

  14. Fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using a low-power diode laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianhua; Yang, Yulou; Shi, Xiaoxuan; Li, Kexun

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the application of diode lasers as alternative light sources for the fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under 443 nm laser light irradiation was found to be technically feasible using Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as photocatalysts. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, light source, catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, pH, and laser energy on decolorization and degradation were investigated. The mineralization of methylene blue was confirmed by chemical oxygen demand analysis. The results demonstrate that the laser-induced photocatalytic process can effectively degrade methylene blue under the optimum conditions (pH 9.63, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 1.4 g/L Ag/AgCl nanoparticles). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of Ca2+-dependent outward current in sheep bladder myocytes by evans blue dye.

    PubMed

    Hollywood, M A; Cotton, K D; McHale, N G; Thornbury, K D

    1998-04-01

    Whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp techniques were used to assess the action of a well-known dye, Evans blue, on membrane currents in bladder isolated smooth muscle cells from sheep. In whole cells Evans blue dose-dependently increased the outward current by up to fivefold. In contrast, Evans blue had no effect on inward Ca2+ current. The effect on outward current was abolished or reduced if the cells were bathed in Ca2+-free solution, iberiotoxin (5 x 10(-8) M), or charybdotoxin (5 x 10(-8) M), but was unaffected by externally applied caffeine (5 mM) or in cells exposed to heparin (1 mg/ml) via the patch pipette. In inside-out patches bathed in a Ca2+ concentration of 5 x 10(-7) M, Evans blue (10(-4) M) increased the open probability of large-conductance (298-pS) Ca2+-dependent K+ channels (BK channels), shifting the half maximal-activation voltage by -70 mV. We conclude that Evans blue dye acts as an opener of BK channels.

  16. Endonyx toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye for the treatment of endonyx toenail onychomycosis. Four patients with endonyx onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum were treated with 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode at 630 nm and an energy density of 36 J/cm2 for 6 months at 2-week intervals. The preliminary study showed the effectiveness of this therapy in the treatment of endonyx onychomycosis, and also indicated that the disease can be caused by T. rubrum.

  17. Biosorption of textile dye reactive blue 221 by capia pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Gürel, Levent

    2017-04-01

    Peppers are very important foodstuffs in the world for direct and indirect consumption, so they are extensively used. The seeds of these peppers are waste materials that are disposed of from houses and factories. To evaluate the performance of this biomass in the treatment of wastewaters, a study was conducted to remove a textile dye, reactive blue 221, which is commercially used in textile mills. Raw seed materials were used without any pre-treatment. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of dye, pH and dose of biosorbent were studied to determine the optimum conditions for this biomass on color removal from wastewaters. The optimum pH value for dye biosorption was found to be 2.0. At an initial dye concentration of 217 mg L(-1), treatment efficiency and biosorption capacity were 96.7% and 95.35 mg g(-1), respectively. A maximum biosorption capacity of 142.86 mg g(-1) was also obtained. Equilibrium biosorption of dye by capia seeds was well described by the Langmuir isotherm with a correlation coefficient above 99%. The biosorption process was also successfully explained with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. This biomass was found to be effective in terms of textile dye removal from aqueous solutions.

  18. The effects of Patent Blue dye on peripheral and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin saturations.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, T; Kotoda, M; Asano, N; Ikemoto, K; Mitsui, K; Sato, H; Matsukawa, T; Sessler, D I

    2015-04-01

    We measured the effect of Patent Blue dye on oxyhaemoglobin saturations after injection into breast tissue: 40 women had anaesthesia for breast surgery maintained with sevoflurane or propofol (20 randomly allocated to each). Saturations were recorded with a digital pulse oximeter, in arterial blood samples and with a cerebral tissue oximeter before dye injection and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min afterwards. Patent Blue did not decrease arterial blood oxyhaemoglobin saturation, but it did reduce mean (SD) digital and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin saturations by 1.1 (1.1) % and 6.8 (7.0) %, p < 0.0001 for both. The falsely reduced oximeter readings persisted for at least 2 h. The mean (SD) intra-operative digital pulse oxyhaemoglobin readings were lower with sevoflurane than propofol, 97.8 (1.2) % and 98.8 (1.0) %, respectively, p < 0.0001.

  19. UV-activated conversion of Hoechst 33258, DAPI, and Vybrant DyeCycle fluorescent dyes into blue-excited, green-emitting protonated forms.

    PubMed

    Zurek-Biesiada, Dominika; Kędracka-Krok, Sylwia; Dobrucki, Jurek W

    2013-05-01

    Hoechst 33258, DAPI and Vybrant DyeCycle are commonly known DNA fluorescent dyes that are excited by UV and emit in the blue region of the spectrum of visible light. Conveniently, they leave the reminder of the spectrum for microscopy detection of other cellular targets labeled with probes emitting in green, yellow or red. However, an exposure of these dyes to UV induces their photoconversion and results in production of the forms of these dyes that are excited by blue light and show fluoresce maxima in green and a detectable fluorescence in yellow and orange regions of the spectrum. Photoconversion of Hoechst 33258 and DAPI is reversible and independent of the dye concentration or the presence of DNA. Spectrofluorimetry and mass spectrometry analyses indicate that exposure to UV induces protonation of Hoechst 33258 and DAPI.

  20. A comparison of Coomassie blue dye with radioiodinated albumin as an indicator for plasma volume estimation in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Ian S.

    1966-01-01

    Plasma volume has been estimated in 10 human subjects using Coomassie blue and 131I radioiodinated human serum albumin dilution methods simultaneously. Three different methods of correction used by previous workers to overcome the error due to early dye loss were applied. Satisfactory agreement with the established radioiodinated albumin method was only obtained by extrapolation of the semilogarithmic plot of Coomassie blue plasma dye concentration between five and 10 minutes to the time of injection. The significance of the controversial Evans blue `mixing curve' is discussed. An analogous phase in the Coomassie blue disappearance slope is considered to be due to initial rapid loss of dye from the circulation rather than to the process of mixing. It is shown that Coomassie blue fulfils the criteria listed in the discussion for plasma volume estimation. PMID:4160095

  1. Degradation of acid blue 40 dye solution and dye house wastewater from textile industry by photo-assisted electrochemical process.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Peterson B; Pelegrino, Rosangela R L; Bertazzoli, Rodnei

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, electrochemical and photo-assisted electrochemical processes are used for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation of one of the most abundant and strongly colored industrial wastewaters, which results from the dyeing of fibers and fabrics in the textile industry. The experiments were carried out in an 18 L pilot-scale tubular flow reactor with 70%TiO(2)/30%RuO(2) DSA. A synthetic acid blue 40 solution and real dye house wastewater, containing the same dye, were used for the experiments. By using current density of 80 mA cm(-2) electrochemical process has the capability to remove 80% of color, 46% of TOC and 69% of COD. When used the photochemical process with 4.6 mW cm(-2) of 254 nm UV-C radiation to assist the electrolysis, has been obtained 90% of color, 64% of TOC and 60% of COD removal in 90 minutes of processing; furthermore, 70% of initial color was degraded within the first 15 minutes. Experimental runs using dye house wastewater resulted in 78% of color, 26% of TOC and 49% of COD in electrolysis at 80 mA cm(-2) and 90 min; additionally, when photo-assisted, electrolysis resulted in removals of 85% of color, 42% of TOC and 58% of COD. For the operational conditions used in this study, color, TOC and COD showed pseudo-first-order decaying profiles. Apparent rate constants for degradation of TOC and COD were improved by one order of magnitude when the photo-electrochemical process was used.

  2. Decolorization and transformation of anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 19 by ozonation.

    PubMed

    Fanchiang, J M; Tseng, D H

    2009-02-01

    The decolorization and transformation of the anthraquinone dye, Reactive Blue 19 (RB-19), by ozonation with a semi-batch reactor were investigated. The effects of different operating parameters, such as the initial RB-19 concentrations, ozone feed rates and initial pH, on the performance of color, dye and total organic carbon (TOC) removal were also evaluated based on their pseudo-first-order rate constants and removal efficiencies. The experimental results indicated that the removal of color and the dye itself was more rapid and complete than that of TOC in all the ozonation tests. However, increasing the initial RB-19 concentration had a significant effect on decreasing the rate constant of RB-19 reduction. In addition, increasing the ozone feed rate had positive effects on the color, dye and TOC removal, particularly on the TOC diminution. The rate constant and efficiency of color removal were highest at initial acidic pH conditions, but the dye and TOC removal were more effective at initial basic pH values, possibly due to the more powerful and non-selective hydroxyl radical oxidation.

  3. Simple, time-saving dye staining of proteins for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using Coomassie blue.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tian-Yun; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jun-He

    2011-01-01

    A fixation-free and fast protein-staining method for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using Coomassie blue is described. The protocol comprises staining and quick washing steps, which can be completed in 0.5 h. It has a sensitivity of 10 ng, comparable with that of conventional Coomassie Brilliant Blue G staining with phosphoric acid in the staining solution. In addition, the dye stain does not contain any amount of acid and methanol, such as phosphoric acid. Considering the speed, simplicity, and low cost, the dye stain may be of more practical value than other dye-based protein stains in routine proteomic research.

  4. Simple, Time-Saving Dye Staining of Proteins for Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate–Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Using Coomassie Blue

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tian-Yun; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jun-He

    2011-01-01

    A fixation-free and fast protein-staining method for sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using Coomassie blue is described. The protocol comprises staining and quick washing steps, which can be completed in 0.5 h. It has a sensitivity of 10 ng, comparable with that of conventional Coomassie Brilliant Blue G staining with phosphoric acid in the staining solution. In addition, the dye stain does not contain any amount of acid and methanol, such as phosphoric acid. Considering the speed, simplicity, and low cost, the dye stain may be of more practical value than other dye-based protein stains in routine proteomic research. PMID:21850222

  5. A universal fluorescent aptasensor based on AccuBlue dye for the detection of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Xia, Yu; Wang, Zhouping

    2014-06-01

    We report a universal fluorescent aptasensor based on the AccuBlue dye, which is impermeant to cell membranes, for the detection of pathogenic bacteria. The sensor consists of AccuBlue, an aptamer strand, and its complementary strand (cDNA) that partially hybridizes to the aptamer strand. We have fabricated two models by changing the sequence of the reaction between the elements in the system. One is the "signal on" model in which the aptamer is first bound to the target, followed by the addition of cDNA and AccuBlue, at which time the cDNA hybridizes with the free unreacted aptamer and forms a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) duplex. Such hybridization causes AccuBlue to insert into the dsDNA and exhibit significantly increased fluorescence intensity because of the specific intercalation of the AccuBlue into dsDNA rather than single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The other model, "signal off," involves hybridization of the aptamer with cDNA first, resulting in high fluorescence intensity on the addition of AccuBlue. When the target is added, the aptamer binds the target, causing the cDNA to detach from the dsDNA duplex and resulting in low fluorescence as a result of the liberation of AccuBlue. Because this design is based purely on DNA hybridization, and AccuBlue is impermeant to cell membranes, it could potentially be adapted to a wide variety of analytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03 secretes high titers of manganese peroxidase during decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL textile dye.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Razia; Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Batool, Shaheera; Asad, Muhammad Javaid

    2011-01-01

    A novel indigenous strain, Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03, with high manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities was used for decolorization of a reactive textile dye, Drimarine Blue K2R, which is used extensively in textile units of Pakistan. The initial experiment was run for seven days with 0.01% (w/v) dye solution prepared in Kirk's basal nutrient medium. Samples were removed after every 24 h and the extent of dye decolorization was determined at lambda(max) of the dye. The study revealed that P. chrysosporium caused 65% decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL in seven days. By process optimization, 97% colour removal could be achieved in three days using 0.005% (w/v) Drimarine Blue K2RL solution at pH 4.0 and 30 degrees C in defined Kirk's medium with 0.9% (w/v) molasses and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium dihydrogen phosphate added as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Manganese peroxidase was found to be the major enzyme (560 IU/mL) involved in dye decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL by P. chrysosporium. The dye adsorption studies showed that the dye initially adsorbed on fungal mats disappeared later on, possibly by the action of MnP secreted by the fungus in secondary metabolism.

  7. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 Dye: An Application for Forensic Fingerprint Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brunelle, Erica; Le, Anh Minh; Huynh, Crystal; Wingfield, Kelly; Halámková, Lenka; Agudelo, Juliana; Halámek, Jan

    2017-04-04

    The Bradford reagent, comprised of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye, methanol, and phosphoric acid, has been traditionally used for quantifying proteins. Use of this reagent in the Bradford assay relies on the binding of the Coomassie Blue G-250 dye to proteins. However, the ability of the dye to react with a small group of amino acids (arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) makes it a viable chemical assay for fingerprint analysis in order to identify the biological sex of the fingerprint originator. It is recognized that the identification of biological sex has been readily accomplished using two other methods; however, both of those systems are reliant upon a large group of amino acids, 23 to be precise. The Bradford assay, described here, was developed specifically to aid in the transition from targeting large groups of amino acids, as demonstrated in the previous studies, to targeting only a single amino acid without compromising the intensity of the response and/or the ability to differentiate between two attributes. In this work, we aim to differentiate between female fingerprints and male fingerprints.

  8. Interaction of bromophenol blue and related dyes with bovine neurophysin-I: use as a probe of neurophysin chemistry.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J D; Breslow, E

    1981-08-18

    The interaction of bromophenol blue and related dyes with bovine neurophysin-I was studied by equilibrium dialysis and gel filtration, absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Binding isotherms for bromophenol blue showed positive cooperativity, with one strong site and one or more weaker sites present per polypeptide chain at pH 4 and an apparent increase in relative importance of the weaker sites of lower pH. Circular dichroism (CD) studies suggested displacement of bound dye by peptides that bind to the neurophysin hormone binding site. Titration of bound bromophenol blue indicated that the deprotonated dye was bound to the strong site with approximately 20-fold greater affinity than the protonated dye. The pH dependence of binding of bromophenol blue and of bromocresol purple, which has a higher pKa than bromophenol blue, indicated that binding was dependent on protonation of a protein residue with a pKa of 2.9. This residue was identified as a protein carboxyl, probably on an abnormal side chain, by studies of glycine ethyl ester modified neurophysin and carboxypeptidase-treated neurophysin. The presence of exciton interactions between bound dye molecules when only one dye was bound per polypeptide chain and analytical ultracentrifugation results indicated that dye was bound predominantly to the dimeric form of the protein. The implication of the data are discussed with respect to a kinetic model of dye-neurophysin interaction, used elsewhere in a study of neurophysin dimerization, that assumed interaction of protein monomers with protonated dye. Additionally, results are presented which suggest, in disagreement with conclusions based on the kinetic model, that there is a pH-dependent component of neurophysin dimerization which parallels low pH fluorescence and CD changes observed earlier.

  9. Clinical utility of the additional use of blue dye for indocyanine green for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yinan; Luo, Ningbin; Jiang, Yi; Li, Qiuyun; Wei, Wei; Yang, Huawei; Liu, Jianlun

    2017-07-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is widely used as a tracer in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) of patients with breast cancer. Whether SLNB performance can be improved by supplementing ICG with methylene blue dye remains controversial. This study compared the performance of SLNB when ICG was used alone or with blue dye. Consecutive patients with T1-3 primary breast cancer at our hospital were recruited into our study and randomized to undergo SLNB with ICG alone (n = 62) or with the combination of ICG and blue dye (n = 65). We compared the two methods in terms of identification rate, number and detection time of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) removed. SLN identification rate were similar in the absence (95.2%) or presence of blue dye (98.5%, P = 0.578) but significantly, more average nodes were removed when blue dye was used (3.8 ± 1.5 versus 2.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.000), and the average time for detecting each SLN was significantly shorter (3.91 ± 1.87 versus 5.65 ± 2.95 min; P = 0.000). No patient in the study experienced severe adverse reactions or complications. Recurrence of axillary node was detected in one patient (1.6%) using ICG alone but not in any patients using ICG and blue dye. The efficiency and sensitivity of SLNB can be improved by combining ICG with blue dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Lymphatic mapping with 99mTc-Evans Blue dye in sheep.

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Chris; Bellon, Max; Bevington, Elaine; Kollias, James; Shibli, Sabah; Chatterton, Barry E

    2008-11-01

    99mTc-Evans Blue (EB) is an agent that contains both radioactive and color signals in a single dose. Earlier studies in animal models have suggested that this agent when compared with the dual-injection technique of radiocolloid/blue dye can successfully discriminate the sentinel lymph node. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of 99mTc-EB as an agent to map the lymphatic system in an ovine model. Doses of 99mTc-EB (23 MBq) containing EB dye (4 mg) were administered intradermally to the limbs of four anesthetized sheep, and they were then imaged over 20-30 min using a gamma camera. The study protocol was repeated using 99mTc-antimony trisulfide colloid (ATC) and Patent Blue V dye. The lymph nodes (popliteal, inguinal, and iliac for hind limbs or prescapular for fore limbs) were identified with a gamma probe during the operative exposure, then dissected and counted in a large volume counter. Simple and complex (dual) drainage patterns were visible on the scans, and the sentinel node was more radioactive than higher tier nodes in a chain, for both radiotracers. For 99mTc-EB, maximum radioactive uptake was achieved at 3-6 min for popliteal lymph nodes, 12-14 min for iliac nodes, and 13-14 min for prescapular nodes. 99mTc-ATC resulted in maximum radioactive uptake at 4-6 min for popliteal lymph nodes, 13 min for an inguinal node, 13-20 min for iliac nodes, and 18 min for a prescapular node. Following 99mTc-EB injection, 15/15 lymph nodes harvested were all radioactive and blue. For 99mTc-radiocolloid/Patent Blue V injection, 8/14 nodes were radioactive and blue, and 6/14 nodes were radioactive only. The soluble radiotracer 99mTc-EB appeared to be a useful lymphoscintigraphic agent in sheep, in which radioactive counts from superficial lymphatic channels and lymph nodes were sufficient for planar imaging. In comparison with 99mTc-antimony trisulfide colloid, both tracers discriminated the sentinel lymph node up to 50 min after administration; however

  13. Blue-dye sentinel node mapping in thyroid carcinoma: debatable results of feasibility.

    PubMed

    Peparini, N; Maturo, A; Di Matteo, F M; Tartaglia, F; Marchesi, M; Campana, E P

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the feasibility and influence of the lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy on determination of the nodal status in thyroid carcinoma using blue-dye method. Nine consecutive patients with cytological diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were included in this study. To detect the sentinel lymphnode, intra- or perinodular injection of an average quantity of 0.5 ml (range : 0.1-1.2) of Ble Patenté V was performed intraoperatively in 8 cases only, as in one case a solitary cystic nodule occupied the entire lobe and thus any injection was impossible. After an average time of 16 minutes (range : 5-25) before dissection of the thyroid , no lymphnodes and no lymphatic afferent thereto visibly coloured were evidenced, except for spread of the vital dye into adjacent tissue and disrupted blood and lymphatic vessels at the injection site. Our results evidence that : intranodular injection, does not allow proper diffusion of the dye in the adjacent parenchyma, and in nodules smaller than 1 cm it may be difficult ; and that it is hazardous in cystic nodule because of the rupture risk; perinodular injection, at the four cardinal points, is impossible when the nodule occupies the entire lobe or the isthmus; multinodular goiter complicates the identification by palpation of the neoplastic nodule in which the dye should be injected or, if perinodular injection is given, to detect the parenchyma surrounding the nodule.

  14. Investigation on physical properties of L-alanine: An effect of Methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkir, Mohd.; Yahia, I. S.; Al-Qahtani, A. M. A.; Ganesh, V.; AlFaify, S.

    2017-03-01

    In the present investigation, a bulk size (35 mm × 25 mm × 15 mm) single crystal of 0.1 wt% Methylene blue dye (MLB) added L-alanine is grown at room temperature using solution technique for the first time. The L-alanine crystals with higher concentrations of dye (0.5 and 1 wt%) were also grown. Solubility study was performed at different temperatures. Structural, vibrational and good quality was inveterate by powder XRD, FT-Raman and SEM analyses. High transmittance in dyed crystals was confirmed. The presence of MLB dye was confirmed by an absorption band centered at 650 nm. Optical band gap was calculated for pure and dyed L-alanine crystals and found to be 5.45 and 4.49 eV respectively. Photoluminescence intensity of UV-A emission band centered at 332 nm was found to be enhanced due to the presence of dye. The dielectric measurement was done in the wide frequency range. Furthermore, the third order nonlinear optical parameters are enhanced in dyed L-alanine crystals determined by Z-scan technique.

  15. Blue-Coloured Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Implementing the Diketopyrrolopyrrole Chromophore

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Holcombe, Thomas W.; Kim, Yongjoo; Rakstys, Kasparas; Moehl, Thomas; Teuscher, Joel; Delcamp, Jared H.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammed K.; Grätzel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) – towards donor- π bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) dyes – increases the performances of DSCs and challenges established design principles. Framed by this shifting landscape, a series of four diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based sensitizers utilizing the donor-chromophore-anchor (D-C-A) motif were investigated computationally, spectroscopically, and fabricated by systematic evaluation of finished photovoltaic cells. In all cases, the [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ redox-shuttle afforded superior performance compared to I3−/I−. Aesthetically, careful molecular engineering of the DPP chromophore yielded the first example of a high-performance blue DSC – a challenge unmet since the inception of this photovoltaic technology: DPP17 yields over 10% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ electrolyte at full AM 1.5 G simulated sun light. PMID:23945746

  16. Successful Localization of Abnormal Parathyroid Gland Using Ultrasound-Guided Methylene Blue Dye Injection in the Reoperative Neck.

    PubMed

    Haciyanli, Mehmet; Koruyucu, Melike Bedel; Erdoğan, Nezahat Karaca; Dere, Ozcan; Sarı, Erdem; Kumkumoğlu, Yusuf; Tavusbay, Cengiz; Kamer, Erdinc

    2015-12-01

    Persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism is a challenging problem for endocrine surgeons. The aim of this study was to review our experience using ultrasound-guided (US-G) methylene blue dye injection for the localization and removal of abnormal parathyroid glands in patients having primary hyperparathyroidism and previous neck surgery. Between January 2012 and May 2013, six consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and previous neck surgery underwent focused parathyroidectomy with the use of US-G methylene blue dye injections to localize the presumed parathyroid adenoma were included in the study. We analyzed the data of six patients who underwent reoperative parathyroid surgery using US-G methylene blue dye injection retrospectively. The dye injection was performed just prior to surgery. All patients were successfully treated for their hyperparathyroidism which was confirmed by at least 50 % drop in intraoperative parathormone level 10 min after resection. There were no complications related with US-G dye injection or with surgery. US-G methylene blue dye injection is a cheap, safe, and effective method for localization of diseased parathyroid glands and guiding surgery in the reoperative neck.

  17. Interaction of Cibacron Blue F3GA with glutamine synthetase: use of the dye as a conformational probe. 1. Studies using unfractionated dye samples.

    PubMed

    Federici, M M; Chock, P B; Stadtman, E R

    1985-01-29

    Cibacron Blue F3GA dye has been used to probe subtle conformational changes in protein structure associated with the conversion of Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase (GS) between relaxed, taut, oxidized, and dissociated forms. Binding of the dye to each form of the enzyme elicits a different spectral perturbation of the dye which can be detected by difference spectroscopy. By following time-dependent changes in the difference spectrum associated with the binding of dye to the enzyme, it was demonstrated that dissociation of subunits provoked either by urea or by relaxation of the enzyme at pH 8.5 is a multiphasic process. In the presence of 3-4 M urea, dissociation of taut GS is associated with an almost instantaneous, transient increase in absorbancy of the difference spectrum at 638 nm and, after a lag, by a progressive decrease in absorbancy at 585 nm and an increase at 700 nm. The kinetics of these changes vary as a function of temperature, pH, and the concentrations of KCl, MnCl2, and urea, probably reflecting differences in the rates of GS relaxation and in the formation of aggregates of intermediate sizes. Results of direct binding measurements show that the taut and relaxed forms of GS can bind only 1-1.3 equiv of dye per subunit, whereas dissociated subunits bind up to 3.0 equiv per subunit. The Kd of the dye-taut GS complex as calculated from binding data was 0.55 microM. The binding of dye to taut GS was inhibited by its substrate, ADP, and by the allosteric effectors AMP and tryptophan. On the basis of the abilities of ADP, AMP, and tryptophan to inhibit the binding of dye to GS, dissociation constants of the respective GS-ligand complexes were 2.4, 121, and 1170 microM, respectively, in good agreement with previously determined values. From the difference spectra obtained between a given concentration of dye in a 5.0-cm cell and 10 times that concentration in a 0.5-cm cell, it was established that at concentrations greater than 5 microM a

  18. Resonance optical trapping of individual dye-doped polystyrene particles with blue- and red-detuned lasers.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Tetsuhiro; Ishihara, Hajime; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2017-03-06

    We demonstrate resonance optical trapping of individual dye-doped polystyrene particles with blue- and red-detuned lasers whose energy are higher and lower compared to electronic transition of the dye molecules, respectively. Through the measurement on how long individual particles are trapped at the focus, we here show that immobilization time of dye-doped particles becomes longer than that of bare ones. We directly confirm that the immobilization time of dye-doped particles trapped by the blue-detuned laser becomes longer than that by the red-detuned one. These findings are well interpreted by our previous theoretical proposal based on nonlinear optical response under intense laser field. It is discussed that the present result is an important step toward efficient and selective manipulation of molecules, quantum dots, nanoparticles, and various nanomaterials based on their quantum mechanical properties.

  19. Dyeing and antibacterial activation with methylene blue of a cyclodextrin modified polyester vascular graft.

    PubMed

    Kacem, I; Laurent, T; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Chai, F; Haulon, S; Hildebrand, H F; Martel, B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an antiseptic and blue dyed polyester (PET) vascular graft in order to reach two distinct properties: (i) the prevention of postoperative infections, (ii) the improvement of the graft compatibility with the coelioscopy surgical technique. This work consisted of dyeing a vascular prosthesis with methylene blue (MB) which is known as a cationic dye with antiseptic properties. Therefore, the functionalization of the PET fibers of the prosthesis with a cyclodextrin-citric acid polymer (PolyCD) was achieved in order to improve its sorption capacity. The NMR experiments demonstrated that a 1:2 complex occurred between hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HP-βCD) and MB. Kinetic and sorption isotherm studies showed that an impregnation of the polyCD modified prosthesis (PET-CD) in a 1 g L(-1) of MB solution for 150 min was sufficient to reach the saturation of the device. Results proved that the adsorption mechanism followed the Langmuir model and a maximum of 20 mg g(-1) of MB on the graft. A sustained release of MB in batch tests was observed in PBS and in vitro microbiological assays displayed a prolongation of the bactericidal effect of PET-CD whose extent varied with the amount of MB preliminarily adsorbed onto the PET-CD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the μmol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  1. Enzyme-mediated bacterial biodegradation of an azo dye (C.I. Acid blue 113): reuse of treated dye wastewater in post-tanning operations.

    PubMed

    Senthilvelan, T; Kanagaraj, J; Panda, R C

    2014-11-01

    "Dyeing" is a common practice used to color the hides during the post-tanning operations in leather processing generating plenty of wastewater. The waste stream containing dye as pollutant is severely harmful to living beings. An azo dye (C.I. Acid Blue 113) has been biodegraded effectively by bacterial culture mediated with azoreductase enzyme to reduce the pollution load in the present investigation. The maximum rate of dye degradation was found to be 96 ± 4 and 92 ± 4 % for the initial concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, respectively. The enzyme activity was measured using NADH as a substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was confirmed that the transformation of azo linkage could be transformed into N2 or NH3 or incorporated into complete biomass. Breaking down of dye molecules to various metabolites (such as aniline, naphthalene-1,4-diamine, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 8-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 5,8-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and mass (electrospray ionization (ESI)) spectra analysis. The treated wastewater could be reused for dyeing operation in the leather processing, and the properties of produced leather were evaluated by conventional methods that revealed to have improved dye penetration into the grain layer of experimental leather sample and resulted in high levelness of dyeing, which helps to obtain the desired smoothness and soft leather properties.

  2. Experimental Design Approach for Methylene Blue Dye Removal in Aqueous Environment by Nitrilotriacetic Modified Banana Pith.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shi-Ling; Liew, Shu-Wei; Ong, Siew-Teng

    2016-01-01

    Native banana pith (NBP) was modified by using nitrilotriacetic acid to increase its efficiency and adsorption capacity for methylene blue (MB) dye. The effect of various parameters such as pH, contact time and initial dye concentration, sorption isotherm and adsorbent dosage were studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of the NBP and NTA-BP is 100 and 142.86 mg/g, respectively. The IR spectrum of NBP and NTA-BP showed the presence of both carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. From the SEM micrographs, the surface morphology of NTA-BP before adsorption appeared to be smoother as compared to that after adsorption process. The pH(pzc) of NBP is 5.6 whereas for NTA-BP is 7.6. The experimental data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm with R(2) of 0.992. Plackett-Burman design was applied to identify the significant factors in affecting the uptake whereas the interaction between the factors and their optimum levels for the maximum percentage uptake of MB were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the results, the optimum condition for adsorption of MB was by using 0.06 g of NTA-BP in dye solution at pH 6 with 120 minutes contact time. The maximum adsorption of MB by NTA-BP achieved 99.42% under the optimum condition.

  3. Chemically derived luminescent graphene oxide nanosheets and its sunlight driven photocatalytic activity against methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets (NSs) have been synthesized with precise control over their thickness and molecular structure. The existence of oxygen containing functional groups on GO NSs through chemical treatment confers remarkable optical properties on GO. XRD, TEM, Raman and FTIR techniques were used to confirm the phase and degree of oxidation, morphology, structural information and chemical structure of the synthesized GO NSs. UV-Vis. spectroscopy was employed to study the optical absorption properties of the synthesized GO NSs. The excitation wavelength dependent PL measurements of the synthesized GO NSs were carried out which could be useful for the design and development of GO based next generation optoelectronic devices. The most fascinating luminescent property of synthesized GO NSs is that its luminescence peak position can be easily tuned by only varying the excitation wavelength without significant changes in its size and chemical composition. In order to study the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye using GO NSs as a photocatalyst, a sunlight driven photocatalytic activity has been performed. The degradation rate of MB dye becomes fast when GO NSs are added to the dye solution. The photodegradation efficiency of GO NSs is calculated to be 60%. The present results indicate that synthesized GO NSs can be used as sunlight active photocatalyst. The optimistic response to sunlight irradiation validates the potential of GO NSs in solar energy conversion.

  4. Co-metabolic degradation of diazo dye- reactive blue 160 by enriched mixed cultures BDN.

    PubMed

    Balapure, Kshama H; Jain, Kunal; Chattaraj, Sananda; Bhatt, Nikhil S; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-08-30

    Mixed cultures BDN (BDN) proficient in decolourizing diazo dye-reactive blue 160 (RB160) consist of eight bacterial strains, was developed through culture enrichment method from soil samples contaminated with anthropogenic activities. The synthrophic interactions of BDN have led to complete decolourization and degradation of RB160 (100mg/L) within 4h along with co-metabolism of yeast extract (0.5%) in minimal medium. BDN microaerophilicaly decolourized even 1500mg/L of RB160 under high saline conditions (20g/L NaCl) at 37°C and pH 7.0. BDN exhibited broad substrate specificity and decolourized 27 structurally different dyes. The reductase enzymes symmetrically cleaved RB160 and oxidative enzymes further metabolised the degraded products and five different intermediates were identified using FTIR, (1)HNMR and GC-MS. The phytotoxicity assay confirmed that intact RB160 was more toxic than dye degraded intermediates. The BDN was able to colonize and decolourized RB160 in soil model system in presence of indigenous miocroflora as well as in sterile soil without any amendment of additional nutrients, which signifies it useful and potential application in bioremediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye Reactive Blue 4 in Pyrite Ash Catalyzed Fenton Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Becelic-Tomin, Milena; Dalmacija, Bozo; Rajic, Ljiljana; Tomasevic, Dragana; Kerkez, Djurdja; Watson, Malcolm; Prica, Miljana

    2014-01-01

    Pyrite ash (PA) is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4) degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH = 2.5; [PA]0 = 0.2 g L−1; [H2O2]0 = 5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L−1. The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu) content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes. PMID:24526885

  6. Degradation of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 in pyrite ash catalyzed Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Becelic-Tomin, Milena; Dalmacija, Bozo; Rajic, Ljiljana; Tomasevic, Dragana; Kerkez, Djurdja; Watson, Malcolm; Prica, Miljana

    2014-01-01

    Pyrite ash (PA) is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4) degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH=2.5; [PA]0=0.2 g L(-1); [H2O2]0=5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L(-1). The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu) content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes.

  7. Removal of methylene blue dye from water by a spent bleaching earth biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Belhaine, Ali; Ghezzar, Mouffok Redouane; Abdelmalek, Fatiha; Tayebi, Kamel; Ghomari, Abdelhamid; Addou, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    This work is about the valorization of spent bleaching earth (SBE) at low cost from the AFIA oil refinery in Algeria's western region. The biowaste has been burned to eliminate the oil traces, then it has been valorized in two ways: (i) chemically, using phosphoric acid to obtain SBEC and (ii) thermally at 750 °C to create SBEH. The obtained materials were used for the first time as biosorbents in the wastewater treatment field. The three biomaterials show very interesting adsorption properties, with specific surfaces of 194.2, 784.6 and 888.5 m(2) g(-1) for SBE, SBEC and SBEH, respectively. The analysis has revealed that the obtained materials are alumino-silicates. The three biowastes have been used to remove methylene blue dye from water. The dye was totally eliminated by a physisorption mechanism in the presence of 1 g L(-1) of each biowaste after 8, 10, 20 min of contact time. The highest correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.99) was related to the Langmuir isotherm, indicating a good fit with this model, and explaining the biosorption as a monolayer process. According to this model, the adsorption capacities were 123.3, 185.2 and 188.7 mg g(-1) for SBE, SBEH and SBEC, respectively. This study shows that SBE can be used as an alternative to commercial adsorbents for dye removal from water.

  8. Adsorption of methylene blue and methyl red dyes from aqueous solutions onto modified zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Z; Karasavvidis, Ch; Dimirkou, A; Antoniadis, V

    2013-01-01

    Zeolite, hematite, modified zeolite and commercial activated charcoal were examined for their ability to remove methylene blue (MB) and methyl red (MR) from their aqueous solutions. Modified zeolite and hematite were produced according to the Schwertmann and Cornell method while zeolite and commercial activated charcoal were obtained from S&B and Fluka AG companies, respectively. Adsorption experiments were conducted at three different adsorbent-to-solution ratios, namely 8, 16 and 24 g/L under environmental conditions and continuous stirring. Equilibrium isotherms of MB and MR were studied at different initial concentrations (from 5 × 10(-4) to 5 × 10(-3) g/L). MB adsorption kinetics were also studied. The maximum adsorption of MB and MR from their aqueous solutions was achieved at 24 g/L (adsorbent-to-dye solution ratio) after 1 h and was equal to 100% (MB) on modified zeolite and 99% (MR) on commercial activated charcoal, respectively. All the other materials achieved intermediate values of dye adsorption. From the applied kinetic models, the pseudo-second-order equation best described the adsorption of MB and MR. Consequently, modified zeolite showed the highest adsorption capacity for MB, while commercial activated charcoal showed the highest adsorption capacity of MR. The studied adsorbents can be used as filters to remove dyes from wastewaters.

  9. Triacontanol hormone stimulates population, growth and Brilliant Blue R dye removal by common duckweed from culture media.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Duygu, Ergin; Dönmez, Gönül

    2010-10-15

    This work is focussed on assessing the potentialities of Lemna minor (L.) for the treatment of reactive dyes polluted wastewaters and investigating the possibility of bioremoval performance stimulation by adding triacontanol hormone to the cultures. In the vast literature describing removal of reactive dyes, considering the lack of reports using of common duckweed in wastewater treatment apparently due to the inadequate efficiency. In the present study, the experiments showed that 1 mg l(-1) triacontanol stimulated duckweed growth. The effect of different dye types (Reactive Orange 14, Reactive Red 120, Reactive Black 5, Brilliant Blue R, and Reactive Brilliant Blue R) onto duckweed growth was tested. Plants grew at most in media with Brilliant Blue R. The highest biomass, in terms of frond number (87+/-1.5) were accompanied with 59.6% maximum dye removal were found in samples containing 2.5 mg l(-1) initial Brilliant Blue R and 1 mg l(-1) triacontanol, indicating hormonal stimulation of both activities. The results presented here that L. minor (L.) could be used effectively to treat wastewaters containing dye. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of basic (Methylene Blue) and acid (Egacid Orange) dyes from waters by sorption on chemically treated wood shavings.

    PubMed

    Janos, Pavel; Coskun, Sezen; Pilarová, Vera; Rejnek, Jaroslav

    2009-02-01

    Spruce wood shavings from Picea abies were used for an adsorptive removal of both basic as well as acid dyes from waters. The sorption properties of the sorbents were modified with HCl, Na(2)CO(3) and Na(2)HPO(4). The treatment of the wood sorbents with alkaline carbonate solution as well as with phosphate solution increased the sorption ability for the basic dye (Methylene Blue), whereas the treatment with mineral acid decreased the sorption ability for Methylene Blue to some extent. The opposite is true for the sorption of the acid dye--Egacid Orange. The maximum sorption capacities estimated from the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms ranged from 0.060 to 0.165 mmol g(-1) for Methylene Blue, and from 0.045 to 0.513 mmol g(-1) for Egacid Orange. The basic dye sorption decreased at low pH values in accordance with a presupposed ion-exchange mechanism of the sorption. The sorption of acid dye, on the other hand, decreased with increasing pH. The presence of inorganic salts as well as surfactants exhibited only minor effects on the dye sorption.

  11. Robotic blue-dye sentinel lymph node detection for endometrial cancer - Factors predicting successful mapping.

    PubMed

    Eitan, R; Sabah, G; Krissi, H; Raban, O; Ben-Haroush, A; Goldschmit, C; Levavi, H; Peled, Y

    2015-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has emerged as a viable option for the treatment of patients with endometrial cancer. We report our initial experience with SLN mapping algorithm, and examine the factors predicting successful SLN mapping. We analyzed all data recorded in our institute on robotic blue-dye SLN detection mapping from the time it was first introduced to our department in January 2012-December 2014. Data included patient demographics, SLN allocation, operating room times, and pathology results. During the study period, 74 patients had robotic assisted surgery for endometrial cancer with attempted SLN mapping. SLN was found overall in 46 patients (62.1%). At first, SLN was detected in only 50% of cases, but after performing 30 cases, detection rates rose to 84.6% (OR = 3.34, CI 1.28-8.71; p = 0.003). Univariate analysis showed a higher detection rate with methylene blue than patent blue dye, 74.3% vs. 52.3% (OR = 2.744, 95% CI 1.026-7.344; p = 0.042). In multivariate analysis, high body mass index (BMI) was associated with failed mapping (OR = 0.899; 95% CI 0.808-1.00), as was the presence of lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI) (OR = 0.126; 95% CI 0.24-0.658) and few cases per surgeon (OR = 1.083, 95% CI 1.032-1.118). Factors related to uterine pathology itself, including tumor histology, grade, method of diagnosis, the presence of an endometrial polyp, and lower uterine segment involvement were not found to be associated with successful mapping. Surgeon experience, BMI and LVSI may affect the success rate of SLN mapping for endometrial cancer. These factors should be investigated further in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytoremediation potential of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. (Moss-Rose) in degrading a sulfonated diazo reactive dye Navy Blue HE2R (Reactive Blue 172).

    PubMed

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Kurade, Mayur B; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-06-01

    Wild and tissue cultured plants of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. have shown to be able to decolorize a sulfonated diazo dye Navy Blue HE2R (NBHE2R) up to 98% in 40 h. A significant induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and DCIP reductase was observed in the roots during dye decolorization. The wild plants and tissue cultures could independently decolorize and degrade NBHE2R into metabolites viz. N-benzylacetamide and 6-diazenyl-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid. A dye mixture and a textile effluent were also decolorized efficiently by P. grandiflora. The phytotoxicity study revealed reduction in the toxicity due to metabolites formed after dye degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Repeated plasma volume determination with the Evans Blue dye dilution technique: the method and a computer program.

    PubMed

    Foldager, N; Blomqvist, C G

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a reliable multiple sample Evans Blue dye dilution technique and a Pascal program which computes plasma and blood volume on the basis of this technique. The program performs needed corrections and dye disappearance curve fitting. It provides menu-driven facilities for data correction, graphic display of the dye disappearance curve, and print-out of all the involved data. Means +/- S.E.M. for three plasma volume determinations in each of six resting subjects were: 3239 +/- 96 ml, 3189 +/- 81 ml, and 3187 +/- 102 ml. The differences were not statistically significant.

  14. ALKALINE RIBONUCLEASE ACTIVITY INCREASE IN RAT KIDNEY CORTEX AND LIVER AFTER TRYPAN BLUE AND OTHER AZO DYES ADMINISTRATION

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, M.; Brentani, R.; Ferreira, S.; Fausto, N.; Maack, T.

    1961-01-01

    Acid azo dyes, most of them naphtholdisulfonic acid derivatives, were given intraperitoneally to rats and their effect on "alkaline" ribonuclease activity was studied in total homogenates of kidney cortex and liver. Acid treatment was used to release bound enzyme activity. Several of the dyes, including trypan blue, increased RNase activity in both organs 3 days after administration of single doses, while others, like Evans blue, were inactive. Activity was apparently bound to the sulfonic substitution in the 3, 6 positions in the naphthalene rings, substitutions in the benzidine rings being not critical. All of the active and most of the inactive compounds were taken up by tubule cells of kidney cortex and by reticular and parenchymal cells of liver. While the effect on both liver and kidney was obtained 1 day after trypan blue administration, RNase remained increased for only about 3 days in the first organ, and for at least a month in the second. However, repeated trypan blue doses increased liver enzyme activity for at least 9 days. Serum RNase activity was decreased after trypan blue administration. Ethionine administration together with trypan blue markedly blocked the effect of the dye on liver RNase activity; simultaneously given methionine partially reversed the action of the antimetabolite. This suggests that de novo synthesis of RNase is induced in liver by trypan blue. The action of ethionine on the kidney RNase response to trypan blue was less marked although significant; in view of the possible kidney uptake of the plasma enzyme, interpretation of this finding must be postponed. Results are discussed with reference to the mechanism of the structural specificity of the compounds used, cytological localization of the dyes and their mechanism of action on liver and kidney RNase. PMID:13738846

  15. Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dye cotton blue by Penicillium ochrochloron MTCC 517.

    PubMed

    Shedbalkar, Utkarsha; Dhanve, Rhishikesh; Jadhav, Jyoti

    2008-09-15

    Triphenylmethane dyes belong to the most important group of synthetic colorants and are used extensively in the textile industries for dying cotton, wool, silk, nylon, etc. They are generally considered as the xenobiotic compounds, which are very recalcitrant to biodegradation. Penicillium ochrochloron decolorizes cotton blue (50 mg l(-1)) within 2.5 h under static condition at pH 6.5 and temperature 25 degrees C. TLC, FTIR and HPLC analysis confirms biodegradation of cotton blue. FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis indicated sulphonamide and triphenylmethane as the final products of cotton blue degradation. The pH, temperature and maturity of biomass affected the rate of decolorization. Presence of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities in the cell homogenate as well as increase in the extracellular activity of lignin peroxidase suggests the role of these enzymes in the decolorization process. The phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity studies of extracted metabolites suggest the less toxic nature of them.

  16. Assessment of the banana pseudostem as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye.

    PubMed

    Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Geraldi, Claudinéia A Q; Manenti, Diego R; Trigueros, Daniela E G; Oliveira, Ana Paula de; Borba, Carlos E; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the removal of reactive blue 5G (RB5G) dye using the drying biomass of banana pseudostem (BPS) was investigated. The characterization of BPS particles was performed. Improvement in the RB5G dye removal performance at the following sorption conditions was evidenced: pH 1, 30°C sorption temperature and 40 rpm shaking, regardless of the particle size range. Kinetic RB5G dye sorption data obtained at better conditions fit well in an Elovich model. A combined Langmuir-BET isotherm model provides a good representation of the RB5G dye equilibrium sorption data, which shows the evidence of a physical sorption process on the BPS surface. Based on the results, the removal of RB5G dye molecules by BPS is based on a physical sorption process.

  17. Extractional spectrophotometric analysis of metronidazole, tinidazole, ornidazole and secnidazole bases through acid-dye complexation using bromothymol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Khaled M; Salama, Ismail; Mostafa, Samia; El-Sadek, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    An easy, precise and valid extractional-spectrophotometric technique is described for the assessment of metronidazole (MNZ), tinidazole (TNZ), ornidazole (ONZ) and secnidazole (SNZ) in pure state and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The technique includes first the reduction of above cited drugs using HCl and zinc powder, then the formation of intense yellow colored ion-association complex species (1:3 drug/dye) using bromothymol blue (BTB) in a buffered aqueous acidic medium at pH 3-3.50. The colored products are extracted into dichloromethane and quantitatively determined at 416-420 nm. The experimental operating factors influencing the ion-pairs development were studied and optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. The Beer plots are obeyed in the concentration ranges 2.50-22.50, 2.50-30, 7.50-35 and 5-30 μgml-1 for MNZ, TNZ, ONZ and SNZ, respectively, with correlation coefficients not less than 0.9995. The proposed technique is recommended for the routine quality control analysis of the investigated drugs in commercial tablets with no observed interference from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. Results of such analysis were statistically validated and through recovery studies, showing excellent agreement with those achieved by the reported techniques.

  18. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  19. Blue dye injection does not induce dissemination of epithelial cells during SLN procedure in colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Larusson, Hannes J; von Holzen, Urs; Viehl, Carsten T; Rezaeian, Farid; Riehle, Hans-Martin; Oertli, Daniel; Guller, Ulrich; Zuber, Markus

    2014-06-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure for colon cancer patients has been increasingly performed over the past decade and has shown advantages regarding lymph node staging. However, there are concerns that the manipulation of the colon, particularly the blue dye injection, results in isolated tumor cell dissemination to lymph nodes. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the blue dye injection during the SLN procedure for colon cancer induces epithelial cell dissemination to the regional lymph nodes using a fake SLN procedure as a model. One hundred seventy-four colon cancer patients underwent open oncologic colon resection and SLN procedure according to a standardized protocol. For the fake SLN procedure, blue dye was injected ex vivo, into the subserosa of a nontumor-bearing segment of the resected colon in 37 unselected patients. Three levels of each SLN were stained with H&E and with the pancytokeratin marker AE1/AE3 and were analyzed for the presence of cytokeratin positive cells. Identification of fake SLN was successful in 32 of the 37 patients (86 %). Seventy fake SLN were histologically confirmed. The median number of fake SLN was 2 per patient (range 1-8). None of the fake SLN showed any disseminated epithelial cells. The present prospective study provides compelling evidence that blue dye injection during sentinel lymph node procedure for colon cancer does not induce epithelial cell dissemination to the sentinel lymph nodes. Therefore, isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph nodes result from a true metastatic process.

  20. A Comparison of the Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes Using Indocyanine Green and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Versus Blue Dye During Robotic Surgery in Uterine Cancer.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ane Gerda; Beavis, Anna; Soslow, Robert A; Zhou, Qin; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Gardner, Ginger J; Zivanovic, Oliver; Long Roche, Kara; Sonoda, Yukio; Leitao, Mario M; Jewell, Elizabeth L

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection rate with indocyanine green (ICG) and near-infrared fluorescence imaging versus blue dye using the robotic platform in patients with uterine cancer. We identified all patients with uterine cancer undergoing SLN mapping using ICG or blue dye on the robotic platform from January 2011 to December 2013. Our institutional SLN algorithm and pathologic processing protocol were adhered to uniformly. We compared detection rates of SLNs stratified by dye used. Appropriate statistical tests were used. A total of 472 patients were identified. ICG was used in 312 patients (66%) and blue dye in 160 patients (34%). Successful mapping was achieved in 425 (90%) of 472 patients. Mapping was bilateral in 352 patients (75%) and unilateral in 73 patients (15%); 47 patients (10%) did not map. Successful mapping was achieved in 295 (95%) of 312 patients using ICG compared with 130 (81%) of 160 patients using blue dye (P < 0.001). Mapping was bilateral in 266 (85%) of 312 patients in the ICG group compared with 86 (54%) of 160 in the blue dye group (P < 0.001). Additional lymph node dissection beyond removal of the SLNs was performed in 122 patients (39%) mapped with ICG compared with 98 patients (61%) mapped with blue dye (P < 0.001). The SLN detection rate was superior when mapping with ICG rather than blue dye. Bilateral mapping was significantly improved, resulting in a lower rate of additional lymphadenectomy.

  1. Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-09-01

    Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBCs) as an endogenic contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we use Evans blue (EB) dye as a contrast agent for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. EB has strong optical absorption and distributes uniformly in the blood stream by chemically binding to albumin. With the help of EB, complete and continuous microvascular networks--especially capillaries--are imaged. The diffusion dynamics of EB leaving the blood stream and the clearance dynamics of the EB-albumin complex are also quantitatively investigated.

  2. Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V

    2009-01-01

    Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBCs) as an endogenic contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we use Evans blue (EB) dye as a contrast agent for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. EB has strong optical absorption and distributes uniformly in the blood stream by chemically binding to albumin. With the help of EB, complete and continuous microvascular networks--especially capillaries--are imaged. The diffusion dynamics of EB leaving the blood stream and the clearance dynamics of the EB-albumin complex are also quantitatively investigated.

  3. Elucidating the structure of merocyanine dyes with the ASEC-FEG method. Phenol blue in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Leandro R.; Brandão, Idney; Fonseca, Tertius L.; Georg, Herbert C.

    2016-11-01

    The electronic structure of phenol blue (PB) was investigated in several protic and aprotic solvents, in a wide range of dielectric constants, using atomistic simulations. We employed the sequential QM/MM and the free energy gradient methods to optimize the geometry of PB in each solvent at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level. The ASEC mean field is used to include the ensemble average of the solute-solvent interaction into the molecular hamiltonian, both for the geometry optimization and for the calculations of the electronic properties. We found that the geometry of PB changes considerably, from a polyene-like structure in nonpolar solvents to a cyanine-like in water. Moreover, and quite interestingly, in protic solvents with higher dielectric constant than water, the structure of the molecule is less affected and lies in an intermediate state. The results illustrate the important role played by hydrogen bonds in the conformation of merocyanine dyes.

  4. Preparation, Characterization and Methylene Blue Dye Adsorption Ability of Acid Activated-Natural Zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, O. A.; Prameswari, M. D.; Kinanti, V. T. D.; Mayasari, O. D.; Sutarni, Y. D.; Apriany, K.; Lestari, W. W.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare an acid-activated natural zeolite (Ac-Zeo) as a low-cost adsorbent material and to investigate their ability on methylene blue dye removal in aqueous solution. The natural zeolite was activated using hydrochloric acid and the final product was characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption process was carried out using the batch method. Some parameters like pH condition, contact time and varied dye initial concentration were studied to determine the adsorption ability of Ac-Zeo. In this study, kinetic adsorption was evaluated using pseudo-second order model approach and found that the kinetic adsorption rate constanta (k) and adsorption capacity at equilibrium are 0.1872 mg.g-1.min-1 and 14.94 mg.g-1, respectively. Moreover, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich isotherm adsorption models as well as sorption mechanism were studied in this research.

  5. Analysis of Zebrafish Larvae Skeletal Muscle Integrity with Evans Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ann E.; Dowling, James

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish model is an emerging system for the study of neuromuscular disorders. In the study of neuromuscular diseases, the integrity of the muscle membrane is a critical disease determinant. To date, numerous neuromuscular conditions display degenerating muscle fibers with abnormal membrane integrity; this is most commonly observed in muscular dystrophies. Evans Blue Dye (EBD) is a vital, cell permeable dye that is rapidly taken into degenerating, damaged, or apoptotic cells; in contrast, it is not taken up by cells with an intact membrane. EBD injection is commonly employed to ascertain muscle integrity in mouse models of neuromuscular diseases. However, such EBD experiments require muscle dissection and/or sectioning prior to analysis. In contrast, EBD uptake in zebrafish is visualized in live, intact preparations. Here, we demonstrate a simple and straightforward methodology for performing EBD injections and analysis in live zebrafish. In addition, we demonstrate a co-injection strategy to increase efficacy of EBD analysis. Overall, this video article provides an outline to perform EBD injection and characterization in zebrafish models of neuromuscular disease. PMID:26649573

  6. The ability of brown-rot fungus Daedalea dickinsii to decolorize and transform methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Rizqi, Hamdan Dwi; Purnomo, Adi Setyo

    2017-05-01

    The ability of Daedalea dickinsii to decolorize and transform methylene blue (MB) dye was investigated. MB was decolorized in potato dextrose agar medium after adding MB at concentrations of 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1). D. dickinsii decolorized MB with decolorization index values of 0.92, 0.90, and 0.88 at MB concentrations of 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1), respectively. The 100 mg L(1) MB concentration was selected for biotransformation in liquid potato dextrose broth medium. D. dickinsii transformed approximately 54% of the MB after a 14-day incubation. 3-(Dimethylamino)-7-(methylamino) phenothiazine (C15H16N3S), 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)-4aH-phenothiazin-5-one (C16H19N3SO), and 4-(dimethylamino)-2-[m(dimethylamino) phenylsulfinyl] benzenamine (C16H21N3SO) were detected as MB metabolic products. This is the first report of MB transformation by the brown-rot fungi D. dickinsii. These results indicate that D. dickinsii can be used to decolorize and biotransform MB dye.

  7. Studies on decolorization of reactive blue 19 textile dye by Coprinus plicatilis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies were carried on the decolorization of the textile dye reactive blue 19 (RB 19) by a novel isolate of Coprinus plicatilis (C. plicatilis) fungi. We describe an in vitro optimization process for decolorization and its behavior under different conditions of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature and substrate concentration. Results The optimal conditions for decolorization were obtained in media containing intermediate concentrations of ammonium oxalate and glucose (10 g/L) as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, at 26°C and pH = 5.5. Maximum decolorization efficiency against RB 19 achieved in this study was around 99%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric analyses, before and after decolorization, suggest that decolorization was due to biodegradation. Conclusions This effect was associated with laccase enzyme displaying good tolerance to a wide range of pH values, salt concentrations and temperatures, suggesting a potential role for this organism in the remediation of real dye containing effluents. In conclusion, laccase activity in C. plicatilis was firstly described in this study. PMID:24565535

  8. Adsorption behavior of a textile dye of Reactive Blue 19 from aqueous solutions onto modified bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gök, Özer; Özcan, A. Safa; Özcan, Adnan

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) onto modified bentonite from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature were investigated in the experimentally. Natural bentonite was modified by using 1,6-diamino hexane (DAH) as a modifying agent. The characterization of modified bentonite (DAH-bentonite) was accomplished by using FTIR, TGA, BET and elemental analysis techniques. The optimum pH value for the adsorption experiments was found to be 1.5 and all the experiments were carried out at this pH value. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model agrees very well with the experimental results. Equilibrium data were also fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model in the studied concentration range of RB19 at 20 °C. The results indicate that DAH-modified bentonite is a suitable adsorbent for the adsorption of textile dyes.

  9. Analysis of Zebrafish Larvae Skeletal Muscle Integrity with Evans Blue Dye.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah J; Horstick, Eric J; Davidson, Ann E; Dowling, James

    2015-11-30

    The zebrafish model is an emerging system for the study of neuromuscular disorders. In the study of neuromuscular diseases, the integrity of the muscle membrane is a critical disease determinant. To date, numerous neuromuscular conditions display degenerating muscle fibers with abnormal membrane integrity; this is most commonly observed in muscular dystrophies. Evans Blue Dye (EBD) is a vital, cell permeable dye that is rapidly taken into degenerating, damaged, or apoptotic cells; in contrast, it is not taken up by cells with an intact membrane. EBD injection is commonly employed to ascertain muscle integrity in mouse models of neuromuscular diseases. However, such EBD experiments require muscle dissection and/or sectioning prior to analysis. In contrast, EBD uptake in zebrafish is visualized in live, intact preparations. Here, we demonstrate a simple and straightforward methodology for performing EBD injections and analysis in live zebrafish. In addition, we demonstrate a co-injection strategy to increase efficacy of EBD analysis. Overall, this video article provides an outline to perform EBD injection and characterization in zebrafish models of neuromuscular disease.

  10. Direct Blue Dye Degradation Using Titanium Nanostructures Under Energy-Efficient UV-LED Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Tayade, Rajesh J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) morphology on the photocatalytic activity under irradiation of ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED). Different TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized using hydrothermal (nanotubes and nanospheres) and solvothermal (nanoflowers) methods. The morphology, phase composition, bandgap, and chemical properties of the synthesized different TiO2 nanostructures were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The surface area of the nanotubes was larger than that of the nanospheres and nanoflowers by four- and three-fold, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated by degradation of direct blue-15 dye under UV-LED irradiation in a slurry-type reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoflowers was higher than that of TiO2 nanotubes or nanospheres, suggesting that nanoflowers can serve as efficient photocatalysts for dye degradation.

  11. ZnO microspheres-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jiaqian; Zhang, Xinyu; Yang, Chengwu; Cao, Meng; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2017-01-01

    In this work, ZnO microspheres-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were synthesized via a simple solution method and used for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye from water under UV light. The SEM and TEM observations demonstrate that the microsphere morphologies of the ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposite is composed of ZnO microspheres anchored on rGO sheets, confirming the formation of ZnO microspheres-rGO composites. Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that both of the reduction of GO tight contact between ZnO and rGO are achieved during the high temperature calcination process. During the photocatalytic test, in comparison with ZnO microspheres and P25 TiO2, the ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposite shows improved photodegradation of MB dye, because the rGO sheets could reduce the charge recombination in electron-transfer processes. According to the scavenger experiments, the possible MB degradation mechanism is contributed mainly to the generation of active species induced by the photogenerated holes (h+) and superoxide radicals (rad O2-).

  12. Biodegradation of redox dye Methylene Blue by up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Ong, Soon-An; Toorisaka, Eiichi; Hirata, Makoto; Hano, Tadashi

    2005-09-30

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the decolorization of Methylene Blue (MB) by an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated under batch condition with total treatment volume of 3l and operation time of 24 h per batch. It was found that the color of MB disappeared within a few minutes after entering into the UASB reactor due to reduction by anaerobic biomass. However, the reduced MB was re-oxidized again by air after discharged from the reactor and thus caused low color removal efficiency. The presence of suitable amount of organic content (sucrose and peptone) as an electron donor played an important factor for color removal. It was observed that more than 90% of color removal efficiency was achieved in the UASB reactor with 0.627 mmoll(-1) of MB concentration and the presence of low amount of organic content (<0.45 g COD/(ld)). Biological dye reduction kinetics depends on the concentration of dye and reducing equivalents. The kinetic behavior of MB biodegradation by microbes was also investigated to determine the model involved in the process.

  13. Binding site of the dye in Bromophenol blue-lysozyme complex. Proton magnetic resonance study in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, G; Prabhananda, B S

    1982-12-06

    The forward rate constant for the binding of Bromophenol blue to lysozyme is estimated to be 10(5)M-1 X S-1 at room temperature and ionic strength 0.01, from the line broadening of the 1H-NMR spectrum of Bromophenol blue at 270 MHz. The broadening of the 1H-NMR line corresponding to histidine-15 of lysozyme, in the presence of Bromophenol blue in solution at pH 4.5, suggests that the binding site of Bromophenol blue is not far from this protein residue. The extent of this broadening is pH-dependent and can be interpreted in terms of the average coulombic interaction between the dye and His-15. Since Bromophenol blue is known to inhibit lytic activity of lysozyme towards cell wall substrates, we can say that the region near His-15 may also be important for the efficient catalytic activity of lysozyme.

  14. Trypan blue dye is an effective and inexpensive way to determine the viability of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis zoospores.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-06-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been implicated in hundreds of amphibian declines and is the focus of a vast amount of research. Despite this, there is no reported efficient way to assess Bd viability. Discriminating between live and dead Bd would help determine the dose of live Bd zoospores and whether factors have lethal or sublethal effects on Bd. We tested whether trypan blue, a common stain to discriminate live and dead cells, could be used to assess Bd viability. We show that the proportion of live zoospores (zoospores that excluded the trypan blue dye) matched the proportion of known live zoospores added to cultures. In contrast, all of the zoosporangia stages of Bd stained blue. These results demonstrate that trypan blue can be used to determine the viability of Bd zoospores but not zoosporangia. We recommend using trypan blue to report the number of live zoospores to which hosts are exposed.

  15. Value of Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) Mapping and Biopsy using Combined Intracervical Radiotracers and Blue Dye Injections for Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed

    Farzaneh, Farah; Moridi, Atefeh; Azizmohammadi, Zahra; Ansari J, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Maryam Sadat; Arab, Maliheh; Ashrafganjoei, Tahereh; Mazaheri, Mina

    2017-02-01

    Background: Lymphadenectomy, as part of the initial surgical staging of patients with endometrial carcinoma, remains a controversial topic in gynecologic oncology. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has become a well-accepted procedure for melanomas and breast cancer; a number of investigators have begun to explore the utility and accuracy of this technique with regard to endometrial cancer. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate SLN mapping of early stage endometrial cancer with blue dye in conjunction with a radioactive tracer. Subjects and methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, patients with stage I and II endometrial cancer who were candidates for systemic lymph node dissection during surgery were enrolled, some underwent lymph node mapping and SLN biopsy using combined intra cervical radiotracer and blue dye injections and some applying only an intra cervical radiotracer. SLNs and other lymph nodes were sent for pathological assessment. Sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value were calculated as predictive values for the radiotracer and blue dye. Results: Pre-operative lymph node mapping showed SLN in 29 out of 30 patients. Intra operations in 29/30 patients, SLNs were harvested by gamma probe; in 13 out of 19 patients SLNs were detected by blue dye. The median number of SLNs per patient was 3 and the total number of SLNs detected was 81. Four patients had positive pelvic lymph nodes. All of the positive nodes were SLNs. Using this technique (radiotracer and blue dye) an overall detection rate of 96.7%, an NPV of 100%, a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 3.85% were achieved. Conclusion: Results of SLN research for endometrial cancer are promising and make feasible the possibility of avoiding unnecessary aggressive surgical procedures in near future by advances in SLN mapping. Creative Commons Attribution License

  16. Red/blue spectral shifts of laser-induced fluorescence emission due to different nanoparticle suspensions in various dye solutions.

    PubMed

    Bavali, A; Parvin, P; Mortazavi, S Z; Mohammadian, M; Mousavi Pour, M R

    2014-08-20

    Red/blue shifts of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) are investigated using several guest dielectric nanoscatterers, such as TiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, and SiO2, in the host Rd6G, RdB, Coumarin 4, and Coumarin 7 ethanolic solutions. A couple of inflection points are identified varying nanoparticle (NP) density into dye solutions based on LIF spectroscopy. The inflection of the spectral shift exhibits that the suspension of NPs in dye solutions significantly involves a couple of competitive chemical and optical mechanisms during photon traveling in scattering media regarding ballistic and diffusive transport. It is shown that the low, medium, and high NP additives in fluorescent suspension induce blue, red, and blue spectral shifts, respectively.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light over Cr doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Inamur Rahman; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Hassan, Mallick Shamshi; Yang, O-Bong

    2010-05-01

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) and chromium doped SrTiO3 (Cr/SrTiO3) were prepared by modified sol-gel method with the citric acid as a chelating agent in the ethylene glycol solution for the effective photodegradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation. The synthesized doped and un-doped SrTiO3 nanoparticles were structurally characterized and their photoresponse performances for the efficient degradation of methylene blue dye have been demonstrated. After introducing the Cr on SrTiO3, UV-Vis absorption was appeared the red-shift at 566 nm from 392 nm as compare with bare SrTiO3. The photocatalytic degradation activity of Cr/SrTiO3 was significantly improved to 60% degradation of methylene blue in 3 h under visible light, which is approximately 5 times higher than that of the bare SrTiO3.

  18. Study of the sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye over slurry titanium dioxide and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    González, Antonia Sandoval; Martínez, Susana Silva

    2008-09-01

    The sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye has been studied in the presence of ultrasound (20 kHz) over a TiO(2) slurry employing an UV lamp (15 W, 352 nm). It was observed that the color removal efficiency was influenced by the pH of the solution, initial dye concentration and TiO(2) amount. It was found that the dye degradation followed apparent first order kinetics. The rate constant increased by decreasing dye concentration and was affected by the pH of the solution with the highest degradation obtained at pH 7. The first order rate constants obtained with sonophotocatalysis were twofold and tenfold than those obtained under photocatalysis and sonolysis, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand was abated over 80%.

  19. Spectroscopic Characterization of Niagara Blue Dye in the Restricted Geometry of Layer-By Self-Assembled Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Indra; Das, Bandana; Nath, Ranendu Kumar; Ganguly, Banti; Mishra, Bijay Kumar; Pal, Ajitesh

    2016-06-01

    Multilayer films can be precisely engineered on solid substrate via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assemble technique using negatively charged organic dye and positively charged polyelectrolytes or surfactants. This communication first time reports the successful incorporation of an anionic dye Niagara blue (NB) in Polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) by electrostatic sequential alternative LbL adsorption. The photo-physical characteristics of LbL films are investigated by varying different parameters such as number of deposited layer, dipping time in dye solution, pH of PAH solution, concentration of the dye, etc. In addition, the interaction of NB with double tail surfactant Didodecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) at different concentrations is also studied in the light of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis reveals that NB has been successfully anchored to PAH or DDAB through electrostatic self-assembled technique and forms molecular aggregates. The formation of aggregates is further confirmed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) study.

  20. Application of Synthetic Layered Sodium Silicate Magadiite Nanosheets for Environmental Remediation of Methylene Blue Dye in Water

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from water was investigated using synthetic nano-clay magadiite (SNCM). SNCM was synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment under autogenous pressure. A rosette-shaped single mesoporous magadiite phase with 16.63 nm average crystallite size and 33 m2∙g−1 Braunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET)-surface area was recorded. The adsorption results indicated the pronounced affinity of the SNCM to the MB dye molecules, which reached an adsorption uptake of 20.0 mg MB dye/g of SNCM. The elimination of MB dye by the SNCM was kinetically and thermodynamically considered; a pseudo-second-order kinetic model was attained, and its spontaneous, chemical, and endothermic nature was verified. SNCM was shown to be robust without a detectable reduction in the adsorption capacity after up to four times re-use. PMID:28773120

  1. Brilliant Blue FCF as an Alternative Dye for Saphenous Vein Graft Marking Effect on Conduit Function

    PubMed Central

    Voskresensky, Igor V.; Wise, Eric S.; Hocking, Kyle M.; Li, Fan Dong; Osgood, Michael J.; Komalavilas, Padmini; Brophy, Colleen; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Surgical skin markers are used off-label to mark human saphenous veins (HSVs) to maintain orientation before implantation as aortocoronary or peripheral arterial bypass grafts. These surgical skin markers impair functional responses of the HSV tissue. OBJECTIVES To investigate the effect of brilliant blue dye 1 (brilliant blue FCF [for food coloring]; hereinafter, FCF) as a nontoxic alternative marking dye and to determine whether FCF has pharmacological properties. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Segments of HSVs were collected in university hospitals from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting procedures immediately after harvest (unmanipulated) or after typical intraoperative surgical graft preparation (after manipulation). Rat inferior venae cavae were used to determine the pharmacological properties and cellular targets of FCF. Endothelial and smooth muscle functional responses were determined in a muscle bath, and intimal thickening in HSVs was determined after 14 days in organ culture. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Contractile responses were measured in force and converted to stress. Smooth muscle function was expressed as maximal responses to potassium chloride depolarization contractions. Endothelial function was defined as the percentage of relaxation of maximal agonist-induced contraction. Neointimal thickness was measured by histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS Human saphenous veins stored in the presence of FCF had no loss of endothelial or smooth muscle function. Unmanipulated HSVs preserved in the presence of FCF demonstrated a significant increase in endothelial-dependent relaxation (mean [SEM], 25.2% [6.4%] vs 30.2% [6.7%]; P = .02). Application of FCF to functionally nonviable tissue significantly enhanced the smooth muscle responses (mean [SEM], 0.018 [0.004] × 105N/m2 vs 0.057 [0.016] × 105 N/m2; P = .05). Treatment with FCF reduced intimal thickness in organ culture (mean [SEM], −17.5% [2.1%] for unmanipulated HSVs vs

  2. Using resin supported nano zero-valent iron particles for decoloration of Acid Blue 113 azo dye solution.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Chen, Chi-Chun; Chen, Po-En

    2010-12-15

    In this study, a synthesized cation exchange resin supported nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) complex forming NZVI-resin was proposed for the decoloration of an azo dye Acid Blue 113 (AB 113), taking into account reaction time, initial dye concentration, NZVI dose and pH. From results, the successful decoloration of the AB 113 solution was observed using a NZVI-resin. Increasing the iron load to 50.8 mg g(-1), the removal efficiencies of the AB 113 concentration increased exponentially. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg l(-1) and nano iron load of 50.8 mg g(-1), the best removal efficiencies were obtained at 100 and 12.6% for dye concentration and total organic carbon, respectively. Color removal efficiency was dependent on initial dye concentration and iron load. Moreover, the removal rates followed modified pseudo-first order kinetic equations with respect to dye concentration. Thus, the observed removal rate constants (k) were 0.137-0.756 min(-1) by NZVI loads of 4.9-50.8 mg g(-1). Consequently, the NZVI-resin performed effectively for the decoloration of AB 113 azo dye, offering great potential in the application of NZVI-resins in larger scale column tests and further field processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Paper, Chemical Agent Detector, 3-Way Liquid Containing Non-Mutagenic Dyes. 2. Replacement of the Blue Indicator Dye Ethyl-bis-(2,4- Dinitrophenyl Acetate (EDA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    OL JU)OY (ý2ýPj 00 (V)~ Oetence nationale DTI DEVELOPIIEnT OF PAPER, CHEMICAL AGENT DETECTOR, 3-WAY LIQUID CONTAINING NON-MUTAGENIC DYES . Hi...REPLACEMENT OF THE BLUE INflICATOR DYE ETH.YL-b is-(2.4-DI NITROPH ENYL) ACETATE IEDA) by D. Thoravala, J.W. Bovenkampb, R.W. Betsa and B.V. Lcroixb...NON-MUTAGENIC DYES . n-REPLACEMENT OF THE BLUE INDICATOR DYE ETHYL-bis-(2,4-DINITROPHENYL) ACETATE (EDA) by D. Thoraval and R.W. Bets Anachemic Canada

  4. Degradation of azo dye direct sky blue 5B by sonication combined with zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Wang, Xikui; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Wenqiang; Li, Shuping

    2011-09-01

    The degradation of azo dye direct sky blue 5B by sonication combined with zero-valent iron (US-Fe(0))was investigated and an evident synergistic effect was observed. The synergetic effect is mainly due to the increase of ()OH radical concentration from Fenton's reaction. The ()OH radical concentrations in sole sonication and US-Fe(0) process were detected by using terephthalic acid as a fluorescent probe and found that ()OH radicals were generated continuously during sonication and the production of ()OH radicals in US-Fe(0) process was much higher than that in sole sonication. The degradation of direct sky blue 5B followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics and the degradation rate constants were found to be 0.0206 and 0.169 min(-1) with sole sonication and US-Fe(0) process respectively. It was also found that the degradation ratio of direct sky blue 5B increased with the increase of zero-valent iron dosage and decrease of pH value of the dye aqueous solution. The degradation mechanism of direct sky blue 5B with US-Fe(0) process was discussed by the changes of UV-Vis spectrogram of the dye during degradation. The dramatic changes of UV spectra showed a disappearance of both azo and aromatic groups during the degradation.

  5. Zn2Al layered double hydroxides intercalated and adsorbed with anionic blue dyes: a physico-chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Rafael; Bouhent, Mustapha; Taviot-Guého, Christine; Wypych, Fernando; Leroux, Fabrice

    2009-05-01

    Three different anionic blue organic dyes have been intercalated into the structure of Zn(2)Al layered double hydroxides, using the co-precipitation method at constant pH. Using the same synthetic procedure, Zn(2)Al-Cl has been prepared and used as an adsorptive phase to retain the blue dyes from an aqueous solution. All the organic/inorganic (O/I) hybrid LDH compounds were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), thermal analysis (TG/DTA), elemental analysis, solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (CPMAS (13)C NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In the adsorption experiments, Gibbs free energy DeltaG values for the temperatures in a range between 10 and 40 degrees C were found to be negative, which indicates that the nature of adsorption is spontaneous and shows the affinity of LDH material towards the blue anionic dyes. Additionally a decrease in DeltaG values at higher temperature further indicates that this process is even more favorable at these conditions. The enthalpy DeltaH values were between physisorption and chemisorption, and it may be concluded that the process was a physical adsorption enhanced by a chemical effect, characterized by a combined adsorption/intercalation reaction, making these O/I assemblies reminiscent of the Maya blue.

  6. Decolorization and detoxification of a sulfonated triphenylmethane dye aniline blue by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongmin; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Cancan; Cao, Danming; Du, Daolin

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the extracellular decolorization of aniline blue, a sulfonated triphenylmethane dye, by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was confirmed. S. oneidensis MR-1 showed a high capacity for decolorizing aniline blue even at a concentration of up to 1,000 mg/l under anaerobic conditions. Maximum decolorization efficiency appeared at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. Lactate was a better candidate of electron donor for the decolorization of aniline blue. The addition of nitrate, hydrous ferric oxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide all could cause a significant decline of decolorization efficiency. The Mtr respiratory pathway was found to be involved into the decolorization of aniline blue by S. oneidensis MR-1. The toxicity evaluation through phytotoxicity and genotoxicity showed that S. oneidensis MR-1 could decrease the toxicity of aniline blue during the decolorization process. Thus, this work may facilitate a better understanding on the degradation mechanisms of the triphenylmethane dyes by Shewanella and is beneficial to their application in bioremediation.

  7. Decolorization of Reactive Blue 19 Dye from Textile Wastewater by the UV/H2O2 Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Abbas; Taghi Ghaneian, Mohammad; Jamalodin Hashemian, Sayed; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Khavanin, Ali; Ghanizadeh, Ghader

    Photo-oxidation of dyes is a new concern among researchers since it offers an attractive method for decoloration of dyes and breaks them into simple mineral forms. An advanced oxidation process, UV/H2O2, was investigated in a laboratory scale photoreactor for decolorization of the Reactive blue 19 (RB19) dye from synthetic textile wastewater. The effects of operating parameters such as hydrogen peroxide dosage, pH, initial dye concentration and UV dosage, on decolorization have been evaluated. The RB19 solution was completely decolorized under optimal hydrogen peroxide dosage of 2.5 mmol L-1 and low-pressure mercury UV-C lamps (55 w) in less than 30 min. The decolorization rate followed pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the dye concentration. The rate increased linearly with volumetric UV dosage and nonlinearly with increasing initial hydrogen peroxide concentration. It has been found that the degradation rate increased until an optimum of hydrogen peroxide dosage, beyond which the reagent exerted an inhibitory effect. From the experimental results, the UV/H2O2 process was an effective technology for RB19 dye treatment in wastewater.

  8. Spectroscopic studies on the binding interaction of phenothiazinium dyes toluidine blue O, azure A and azure B to DNA.

    PubMed

    Paul, Puja; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2013-04-15

    In this study a detailed characterization of the binding aspects of three phenothiazinium dyes, toluidine blue O (TBO), azure A and azure B with herring testes DNA is presented employing spectroscopic techniques. The absorbance and fluorescence properties of these dyes have been remarkably modified upon binding with DNA and the interaction is manifested through noncooperative binding as revealed form non-linear Scatchard plots with negative slopes at all binding ratios. The binding clearly revealed the high preference of TBO to DNA followed by the other two dyes azure A and azure B. The affinity of TBO was higher by about two times than that of the azures. From the series of studies using absorption, steady-state emission, the effect of ferrocyanide ion-induced steady-state fluorescence quenching, fluorescence polarization anisotropy, circular dichroism, the mode of binding of these dyes to the DNA double helix has been substantiated to be principally intercalative in nature. The stoichiometry of the association of these dyes to DNA was determined by the continuous variation analysis of Job from fluorescence data. The conformational aspects of the interaction was delineated from circular dichroism studies wherein higher perturbation was observed with TBO. Hydrodynamic study using viscosity measurements of linear rod like DNA confirmed that the binding was intercalative and strongest for TBO and weaker for azure A and azure B. The utility of the present work lies in exploring the potential binding applicability of these dyes to DNA for their development as effective therapeutic agents.

  9. Novelties of combustion synthesized titania ultrafiltration membrane in efficient removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous effluent.

    PubMed

    Doke, Suresh M; Yadav, Ganapati D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, titania nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion and used to make ultrafiltration membrane. Characteristics of titania membranes such as textural evaluation, surface morphology, pure water permeability and protein rejection were investigated. Titania membrane sintered at 450 °C showed pure water permeability 11 × 10−2 L h−1 m−2 kPa−1 and 76% protein rejection. The membrane presented good water flux and retention properties with regards to protein and methylene blue dye. Ultrafiltration process was operated at lower pressure (100 kPa) and showed 99% removal of methylene blue using adsorptive micellar flocculation at sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration below its critical micellar concentration. Ferric chloride was used as the coagulant. The method of making titania membrane and its use are new. These studies can be extended to other dyes and pollutants.

  10. Column performance of carbon nanotube packed bed for methylene blue and orange red dye removal from waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, G. K.; Mubarak, N. M.; Nizamuddin, S.; Al-Salim, H. S.; Sahu, J. N.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental issues have always been a major issue among human kind for the past decades. As the time passes by, the technology field has grown and has helped a lot in order to reduce these environmental issues. Industries such as metal plating facilities, mining operations and batteries production are a few examples that involves in the environmental issues. Carbon nanotube is proven to possess excellent adsorption capacity for the removal of methylene blue and orange red dyes. The effect of process parameters such as pH and contact time was investigated The results revealed that optimized conditions for the highest removal for methylene blue (MB) (97%) and orange red (94%) are at pH 10, CNTs dosage of 1 grams, and 15 minutes for each dyes removal respectively. The equilibrium adsorption data obtained was best fit to Freundlich model, while kinetic data can be characterized by the pseudo second-order rate kinetics.

  11. The photocatalytic investigation of methylene blue dye with Cr doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Rajeev; Kumar, Ashavani

    2015-08-01

    The present work reports eco-friendly and cost effective sol-gel technique for synthesis of Chromium doped ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. In this process Zinc nitrate, Chromium nitrate were used as precursor. Structural as well as optical properties of Cr induced ZnO samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), SEM, PL and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) respectively. XRD analysis shows that the samples have hexagonal (wurtzite) structure with no additional peak which suggests that Cr ions fit into the regular Zn sites of ZnO crystal structure. By using Scherrer's formula for pure and Cr doped ZnO samples the average grain size was found to be 32 nm. Further band gap of pure and doped ZnO samples have been calculated by using UV-Vis spectra. The photo-catalytic degradation of methyl blue dye under UV irradiation was examined for synthesized samples. The results show that the concentration plays an important role in photo-catalytic activity.

  12. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of nile blue dye in aqueous BiOCl suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwan, Bhawna; Pare, B.; Acharya, A. D.

    2014-05-01

    Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) was synthesized by hydrolysis method. Several analytical tools such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic, and energy-dispersive spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the sample. The prepared material had average pore diameter of about 7-10 nm and the BET surface area of BiOCl was 40 m2 g-1. The analysis of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) formation was performed by fluorescence technique. The intermediates and the final products of degradation were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-DAD-MS) technology. The degradation of nile blue (NB) dye was mainly attributed to the destruction of the conjugated structure, and after that the intermediates were transformed into small molecules mainly phenol, aniline, etc., which were mineralized to water and carbon dioxide. During three recycles, the catalyst did not exhibit any significant loss of photocatalytic activity, confirming that the photocatalyst is essentially stable. The NB oxidation was evaluated by the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) content. The formation of NO3- and the evolution of CO2 revealed complete mineralization of aqueous NB during the photocatalytic process by this photocatalyst.

  13. Modification of bentonite with a cationic surfactant: An adsorption study of textile dye Reactive Blue 19.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Adnan; Omeroğlu, Ciğdem; Erdoğan, Yunus; Ozcan, A Safa

    2007-02-09

    The utilization of modified bentonite with a cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium (DTMA) bromide) as an adsorbent was successfully carried out to remove a synthetic textile dye (Reactive Blue 19 (RB19)) by adsorption, from aqueous solutions. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters such as pH, contact time and temperature. The surface modification of bentonite with a surfactant was examined using the FTIR spectroscopic technique and elemental analysis. Effective pH for the adsorption of RB19 onto DTMA-bentonite was around 1.5. The Langmuir isotherm model was found to be the best to represent the equilibrium with experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity (q(max)) has been found to be 3.30x10(-4)molg(-1) or 206.58mgg(-1). The thermodynamic study indicated that the adsorption of RB19 onto DTMA-bentonite was favored with the negative Gibbs free energy values. The pseudo-second-order rate equation was able to provide the best description of adsorption kinetics and the intraparticle diffusion model was also applicable up to 40min for the adsorption of RB19 onto DTMA-bentonite.

  14. The photocatalytic investigation of methylene blue dye with Cr doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Rajeev; Kumar, Ashavani

    2015-08-28

    The present work reports eco-friendly and cost effective sol-gel technique for synthesis of Chromium doped ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. In this process Zinc nitrate, Chromium nitrate were used as precursor. Structural as well as optical properties of Cr induced ZnO samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), SEM, PL and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) respectively. XRD analysis shows that the samples have hexagonal (wurtzite) structure with no additional peak which suggests that Cr ions fit into the regular Zn sites of ZnO crystal structure. By using Scherrer’s formula for pure and Cr doped ZnO samples the average grain size was found to be 32 nm. Further band gap of pure and doped ZnO samples have been calculated by using UV-Vis spectra. The photo-catalytic degradation of methyl blue dye under UV irradiation was examined for synthesized samples. The results show that the concentration plays an important role in photo-catalytic activity.

  15. Use of Evans blue dye to compare limb muscles in exercised young and old mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Wooddell, Christine I; Zhang, Guofeng; Griffin, Jacob B; Hegge, Julia O; Huss, Thierry; Wolff, Jon A

    2010-04-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) is used to mark damaged and permeable muscle fibers in mouse models of muscular dystrophy and as an endpoint in therapeutic trials. We counted EBD-positive muscle fibers and extracted EBD from muscles sampled throughout the hindlimbs in young adult and old mdx mice to determine if the natural variability in morphology would allow measurement of a functional improvement in one limb compared to the contralateral limb. Following one bout of rotarod or treadmill exercise that greatly increased serum creatine kinase levels, the number of EBD(+) muscle fibers in 12-19-month-old mdx mice increased 3-fold, EBD in the muscles increased, and, importantly, contralateral pairs of muscles contained similar amounts of EBD. In contrast, the intra- and interlimb amounts of EBD in 2-7-month-old mdx mice were much too variable. A therapeutic effect can more readily be measured in old mdx mice. These results will be useful in the design of therapy protocols using the mdx mouse.

  16. A New Modified Evans Blue Dye Test as Screening Test for Aspiration in Tracheostomized Patients.

    PubMed

    Fiorelli, Alfonso; Ferraro, Fausto; Nagar, Francesca; Fusco, Pierluigi; Mazzone, Salvatore; Costa, Giuseppe; Di Natale, Davide; Serra, Nicola; Santini, Mario

    2017-04-01

    The authors assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a new modified Evans blue dye test (MEBDT) as a screening test for aspiration in tracheostomized patients. Monocentric retrospective study performed between October 2013 and December 2015. Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Second University of Naples. Among 62 eligible patients, 5 were excluded. The authors' study population included 57 patients. Patients underwent both fiberoptic endoscopic examination of the swallow (FEES) and MEBDT to evaluate swallow. The MEBDT results were compared with those of FEES and the diagnostic accuracy of MEBDT was calculated using the FEES as the gold standard. The authors found that both FEES and MEBDT were positive for aspiration in 40 patients (true-positive MEBDT); FEES and MEBDT were negative in 10 (true-negative MEBDT). On the other hand, FEES was positive with an MEBDT negative in 7 patients (false-negative MEBDT), and there were no FEES negative and MEBDT positive (false-positive MEBDT). MEBDT had a sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predicted value of 85%, 100%, 100%, and 58.82%, respectively. MEBDT could be a supplementary diagnostic test for aspiration. Patients with positive MEBDT should not undergo oral feeding, while patients with negative MEBDT should undergo FEES before starting oral feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increase in Evans blue dye extravasation into the brain in the late developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuen-Bao; Kuo, Eva Yuhua; Poon, Kin-Shing; Cheng, Ka-Shun; Chang, Chia-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Ted Weita

    2012-08-22

    The development of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) against permeability to inert tracers, such as Evans blue dye (EBD), occurs quite early on at embryonic stages (before E13-E15), and the BBB remains resistant to EBD between E15 and early adulthood (P20-P30). Here, we aimed to examine the changes in EBD permeability at a later stage in development, specifically comparing young rats (P20) with adult rats (P86). We found markedly higher EBD extravasation into the forebrains of adult rats compared with those of the young rats (P=0.0132; Student's t-test). In contrast, there was no difference in EBD extravasation to the liver, suggesting no change in vascular permeability in peripheral tissues. Furthermore, EBD extravasation into the cerebellum was less prominent than that into the forebrain, suggesting that the disruption of the BBB was brain-region specific. In conclusion, we found a specific increase in EBD extravasation in the mature forebrain, and the protocol that we used may be a good template for studying developmental disruption of the BBB.

  18. Inactivation of WBCs in RBC suspensions by photoactive phenothiazine dyes: comparison of dimethylmethylene blue and MB.

    PubMed

    Skripchenko, A A; Wagner, S J

    2000-08-01

    The transfusion of blood components containing WBCs can cause unwanted complications, which include virus transmission, transfusion-associated GVHD, alloimmunization, febrile reactions, and immunomodulation. Phototreatment with 4 microM of dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) and 13 J per cm(2) of white light irradiation has previously been shown to be an effective way to inactivate different models of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses in RBC suspensions, with minimum damage to RBCs. The present study compares WBC photoinactivation in buffy coat after DMMB or MB phototreatment under virucidal conditions. Buffy coat diluted to 30-percent Hct was treated with the dye and white light. Isolated WBCs were assayed for cell proliferation and viability by an assay using a tetrazolium compound, limiting dilution analysis, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry assays. DMMB and 2.5 J per cm(2) of light phototreatment can inactivate T cells to the limit of detection by limiting dilution analysis (>4.76 log reduction). No WBC proliferation activity was observed after DMMB and 3.8 J per cm(2) of light. DNA degradation after DMMB phototreatment was light dependent. In addition, DMMB phototreatment induced apoptosis in WBCs. In contrast, MB phototreatment under virucidal conditions did not cause significant changes in the viability of WBCs. Neither DNA degradation nor signs of apoptosis were observed after MB phototreatment. DMMB phototreatment inactivates T-lymphocytes, the cells that cause GVHD.

  19. [Flotation spectrophotometric determination of copper on isochromatic dye ion pair with crystal violet and bromopnenol blue].

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Chen, C; Zuo, B

    1999-02-01

    Bromophenol blue (BPB) was produced and entered into the aqueous phase when NaOH solution of pH = 10 was added to Cu(biq)2BPB by trichloromethane and isoamyl alcohol (20:1) extractive. And then CV x BPB was floated by crystal violet (CV) with benzene solution. The flotation was dissolved in ethanol and the absorbance of the solution measured at 590 nm. The sensitivity was raised because of the two dyes assistant effect. The molar absorptivity was 1.45 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1). Copper in the sample was separated first by extracting the Cu(biq)2BPB complex with trichloromethane and isoamyl alcohol, thus achieving a high selectivity. Beer's law was obeyd in the range of 0-0. 4 mg/L with a relative standard deviation of 3.6%. For 4.8 x 10(-8) g/mL copper solution, the recoveries were 97.8%-101.7%.

  20. Bacteria encapsulated electrospun nanofibrous webs for remediation of methylene blue dye in water.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, Omer Faruk; Keskin, Nalan Oya San; Celebioglu, Asli; Tekinay, Turgay; Uyar, Tamer

    2017-04-01

    In this study, preparation and application of novel biocomposite materials that were produced by encapsulation of bacterial cells within electrospun nanofibrous webs are described. A commercial strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which has methylene blue (MB) dye remediation capability was selected for encapsulation, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) were selected as the polymer matrices for the electrospinning of bacteria encapsulated nanofibrous webs. Encapsulation of bacterial cells was monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy, and the viability of encapsulated bacteria was checked by live/dead staining and viable cell counting assay. Both bacteria/PVA and bacteria/PEO webs have shown a great potential for remediation of MB, yet bacteria/PEO web has shown higher removal performances than bacteria/PVA web, which was probably due to the differences in the initial viable bacterial cells for those two samples. The bacteria encapsulated electrospun nanofibrous webs were stored at 4°C for three months and they were found as potentially storable for keeping encapsulated bacterial cells alive. Overall, the results suggest that electrospun nanofibrous webs are suitable platforms for preservation of living bacterial cells and they can be used directly as a starting inoculum for bioremediation of water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined use of preoperative methylene blue dye and microcoil localization facilitates thoracoscopic wedge resection of indeterminate pulmonary nodules in children.

    PubMed

    Pursnani, Seema K; Rausen, Aaron R; Contractor, Sohail; Nadler, Evan P

    2006-04-01

    The ability to biopsy indeterminate pulmonary lesions in children has evolved with advances in minimal access surgery. Recent advances in preoperative localization including image-guided dye injection or wire implantation have expanded the types of lesions that are accessible via minimal access surgery. We present a case of a 13-year-old boy who underwent preoperative localization using both methylene blue dye and microcoil labeling, and a subsequent thoracoscopic pulmonary wedge resection under the same anesthesia. The combined use of both dye and microcoil localization provides the advantage of superior intraoperative visualization of the lesion and the ability to use fluoroscopy to confirm the presence of the nodule in the surgical specimen. We recommend this technique for the biopsy of indeterminate pulmonary lesions that would not otherwise be accessible via a minimally invasive approach.

  2. Removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption using yellow passion fruit peel as adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Flávio André; Mazzocato, Ana Cristina; Gushikem, Yoshitaka

    2008-05-01

    The removal of color from aquatic systems caused by presence of synthetic dyes is extremely important from the environmental viewpoint because most of these dyes are toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this present study, the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Degener) peel a powdered solid waste, was tested as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of a basic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. Adsorption of MB onto this natural adsorbent was studied by batch adsorption isotherms at room temperature. The effects of shaking time and pH on adsorption capacity were studied. An alkaline pH was favorable for the adsorption of MB. The contact time required to obtain the maximum adsorption was 56 h at 25 degrees C. Yellow passion fruit peel may be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove MB from aqueous solutions.

  3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    This is the study which assessed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of the '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'. Patients (302) were performed SNB using the combined radioisotope (RI)/indigo carmine dye method. Excised SLNs were confirmed whether they were stained and numbered in order of RI count and the percentage of radioactivity as compared to the hottest node was calculated. The relationship between histological diagnosis, dyeing and RI count was assessed. All the patients were detected SLN. Positive nodes were identified in 84 (27.8%) patients and were identified up to the third degree of hottest. All the hottest positive nodes were stained by indigo carmine. From the results, removing the three most radioactive SLNs identified all cases of nodal metastasis without complications. These stopping rules were valid and useful under indigo carmine use too.

  4. Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of azo dye (Direct Blue 15) using solvothermally synthesized copper hydroxide nitrate as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuzhong; Zhou, Xiang; Fu, Bei; Chen, Yiliang

    2011-03-15

    Copper hydroxide nitrate (Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3)) was synthesized solvothermally in anhydrous ethanol and characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG-DTA and SEM. The peroxide degradation of an azo dye (Direct Blue 15) on this material was evaluated by examining catalyst loading, initial pH, hydrogen peroxide dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature. The leaching of Cu from the copper hydroxide nitrate during the reaction was also measured. The copper hydroxide nitrate synthesized solvothermally, which was of a novel spherical morphology with complex secondary structures and contained high-dispersed Cu(2)O impurity, showed good performance for oxidation degradation of the azo dye, especially high catalytic activity, high utilization of hydrogen peroxide and a wide pH range, whereas the copper hydroxide nitrate synthesized by the direct reaction of copper nitrate and sodium hydroxide showed low catalytic activity.

  5. Spectrophotometric investigation of the interactions between cationic (C.I. Basic Blue 9) and anionic (C.I. Acid Blue 25) dyes in adsorption onto extracted cellulose from Posidonia oceanic in single and binary system.

    PubMed

    Ben Douissa, Najoua; Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk

    2016-01-01

    Extracted cellulose from Posidonia oceanica was used as an adsorbent for removal of a cationic (Basic blue 9, BB) and anionic textile dye (Acid blue 25, AB) from aqueous solution in single dye system. Characterization of the extracted cellulose and extracted cellulose-dye systems were performed using several techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential and Boehm acid-base titration method. Adsorption tests showed that the extracted cellulose presented higher adsorption of BB than AB in single dye system, revealing that electrostatic interactions are responsible, in the first instance, for the dye-adsorbent interaction. In single dye systems, the extracted cellulose presented the maximum adsorption capacities of BB and AB at 0.955 mmol.g(-1) and 0.370 mmol.g(-1), respectively. Adsorption experiments of AB dye on extracted cellulose saturated by BB dye exhibited the release of the latter dye from the sorbent which lead to dye-dye interaction in aqueous solution due to electrostatic attraction between both species. Interaction of BB and AB dyes were investigated using spectrophotometric analysis and results demonstrated the formation of a molecular complex detected at wavelengths 510 and 705 nm when anionic (AB) and cationic (BB) dye were taken in equimolar proportions. The adsorption isotherm of AB, taking into account the dye-dye interaction was investigated and showed that BB dye was released proportionately by AB equilibrium concentration. It was also observed that AB adsorption is widely enhanced when the formation of the molecular complex is disadvantaged.

  6. Quantification of metabolically active biomass using Methylene Blue dye Reduction Test (MBRT): measurement of CFU in about 200 s.

    PubMed

    Bapat, Prashant; Nandy, Subir Kumar; Wangikar, Pramod; Venkatesh, K V

    2006-04-01

    Quantification of viable cells is a critical step in almost all biological experiments. Despite its importance, the methods developed so far to differentiate between viable and non-viable cells suffer from major limitations such as being time intensive, inaccurate and expensive. Here, we present a method to quantify viable cells based on reduction of methylene blue dye in cell cultures. Although the methylene blue reduction method is well known to check the bacterial load in milk, its application in the quantification of viable cells has not been reported. We have developed and standardized this method by monitoring the dye reduction rate at each time point for growth of Escherichia coli. The standard growth curve was monitored using this technique. The Methylene Blue dye Reduction Test (MBRT) correlates very well with Colony Forming Units (CFU) up to a 800 live cells as established by plating. The test developed is simple, accurate and fast (200 s) as compared to available techniques. We demonstrate the utility of the developed assay to monitor CFU rapidly and accurately for E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and a mixed culture of E. coli and B. subtilis. This assay, thus, has a wide applicability to all types of aerobic organisms.

  7. Introduction of Red-Green-Blue Fluorescent Dyes into a Metal-Organic Framework for Tunable White Light Emission.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yuehong; Sheng, Tianlu; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Zhuo, Chao; Su, Shaodong; Li, Haoran; Hu, Shengmin; Zhu, Qi-Long; Wu, Xintao

    2017-10-01

    The unique features of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including ultrahigh porosities and surface areas, tunable pores, endow the MOFs with special utilizations as host matrices. In this work, various neutral and ionic guest dye molecules, such as fluorescent brighteners, coumarin derivatives, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), and 4-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium (DSM), are encapsulated in a neutral MOF, yielding novel blue-, green-, and red-phosphors, respectively. Furthermore, this study introduces the red-, green-, and blue-emitting dyes into a MOF together for the first time, producing white-light materials with nearly ideal Commission International ed'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates, high color-rendering index values (up to 92%) and quantum yields (up to 26%), and moderate correlated color temperature values. The white light is tunable by changing the content or type of the three dye guests, or the excitation wavelength. Significantly, the introduction of blue-emitting guests in the methodology makes the available MOF host more extensive, and the final white-light output more tunable and high-quality. Such strategy can be widely adopted to design and prepare white-light-emitting materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Trityl dyes patent blue V and brilliant blue G - clinical relevance and in vitro analysis of the function of the outer blood-retinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Mennel, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten H; Schmidt, Jörg C; Kaempf, Stefanie; Thumann, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    The use of vital dyes during vitrectomy allows easier removal of less recognizable structures like epiretinal membranes or the internal limiting membrane (ILM). In recent years, numerous studies have investigated the use of indocyanine green (ICG), trypan blue (Membrane Blue), triamcinolone, autologous blood and presently trityl dyes such as patent blue V (PBV, Blueron), crystal violet and brilliant blue G (BBG, Brilliant Peel) in chromovitrectomy. Reports on potential risks of these dyes, especially ICG, such as reduced visual acuity, possible visual field defects or alterations of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) limited their application. A systematic review of the literature up to July 2007 was performed using Medline (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ PubMed/) where we specifically searched for relevant information regarding the laboratory as well as clinical use of PB and BBG. To evaluate the effect of PB and BBG on the RPE, PB and BBG have been added to an in vitro model of the outer blood-retinal barrier to assess dye-associated barrier properties. Two concentrations of PB (2.4 and 1.2 mg/ml) and BBG (0.25 and 2.4 mg/ml) were investigated. To simulate in vivo conditions of a fluid-filled eye and an air-filled eye the dyes were added either to the culture medium or directly to the RPE cells where they remained for 2.5 min. To determine barrier properties, transepithelial resistance (TER) was measured at 3 days of follow-up. Ultrastructural integrity of RPE cells was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Following application of PB, barrier properties in the fluid- as well as in the air-filled eye showed only mild, transient and no significant decrease in TER. BBG did not cause a breakdown of the outer bloodretinal barrier at the concentration of 0.25 mg/ml in the model of the fluid-filled eye. The concentration of 2.4 mg/ml in the model of the fluid-filled eye as well as both concentrations in the model of the air-filled eye showed a minor decrease

  9. Inappropriate Intra-cervical Injection of Radiotracer for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in a Uterine Cervix Cancer Patient: Importance of Lymphoscintigraphy and Blue Dye Injection.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodayan, Sima; Farahabadi, Elham Hosseini; Yousefi, Zohreh; Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of sentinel lymph node mapping in a uterine cervix cancer patient, referring to the nuclear medicine department of our institute. Lymphoscintigraphy images showed inappropriate intra-cervical injection of radiotracer. Blue dye technique was applied for sentinel lymph node mapping, using intra-cervical injection of methylene blue. Two blue/cold sentinel lymph nodes, with no pathological involvement, were intra-operatively identified, and the patient was spared pelvic lymph node dissection. The present case underscores the importance of lymphoscintigraphy imaging in sentinel lymph node mapping and demonstrates the added value of blue dye injection in selected patients. It is suggested that pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy imaging be considered as an integral part of sentinel lymph node mapping in surgical oncology. Detailed results of lymphoscintigraphy images should be provided for surgeons prior to surgery, and in case the sentinel lymph nodes are not visualized, use of blue dye for sentinel node mapping should be encouraged.

  10. Interference in the Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Pyrogallol Red protein dye-binding assays is increased by the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate to the dye reagents.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Thomas; Williams, Katherine M

    2004-08-15

    We have investigated the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) upon the response of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) and Pyrogallol Red-molybdate (PRM) protein dye-binding assays to interference from aminoglycosides, ampholytes, detergents, phenothiazines, reducing agents, and miscellaneous substances previously reported to interfere with the assays. The CBB assay was less prone to interference than the PRM assay but gave positive interference with the detergents and the phenothiazines and negative interference with dextran sulfate. The PRM assay gave positive interference with the aminoglycosides, ampholytes, and phenothiazines and negative interference with SDS, citric acid, dextran sulfate, EDTA, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid. The level of interference varied in the presence of different proteins (albumin, gamma globulin, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, or lysozyme) and increased when SDS was added to the dye reagents.

  11. A comparison of brilliant blue G, trypan blue, and indocyanine green dyes to assist internal limiting membrane peeling during macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dhananjay; Kalliath, Jay; Neelakantan, Nithya; Naresh, Kannan B; Ramasamy, Kim

    2011-11-01

    To compare surgical outcomes with three dyes, brilliant blue G (BBG), trypan blue (TB) and indocyanine green (ICG), used to facilitate internal limiting membrane peeling during macular hole surgery. This comparative, interventional cases series consisted of 50 eyes of 50 patients with senile idiopathic macular holes, who underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling using BBG (n = 15), TB (n = 20), or ICG (n = 15). The cases involving use of BBG and TB were enrolled prospectively and concurrently, and the cases using ICG were selected through chart reviews. We compared the intraoperative surgical facilitation with the 3 dyes and the surgical outcomes in terms of macular hole closure and visual improvement at 6 months. The 3 groups were similar in mean age, sex distribution, preoperative best-corrected visual acuity, and duration of follow-up (P = 0.957, 0.974, 0.939, and 0.5524, respectively). Of the 3 dyes, BBG appeared to provide greatest intraoperative facilitation: most convenient to use and remove, and similar to ICG in terms of internal limiting membrane staining. Six months postoperatively, macular hole closed in 100%, 95%, and 86% eyes (P = 0.48) and visual improvement occurred in 80%, 85%, and 33% eyes (P = 0.005) in BBG, TB, and ICG groups, respectively. The BBG and TB groups also had a better final best-corrected visual acuity than ICG group (P = 0.05) and smaller percentage of visual decline (5% and 6.7% vs. 40% respectively; P = 0.049). Brilliant blue G was comparable with TB in optimizing visual and functional outcomes, while it was similar to ICG in ease of internal limiting membrane peeling.

  12. Absorption of triphenylmethane dyes Brilliant Blue and Patent Blue through intact skin, shaven skin and lingual mucosa from daily life products.

    PubMed

    Lucová, Marianna; Hojerová, Jarmila; Pažoureková, Silvia; Klimová, Zuzana

    2013-02-01

    Currently, there is evidence of health risks of triphenylmethane dyes after systemic absorption. This paper investigates the fate of Brilliant Blue (BB) and Patent Blue (PB) after 24-h in vitro diffusion, firstly through intact and secondly through shaven pig-ear skin (stored by freezing) from four leave-on cosmetics under in-use conditions. Both dyes showed no measurable permeation through intact skin but significant permeation was found through shaven skin. From 250 ng/cm(2) of dye in one applied dose there were found 52 ng/cm(2) of BB and 91 ng/cm(2) of PB from ethanol-based after-shave, 39 ng/cm(2) of BB and 86 ng/cm(2) of PB from ethanol-free facial-cleanser, 35 ng/cm(2) of BB and 43 ng/cm(2) of PB from O/W emulsion, and no amount from W/O emulsion, as available to become systemically absorbed. Thirdly, the paper focuses on lingual mucosa after licking lollipops. Ex vivo porcine tongue dorsum was exposed to human saliva with 15,000 ng/cm(2) of dye for 20 min. 24-h diffusion resulted in 34 ng/cm(2) of BB and 86 ng/cm(2) of PB which can be directly absorbed into the blood system. Findings are troubling, particularly with regard to the frequent use of after-shave products by the male population and repeated lollipops licking by children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sentinel node biopsy and lymphoscintigraphy with a technetium 99m labeled blue dye in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Richard; Tsopelas, Chris; Kollias, James; Chatterton, Barry E; Coventry, Brendon J

    2002-01-01

    Lymphatic mapping for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer and melanoma usually involves initial peritumoral injection of a radioisotope, gamma camera detection of the sentinel lymph node several hours prior to the operation, and separate perioperative injection of a blue dye. We have developed a combined approach using technetium 99m labeled blue dye (Evans Blue) for use in lymphoscintigraphy that may be injected as a single dose just prior to the operation. In an anesthetized rabbit model we dissected a hind limb to display the popliteal node and afferent lymphatic. Technetium 99m Evans Blue ((99m)Tc-EB) (22 MBq; 0.5 mL) was injected subdermally in the dorsum of the paw. Simultaneous digital and gamma camera images were obtained at 14 time intervals to 30 minutes post injection. For each of these time intervals the percentage of radioactivity and percentage blueness of the popliteal node were determined. Urine and afferent lymphatic fluid were analyzed by chromatography. The popliteal node was excised post mortem, placed into solvent solutions and analyzed for blueness and radioactivity. Time-activity curves for radioactivity and time-blueness curves for Evans Blue uptake showed strong correlation (r = 0.958). Lymph analysis suggested (99m)Tc-EB is mainly bound to endogenous proteins. Urine was radioactive but not colored, (99m)Tc-EB being metabolized and excreted in the urine as 1,7-diamino-8-naphthol-2,4-disulfonic acid. Prolonged exposure of node to solvents did not dissociate any blue coloration or radioactivity. (99m)Tc-EB and Evans Blue are simultaneously retained and concentrated in the sentinel lymph node. This process is rapid and reproducible. (99m)Tc-EB migrates at the same rate as Evans Blue in lymph, where it is transported as bound to endogenous proteins. These dye molecules are metabolized by reductive cleavage in the liver and then excreted renally as colorless, radioactive metabolites. This novel agent has the potential to facilitate lymphatic

  14. Phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss., an ornamental plant to degrade a disperse, disulfonated triphenylmethane textile dye Brilliant Blue G.

    PubMed

    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Kamble, Apurva A; Mulla, Asma Y; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-02-01

    Phytoremediation provides an ecofriendly alternative for the treatment of pollutants like textile dyes. The purpose of this study was to explore phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss. by using its wild as well as tissue-cultured plantlets to decolorize Brilliant Blue G (BBG) dye, a sample of dye mixture and a real textile effluent. In vitro cultures of P. grandiflora were obtained by seed culture method. The decolorization experiments were carried out using wild as well as tissue-cultured plants independently. The enzymatic analysis of the plant roots was performed before and after decolorization of BBG. Metabolites formed after dye degradation were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phytotoxicity studies were performed. Characterization of dye mixture and textile effluent was also studied. The wild and tissue-cultured plants of P. grandiflora showed the decolorized BBG up to 86 %. Significant increase in the activities of lignin peroxidase, laccase, NADH-2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase, and tyrosinase was found in the roots of the plants. Three metabolites of BBG were identified as 3-{[ethyl(phenyl)amino]methyl}benzenesulfonic acid, 3-{[methyl (phenyl)amino]methyl}benzenesulfonic amino acid, and sodium-3-[(cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylideneamino)methyl]benzenesulfonate. Textile effluent sample and a synthetic mixture of dyes were also decolorized by P. grandiflora. Phytotoxicity test revealed the nontoxic nature of metabolites. P. grandiflora showed the potential to decolorize and degrade BBG to nontoxic metabolites. The plant has efficiently treated a sample of dye mixture and textile effluent.

  15. The food dye FD&C Blue No. 1 is a selective inhibitor of the ATP release channel Panx1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Jackson, David George; Dahl, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    The food dye FD&C Blue No. 1 (Brilliant Blue FCF [BB FCF]) is structurally similar to the purinergic receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG), which is a well-known inhibitor of the ionotropic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). The P2X7R functionally interacts with the membrane channel protein pannexin 1 (Panx1) in inflammasome signaling. Intriguingly, ligands to the P2X7R, regardless of whether they are acting as agonists or antagonists at the receptor, inhibit Panx1 channels. Thus, because both P2X7R and Panx1 are inhibited by BBG, the diagnostic value of the drug is limited. Here, we show that the food dye BB FCF is a selective inhibitor of Panx1 channels, with an IC50 of 0.27 µM. No significant effect was observed with concentrations as high as 100 µM of BB FCF on P2X7R. Differing by just one hydroxyl group from BB FCF, the food dye FD&C Green No. 3 exhibited similar selective inhibition of Panx1 channels. A reverse selectivity was observed for the P2X7R antagonist, oxidized ATP, which in contrast to other P2X7R antagonists had no significant inhibitory effect on Panx1 channels. Based on its selective action, BB FCF can be added to the repertoire of drugs to study the physiology of Panx1 channels. Furthermore, because Panx1 channels appear to be involved directly or indirectly through P2X7Rs in several disorders, BB FCF and derivatives of this "safe" food dye should be given serious consideration for pharmacological intervention of conditions such as acute Crohn's disease, stroke, and injuries to the central nervous system.

  16. MODIFIED BROMOPHENOL BLUE DYE BINDING METHOD FOR QUANTITATION OF MICROALBUMINURIA IN DIABETES MELLITUS.

    PubMed

    Somani, B L; Saha, T K; Arora, M M; Sharma, Y V

    1995-04-01

    Albumin excretion in microalbuminuria range is one of the earliest manifestation of nephropathy, specially in diabetes mellitus. The modified dye binding method using bromo-phenol blue was studied in 27 healthy controls and 54 patients of diabetes mellitus, negative for albuminuria by albustix test. The analytical recovery (99.4 to 104.0%), within run coefficient of variation (0.8 to 0.36%) and day-to-day coefficient of variation (2.39 to 0.82%), for low and higher range were within acceptable limits. The values in controls ranged as follows: urinary albumin concentration (mg/L) 7.7 - 28.4 in 2-hour specimen and 10.3 - 29.2 in overnight specimen; albumin excretion rate (µg/min) 7.8 - 29.7 in 2-hour and 9.2 - 29.6 in overnight specimen; and albumin creatinine ratio (mg/g) 10.6 - 29.6 in 2-hour and 11.9 - 29.6 in overnight specimens. Correlation analysis of various albumin excretion parameters revealed excellent correlation between estimations from overnight and 2-hour samples for albumin-creatinine ratio (r = 1.00) and albumin excretion rate (r=0.96). Equally good correlation was observed between 2-hour albumin-creatinine ratio and albumin excretion rate (r=0.95). In 10 of 54 patients excretion rate was more than 200 µg/min and could have been detected by repeat albustix test. Of the 36 positive for microalbuminuria, 21 had one or more target organ involvement. There was no target organ involvement in 8 patients negative for microalbuminuria. Screening for microalbuminuria by this simple and economic method, using 2-hour albumin-excretion rate or albumin-creatinine ratio could be one of the earliest investigations in diabetic patients.

  17. A low-cost wheat bran medium for biodegradation of the benzidine-based carcinogenic dye Trypan Blue using a microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-03-25

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L-1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm-1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  18. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  19. Spectroscopic investigations on the photodegradation of toluidine blue dye using cadmium sulphide nanoparticles prepared by a novel method.

    PubMed

    Neelakandeswari, N; Sangami, G; Dharmaraj, N; Taek, Nam Ki; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-05-01

    A novel method to prepare cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) possessing nearly uniform size was adopted using eggshell membrane (ESM), under different pH conditions. Significant yield of CdS NPs with smallest possible size was obtained by increasing the pH of the reaction medium from acidic to alkaline. The above prepared CdS NPs have been characterized by UV-vis absorption as well as emission spectra, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The efficiency of the above prepared CdS NPs as a catalyst for the photodegradation of toluidine blue (TB) dye, as a function of pH as well as the ratio between the catalyst and the substrate was studied after irradiation with UV light. The results showed that an efficient interaction took place between the catalyst and the substrate to cause degradation of the selected dye. A maximum degradation of toluidine blue dye (90%) was observed at pH 8 which is higher than that of the efficiencies at pH 4 and pH 6.

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Photophysical Properties of Pyrroloquinoline-Based Compounds Showing Strong Blue Fluorescence as Potential Dyes for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Carta, Davide; Balasso, Anna; Caliceti, Paolo; Ferlin, Maria Grazia

    2015-11-01

    A small library of 3-ethylpyrrolo[3,2-f]quinoline derivatives was synthesized to identify a novel class of dyes for use in biological studies. According to the spectroscopic analyses performed to evaluate the fluorimetric parameters of quantum yield and brightness, 7-methyl- and 6,7-dimethylpyrroloquinolin(9)one derivatives were found to be the best blue luminescent dyes for biological applications. To enhance the luminescence profiles and to obtain probes that could be conjugated to functional groups of supramolecular drug delivery systems, these compounds were further modified at position 3 to obtain 3-heptanoic acid and 3-aminohexylpyrroloquinolin(9)one methylated derivatives. The most brilliant 6,7-dimethyl-3-aminohexylpyrroloquinolinone hydrochloride was conjugated to pullulan, a biocompatible polysaccharide used to produce colloidal systems for drug delivery. Comparative studies showed that this compound can be properly exploited as a blue fluorescent label in biological investigations, namely cell trafficking and pharmacokinetics/biodistribution studies. These molecules possess higher fluorescence efficiency than commercial dyes in biological media, making them suitable alternatives to commercially available products in current use.

  1. Decolorization of Blue CL-BR dye by AOPs using bleach wastewater as source of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Abdullah; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Aamir Amanat Ali; Yousaf, Anwer

    2007-01-01

    This research was focused on the investigation of the efficacy of advanced oxidation processes (Fenton, ozonation and UV/H2O2) for decolorization of reactive azo dye (Blue CL-BR) using bleach wastewater as possible source of H202. All the experiments were performed on the laboratory scale set-up. The results showed that colour removal efficiencies by UV or bleach (H2O2) alone were not so efficient. Fenton process with bleach wastewater was found to be the most effective at process conditions such as pH of 3 and H2O2/Fe2+ ratio of 24:1, resulting in 64% colour removal. Almost complete colour removal, i.e., 99% and 95% were achieved by UV/H2O2 and UV/bleach wastewater in 30 and 60 min, respectively. Ozonation proved an efficient method for decolorization of Blue CL-BR dye at alkaline pH. It was possible to achieve 98% colour removal with 30 min of ozonation at pH 9. The colour removal of dye was found to follow first order kinetics.

  2. Decolourisation Capabilities of Ligninolytic Enzymes Produced by Marasmius cladophyllus UMAS MS8 on Remazol Brilliant Blue R and Other Azo Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2017-01-01

    Marasmius cladophyllus was examined for its ability to degradatively decolourise the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and screened for the production of ligninolytic enzymes using specific substrates. Monitoring dye decolourisation by the decrease in absorbance ratio of A592/A500 shows that the decolourisation of RBBR dye was associated with the dye degradation. Marasmius cladophyllus produces laccase and lignin peroxidase in glucose minimal liquid medium containing RBBR. Both enzyme activities were increased, with laccase activity recorded 70 times higher reaching up to 390 U L−1 on day 12. Further in vitro RBBR dye decolourisation using the culture medium shows that laccase activity was correlated with the dye decolourisation. Fresh RBBR dye continuously supplemented into the decolourised culture medium was further decolourised much faster in the subsequent round of the RBBR dye decolourisation. In vitro dye decolourisation using the crude laccase not only decolourised 76% of RBBR dye in just 19 hours but also decolourised 54% of Orange G and 33% of Congo red at the same period of time without the use of any exogenous mediator. This rapid dye decolourisation ability of the enzymes produced by M. cladophyllus thus suggested its possible application in the bioremediation of dye containing wastewater. PMID:28168194

  3. Decolourisation Capabilities of Ligninolytic Enzymes Produced by Marasmius cladophyllus UMAS MS8 on Remazol Brilliant Blue R and Other Azo Dyes.

    PubMed

    Sing, Ngieng Ngui; Husaini, Ahmad; Zulkharnain, Azham; Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2017-01-01

    Marasmius cladophyllus was examined for its ability to degradatively decolourise the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and screened for the production of ligninolytic enzymes using specific substrates. Monitoring dye decolourisation by the decrease in absorbance ratio of A592/A500 shows that the decolourisation of RBBR dye was associated with the dye degradation. Marasmius cladophyllus produces laccase and lignin peroxidase in glucose minimal liquid medium containing RBBR. Both enzyme activities were increased, with laccase activity recorded 70 times higher reaching up to 390 U L(-1) on day 12. Further in vitro RBBR dye decolourisation using the culture medium shows that laccase activity was correlated with the dye decolourisation. Fresh RBBR dye continuously supplemented into the decolourised culture medium was further decolourised much faster in the subsequent round of the RBBR dye decolourisation. In vitro dye decolourisation using the crude laccase not only decolourised 76% of RBBR dye in just 19 hours but also decolourised 54% of Orange G and 33% of Congo red at the same period of time without the use of any exogenous mediator. This rapid dye decolourisation ability of the enzymes produced by M. cladophyllus thus suggested its possible application in the bioremediation of dye containing wastewater.

  4. Comparison of the in vitro safety of intraocular dyes using two retinal cell lines: a focus on brilliant blue G and indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Darana; Gonder, John; Proulx, Alain; Liu, Hong; Hutnik, Cindy

    2009-02-01

    To compare the in vitro toxicity of brilliant blue G (BBG), indocyanine green (ICG), Trypan blue (TB), and Evans blue (EB) in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) and a murine retinal ganglion/Muller glial (RGC) primary cell culture. In vitro cell biology experimental study. The dose-dependent toxicity of the dyes was determined by exposing each dye at four different concentrations to the two cell cultures for a short exposure (three minutes) and a medium exposure (30 minutes). The time-dependent toxicity of the dyes was also determined. All four dyes, each diluted to 1/500th of stock concentration, were applied only to the ARPE-19 cells for a prolonged exposure of two, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell viability was measured via a mitochondrial dehydrogenase assay. BBG was the only dye to cause toxicity in the ARPE-19 cell line at short exposure times. BBG and TB demonstrated toxicity at medium exposure times. BBG and ICG demonstrated toxicity at long exposure times and dilute concentrations. At short exposure times, none of the dyes caused toxicity in the RGC mixed primary cultures. In contrast, at medium exposure times, all dyes except ICG demonstrated toxicity that lessened with lower concentrations. All dyes demonstrated relatively safe viability profiles in both cell lines at surgically relevant concentrations and times. Cell toxicity could be elicited at higher concentrations and longer exposure times. ICG had a favorable viability profile at almost all of the concentrations and times tested.

  5. Experimental canine model for sentinel lymph node biopsy in the vulva using technetium and patent blue dye.

    PubMed

    Aquino, José Ulcijara; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Rocha, João Ivo Xavier; Cruz, Diego Alves; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Cavalcante, Raissa Vasconcelos

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims to study and define the experimental model of sentinel lymph node biopsy of the vulva in bitches. 0.2 ml of 99mTc phytate was injected intradermally, using a fine gauge insulin needle in the anterior commissure of the vulva. Thirty minutes after 99mTc injection, the inguinal mapping was performed using a gamma probe. After this, 0.5 ml of blue dye (bleu patenté V Guerbet 2.5%) was injected in the same place. After 15 minutes, a 3 cm long inguinal incision was made at point maximum uptake followed by careful dissection, guided by visualization of a bluish afferent lymphatic system that points to the sentinel lymph node (SLN). It was observed that 88% of SLN were identified. It wasn't found a significant difference among the presence or not of sentinel lymph node in the sides, which is an indication of a good consistency. It was observed a high (88%) and significant (χ2=12.89 and p=0.0003) intercession between both methods (blue dye and radiation). The experimental model adopted is feasible, becoming advantageous in applying the association of Patent blue and 99mTc.

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of Blue Procion HEGN in effluents of textile industry exploiting the dye aggregation effect and flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Vitor C; Costa, Willian F; Nozaki, Jorge; Oliveira, Cláudio C

    2006-03-01

    A new spectrophotometric method involving flow injection analysis and textile dye aggregation effect is proposed. The method is based on the aggregation effect of Blue Procion HEGN at pH 3, which relocates its maximum absorption wavelength from 620 to 776 nm, avoiding the interference of other blue textile dyes. For this task, a simple and robust flow injection system was designed, which became a very stable analytical method. When the system was applied to Blue Procion determination in effluent of textile industry, precise results were observed (RSD < 2% within 1.0 and 5.0 mg l(-1) HEGN). The analytical frequency was 80 measurements per hour; the analytical curve was linear from 1.0 to 5.0 mg l(-1) HEGN; the detection limit considering three times the standard deviation of the blank solution (n = 10) was estimated as 0.03 mg l(-1) HEGN; and recoveries between 95% and 105% were found. The system consumes 20 mg of sodium citrate and 125 microl of the sample per determination. No baseline drift was observed during extended (5 h) operation periods.

  7. Dye removal, catalytic activity and 2D crystallization of chloroplast H(+)-ATP synthase purified by blue native electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Poetsch, A; Neff, D; Seelert, H; Schägger, H; Dencher, N A

    2000-06-01

    The proton-ATP synthase of thylakoid membranes from spinach chloroplasts (CF(O)F(1)) and its subcomplexes CF(O) and CF(1) were isolated by blue native electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) [Neff, D. and Dencher, N.A. (1999) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 259, 569-575] and subsequently electroeluted from the gel. A method was developed to remove most of the dye Coomassie G-250 (CBG) using gel filtration, a prerequisite for many biophysical investigations. The dye was removed from the electroeluted CF(O)F(1), CF(O) or CF(1) and exchanged with the detergent CHAPS. ATP hydrolysis activity of CF(1) and ATP synthesis activity of reconstituted CF(O)F(1) were determined before and after dye removal. The secondary structure of CF(O) was studied by CD spectroscopy in the presence and the absence of the dye. CBG neither abolishes the catalytic activity of the isolated CF(O)F(1) and CF(1) nor affects the subunit composition and the high alpha-helical content of CF(O). In crystallization attempts, 2D arrays of CF(O)F(1) and of CF(O) before and after dye removal were obtained. In the aggregates of CF(O), circular structures with a mean diameter of 6.7 nm were observed. Our results indicate that the combination of BN-PAGE and dye removal by gel filtration is a suitable approach to obtain catalytically active protein complexes for further functional and structural characterization.

  8. Adsorptive removal of acid blue 113 and tartrazine by fly ash from single and binary dye solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pura, S.; Atun, G.

    2009-07-01

    Adsorption of two acid dyestuffs, acid blue 113 (AB) and tartrazine (TA), has been studied from their single and binary solutions by using fly ash (FA) as an adsorbent. The S shaped isotherms observed for dye adsorption from single solutions show that both acid dyes are not preferred at a low concentration region whereas adsorption of the dyes from binary solutions is enhanced via solute-solute interactions. Although the L-shaped isotherm is observed in binary solutions adsorbability of AB decreases in concentrated solutions with respect to single one, time dependency of adsorption is well described with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model as well as the linear relation of Bt vs. t plots (not passing through origin) indicates that film diffusion is effective on dye adsorption. Modeled isotherm curves using isotherm parameters of the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations adequately fit to experimental equilibrium data. Equilibrium adsorption of AB in binary solutions has been quite well predicted by the extended Freundlich and the Sheindorf-Rebuhn-Sheintuch (SRS) models. In general, the isotherm curves constructed in the temperature range of 298-328K show that the optimum temperature is 318K for AB removal from both single and binary solutions.

  9. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of reactive Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Velmurugan, Natarajan; Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Lee, Yang Soo

    2012-11-30

    The treatment of effluents from textile industry with microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi, has recently gained attention. The present study was conducted using white rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes sp., and Lentinula edodes for the decolorization of reactive textile Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye. I. lacteus resulted in the best decolorization and degradation of the dye within four days. Therefore, more detailed studies were carried out using I. lacteus. The decolorization was evaluated at various concentration, pH values, and temperatures. The activities of laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase enzymes were estimated to reveal the roles of enzymes in decolorization. The colorless nature of the fungal cells revealed that decolorization occurred through degradation, and confirmed by analysis of the metabolites by UV-visible spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography after decolorization. The metabolites were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and functional group analysis was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The degraded dye metabolites were assessed for phytotoxicity using Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea, which demonstrated nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed after degradation of dye.

  10. Removal of vertigo blue dyes from Batik textile wastewater by adsorption onto activated carbon and coal bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmiyati, L., Puspita Adi; Deni, V.; Robi Indra, S.; Islamica, Dlia; Fuadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of vertigo blue dye from batik textile wastewater was studied by adsorptionprocess onto activated carbon (AC) and coal bottom ash (CBA).The influence of experimental conditions (pH solution, dye concentration, and contact time) were studied on the both adsorbents. At equilibrium conditions, the data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model for carbon active was 6.29mg/g at pH that found to be considerably higher than that obtained for coal bottom ash 3.72mg/g pH 9. From Freundlich model, the maximum adsorption capacity is less for coal bottom ash (pH 9) than that for carbon active (pH4).

  11. Dynamical studies of the mechanisms for optical nonlinearities of methyl-red dye doped blue phase liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Khoo, Iam Choon

    2015-08-24

    Dynamical grating diffraction experiments and reflection/transmission polarization spectroscopy have been conducted on azo-dye doped Blue-Phase Liquid Crystal (BPLC) to investigate the mechanisms responsible for laser induced refractive index changes. The underlying mechanisms for the transient grating diffraction components are attributed to thermal indexing and lattice distortion, whereas the persistent component is due to lattice distortion/expansion caused by laser excited dye molecule isomerization. These mechanisms were distinguishable by their response dynamics and gave rise to the observed reflection spectra and photonic bandgap shift, polarization dependency and optical activity. Some preliminary studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using these mechanisms for coherent holographic and direct image writing operations.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye by zinc oxide nanoparticles obtained from precipitation and sol-gel methods.

    PubMed

    Balcha, Abebe; Yadav, Om Prakash; Dey, Tania

    2016-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods. The aim of this study was to understand how different synthetic methods can affect the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles. As-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. XRD patterns of ZnO powders synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods revealed their hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite sizes of 30 and 28 nm, respectively. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue, a common water pollutant, under UV radiation. The effects of operational parameters such as photocatalyst load and initial concentration of the dye on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue were investigated. While the degradation of dye decreased over the studied dye concentration range of 20 to 100 mg/L, an optimum photocatalyst load of 250 mg/L was needed to achieve dye degradation as high as 81 and 92.5 % for ZnO prepared by precipitation and sol-gel methods, respectively. Assuming pseudo first-order reaction kinetics, this corresponded to rate constants of 8.4 × 10(-3) and 12.4 × 10(-3) min(-1), respectively. Hence, sol-gel method is preferred over precipitation method in order to achieve higher photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures. Photocatalytic activity is further augmented by better choice of capping ligand for colloidal stabilization, starch being more effective than polyethylene glycol (PEG).

  13. Metal-organic frameworks MIL-88A hexagonal microrods as a new photocatalyst for efficient decolorization of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Tao; Ma, Lin; Ke, Fei; Peng, Fu-Min; Xu, Geng-Sheng; Shen, Yu-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Fa; Qiu, Ling-Guang; Yuan, Yu-Peng

    2014-03-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) MIL-88A hexagonal microrods as a new photocatalyst show an active performance for methylene blue (MB) dye decolorization using visible light. MB decolorization over the MIL-88A photocatalyst follows first-order kinetics. The addition of a H2O2 electron acceptor can markedly enhance the photocatalytic MB decoloration performance of MIL-88A. Moreover, MIL-88A showed a very stable activity for MB decoloration after four consecutive usages. Owing to the advantages of the visible light response, low cost and abundance in nature, this active MIL-88A MOF photocatalyst would have great potential for environmental purification.

  14. DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Iam Choon

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of enhanced nonlinear optical responses of methyl-red-doped blue-phase liquid crystals by application of a DC field. We have observed strong multi-order nonlinear grating diffractions characterized by a nonlinear index coefficient n(2)∼0.5  cm(2)/W using unfocused CW laser power of ∼1  mW and a DC field of a few V/μm. The underlying mechanisms are crystalline lattice and director axis reorientations by torques exerted by the DC field and photo-excited dye molecules.

  15. Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution Using a Newly Synthesized TiO2-SiO2 Photocatalyst in the Presence of Active Chlorine Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, C. G.; Elilarasi, L.

    2017-06-01

    Industrialization and urbanization demand high amount of water consumption, which contributes to their polluted condition. Thus, there is a need to develop a sustainable wastewater remediation technique in order to provide sustainable use of clean water for future generations without ramifications to the economic sectors. The newly synthesized TiO2-SiO2 photocatalyst was used to remediate Methylene Blue contaminated aqueous solution in the presence of active chlorine species. The doping of SiO2 into TiO2 enhanced the removal rate of Methylene Blue dye from the solution by increasing the surface area, thermal stability and surface acidity of the TiO2. The active chlorine species further enhanced the removal rate of Methylene Blue dye from the solution by contributing more reactive species, chlorine radicals, which broke down the dye molecules. The experiments were conducted via Taguchi analysis. The findings show that combining TiO2, SiO2 and active chlorine species enhanced the removal percentage of Methylene Blue dye compared to using TiO2 alone by 70%. About 70% of 50ppm Methylene Blue was degraded by 1 g of TiO2-SiO2 in the presence of 0.3 ppm Ca(OCl)2 under 9 Watts solar irradiation within 3 hours. The enhanced dye removal method brings photocatalysis a step closer to sustainable wastewater remediation methods.

  16. Biodegradation of azo dyes acid red 183, direct blue 15 and direct red 75 by the isolate Penicillium oxalicum SAR-3.

    PubMed

    Saroj, Samta; Kumar, Karunesh; Pareek, Nidhi; Prasad, R; Singh, R P

    2014-07-01

    Soils contaminated with dyes were collected and screened for obtaining potential fungal strains for the degradation of azo dyes. A strain that demonstrated broad spectrum ability for catabolizing different azo dyes viz. Acid Red 183 (AR 183), Direct Blue 15 (DB 15) and Direct Red 75 (DR 75) at 100 mg L(-1) concentration was subsequently identified as Penicillium oxalicum SAR-3 based on 18S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA gene sequence analysis. The strain has shown remarkably higher levels of degradation (95-100%) for almost all the dyes within 120 h at 30°C at pH 7.0. Notable levels of manganese peroxidase (659.4 ± 20 UL(-1)) during dye decolorization indicated the involvement of this enzyme in the decolorization process. The dyes following decolorization were catabolized as evident by spectroscopic analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 99mTc-Evans blue dye for mapping contiguous lymph node sequences and discriminating the sentinel lymph node in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Chris; Bevington, Elaine; Kollias, James; Shibli, Sabah; Farshid, Gelareh; Coventry, Brendon; Chatterton, Barry E

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of (99m)Tc-Evans blue for discriminating the sentinel lymph node in multitiered lymph node sequences by using an ovine model. (99m)Tc-Evans blue is an agent that has both radioactive and color signals in a single dose. Previous studies in smaller animal models suggested that this agent could have advantages over the dual-injection technique of radiocolloid/blue dye. Doses of (99m)Tc-Evans blue ( approximately 21 MBq) containing Evans blue dye (approximately 4 mg) were administered to the hind limbs or fore limbs of sheep to map the lymphatic drainage patterns, validate its ability to identify the sentinel lymph node, and examine the reproducibility of the technique. The study protocol was repeated with (99m)Tc-antimony trisulfide colloid and Patent Blue V dye. After the operative exposure, lymph nodes were identified with the gamma probe and then excised and analyzed for radioactivity (percentage of injected dose) and blue color. After the administration of (99m)Tc-Evans blue, all lymph nodes harvested (35 of 35) in either short chains or long basins were hot and blue. The sentinel lymph nodes concentrated more radioactivity than the second-tier nodes to the extent of 2:1 to 215:1. For radiocolloid/Patent Blue V, the ratios were lower, at 2:1 to 3:1. (99m)Tc-Evans blue was found to better discriminate the sentinel lymph node than (99m)Tc-antimony trisulfide colloid/Patent Blue V in variable multitier lymph node anatomy, and it is an agent that promises to have positive clinical applications.

  18. Effect of red dyes on blue light phototoxicity against VSC producing bacteria in an experimental oral biofilm.

    PubMed

    Jeffet, U; Nasrallah, R; Sterer, N

    2016-11-21

    Oral malodour is considered to be caused mainly by the production of volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by anaerobic Gram-negative oral bacteria. Previous study showed that these bacteria were susceptible to blue light (wavelengths of 400-500 nm). In the present study, we tested the effect of blue light in the presence of red dyes on malodour production in an experimental oral biofilm. Biofilms were exposed to a plasma-arc light source for 30, 60, and 120 s (i.e. fluences of 41, 82, and 164 J cm(-2), respectively) with the addition of erythrosine, natural red and rose bengal (0.01, 0.1 and 1% w/v). Following light exposure biofilm samples were examined for malodour production (Odour judge), VSC production (Halimeter(™)), VSC producing bacteria quantification using microscopy sulfide assay (MSA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results showed that the exposure of experimental oral biofilm to blue light in the presence of rose bengal caused an increased reduction in VSC and malodour production concomitant with an increase in ROS production. These results suggest that rose bengal might be effective as a blue light photosensitizer against VSC producing bacteria.

  19. Adsorption of Direct Blue 53 dye from aqueous solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Prola, Lizie D T; Machado, Fernando M; Bergmann, Carlos P; de Souza, Felipe E; Gally, Caline R; Lima, Eder C; Adebayo, Matthew A; Dias, Silvio L P; Calvete, Tatiana

    2013-11-30

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and powder activated carbon (PAC) were used as adsorbents for adsorption of Direct Blue 53 dye (DB-53) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterised using Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of initial pH, contact time and temperature on adsorption capacity of the adsorbents were investigated. At pH 2.0, optimum adsorption of the dye was achieved by both adsorbents. Equilibrium contact times of 3 and 4 h were achieved by MWCNT and PAC adsorbents, respectively. The general order kinetic model provided the best fit of the experimental data compared to pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic adsorption models. For DB-53 dye, the equilibrium data (298-323 K) were best fitted to the Sips isotherm model. The maximum sorption capacity for adsorption of the dye occurred at 323 K, with the values of 409.4 and 135.2 mg g(-1) for MWCNT and PAC, respectively. Studies of adsorption/desorption were conducted and the results showed that DB-53 loaded MWCNT could be regenerated (97.85%) using a mixture 50% acetone + 50% of 3 mol L(-1) NaOH. Simulated dye house effluents were used to evaluate the application of the adsorbents for effluent treatment (removal of 99.87% and 97.00% for MWCNT and PAC, respectively, were recorded).

  20. A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye--Acid Blue 113.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K; Gupta, Bina; Rastogi, Arshi; Agarwal, Shilpi; Nayak, Arunima

    2011-02-15

    A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process follow first order kinetics and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Acid Blue 113 was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting 0.1 M NaOH through the column.

  1. Effect of occupational exposure to cobalt blue dyes on the thyroid volume and function of female plate painters.

    PubMed

    Prescott, E; Netterstrøm, B; Faber, J; Hegedüs, L; Suadicani, P; Christensen, J M

    1992-04-01

    It has previously been shown that long-term oral exposure to cobalt can cause goiter and myxedema. The effect of industrial cobalt exposure on thyroid volume and function was determined for 61 female plate painters exposed to cobalt blue dyes in two Danish porcelain factories and 48 unexposed referents. Thyroid volume was determined by ultrasonography. The cobalt blue dyes were used in one of two forms, cobalt aluminate (insoluble) and cobalt-zinc silicate (semisoluble). Only the subjects exposed to semisoluble cobalt had a significantly increased urinary cobalt content (1.17 micrograms.mmol-1 versus 0.13 micrograms.mmol-1, P less than 0.0001). These subjects also had increased levels of serum thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4I) (P = 0.0001 and 0.0029, respectively), unaltered serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and marginally reduced 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), whereas thyroid volume tended to be lower (P = 0.14). The group exposed to insoluble cobalt did not differ significantly in any thyroid-related parameters. No correlation between urinary cobalt and FT4I or thyroid volume was found. The study demonstrates an effect of cobalt on thyroid hormone metabolism.

  2. Adsorption of food dyes acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan: stirring rate effect in kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dotto, G L; Pinto, L A A

    2011-03-15

    Adsorption of food dyes acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan was studied. Stirring rate influence on kinetics and mechanism was verified. Infra-red analysis was carried out before and after adsorption in order to verify the adsorption nature. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch systems with different stirring rates (15-400 rpm). Kinetic behavior was analyzed through the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Adsorption mechanism was verified according to the film diffusion model and HSDM model. Pseudo-second-order and Elovich models were satisfactory in order to represent experimental data in all stirring rates. For both dyes, adsorption occurred by film and intraparticle diffusion, and the stirring rate increase caused a decrease in film diffusion resistance. Therefore, the film diffusivity increased the adsorption capacity and, consequently, intraparticle diffusivity increased. In all stirring rates, the rate-limiting step was film diffusion. Adsorption of acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan occurred by chemiosorption.

  3. Re-evaluation of Evans Blue dye as a marker of albumin clearance in murine models of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Jaideep; Sammani, Saad; Garcia, Joe G N

    2007-10-01

    Quantifying the amount of albumin conjugated to Evans Blue dye (EBA) fluxing across organ-specific vascular barriers is a popular technique to measure endothelial monolayer integrity in rodent and murine models of human diseases. We have re-evaluated this technique with a specific focus of assessing the commonly used turbidity correction factors. These factors, originally developed and required in a spectrophotometric assay to quantify Evans Blue (EB) in human infant or dog serum, produced negative numbers when applied to murine models of acute lung injury. We next sought to determine tissue-specific correction factors for murine tissues and experimentally derived such factors, which allow estimation of the amount of EB in formamide extracts of murine tissues as positive numbers. Utilization of a best fit correction factor in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine model of acute lung injury resulted in significantly increased sensitivity and repeatability of the EB dye tissue extravasation assay. This factor may be of significant utility in animal models of inflammatory injury.

  4. Hyperthermia of magnetic nanoparticles allows passage of sodium fluorescein and Evans blue dye across the blood-retinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Nasrollah; Tabatabaei, Maryam Sadat; Girouard, Hélène; Martel, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    The blood-retina barrier (BRB) is a biological barrier consisting of tightly interconnected endothelial cells inside the retinal vascular network that protects the neural tissue from harmful pathogens and neurotoxic molecules circulating in the bloodstream. Unfortunately, with regard to retinoblastoma, this barrier also prevents systemically administered therapeutics reaching the retinal tissue. In this study we introduce a novel technique to locally and transiently increase BRB permeability for drug delivery using hyperthermia of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). An alternating current (AC) magnetic field was used to induce hyperthermia of locally injected MNPs in the left ophthalmic artery of a rat model. To improve adherence on the surface of the endothelium, commercially available MNPs coated with human transferrin glycoproteins were used. After hyperthermia we assessed the extravasation of systemically injected sodium fluorescein (NaF) as well as Evans blue dye (EBD) into the retinal tissue. Spectrofluorometry and fluorescent microscopy image analysis show a significant increase of dye penetration in the retina where hyperthermia of MNPs was applied. Our proposed new technique can allow both small and large dye molecules to cross the BRB. While the results are preliminary and thorough evaluation of the retinal tissue following hyperthermia is necessary, this technique has the potential to be an effective mean for the treatment of various diseases such as retinoblastoma.

  5. [Interaction of bromophenol blue with serum albumin: criteria for using dyes for assessing the state and quantity of protein].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V B; Nikol'skaia, V P; Kaler, G V; Konev, S V

    1990-01-01

    The optical properties of the complexes of the pH-dependent dye bromophenol blue (BPB) with human serum albumin were investigated by the spectrophotometric method. The solvatochromic longwave displacement of bound BPB-2 absorption and BPB-1/BPB-2 redistribution were shown to form the optical signal of complexes. Because of the distortion of the bound BPB-2 signal its quantity was determined as delta A630 = A630 - A660 and the use of lambda max as structural parameter was limited to low pH less than or equal to 3. The conclusion was made that BPB is inapplicable as a structural probe on account of low structural dependence of delta A630 and pH-limitation of lambda max used. The maximal absorption delta Amax = Amax - A660 and its structural independence were obtained in the region of 70-100% occupation of the dye-binding centers of the protein. It is the optimal conditions for the quantitative determination of protein. After maximal dye binding (15-16 molecules of BPB per 1 molecule of albumin) the aggregation and precipitation of the complexes occurred.

  6. Adsorption of Procion Blue MX-R dye from aqueous solutions by lignin chemically modified with aluminium and manganese.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Matthew A; Prola, Lizie D T; Lima, Eder C; Puchana-Rosero, M J; Cataluña, Renato; Saucier, Caroline; Umpierres, Cibele S; Vaghetti, Julio C P; da Silva, Leandro G; Ruggiero, Reinaldo

    2014-03-15

    A macromolecule, CML, was obtained by purifying and carboxy-methylating the lignin generated from acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse during bioethanol production from biomass. The CMLs complexed with Al(3+) (CML-Al) and Mn(2+) (CML-Mn) were utilised for the removal of a textile dye, Procion Blue MX-R (PB), from aqueous solutions. CML-Al and CML-Mn were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning differential calorimetry (SDC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pHPZC. The established optimum pH and contact time were 2.0 and 5h, respectively. The kinetic and equilibrium data fit into the general order kinetic model and Liu isotherm model, respectively. The CML-Al and CML-Mn have respective values of maximum adsorption capacities of 73.52 and 55.16mgg(-1) at 298K. Four cycles of adsorption/desorption experiments were performed attaining regenerations of up to 98.33% (CML-Al) and 98.08% (CML-Mn) from dye-loaded adsorbents, using 50% acetone+50% of 0.05molL(-1) NaOH. The CML-Al removed ca. 93.97% while CML-Mn removed ca. 75.91% of simulated dye house effluents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Coronal Leakage Following Different Obturation Techniques and in-vitro Evalution Using Methylene Blue Dye Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rachit; Sharma, Medhavi; Sharma, Deepak; Raisingani, Deepak; Vishnoi, Suchita; Singhal, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronal and apical leakage still remains one of the most important cause for endodontic failure in spite of the presence of advanced endodontic materials. The cause may attribute to different filling techniques, physical and chemical properties of sealers and presence or absence of smear layer assessment of coronal or apical leakage is used as a research method to compare the sealing ability of different techniques and endodontic materials. Aim To compare the coronal bacterial leakage using methylene blue in four different obturation techniques after protaper hand instrumentation. Materials and Methods Ninety extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented to an apical preparation size F3 Protaper hand files. Twenty teeth were randomly obturated with lateral compaction, 20 with vertical compaction, 20 with combination of vertical and lateral compaction and 20 with Thermafil. Ten teeth were used for positive and negative controls (five teeth in each group). Teeth were kept in 100% humidity for 90 days, and then subjected coronally to Proteus vulgaris for 21 days to assess bacterial leakage. After bacterial challenge, methylene blue was placed coronally for another 21 days, and then scoring was done according to depth of dye leakage. Chi-square test was done for statistical analysis. Results Leakage as observed with combination of vertical and lateral compaction was significantly less than vertical compaction, lateral compaction and thermafil carriers during bacterial challenge. However, when dye was used it also showed statistically significant results with thermafil carriers showing the least leakage in comparison to vertical condensation, lateral condensation and combined groups. Conclusion The study concludes that two different methods i.e. bacterial and dye leakage revealed considerable variation on the same substrate Thus, due to the presence of variability among the results obtained by two different analytical methods used in the present study

  8. Axillary lymph node recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy performed using a combination of indocyanine green fluorescence and the blue dye method in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoo; Nishi, Toshio; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Nishimae, Ayaka; Sawai, Yuka; Yamasaki, Masaru; Inaji, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    There is limited information on indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence and blue dye for detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) in early breast cancer. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the feasibility of an SLN biopsy using the combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method. Seven hundred and fourteen patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer were included in this study. They underwent SLN biopsy using a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method from March 2007 to February 2014. The ICG (a fluorescence-emitting source) and patent blue (the blue dye) were injected into the patients' subareolar region. The removed lymph nodes that had ICG fluorescence and/or blue dye uptake were defined as SLNs. The results of the SLN biopsies and follow-up results of patients who underwent SLN biopsy alone were investigated. In 711 out of 714 patients, SLNs were identified by a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method (detection rate, 99.6 %). The average number of SLNs was 2.4 (range 1-7), and the average number of resected swollen para-SLNs was 0.4 (range 0-5). Ninety-nine patients with an SLN and/or para-SLN involvement during the intraoperative pathological diagnosis underwent axillary lymph node resection (ALND). In addition, two of three patients whose SLN was not identified also underwent ALND. In 46 of 101 patients with an ALND, non-SLN involvement was not found. Follow-up results were analyzed in 464 patients with invasive carcinoma excluding those with ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 148) and those who underwent ALND (n = 101). During the follow-up period (range 4.4-87.7 months; median, 38 months), two patients (0.4 %) developed axillary lymph node recurrence. They were successfully salvaged, and to date, no further locoregional recurrence has been observed. A high rate of SLN detection and low rate of axillary lymph node recurrence were confirmed by an SLN biopsy using a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye

  9. Excited states and reduced and oxidized forms of a textile diazo dye, naphthol blue black. Spectral characterization using laser flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, Chouhaid; Vinodgopal, K.; Hotchandani, Surat; Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Kamat, Prashant V.

    1997-01-01

    The excited singlet and triplet states of a diazo textile dye (Naphthol Blue Black) have been investigated by pico and nanosecond flash photolysis. The excited singlet state shows a difference absorption maximum at 500 nm and has a lifetime of 25-30 ps in ethanol. The triplet excited state generated by triplet-triplet energy transfer shows an absorption maxima at 710-730 nm. The oxidized form as well as the reduced form of the diazo dye have been generated pulse radiolytically by reacting with azide and e aq radicals, respectively. Preliminary results of the photoelectrochemical irreversible reduction of Naphthol Blue Black in colloidal TiO 2 are also reported.

  10. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure with patent V blue dye in 153 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC): is it an accurate staging method?

    PubMed

    Rubello, D; Nanni, C; Merante Boschin, I; Toniato, A; Piotto, A; Rampin, L; Mariani, G; Al-Nahhas, A; Pelizzo, M R

    2006-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping performed by intratumoral injection of blue dye in a large series of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). 153 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. All patients had a preoperative cytological diagnosis of PTC, and none had clinical or ultrasonographic (US) evidence of nodal involvement. At surgery, vital patent V blue dye was injected into the malignant thyroid nodule. Subsequently, total thyroidectomy, central compartment (CC) node dissection, and median inferior jugulocarotid node dissection of laterocervical compartment, ipsilateral to the primary tumour, were performed. The excised thyroid, the blue-positive SLN and blue-negative lymph nodes were sent for frozen section and definitive histophatologic analysis. At surgery, blue-positive SLN were found in 107/153 patients (69.9%), of whom 36 (33.6%) had micrometastasis in SLN; moreover, in 13 of these 36 patients (36.1%), other nodes were found to be metastatic. In the remaining 71/107 blue-positive SLN patients, both the SLN itself and the other removed nodes were found negative for the presence of metastatic disease. In 4 cases, a normal parathyroid gland and in 3 cases fibro-adipous tissue were blue-stained and mistakenly removed as SLN (7 false positive results). On the other hand, SLN was blue-negative in 46/153 patients (30.1%), of whom 7 patients (15.2%) had micrometastases in blue-negative lymph nodes. On the basis of these data, the blue dye procedure for SLN detection appears inappropriate as a standard of care in PTC due to a relatively high number of false negative and false positive results.

  11. Fast protein staining in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel using counter ion-dyes, Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 and neutral red.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Kap; Yoo, Gyurng-Soo

    2002-10-01

    A fast and sensitive protein staining method in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) using both an acidic dye, Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 (CBBR) and a basic dye, Neutral Red (NR) is described. It is based on a counter ion-dye staining technique that employs oppositely charged two dyes to form an ion-pair complex. The selective binding of the free dye molecules to proteins in an acidic solution enhances the staining effect of CBBR on protein bands, and also reduces gel background. It is a rapid staining procedure, involving fixing and staining steps with short destaining that are completed in about 1 h. As the result, it showed two to fourfold increase in sensitivity comparing with CBBR staining. The stained protein bands can be visualized at the same time of staining.

  12. Preferential adsorption behavior of methylene blue dye onto surface hydroxyl group enriched TiO2 nanotube and its photocatalytic regeneration.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Thillai Sivakumar; Bajaj, Hari C; Tayade, Rajesh J

    2014-11-01

    The present manuscript focus on the synthesis of surface hydroxyl group enriched titanium dioxide nanotube (TNT) by hydrothermal method for preferential adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye. The mixture of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB) dye was used to study the preferential adsorption nature of TNT. The synthesized TNT were characterized by various techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption, and ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) analysis. Result demonstrated that enhancement in the surface area of TNT and higher number of hydroxyl group on the surface of TNT. In the binary mixture, the adsorption of MB dye was 12.9 times higher as compared to RhB dye, which clearly indicated the preferential adsorption of MB dye on TNT surface. The preferential interaction of MB on TNT is due to the electrostatic interaction between the cationic MB and negatively charged TNT surface. The preferential adsorption of MB dye was studied by applying Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips isotherm; pseudo-first and second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, the regeneration of dye adsorbed TNT was carried out by eco-friendly photocatalytic process under the irradiation of ultraviolet light.

  13. Methylene blue dye for identification of processus vaginalis during hydrocele repair: experience in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Arena, Salvatore; Russo, Tiziana; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Antonuccio, Pietro; Perrone, Patrizia; Romeo, Carmelo

    2017-02-07

    To investigate the use of methylene blue in perioperative identification of the patent processus vaginalis in a group of boys presenting with congenital or recurrent hydrocele where surgery was performed by junior surgeons in training. We retrospectively reviewed the notes of 22 boys with hydrocele, of which two recurrences, who were operated on via a standard inguinal approach, by trainees. Methylene blue 0.3-0.5 ml was injected into the hydrocele fluid through the scrotal wall. A processus vaginalis was identified as a blue line. Methylene blue injection clearly identified a patent processus vaginalis in 91% of patients. In 9% (2 cases), of which one recurrence, methylene blue injection demonstrated a hydrocele with an obliterated processus vaginalis. There were no intraoperative complications. No testicular atrophy was recorded. Injection of methylene blue into the hydrocele sac may be considered a useful aid for a clearer identification of a difficult patent processus vaginalis. In the present series, there were no complications, and thus we believe that this technique might be suitable and especially helpful, in cases of recurrent hydrocele, and for junior surgeons in training.

  14. A ratiometric method of autofluorescence correction used for the quantification of Evans blue dye fluorescence in rabbit arterial tissues.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christopher L; Lever, M John

    2002-03-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) conjugates with albumin in the circulation and is frequently used to measure vascular protein leakage. The fluorescence of the dye from tissue sections can be used to measure its uptake at very specific anatomical locations, but problems arise with dye quantification because tissue components also fluoresce; so-called autofluorescence. We have measured uptake of EBD by blood vessel walls at various points around the aorto-renal branch of rabbits. High resolution, digitised, fluorescence images of histological sections of artery wall allowed detailed microscopic analysis of EBD accumulation; and a ratiometric method was developed to enable autofluorescence to be separated from EBD fluorescence. When EBD-free tissue sections were illuminated with blue light, the ratio of red to green fluorescence was constant throughout the tissue (0.59 +/- 0.03, mean +/- S.D., n = 32). Therefore, at each individual pixel, the level of red autofluorescence could be determined by multiplying the green intensity at that pixel by the calculated red to green ratio. Since EBD fluorescence was detected only in the red region of the spectrum, intensity values of the dye alone were obtained from EBD-exposed tissue by subtracting the red autofluorescence estimated by this ratiometric method. In such cases the red to green fluorescence ratio was measured from adjacent sites known to be free of EDB (0.59 +/- 0.02, mean +/- S.D., n = 56). We were therefore able to increase the sensitivity of tracer quantification by complete elimination of background autofluorescence on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Use of EBD standards allowed calibration of corrected fluorescence intensities and calculation of mass transfer coefficients for albumin into the artery wall. Spatial variations in the permeability of the artery wall around the renal ostium were detected with the present high resolution technique, with an average mass transfer coefficient of (6.8 +/- 0.9) x 10(-8) cm s(-1) for all

  15. Bifunctional core-shell nanocomposite Mn-doped ZnO/Fe3O4 for photodegradation of reactive blue 198 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Cuong

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of manganese doped ZnO have been prepared by co-precipitation method. Photocatalytic activity results show that 9% of Mn in Mn-doped ZnO exhibited the highest photodegradation efficiency of reactive blue 198 dye. Additionally, excellent photocatalytic activity was observed when the molar ratio of Mn-doped ZnO/Fe3O4 was 1:1. The photodegradation of reactive blue 198 (RB198) dye was carried out with different illumination times, initial concentrations of dye, amounts of photocatalyst and pH of medium. The results reveal that the degradation efficiency of reactive blue 198 were 99% at the concentration of 30 ppm for 25 min when the amount of catalyst was 5 g L-1. The photodegradation of dye increased with increasing catalyst load. Furthermore, the prepared magnetic nanoparticles could also serve as convenient recyclable photocatalysts because of their magnetic properties. As a result, the removal of dye was still 90% after three times recycling.

  16. Thin wetted film cylindrical flow photo reactor for the degradation of Procion blue H-B dye over TiO2 and ZnO.

    PubMed

    Neelavannan, M G; Basha, C Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    A thin wetted film cylindrical flow reactor was fabricated for photocatalytic oxidation of Procion blue H-B dye in textile washwater with the suspensions of TiO2 and ZnO. The disappearance of colour and organic reduction were studied in terms of the removal of colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Operating parameters such as effect of pH, UV irradiation with and without catalyst, initial concentration of dye and effect of flow rate were studied and kinetics of Procion blue H-B dye has been studied over TiO2 and ZnO surfaces. Since adsorption is the prerequisite condition for decolorization/degradation of dye molecules in the presence of heterogeneous catalysis, the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined to verify the adsorption intensity. The results clearly demonstrated that, the optimum loading of the photocatalyst was found to be 300 and 400 mg/L of TiO2 and ZnO, respectively. The maximum COD reduction efficiency was 68% for TiO2 and 58% for ZnO. On the other hand, the colour removal efficiency was found to be 74% and 69%, respectively for TiO2- and ZnO-assisted systems under optimum conditions. Conclusively, these two semiconductors could degrade Procion blue H-B dye at different time intervals and both isotherms fit well.

  17. Efficient degradation of methylene blue dye over tungsten trioxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube system as a novel photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinari, Mohammad; Momeni, Mohamad Mohsen; Ahangarpour, Marzieh

    2016-10-01

    Combination of acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube/tungsten trioxide (MWCNT/WO3) with different MWCNT's weight percentages as visible light-induced photocatalysts for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye was synthesized. These photocatalysts were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Their photocatalytic activities were tested by using MB as a model compound. The results show that the MWCNT/WO3 hybrid nanostructures exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than pure WO3 or MWCNTs due to their higher absorption enhancement in visible light region and effective separation of electrons and holes. The stability of the hybrid was characterized through cyclic photocatalytic test.

  18. Equilibrium, kinetic and sorber design studies on the adsorption of Aniline blue dye by sodium tetraborate-modified Kaolinite clay adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Unuabonah, Emmanuel I; Adebowale, Kayode O; Dawodu, Folasegun A

    2008-09-15

    Raw Kaolinite clay obtained Ubulu-Ukwu, Delta State of Nigeria and its sodium tetraborate (NTB)-modified analogue was used to adsorb Aniline blue dye. Fourier transformed infrared spectra of NTB-modified Kaolinite suggests that modification was effective on the surface of the Kaolinite clay with the strong presence of inner -OH functional group. The modification of Kaolinite clay raised its adsorption capacity from 1666 to 2000 mg/kg. Modeling adsorption data obtained from both unmodified and NTB-modified Kaolinite clay reveals that the adsorption of Aniline blue dye on unmodified Kaolinite clay is on heterogeneous adsorption sites because it followed strongly the Freundlich isotherm equation model while adsorption data from NTB-modified Kaolinite clay followed strongly the Langmuir isotherm equation model which suggest that Aniline blue dye was adsorb homogeneous adsorption sites on the NTB-modified adsorbent surface. There was an observed increase in the amount of Aniline blue adsorbed as initial dye concentration was increased from 10 to 30 mg/L. It was observed that kinetic data obtained generally gave better robust fit to the second-order kinetic model (SOM). The initial sorption rate was found to increased with increasing initial dye concentration (from 10 to 20 mg/L) for data obtained from 909 to 1111 mg kg(-1)min(-1) for unmodified and 3325-5000 mg kg(-1) min(-1) for NTB-modified adsorbents. Thereafter there was a decrease in initial sorption rate with further increase in dye concentration. The linearity of the plots of the pseudo-second-order model with very high-correlation coefficients indicates that chemisorption is involved in the adsorption process. From the design of a single-batch adsorber it is predicted that the NTB-modified Kaolinite clay adsorbent will require 50% less of the adsorbent to treat certain volumes of wastewater containing 30 mg/L of Aniline blue dye when it is compared with the unmodified adsorbent. This will be cost effective in

  19. Environmental photochemistry on semiconductor surfaces. Visible light induced degradation of a textile diazo dye, naphthol blue black, on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Nasr, C.; Hotchandani, S.; Vinodgopal, K.; Fisher, L.; Chattopadhyay, A.K.; Kamat, P.V.

    1996-05-16

    Visible light induced degradation of the textile diazo dye Naphthol Blue Black (NBB) has been carried out on TiO{sub 2} semiconductor nanoparticles. Diffuse reflectance transient absorption and FTIR techniques have been used to elucidate the mechanistic details of the dye degradation. The failure of the dye to degrade on insulator surfaces such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or in the absence of oxygen further highlights the importance of semiconducting properties of support material in controlling the surface photochemical processes. The primary event following visible light excitation is the charge injection from the excited dye molecule into the conduction band of the semiconductor TiO{sub 2}, producing the dye cation radical. This was confirmed by diffuse reflectance laser flash photolysis. The surface-adsorbed oxygen plays an important role in scavenging photogenerated electrons, thus preventing the recombination between the dye cation radical and photoinjected electrons. Diffuse reflectance FTIR study facilitated identification of reaction intermediates and end products of dye degradation. By comparison with the degradation products from other azo dyes such as Chromotrope 2B and Chromotrope 2R we conclude that the NBB is degraded to a colorless naphthaquinone-like end product. 41 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Brilliant blue FCF is a nontoxic dye for saphenous vein graft marking that abrogates response to injury.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Kyle M; Luo, Weifeng; Li, Fan Dong; Komalavilas, Padmini; Brophy, Colleen; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce

    2016-07-01

    Injury to saphenous vein grafts during surgical preparation may contribute to the subsequent development of intimal hyperplasia, the primary cause of graft failure. Surgical skin markers currently used for vascular marking contain gentian violet and isopropanol, which damage tissue and impair physiologic functions. Brilliant blue FCF (FCF) is a nontoxic dye alternative that may also ameliorate preparation-induced injury. Porcine saphenous vein (PSV) was used to evaluate the effect of FCF on physiologic responses in a muscle bath. Cytotoxicity of FCF was measured using human umbilical venous smooth muscle cells. Effect of FCF on the development of intimal hyperplasia was evaluated in organ culture using PSV. Intracellular calcium fluxes and contractile responses were measured in response to agonists and inhibitors in rat aorta and human saphenous vein. Marking with FCF did not impair smooth muscle contractile responses and restored stretch injury-induced loss in smooth muscle contractility of PSV. Gentian violet has cytotoxic effects on human umbilical venous smooth muscle cells, whereas FCF is nontoxic. FCF inhibited intimal thickening in PSV in organ culture. Contraction induced by 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate and intracellular calcium flux were inhibited by FCF, oxidized adenosine triphosphate, KN-62, and brilliant blue G, suggesting that FCF may inhibit the purinergic receptor P2X7. Our studies indicated that FCF is a nontoxic marking dye for vein grafts that ameliorates vein graft injury and prevents intimal thickening, possibly due to P2X7 receptor inhibition. FCF represents a nontoxic alternative for vein graft marking and a potentially therapeutic approach to enhance outcome in autologous transplantation of human saphenous vein into the coronary and peripheral arterial circulation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

  1. BRILLIANT BLUE FCF IS A NON-TOXIC DYE FOR SAPHENOUS VEIN GRAFT MARKING THAT ABROGATES RESPONSE TO INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Kyle M.; Luo, Weifeng; Li, Fan Dong; Komalavilas, Padmini; Brophy, Colleen; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Injury to saphenous vein grafts during surgical preparation may contribute to the subsequent development of intimal hyperplasia, the primary cause of graft failure. Surgical skin markers currently used for vascular marking contain gentian violet and isopropanol that damage tissue and impair physiologic functions. Brilliant blue FCF (FCF) is a nontoxic dye alternative that may also ameliorate preparation-induced injury. METHODS Porcine saphenous vein (PSV) was used to evaluate the effect of FCF on physiologic responses in a muscle bath. Cytotoxicity of FCF was measured using human umbilical venous smooth muscle cells (HUVSMC). Effect of FCF on the development of intimal hyperplasia was evaluated in organ culture using PSV. Intracellular calcium fluxes and contractile responses were measured in response to agonist and inhibitors in rat aorta and human saphenous vein (HSV). RESULTS Marking with FCF did not impair smooth muscle contractile responses and restored stretch injury-induced loss in smooth muscle contractility of PSV. Gentian violet has cytotoxic effects on HUVSMC while FCF is nontoxic. FCF inhibited intimal thickening in PSV in organ culture. 2′(3′)-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5′-triphosphate-induced contraction and intracellular calcium flux were inhibited by FCF, oxidized ATP, KN62, and brilliant blue G, suggesting that FCF may inhibit the purinergic receptor P2X7. CONCLUSIONS Our studies indicated that FCF is a non-toxic marking dye for vein grafts that ameliorates vein graft injury and prevents intimal thickening, possibly due to P2X7 receptor inhibition. FCF represents a non-toxic alternative for vein graft marking and a potentially therapeutic approach to enhance outcome in autologous transplantation of HSV into the coronary and peripheral arterial circulation. PMID:25704409

  2. Studies on the degradation of blue gel pen dyes by ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Zi; Yu, Jing; Xie, Meng-Xia; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Guo-Yu; Gao, Yue

    2006-08-25

    Ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography (IP-HPLC) was utilized to monitor the composition changes of blue gel pen ink entries on paper stored in different light conditions and natural environment. The chromatographic conditions were optimized by comparing the separation efficiencies of the blue gel pen inks using a series of ion-pairing reagents, including ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, triethylamine acetate, tributylamine acetate, tetrabutylammonium bromide and dihexylammonium acetate. It has been found that tributylamine acetate was a suitable ion-pairing reagent for separation of the inks on the common C18 column. The analysis results of the ink entries on paper in different aging conditions showed that the tendency of composition change in natural aging condition was similar with those in fluorescent light and UV light conditions, respectively. One main component dye of the blue gel pen ink, Acid Blue 9, and its degradation products were identified by ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that the main degradation products originated from the Acid Blue 9. It gave a reasonable explanation for the changing rules of the relative content of the dyes in the blue gel pen ink. The results obtained can provide scientific evidences for dating of the blue gel pen ink entries on documents.

  3. Bichromatic coherent random lasing from dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals controlled by pump light polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Meng; Yang, Mingchao; Shi, Li-Jie; Deng, Luogen; Yang, Huai

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bichromatic coherent random lasing actions from the dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals. Two groups of lasing peaks, of which the full widith at half maximum is about 0.3 nm, are clearly observed. The shorter- and longer-wavelength modes are associated with the excitation of the single laser dye (DCM) monomers and dimers respectively. The experimental results show that the competition between the two groups of the lasing peaks can be controlled by varying the polarization of the pump light. When the polarization of the pump light is rotated from 0° to 90°, the intensity of the shorter-wavelength lasing peak group reduces while the intensity of the longer-wavelength lasing peak group increases. In addition, a red shift of the longer-wavelength modes is also observed and the physical mechanisms behind the red-shift phenomenon are discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474021 and 51333001), the Key Program for International S&T Cooperation Projects of China (Grant No. 2013DFB50340), the Issues of Priority Development Areas of the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120001130005), and the Key (Key Grant) Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 313002).

  4. Removal of methyl orange and methylene blue dyes from aqueous solution using lala clam (Orbicularia orbiculata) shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eljiedi, Arwa Alseddig Ahmed; Kamari, Azlan

    2017-05-01

    Textile effluents are considered as potential sources of water pollution because they contain toxic dyes. In the present study, lala clam shell was used as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of two harmful dyes, namely methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption studies were carried out by varying experimental parameters such as solution pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pH values for MO and MB removal were pH 2.0 and pH 8.0, respectively. At an initial MO and MB concentration of 20 mg/L, the maximum removal percentage of MO and MB were 18.9 % and 81.3 %, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium data were correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The biomass adsorbent was characterised using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). Results from this study suggest that lala clam shell, a fishery waste, can be beneficial for water treatment.

  5. 8-PropargylaminoBODIPY: unprecedented blue-emitting pyrromethene dye. Synthesis, photophysics and laser properties.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Durán, C F Azael; García-Moreno, Inmaculada; Costela, Angel; Martin, Virginia; Sastre, Roberto; Bañuelos, Jorge; López Arbeloa, Fernando; López Arbeloa, Iñigo; Peña-Cabrera, Eduardo

    2010-07-28

    Highly emitting 8-propargylaminoBODIPY (8-PAB) 2 was prepared in 94% yield. Unlike any other BODIPY structure hitherto described in the literature, 2 displays efficient emission in the blue region of the visible spectrum with a fluorescence quantum yield up to 0.94 and high laser efficiency (35%) at 483 nm.

  6. Removal of direct blue-106 dye from aqueous solution using new activated carbons developed from pomegranate peel: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Amin, Nevine Kamal

    2009-06-15

    The use of cheap, high efficiency and ecofriendly adsorbent has been studied as an alternative source of activated carbon for the removal of dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the use of activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel for the removal of direct blue dye from aqueous solution. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch system to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration adsorbent dosage and contact time. The results showed that the adsorption of direct blue dye was maximal at pH 2, as the amount of adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly but it decreased with the increase in initial dye concentration and solution temperature. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model, with a good correlation (R(2)>0.99) and intra-particle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-RadushKevich (D-R) and Harkins-Jura isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as standard Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees ), standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ), and the activation energy (E(a)) have been calculated. The adsorption process of direct blue dye onto different activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel was found to be spontaneous and exothermic process. The findings of this investigation suggest that the physical sorption plays a role in controlling the sorption rate.

  7. Oral Triphenylmethane Food Dye Analog, Brilliant Blue G, Prevents Neuronal Loss in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Jacob A; Erisir, Alev; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-01-01

    Reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation is a promising strategy for developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD) therapeutics. We recently reported that a triphenylmethane food dye analog, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), is a dose-dependent modulator of in vitro amyloid-β aggregation and cytotoxicity in cell-based assays. Following up on this recent work, we sought to further evaluate this novel modulator in a therapeutically-relevant AD transgenic mouse model. BBG was orally administered to APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice for three months in order to assess its biocompatibility, its permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and its efficacy at rescuing AD pathology. The results showed that BBG was well-tolerated, caused no significant weight change/unusual behavior, and was able to significantly cross the AD blood-brain barrier in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analysis of the brain sections revealed that BBG was able to significantly prevent neuronal loss and reduce intracellular APP/Aβ in hippocampal neurons. This is the first report of 1) the effect of Brilliant Blue G on neuronal loss in a transgenic animal model of AD, 2) oral administration of BBG to affect a protein conformation/aggregation disease, and 3) electron microscopic ultrastructural analysis of AD pathology in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice.

  8. New heterocyclic green, blue and orange dyes from indazole: Synthesis, tautomerism, alkylation studies, spectroscopic characterization and DFT/TD-DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorhaji, Soodabeh; Pordel, Mehdi; Ramezani, Shirin

    2016-09-01

    Tautomerism and alkylation studies on the green intermediate 2-(5-hydroxyimino-1-methyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-4-indazolyliden)-2-phenylacetonitrile led to the synthesis of new heterocyclic green, blue and orange dyes in high yields. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral and analytical data. The optical properties of the dyes were spectrally characterized by using a UV-vis spectrophotometer and results show that they exhibited interesting photophysical properties. Solvent effects on the absorption spectra of these dyes have been studied and the absorption band in polar solvents undergoes a red shift. Density functional theory calculations of the dyes were performed to provide the optimized geometries and relevant frontier orbitals. Calculated electronic absorption spectra were also obtained by time-dependent density functional theory method.

  9. Biodegradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 by Nasturtium officinale: Study of Some Physiological Responses and Metabolic Fate of Dye.

    PubMed

    Torbati, S; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of aquatic vascular plant, Nasturtium officinale, for degradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92). The effect of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration, plant biomass, pH, and temperature on the efficiency of biological decolorization process was determined. The reusability of the plant in long term repetitive operations confirmed the biological degradation process. The by-products formed during biodegradation process were identified by GC-MS technique. The effects of the dye on several plant physiological responses such as photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes activity were investigated. The content of chlorophyll and carotenoids was significantly reduced at 20 mg/L of the dye. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were remarkably increased in the plant root verifying their importance in plant tolerance to the dye contamination.

  10. Pulmonary lymph node charting in normal dogs with blue dye and scintigraphic lymphatic mapping.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Joanne L; Worley, Deanna R

    2014-08-01

    The prognosis of dogs with primary lung tumors and lymph node metastasis is poorer than of dogs without metastasis. Biopsy of intrathoracic lymph nodes is recommended, but without specific guidelines. This study investigated incorporation of a human lymph node classification in normal dogs with intercostal thoracotomies. Methylene blue and technetium-99m sulfur colloid lobar injections were used for enhanced nodal identification. Descriptive comparisons were made for lymph node resections utilizing both veterinary and human anatomic lymph node charts. Amedian of 2 (range 1–4) lymph nodes were removed per hemithorax in vivo versus a median 6.5 (range 2–8) lymph nodes removed ex vivo from each hemithorax following in vivo dissections. Incorporation of a human thoracic lymph node classification system may be useful for future clinical application in dogs. Future use of either methylene blue or technetium for canine thoracic lymphadenectomy needs to be evaluated further.

  11. Interference of sugars in the Coomassie Blue G dye binding assay of proteins.

    PubMed

    Banik, Samudra Prosad; Pal, Swagata; Ghorai, Shakuntala; Chowdhury, Sudeshna; Khowala, Suman

    2009-03-01

    The presence of sugars causes significant deviation from the actual absorbance of proteins in the Bradford protein assay. In these studies, polysaccharides and disaccharides at milligram levels mimicked proteins in microgram equivalents. Monosaccharides, which individually did not show any absorbance, interfered significantly by sequestering the dye species. The studies demonstrated that in a mixture of sugars and proteins, sugar interference was much higher than expected from sugar molecules' individual contribution. Estimated protein values were increased 2 to 4 times after precipitation from fungal culture broths. Thus, in carbohydrate-rich samples, protein concentrations should be ascertained by precipitation from crude extracts and resolubilization in a noninterfering buffer.

  12. MnCl2 and MgCl2 for the removal of reactive dye Levafix Brilliant Blue EBRA from synthetic textile wastewaters: an adsorption/aggregation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bouyakoub, A Z; Lartiges, B S; Ouhib, R; Kacha, S; El Samrani, A G; Ghanbaja, J; Barres, O

    2011-03-15

    Two divalent cation-based coagulants, magnesium chloride and manganese chloride, were used to treat synthetic textile wastewaters containing the azo-dye pigment Levafix Brilliant Blue EBRA. The jar-tests were performed in the presence or absence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. They proved that (i) both divalent cation-based coagulants were effective in the treatment of those alkaline effluents, (ii) better performances in terms of color removal, residual turbidity, and settled volume, were achieved with manganese chloride, and (iii) the presence of dyeing auxiliaries significantly increases the required coagulant demand for treating the textile effluent. The dye removal mechanisms were investigated by combining observations of freeze-dried sediments with transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, adsorption experiments, and aggregates size measurements with a laser sizer under cyclic shear conditions. The results show that brucite (Mg(OH)(2)) particles are formed when applying MgCl(2) to the textile wastewaters, whereas a mixture of feitknechite (β-MnOOH) and hausmannite (Mn(3)O(4)) is obtained when using MnCl(2). More poorly crystallized particles are formed in presence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. The adsorption experiments suggested that the azo-dye pigment adsorbs onto the surface of precipitating phases, whereas the aggregation dynamics indicated that a charge-neutralization mechanism underlies the formation of aggregates. The dye removal is then consistent with a precipitation/adsorption mechanism.

  13. The adsorption of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) from aqueous solutions onto sepiolite, fly ash and apricot shell activated carbon: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Karagozoglu, B; Tasdemir, M; Demirbas, E; Kobya, M

    2007-08-17

    In this study, sepiolite, fly ash and apricot stone activated carbon (ASAC) were used as adsorbents for the investigation of the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of the basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) from aqueous solutions at various concentrations (100-300 mg/L), adsorbent doses (3-12 g/L) and temperatures (303-323 K). The result showed that the adsorption capacity of the dye increased with increasing initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature. Three kinetic models, the pseudo-first-order, second-order, intraparticle diffusion, were used to predict the adsorption rate constants. The kinetics of adsorption of the basic dye followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equations were developed using the pseudo-second-order model which predicts the amount of the basic dye adsorbed at any contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dose within the given range accurately. The adsorption equilibrium data obeyed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption capacities (Q0) calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 181.5 mg/g for ASAC, 155.5 mg/g for sepiolite and 128.2 mg/g for fly ash at 303 K. Thermodynamical parameters were also evaluated for the dye-adsorbent systems and revealed that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature.

  14. Photo-induced decolorization of dimethylmethylene blue with selenious acid: a novel method to examine selective monomer-dimer distribution of the dye in micelle.

    PubMed

    Nath, Sudip; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Pal, Tarasankar

    2005-07-01

    In this report, selenious acid (H2SeO3) has been exploited to study the decolorization of a cationic dye, dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) with UV-light. Micelles have effectively been employed as organized media to promote the rate of decolorization of the dye molecules. Micellar catalysis has been explained as a consequence of electrostatic, hydrophobic and charge transfer interactions. It has also been shown that strong charge transfer and electrostatic interaction lead to an appreciable enhancement of the reaction rate in micelle, whereas, weak hydrophobic interaction is of marginal importance. Existence of monomer-dimer equilibrium for the dye molecules under certain selective environments has been identified spectrophotometrically. Then the shift of dimer-monomer equilibrium of the dye has been successfully studied in aqueous and micellar environments exploiting photodecolorization process for the dye in solution. 'Salting-in' and 'salting-out' agents were introduced into the reaction mixture to examine the viability of the dye decolorization process for dye contaminated water samples.

  15. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  16. Dual staining of corneal endothelium with trypan blue and alizarin red S: importance of pH for the dye-lake reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M. J.; Hunt, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of corneal endothelial integrity by combined staining with the vital stain trypan blue and the intercellular stain alizarin red S provides a simple, quick technique for visualisation of both damaged and normal cells, thereby permitting the quantification of endothelial cell damage. Adjustment of the pH of the alizarin red S reagent to 4.2 is important for optimum dye-laking at the intercellular borders, and brief fixation with glutaraldehyde maintains the staining effect of both dyes. Images PMID:6172144

  17. Activation of the skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel by the triazine dyes cibacron blue F3A-G and reactive red 120

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Jones, R.V.; Meissner, G. )

    1989-11-01

    Vesicle-{sup 45}Ca2+ ion flux and planar lipid bilayer single-channel measurements have shown that the Ca2+ release channel of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is activated by micromolar concentrations of Cibacron Blue F3A-G (Reactive Blue 2) and Reactive Red 120. Cibacron Blue increased the {sup 45}Ca2+ efflux rate from heavy SR vesicles by apparently interacting with both the adenine nucleotide and caffeine activating sites of the channel. Dye-induced {sup 45}Ca2+ release was inhibited by Mg2+ and ruthenium red. In single channel recordings with the purified channel protein complex, Cibacron Blue increased the open time of the Ca2+ release channel without an apparent change in the conductance of the main and subconductance states of the channel.

  18. Evaluation of Occupational Exposure of Glazers of a Ceramic Industry to Cobalt Blue Dye.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Fatemeh; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Golbabaei, Farideh; Barkhordari, Abolfazl; Rahimi-Froushani, Abbas; Khadem, Monireh

    2013-08-01

    Cobalt is one of the most important constituent present in ceramic industries. Glazers are the relevant workers when they are producing blue colored ceramic, causing occupational exposure to such metal. Through this study, urinary cobalt was determined in glazers in a ceramic industry when they were producing blue-colored ceramic glazes. In this case-control study, spot urine samples were collected from 49 glazers at the start and end of work shifts (totally 98 samples) in 2011. Control group were well matched for age, height, and weight. A solid phase extraction system was used for separation and preconcentration of samples followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). All participants filled out a self administered questionnaire comprises questions about duration of exposure, work shift, use of mask, skin dermatitis, kind of job, ventilation system, overtime work, age, weight, and height. The lung function tests were performed on each control and cobalt exposed subjects. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the obtained results. Urinary levels of cobalt were significantly higher in the glazers compared to the control group. There were significant differences at urinary concentration of cobalt at the start and end of the work shift in glazers. Spirometric parameters were significantly lower in the glazers compared to the control group. Among the variables used in questionnaire the significant variables were dermatitis skin, mask, ventilation, and overtime work. This study verified existence of cobalt in the urine glazers, showing lower amount than the ACGIH standard.

  19. Potential biosorbent derived from Calligonum polygonoides for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R (2)) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.

  20. Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R 2) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution. PMID:25705714

  1. Efficacy of SnO2 nanoparticles toward photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-02-01

    Maximum pollutants in the industrial and domestic waste water effluents from any sources include pathogens and organic chemicals, which can be removed before discharging into the water bodies. Methylene blue has been considered as one of the major water contaminated pollutants. Such pollutant is dominant in surface water and groundwater. It will cause irreversible hazards to human and aquatic life. Nanotechnology plays a major role in degrading such type of pollutant. In order to fulfill today's requirement, we have decided to handle the green synthesis of nanoparticles and its application by merging important fields like chemistry, environmental science, and biotechnology. Here our work emphasizes on the biological synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) using the methanolic extract of Cyphomandra betacea (C.betacea), and it was confirmed by various characterization techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, particle size analyzer, zeta potential, and TEM. The obtained results stated that the synthesized SnO2 NPs were in rod shape with an average size of 21nm, which resulted in a product of nanobiotechnology. Further, we have utilized the environmental-friendly synthesized SnO2 NPs photocatalytic degradation of environmental concern methylene blue with first-order kinetics. In this paper, we have attempted to prove that secondary metabolite-entrapped SnO2 NPs are non-toxic to the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lymph road mapping obtained via blue sentinel node detection to avoid middle colic artery resection for highly selected colon cancer cases: proof of a concept?

    PubMed

    Lo Dico, R; Lasser, P; Goérè, D; Malka, D; Boige, V; Pocard, M

    2010-09-01

    In theory, perioperative detection of lymph nodes with the injection of isosulfan blue dye should provide lymph road mapping (LRM) able to direct the resection. However, there is no supporting evidence for this theory in cases of colon cancer. We reanalysed all operative reports using the sentinel lymph node technique with blue dye injection. The retrospective study included 140 patients who underwent the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure between February 2001 and November 2007, including 70 cases in which the in vivo technique was used. In 8 cases (11%), LRM was used by the surgeon to determine the extent of resection. In 5 cases, including limited or extended resection, the final pathological stage was II at the end of the follow-up period, and the patients had no recurrent disease. However, findings for 3 cases of stage III cancer were more relevant to the aims of this study. In these 3 patients, one with cancer (T3N1(3/22)) located at the hepatic flexure, and 2 with cancers (T3N2(7/41) and T2N2 (4/15)) at the splenic flexure, the middle colic artery was conserved as a result of LRM information. Of these 3 patients, 1 was alive without disease at 6-year follow-up and 2 at 5-year follow-up. LRM obtained via blue sentinel node detection makes it possible to avoid middle colic artery resection for selected colon cancer cases. LRM seems particularly suitable in cases of colonic flexure location or prior colon surgery.

  3. Targeting ribonucleic acids by toxic small molecules: structural perturbation and energetics of interaction of phenothiazinium dyes thionine and toluidine blue O to tRNA phe.

    PubMed

    Paul, Puja; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2013-12-15

    This study was designed to examine the toxic interaction of two phenothiazinium dyes thionine (TO) and toluidine blue O (TBO) with tRNA(phe) by spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques. While phenothiazinium dye complexation with DNA is known, their bindings to RNA are not fully investigated. The non cooperative binding of both the dyes to tRNA was revealed from absorbance and fluorescence studies. From absorption, steady-state emission, the effect of ferrocyanide ion-induced steady-state fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism, the mode of binding of these dyes into the tRNA helix has been substantiated to be principally by intercalative in nature. Both dyes enhanced the thermal stability of tRNA. Circular dichroism studies provided evidence for the structural perturbations associated with the tRNA structure with induction of optical activity in the CD inactive dye molecules. Results from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments suggested that the binding of both dyes was predominantly entropy driven with a smaller but favorable enthalpy term that increased with temperature. The binding was dependent on the Na(+) concentration, but had a larger non-electrostatic contribution to the Gibbs energy. A small heat capacity value and the enthalpy-entropy compensation in the energetics of the interaction characterized the binding of the dyes to tRNA. This study confirms that the tRNA(phe) binding affinity is greater for TO compared to TBO. The utility of the present work lies in understanding the potential binding and consequent damage to tRNA by these toxic dyes in their development as therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adsorption of methylene blue dye onto activated carbons based on agricultural by-products: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of novolac resin and olive stone biomass (20/80 and 40/60 w/w) were cured, pyrolyzed up to 1,000 °C and activated with CO2 under a continuous flow operation (named N20B-cCa and N40B-cCa respectively). Commercial activated charcoal was similarly re-activated with CO2 and used for comparison reasons (AC-a). The characterization of these materials was performed by Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis and their specific surface area was determined according to DIN 66132. The materials were tested for their adsorption abilities at different temperatures (298, 333 K) and initial dye concentrations (0.01-0.35 g/L) using 1 L of methylene blue (MB) solution in 10 g of activated carbon. MB adsorption kinetic was also studied. The FTIR spectra of all activated carbons show absorption peaks which correspond to -OH, -CH, -C-O-C- groups and to aromatic ring. The presence of the absorption peak at about 1,400 cm(-1) for N20B-cCa, N40B-cCa indicates more acidic groups on them compared to the commercial AC-a. The specific surface area of N20B-cCa, N40B-cCa and AC-a has values equal to 352, 342 and 760 m(2)/g respectively. From the applied kinetic models, pseudo-second-order equation could best describe MB adsorption. Consequently, such adsorbents can be used as filters to adsorb dyes from wastewaters.

  5. Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan composite as a bio-adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue and acid blue 29 dyes.

    PubMed

    Khanday, W A; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-02-01

    Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan (Z-AC/C) composite were prepared through the hydrothermal treatment of NaOH activated oil palm ash followed by beading with chitosan. The effects of initial dye concentration (50-400mg/L), temperature (30°C-50°C) and pH (3-13) on batch adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 29 (AB29) were studied. Adsorption of both dyes was better described by Pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Z-AC/C were 151.51, 169.49, and 199.20mg/g for MB and 212.76, 238.09, and 270.27mg/g for AB29 at 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An accurate method of plasma volume measurement by direct analysis of Evans blue spectra in plasma without dye extraction: origins of albumin-space variations during maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Farjanel, J; Denis, C; Chatard, J C; Geyssant, A

    1997-01-01

    The Evans blue dye (EBD) dilution method, including a dye extraction step, is a standard way of measuring plasma volume. This report describes a new direct spectrophotometric method, which is simple and specific and avoids the dye extraction step. To begin with, all the contaminants which may appear during a plasma volume study were added to plasma samples, prior to the absorbance measurements. In this way we calculated correction factors for the haemolysis and the turbidity of the plasma samples, without dye. The study of the visible spectra showed that the correction factors could be obtained by measuring absorbances at only four visible wavelengths: 780, 720, 619 and 578 nm. The addition of various amounts of contaminants to dye-containing plasma samples allowed us to obtain precise values for the absorbance errors. The previously defined correction factors were then applied, and the residual absorbance errors were found to become nil. This spectrophotometric method can be used to check the efficiency of a dye-extraction procedure, as well as to study other biological fluids containing EBD. When used to analyse a chronological series of blood samples this method appeared to provide an effective way of simultaneously studying the processes of plasma volume concentration and albumin extravasation induced by maximal exercise.

  7. Evaluation of Occupational Exposure of Glazers of a Ceramic Industry to Cobalt Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    KARGAR, Fatemeh; SHAHTAHERI, Seyed Jamaleddin; GOLBABAEI, Farideh; BARKHORDARI, Abolfazl; RAHIMI-FROUSHANI, Abbas; KHADEM, Monireh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cobalt is one of the most important constituent present in ceramic industries. Glazers are the relevant workers when they are producing blue colored ceramic, causing occupational exposure to such metal. Through this study, urinary cobalt was determined in glazers in a ceramic industry when they were producing blue-colored ceramic glazes. Methods: In this case-control study, spot urine samples were collected from 49 glazers at the start and end of work shifts (totally 98 samples) in 2011. Control group were well matched for age, height, and weight. A solid phase extraction system was used for separation and preconcentration of samples followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). All participants filled out a self administered questionnaire comprises questions about duration of exposure, work shift, use of mask, skin dermatitis, kind of job, ventilation system, overtime work, age, weight, and height. The lung function tests were performed on each control and cobalt exposed subjects. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the obtained results. Results: Urinary levels of cobalt were significantly higher in the glazers compared to the control group. There were significant differences at urinary concentration of cobalt at the start and end of the work shift in glazers. Spirometric parameters were significantly lower in the glazers compared to the control group. Among the variables used in questionnaire the significant variables were dermatitis skin, mask, ventilation, and overtime work. Conclusion: This study verified existence of cobalt in the urine glazers, showing lower amount than the ACGIH standard. PMID:26056641

  8. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of the Graphene-V2O5 Nanocomposite in the Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye under Direct Sunlight.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mahalingam; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Jayavel, Ramasamy

    2015-07-15

    A simple and efficient solution mixing method has been developed for the synthesis of the G-V2O5 nanocomposite. By this method, one-dimensional V2O5 rods are decorated onto the two-dimensional graphene sheets. The synthesized nanocomposites are characterized by XRD, SEM with elemental mapping, TEM, FT-IR, Raman, BET, and XPS analyses. The photocatalytic activity of the G-V2O5 nanocomposite studied with methylene blue dye shows strong degradation efficiency with direct sunlight irradiation compared to UV and visible light sources. The mechanism of methylene blue dye degradation by the G-V2O5 nanocomposite has been elucidated through the kinetics of the degradation process by calculating the rate constant and half-life time of the degradation process.

  9. The effect of the biological variability of samples on Coomassie blue dye based fast staining for SDS-PAGE in nonfixed gels.

    PubMed

    Májek, Pavel; Pecankova, Klara; Dyr, Jan E

    2014-10-01

    Fast-staining protocols based on the use of Coomassie blue dye for SDS-PAGE separated proteins, represent a quick and simple solution for protein visualization. It has been shown however, that in some cases a phenomenon of missing spots or spot discoloration may be observed in the proteome pattern when the standard fast-staining protocol is used. In this work, it is demonstrated that this occurrence is affected by the biological variability of samples, and therefore, cannot be observed in all samples. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the phenomenon is manifested exclusively in nonfixed gels, and that including a fixation step into the fast-staining protocol prevented this phenomenon. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that standard Coomassie blue dye based fast staining for SDS-PAGE resolved proteins is affected by the biological variability of samples in nonfixed gels. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Use of agricultural waste sugar beet pulp for the removal of Gemazol turquoise blue-G reactive dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Zümriye; Isoglu, I Alper

    2006-09-01

    The potential use of dried sugar beet pulp, an agricultural solid waste by-product, as an biosorbent for Gemazol turquoise blue-G, a copper-pthalocyanine reactive dye commonly used in dyeing of cotton, was investigated in the present study. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, temperature and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that adsorption was strongly pH-dependent and slightly temperature-dependent. At 800 mg l(-1) initial Gemazol turquoise blue-G concentration, dried sugar beet pulp exhibited the highest Gemazol turquoise blue-G uptake capacity of 234.8 mg g(-1) at 25 degrees C and at an initial pH value of 2.0. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich, the two and three parameters adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm constants were evaluated depending on temperature. Both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models were applicable for describing the dye biosorption by dried sugar beet pulp in the concentration (100-800 mg l(-1)) and temperature (25-45 degrees C) ranges studied. Simple mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of biosorption and potential rate controlling steps such as external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion and biosorption process. The sorption process was found to be controlled by both surface and pore diffusion with surface diffusion at the earlier stages followed by pore diffusion at the later stages. Pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and saturation type kinetic models described the biosorption kinetics accurately at all concentrations and temperatures studied. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the sorption process was exothermic and the biosorption of dye on dried sugar beet pulp might be physical in nature.

  11. Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29) by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min). The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs) as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8) was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs. PMID:23369540

  12. Enhanced photoluminescence properties of methylene blue dye encapsulated in nanosized hydroxyapatite/silica particles with core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xiaolu; Li, Chengfeng; Fan, Chengyu; Feng, Xiaoxing; Cao, Bingqiang

    2013-11-01

    Organic dye of methylene blue (MB) was encapsulated in core-shell structured hydroxyapatite/silica particles (HAp/silica-MB) through a modified Stöber method with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone molecules. It was found that MB molecules were released from HAp/silica-MB at a slower rate than those from silica-MB in deionized water. In phosphate buffered saline (pH: 7.2-7.4) and acidic solutions (pH: 1.5-1.6), the penetration of ions in the interface influenced the interaction between HAp and MB molecules, which resulted in the rapid release of MB molecules from HAp/silica-MB. From the UV-Vis absorbance spectra, one could see that MB molecules in HAp/silica-MB were weakly aggregated in comparison with those in silica-MB. For HAp/silica-MB, enhanced luminescence properties were observed in the photoluminescence spectra and dual luminescence with two emission peaks were caused by the presence of monomers and dimers. Contrarily, no photoluminescence emission was detected for samples of free MB and silica-MB under the same excitation condition because of the self-quenching effect. It was the adsorption of MB molecules on HAp that had resulted in the enlargement of intramolecular distance and the reduction of self-quenching effect. These hybrid particles with enhanced luminescent properties might find wide applications in the field of bioanalysis, bioseparation, and biomedical imaging.

  13. Facile synthesis of MgO and Ni-MgO nanostructures with enhanced adsorption of methyl blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M.; Shawky, Ahmed; Mkhalid, I. A.

    2017-02-01

    Nanostructured Magnesium oxide (MgO) was prepared by a simple method using a non-ionic block copolymer as surfactant. Ni was introduced to MgO to improve surface properties. The effect of Ni loading on the MgO crystalline structure, surface morphology and magnetic properties was observed by powder X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and a vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. Textural properties of produced samples were investigated by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The as-prepared samples were employed as an adsorbent for the removal of Methyl blue (MeB) dye. The adsorption isotherms were studied using the Langmuir model. The results show a high adsorptive behavior for relatively high concentrated MeB with a maximum adsorption capacity of 367 mg g-1 indicating the enhanced adsorption performance of our produced structures. A mechanism for adsorption of MeB molecules on the prepared MgO is proposed.

  14. Rapid and sensitive detection of human astrovirus in water samples by loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper was to develop a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for rapid, sensitive and inexpensive detection of astrovirus. Results The detection limit of LAMP using in vitro RNA transcripts was 3.6×10 copies·μL-1, which is as sensitive as the presently used PCR assays. However, the LAMP products could be identified as different colors with the naked eye following staining with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (HNB). No cross-reactivity with other gastroenteric viruses (rotavirus and norovirus) was observed, indicating the relatively high specificity of LAMP. The RT-LAMP method with HNB was used to effectively detect astrovirus in reclaimed water samples. Conclusions The LAMP technique described in this study is a cheap, sensitive, specific and rapid method for the detection of astrovirus. The RT-LAMP method can be simply applied for the specific detection of astrovirus and has the potential to be utilized in the field as a screening test. PMID:24524254

  15. Cationic polyelectrolyte/bentonite prepared by ultrasonic technique and its use as adsorbent for Reactive Blue K-GL dye.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Yue, Qin-Yan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Bao-Yu; Fu, Lin

    2007-08-17

    In this study, the cationic polyelectrolyte polyepicholorohydrin-dimethylamine (EPI-DMA) was intercalated into bentonite using ultrasonic. The structure of EPI-DMA/bentonite and its adsorption of Reactive Blue K-GL (RB K-GL) dye were investigated. Compared with raw bentonite, the EPI-DMA/bentonite had larger interlayer spacing and was more hydrophobic, providing with better surface properties for adsorption. The adsorption of RB K-GL on EPI-DMA/bentonite was described by the adsorption models of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevic. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed using pseudo-first- and second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model. Results showed that both the intraparticle diffusion and first-order adsorption occur in the initial period of adsorption, and that pseudo-second-order kinetic model was more suitable for describing the whole adsorption process. The reaction rates were also calculated. The changes of free energy, enthalpy and entropy of adsorption were evaluated for the adsorption of RB K-GL onto EPI-DMA/bentonite, suggesting that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic.

  16. The energy transfer mechanism of a photoexcited and electroluminescent organic hybrid thin film of blue, green, and red laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiling; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Yanqiong; Chen, Guo; Cai, Miao; Wei, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Though optically pumped lasing has been realized for years, electrically pumped lasing has not yet been achieved in organic semiconductor devices. In order to make a better understanding of the laser mechanisms of the organic materials, we prepared organic thin films consisting of three efficient laser dyes of a blue emitter, 4″,4″'-N,N-diphenylamine-4,4'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl (BN), a green emitter, 1,4-bis[2-[4-[N,N-di(p-tolyl)amino] phenyl]vinyl]benzene (DSB), and a red emitter, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidy-l-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) with different doping concentrations for the first time to investigate the cascade energy transfer process. The energy transfer schemes in the co-doped thin films in photoluminescence and electroluminescence have been investigated. The results indicated that the DSB molecules acted as a bridge to deliver energy more effectively from the host (BN) to the guest (DCJTB). Meanwhile, the maximum current efficiency ( C E) and power efficiency ( P E) of the organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with the emitting layer of lower doping concentration were 13.5 cd/A and 14.1 lm/W, respectively.

  17. The accuracy of the modified Evans blue dye test in detecting aspiration in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Winklmaier, U; Wüst, K; Plinkert, P K; Wallner, F

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity and specificity of the modified Evans blue dye test (MEBDT) in tracheostomised patients after treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This was a prospective study with 30 consecutive patients. All individuals underwent a MEBDT and a subsequent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) immediately after the MEBDT for reconsidering the validity of the MEBDT. Aspiration was present in 20 patients documented by MEBDT and FEES. One patient was judged to aspirate by FEES but not by MEBDT (1 false-negative result). Nine patients showed no aspiration either by MEBDT or by FEES. The sensitivity of the MEBDT protocol in predicting aspiration among individuals in our cohort was 95.24%, the specificity 100%, respectively. The results of the current investigation suggest that the MEBDT is much more sensitive in tracheostomised HNSCC patients than in tracheostomised neurological patients. The MEBDT for tracheostomised HNSCC patients offers a quick and reliable method to identify aspiration risk in cases of severe dysphagia.

  18. Production of laccase and decolouration of the textile dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R in temporary immersion bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-10-30

    Laccase production by Trametes pubescens grown on sunflower-seed shells (SS) under solid-state fermentation (SFF) conditions in temporary immersion bioreactors was studied. Three immersion cycles were considered: 1 min immersed and 9 min non-immersed, 1 min immersed and 30 min non-immersed and 1 min immersed and 60 min non-immersed. The latter led to the highest laccase activities (4000-6000 Ul(-1)). Also, the in vitro and in vivo decolouration of the recalcitrant textile dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was assessed. It was found that RBBR (133.33 mg l(-1)) was efficiently decolourised by T. pubencens grown on SS under SSF conditions in temporary immersion bioreactors in five successive batches. The percentage of RBBR decolouration was higher than 55% in 4h and around 70% in 24h in all the batches. However, it was found that RBBR decolouration by the crude culture filtrates was more advantageous. Thus, an RBBR decolouration percentage of nearly 80% in 2h was obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adsorption of a cationic dye, methylene blue, on to chitosan hydrogel beads generated by anionic surfactant gelation.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Tania; Lim, Seong-Rin; Woo, Seung H

    2011-10-01

    Chitosan hydrogel beads (CSB) formed by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) gelation were used for the removal of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity of chitosan beads (CB) formed by alkali gelation was low because of charge repulsions between the chitosan (CS) and the MB. The adsorption capacity of CSB (4 g/L SDS gelation) for MB (100 mg/L) was 129.44 mg/g, and it decreased significantly with increasing SDS concentration during gelation. This decrease was a result of increased density of the CSB membrane materials. The CSB membrane materials formed with the 4 g/L SDS gelation showed the highest volumetric adsorption capacity. The MB adsorption on to CB and CSB increased with increasing values for the initial pH of solution. Data from both CB and CSB showed good fit to Sips isotherm models, and the maximum adsorption capacity of CSB (226.24 mg/g) was higher than that of CB (99.01 mg/g).

  20. New photocatalysts based on MIL-53 metal-organic frameworks for the decolorization of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Yu-Peng; Sun, Jia-Xin; Peng, Fu-Min; Jiang, Xia; Qiu, Ling-Guang; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Fa

    2011-06-15

    The photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue dye in aqueous solution using a novel photocatalyst MIL-53(Fe) metal-organic frameworks was investigated under UV-vis light and visible light irradiation. The effect of electron acceptor H(2)O(2), KBrO(3) and (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8) addition on the photocatalytic performance of MIL-53(Fe) was also evaluated. The results show that MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst exhibited photocatalytic activity for MB decolorization both under UV-vis light and visible light irradiation, and the MB decolorization over MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst followed the first-order kinetics. The addition of different electron acceptors all enhances the photocatalytic performance of MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst, and the enhanced rate follows the order of H(2)O(2)>(NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8)>KBrO(3) under UV-vis light irradiation, while in the order of (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8)>H(2)O(2)>KBrO(3) under visible light irradiation. Moreover, MIL-53(Fe) did not exhibit any obvious loss of the activity for MB decolorization during five repeated usages. The photocatalytic activities over MIL-53(M) (M=Al, Fe), the isostructure to MIL-53(Fe), indicate that the metal centers show nil effect on the photocatalytic activity of MIL-53(M) photocatalysts.

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities and identification of intermediate products during phytoremediation of an anionic dye (C.I. Acid Blue 92) by pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Vafaei, Fatemeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Khataee, Alireza

    2013-11-01

    The potential of pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) for phytoremediation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92) was evaluated. The effects of various experimental parameters including pH, temperature, dye concentration and plant weight on dye removal efficiency were investigated. The results showed that the optimal condition for dye removal were pH 3.5 and temperature 25 degree C. Moreover, the absolute dye removal enhanced with increase in the initial dye concentration and plant weight. Pennywort showed the same removal efficiency in repeated experiments (four runs) as that obtained from the first run (a 6-day period). Therefore, the ability of the plant in consecutive removal of AB92 confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. The effect of treatment on photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in plant roots and leaves were evaluated. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content under dye treatments. Antioxidant enzyme responses showed marked variations with respect to the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activity under AB92 stress in the roots was much higher than that in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in malondialdehyde content was detected in roots or leaves, implying that the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species. Based on these results, pennywort was founded to be a capable species for phytoremediation of AB92-contaminated water, may be effective for phytoremediation dye-contaminated polluted aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Dye-sensitized TiO2-catalyzed photodegradation of sulfamethoxazole under blue or yellow light.

    PubMed

    Lu, Norman; Yeh, Yun-Peng; Wang, Guan-Bo; Feng, Tsung-Yao; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Chen, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Visible light-induced photocatalysis is potentially advantageous and could be an efficient approach to degrade contaminants because it can be used to selectively target specific wavelength for decomposition of organic contaminants in water and wastewater. This study demonstrates the photodegradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) using [Pt(3,3'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bpy)(1,2-benzenedithiolate)] (Complex 1)-sensitized and [Pt(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bpy)(1,2-benzenedithiolate)] (Complex 2)-sensitized titanium dioxide (TiO2) under blue or yellow light (420 or 580 nm, respectively) irradiation in water. The Complex 1-sensitized TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation of SMX reached almost 100 % removal under 420 nm irradiation for 3 h in water. In addition, the formation of hydroxyl radicals can be facilitated by bubbling O2 during the photodegradation in which an effective decomposition of SMX was observed. Based on HPLC and UV-Vis studies of the decomposed products, it was found that SMX underwent cleavage of aromatic rings during the photodegradation process.

  3. Gyroxin increases blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue dye in mice.

    PubMed

    Alves da Silva, J A; Oliveira, K C; Camillo, M A P

    2011-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme component of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom. This toxin displays several activities, including the induction of blood coagulation (fibrinogenolytic activity), vasodilation and neurotoxicity, resulting in an effect called barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not well known. Because gyroxin is a member of a potentially therapeutic family of enzymes, including thrombin, ancrod, batroxobin, trypsin and kallicrein, the identification of the mechanism of gyroxin's action is extremely important. In this study, gyroxin was isolated from crude venom by affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. Analysis of the isolated gyroxin via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a single protein band with a molecular weight of approximately 28 kDa, confirming the identity of the molecule. Furthermore, intravenous administration of purified gyroxin (0.25 μg/g of body weight) to mice resulted in symptoms compatible with barrel rotation syndrome, confirming the neurotoxic activity of the toxin. Mice treated with gyroxin showed an increase in the concentration of albumin-Evans blue in brain extracts, indicating an increase in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. This gyroxin-induced increase in BBB permeability was time-dependent, reaching a peak within 15 min after exposure, similar to the time span in which the neurotoxic syndrome (barrel rotation) occurs. This work provides the first evidence of gyroxin's capacity to temporarily alter the permeability of the BBB.

  4. A photochemical study on the blue dye indigo: from solution to ancient Andean textiles.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Micaela M; Miguel, Catarina; Rodrigues, Isa; Parola, A Jorge; Pina, Fernando; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Melo, Maria J

    2008-11-01

    The degradation of indigo and its water soluble derivative indigo carmine was investigated under light excitation in the presence and absence of molecular oxygen in solution (homogeneous) and gels (heterogeneous) media. Collagen and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) aqueous gels were chosen to simulate a natural textile environment, wool and cotton, respectively. Isatin was found to be the major degradation product of indigo. In solution, the photodegradation quantum yields (Phi(R)) were in the order of 10(-4), with the exception of aqueous media (Phi(R) = 9 x 10(-6)), and dependent on the irradiation wavelength. In the case of indigo carmine the Phi(R) values were found to suffer a 2-fold increase upon going from water to gels. The results indicate the absence of degradation products involving singlet oxygen and suggest peroxides, or other oxygen based radicals, to have a key role in the degradation of indigo. Finally, the relevance of the simulation is discussed by comparing the main degradation products to those found in the blues of millenary Andean textiles.

  5. Photocatalytic Activity of W-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers for Methylene Blue Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Song, Yo-Seung; Cho, Nam-Ihn; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Lee, Deuk Yong

    2016-02-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was examined using W-doped TiO2 nanofibers prepared by a sol-gel derived electrospinning and subsequent calcination for 4 h at 550 degrees C. Different concentrations of W dopant in the range of 0 to 8 mol% were synthesized to evaluate the effect of W concentration on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. XRD results indicated that the undoped TiO2 is composed of anatase and rutile phases. The rutile phase was transformed to anatase phase completely with the W doping. Among W-TiO2 catalysts, the 2 mol% W-TiO2 catalyst showed the highest MB degradation rate. The degradation kinetic constant increased from 1.04 x 10(-3) min(-1) to 3.54 x 10(-3) min(-1) with the increase of W doping from 0 to 2 mol%, but decreased down to 1.77 x 10(-3) min(-1) when the W content was 8 mol%. It can be concluded that the degradation of MB under UV radiation was more efficient with W-TiO2 catalysts than with pure TiO2-

  6. AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41 visible light photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Pourahmad, A; Sohrabnezhad, Sh; Kashefian, E

    2010-12-01

    A novel photocatalytic material was synthesized by dispersion of AgBr in nanoAlMCM-41 material. The AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41 sample shows strong absorption in the visible region because of the plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles in AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41. The catalysts were characterized using XRD (X-ray diffraction), UV-visible diffused reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity and stability of the synthesized catalysts were evaluated for methylene blue (MB) degradation in aqueous solution in the presence of 200 W tungsten filament Philips lamp. Several parameters were examined, catalyst amount, pH and initial concentration of MB, AgBr loading. The effect of dosage of photocatalyst was studied in the range 0.05-1.00 g/L. It was seen that 0.1 g/L of photocatalyst is an optimum value for the dosage of photocatalyst. The support size was obtained about 9-100 nm. In the same way, the average size of AgBr nanoparticles was about 10nm before visible radiation. After visible radiation the average size of AgBr nanoparticles was about 25 nm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical and photoelectrical characteristic investigation of a new generation photodiode based on bromothymol blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencer Imer, A.; Tombak, A.; Korkut, A.

    2016-04-01

    Bromothymol blue (BTB) with the molecular formula of C27H28Br2O5S was grown onto p-Si substrate to fabricate heterojunction by spin coating technique. The current voltage (I-V) measurements of diode were carried out in dark and under different illumination intensity at room temperature. The photoelectrical properties of heterojunction based on BTB were investigated using the illumination intensity dependent I-V data. The results showed that photo current of diode increases with the increase in light intensity. Also, the electrical parameters of device were determined via I-V, and capacitance- voltage (C-V), conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements at different frequencies. It is observed that the excess capacitance is created at low frequencies due to the contribution of interface states charge which can follow the alternative current signal to capacitance. It is stated that, both the electrical & photoelectrical parameters of diode can be changed, and also the performance of the device could be affected by the organic thin film interlayer.

  8. Decolorization and mineralization of a phthalocyanine dye C.I. Direct Blue 199 using UV/H2O2 process.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin

    2005-10-17

    In this study, the successful decolorization and mineralization of phthalocyanine dye (C.I. Direct Blue 199, DB 199) by an advanced oxidation process (AOP), UV/H2O2, were observed while the experimental variables such as hydrogen peroxide dosage, UV dosage, initial dye concentration and pH were evaluated. The operating conditions for 90% decolorization of C.I. DB 199 and 74% removal of total organic carbon (TOC) were obtained for initial dye concentration of 20 mgl(-1), hydrogen peroxide dosage of 116.32 mM, UV dosage of 560 W and pH of 8.9 in 30 min. The pseudo-first order rate constant is a linear function of reverse of initial dye concentration. They linearly increased by incrementing UV dosage, yet were non-linear enhancement by increasing the hydrogen peroxide concentration. A higher pseudo-first order rate constant about 0.15 min(-1) was observed while hydrogen peroxide concentration within 5.82-116.32 mM. Moreover, the decolorization of C.I. DB 199 was observed to be more difficult than that of an azo dye, C.I. Acid Black 1, under the same operating conditions.

  9. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for the removal of methylene blue dye from water by nano zero-valent iron (NZVI).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Morteza; Arabi, Simin

    In this study, iron zero-valent nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and studied for removal of methylene blue dye in water solution. The reactions were mathematically described as the function of parameters such as nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) dose, pH, contact time and initial dye concentration, and were modeled by the use of response surface methodology. These experiments were carried out as a central composite design consisting of 30 experiments determined by the 2(4) full factorial designs with eight axial points and six center points. The results revealed that the optimal conditions for dye removal were NZVI dose 0.1-0.9 g/L, pH 3-11, contact time 20-100 s, and initial dye concentration 10-50 mg/L, respectively. Under these optimal values of process parameters, the dye removal efficiency of 92.87% was observed, which very close to the experimental value (92.21%) in batch experiment. In the optimization, R(2) and R(2)adj correlation coefficients for the model were evaluated as 0.96 and 0.93, respectively.

  10. The effect of slurry on skin permeability to methylene blue dye in dairy cows with and without a history of digital dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M A; Donnelly, R F; Garland, M J; Majithiya, R; O'Connell, N E

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there was a difference in skin permeability to methylene blue dye or skin morphology between dairy cows that differed in their susceptibility to digital dermatitis (DD) and to assess the effect of contact with slurry on skin permeability. Twenty nine dairy cows were monitored for DD during the winter housing period and classed as DD+ (previous DD infection, n = 17), or DD- (no recorded infection, n = 12). The animals were culled and a skin sample was taken from above the heel of each hind foot and frozen. Samples were later defrosted and one sample from each cow was tested for permeability, whereas the other was treated with slurry for 24 h before permeability testing. To test permeability, methylene blue dye was applied to the skin surface in a Franz diffusion cell. After 48 h, the amount of dye that had passed through the skin was estimated. The stratum corneum thickness and the density of hair follicles were determined from additional heel skin samples. Skin permeability to methylene blue dye was significantly greater for samples that had been treated with slurry but did not differ between DD+ and DD- animals. No difference was found in the stratum corneum thickness or density of hair follicles between DD+ and DD- animals. These findings imply that individual differences in general skin permeability are not a major factor in determining DD susceptibility and suggest that contact with slurry could contribute to DD infection by increasing the permeability of the skin, which may facilitate pathogen entry. Further work is required to clarify the role played by slurry in the pathogenesis of DD.

  11. Comparison between the indocyanine green fluorescence and blue dye methods for sentinel lymph node biopsy using novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in different types of hospitals.

    PubMed

    He, Kunshan; Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Huang, Wenhe; Wu, Jundong; Wang, Yabing; He, Lifang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard of care to detect axillary lymph metastasis in early-stage breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. Current SLNB detection modalities comprising a blue dye, a radioactive tracer, or a combination of both have advantages as well as disadvantages. Thus, near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been regarded as a novel method that has generated interest for SLNB around the world. However, the lack of appropriate fluorescence imaging systems has hindered further research and wide application of this method. Therefore, we developed novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment (FIRE) to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Moreover, to compare the ICG fluorescence imaging method with the blue dye method and to explore the universal feasibility of the former, a different type of hospital study was conducted. Ninety-nine eligible patients participated in the study at 3 different types of hospitals. After subcutaneous ICG allergy testing, all the patients were subcutaneously injected with methylene blue and ICG into the subareolar area. Consequently, 276 SLNs (range 1-7) were identified in 98 subjects (detection rate: 99%) by using the ICG fluorescence imaging method. In contrast, the blue dye method only identified 202 SLNs (range 1-7) in 91 subjects (detection rate: 91.92%). Besides, the results of the fluorescence imaging method were similar in the 3 hospitals. Our findings indicate the universal feasibility of the ICG fluorescence imaging method for SLNB using the fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in early breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization by Response Surface Methodology of the adsorption of Coomassie Blue dye on natural and acid-treated clays.

    PubMed

    de Sales, Priscila F; Magriotis, Zuy M; Rossi, Marco A L S; Resende, Ricardo F; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2013-11-30

    The effect of acid treatment on natural agalmatolite (AN) and natural kaolinite (KN) was investigated, together with the influence of those modifications on the removal of Coomassie Blue (CB) dye. The process was optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) developed by the application of the quadratic model associated with the Central Composite Design. Adsorption was promoted by initial CB concentration of 25 mg L(-1), pH 2 and adsorbent mass of 0.1 g. The adsorption kinetics study carried out in optimized conditions established that the equilibrium times were 1 h for AN and AA (treated agalmatolite), 4 h for KN and 2 h for KA (treated kaolinite). The kinetics data for AN, KN and KA were best fitted to the pseudo second order model, whilst for AA, the result pointed to the pseudo first order model. In the isotherm of adsorption the maximum quantities were obtained with reference to 11.29 mg g(-1), 9.84 mg g(-1), 22.89 mg g(-1) and 30.08 mg g(-1) for the samples AN, AA, KN and KA respectively. The data fitting showed that the Sips model was the most satisfactory for all the adsorbents. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the process was spontaneous in all the adsorbents, endothermic for the KN and KA samples, exothermic for AN and AA, involved the disorganization of the adsorption system for the KN and KA and its organization for the AN and AA samples. The results showed that the KN and KA samples were more appropriate for use as adsorbents.

  13. Evans Blue Dye as an in vivo marker of myofibre damage: optimising parameters for detecting initial myofibre membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Hamer, P W; McGeachie, J M; Davies, M J; Grounds, M D

    2002-01-01

    Evans Blue Dye (EBD) is widely used to study cellular membrane permeability and has recently been utilised in mdx mice to identify permeable skeletal myofibres that have become damaged as a result of muscular dystrophy. EBD has the potential to be a useful vital stain of myofibre permeability in other models of skeletal muscle injury and membrane-associated fragility. The parameters for its use for such purposes were optimised in the present study, of particular interest is the use of EBD to identify the onset of muscle damage. This study compared intravenous vs. intraperitoneal injection; tissue fixation; volume of EBD; time of availability in tissue; and persistence after injection in mdx mice (with endogenous muscle damage) and control mice. Satisfactory labelling of permeable myofibres was seen in frozen sections viewed with fluorescence microscopy when intraperitoneal injection of a 1% EBD solution injected at 1% volume relative to body mass was administered between 16 and 24 h prior to tissue sampling. EBD labelling was then assessed in three mouse models of experimental injury and repair-cut injury, whole muscle grafts, and exercise-induced muscle damage. These experiments demonstrated that (i) following a cut injury across myofibres, EBD penetrated up to 150 microm from the injury site over a 20-h period; (ii) EBD was present throughout myofibres of avascular whole muscle graft by one day after transplantation; and (iii) damaged myofibres were detected within 20 min after controlled lengthening-contraction exercise. This simple and inexpensive technique has sensitivity for the detection of increased myofibre permeability and/or sublethal damage that has advantages over other traditional histological techniques at the light microscopy level.

  14. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia: comparison of a carbon monoxide rebreathing method and dye dilution with Evans' blue.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P; Kanstrup, I L; Fogh-Andersen, N; Olsen, N V

    1998-04-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level and again 24 h after rapid passive ascent to high altitude (4,350 m). Hypobaric hypoxia decreased arterial oxygen saturation to 79 (74-83)% (mean with 95% confidence intervals). The PV(Evans') remained unchanged from 3.49 (3.30-3.68) l at sea level to 3.46 (3.24-3.68) l at high altitude. In contrast PV(CO) decreased from 3.39 (3.17-3.61) l at sea level to 3.04 (2.75-3.33) l at high altitude (P < 0.05). Compared with sea level, this resulted in an increase of the mean bias between the two methods [from 0.11 (-0.05-0.27) l at sea level to 0.43 (0.26-0.60) l at high altitude] so that the ratio between PV(Evans') and PV(CO) increased from 1.04 (0.99-1.09) at sea level to 1.15 (1.06-1.24) at high altitude (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the two methods were not interchangeable as measures of hypoxia-induced changes in PV. The mechanism responsible for the bias remains unknown, but it is suggested that the results may reflect a redistribution of albumin caused by the combined effects in hypoxia of both an increased capillary permeability to albumin and a decrease in PV. As a result, the small perivascular compartment of albumin beyond the endothelium may increase without changes in the overall albumin distribution volume.

  15. One-pot green synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe3O4 nanocomposites and its catalytic activity toward methylene blue dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Vinothkannan, M; Karthikeyan, C; Gnana kumar, G; Kim, Ae Rhan; Yoo, Dong Jin

    2015-02-05

    The reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized through a facile one-pot green synthesis by using solanum trilobatum extract as a reducing agent. Spherical shaped Fe3O4 nanoparticles with the diameter of 18 nm were uniformly anchored over the RGO matrix and the existence of fcc structured Fe3O4 nanoparticles over the RGO matrix was ensured from X-ray diffraction patterns. The amide functional groups exist in the solanum trilobatum extract is directly responsible for the reduction of Fe(3+) ions and GO. The thermal stability of GO was increased by the removal of hydrophilic functional groups via solanum trilobatum extract and was further promoted by the ceramic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The ID/IG ratio of RGO/Fe3O4 was increased over GO, indicating the extended number of structural defects and disorders in the RGO/Fe3O4 composite. The catalytic efficiency of prepared nanostructures toward methylene blue (MB) dye degradation mediated through the electron transfer process of BH4(-) ions was studied in detail. The π-π stacking, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction exerted between the RGO/Fe3O4 composite and methylene blue, increased the adsorption efficiency of dye molecules and the large surface area and extended number of active sites completely degraded the MB dye within 12 min. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. One-pot green synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe3O4 nanocomposites and its catalytic activity toward methylene blue dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinothkannan, M.; Karthikeyan, C.; Gnana kumar, G.; Kim, Ae Rhan; Yoo, Dong Jin

    2015-02-01

    The reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized through a facile one-pot green synthesis by using solanum trilobatum extract as a reducing agent. Spherical shaped Fe3O4 nanoparticles with the diameter of 18 nm were uniformly anchored over the RGO matrix and the existence of fcc structured Fe3O4 nanoparticles over the RGO matrix was ensured from X-ray diffraction patterns. The amide functional groups exist in the solanum trilobatum extract is directly responsible for the reduction of Fe3+ ions and GO. The thermal stability of GO was increased by the removal of hydrophilic functional groups via solanum trilobatum extract and was further promoted by the ceramic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The ID/IG ratio of RGO/Fe3O4 was increased over GO, indicating the extended number of structural defects and disorders in the RGO/Fe3O4 composite. The catalytic efficiency of prepared nanostructures toward methylene blue (MB) dye degradation mediated through the electron transfer process of BH4- ions was studied in detail. The π-π stacking, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction exerted between the RGO/Fe3O4 composite and methylene blue, increased the adsorption efficiency of dye molecules and the large surface area and extended number of active sites completely degraded the MB dye within 12 min.

  17. Efficient degradation of Methylene Blue dye over highly reactive Cu doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles photocatalyst under visible light.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi Inamur; Ahmad, Musheer; Misra, Sunil Kumar; Lohani, Minaxi

    2012-09-01

    Visible light induced photocatalysts of Cu doped SrTiO3 (Cu/SrTiO3) nanoparticles with the size -60-75 nm were prepared via facile sol-gel method. The morphological, optical, crystalline properties and compositions of synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). A significant red shift in the UV-diffused reflectance spectrum was observed and the absorption edge shifted to visible region by the Cu doping. Surprisingly, the band gap of SrTiO3 was changed from 3.2 eV drop to 2.96 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles was demonstrated for the degradation of Methylene Blue dye under visible light irradiation. The formation of new acceptor region in Cu/SrTiO3 was responsible for high photocatalytic activity of Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. The results showed that the Methylene Blue dye was degraded by -66% within time span of 2 h over the Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. This dye degradation reaction followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and also exhibited first order reaction rate. The calculated rate constant for the degradation reaction following first order kinetics was k = 0.0016 min(-1).

  18. Evaluation of phytoremediation potential of Tagetes patula L. for the degradation of textile dye Reactive Blue 160 and assessment of the toxicity of degraded metabolites by cytogenotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Asmita V; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-06-01

    Tagetes patula is an annual flowering plant belonging to family Asteraceae. The present study deals with in vitro decolorization and remediation of a textile dye Reactive Blue 160 by T. patula. There was considerable (∼90%) decolorization of the dye within 4d of incubation, as confirmed by UV-vis, HPLC and FTIR analysis. The enzymes responsible for the remediation were lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase, laccase and NADH-DCIP reductase which were found in root tissues of the plantlets. GC-MS analysis of the products revealed formation of six metabolites such as sodium benzenesulfonate, 6-chloro 1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine, disodium benzene-1,4-disulfonate, sodium 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate, 1-phenylmethanediamine and sodium 4-amino-3-carboxybenzenesulfonate after phytoremediation of Reactive Blue 160. Based on the FTIR and GC-MS results, the possible pathway for the biodegradation of Reactive Blue 160 has been traced. The non-toxic nature of the degraded products was confirmed by performing cytogenotoxicity tests on root tip cells of growing Allium cepa.

  19. A new optical probe for the detection of the sentinel lymph node using patent blue V dye in breast cancer: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tellier, F; Poulet, P; Ghnassia, J P; Wilt, M; Weitbruch, D; Rodier, J F

    2013-01-01

    The present study presents a novel near-infrared optical probe for the sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in breast cancer patients, based on the recording of scattered photons. The aim of this study was to improve the detection of patent blue V (PBV), a dye routinely injected during clinical practice. A combined injection of the dye and radioactive colloid was used in the 24 patients enrolled in the study. The clinical results of the ex vivo detection of 70 dye-marked SLNs are reported, subsequent to the injection of various quantities of PBV (0.25-2 ml). The accuracy and success rate of an isotopic probe for the detection of radioactive colloid tracer, the eye visibility threshold of the surgeon and the use of a new optical probe were examined. The radio-labeled and dye-marked sentinel lymph nodes were all detected by the radio-isotopic probe, as opposed to the 75% detected by the eye visibility threshold of the surgeon. The optical probe detected all of the nodes, regardless of the volume of the dye injected. The relative PBV concentration computed by the probe facing SLNs with infravisible/visually undetectable dye-mark was relatively constant at 5.5±1.4 μmol/l. The optical detection of the sentinel lymph nodes using PBV and the probe presented in this study have the potential to reduce the false negative detection rate. This instrument is likely to provide surgeons with a simple diagnostic tool, without significantly changing their surgical procedures.

  20. A new optical probe for the detection of the sentinel lymph node using patent blue V dye in breast cancer: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    TELLIER, F.; POULET, P.; GHNASSIA, J.P.; WILT, M.; WEITBRUCH, D.; RODIER, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The present study presents a novel near-infrared optical probe for the sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in breast cancer patients, based on the recording of scattered photons. The aim of this study was to improve the detection of patent blue V (PBV), a dye routinely injected during clinical practice. A combined injection of the dye and radioactive colloid was used in the 24 patients enrolled in the study. The clinical results of the ex vivo detection of 70 dye-marked SLNs are reported, subsequent to the injection of various quantities of PBV (0.25–2 ml). The accuracy and success rate of an isotopic probe for the detection of radioactive colloid tracer, the eye visibility threshold of the surgeon and the use of a new optical probe were examined. The radio-labeled and dye-marked sentinel lymph nodes were all detected by the radio-isotopic probe, as opposed to the 75% detected by the eye visibility threshold of the surgeon. The optical probe detected all of the nodes, regardless of the volume of the dye injected. The relative PBV concentration computed by the probe facing SLNs with infravisible/visually undetectable dye-mark was relatively constant at 5.5±1.4 μmol/l. The optical detection of the sentinel lymph nodes using PBV and the probe presented in this study have the potential to reduce the false negative detection rate. This instrument is likely to provide surgeons with a simple diagnostic tool, without significantly changing their surgical procedures. PMID:24649137

  1. Graphene oxide/Fe3O4/chitosan nanocomposite: a recoverable and recyclable adsorbent for organic dyes removal. Application to methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hoang V.; Bui, Lieu T.; Dinh, Thuy T.; Le, Dang H.; Huynh, Chinh D.; Trinh, Anh X.

    2017-03-01

    In this research, the potential of chitosan/Fe3O4/graphene oxide (CS/Fe3O4/GO) nanocomposite for efficient removal of methylene blue (MB) as a cationic dye from aqueous solutions was investigated. For this purpose, first, graphene oxide (GO) was prepared from pencil’s graphite by Hummer’s method, then after, CS/Fe3O4/GO was synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method from a mixture solution of GO, Fe3+, Fe2+ and chitosan. The synthesized CS/Fe3O4/GO was characterized by XRD, VSM and SEM techniques. Also, the various parameters affecting dye removal were investigated. Dye adsorption equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm rather than Freundlich isotherm. The maximum monolayer capacity (q max), was calculated from the Langmuir as 30.10 mg · g‑1. The results show that, CS/Fe3O4/GO nanocomposite, can be used as a cheap and efficient adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

  2. Synthesis of Mesoporous Titania-Silica Monolith Composites — A Comprehensive Study on their Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 113 Dye Under UV Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejaswini, Thurlapathi Vl; Prabhakaran, Deivasigamani

    2016-10-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of bi-continuous macro and mesoporous crack-free titania-silica monoliths, with well-defined structural dimensions and high surface area. The work also highlights their potential photocatalytic environmental applications. The highly ordered titania-silica monoliths are synthesized through direct surface template method using organic precursors of silica and titania in the presence of surface directing agents such as pluronic P123 and PEG, under acetic acid medium. The monoliths are synthesized with different Ti/Si ratios to obtain monolithic designs that exhibit better photocatalytic activity for dye degradation. The titania-silica monoliths are characterized using XRD, SEM, EDAX, FT-IR, TG-DTA and BET analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized monoliths is tested on the photodegradation of a textile dye (acid blue 113). It is observed that the monolith with 7:3 ratio of Ti/Si showed significant photocatalysis behavior in the presence of UV light. The influence of various physico-chemical properties such as, solution pH, photocatalyst dosage, light intensity, dye concentration, effect of oxidants, etc. are analyzed and optimized using a customized photoreactor set-up. Under optimized conditions, the monoliths exhibited superior degradation kinetics, with the dye dissipation complete within 10min of photolysis. The mesoporous catalysts are recoverable and reusable up to four cycles of repeated usage.

  3. Enhanced removal of methylene blue and methyl violet dyes from aqueous solution using a nanocomposite of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum and incorporated nanosilica.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Asish; Raoufi, Mohammad; Panda, Asit Baran; Schönherr, Holger; Pal, Sagar

    2014-04-09

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel nanocomposite is reported that was developed as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of toxic methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solution. The nanocomposite comprises hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted onto xanthan gum as well as incorporated nanosilica. The synthesis exploits the saponification of the grafted polyacrylamide and the in situ formation of nanoscale SiO2 by a sol-gel reaction, in which the biopolymer matrix promotes the silica polymerization and therefore acts as a novel template for nanosilica formation. The detailed investigation of the kinetics and the adsorption isotherms of MB and MV from aqueous solution showed that the dyes adsorb rapidly, in accordance with a pseudo-second-order kinetics and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The entropy driven process was furthermore found to strongly depend on the point of zero charge (pzc) of the adsorbent. The remarkably high adsorption capacity of dyes on the nanocomposites (efficiency of MB removal, 99.4%; maximum specific removal Qmax, 497.5 mg g(-1); and efficiency of MV removal, 99.1%; Qmax, 378.8 mg g(-1)) is rationalized on the basis of H-bonding interactions as well as dipole-dipole and electrostatic interactions between anionic adsorbent and cationic dye molecules. Because of the excellent regeneration capacity the nanocomposites are considered interesting materials for the uptake of, for instance, toxic dyes from wastewater.

  4. Synthesis of Iron Oxide Micro and Nanoparticles from Aluminum Industry Waste and Its Application in the Decolorization of Reactive Blue 235 Dye.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Elavarasi; Ponnaiah, Gomathi P

    Iron oxide micro and nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Red Mud (RM) using a simple twostep process. RM was characterized using various techniques such as X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Fourier Transform- Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen (CHN) microanalysis. Red mud derived iron oxide micro and nanoparticles (RIMNP) were characterized using techniques such as XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDX, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM). RIMNP were employed as a Fenton like catalyst for the decolorization of a commonly used textile dye Reactive Blue 235 (RB235) from aqueous solution. The dynamical data obtained at different concentrations of RIMNP fit well with pseudo-second-order kinetic model and 100% dye removal efficiency was obtained at 200 mg L-1 concentration of RIMNP.

  5. Visual detection of pandemic influenza A H1N1 Virus 2009 by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue-Jun; Shu, Yue-Long; Nie, Kai; Qin, Meng; Wang, Da-Yan; Gao, Rong-Bao; Wang, Miao; Wen, Le-Ying; Han, Feng; Zhou, Shu-Mei; Zhao, Xiang; Cheng, Yan-Hui; Li, De-Xin; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2010-08-01

    A sensitive reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for rapid visual detection of pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus infection. The reaction was performed in one step in a single tube at 65 degrees C for 60 min with the addition of hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) dye prior to amplification. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was approximately 60 copies, and no cross-detection was observed. The assay was evaluated further with 50 clinical specimens diagnosed clinically with seasonal influenza or pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus infection. RT-LAMP with HNB dye was demonstrated to be a sensitive and easy assay for rapid detection of pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prussian Blue-Derived Synthesis of Hollow Porous Iron Pyrite Nanoparticles as Platinum-Free Counter Electrodes for Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeffrey E; Fan, Miao-Syuan; Chen, Yen-Lin; Deng, Yu-Heng; Kim, Jung Ho; Alamri, Hatem R; Alothman, Zeid A; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wu, Kevin C-W

    2017-09-27

    Iron pyrite has long been an attractive material for environmental and energy applications, but is hampered by a lack of control over morphology and purity. Hollow porous iron pyrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a direct sulfurization of iron oxide derived from Prussian blue. The high efficiencies of these hollow porous iron pyrite nanoparticles as effective dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes were demonstrated, with an efficiency of 7.31 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using silver ion-doped TiO₂ and its application to the degradation of real textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Chittaranjan; Gupta, Ashok K; Sasidharan Pillai, Indu M

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue dye (MB) was degraded photocatalytically in aqueous solution using Ag(+) doped TiO(2) under UV irradiation. The degradations of the dye using untreated TiO(2) and Ag(+) doped TiO(2) were compared. Ag(+) doped TiO(2) was found to be more efficient. Using Ag(+) doped TiO(2) the filtration process was eliminated, as the particles became more settleable. The effect of various parameters such as catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, depth of solution, degree of adsorption, pH and O(2) on dye degradation was studied. The extent of mineralization was studied by observing the COD removal at different time intervals. The effects of various interfering ions such as Cl(-), NO(3) (-), CO(3) (2-), SO(4) (2-), Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) and electron acceptors such as H(2)O(2), KBrO(3) and (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8) on the dye degradation was also studied. The degradation kinetics fitted well to Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo first order rate law. An aqueous solution of MB (20ppm) degraded by more than 99% after UV irradiation for 180 min with Ag(+) doped TiO(2) (2 g/L) and by more than 95% with untreated TiO(2) (2 g/L)(.) The COD removal was more than 91% with Ag(+)doped TiO(2) and more than 86% with untreated TiO(2) after 240 min. The degradation and COD removal of 5 times diluted textile wastewater was more than 98% and 79% respectively with 1 g/L Ag(+) doped TiO(2) after UV irradiation for 420 min.

  8. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-01-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500–650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm·W−1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

  9. Activated carbons from waste of oil-palm kernel shells, sawdust and tannery leather scraps and application to chromium(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Suarez, Sergio; Colpas-Castillo, Fredy; Meza-Fuentes, Edgardo; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Johana; Fernandez-Maestre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Phenol, chromium, and dyes are continuously dumped into water bodies; the adsorption of these contaminants on activated carbon is a low-cost alternative for water remediation. We synthesized activated carbons from industrial waste of palm oil seed husks (kernel shells), sawdust, and tannery leather scraps. These materials were heated for 24 h at 600, 700 or 800°C, activated at 900°C with CO2 and characterized by proximate analysis and measurement of specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir), and microporosity (t-plot). Isotherms showed micropores and mesopores in activated carbons. Palm seed activated carbon showed the highest fixed carbon content (96%), and Langmuir specific surface areas up to 1,268 m2/g, higher than those from sawdust (581 m2/g) and leather scraps (400 m2/g). The carbons were applied to adsorption of Cr(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions. Phenol adsorption on activated carbons was 78-82 mg/g; on palm seed activated carbons, Cr(VI) adsorption at pH 7 was 0.35-0.37 mg/g, and methylene blue adsorption was 40-110 mg/g, higher than those from sawdust and leather scraps. Activated carbons from palm seed are promising materials to remove contaminants from the environment and represent an alternative application for vegetal wastes instead of dumping into landfills.

  10. VEGF increases blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue dye and tetanus toxin fragment C but not adeno-associated virus in ALS mice.

    PubMed

    Ay, Ilknur; Francis, Jonathan W; Brown, Robert H

    2008-10-09

    Entry of most compounds into the CNS is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Because vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is important in the formation and maintenance of the BBB and is known to modulate BBB permeability in newborn rodents, we tested the hypothesis that VEGF may enhance BBB permeability in adult mice. We examined the effect of VEGF on the CNS distribution of three different agents: a small molecule (Evans blue dye) that is known to bind plasma proteins, an exogenous protein (tetanus toxin fragment C; TTC), and a viral vector (recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2/5 marked with lacZ; rAAV2/5-lacZ). Pretreatment with VEGF (20 mug; i.v.) increased permeability of the BBB to Evans blue dye and TTC as detected by augmented concentrations of these substances in the cerebrum, brainstem, and spinal cord. By contrast, VEGF did not alter BBB permeability to AAV2/5-lacZ, as defined by beta-galactosidase activity assay. These data demonstrate the potential utility of VEGF for pharmacological modulation of the BBB, and indicate that the increase in BBB permeability mediated by VEGF is limited by the size of the delivered substance.

  11. Evans blue as a selective dye marker for white-light diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Roelants, Mieke; Huygens, Ann; Crnolatac, Ivo; Van Cleynenbreugel, Ben; Lerut, Evelyne; Van Poppel, Hendrik; de Witte, Peter A M

    2012-01-01

    To develop a diagnostic method relying on the preferential accumulation of a dye in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) that is visible in conjunction with white-light cystoscopy (WLC). We investigated in detail the permeation of Evans blue in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) spheroids prepared from T24, J82 and RT-112 human cell lines and spheroids composed of normal human urothelial (NHU) cells. To gain more insight into the differential accumulation, all spheroids were investigated ultrastructurally using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that, after exposure to Evans blue for 2 h, UCC spheroids accumulated dramatically more dye than spheroids composed of NHU cells. Using TEM it was found that the malignant spheroids contain similar ultrastructural characteristics, i.e. a wide intercellular space and a decreased number of desmosome-like cell attachments, to those from clinical samples of non-papillary carcinoma in situ of the bladder. We believe the present findings could be important for future developments in clinical diagnostics for early bladder cancer detection, staging and grading involving WLC. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  12. A Blue Diketopyrrolopyrrole Sensitizer with High Efficiency in Nickel-Oxide-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Farré, Yoann; Raissi, Mahfoudh; Fihey, Arnaud; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Jacquemin, Denis; Odobel, Fabrice

    2017-06-22

    We prepared a series of four new diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPPs)-based sensitizers that exhibit high-molar extinction coefficients, extended absorption into the long wavelengths, and well-suited photoredox properties to act as sensitizers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs). These new DPP dyes, composed of a thienyl DPP core, are substituted on one end either by a thiophene carboxylic (Th) or a 4,4'-[(phenyl)aza]dibenzoic acid as anchoring group and, on the other extremity, either by a proton or a naphthalene diimide (NDI) moiety. These new dyes were completely characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy along with electrochemistry and they were modeled by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) quantum chemical calculations. The photovoltaic study in p-DSSC with iodine-based electrolyte reveals that the Th-DPP-NDI dye is particularly efficient (Jsc =7.38 mA cm(-2) ; Voc =147 mV; FF=0.32; η=0.35 %) and quite active in the low-energy region of the solar spectrum (above 700 nm), where only a few NiO dyes are effective. To illustrate the potential of DPP dyes in photocathodes, we designed a highly efficient tandem DSSC composed of a TiO2 photoanode sensitized by the dye D35 and a NiO photocathode sensitized by Th-DPP-NDI. This tandem DSSC gives the highest performances ever reported (Jsc =6.73 mA cm(-2) ; Voc =910 mV; η=4.1 %) and, importantly, the tandem cell outcompetes with the sub-cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue and vesuvine dyes in the presence of blue light active photocatalyst of Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF: Central composite optimization and synergistic effect study.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, S; Rahimi, M R; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K

    2016-09-01

    An efficient simultaneous sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue (TB) and vesuvine (VS) using Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF as a novel visible light active photocatalyst was carried out successfully in a continuous flow-loop reactor equipped to blue LED light. Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF with activation ability under blue light illumination was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The effect of operational parameters such as the initial TB and VS concentration (5-45mg/L), flow rate (30-110mL/min), irradiation and sonication time (10-30min), pH (3-11) and photocatalyst dosage (0.15-0.35g/L) has been investigated and optimized using central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF). Maximum sonophotodegradation percentage (98.44% and 99.36% for TB and VS, respectively) was found at optimum condition set as: 25mg/L of each dye, 70mL/min of solution flow rate, 25min of irradiation and sonication time, pH 6 and 0.25g/L of photocatalyst dosage. At optimum conditions, synergistic index value was obtained 2.53 that indicated the hybrid systems including ultrasound irradiation and photocatalysis have higher efficiency compared with sum of the individual processes.

  14. The number of neurophysins in the rat. Influence of the concentration of Bromophenol Blue, used as a tracking dye, on the resolution of proteins by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Burford, G D; Pickering, B T

    1972-07-01

    1. The concentration of Bromophenol Blue used as tracking dye in polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis affected the resolution of rat neurophysins. 2. A final dye concentration of 1mug/ml in the tris-glycine running buffer was found to give the best results. 3. The presence of two major and one minor neurophysin(s) in the rat was confirmed. 4. The two major proteins were found to re-run as single discrete bands, which had the same mobilities in the absence of dye and different mobilities in its presence.

  15. The number of neurophysins in the rat. Influence of the concentration of Bromophenol Blue, used as a tracking dye, on the resolution of proteins by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Burford, G. D.; Pickering, B. T.

    1972-01-01

    1. The concentration of Bromophenol Blue used as tracking dye in polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis affected the resolution of rat neurophysins. 2. A final dye concentration of 1μg/ml in the tris–glycine running buffer was found to give the best results. 3. The presence of two major and one minor neurophysin(s) in the rat was confirmed. 4. The two major proteins were found to re-run as single discrete bands, which had the same mobilities in the absence of dye and different mobilities in its presence. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:4638797

  16. Exogenous surfactant preserves lung function and reduces alveolar Evans blue dye influx in a rat model of ventilation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, S J; Vazquez de Anda, G; Gommers, D; Neggers, S J; Sorm, V; Böhm, S H; Lachmann, B

    1998-08-01

    Changes in pulmonary edema infiltration and surfactant after intermittent positive pressure ventilation with high peak inspiratory lung volumes have been well described. To further elucidate the role of surfactant changes, the authors tested the effect of different doses of exogenous surfactant preceding high peak inspiratory lung volumes on lung function and lung permeability. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were subjected to 20 min of high peak inspiratory lung volumes. Before high peak inspiratory lung volumes, four of these groups received intratracheal administration of saline or 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight surfactant; one group received no intratracheal administration. Gas exchange was measured during mechanical ventilation. A sixth group served as nontreated, nonventilated controls. After death, all lungs were excised, and static pressure-volume curves and total lung volume at a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cm H2O were recorded. The Gruenwald index and the steepest part of the compliance curve (Cmax) were calculated. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed; surfactant small and large aggregate total phosphorus and minimal surface tension were measured. In a second experiment in five groups of rats (n = 6 per group), lung permeability for Evans blue dye was measured. Before 20 min of high peak inspiratory lung volumes, three groups received intratracheal administration of 100, 200, or 400 mg/ kg body weight surfactant; one group received no intratracheal administration. A fifth group served as nontreated, nonventilated controls. Exogenous surfactant at a dose of 200 mg/kg preserved total lung volume at a pressure of 5 cm H2O, maximum compliance, the Gruenwald Index, and oxygenation after 20 min of mechanical ventilation. The most active surfactant was recovered in the group that received 200 mg/kg surfactant, and this dose reduced minimal surface tension of bronchoalveolar lavage to control values. Alveolar influx of Evans blue dye

  17. Nano Cu metal doped on TiO2-SiO2 nanoparticle catalysts in photocatalytic degradation of direct blue dye.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, R M; Mkhalid, I A; Al-Thabaiti, S A; Mokhtar, Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    The photo-assisted deposition (PAD) and impregnation (Img) synthesis of nano-sized Cu metal on TiO2-SiO2 are reported. The prepared catalysts were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, EXAFS, TEM and nitrogen adsorption analysis. Photocatalytic reactivity using Cu-TiO2-SiO2 catalysts under visible-light condition on the oxidation of direct blue dye with O2 reaction was evaluated. The results have shown notable photocatalytic activity of PAD-Cu/TiO2-SiO2 which was 1.6 and 10 times higher than that of Img-Cu/TiO2-SiO2 and TiO2-SiO2, respectively.

  18. Visual detection of human infection with influenza A (H7N9) virus by subtype-specific reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Nie, K; Zhao, X; Ding, X; Li, X D; Zou, S M; Guo, J F; Wang, D Y; Gao, R B; Li, X Y; Huang, W J; Shu, Y L; Ma, X J

    2013-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive H7 and N9 subtype-specific reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay was developed respectively for visual detection of human-infected influenza A (H7N9) virus. The reaction was performed in one step in a single tube at 63°C for 60 min with the addition of hydroxynaphthol blue dye before amplification. The detection limits of both subtype-specific assays were comparable to those of validated H7 and N9 real-time PCR assays respectively and no cross-detection was observed with influenza A pandemic H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H9N2 or influenza B virus. The assays were evaluated further with H7N9 virus-infected clinical specimens. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  19. Effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using a 660 nm laser and methyline blue dye for inactivating Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in compact and cancellous bones: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luciano Pereira; Silva, Francine Cristina da; Nader, Sumaia Alves; Meira, Giselle Andrade; Viana, Magda Souza

    2015-06-01

    New therapeutic modalities such as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has been investigated in order to be a valid alternative to the treatment of infections caused by different microorganisms. This work evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) using 660 nm laser combined with methylene blue dye to inactivate Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) biofilms in compact and cancellous bones specimens. Eighty specimens of compact bone and 80 specimens of cancellous bone were contaminated with a standard suspension of S. aureus and incubated for 14 days at 37°C to induce the formation of biofilms. The specimens were then divided into groups (n = 10) according to the established treatment: PS-L- (control--no treatment), PS+L- (only AM for 5 min in the dark), PS-L+90 (only laser irradiation for 90 s), PS-L+180 (only laser irradiation for 180 s), PS-L+300 (only laser irradiation for 300 s), APDT90 (APDT for 90 s), APDT180 (APDT for 180 s), and APDT300 (APDT for 300 s). The findings were statistically analyzed by ANOVA 5%. All of the experimental treatments showed a significant reduction (log 10 CFU/mL) of S. aureus biofilms in compact and cancellous bones specimens compared with the control group, and the APDT group was the most effective. Compact specimens treated with APDT showed the greatest reduction in biofilms compared with cancellous specimens, regardless of length of treatment. APDT with methylene blue dye and a 660 nm laser proved to be effective in inactivating S. aureus biofilms formed in compact and cancellous bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Green Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by an Alginate Mediated Ion-Exchange Process and a case study for Photocatalysis of Methylene Blue Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keong, Choo Cheng; Sunitha Vivek, Yamini; Salamatinia, Babak; Amini Horri, Bahman

    2017-04-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was prepared via extrusion-dripping method through an ion exchange mediated process using sodium alginate. The samples were synthesized at 500 °C and 600 °C to study the effect of calcination temperature. The morphology, microstructure and optical activity of the calcined ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed by TGA, FESEM and XRD. It was found that ZnO nanoparticles synthesized at 600 °C was of higher purity with high crystallinity. To enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of zinc oxide, ZnO/NCC films were synthesized at varying ZnO loading fractions of 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt% and 25 wt% and were evaluated by photodegradation of Methylene blue dye and the highest dye percentage removal is found to be 96% which is obtained at ZnO loadings of 25 wt%. The usage of ion-exchange process has shown promising results in producing ZnO of desirable characteristics.

  1. Enhanced phytotransformation of Navy Blue RX dye by Petunia grandiflora Juss. with augmentation of rhizospheric Bacillus pumilus strain PgJ and subsequent toxicity analysis.

    PubMed

    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Rane, Niraj R; Patil, Swapnil M; Khandare, Rahul V; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-08-01

    This study reveals the beneficial synergistic phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss. with its rhizospheric bacterial isolate Bacillus pumilus strain PgJ to decolorize reactive Navy Blue RX (NBRX) dye by their active enzymatic machinery. In vitro cultures of P. grandiflora and B. pumilus gave 80.01% and 76.80% while their consortium decolorized NBRX up to 96.86% within 36 h. Significant induction in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase (207%), tyrosinase (133%), laccase (161%), riboflavin reductase (78%) were seen in the roots of tissue cultured plants while enzymes tyrosinase (660%), laccase (689%), riboflavin reductase (528%) were induced significantly in the B. pumilus cells. Metabolites of treated NBRX were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, gas chromatography and biotransformation was visualized using high performance thin layer chromatography profile. Metabolites of the dye exhibited reduced phytotoxicity Sorghum vulgare and Phaeseolus mungo and significant reduction in cytogenotoxicity on Allium cepa roots when compared to NBRX. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Visual detection of human enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 and Coxsackievirus A16 by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Nie, Kai; Zhang, Yong; Luo, Le; Yang, Meng-Jie; Hu, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Miao; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Han, Feng; Xu, Wen-Bo; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2011-08-01

    A sensitive reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for rapid visual detection of human enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 (EV71-C4) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) infection, respectively. The reaction was performed in one step in a single tube at 65°C for 60 min with the addition of the hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) dye prior to amplification. The detection limits of the RT-LAMP assay were 0.33 and 1.58 of a 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) per reaction based on 10-fold dilutions of a titrated EV71 or CVA16 strain, respectively. No cross-reaction was observed with Coxsackievirus A (CVA) viruses (CVA2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 14, and 24), Coxsackievirus B (CVB) viruses (CVB1,2,3,4, and 5) or ECHO viruses (ECHO3, 6, 11, and 19). The assay was further evaluated with 47 clinical stool specimens diagnosed previously with EV71, CVA16 or other human enterovirus infections. Virus isolates from stool samples were confirmed by virus neutralization testing and sequencing. RT-LAMP with HNB dye was demonstrated to be a sensitive and cost-effective assay for rapid visual detection of human EV71-C4 and CVA16. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient and rapid adsorption characteristics of templating modified guar gum and silica nanocomposite toward removal of toxic reactive blue and Congo red dyes.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sagar; Patra, Abhay Shankar; Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Mahato, Vivekananda; Sarkar, Supriyo; Singh, R P

    2015-09-01

    The present study highlights the potentiality of sol-gel synthesized guar gum-graft-poly (acrylamide)/silica (g-GG/SiO2) hybrid nanocomposite toward the rapid removal of toxic reactive blue 4 (RB) and Congo red (CR) dyes from aqueous solution. Various physicochemical characterizations support the feasibility of the functionalized guar gum matrix as efficient template for the formation of homogeneous nanoscale silica particles. The composite demonstrates rapid and superior adsorption efficiency of RB (Qmax: 579.01 mg g(-1) within 40 min) and CR (Qmax: 233.24 mg g(-1) within 30 min) dyes from aqueous environment. Here, the pH driven adsorption process depends strongly on the ionic strength of the salt solution. The adsorption kinetics data predicts that pseudo second-order (surface adsorption) and intraparticle diffusion take place simultaneously. The adsorption equilibrium is in good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm, while the thermodynamics study confirms spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. Desorption study predicts the excellent regenerative efficacy of nanocomposite.

  4. Synthesis of magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite adsorbent and its application in cationic Methylene Blue dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Duman, Osman; Tunç, Sibel; Polat, Tülin Gürkan; Bozoğlan, Bahar Kancı

    2016-08-20

    In this study, magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube (OMWCNT)-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized and used as adsorbent for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by using of specific surface area, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope measurements. The results of characterization analyses exhibited that OMWCNT was successfully modified with κ-carrageenan. Furthermore, OMWCNT-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were of a super-paramagnetic property. Adsorption studies revealed that the data of adsorption kinetics and isotherm were well fitted by the pseudo second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The adsorption amounts of magnetic adsorbents increased with contact time and initial dye concentration. Compared with magnetic OMWCNT-Fe3O4 nanocomposite, magnetic OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite showed a better adsorption performance for the removal of MB from aqueous solution. Therefore, OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite may be used as a magnetic adsorbent to remove the cationic dyes from wastewaters.

  5. Visual detection of turkey coronavirus RNA in tissues and feces by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) with hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Tereza C; Ferrari, Heitor F; Bregano, Lívia C; Silva-Frade, Camila; Rosa, Ana Carolina G; Andrade, Alexandre L

    2010-12-01

    A sensitive reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid visual detection of turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection. The reaction is performed in one step in a single tube at 65 °C for 45 min, with hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) dye added prior to amplification. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was approximately 10(2) EID(50/50 μl) TCoV genome, and no cross-reaction with other avian viruses was observed. The assay was evaluated further in tissue suspensions prepared from the ileum and ileum-caecal junctions of infected turkey embryos; 100% of these samples were positive in the RT-LAMP assay. All individual feces samples collected in the field were considered positive by both conventional RT-PCR and RT-LAMP. In conclusion, RT-LAMP with HNB dye was shown to be a sensitive, simple assay for the rapid diagnosis of TCoV infection, either directly from feces or in association with virus isolation methods.

  6. Application of central composite design and artificial neural network in modeling of reactive blue 21 dye removal by photo-ozonation process.

    PubMed

    Mehrizad, Ali; Gharbani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with use of central composite design (CCD) and artificial neural network (ANN) in modeling and optimization of reactive blue 21 (RB21) removal from aqueous media under photo-ozonation process. Four effective operational parameters (including: initial concentration of RB21, O(3) concentration, UV light intensity and reaction time) were chosen and the experiments were designed by CCD based on response surface methodology (RSM). The obtained results from the CCD model were used in modeling the process by ANN. Under optimum condition (O(3) concentration of 3.95 mg L(-1), UV intensity of 20.5 W m(-2), reaction time of 7.77 min and initial dye concentration of 40.21 mg L(-1)), RB21 removal efficiency reached to up 98.88%. A topology of ANN with a three-layer consisting of four input neurons, 14 hidden neurons and one output neuron was designed. The relative significance of each major factor was calculated based on the connection weights of the ANN model. Dye and ozone concentrations were the most important variables in the photo-ozonation of RB21, followed by reaction time and UV light intensity. The comparison of predicted values by CCD and ANN with experimental results showed that both methods were highly efficient in the modeling of the process.

  7. Selective adsorption of organic dye methylene blue by Cs4H2PMo11FeO40·6H2O in presence of methyl orange and Rhodamine-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, Mahboubeh; Seghatoleslami, Zhaleh Sadr; Rahimi, Rahmatollah

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a heterometallic polyoxometalate Cs4H2PMo11FeO40·6H2O with Keggin structure was prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The as-prepared polyoxometalate has been utilized as the adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. The effective factors on the adsorption of this pollutant dye such as amount of adsorbent and adsorption time were examined. The adsorption efficiency and amount of adsorption (qe) were up to 97.4% and 140.84 mgg-1, respectively at the optimum conditions (0.4 gL-1 of adsorbent, 20 mgL-1 concentration of methylene blue and 2 min adsorption time). Furthermore, selective adsorption of methylene blue in the presence of methyl orange and rhodamine-B was demonstrated.

  8. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-10-01

    This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

  9. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-06-01

    This study used novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecules, namely BPVPDA, an organic fluorescence color thin film using BPVPDA exhibit deep blue fluorine with CIE coordinates of (0.13,0.16). The developed original Organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness, in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses organic dye dopent in limpid photo resist. With this technology , the following characteristics can be obtained: (1) high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and (2) improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescence thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD and OLED.

  10. Distal and lateral toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The study showed the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue to treat severe distal and lateral subungual toenail onychomycosis. 22 patients were divided into two groups: group A consisting of 11 patients with severe toenail onychomycosis and group B consisting of 11 patients with mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis. All patients had onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patients were treated with sessions of 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode device with 630 nm and 36 J/cm2 biweekly for six months. The clinical response was significantly better in patients with mild-to-moderate (100%) onychomycosis compared with patients with severe onychomycosis (63.6%).

  11. Electrochemical degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes on Pb/PbO2 electrode in the presence of different conductive electrolyte and effect of various operating factors.

    PubMed

    Awad, H S; Galwa, N Abo

    2005-12-01

    Electrocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes from simulated wastewater on lead dioxide anode was investigated in different conductive electrolytes. It was shown that complete degradation of these dyes is dependent primarily on type and concentration of the conductive electrolyte. The highest electrocatalytic activity was achieved in the presence of NaCl (2g/l) and could be attributed to indirect oxidation of the investigated dyes by the electrogenerated hypochlorite ions formed from the chloride oxidation. In addition, contribution from direct oxidation could also be possible via reaction of these organic compounds with the electrogenerated hydroxyl radicals adsorbed on the lead dioxide surface. In the presence of NaOH, the electrocatalytic activity of the employed anode was not comparable to that in NaCl due primarily to the absence of chloride. This indicates that dyes degradation in NaOH occurs exclusively via direct electrochemical process. However, in H2SO4, the electrode performance was poor due partially to the absence of chloride from the conductive solution. The possibility of electrode poisoning as a result of growth of adherent film on the anode surface or production of stable intermediates not easily further oxidized by direct electrolysis in H2SO4 might also be accountable for the poor performance observed in this conductive electrolyte. Optimizing the conditions that ensure effective electrochemical degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes on lead dioxide electrode necessitates the control of all the operating factors.

  12. Dyed but Not Dead

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shireen H.; Nossaman, Bobby D.

    2012-01-01

    The use of vital blue dyes in sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy is gaining popularity in the surgical management of cancer. However, intraoperative use of these dyes has associated risks for the patient. This case report and review of the literature present current medical knowledge about one of the vital blue dyes, isosulfan blue, and the associated clinical risks of this dye when used in the perioperative management of patients who undergo sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy. PMID:22778677

  13. A simple way to prepare Au@polypyrrole/Fe3O4 hollow capsules with high stability and their application in catalytic reduction of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Tongjie; Cui, Tieyu; Wang, Hao; Xu, Linxu; Cui, Fang; Wu, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Metal nanoparticles are promising catalysts for dye degradation in treating wastewater despite the challenges of recycling and stability. In this study, we have introduced a simple way to prepare Au@polypyrrole (PPy)/Fe3O4 catalysts with Au nanoparticles embedded in a PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell. The PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell used as a support was constructed in one-step, which not only dramatically simplified the preparation process, but also easily controlled the magnetic properties of the catalysts through adjusting the dosage of FeCl2.4H2O. The component Au nanoparticles could catalyze the reduction of methylene blue dye with NaBH4 as a reducing agent and the reaction rate constant was calculated through the pseudo-first-order reaction equation. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles permitted quick recycling of the catalysts with a magnet due to their room-temperature superparamagnetic properties; therefore, the catalysts exhibited good reusability. In addition to catalytic activity and reusability, stability is also an important property for catalysts. Because both Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were wrapped in the PPy shell, compared with precursor polystyrene/Au composites and bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the stability of Au@PPy/Fe3O4 hollow capsules was greatly enhanced. Since the current method is simple and flexible to create recyclable catalysts with high stability, it would promote the practicability of metal nanoparticle catalysts in industrial polluted water treatment.Metal nanoparticles are promising catalysts for dye degradation in treating wastewater despite the challenges of recycling and stability. In this study, we have introduced a simple way to prepare Au@polypyrrole (PPy)/Fe3O4 catalysts with Au nanoparticles embedded in a PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell. The PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell used as a support was constructed in one-step, which not only dramatically simplified the preparation process, but also easily controlled the magnetic properties of the catalysts through adjusting

  14. A general method for fractionation of plasma proteins. Dye-ligand affinity chromatography on immobilized Cibacron blue F3-GA.

    PubMed

    Gianazza, E; Arnaud, P

    1982-01-01

    The chromatographic behaviour of 27 different plasma proteins on fractionation of human plasma on immobilized Cibacron Blue F3-GA was studied. The column was eluted by using a three-step procedure. First, a low-molarity buffer (30 mM-H3PO4/Na3PO4, pH 7.0, I0.053) was used, then a linear salt gradient (0-1 M-NaCl in the buffer above) was applied, followed by a wash with two bed volumes of 1.0 M-NaCl. Finally, bound proteins were 'stripped' with 0.5 M-NaSCN. Up to 1 ml of whole plasma could be loaded per 5 ml bed volume. No denaturation of proteinase inhibitors or complement fractions was observed. The recovery of individual proteins ranged between 52 and greater than 95%. Enrichment of four individual plasma components (alpha 1-antitrypsin, caeruloplasmin, antithrombin III and haemopexin) was between 10-fold and 75-fold. These results indicate that chromatography on immobilized Cibacron Blue F3-GA can be a useful initial step in the purification of plasma proteins.

  15. A simplified post preparation technique after Thermafil obturation: evaluation of apical microleakage and presence of voids using methylene blue dye penetration.

    PubMed

    Pusinanti, Luca; Rubini, Riccardo; Pellati, Agnese; Zerman, Nicoletta

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the apical microleakage of Thermafil obturations after three different post space preparation techniques. 33 root canals of mono-radiculated extracted teeth were prepared with M two and then obturated with Thermafil. Teeth so treated were then divided into three groups and the post space to middle root was prepared using three different techniques. In samples in group A the housing for the post was created using a Torpan bur, and the carrier was partially removed only in the coronal portion. In samples in group B the carrier was completely removed and gutta-percha was hand compacted, before canal preparation using a Torpan bur. In samples in group C the carrier was completely removed, without guttapercha compaction, before canal preparation using a Torpan bur. The roots were immersed for 72 hours in methylene blue dye solution and sectioned transversely at 1-3-5 mm from the apex for evaluation of dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. The data collected were processed using Win CAD software and subjected to statistical analysis using the Student t test for p<0.05. There were no significant differences between the three groups, except for the presence of voids in the intermediate section of teeth in groups B and C. Post space preparation did not influence the apical seal, and gutta-percha without voids was always found in the last millimetre of the canal obturation. This study proposes a post preparation technique which provides for complete carrier removal using pliers, hand compaction of residual gutta-percha with a manual plugger and enlargement of the root canal, using appropriate post space burs, free of any interference from the carrier. Operating time is reduced, as is the risk of creating ledges or iatrogenic perforations.

  16. A simple way to prepare Au@polypyrrole/Fe3O4 hollow capsules with high stability and their application in catalytic reduction of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tongjie; Cui, Tieyu; Wang, Hao; Xu, Linxu; Cui, Fang; Wu, Jie

    2014-07-07

    Metal nanoparticles are promising catalysts for dye degradation in treating wastewater despite the challenges of recycling and stability. In this study, we have introduced a simple way to prepare Au@polypyrrole (PPy)/Fe3O4 catalysts with Au nanoparticles embedded in a PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell. The PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell used as a support was constructed in one-step, which not only dramatically simplified the preparation process, but also easily controlled the magnetic properties of the catalysts through adjusting the dosage of FeCl2·4H2O. The component Au nanoparticles could catalyze the reduction of methylene blue dye with NaBH4 as a reducing agent and the reaction rate constant was calculated through the pseudo-first-order reaction equation. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles permitted quick recycling of the catalysts with a magnet due to their room-temperature superparamagnetic properties; therefore, the catalysts exhibited good reusability. In addition to catalytic activity and reusability, stability is also an important property for catalysts. Because both Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were wrapped in the PPy shell, compared with precursor polystyrene/Au composites and bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the stability of Au@PPy/Fe3O4 hollow capsules was greatly enhanced. Since the current method is simple and flexible to create recyclable catalysts with high stability, it would promote the practicability of metal nanoparticle catalysts in industrial polluted water treatment.

  17. Total protein determination in urine: elimination of a differential response between the coomassie blue and pyrogallol red protein dye-binding assays.

    PubMed

    Marshall, T; Williams, K M

    2000-03-01

    The total protein content of urine is a good index of renal function, but its determination is unreliable. Protein dye-binding assays are simple, but they characteristically lack a uniform response to different proteins. We investigated a differential response of the Sigma Microprotein Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) and Pyrogallol Red-molybdate (PRM) protein dye-binding assays to urine, using human albumin, albumin/globulin, or urinary protein as calibrator. The urine protein values (n = 60) obtained with the CBB assay were 110-13 500 mg/L (mean, 2390 mg/L) compared with 160-18 300 mg/L (mean, 3470 mg/L) obtained with the PRM assay (CBB:PRM protein concentration ratio, 0.46-0.88, mean, 0. 69 +/- 0.10). The differential response was highly reproducible as indicated by Sigma urine control Level 1 (within-day CBB:PRM ratio, 0.68 +/- 0.02; between-day CBB:PRM ratio, 0.67 +/- 0.04) and Sigma urine control Level 2 (within-day CBB:PRM ratio, 0.60 +/- 0.01; between-day CBB:PRM ratio, 0.59 +/- 0.02). The use of urinary protein as a calibrator (rather than human albumin) greatly improved the agreement between the assays when applied to urine (y(CBB) = 0. 972x(PRM) - 16 vs y(CBB) = 0.685x(PRM) + 17). In studies using urine controls, this calibrator also improved agreement between the CBB, PRM, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and benzethonium chloride protein methods and, to a lesser extent, agreement with the TCA-Ponceau S method. The use of a urinary protein calibrator improves the agreement between different methods used to determine total protein in urine.

  18. A novel colorimetric assay of β-D-glucans in basidiomycete strains by alcian blue dye in a 96-well microtiter plate.

    PubMed

    C Semedo, Magda; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Basidiomycete strains synthesize several types of β-d-glucans, which play a major role in the medicinal properties of mushrooms. Therefore, the specific quantification of these β-d-glucans in mushroom strains is of great biochemical importance. Because published assay methods for these β-d-glucans present some disadvantages, a novel colorimetric assay method for β-d-glucan with alcian blue dye was developed. The complex formation was detected by following the decrease in absorbance in the range of 620 nm and by hypsochromic shift from 620 to 606 nm (∼14 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Analysis of variance was used for optimization of the slope of the calibration curve by using the assay mixture containing 0.017% (w/v) alcian blue in 2% (v/v) acetic acid at pH 3.0. The high-throughput colorimetric assay method on microtiter plates was used for quantification of β-d-glucans in the range of 0-0.8 μg, with a slope of 44.15 × 10(-2) and a limit of detection of 0.017 μg/well. Recovery experiments were carried out by using a sample of Hericium erinaceus, which exhibited a recovery of 95.8% for β-1,3-d-glucan. The present assay method exhibited a 10-fold higher sensitivity and a 59-fold lower limit of detection compared with the published method with congo red. β-d-glucans of several mushrooms strains were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia, and they were quantified by this assay method. This assay method is fast, specific, simple, and it can be used to quantify β-d-glucans from other biological sources. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Time dependent diffraction ring patterns in bromothymol blue dye doped PMMA film under irradiation with continuous wave green laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saymari, F. A.; Badran, H. A.; Al-Ahmad, A. Y.; Emshary, C. A.

    2013-11-01

    Diffraction ring patterns are generated in bromothymol blue (BTB) doped poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) film with the aid of visible light from a solid state laser of Gaussian distribution. Temporal evolution of patterns i.e. the number of rings increases as time elapse is observed. Based on the experimental findings, change in refractive index ( ∆n) effective nonlinear refractive index ( n 2) and variation of refractive index with temperature ( dn/ dT) have been obtained as 0.0025, 1.45 × 10-6 cm2 W-1, 1.69 × 10-5 K-1 respectively. Obtained results suggest the possibility of using BTB doped PMMA in data storage, recording and holography.

  20. Ag/Fe3O4/ZrO2 Composite: Ternary Magnetically Separable UV-light-driven Photocatalyst for Removal Methylene Blue Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristianto, Y.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2017-05-01

    In this research, we demonstrate the preparation of ternary Ag/Fe3O4/ZrO2 composites as a novel magnetically separable UV-light-driven photocatalyst. The Fe3O4/ZrO2 composites were successfully synthesized by using two-step methods, that is, sol-gel followed by ultrasonic-assisted method. Furthermore, the Fe3O4/ZrO2 composites were coupled with silver through ultrasound-assisted method. The prepared samples were fairly characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Vis DRS spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of this composite was tested to degrade methylene blue dyes under UV-light irradiation. The influence of catalyst dosage, initial concentration, and scavengers of active species were investigated and the results were discussed. Compared with Fe3O4/ZrO2 sample, the Ag/Fe3O4/ZrO2 composite with three weight ratio (5%, 15%, and 25%) of Ag to Fe3O4/ZrO2 display higher photocatalytic activity. Among three variations of the weight ratio of Ag to Fe3O4/ZrO2, 15% weight ratio of Ag in Ag/Fe3O4/ZrO2 exhibits the superior photocatalytic performance followed by weight ratio of 25% and 5%. Moreover, the composite was found to be a reusable catalyst.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and bromophenol blue dyes in water using sol–gel synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanalakshmi, J.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2017-09-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a sol–gel method using titanium tetra isopropoxide as a precursor. The structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), a high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman analysis, Photoluminescence (PL) and impedance spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman spectra revealed that the synthesized samples are in pure anatase phase with an average crystallite size of 18 nm. Photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated for the degradation of 10 ppm methyl orange (MO) and bromophenol blue (BPB) dye using 10 mg of catalyst. Anatase TiO2 exhibited the removal of 67.12% and 85.51% of MO and BPB, respectively, within 240 min. The photocatalytic degradation process is explained using pseudo second order kinetics and fits well with the higher correlation coefficient.

  2. Biochars prepared from anaerobic digestion residue, palm bark, and eucalyptus for adsorption of cationic methylene blue dye: characterization, equilibrium, and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Wan, Shungang; Luo, Wensui

    2013-07-01

    Biochars prepared from anaerobic digestion residue (BC-R), palm bark (BC-PB) and eucalyptus (BC-E) were used as sorbents for removal of cationic methylene blue dye (MB). The FE-SEM images indicated that the biochars have a well-developed pore structure, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas of BC-R, BC-PB, and BC-E were 7.60, 2.46, and 10.35 m(2)g(-1), respectively. The efficiencies of MB removal in the samples with initial concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) at pH 7.0 and 40°C by BC-R, BC-PB, and BC-E after 2h were 99.5%, 99.3%, and 86.1%, respectively. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model for describing the adsorption of MB onto the biochars. The experimental data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 9.50 mg g(-1) at 40°C for BC-R. The biochars produced from the three types of solid waste showed considerable potential for adsorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on titanate nanotube powders prepared by hydrothermal process using metal Ti particles as a precursor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Keshui; Xiao, Xin; Cao, Xiufang; Hao, Rong; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiaojing; Nan, Junmin

    2011-08-30

    Titanate nanotube powders (TNTPs) with the twofold removal ability, i.e. adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation, are synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using metal Ti particles as a precursor in the concentrated alkaline solution, and their morphology, structure, adsorptive and photocatalytic properties are investigated. Under hydrothermal conditions, the titanate nanotubes (TNTs) with pore diameter of 3-4nm are produced on the surface of metal Ti particles, and stacked together to form three-dimensional (3D) network with porous structure. The TNTPs synthesized in the autoclave at 130°C for 24h exhibits a maximum adsorption capability of about 197mg g(-1) in the neutral methylene blue (MB) solution (40mg L(-1)) within 90min, the adsorption process can be described by pseudo second-order kinetics model. Especially, in comparison with the adsorptive and the photocatalytic processes are performed in turn, about 50min can be saved through synchronously utilizing the double removal ability of TNTPs when the removal ratio of MB approaches 95% in MB solution (40mg L(-1)) at a solid-liquid (S/L) ratio of 1:8 under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. These 3D TNTPs with the twofold removal properties and easier separation ability for recycling use show promising prospect for the treatment of dye pollutants from wastewaters in future industrial application.

  4. Assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull Blue dye for relative output factor measurements of the Leksell Gamma Knife® PerfexionTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozubikova, P.; Solc, J.; Novotny, J., Jr.; Pilarova, K.; Pipek, J.; Koncekova, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull blue dye formed by irradiation (TB gel dosimeter) for measurement of ROFs for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators for the Leksell Gamma Knife PerfexionTM. All measurements have been carried out using home-made spherical Perspex glass phantom of diameter 160 mm. TB gel dosimeters were scanned using homemade optical CT scanner. The results are compared with vendor recommended Monte Carlo calculated ROFs values of 0.814 and 0.900 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The comparisons between the gel measurements and the treatment planning system (TPS) calculation are presented in the form of 2D isodoses for the central slices and 1D profile. Measured ROF 0.746 and 0.874 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators respectively are in a reasonable agreement with vendor recommended values and measured relative dose distribution in a central slice and measured profiles of all shots show excellent correspondence with TPS.

  5. Treatment of dye wastewater with permanganate oxidation and in situ formed manganese dioxides adsorption: cation blue as model pollutant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui; Zhang, Ran

    2010-04-15

    This study investigated the process of potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) oxidation and in situ formed hydrous manganese dioxides (deltaMnO(2)) (i.e., KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption) for the treatment of dye wastewater. The effectiveness of decolorization, removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and increasing biodegradable oxygen demand (BOD) were compared among these processes of KMnO(4) oxidation, deltaMnO(2) adsorption, and KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption. DeltaMnO(2) adsorption contributed to the maximum DOC removal of 65.0%, but exhibited limited capabilities of decolorizing and increasing biodegradability. KMnO(4) oxidation alone at pH 0.5 showed satisfactory decrease of UV-vis absorption peaks, and the maximum BOD(5)/DOC value of 1.67 was achieved. Unfortunately, the DOC removal was as low as 27.4%. Additionally, the great amount of acid for pH adjustment and the much too low pH levels limited its application in practice. KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption at pH 2.0 was the best strategy prior to biological process, in balancing the objectives of decolorization, DOC removal, and BOD increase. The optimum ratio of KMnO(4) dosage to X-GRL concentration (R(KMnO(4)/X-GRL)) was determined to be 2.5, at which KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption contributed to the maximal DOC removal of 53.4%. Additionally, the optimum pH for X-GRL treatment was observed to be near 3.0.

  6. Catalytic reduction of methylene blue and Congo red dyes using green synthesized gold nanoparticles capped by salmalia malabarica gum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapuram, Bhagavanth Reddy; Alle, Madhusudhan; Dadigala, Ramakrishna; Dasari, Ayodhya; Maragoni, Venkatesham; Guttena, Veerabhadram

    2015-08-01

    Stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using salmalia malabarica gum as both reducing and capping agent. It is a simple and eco-friendly green synthesis. The successful formation of AuNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized AuNPs were characterized by a peak at 520-535 nm in the UV-Vis spectrum. The X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the resulting AuNPs were highly crystalline with face-centred cubic geometry. TEM studies showed that the average particle size of the synthesized AuNPs was 12 ± 2 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that -OH groups present in the gum matrix might be responsible for the reduction of Au+3 into AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs exhibited good catalytic properties in the reduction of methylene blue and Congo red.

  7. Removal of methyl orange and mythelene blue dyes from aqueous solution using low cost adsorbent zeolite synthesized from fly ash.

    PubMed

    Das, Shakti; Barman, Sanghamitra; Thakur, Ruchika

    2012-10-01

    The zeolite ZX1 synthesized from fly ash was employed as effective adsorbent for removal of methylene blue and methyl orange, from its aqueous solution. In the present study, X-type and A-type zeolite were synthesized by alkali fusion, followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was then characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solution pH has an important role in the the adsorption behavior of ZX1. Higher solution pH results in higher adsorption capacity. The equilibrium results were well described by Freundlich isotherm model. Physical regeneration at high temperature showed that the adsorbent exhibits somehow lower adsorption capacity as compared to the fresh sample. The values of changes in enthalpy (deltaH(o)) and entropy (deltaS(o)) during the adsorption process were found to be -20.85 kJ/mol and -90.61 J/mol K(-1). Adsorption of methyl orange over Zeolite ZX1 is much higher than ZA1. Correlation coefficient was found to be 0.998.

  8. Crystal Structure and Photocatalytic Activity of Al-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers for Methylene Blue Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deuk Yong; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Cho, Nam-Ihn

    2016-05-01

    Al-TiO2 nanofibers were prepared using a sol-gel derived electrospinning by varying the Al/Ti molar ratio from 0 to 0.73 to investigate the effect of Al doping on the crystal structure and the photocatalytic activity of Al-TiO2 for methylene blue (MB) degradation. XRD results indicated that as the Al/Ti molar ratio rose, crystal structure of Al-TiO2 was changed from anatase/rutile (undoped), anatase (0.07-0.18), to amorphous phase (0.38-0.73), which was confirmed by XPS and Raman analysis. The degradation kinetic constant increased from 7.3 x 10(-4) min(-1) to 4.5 x 10(-3) min(-1) with the increase of Al/Ti molar ratios from 0 to 0.38, but decreased to 3.4 x 10(-3) min(-1) when the Al/Ti molar ratio reached 0.73. The Al-TiO2 catalyst doped with 0.38 Al/Ti molar ratio demonstrated the best MB degradation. Experimental results indicated that the Al doping in Al-TiO2 was mainly attributed to the crystal structure of TiO2 and the photocatalytic degradation of MB.

  9. Visual detection of the human metapneumovirus using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of acute respiratory infections ranging from wheezing to bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children worldwide. The objective of this study is to develop a visual reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of hMPV and applied to the clinical samples. Results In this study, visual RT-LAMP assay for hMPV was performed in one step with the addition of hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB), and were used to detect respiratory samples. Six primers, including two outer primers (F3 and B3), two inner primers (FIP, BIP) and two loop primers (LF and LB), were designed for hMPV N gene by the online software. Moreover, the RT-LAMP assay showed good specificity and no cross-reactivity was observed with human rhinovirus (HRV), human respiratory syncytial Virus (RSV), or influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was approximately ten viral RNA copies, lower than that of traditional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 100 RNA copies. In the 176 nasopharyngeal samples, 23 (13.1%) were conformed as hMPV positive by RT-LAMP, but 18 (10.2%) positive by RT-PCR. Conclusion Compared with conventional RT-PCR, the visual hMPV RT-LAMP assay performed well in the aspect of detect time, sensitivity, specificity and visibility. It is anticipated that the RT-LAMP will be used for clinical tests in hospital or field testing during outbreaks and in emergency. PMID:22838725

  10. [Novelty of vital dyes in ophthalmic surgery].

    PubMed

    Rejdak, Robert; Oleszczuk, Agnieszka; Mańkowska, Anna; Kiczyńska, Magdalena; Zagórski, Zbigniew; Zarnowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present recent developments in the area of novelty of vital dyes in intraocular surgery. The authors present the advantages and disadvantages of several vital dyes currently used in ophthalmic surgery. Vital dyes are used to allow better intraoperative visualization of both the anterior and posterior segments. Indocyanine green and trypan blue are the most frequently used and the most efficacious dyes for staining the important anatomic areas but often are associated with significant side effects. These dyes are used in cataract and vitreo-retinal surgery. Other dyes including rhodamine 6G, E68, bromophenol blue, light green and Chicago blue are still under preclinical assessment.

  11. [Vital dyes in chromovitrectomy].

    PubMed

    Dib, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchelle; Maia, Maurício; Meyer, Carsten H; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Furlani, Bruno de Albuquerque; Costa, Elaine de Paula Fiod; Farah, Michel Eid

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. A large body of published research has recently addressed the toxicity profile of indocyanine green for chromovitrectomy. Experimental data demonstrate dose-dependent toxicity of indocyanine green to various retinal cells. Newer generation vital dyes for chromovitrectomy include trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein, bromophenol blue, fluorometholone acetate and brilliant blue. Novel instruments may enable a selective painting of preretinal tissues during chromovitrectomy. This review suggests that the field of chromovitrectomy represents an expanding area of research. The first line agents for internal limiting membrane staining in chromovitrectomy are indocyanine green, infracyanine green, and brilliant blue. Patent blue, bromophenol blue and trypan blue arose as outstanding biostains for visualization of epiretinal membranes. Novel dyes available for chromovitrectomy deserve further investigation.

  12. Vital dyes for chromovitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Maia, Maurício; Meyer, Carsten H; Penha, Fernando M; Dib, Eduardo; Farah, Michel E

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this article is to present the current state-of-the-art in regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications, and complications in chromovitrectomy. A large body of published research has recently addressed the toxicity profile of indocyanine green for chromovitrectomy. Experimental data demonstrate dose-dependent toxicity of indocyanine green to various retinal cells. Newer generation vital dyes for chromovitrectomy include trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein, bromophenol blue, fluorometholone acetate and brilliant blue. Novel instruments may enable a selective painting of preretinal tissues during chromovitrectomy. This review suggests that the field of chromovitrectomy represents an expanding area of research. The first line agents for internal limiting membrane staining in chromovitrectomy are indocyanine green, infracyanine green, and brilliant blue. Patent blue, bromophenol blue and trypan blue arose as outstanding biostains for visualization of epiretinal membranes. Novel dyes available for chromovitrectomy deserve further investigation.

  13. Removal of cationic dye methylene blue by zero-valent iron: Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on removal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Kurokawa, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Moe; Takagi, Minoru; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on mechanisms for decolorization and total organic carbon (TOC) removal of cationic dye methylene blue (MB) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) were systematically examined. Decolorization and TOC removal of MB by ZVI are attributed to the four potential mechanisms, i.e. reduction, degradation, precipitation and adsorption. The contributions of four mechanisms were quantified at pH 3.0, 6.0 and 10.0 in the oxic and anoxic systems. The maximum efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal of MB were found at pH 6.0. The TOC removal efficiencies at pH 3.0 and 10.0 were 11.0 and 17.0%, respectively which were considerably lower as compared with 68.1% at pH 6.0. The adsorption, which was favorable at higher pH but was depressed by the passive layer formed on the ZVI surface at alkaline conditions, characterized the effects of pH on decolorization and TOC removal of MB. The efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal at pH 6.0 under the anoxic condition were 73.0 and 59.0%, respectively, which were comparable to 79.9 and 55.5% obtained under the oxic condition. In the oxic and anoxic conditions, however, the contributions of removal mechanisms were quite different. Although the adsorption dominated the decolorization and TOC removal under the oxic condition, the contribution of precipitation was largely superior to that of adsorption under the anoxic condition.

  14. Comparative carcinogenicity of two structurally similar phenylenediamine dyes (HC blue no. 1 and HC blue no. 2) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Kari, F W; Mennear, J H; Farnell, D; Thompson, R B; Huff, J E

    1989-06-01

    Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 2 structurally-related p-phenylenediamines, HC Blue No. 1, and HC Blue No. 2 were conducted by administering each chemical in feed for 103 weeks to both sexes of Fischer 344/N rats and B6C3F1 (C57BL/6N x C3H/HEN) mice. Diets containing 0, 1500, or 3000 ppm HC Blue 1 were fed to male and female rats and male mice; female mice received diets with 0, 3000, or 6000 ppm. Diets containing 0, 5000, or 10,000 ppm HC Blue 2 were fed to male rats and mice and the females received diets containing 0, 10,000 or 20,000 ppm. These concentrations were compatible with long-term growth and survival. The results demonstrated substantial differences in the neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions caused by these structural analogs. HC Blue 2 caused histocytosis in lungs and hyperostosis of the skull in rats, and splenic hematopoiesis, fibrous osteodystrophy, and hyperostosis of the skull in mice. These non-neoplastic lesions were not observed in rats or mice treated with HC Blue 1. Contrasting, in male and female mice, HC Blue 1 produced dose-related increases in the incidences of both adenomas and carcinomas of the liver. HC Blue 1 produced a marginally positive trend in hepatocellular nodules and carcinomas in male rats and dose-related increases in hyperplasias and neoplasms of the lungs in female rats. In contrast, there was no evidence of carcinogenicity for HC Blue 2 in either sex of rats or mice, despite the fact that it was administered 3-5 times the dose of the HC Blue 1. Since these 2 nitroaromatic compounds differ only in the methyl vs. 2-hydroxyethyl substituent on the secondary amine of ring carbon 4, the great discordance in their carcinogenicity is most probably due to side group-directed alteration in their metabolic profiles.

  15. Mixed titanium, silicon, and aluminum oxide nanostructures as novel adsorbent for removal of rhodamine 6G and methylene blue as cationic dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pal, Umapada; Sandoval, Alberto; Madrid, Sergio Isaac Uribe; Corro, Grisel; Sharma, Vivek; Mohanty, Paritosh

    2016-11-01

    Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing Ti, Si, and Al of 8-15 nm size range were synthesized using a combined sol-gel - hydrothermal method. Effects of composition on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of the nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), microRaman spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Dye removal abilities of the nanoparticles from aqueous solutions were tested for different cationic dyes. While all the mixed oxide nanoparticles revealed high and fast adsorption of cationic dyes, the particles containing Ti and Si turned out to be the best. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption behavior of the adsorbate - adsorbent systems could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Estimated thermodynamic parameters revealed the adsorption process is spontaneous, driven mainly by the electrostatic force between the cationic dye molecules and negative charge at nanoparticle surface. Highest dye adsorption capacity (162.96 mg MB/g) of the mixed oxide nanostructures containing Ti and Si is associated to their high specific surface area, and the presence of surface Si-O(δ-) groups, in addition to the hydroxyl groups of amorphous titania. Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing 75% Ti and 25% Si seen to be the most efficient adsorbents for removing cationic dye molecules from wastewater.

  16. A 1982-1992 surveillance programme on Danish pottery painters. Biological levels and health effects following exposure to soluble or insoluble cobalt compounds in cobalt blue dyes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J M; Poulsen, O M

    1994-06-30

    This paper provides a short overview of cobalt-related diseases with particular reference to the potential carcinogenicity of cobalt compounds, and a review of a 10-year surveillance programme on plate painters exposed to cobalt in two Danish porcelain factories. Clinical experience and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cobalt exposure may lead to severely impaired lung function, i.e. hard metal lung disease and occupational cobalt-related asthma, contact dermatitis and cardiovascular effects. However, the evidence for the carcinogenicity of cobalt and cobalt compounds is considered inadequate (IARC, 1991). Most frequently, exposure to cobalt occurs simultaneously with exposure to other elements known to pose a health risk, (e.g. nickel, arsenic, chromium, tungsten). The importance of cobalt as sole causal agent in hard metal lung diseases, cardiomyopathy and cancer are still a matter of controversy. In the two Danish porcelain factories, cobalt blue underglaze dyes have been used since 1888. In contrast to the exposure experience of hard metal factories, the exposure of plate painters occurs with only low trace levels of other potentially harmful compounds such as the carcinogenic metals nickel, arsenic and chromium. Consequently, the nearly-pure cobalt exposure makes the plate painters an attractive group for studies on the health effects of cobalt. During the period 1982-1992 the surveillance programme showed a profound reduction in the urine level of cobalt (Co-U) from 100-fold to 10-fold above the median level of the unexposed control subjects. In the same period, the airborne cobalt exposure declined from 1356 nmol/m3 to 454 nmol/m3, the Danish occupational exposure limit being 845 nmol/m3. In 1982, when the cobalt exposure was above the occupational exposure limit, the plate painters showed a chronic impaired lung function. The obstructive effects may be similar to some of the effects observed in hard metal workers. In 1988, a study on the

  17. Are allergenic disperse dyes used for dyeing textiles?

    PubMed

    Malinauskiene, Laura; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Ryberg, Kristina; Isaksson, Marléne

    2012-09-01

    There are no data showing that disperse dyes, used to patch test patients, are currently being used for dyeing synthetic garments. It is unknown whether disperse dyes, which are currently routinely patch tested, are in fact present in synthetic textiles on the market. To determine whether eight disperse dyes, hitherto most widely cited as allergenic, are still used in textiles that are sold in various countries. Textiles from 13 countries in Europe, Asia and the United States were analysed. The procedure used for dye identification was thin-layer chromatography. When there were matching spots from the textile extract and reference dye, high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. Of 121 analysed items, three showed positive results for some of the investigated disperse dyes. Four dyes in these items could be detected and confirmed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography. A pair of light brown ladies' tights manufactured and purchased in Italy contained Disperse Yellow 3, Disperse Blue 124, and Disperse Blue 106, and a set of black bra and panties purchased in India contained Disperse Orange 1. The eight disperse dyes that are most frequently incriminated in textile dye dermatitis are very rarely used in textiles nowadays. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles: An easily recoverable effective photo-catalyst for the degradation of rose bengal and methylene blue dyes in the waste-water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Adhikary, Bibhutosh

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs from a single-source precursor and characterized by XRD, TEM, UV–vis spectra. • The NPs were tested as effective photocatalyst toward degradation of RB and MB dyes. • The possible pathway of the photocatalytic decomposition process has been discussed. • The active species, OH·, was detected by TA photoluminescence probing techniques. - Abstract: γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from a single-source precursor complex [Fe{sub 3}O(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COO){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]NO{sub 3} by a simple thermal decomposition process and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopic techniques. The NPs were highly pure and well crystallized having hexagonal morphology with an average particle size of 35 nm. The prepared γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite) NPs show effective photo-catalytic activity toward the degradation of rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) dyes under visible light irradiation and can easily be recoverable in the presence of magnetic field for successive re-uses. The possible photo-catalytic decomposition mechanism is discussed through the detection of hydroxyl radical (OH·) by terephthalic acid photo-luminescence probing technique.

  19. Laser dye technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  20. Cadmium oxide nanoparticles grown in situ on reduced graphene oxide for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumeet; Ojha, Animesh K; Walkenfort, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles (NPs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and rGO-CdO nanocomposites have been synthesized using one step hydrothermal method. The structural and optical properties of CdO NPs, rGO, and rGO-CdO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis.) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy techniques. The rGO has a sharp 2D peak compared to GO. The sharp nature of 2D band may be due to the larger contribution from single layer sheet. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized samples has been investigated under UV irradiation. The results of photocatalytic measurements revealed that ~80% of MB dye is degraded by adding the rGO-CdO nanocomposites as photocatalysts into the dye solution. The decrease in the intensity of emission peaks indicates that the photogenerated charge carriers have been transferred from CdO NPs to rGO sheets, which causes to increase the density of O2(-) and OH radicals in the dye solution. The CdO nanoparticles gown on the rGO sheets showed enhanced ferromagnetism (FM) at room temperature, which may be attributed to the short range magnetic interaction of magnetic moments of CdO NPs and spin units present on the rGO sheets.

  1. Panchromatic symmetrical squaraines: a step forward in the molecular engineering of low cost blue-greenish sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Barbero, N; Yoon, J; Dell'Orto, E; Galliano, S; Borrelli, R; Yum, J-H; Di Censo, D; Grätzel, M; Nazeeruddin, Md K; Barolo, C; Viscardi, G

    2014-11-28

    Two novel symmetrical blue squaraine sensitizers were synthesized, which exhibit panchromatic light harvesting and a record efficiency over 6% with Jsc exceeding 14 mA cm(-2), and Voc over 620 mV under 1 sun. Their color, low cost, easiness of synthesis, and relatively high photo- and thermal stability open up the way for commercial applications.

  2. Ability of new vital dyes to stain intraocular membranes and tissues in ocular surgery.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Penha, Fernando M; de Paula Fiod Costa, Elaine; Maia, Mauricio; Dib, Eduardo; Moraes, Milton; Meyer, Carsten H; Magalhaes, Octaviano; Melo, Gustavo Barreto; Stefano, Vinicius; Dias, Ana Beatriz; Farah, Michel Eid

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the ability of novel dyes to stain lens capsule (LC), internal limiting membrane (ILM), epiretinal membrane (ERM), and vitreous. Experimental study in animal and human donor eyes. Thirteen dyes, methyl violet, crystal violet, eosin Y, sudan black B, methylene blue, toluidine blue, light green, indigo carmine, fast green, congo red, evans blue, brilliant blue, and bromophenol blue, were injected onto the LC and ILM of enucleated porcine eyes. The vitreous was stained with 2 mL of dyes for 1 minute. Six dyes (indigo carmine, evans blue, fast green, light green, bromophenol blue, and brilliant blue) were selected for experiments in human donor eyes and freshly removed ERM. In the porcine eyes, ILM staining with methylene blue, toluidine blue, indigo carmine, evans blue, bromophenol blue, and fast green was moderate, and methyl violet, crystal violet, brilliant blue, or sudan black resulted in strong staining. Methyl violet, crystal violet, sudan black, toluidine blue, and methylene blue caused histologic damage in porcine retinas. Vitreous examination revealed moderate staining with congo red, crystal violet, fast green, eosin Y, methylene blue, toluidine blue, brilliant blue, bromophenol blue, and methyl violet and strong staining with light green and evans blue. ERMs showed strong staining with 0.5% evans blue and moderate staining with 0.5% light green, fast green, brilliant blue, and bromophenol blue. Evaluation of donor eyes disclosed moderate staining with evans blue, light green, and bromophenol blue and strong staining with 0.5% brilliant blue. Moderate or strong staining of the vitreous occurred with most dyes. LC evaluation showed moderate staining with 0.5% evans blue, fast green, and brilliant blue, whereas 0.5% light green produced strong LC staining. Brilliant blue shows the best ILM staining, whereas bromophenol blue, evans blue, and light green also stain ILM. Most dyes bind well to LC, vitreous, and ERM. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc

  3. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility.

  4. Removal of Remazol Blue RR dye from aqueous solutions with Neem leaves and evaluation of their acute toxicity with Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Immich, Ana Paula Serafini; Ulson de Souza, Antônio Augusto; Ulson de Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli

    2009-05-30

    The removal of dyes present in industrial effluent has received great attention in the past few years. This is partly due to increasing environmental awareness and the implementation of ever stricter environmental rules. However, some treatments for color removal from these effluents do not guarantee the absence of other secondary toxic substances, often originating from the treatment process itself. The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity level of the adsorbent Neem, used in adsorption processes for color removal, as well as that of the dye solution before and after the adsorption process. The toxicity tests were carried out according to the Environment Agency FATMA regulation no. 017/02. They consisted of exposing representative microorganisms from the environment, for a certain time interval, to several concentrations of one or more substances, under different environmental conditions, and then evaluating the toxic effects. The results show that the Neem leaf extract had a harmful affect on the test organism used. Thus, it is recommended that the leaf extract is removed prior to effluent treatment, since the results of this study indicate that this will reduce the toxicity of the effluent and also improve the efficiency of the adsorption process.

  5. Photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes

    SciTech Connect

    von Trebra, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Coumarin laser dyes are widely used in dye lasers for the generation of tunable laser light in the blue-green spectral region. As in the case with most laser dyes, coumarin dyes undergo photochemical reactions that interfere with simulated emission and result in loss of laser power output. This thesis describes the photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and some attempts to extend the useful lifetime of several dyes in dye lasers. Irradiation of Coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-coumarin (15), in oxygen-free ethanol solution results in the inefficient dye destruction. Products formed absorb light at the lasing wavelength of the dye, interfere with stimulated emission, and decrease the power output of the dye laser. Addition of the sulfur free radical chain transfer agents ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide retard the rate of formation of photoproducts absorbing at the lasing wavelengths. Deuterium incorporation, from the irradiation of Coumarin 311 in the presence of ethanethiol-S-d and ethyl disulfide, indicates that photoproducts most likely result from the reactions of free radicals which are generated in a bimolecular reaction between excited Coumarin 311 and ground state Coumarin 311. Ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide are shown to decrease the rate of power loss from a Coumarin 1 (3) dye laser. The naturally occurring amino acid cysteine acts similarly.

  6. Phase-dependant photochemistry of TiO2 nanoparticles in the degradation of organic dye methylene blue under solar light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasannalakshmi, P.; Shanmugam, N.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the photochemistry of nanoparticles of TiO2 in anatase, anatase/rutile, and rutile phases for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under solar light irradiation. For this process, TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel method, and different phases were achieved by annealing the prepared particles at various temperatures. Further, the annealed products were subjected to structural, optical, and morphological characterizations. The photocatalytic measurements show that TiO2 in the anatase phase possesses superior activity towards the degradation of MB due to its smaller crystallite size, enhanced BET surface area, higher pore size, and low charge transfer resistance.

  7. Efficacy of calcein and Coomassie Blue dyeing of shell growing-edges and micro growth-bands: ageing juvenile of Pinctada mazatlanica (Pterioida: Pteriidae).

    PubMed

    Loria, Patricia L McCoy; Huato-Soberanis, Leonardo

    2014-09-01

    Age validation is the first step to determine shellfish species age determination. This information is vital for different inferential models used in marine ecosystem management activities. In spite that various validation techniques are used for marking carbon calcium structures, the calcein marking technique for oysters had never been used for age validation in Pinctada mazatlanica. Thus the objectives of this study included: the evaluation of calcein to mark a shell growing-edge, and the efficacy of Coomassie Blue staining on posterior shell growth, to produce visible micro growth-bands that would enable age validation of juvenile mother-of-pearl oysters. Oysters were collected and cultivated at The Perlas del Cortez S. de R. L. MI. pearl-farming operation, in Pichilingue, La Paz Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico; a total of 36 oysters (shell height 11.5-36.4 mm) were injected with calcein (0.125 g/L), and another 50 oysters (shell height 14.8-42.7 mm) were submersed in calcein (0.4 and 0.7 g/L). Shell slices of calcein-marked oysters were posteriourly stained with Coomassie Blue R-25 for micro growth-band recognition. Our results showed that Calcein marking only worked by submersion and produced a concise bright lime-green florescent band along the growing-edge with clear boundaries for both concentrations. However, marks resulted better at the lower calcein concentration (0.4 g/L) with more "perfect" and "good" marks on the growing-edge (p = 0.0012). Commassie Blue staining technique was successful, and allowed to conclude that one micro growth-band was laid down per day, similar to other oyster species. Mean 15-d increment of shell growth height was slightly greater at the lower calcein concentration (= 0.735 mm) than at the higher one (= 0.577 mm) (not significant difference, p = 0.198). Calcein marking of shell growing-edges and Commassie Blue staining of posterior shell growth, as a method for age validation is recommended for shellfish shell growth

  8. Tetracoordinate silicon complexes of 1,2-bis(indol-2-yl)benzene as blue-emitting dyes in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2015-05-11

    1,2-Bis(indol-2-yl)benzene was prepared and found to serve as an effective bidentate ligand to form stable silicon complexes bearing two N-Si bonds. These complexes take boat-shaped 2,7-diaza-1-silepin structures, which undergo a butterfly-like conformational motion whose activation barriers were determined by shape analysis of variable-temperature (1)H NMR spectra. These silicon complexes exhibit blue emissions in solution and in the solid-state with high efficiency.

  9. Quantitative comparison of long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes to Cy dyes: fluorescence of the dyes and their bioconjugates.

    PubMed

    Berlier, Judith E; Rothe, Anca; Buller, Gayle; Bradford, Jolene; Gray, Diane R; Filanoski, Brian J; Telford, William G; Yue, Stephen; Liu, Jixiang; Cheung, Ching-Ying; Chang, Wesley; Hirsch, James D; Beechem, Joseph M; Haugland, Rosaria P; Haugland, Richard P

    2003-12-01

    Amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters of Alexa Fluor fluorescent dyes with principal absorption maxima at about 555 nm, 633 nm, 647 nm, 660 nm, 680 nm, 700 nm, and 750 nm were conjugated to antibodies and other selected proteins. These conjugates were compared with spectrally similar protein conjugates of the Cy3, Cy5, Cy5.5, Cy7, DY-630, DY-635, DY-680, and Atto 565 dyes. As N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester dyes, the Alexa Fluor 555 dye was similar to the Cy3 dye, and the Alexa Fluor 647 dye was similar to the Cy5 dye with respect to absorption maxima, emission maxima, Stokes shifts, and extinction coefficients. However, both Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more resistant to photobleaching than were their Cy dye counterparts. Absorption spectra of protein conjugates prepared from these dyes showed prominent blue-shifted shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Cy dyes but only minor shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Alexa Fluor dyes. The anomalous peaks, previously observed for protein conjugates of the Cy5 dye, are presumably due to the formation of dye aggregates. Absorption of light by the dye aggregates does not result in fluorescence, thereby diminishing the fluorescence of the conjugates. The Alexa Fluor 555 and the Alexa Fluor 647 dyes in protein conjugates exhibited significantly less of this self-quenching, and therefore the protein conjugates of Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more fluorescent than those of the Cy dyes, especially at high degrees of labeling. The results from our flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrate that protein-conjugated, long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes have advantages compared to the Cy dyes and other long-wavelength dyes in typical fluorescence-based cell labeling applications.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of the diazo dye naphthol blue black in water using MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 nanocomposites under simulated solar light.

    PubMed

    Mamba, Gcina; Mbianda, Xavier Yangkou; Mishra, Ajay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    A simple sol-gel method was employed to prepare gadolinium, nitrogen and sulphur tridoped titania decorated on oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2), using titanium (IV) butoxide and thiourea as titanium and nitrogen and sulphur source, respectively. Samples of varying gadolinium loadings (0.2%, 0.6%, 1.0% and 3.0% Gd3+) relative to titania were prepared to investigate the effect of gadolinium loading and the amounts of carbon nanotubes, nitrogen and sulphur were kept constant for all the samples. Furthermore, the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated for the degradation of naphthol blue black (NBB) in water under simulated solar light irradiation. Higher degradation efficiency (95.7%) was recorded for the MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) nanocomposites. The higher photocatalytic activity is attributed to the combined effect of improved visible light absorption and charge separation due to the synergistic effect of Gd, MWCNTs, N, S and TiO2. Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis revealed a higher degree of complete mineralisation of naphthol blue black (78.0% TOC removal) which minimises the possible formation of toxic degradation by-products such as the aromatic amines. The MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) was fairly stable and could be re-used for five times, reaching a maximum degradation efficiency of 91.8% after the five cycles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  12. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  13. Rapid and simple identification of carbapenemase genes, bla NDM, bla OXA-48, bla VIM, bla IMP-14 and bla KPC groups, in Gram-negative bacilli by in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Srisrattakarn, Arpasiri; Lulitanond, Aroonlug; Wilailuckana, Chotechana; Charoensri, Nicha; Wonglakorn, Lumyai; Saenjamla, Pimjai; Chaimanee, Prajuab; Daduang, Jureerut; Chanawong, Aroonwadee

    2017-07-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates by carbapenemase production are being reported globally with increasing frequency, leading to limited therapeutic options. We therefore developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (LAMP-HNB) for rapid confirmation of bla NDM, bla OXA-48, bla VIM, bla IMP-14 and bla KPC groups. Sixty-two Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. isolates carrying various carbapenemase genes (28 bla NDM-1, 9 bla IMP-14a, 2 bla IMP-48, 1 bla IMP-1, 1 bla IMP-4, 1 bla IMP-9, 1 bla IMP-15, 4 bla VIM-2, 1 bla VIM-1, 1 bla IMP-14a & bla VIM-2, 7 bla KPC-2, 3 bla OXA-48 and 3 bla OXA-181) and 37 non-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates as confirmed by the PCR methods were included. Bacterial DNA was extracted by a simple boiling method. The LAMP-HNB method for each target gene was carried out using a set of six primers under isothermal condition at 65 °C in an ordinary water bath within 60 min and visual measurement of reaction by the change from violet to sky blue. This method had high efficiency (100% sensitivity and specificity) for identifying the bla NDM, bla OXA-48, bla VIM, bla IMP-14 and bla KPC groups compared with the PCR method. The HNB is easy to prepare, inexpensive and provides reliable results. Therefore, this method could be used as a confirmatory carbapenemase test in routine laboratory or for epidemiological purposes.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Mahadwad, O K; Jasra, R V; Parikh, P A; Tayade, R J

    2010-07-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of commonly used textile dyes, namely, Reactive Black-5 (RB-5), Red (ME4BL), Golden Yellow (MERL), Blue-222, Methylene Blue, and Malachite Green, has been studied, using TiO2 (P25) as a photocatalyst. All the dye solutions could be decolorized. Kinetics of RB-5 oxidation reaction has been studied and was found to be of first order in dye concentration. Effects of different parameters such as catalyst amount, initial concentration of the dyes, and pH of solution along with biological parameters (TOC and COD) on the rate of degradation were studied. Experimental results showed that photocatalytic degradation of commonly used RB-5 was very effective at the optimum catalyst quantity of 2.5 g/L.

  15. Synthesis of an efficient white-light photocatalyst composite of graphene and ZnO nanoparticles: Application to methylene blue dye decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Muhammad Mohsin; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Hahn, Jae Ryang

    2015-11-01

    A graphene-ZnO nanoparticle composite was fabricated by an in situ solvothermal process at low temperatures without catalytic assistance. The as-prepared composite absorbs light at an extended range of wavelengths from the visible to the near IR (400-1665 nm), efficiently absorbs high-intensity light in the near IR region, and exhibits high electrical conductivity. The highly porous structure of aggregated ZnO nanoparticles on the graphene surface enables these particles to absorb dye and degrade it. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggests that a number of oxygen vacancy defects are created in the ZnO matrix and that Zn atoms are chemically bonded to Cdbnd O groups at the relatively amorphous sites of the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy analysis indicates a strong interaction between the graphene surface and ZnO nanoparticles. Further analyses using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible-near-IR absorption, band gap calculations, electrical conductivity measurements, and photocatalysis show that the incorporation of graphene with ZnO nanoparticles narrows the band gap of ZnO, facilitates an extended range of light absorption, improves the electrical conductivity of ZnO, creates oxygen vacancy defects in the ZnO crystal, and enhances stability against photocorrosion.

  16. Rapid preparation of rodent testicular cell suspensions and spermatogenic stages purification by flow cytometry using a novel blue-laser-excitable vital dye.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Casuriaga, Rosana; Santiñaque, Federico F; Folle, Gustavo A; Souza, Elisa; López-Carro, Beatriz; Geisinger, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Availability of purified or highly enriched fractions representing the various spermatogenic stages is a usual requirement to study mammalian spermatogenesis at the molecular level. Fast preparation of high quality testicular cell suspensions is crucial when flow cytometry (FCM) is chosen to accomplish the stage/s purification. Formerly, we reported a method to rapidly obtain good quality rodent testicular cell suspensions for FCM analysis and sorting. Using that method we could distinguish and purify early meiocytes (leptotene/zygotene stages, L/Z) from more advanced ones (pachytene, P) in guinea pig, which presents an unusually high content of early stages. Here we present an upgrade of that method with improvements that enabled the obtainment of high-purity meiotic substages also from mouse testis, namely:•Shortening of the mechanical disaggregation time to optimize the integrity of the suspension.•Elimination of the 25 μm-filtration step to ensure the presence of large P cells.•Inclusion of a non-cytotoxic, DNA-specific, 488 nm-excitable vital fluorochrome (Vybrant DyeCycle Green [VDG], Invitrogen) instead of Hoechst 33342 (requires UV laser, which can damage nucleic acids) or propidium iodide (usually related to dead/damaged cells). As far as we know, this is the first report on the use of this fluorochrome for the discrimination and purification of meiotic prophase I substages.

  17. Rapid preparation of rodent testicular cell suspensions and spermatogenic stages purification by flow cytometry using a novel blue-laser-excitable vital dye

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Casuriaga, Rosana; Santiñaque, Federico F.; Folle, Gustavo A.; Souza, Elisa; López-Carro, Beatriz; Geisinger, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Availability of purified or highly enriched fractions representing the various spermatogenic stages is a usual requirement to study mammalian spermatogenesis at the molecular level. Fast preparation of high quality testicular cell suspensions is crucial when flow cytometry (FCM) is chosen to accomplish the stage/s purification. Formerly, we reported a method to rapidly obtain good quality rodent testicular cell suspensions for FCM analysis and sorting. Using that method we could distinguish and purify early meiocytes (leptotene/zygotene stages, L/Z) from more advanced ones (pachytene, P) in guinea pig, which presents an unusually high content of early stages. Here we present an upgrade of that method with improvements that enabled the obtainment of high-purity meiotic substages also from mouse testis, namely:•Shortening of the mechanical disaggregation time to optimize the integrity of the suspension.•Elimination of the 25 μm-filtration step to ensure the presence of large P cells.•Inclusion of a non-cytotoxic, DNA-specific, 488 nm-excitable vital fluorochrome (Vybrant DyeCycle Green [VDG], Invitrogen) instead of Hoechst 33342 (requires UV laser, which can damage nucleic acids) or propidium iodide (usually related to dead/damaged cells). As far as we know, this is the first report on the use of this fluorochrome for the discrimination and purification of meiotic prophase I substages. PMID:26150958

  18. Spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) nano-photocatalysts: Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmapriya, G.; Manikandan, A.; Krishnasamy, V.; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Antony, S. Arul

    2016-09-01

    Spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.0 to 1.0) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using metal nitrates as raw materials and glycine as the fuel. The structural, morphological and opto-magnetic properties of the spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 ferrites were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Powder XRD, and EDX analysis was confirmed the formation of pure phase of spinel ferrites. HR-SEM and HR-TEM analysis was confirmed the formation of sphere like-particle morphology of the samples with smaller agglomeration. VSM analysis clearly showed the superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic nature of the samples. The Ms value is 3.851 emu/g for undoped ZnFe2O4 sample and it increased with increase in Ni content. Photo-catalytic degradation (PCD) of methylene blue (MB) dye using the samples were carried out and observed good PCD results.

  19. Decolorization of complex dyes and textile effluent by extracellular enzymes of Cyathus bulleri cultivated on agro-residues/domestic wastes and proposed pathway of degradation of Kiton blue A and reactive orange 16.

    PubMed

    Vats, Arpita; Mishra, Saroj

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the white-rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was cultivated on low-cost agro-residues, namely wheat bran (WB), wheat straw (WS), and domestic waste orange peel (OP) for production of ligninolytic enzymes. Of the three substrates, WB and OP served as good materials for the production of laccase with no requirement of additional carbon or nitrogen source. Specific laccase activity of 94.4 U mg(-1) extracellular protein and 21.01 U mg(-1) protein was obtained on WB and OP, respectively. Maximum decolorization rate of 13.6 μmol h(-1) U(-1) laccase for reactive black 5 and 22.68 μmol h(-1) U(-1) laccase for reactive orange 16 (RO) was obtained with the WB culture filtrate, and 11.7 μmol h(-1) U(-1) laccase for reactive violet 5 was observed with OP culture filtrate. Importantly, Kiton blue A (KB), reported not to be amenable to enzymatic degradation, was degraded by culture filtrate borne activities. Products of degradation of KB and RO were identified by mass spectrometry, and a pathway of degradation proposed. WB-grown culture filtrate decolorized and detoxified real and simulated textile effluents by about 40%. The study highlights the use of inexpensive materials for the production of enzymes effective on dyes and effluents.

  20. Facile one-pot fabrication of nano-Fe3O4/carboxyl-functionalized baker's yeast composites and their application in methylene blue dye adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zongjun; Zhang, Yue; Li, Zhengjie; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Guangtu; Zou, Ping; Chen, Huaping; Zhang, Yunsong

    2017-01-01

    Nano-Fe3O4/carboxyl-functionalized baker's yeast composites (NF/CF-BYs) were prepared for the first time based on the ultrasonic cavitation assisted oxygen implosion method using single Fe2+ as iron source. The series of characterization analysis results showed that the obtained NF/CF-BYs had not only the superparamagnetic properties of nano-Fe3O4, but their surface also had plenty of functional groups (especially carboxyl groups) introduced by strong oxidization. The adsorption properties of NF/CF-BYs for methylene blue (MB) were also evaluated. The results displayed that the uptakes of NF/CF-BYs for MB were higher than that of pristine baker's yeast (P-BYs), and the adsorption process was followed by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity of NF/CF-BYs for MB was estimated to be 141.75 mg g-1 at pH 6. The regeneration efficiency of the obtained NF/CF-BYs was attained to be more than 90%.

  1. Hydrotalcite-TiO2 magnetic iron oxide intercalated with the anionic surfactant dodecylsulfate in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Liany D L; Bellato, Carlos R; Milagres, Jaderson L; Moura, Luciano G; Mounteer, Ann H; de Almeida, Marciano F

    2015-06-01

    The new magnetic photocatalysts HT/TiO2/Fe and HT-DS/TiO2/Fe, modified with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (DS) were successfully synthesized in this work. Titanium dioxide (anatase) followed by iron oxide were deposited on the hydrotalcite support. Several catalyst samples were prepared with different amounts of titanium and iron. The photocatalysts were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy. Photocatalytic performance was analyzed by UV-visible radiation (filter cutoff, λ > 300 nm) of an aqueous solution (24 mg/L) of methylene blue (MB). The most efficient catalyst was obtained at an iron oxide:TiO2 molar ratio of 2:3. This catalyst showed high photocatalytic activity, removing 96% of the color and 61% of total organic carbon from the MB solution after 120 min. It was easily removed from solution after use because of its magnetic properties. The reuse of the HT-DS/TiO2/Fe23 catalyst was viable and the catalyst was structurally stable for at least four consecutive photocatalytic cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenotypic Identification of the Redox Dye Methylene Blue as an Antagonist of Heat Shock Response Gene Expression in Metastatic Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Angela L.; Cabello, Christopher M.; Qiao, Shuxi; Azimian, Sara; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2013-01-01

    Repurposing approved and abandoned non-oncological drugs is an alternative developmental strategy for the identification of anticancer therapeutics that has recently attracted considerable attention. Due to the essential role of the cellular heat shock response in cytoprotection through the maintenance of proteostasis and suppression of apoptosis, small molecule heat shock response antagonists can be harnessed for targeted induction of cytotoxic effects in cancer cells. Guided by gene expression array analysis and a phenotypic screen interrogating a collection of 3,7-diamino-phenothiazinium derivatives, we have identified the redox-drug methylene blue (MB), used clinically for the infusional treatment of methemoglobinemia, as a negative modulator of heat shock response gene expression in human metastatic melanoma cells. MB-treatment blocked thermal (43 °C) and pharmacological (celastrol, geldanamycin) induction of heat shock response gene expression, suppressing Hsp70 (HSPA1A) and Hsp27 (HSPB1) upregulation at the mRNA and protein level. MB sensitized melanoma cells to the apoptogenic activity of geldanamycin, an Hsp90 antagonist known to induce the counter-regulatory upregulation of Hsp70 expression underlying cancer cell resistance to geldanamycin chemotherapy. Similarly, MB-cotreatment sensitized melanoma cells to other chemotherapeutics (etoposide, doxorubicin). Taken together, these data suggest feasibility of repurposing the non-oncological redox drug MB as a therapeutic heat shock response antagonist for cancer cell chemosensitization. PMID:23429201

  3. Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

  4. Suppression of cucurbit scab on cucumber leaves by photodynamic dyes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to test the ability of the photodynamic dyes bengal rose, toluidine blue, and methylene blue, to protect systemically cucumber plants from cucurbit scab. At the stage of one true leaf, water or aqueous solutions of the dyes were applied to the leaf as droplets. When the se...

  5. Properties of nucleic acid staining dyes used in gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Tobe, Shanan S; Kobus, Hilton J; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid staining dyes are used for detecting nucleic acids in electrophoresis gels. Historically, the most common dye used for gel staining is ethidium bromide, however due to its toxicity and mutagenicity other dyes that are safer to the user and the environment are preferred. This Short Communication details the properties of dyes now available and their sensitivity for detection of DNA and their ability to permeate the cell membrane. It was found that GelRed™ was the most sensitive and safest dye to use with UV light excitation, and both GelGreen™ and Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye were sensitive and the safer dyes using blue light excitation.

  6. Diode pumped tunable dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukova, O.; Gorbunkov, M.; Petukhov, V.; Semenov, M.

    2017-03-01

    A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by blue laser diodes (λ =445 nm) in a 200 ns pulsed mode has been developed. We used a 3-mirror cavity with transverse excitation and total internal reflection of laser beam in the active element. Tuning curves for 8 dyes in benzyl alcohol were measured in the range of 506-700 nm. Four dyes have their tuning range more than 60 nm, which is comparable to the tuning ranges of other dye lasers pumped by more expensive sources. The output energy obtained at the generation maximum of both DCM and coumarin 540A dyes was approximately 130 nJ while the pump energy was 2400 nJ.

  7. Contact urticaria to cosmetic and industrial dyes.

    PubMed

    Davari, P; Maibach, H I

    2011-01-01

    Contact urticaria (CU) defines the weal-and-flare reaction that occurs after external cutaneous contact with a causative agent. These reactions often cause discomfort for patients, affect their quality of life, and in severe cases may be life-threatening. Some dyes are known to be urticariogens. Many people have daily exposure to these urticariogens, because of the widespread use of dyes, for example in textiles, cosmetics and foods. We reviewed industrial and cosmetic dyes such as hair dyes, basic blue 99 dye, patent blue dyes, henna, red dyes, curcumin and reactive dyes, which can potentially cause CU. Overall, the reported cases of CU lacked appropriate controls. Hair-dye constituents such as preservatives and intensifiers may play an important role as causative agents of CU. We recommend appropriate protection guidelines to reduce the incidence of CU in high-risk groups such as hairdressers, dye-factory workers or workers in dye-related industries. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Effectiveness of photosensitive dye during uptake and redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Yan; Jacques, Steven L.; Gofstein, Gary

    1992-06-01

    The location of photosensitive dye within a cell will affect the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). This report demonstrates that during the first 3 hours of dye (Photofrin porfimer) uptake from a liquid medium, the dye is diffusely distributed within the cell. After 24 hours of dye uptake, the dye is localized in specific sites within the cell. Fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that the 3-hour dye's emission peak near 635 nm was slightly blue shifted for the localized 24-hour dye. This paper demonstrates that the diffuse dye (at 3 hours) is more effective for PDT than the localized dye (at 24 hours). The amount of diffuse dye within the cell that is required to achieve an LD50 (50% lethal dose) is 1.5-fold to 4.5- fold less than the amount of localized dye required, using the same light exposure. The range of 1.5 - 4.5-fold refers to the results for four cell lines.

  9. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  10. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  11. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  12. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of some novel Schiff bases and their Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes: A new route for Co3O4 and NiO nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Aly, Hisham M.; Abdelrahman, Ehab A.; Moustafa, Moustafa E.

    2017-09-01

    Six novel Co(II) and Ni(II)-triazole Schiff base complexes have been successfully synthesized by refluxing the prepared triazole Schiff bases with CoCl2·6H2O or NiCl2·6H2O. The Schiff base ligands were prepared through condensation of 3-R-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazole with dibenzoylmethane [Rdbnd H, CH3, and CH2CH3; namely, L1, L2, and L3, respectively]. The prepared Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have been identified using elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment, conductivity, and thermal analysis. On the basis of the conductance results, it was concluded that all the prepared complexes are nonelectrolytes. Interestingly, the prepared Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes were employed as precursors for producing of Co3O4 and NiO nanoparticles, respectively. The produced nanostructures have been identified by XRD, HR-TEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra. The produced nanoparticles revealed good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under UV illumination in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The percent of degradation was estimated to be 55.71% in 420.0 min and 90.43% in 360.0 min for Co3O4 and NiO, respectively. Moreover, the synthesized complexes, nano-sized Co3O4, and NiO products have been examined, employing modified Bauer- Kirby method, for antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus) and antibacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) activities.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye and magneto-optical studies of magnetically recyclable spinel NixMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.0-1.0) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathubala, G.; Manikandan, A.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramar, P.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel doped spinel manganese ferrite (NixMn1-xFe2O4: x = 0.0-1.0) nanoparticles were prepared successfully by a superficial microwave irradiation technique using urea as the fuel. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was recognized the configuration of single phase spinel structure of NixMn1-xFe2O4. Debye Sherrer's formula was used to calculate the average crystallite size of the samples, which were found in the range of 15-20 nm. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the samples, which showed the particle like-morphology with smaller agglomeration, and it was also confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the elemental composition, which also evidence for the formation of single pure phase. Microwave heating method produced well crystalline nature of the products, which was confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were used to calculate the energy band gap and the observed values are increased slightly from 2.05 eV to 2.44 eV with increasing the Ni-dapant. Magnetic characterization of the samples were analyzed by room temperature vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) technique and the observed magnetization (Ms) values are decreased with increasing Ni content, due to the different magnetic moments of Mn2+ and Ni2+ cations. Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of methylene blue dye was carried out by self designed photo-catalytic reactor. It was observed that PCD efficiency is increased with increase in concentration of Ni and the sample Ni0.6Mn0.4Fe2O4 shows better photocatalytic activity (96.73%) than other samples.

  15. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds.

  16. Sorption of some textile dyes by beech wood sawdust.

    PubMed

    Dulman, Viorica; Cucu-Man, Simona Maria

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the experimental conditions for removal of several textile dyes from aqueous solutions by sorption on beech wood sawdust, an industrial waste lignocellulosic product. From the six dyes tested, the sorbent shows preference for three dyes: Direct Brown, Direct Brown 2 and Basic Blue 86. Sorption of dyes on the beech wood sawdust is dependent on the nature of dye, pH, dyes concentration, contact time, and amount of sorbent. By comparative kinetic studies, the rate of sorption was found to conform with good correlation to pseudo-second-order kinetics. The parameters that characterize the sorption were determined on the basis of Langmuir isotherms. The preference of beech sawdust for dyes increases as follows: Basic Blue 86dye (of approximately 60% purity) was found to be 526.3 mg g(-1) for Direct Brown.

  17. [Maternity blues].

    PubMed

    Gonidakis, F

    2007-04-01

    Maternity blues is a transient change of mood that occurs mainly between the 1st and 10th day of puerpartum and is characterized by bursts of tears, mild depressive mood, anxiety and liability of mood. The frequency of maternity blues varies in different studies form 4% to 80%. A number of biological and psychosocial parameters have been studied in order to determine their correlation with maternity blues. The most well studied biological parameters are progesterone and cortizol although their relation with maternity blues has not yet been clearly defined. Stress and the emotional state of the woman during pregnancy as well as history of mood disorders or maternity blues in a previous birth are the psychosocial parameters that are more likely to correlate with the occurrence of maternity blues. Most of the authors suggest that information on maternity blues and reassurance of the woman are the best way to deal with maternity blues both on preventive and therapeutical basis.

  18. Coomassie-Brilliant Blue staining of polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Claudia; Koristka, Stefanie; Feldmann, Anja; Bartsch, Holger; Bachmann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Over the past, a series of staining procedures for proteins were published. The most commonly used staining dye for proteins is still Coomassie-Brilliant Blue. The major reason is Coomassie-Brilliant Blue staining is simple, fast, and sensitive. As Coomassie-Brilliant Blue is almost insoluble in water, a series of procedures including colloidal aqueous procedures were described.

  19. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    PubMed

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures.

  20. Bichromophoric Dyes for Wavelength Shifting of Dye-Protein Fluoromodules

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Ha H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Brotherton, Wendy L.; Schmidt, Brigitte F.; Zanotti, Kimberly J.; Waggoner, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    Dye-protein fluoromodules consist of fluorogenic dyes and single chain antibody fragments that form brightly fluorescent noncovalent complexes. This report describes two new bichromophoric dyes that extend the range of wavelengths of excitation or emission of existing fluoromodules. In one case, a fluorogenic thiazole orange (TO) was attached to an energy acceptor dye, Cy5. Upon binding to a protein that recognizes TO, red emission due to efficient energy transfer from TO to Cy5 replaces the green emission observed for monochromophoric TO bound to the same protein. Separately, TO was attached to a coumarin that serves as an energy donor. The same green emission is observed for coumarin-TO and TO bound to a protein, but efficient energy transfer allows violet excitation of coumarin-TO, versus longer wavelength, blue excitation of monochromophoric TO. Both bichromophores exhibit low nanomolar KD values for their respective proteins, >95% energy transfer efficiency and high fluorescence quantum yields. PMID:25679477

  1. Photo-induced inactivation of viruses: adsorption of methylene blue, thionine, and thiopyronine on Qbeta bacteriophage.

    PubMed Central

    Jockusch, S; Lee, D; Turro, N J; Leonard, E F

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of cationic organic dyes (methylene blue, thionine, and thiopyronine) on Qbeta bacteriophage was studied by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The dyes have shown a strong affinity to the virus and some have been used as sensitizers for photo-induced inactivation of virus. In the methylene blue concentration range of 0.1-5 microM and at high ratios of dye to virus (greater than 1000 dye molecules per virion), the dyes bind as aggregates on the virus. Aggregation lowers the efficiency of photoinactivation because of self-quenching of the dye. At lower ratios of dye to virus (lower than 500 dye molecules per virion), the dye binds to the virus as a monomer. Fluorescence polarization and time-resolved studies of the fluorescence support the conclusions based on fluorescence quenching. Increasing the ionic strength (adding NaCl) dissociates bound dye aggregates on the virus and releases monomeric dye into the bulk solution. PMID:8755492

  2. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  3. Azacoumarin dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

  4. Lymphatic drainage of skin to a sentinel lymph node in a feline model.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, J H; Cagle, L A; Morton, D L

    1991-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of selective lymphadenectomy, the authors developed a feline model to identify and determine the utility of mapping dyes for this purpose. Adult cats were injected intradermally with a variety of mapping substances to determine whether the anatomic site of injection had a predictable pattern of drainage to a particular lymph node. Isosulfan blue provided the optimal mapping material. Injection of isosulfan blue intradermally into the skin of the medial thigh consistently led to coloration of the central lymph node, whereas intradermal abdominal wall injections and intradermal lateral thigh injections resulted in coloration of the lateral lymph node. Intradermal injections into skin about the perineum resulted in coloration of the most medial lymph node only. The feline model proved to a useful model to examine the utility of mapping dyes and to demonstrate dermal lymphatics. The predictable pattern of drainage of the skin in this feline model supports the feasibility of selective lymphadenectomy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:1953118

  5. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  6. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  7. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  8. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  9. Brilliant blue G-assisted peeling of the internal limiting membrane in macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Prashant; Vashisht, Naginder; Khanduja, Sumeet; Sinha, Subijay; Garg, Satpal

    2011-01-01

    Dye-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and gas tamponade is the surgery of choice for idiopathic macular holes. Indocyanine green and trypan blue have been extensively used to stain the ILM. However, the retinal toxicity of indocyanine green and non-uniform staining with trypan blue has necessitated development of newer vital dyes. Brilliant blue G has recently been introduced as one such dye with adequate ILM staining and no reported retinal toxicity. We performed a 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted ILM peeling in six patients with idiopathic macular holes, to assess the staining characteristics and short-term adverse effects of this dye. Adequate staining assisted in the complete removal of ILM and closure of macular holes in all cases. There was no evidence of intraoperative or postoperative dye-related toxicity. Brilliant blue G appears to be safe dye for ILM staining in macular hole surgery.

  10. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation.

  11. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  12. Blue-green upconversion laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  13. Indicator characteristics of bromothymol blue derivatives.

    PubMed

    Puschett, J B; Rao, B S; Karandikar, B M; Matyjaszewski, K

    1991-03-01

    Some Bromothymol Blue derivatives with a nitro, amino, isothiocyanato or sulfonamide group substituted on the sulfonated ring of the dibromothymolsulfonephthalein have been studied spectrometrically. All the dyes have two characteristic absorption peaks which can be used to measure pH in the physiological range. The molar absorptivities, wavelengths of maximum absorption and pK(a) values have been determined from the absorbances, and are similar for all four dyes.

  14. Investigation of picosecond blue laser emission from chlorophyll molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yixian; Wang Yagang; Zhu Wei; Li Fuming; Yang Shanyuan; Zhou Peilin

    1988-03-01

    Results on picosecond blue laser emission from a chlorophyll (chl) dye laser with an ultrashort cavity are reported. The laser mechanism involves intermolecular energy transfer from excited coumarin (co) molecules to chlorophyll a and b pigment molecules.

  15. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

  16. Dye adsorption behavior of Luffa cylindrica fibers.

    PubMed

    Demir, H; Top, A; Balköse, D; Ulkü, S

    2008-05-01

    Using natural Luffa cylindrica fibers as adsorbent removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions at different temperatures and dye concentrations was investigated in this study. Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption were also investigated. The adsorption isotherms could be well defined with Langmuir model instead of Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters of methylene blue (MB) adsorption indicated that the adsorption is exothermic and spontaneous. The average MB adsorption capacity was found out as 49 mg/g and average BET surface area of fibers was calculated as 123 m(2)/g.

  17. The conformational characteristics of Congo red, Evans blue and Trypan blue.

    PubMed

    Skowronek, M; Roterman; Konieczny, L; Stopa, B; Rybarska, J; Piekarska, B; Górecki, A; Król, M

    2000-05-01

    The structures of the closely related bis-azo dyes Evans blue, Trypan blue and Congo red, which appeared to have different self-assembly properties and correspondingly different abilities to form complexes with amyloids and some other proteins, were compared in this work. Ab initio and semi-empirical methods were used to find the optimal structures and partial charge distributions of the dyes. The optimal structures were searched using different widely used programs. The structures of Congo red and evans blue were found to be planar, except for the torsion on the central diphenyl bond connecting the two halves of the dye. Both symmetrical parts of the molecules appeared very close to planarity. However, Trypan blue exhibits non planarity on the di-azo bonds, as well as on the central bond between the symmetrical parts of the dye. In a consequence, the non planarity of this molecule is higher than in the case of its isomer, Evans blue and Congo red as well. The extra rotation around the azo bonds extorted by the close proximity of the sulfonic groups may be the direct cause of its poor self-assembling and complexation properties versus Evans blue.

  18. Blue Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There is...to the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  19. Biscoumarins: New laser dyes in Coumarin series

    SciTech Connect

    Padhye, M.R.; Varadarajan, T.S.; Deshpande, A.V.

    1984-06-01

    With a view to extend the tunability range using new derivatives in the coumarin series of dyes, a novel series have been synthesized, viz. the biscoumarins where two coumarin nuclei are coupled. These are studied for their lasing characteristics, optical spectra and quantum efficiencies. Laser spectra of these dyes in various solvents are also studied. Tunability range of these dyes have been found to cover blue green region of the spectrum and though there is shift to longer wavelength as compared to monocoumarins, extending the tunability range, it is not as much as would be normally expected with extended conjugation involving two coumarin nuclei.

  20. Holograms with corn honey and erioglaucine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande-Grande, A.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Paez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    We present a comparative analysis between the diffraction gratings efficiencies recorded on films corn honey and corn honey whit ereoglaucine dye (Blue ® No. 1). For recording the diffraction gratings in the films using the technique of lithography pattern obtained by computer and exposure of the samples to ultraviolet radiation. Although the main reason of the addition of dye to the honey was the one of increasing its diffraction efficiency, the experimental results demonstrated that the gratings recorded in honey had bigger diffraction efficiency than those recorded in honey with dye.

  1. What Is Happening when the Blue Bottle Bleaches: An Investigation of the Methylene Blue-Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laurens; Wittkopp, Stacy M.; Painter, Christopher J.; Liegel, Jessica J.; Schreiner, Rodney; Bell, Jerry A.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the Blue Bottle Experiment, a well-known lecture demonstration reaction involving the dye-catalyzed air oxidation of a reducing sugar in alkaline solution, has delineated the sequence of reactions leading to the bleaching of the dye, the regeneration of color, and so forth. Enolization of the sugar is proposed as a key step in…

  2. What Is Happening when the Blue Bottle Bleaches: An Investigation of the Methylene Blue-Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laurens; Wittkopp, Stacy M.; Painter, Christopher J.; Liegel, Jessica J.; Schreiner, Rodney; Bell, Jerry A.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the Blue Bottle Experiment, a well-known lecture demonstration reaction involving the dye-catalyzed air oxidation of a reducing sugar in alkaline solution, has delineated the sequence of reactions leading to the bleaching of the dye, the regeneration of color, and so forth. Enolization of the sugar is proposed as a key step in…

  3. Decolorization and removal of textile and non-textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent by using potato (Solanum tuberosum) soluble and immobilized polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2007-03-01

    Celite bound potato polyphenol oxidase preparation was employed for the treatment of wastewater/dye effluent contaminated with reactive textile and non-textile dyes, Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86. The maximum decolorization was found at pH 3.0 and 4.0 in case of Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86, respectively. Immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase was significantly more effective in decolorizing the individual dye and complex mixtures of dyes as compared to soluble enzyme. The absorption spectra of the treated and untreated dye mixture and dyeing effluent exhibited a marked difference in the absorption value at various wavelengths. The polluted water contaminated with an individual dye or mixtures of dyes treated with soluble and immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase resulted in the remarkable loss in total organic carbon.

  4. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Suxiang; Cai, Lejuan; Li, Dapeng; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In2S3 nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  5. Study of the release of a microencapsulated acid dye in polyamide dyeing using mixed cationic liposomes.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Isabel S C; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Rocha Gomes, Jaime I N; Real Oliveira, M Elisabete C D

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of this work was to increase the retarding effect of the acid dye Telon(®) Blue RR (C.I. Acid Blue 62; DyStar, Frankfurt, Germany) release on polyamide fibres dyeing by encapsulation of the dye in liposomes as an alternative to synthetic auxiliaries, in order to reduce effluent pollution. The retarding effect achieved with the use of mixed cationic liposomes of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB)/soybean lecithin (containing a 10% molar fraction of DODAB) was better in comparison with either pure soybean lecithin liposomes or synthetic auxiliaries. The retarding effect of liposomes on the dye release was analysed through changes in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the acid dye at different conditions. The effect of temperature (in the range of 25 °C - 70 °C) on the spectroscopic behaviour of the dye in the absence and in presence of polyamide was also studied, in order to simulate the dyeing conditions. Exhaustion curves obtained in dyeing experiments showed that, below 45 °C, the retarding effect of the mixed liposomes (lecithin/DODAB (9:1)) was similar to that of the auxiliaries, but better than the one of pure lecithin liposomes. At higher temperatures (above 45 °C), the system lecithin/DODAB presents a better performance, achieving a higher final exhaustion level when compared with the commercial leveling agent without losing the smoothing effect of lecithin.

  6. Spectral studies of pH dye films for detection of toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Wieslaw; Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Golubkov, Sergei P.; Borsuk, Pavel S.

    1993-09-01

    The molecular absorption spectra of pH dyes, employed for ammonia sensing are investigated. Differences of absorption spectra of Bromothymol Blue and Bromocresol Purple dyes, dissolved in water and entrapped in Polymethylphenylsiloxane film are discussed. Correspondence of dye-films absorption bands shape to the Gauss distribution shape in the spectral region of light source emission band was determined.

  7. Staining proteins in gels with coomassie blue.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J

    2007-04-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe most commonly used dye for visualizing proteins in SDS-PAGE gels is Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250 (CBR-250) because of its relatively high sensitivity. This protocol describes the standard CBR-250 staining method, along with a simple method for preparing stained gels for long-term storage.

  8. Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-08-01

    Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves.

  10. Jagua blue derived from Genipa americana L. fruit: A natural alternative to commonly used blue food colorants?

    PubMed

    Brauch, J E; Zapata-Porras, S P; Buchweitz, M; Aschoff, J K; Carle, R

    2016-11-01

    Due to consumers' increasing health awareness, food industry aims at replacing synthetic dyes by natural counterparts. The substitution of blue synthetic dyes is particularly challenging since current natural alternatives such as phycocyanin (Spirulina) suffer from poor stability. Jagua blue (produced from Genipa americana L. fruit) might represent a potential novel blue pigment source. However, only little is known about its color properties, and application in food systems. Therefore, the blue color and the stability of Jagua blue were assessed for the first time and compared to commonly used colorants, namely, Spirulina, brilliant blue FCF (Blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (Blue no. 2). The reaction rate of Jagua blue was independent of its concentration, confirming thermal degradation to follow first-order kinetics. Between pH 3.6 and 5.0, the color hue of Jagua blue solutions was similar to that of Blue no. 2. However, Jagua blue revealed markedly higher storage stabilities (t1/2=86-105days) than Blue no. 2 (t1/2≤9days) and was less susceptible to acidic pH of 3.6 (t1/2=86days) than Spirulina (t1/2=70days). High negative b* values (blueness) of colored gelatin gels were only obtained for Jagua blue and Spirulina, and the former exhibited higher light stabilities (t1/2=15days) than Spirulina gels (t1/2=4days). Our findings indicate Jagua blue to be a most promising alternative to synthetic dyes, providing relevant information regarding potential food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A blue dive: from 'blue fingers' to 'blue silver'. A comparative overview of staining methods for in-gel proteomics.

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Calzia, Daniela; Santucci, Laura; Ravera, Silvia; Bruschi, Maurizio; Candiano, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    Gel-based proteomics are the most useful method for protein separation, even when compared with gel-free proteomics. Proteomic analysis by 2D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) with immobilized pH gradients is in turn the best approach to large-scale protein-expression screening. Spots visualization is pivotal for protein identification by mass spectrometry. Commonly used staining methods with excellent mass spectrometry compatibility are coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) or fluorescent dyes. In this study, an implementation of 'blue silver' colloidal CBB staining, characterized by high sensitivity and immediate low background, is discussed. The sensitivity of classical, colloidal and 'blue silver' CBB staining methods was compared on monodimensional and 2-DE gels. The implementation of the 'blue silver' method performs better, provided the physical state of the micelles is respected. An example of a 2-DE of human urine treated with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries demonstrates that implemented 'blue silver' can evidence the complexity of the sample.

  12. Comparative performance evaluation of Aspergillus lentulus for dye removal through bioaccumulation and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

    2013-05-01

    Dyes used in various industries are discharged into the environment and pose major environmental concern. In the present study, fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulus was utilized for the treatment of various dyes, dye mixtures and dye containing effluent in dual modes, bioaccumulation (employing growing biomass) and biosorption (employing pre-cultivated biomass). The effect of dye toxicity on the growth of the fungal isolate was studied through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Dye biosorption was studied using first and second-order kinetic models. Effects of factors influencing adsorption and isotherm studies were also conducted. During bioaccumulation, good removal was obtained for anionic dyes (100 mg/l), viz. Acid Navy Blue, Fast Red A and Orange-HF dye (99.4 %, 98.8 % and 98.7 %, respectively) in 48 h. Cationic dyes (10 mg/l), viz. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue, had low removal efficiency (80.3 % [48 h] and 92.7 % [144 h], respectively) as compared to anionic dyes. In addition to this, fungal isolate showed toxicity response towards Methylene Blue by producing larger aggregates of fungal pellets. To overcome the limitations of bioaccumulation, dye removal in biosorption mode was studied. In this mode, significant removal was observed for anionic (96.7-94.3 %) and cationic (35.4-90.9 %) dyes in 24 h. The removal of three anionic dyes and Rhodamine B followed first-order kinetic model whereas removal of Methylene Blue followed second-order kinetic model. Overall, fungal isolate could remove more than 90 % dye from different dye mixtures in bioaccumulation mode and more than 70 % dye in biosorption mode. Moreover, significant color removal from handmade paper unit effluent in bioaccumulation mode (86.4 %) as well as in biosorption mode (77.1 %) was obtained within 24 h. This study validates the potential of fungal isolate, A. lentulus, to be used as the primary organism for treating dye containing wastewater.

  13. Adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution onto pumice powder.

    PubMed

    Akbal, Feryal

    2005-06-15

    The adsorption of methylene blue and crystal violet on pumice powder samples of varying compositions was investigated using a batch adsorption technique. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, and contact time, were also investigated. The extent of dye removal increased with decreased initial concentration of the dye and also increased with increased contact time and amount of adsorbent used. Adsorption data were modeled using the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of methylene blue and crystal violet could be described by the pseudo-second-order reaction model.

  14. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  15. Dyes in ocular surgery: principles for use in chromovitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Farah, Michel Eid; Maia, Mauricio; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2009-09-01

    To present the current state-of-the-art information regarding the properties, indications, surgical techniques, and toxic effects of current and past applications of vital dyes in chromovitrectomy. Critical analysis and surgical perspective of the literature and recent studies. Review, interpretation, and commentary regarding the most relevant experimental as well as clinical studies including the authors' clinical and laboratory research. There is a consensus that the application of vital dyes facilitates the delicate removal of intraocular membranes during vitreoretinal surgery. Controversy still remains around various issues, mainly potential toxicity and safety. There is room for further investigation of novel and specific vital dyes. Dyes such as Evans blue and light green may stain the internal limiting membrane very well, whereas fast green and indigo carmine may be very safe to the retina. However, comparing the staining and toxicity data has revealed that Bromophenol blue and Brilliant blue may be even better novel agents. The dyes currently used for different steps in chromovitrectomy are: triamcinolone acetonide for vitreous identification; indocyanine green, infracyanine green, and Brilliant blue for internal limiting membrane identification; and Trypan blue for epiretinal membrane identification. Clear-cut safety profiles for the different dyes in chromovitrectomy have not yet been established, and current state-of-the-art staining-assisted procedures should be performed using concentrations and volumes as low as possible.

  16. [Experimental study of immune reactivity in Swiss mice due to topical administration of three textile dyes].

    PubMed

    Gavăt, C C; Lupuşoru, R V; Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Lupuşoru, Cătălina Elena

    2010-01-01

    Reactive Red 183, Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Blue 204 (red dye, green dye and blue dye) are three reactive dyes frequently used in textile industry. In some atmospheric conditions ( high temperature, perspiration, pH values, UV/IR radiations), some quantities of these hydrolyzed dyes, could pass from textile clothes directly into the human skin. There were used 4 groups of white Swiss mice (with similar weight and number of both sexes), control group and 3 groups, treated once daily with a retro-auricular application of different reactive dyes. After 14 days of treatment, blood samples were taken from retro-orbitary plexus to assess leukocyte count, phagocytic capacity of peripheral neutrophils, serum opsonic capacity, phagocyte capacity and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages, splenic T lymphocytes with rossetting capacity and spleen cells forming Jerne plaques. The retro-acuricular and latero-cervical nodes were weighted. Red dye did not influence the weight of the studied nodes, but determined statistically significant modifications on non-specific immune system parameters. Blue and grena dyes determined modifications of weight especially of retroauricular nodes. Grena dye determined important effects of non-specific immune system parameters (serum opsonic capacity, phagocyte capacity and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages). The blue dye did not determine a biological response. Red and green dye determined important effects on non-specific immune system parameters.

  17. Dye-Doped Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films for Flexible Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kee-Jeong Yang,; Seung-Chul Lee,; Byeong-Dae Choi,

    2010-05-01

    Red, green, and blue dyes were doped to polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films for flexible display applications. Dichroic dye-doped liquid crystal droplets had a bipolar configuration. The E7-DG6071-dye composition showed better chromaticity data than other compositions. The small-particle-size red-dye-doped PDLC film showed good color differences. To improve the color difference, the dye particle size has to be small, and the bead milling process can make dye particles small. In this system, the bigger the liquid crystal droplet size, the higher the PDLC film driving voltage (Von), except in the LC-DG6071-red dye composition. This is the reason that the splay deformation increase is greater than the droplet size increase. In the electro-optic characteristics of dye-doped PDLC film, the TL205-DG6071-red dye composition had the lowest Von and the TL205-DG7052-red dye had the highest contrast ratio.

  18. Feeling blue, going green and finding other attractive alternatives: a case of biphasic anaphylaxis to patent blue and a literature review of alternative sentinel node localisation methods.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba; Basit, Abdul; Salem, Fathi; Vidya, Raghavan

    2015-12-15

    Patent blue dye is used for sentinel lymph node localisation in order to stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer. Patent blue is one of the most common dyes used across the UK, however, the incidence of adverse effects seems to be increasing. This case highlights our experience of a biphasic anaphylactic reaction to patent blue dye, and we conduct a brief literature review of alternative and more novel methods to adequately visualise the lymphatics for sentinel lymph node biopsy. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Pad ultrasonic batch dyeing of causticized lyocell fabric with reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Babar, Aijaz Ahmed; Peerzada, Mazhar Hussain; Jhatial, Abdul Khalique; Bughio, Noor-Ul-Ain

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, cellulosic fabric dyed with reactive dyes requires significant amount of salt. However, the dyeing of a solvent spun regenerated cellulosic fiber is a critical process. This paper presents the dyeing results of lyocell fabrics dyed with conventional pad batch (CPB) and pad ultrasonic batch (PUB) processes. The dyeing of lyocell fabrics was carried out with two commercial dyes namely Drimarine Blue CL-BR and Ramazol Blue RGB. Dyeing parameters including concentration of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dwell time were compared for the two processes. The outcomes show that PUB dyed samples offered reasonably higher color yield and dye fixation than CPB dyed samples. A remarkable reduction of 12h in batching time, 18ml/l in NaOH and 05g/l in Na2CO3 quantity was observed for PUB processed samples producing similar results compared to CPB process, making PUB a more economical, productive and an environment friendly process. Color fastness examination witnessed identical results for both PUB and CPB methods. No significant change in surface morphology of PUB processed samples was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis.

  20. Characterization of mineral and coal surfaces by adsorption of dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Dawson, M.R.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic method is described for dye adsorption measurements to characterize mineral and coal surfaces for the evaluation of coal cleaning processes. Samples of increasing mineral content were prepared by density separation of a narrowly sized (300 to 425 /mu/m) wet-sieved coal. The rates and extents of the adsorption of ionic dyes on Illinois No. 6 coal were observed to be highly dependent on mineral content and particle size of ground coal samples. A linear correlation was observed between the adsorbed quantity of dye and the total mineral content of coal samples. Dry-sieved coals were found to be coated by fine material of high mineral ash content which adsorbed greater than 20 times more methylene blue per gram than wet-sieved particles. In preliminary experiments with methylene blue dye, clay was found to adsorb significantly more dye than quartz, pyrite, calcite or low-ash specific gravity fractions of coal.

  1. Transforming benzophenoxazine laser dyes into chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cells: a molecular engineering approach

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, Florian A. Y. N.; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Waddell, Paul G.; McKechnie, Scott

    2015-05-06

    The re-functionalization of a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, is explored with the prospect of molecularly engineering new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Such engineering is important since a lack of suitable dyes is stifling the progress of DSC technology. The conceptual idea involves making laser dyes DSC-active by chemical modification, while maintaining their key property attributes that are attractive to DSC applications. This molecular engineering follows a step-wise approach. Firstly, molecular structures and optical absorption properties are determined for the parent laser dyes: Cresyl Violet (1); Oxazine 170 (2); Nile Blue A (3), Oxazine 750 (4). These reveal structure-property relationships which define the prerequisites for computational molecular design of DSC dyes; the nature of their molecular architecture (D-π-A) and intramolecular charge transfer. Secondly, new DSC dyes are computationally designed by the in silico addition of a carboxylic acid anchor at various chemical substitution points in the parent laser dyes. A comparison of the resulting frontier molecular orbital energy levels with the conduction band edge of a TiO2 DSC photoanode and the redox potential of two electrolyte options I-/I3- and Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl) suggests promise for these computationally designed dyes as co-sensitizers for DSC applications.

  2. Sensitive blood-retinal barrier breakdown quantitation using Evans blue.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q; Qaum, T; Adamis, A P

    2001-03-01

    This study investigated whether a nonradioactive dye, Evans blue, can be adapted as a safe alternative to the isotope-dilution method for quantitating blood-retinal barrier breakdown. Blood-retinal barrier breakdown was induced in rats with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or through the induction of diabetes. After allowing Evans blue to circulate in the vasculature, the dye was cleared from the bloodstream with saline, citrate, or citrate-buffered paraformaldehyde, and the efficacies of the perfusion solutions were compared. Extravasated dye was detected at 620 nm and was normalized against the time-averaged Evans blue plasma concentration, the circulation time, and also against wet and dry retina weights. Evans blue leakage from retinas treated with VEGF was 4.0-fold higher than that of contralateral untreated eyes (n = 6 rats, P: < 0.05). Retinal Evans blue leakage of eyes from 1-week diabetic animals (n = 11 retinas) was 1.7-fold higher (P: < 0.05) than that of nondiabetic controls (n = 10 retinas). Intra-animal, inter-retina weights showed significantly less variability (P: < 0.05) with the use of dry weights (11.2%, n = 74 retina pairs) than with wet weights (20.5%, n = 93 retina pairs). The Evans blue dye technique can be modified to be as sensitive and quantitative as the isotope-dilution method for measuring blood-retinal barrier breakdown. The advantages of the Evans blue technique are its safety, relative simplicity, and economy.

  3. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

  4. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  5. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-10-01

    An intense and efficient excitation source for blue-green lasers useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and a newly designed dense-plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense UV photons (200 to 300 nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400 nm). During the current project period, the successful enhancement of blue-green laser output of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 dye through the spectral conversion of the HCP pumping light has been achieved with a converter dye BBQ. The factor of enhancement in the blue-green laser output energy of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 is almost 73%. This enhancement will definitely be helpful in achieving the direct high power blue-green laser (> 1 MW) with the existing blue green dye laser. On the other hand the dense-plasma focus (DPF) with new optical coupling has been designed and constructed. For the optimization of the DPF device as the UV pumping light source, the velocity of current sheath and the formation of plasma focus have been measured as function of argon or argon-deuterium fill gas pressure. Finally, the blue-green dye laser (LD490) has been pumped with the DPF device for preliminary tests. Experimental results with the DPF device show that the velocity of the current sheath follows the inverse relation of sq st. of pressure as expected. The blue-green dye (LD490) laser output exceeded 3.1 m at the best cavity tuning of laser system. This corresponds to 3J/1 cu cm laser energy extraction.

  6. Removal of synthetic food dyes in aqueous solution by Octolig.

    PubMed

    Martin, Dean F; Alessio, Rachael J; McCane, Cheryl H

    2013-01-01

    We studied six of the seven food dyes commonly used, e.g., FD&C Blue No. 1 and No. 2, Green No. 3, Red No. 3 and No. 40, Yellow No. 5 and No. 6. Quantitative removal was achieved by passage of dyes in aqueous solutions over chromatography columns packed with Octolig, a polyethylenediimine covalently attached to high-surface-area silica. A structural feature most of the dyes have in common are the presence of sulfonate groups attached to aromatic molecules. Prior studies and the current one indicated that the seventh food dye (Green No. 3) should also be quantitatively removed. Matrix effects were considered, but none were observed.

  7. Albumin binds self-assembling dyes as specific polymolecular ligands.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Barbara; Rybarska, Janina; Drozd, Anna; Konieczny, Leszek; Król, Marcin; Lisowski, Marek; Piekarska, Barbara; Roterman, Irena; Spólnik, Paweł; Zemanek, Grzegorz

    2006-12-15

    Self-assembling dyes with a structure related to Congo red (e.g. Evans blue) form polymolecular complexes with albumin. The dyes, which are lacking a self-assembling property (Trypan blue, ANS) bind as single molecules. The supramolecular character of dye ligands bound to albumin was demonstrated by indicating the complexation of dye molecules outnumbering the binding sites in albumin and by measuring the hydrodynamic radius of albumin which is growing upon complexation of self-assembling dye in contrast to dyes lacking this property. The self-assembled character of Congo red was also proved using it as a carrier introducing to albumin the intercalated nonbonding foreign compounds. Supramolecular, ordered character of the dye in the complex with albumin was also revealed by finding that self-assembling dyes become chiral upon complexation. Congo red complexation makes albumin less resistant to low pH as concluded from the facilitated N-F transition, observed in studies based on the measurement of hydrodynamic radius. This particular interference with protein stability and the specific changes in digestion resulted from binding of Congo red suggest that the self-assembled dye penetrates the central crevice of albumin.

  8. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  9. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  10. Dye laser principles, with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, F.J. . Dept. of Physics); Hillman, L.W. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers which explain dye laser principles. Topics covered include: laser dynamics, femtosecond dye lasers, CW dye lasers, technology of pulsed dye lases, photochemistry of laser dyes, and laser applications.

  11. Blue Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-19

    Bands and spots in Saturn's atmosphere, including a dark band south of the equator with a scalloped border, are visible in this image from the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft. The narrow angle camera took the image in blue light on Feb. 29, 2004. The distance to Saturn was 59.9 million kilometers (37.2 million miles). The image scale is 359 kilometers (223 miles) per pixel. Three of Saturn's moons are seen in the image: Enceladus (499 kilometers, or 310 miles across) at left; Mimas (398 kilometers, or 247 miles across) left of Saturn's south pole; and Rhea (1,528 kilometers, or 949 miles across) at lower right. The imaging team enhanced the brightness of the moons to aid visibility. The BL1 broadband spectral filter (centered at 451 nanometers) allows Cassini to "see" light in a part of the spectrum visible as the color blue to human eyes. Scientist can combine images made with this filter with those taken with red and green filters to create full-color composites. Scientists can also assess cloud heights by combining images from the blue filter with images taken in other spectral regions. For example, the bright clouds that form the equatorial zone are the highest in altitude and have pressures at their tops of about one quarter of Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level. The cloud tops at middle latitudes are lower in altitude and have higher pressures of about half that found at sea level. Analysis of Saturn images like this one will be extremely useful to researchers assessing cloud altitudes during the Cassini-Huygens mission. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05383

  12. Time resolved spectroscopic studies of methylene blue and phenothiazine derivatives used for bacteria inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Cesario, Thomas C.; Rentzepis, Peter M.

    2010-09-01

    Phenothiazine dyes are known to inactivate bacteria in whole blood and plasma caused by the singlet oxygen photo generated by these dyes. Methylene blue (MB), 1,9-dimethyl-methylene blue (DMB) and toluidine blue (TB) transient singlet and triplet states spectra and their formation and decay kinetics have been measured by time resolved spectroscopy. The triplet state formation and singlet oxygen quantum yields in water are found to be approximately the same in MB and DMB. Therefore, based on our data we propose that although singlet oxygen is highly important as previously stated, the rate of inactivation is determined by the binding of the dye to the bacteria.

  13. Metachromasy as an indicator of photostabilization of methylene blue adsorbed to clays and minerals.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Maya; Mor, Omer; Rytwo, Giora

    2013-04-05

    The influence of methylene blue adsorption to different clays on its photodegradation was studied. Methylene blue in solution was decomposed by sunlight in a zero-order process. Adsorption to some clay minerals (sepiolite and vermiculite) and a zeolite (clinoptilolite) accelerated the degradation process, and converted it to a first-order reaction. On the other hand, adsorption to other clay minerals (palygorskite and montmorillonite) stabilized the dye and prevented its degradation. Interestingly, in the clay-dye complexes that exhibited stability, clear metachromasy of the adsorbed methylene blue occurred, whereas the effect was not observed in the clay-dye complexes that underwent photodegradation.

  14. Investigation of dye functional group on the photocatalytic degradation of dyes by nano-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Vinu, R; Akki, Spurti U; Madras, Giridhar

    2010-04-15

    The photocatalytic degradation of five anionic, eight cationic and three solvent dyes using combustion-synthesized nano-TiO(2) (CS TiO(2)) and commercial Degussa P-25 TiO(2) (DP-25) were evaluated to determine the effect of the functional group in the dye. The degradation of the dyes was quantified using the initial rate of decolorization and mineralization. The decolorization of the anionic dyes with CS TiO(2) followed the order: indigo carmine > eosin Y > amido black 10B > alizarin cyanine green > orange G. The decolorization of the cationic dyes with DP-25 followed the order: malachite green > pyronin Y > rhodamine 6G > azure B > nile blue sulfate > auramine O approximately = acriflavine approximately = safranin O. CS TiO(2) showed higher rates of decolorization and mineralization for all the anionic dyes compared to DP-25, while DP-25 was better in terms of decolorization for most of the cationic dyes. The solvent dyes exhibited adsorption dependent decolorization. The order of decolorization and mineralization of the anionic and cationic dyes (a) with CS TiO(2) and DP-25 was different and correlated with the surface properties of these catalysts (b) were rationalized with the molecular structure of the dye and the degradation pathway of the dye.

  15. Suspended-core optical fibres for organic dye absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajnchold, Barbara; Umińska, Ada; Grabka, Michał; Kotas, Dariusz; Pustelny, Szymon; Gawlik, Wojciech

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we report on our study of UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy in suspended-core optical fibres (SCFs) filled with organic-dye solutions. We compare two different dye classes, the anionic dye - bromophenol blue sodium salt (BB) and cationic dye - oxazine 725 perchlorate (OX). While the results obtained with BB are in a good agreement with the spectra measured in a standard reference cuvette, those obtained with OX are different and reveal much stronger absorption of light than in cuvettes. This stronger absorption indicates accumulation of the dye molecules on the short section of the core close to the end of the fibre. This observation demonstrates difference in physicochemical properties of the two dye classes and is important for the development of chemical sensors based on SCFs.

  16. Amine-Reactive Dyes for Dead Cell Discrimination in Fixed Samples

    PubMed Central

    Perfetto, Stephen P.; Chattopadhyay, Pratip K.; Lamoreaux, Laurie; Nguyen, Richard; Ambrozak, David; Koup, Richard A.; Roederer, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Amine-reactive dyes, also known as LIVE/DEAD® fixable dead cell stains, are a class of viability dyes suitable for identifying dead cells in samples that will be fixed. These dyes cross the cell membranes of dead cells, and react with free amines in the cytoplasm. Live cells exclude these dyes because their cell membranes are intact, and free dye is washed away after staining. Notably, the reaction is irreversible; therefore, when cells are fixed and permeabilized (as with intracellular staining procedures), the bound dye remains associated with the dead cells (unlike other viability dyes). Since amine-reactive dyes are fluorescent when excited by lasers, dead cells can be identified by flow cytometry. This unit describes procedures, troubleshooting, and outcomes for using the two most commonly used amine-reactive dyes, ViViD and Aqua Blue. PMID:20578108

  17. Preparation of highly selective solid-phase extractants for Cibacron reactive dyes using molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Al-Degs, Yahya S; Abu-Surrah, Adnan S; Ibrahim, Khalid A

    2009-02-01

    Selective polymeric extractants were prepared for preconcentration of Cibacron reactive red dye, a dye that is often applied with Cibacron reactive blue and Cibacron reactive yellow for dyeing of fabrics. The best extractant was fabricated (in chloroform) using methacrylic acid (as monomer), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (as crosslinker), AIBN (as initiator for polymerization), and red dye as template molecule, with a molar stoichiometric ratio of 8.0:40.0:2.5:0.63, respectively. The structure of the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was robust, and resisted dissolution up to 260 degrees C. Compared with the un-imprinted polymer, the imprinted product has a large specific surface area which improved its adsorption capacity. The effect of imprinting was obvious from the adsorption capacity measured at pH 4 for red dye (the imprinted molecule), which was increased from 24.0 to 79.3 mg g(-1) after imprinting. Equilibrium adsorption studies revealed that the dye-imprinted-polymer enables efficient extraction of red dye even in the presence of blue and yellow dyes which have similar chemical natures to the red dye. The selectivity coefficients S (red dye/dye), were 13.9 and 17.1 relative to the yellow and blue dyes, respectively. The MIP was found to be effective for red dye preconcentration, with a preconcentration factor of 100, from tap water and treated textile wastewater. The factors affecting extraction of red dye by the MIP were studied and optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, red dye was selectively quantified in the presence of other competing dyes at a concentration of 20 microg L(-1) from different water systems with satisfactory recoveries (91-95%) and RSD values (approximately 5.0%).

  18. Biological decolorization of reactive anthraquinone and phthalocyanine dyes under various oxidation-reduction conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young H; Matthews, Rosalyn D; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2006-02-01

    The decolorization of two anthraquinone dyes (Reactive Blue 4 [RB4] and Reactive Blue 19 [RB19]) and two phthalocyanine dyes (Reactive Blue 7 [RB7] and Reactive Blue 21 [RB21]) was investigated at an initial dye concentration of 300 mg/L using an unacclimated, enrichment culture. The culture was fed a mixture of organic compounds and maintained initially under aerobic conditions, and then progressively developed anoxic/ anaerobic conditions. Biotransformation-related decolorization of the dyes did not take place under aerobic conditions, but use of the feed organic mixture and biomass production by the enrichment culture were not affected. Complete ammonia removal occurred in the control and all dye-amended cultures. The development and extent of nitrification were much lower in the latter cultures, in which ammonia removal via air stripping was the dominant mechanism. Prolonged incubation of the culture under anoxic/anaerobic conditions with multiple carbon source additions resulted in a high decolorization extent of anthraquinone dyes (over 84%) and only partial decolorization of phthalocyanine dyes (49 to 66%). Development of significant methanogenic activity took place in the control and, to a lesser extent, in the two phthalocyanine dye-amended cultures, but the anthraquinone dyes severely inhibited the development of methanogenic activity. The RB4 and RB19 decolorization was attributed to nonreversible, microbially mediated dye transformation(s), demonstrated by the accumulation of decolorization products with absorbance maxima in the 420- to 460-nm region. The decolorization of RB4 and RB19 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At an initial dye concentration of 300 mg/L, the observed maximum decolorization rate per unit biomass was 9.1 and 37.5 mg dye/mg volatile suspended solids x day for the RB4 and RB19, respectively. Thus, partial decolorization of reactive phthalocyanine dyes and extensive biological decolorization of reactive anthraquinone dyes is

  19. Alkali, thermo and halo tolerant fungal isolate for the removal of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

    2010-11-01

    In the present study potential of a fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulusFJ172995, was investigated for the removal of textile dyes. The removal percentages of dyes such as Acid Navy Blue, Orange-HF, Fast Red A, Acid Sulphone Blue and Acid Magenta were determined as 99.43, 98.82, 98.75, 97.67 and 69.98, respectively. None of the dyes inhibited the growth of A. lentulus. Detailed studies on growth kinetics, mechanism of dye removal and effect of different parameters on dye removal were conducted using Acid Navy Blue dye. It was observed that A. lentulus could completely remove Acid Navy Blue even at high initial dye concentrations, up to 900 mg/L. Highest uptake capacity of 212.92 mg/g was observed at an initial dye concentration of 900 mg/L. Dye removing efficiency was not altered with the variation of pH; and biomass production as well as dye removal was favored at higher temperatures. Dye removal was also efficient even at high salt concentration. Through growth kinetics studies it was observed that the initial exponential growth phase coincided with the phase of maximal dye removal. Microscopic studies suggest that bioaccumulation along with biosorption is the principle mechanism involved in dye removal by A. lentulus. Thus, it is concluded that being alkali, thermo and halo tolerant, A. lentulus isolate has a great potential to be utilized for the treatment of dye bearing effluents which are usually alkaline, hot and saline. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Optimization on decoloration conditions of anthraquinone dyes by laccase from Amillariella mellea].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xian-Feng; Qin, Ren-Bing; Yu, Chen-Chen; Fan, Shu-Jun

    2012-02-01

    Laccase extracted from the Amillariella mellea fermentation catalytic decolored on two common anthraquinone dyes: Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R and Reactive Brilliant Blue X-BR which is broadly used in the printing and dyeing industry and obtained the optimal catalytic decolorizing conditions. The results showed that optimum temperature of Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R decolorization was 30 degrees C, the optimum dye concentrations was 80 mg x L(-1), the optimum enzyme dosage was 0.25 U x mL(-1), and the optimum pH was 5. Under this optimal conditions, the maximum decolorization rate of Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R was over 90%. The optimum temperature Reactive Brilliant Blue X-BR decolorization was 30 degrees C, the optimum dye concentrations was 50 mg x L(-1), the optimum enzyme dosage was 0.5 U x mL(-1), and the optimum was pH 4. Under the optimal conditions, the maximum decolorization rate of Reactive Brilliant Blue X-BR was over 70%. The decolorization on the two common industrial dyes by crude enzyme from Amillariella mellea fermentation obtained a good results. The results indicated that the decoloration on anthraquinone dyes by laccase from Amillariella mellea has a potential value in the printing and dyeing industry.

  1. Photosensitizer methylene blue-semiconductor nanocrystals hybrid system for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Rakovich, Tatsiana; Kelly, Vincent; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Eychmüller, Alexander; Rakovich, Yury P; Donegan, John F

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the development of novel hybrid material with enhanced photodynamic properties based on methylene blue and CdTe nanocrystals. Absorption spectroscopy, visible photoluminescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging of this system reveal efficient charge transfer between nanocrystals and the methylene blue dye. Near infra-red photoluminescence measurements provide evidence for an increased efficiency of singlet oxygen production by the methylene blue dye. In vitro studies on the growth of HepG2 and HeLa cancerous cells were also performed, they point towards an improvement in the cell kill efficiency for the methylene blue-semiconductor nanocrystals hybrid system.

  2. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soltoff, S.P.; McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R. )

    1989-12-29

    The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca{sup 2+} entry and the elevation of (Ca{sup 2+})i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry to more than 25-times the basal rate and elevated (Ca{sup 2+})i to levels more than three times the basal value. Brilliant Blue G and Reactive Blue 2 greatly reduced the entry of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} into parotid cells, but the potency of Brilliant Blue G (IC50 approximately 0.4 microM) was about 100-times that of Reactive Blue 2. Fura 2 studies demonstrated that inhibitory concentrations of these compounds did not block the cholinergic response of these cells, thus demonstrating the selectivity of the dye compounds for purinergic receptors. Unlike Reactive Blue 2, effective concentrations of Brilliant Blue G did not substantially quench Fura 2 fluorescence. The greater potency of Brilliant Blue G suggests that it may be very useful in identifying P2-type purinergic receptors, especially in studies which utilize fluorescent probes.

  3. Photodynamic properties of vital dyes for vitreoretinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Tobias; Steger, Claudia; Dawczynski, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate photodynamic properties of indocyanine green (ICG), brilliant blue G (BBG) and trypan blue (TB) as currently used vital dyes for chromovitrectomy. Under consideration of intraoperative illumination intensities and dye concentrations, a simulative in vitro investigation was set up. Therefore, standardized dilutions of original ICG, BBG and TB vials were irradiated at a wavelength of 366 nm with an intensity of 14 µW/cm2 between 0 and 48 h. After this, all samples were measured spectroscopically in a 220- to 750-nm bandwidth. Analyzing the vital dyes over the time course, an exponential photolysis was observed for ICG, whereas BBG and TB presented photostable properties. Regarding ICG, 5% of the concentration was degraded to toxic metabolites every 20 min. For this reason, our study provides evidence that intraocular dye concentrations and modern endoillumination systems alone cannot fully prevent ICG photodegradation.

  4. The use of indigo derivatives to dye denim material.

    PubMed

    Grieve, M C; Biermann, T W; Schaub, K

    2006-01-01

    Recently, attention was again drawn to the use of microspectrophotometry to distinguish between fibres dyed with indigo and seven derivative dyes. Under normal circumstances, fibres dyed with indigo (Vat Blue 1 or CI Number 73000) are not included in fibre-transfer examinations as, being ubiquitous, they do not usually have any evidential value. Indigo substitutes are used for fashion dyeing. If their use is widespread, the assumption that all denim material is dyed with Vat Blue 1 may need revising. A positive finding might make it necessary to reconsider the use of certain denim fabrics as capable of providing target fibres. Fibres from 160 samples of denim articles in current use were examined by microspectrophotometry to determine whether either indigo derivative dyes, or other dyes, had been used instead of the traditional indigo.

  5. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1986-10-01

    An intense and efficient source for blue green laser useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, the hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and the dense plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense uv photons (200 to 400nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400nm). As a result of optimization of the DPF light at 355nm, the blue green dye (LD490) laser output exceeding 4mJ was obtained at the best cavity tunning of the laser system. With the HCP pumped system a significant enhancement of the blue green laser outputs with dye LD490 and coumarin 503 has been achieved through the spectrum conversion of the pumping light by mixing a converter dye BBQ. The maximum increase of laser output with the dye mixture of LD490+BBQ and coumarin 503+BBQ was greater than 80%. In addition, the untunned near UV lasers were also obtained. The near UV laser output energy of P-terphenyl dye was 0.5mJ at lambda sub C=337nm with the bandwidth of 3n m for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2microsec.

  6. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Balla, Wafaa; Essadki, A H; Gourich, B; Dassaa, A; Chenik, H; Azzi, M

    2010-12-15

    This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm(-2) and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E(dye)) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg(dye) was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg(dye) for disperse and 50 kWh/kg(dye) for the mixture.

  8. Degradation of textile dyes mediated by plant peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, J Jegan; Nair, R Aswathi; Abraham, T Emilia

    2002-01-01

    The peroxidase enzyme from the plants Ipomea palmata (1.003 IU/g of leaf) and Saccharum spontaneum (3.6 IU/g of leaf) can be used as an alternative to the commercial source of horseradish and soybean peroxidase enzyme for the decolorization of textile dyes, mainly azo dyes. Eight textiles dyes currently used by the industry and seven other dyes were selected for decolorization studies at 25-200 mg/L levels using these plant enzymes. The enzymes were purified prior to use by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion exchange and gel permeation chromatographic techniques. Peroxidase of S. spontaneum leaf (specific activity of 0.23 IU/mg) could completely degrade Supranol Green and Procion Green HE-4BD (100%) dyes within 1 h, whereas Direct Blue, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G and Chrysoidine were degraded >70% in 1 h. Peroxidase of Ipomea (I. palmata leaf; specific activity of 0.827 U/mg) degraded 50 mg/L of the dyes Methyl Orange (26%), Crystal Violet (36%), and Supranol Green (68%) in 2-4 h and Brilliant Green (54%), Direct Blue (15%), and Chrysoidine (44%) at the 25 mg/L level in 1 to 2 h of treatment. The Saccharum peroxidase was immobilized on a hydrophobic matrix. Four textile dyes, Procion Navy Blue HER, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G, Procion Green HE-4BD, and Supranol Green, at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L were completely degraded within 8 h by the enzyme immobilized on the modified polyethylene matrix. The immobilized enzyme was used in a batch reactor for the degradation of Procion Green HE-4BD and the reusability was studied for 15 cycles, and the half-life was found to be 60 h.

  9. Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.

    1991-06-01

    The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

  10. Comparison of historic Grübler dyes with modern counterparts using thin layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Titford, M

    2007-08-01

    The aniline dye industry was created in 1856 when William Perkin prepared the dye, mauve, from coal tar. Following that discovery, several dye manufacturing businesses were formed in Western Europe, most successfully in Germany. It was to these companies that early investigators turned to obtain these new dyes for the developing field of biology. In 1880, Dr. Georg Grübler started a company in Germany to supply the needs of biologists. Grübler dyes developed a reputation for excellence. In the study reported here, 29 samples of 12 Grübler dyes were compared to modern counterparts using thin layer chromatography. The dyes studied were basic fuchsine, acid fuchsine, safranine, pyronine, aniline blue, ponceau, gentian violet, methylene blue, orange G, malachite green, and Sudan III and IV. I found that these early Grübler dyes closely resembled modern day counterparts; however, the use of synonyms was confusing and some of the fat stains were mislabeled by modern criteria. The chromatograms of some dyes exhibited smearing, probably representing multiple closely related dye species. The study of old dyes provides interesting comparisons with modern counterparts as the center of dye manufacturing is moving from Europe and the United States to Asia.

  11. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  12. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  13. Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotter, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schneider, J.

    Using blue-emitting GaN/6HSiC chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white emitting LEDs. The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence down-conversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic luminescent dye molecules. A white emitting LED, using an inorganic converter, Y3Al5O12:Ce3+( ), has also been realized.

  14. In defence of 'dye therapy'.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Worldwide, healthcare is facing enormous problems with the continuing rise of drug-resistant infectious diseases. In view of the scarcity of new antimicrobial agents and the withdrawal of many pharmaceutical houses from the fray, alternative approaches are required. One of these is photoantimicrobial chemotherapy, which is highly effective across the range of microbial pathogens and does not suffer from resistance. However, there is a lack of uptake of this approach by healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry alike. It is seldom recalled that, unlike anticancer photodynamic therapy, the development of photoantimicrobial agents has evolved from the antiseptic 'dye therapy' in common use until the widespread introduction of the penicillin class in the mid-1940s. Cationic biological dyes such as methylene blue, crystal violet and acriflavine were effective in local wound therapy and today provide a sound basis for light-activated antimicrobial therapeutics. It is proposed that such 'safe' dyes are introduced as locally administered photoantimicrobials, especially in order to conserve valuable conventional antibacterial drugs.

  15. Assessment of different dyes used in leakage studies.

    PubMed

    Mente, Johannes; Ferk, Stephan; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Deckert, Andreas; Legner, Milos; Staehle, Hans Joerg

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this in vitro study was to identify the most suitable dye for endodontic dye leakage studies, which could be a further step towards standardisation. The root canals of 70 extracted, single-rooted human adult teeth were enlarged to apical size 50 using hand instruments. The teeth were divided into seven groups (n = 10 each), and all root canals were completely filled by injection with one of the following dyes: methylene blue 0.5% and 5%, blue ink, black ink, eosin 5%, basic fuchsin 0.5% and drawing ink. Transverse root sections from the coronal, middle and apical part of the roots were examined, and the percentage of the dentine penetrated by dye was evaluated by software-supported light microscopy. In addition, the range of particle size of drawing ink particles was evaluated. There were conspicuous differences in the relative dye penetration into the root dentine and the penetration behaviour in the different root sections (two-way ANOVA, both p < 0.0001). One dye (drawing ink) penetrated less into the root dentine compared with all the others (p <0.0001). The particle size of this agent (0.1-2 microm) corresponds best with the size range of a representative selection of 21 species of pathogenic endodontic bacteria. Compared to the other dyes tested, drawing ink appears to be superior for use in endodontic dye leakage studies. The penetration behaviour into the root dentine of all the other dyes tested might be one factor that limits the applicability of these dyes in dye leakage studies.

  16. Functional and structural effect of intravitreal indocyanine green, triamcinolone acetonide, trypan blue, and brilliant blue g on rat retina.

    PubMed

    Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Acar, Niyazi; Passemard, Marie; Bidot, Samuel; Bron, Alain; Bretillon, Lionel

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and structural damage of the retina after intravitreal injections of four different dyes in the rat. Rats were injected intravitreally with indocyanine green (ICG), trypan blue, triamcinolone acetonide, or brilliant blue G in the right eye. The other eye was injected with saline and served as a control. Simultaneous bilateral electroretinograms were recorded before injection and 7 and 28 days after injection. Histology and immunohistochemistry analyses with antibodies recognizing glial fibrillary acidic protein and protein kinase C were performed 28 days after the initial injection on both eyes. Seven days after dye injection, the electroretinogram response of the treated eyes was altered in each group. At 1 month, eyes injected with triamcinolone acetonide, trypan blue, or brilliant blue G fully recovered, whereas eyes treated with ICG had A-wave and B-wave reduction of 65% and 63%, respectively. The inner nuclear layer thickness was statistically decreased in the ICG group (P = 0.003) but not with other dyes. Protein kinase C staining was decreased in the ICG group only, but no abnormal qualitative staining was found with either glial fibrillary acidic protein or protein kinase C antibodies with any dye. Among the four tested dyes, only ICG led to functional and structural retinal damage.

  17. Turnbull Blue Gel (TBG) evaluation as optical dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borguezan Neto, E.; Batistuti, M. R.; Pavoni, J. F.; Bachmann, L.

    2017-05-01

    The radiochromic Turnbull Blue Gel (TBG) is sensitive to X- and γ-rays. When exposed to high-energy radiation, TBG can simulate biological tissues, so this gel has potential use in ionizing radiation dosimetry. After irradiation, the yellow TBG changes to the blue Turnbull Blue dye. This work aims to evaluate how TBG responds to exposure to ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation from the sun. The gel was irradiated with a solar simulator, which sensitized TBG and transformed it into the Turnbull Blue dye; a change in the optical absorption ensued. The fluence values delivered by the source did not provide a linear response, but it was still possible to use TBG as an optical dosimeter. In conclusion, TBG can be applied to detect solar radiation because it is sensitive enough to measure sun exposure values at time intervals of few minutes.

  18. Binding of dyes to chlorhexidine-treated hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J E

    1977-07-01

    The binding of some selected food dyes to hydroxyapatite with and without a coating of chlorhexidine was studied. The apatite had bound 0.6 mumol chlorhexidine per g dry weight. The bound chlorhexidine was in equilibrium with a free concentration of 115 microgram ml (128 micron). The dyes investigated were brilliant blue (FD&C Blue No. 1), indigo carmine (FD&C Blue No. 2), tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5), sunset yellow (FD&C Yellow No. 6), amaranth (FD&C Red No. 2), and riboflavin. Riboflavin did not bind to either chlorhexidine-treated apatite or untreated apatite, whereas the other dyes showed a considerable affinity for chlorhexidine-treated apatite as compared with untreated apatite. Because the dyes with binding ability possess two or three acidic groups, and because riboflavin has none, it was suggested that the binding of the dyes is mediated by an interaction between the anionic groups of the dye molecules and the cationic groups of the chlorhexidine molecules. The results are discussed and related to the formation of the brownish discolorations seen on the teeth of patients using chlorhexidine mouthrinses. A mechanism to explain the development of tooth stains is proposed.

  19. Phytoremediation in education: textile dye teaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Ibbini, Jwan H; Davis, Lawrence C; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-07-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up contaminated soil and water, has a wide range of applications and advantages, and can be extended to scientific education. Phytoremediation of textile dyes can be used as a scientific experiment or demonstration in teaching laboratories of middle school, high school and college students. In the experiments that we developed, students were involved in a hands-on activity where they were able to learn about phytoremediation concepts. Experiments were set up with 20-40 mg L(-1) dye solutions of different colors. Students can be involved in the set up process and may be involved in the experimental design. In its simplest forms, they use two-week-old sunflower seedlings and place them into a test tube of known volume of dye solution. Color change and/or dye disappearance can be monitored by visual comparison or with a spectrophotometer. Intensity and extent of the lab work depends on student's educational level, and time constraints. Among the many dyes tested, Evan's Blue proved to be the most readily decolorized azo dye. Results could be observed within 1-2 hours. From our experience, dye phytoremediation experiments are suitable and easy to understand by both college and middle school students. These experiments help visual learners, as students compare the color of the dye solution before and after the plant application. In general, simple phytoremediation experiments of this kind can be introduced in many classes including biology, biochemistry and ecological engineering. This paper presents success stories of teaching phytoremediation to middle school and college students.

  20. THE ANTIRICKETTSIAL EFFECT OF THIONINE DYES

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Osler L.; Fox, John P.

    1947-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TB) when administered in maximum tolerated oral doses to mice and to cotton rats are highly effective in preventing the usual lethal outcome of intraperitoneally induced infections with R. orientalis. This activity is manifest even when dye administration is delayed until a systemic infection has been well established. Methylene blue is also effective in cerebral infections in mice. The toxicity of MB, however, limits parenteral (subcutaneous) administration of the dye to dosage levels which are much less effective than the maximum tolerated oral levels. The inability of mice to tolerate an adequately effective parenteral dose of MB suggests that the properties of the dye responsible for its toxicity may be separated from those upon which its antirickettsial effect depends. The relationship between the response of mice to oral treatment with MB and such factors as the size of the infecting dose and the times of initiation and of withdrawal of treatment may be summarized as follows: 1. With a constant infecting dose, the time of initiation of treatment largely determines the degree of therapeutic effect. 2. The interval after infection beyond which further treatment does not increase the survival rate depends not upon the previous duration of treatment but upon the size of the infecting dose. Paradoxically, treatment can be discontinued sooner after a massive infecting dose than after a smaller one. PMID:19871635

  1. Effect of adsorbed/intercalated anionic dyes into the mechanical properties of PVA: layered zinc hydroxide nitrate nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Rafael; Mikowski, Alexandre; Wypych, Fernando

    2010-11-15

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) was adsorbed with anions of blue dyes (Chicago sky blue, CSB; Evans blue, EB; and Niagara blue, NB) and intercalated with anions of orange dyes (Orange G, OG; Orange II, OII; methyl orange, MO). Transparent, homogeneous and colored nanocomposite films were obtained by casting after dispersing the pigments (dye-intercalated/adsorbed into LHSs) into commercial poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The films were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. The mechanical properties of the PVA compounded with the dye-intercalated/adsorbed ZHN were evaluated, and reasonable increases in Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength were observed, depending on the amount and choice of layered filler. These results demonstrate the possibility of using a new class of layered hydroxide salts intercalated and adsorbed with anionic dyes to prepare multifunctional polymer nanocomposite materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of disperse Blue 7.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Disperse Blue 7 is an anthraquinone dye used in cosmetics as a hair colorant in five hair dye and color products reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hair dyes containing Disperse Blue 7, as "coal tar" hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provision in sections 601 and 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 when the label bears a caution statement and "patch test" instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. Disperse Blue 7 is also used as a textile dye. The components of Disperse Blue 7 reportedly include Disperse Turquoise ALF Granules, Disperse Turquoise LF2G, Reax 83A, Tamol SW, and Twitchell Oil. No data were available that addressed the acute, short-term, or chronic toxicity of Disperse Blue 7. A mouse lymph node assay used to predict the sensitization potential of Disperse Blue 7 was negative. Although most bacterial assays for genotoxicity were negative in the absence of metabolic activation, consistently positive results were found with metabolic activation in Salmonella strains TA1537, TA1538, and TA98, which were interpreted as indicative of point mutations. Studies using L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells appeared to confirm this mutagenic activity. Mammalian assays for chromosome damage, however, were negative and animal tests found no evidence of dominant lethal mutations. Cases reports describe patients patch tested with Disperse Blue 7 to determine the source of apparent adverse reactions to textiles. In most patients, patch tests were negative, but there are examples in which the patch test for Disperse Blue 7 was positive. In general, anthraquinone dyes are considered frequent causes of clothing dermatitis. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel determined that there was a paucity of data regarding the safety of Disperse Blue 7 as used in cosmetics. The following data are needed in order to arrive at a conclusion on the safety of

  3. Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by tea waste.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Tamez; Islam, Md Akhtarul; Mahmud, Shaheen; Rukanuzzaman, Md

    2009-05-15

    The potentiality of tea waste for the adsorptive removal of methylene blue, a cationic dye, from aqueous solution was studied. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time, initial methylene blue concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH. The nature of the possible adsorbent and methylene blue interactions was examined by the FTIR technique. The pH(pzc) of the adsorbent was estimated by titration method and a value of 4.3+/-0.2 was obtained. An adsorption-desorption study was carried out resulting the mechanism of adsorption was reversible and ion-exchange. Adsorption equilibrium of tea waste reached within 5h for methylene blue concentrations of 20-50mg/L. The sorption was analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order kinetic models and the sorption kinetics was found to follow a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The extent of the dye removal increased with increasing initial dye concentration. The equilibrium data in aqueous solutions were well represented by the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption capacity of methylene blue onto tea waste was found to be as high as 85.16mg/g, which is several folds higher than the adsorption capacity of a number of recently studied in the literature potential adsorbents. Tea waste appears as a very prospective adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.

  4. Dye removal using modified copper ferrite nanoparticle and RSM analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Soltani-Gordefaramarzi, Sajjad; Sadeghi-Kiakhani, Moosa

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, copper ferrite nanoparticle (CFN) was synthesized, modified by cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, and characterized. Dye removal ability of the surface modified copper ferrite nanoparticle (SMCFN) from single system was investigated. The physical characteristics of SMCFN were studied using Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Acid Blue 92, Direct Green 6, Direct Red 23, and Direct Red 80 were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters (surfactant concentration, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and pH) on dye removal was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the analysis of the dye removal data. The experimental checking in these optimal conditions confirms good agreements with RSM results. The results showed that the SMCFN being a magnetic adsorbent might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

  5. Skin discoloration with blue food coloring.

    PubMed

    Zillich, A J; Kuhn, R J; Petersen, T J

    2000-01-01

    To describe a pediatric patient who developed a clinical cyanotic appearance after receiving an excessive amount of blue food coloring. An 11-year-old white girl with cerebral palsy was admitted for unresolving aspiration pneumonia and dehydration. Antibiotics and intravenous fluids were administered. During the hospital course, enteral nutrition containing blue food coloring was also administered. Twelve hours after the start of enteral nutrition, the patient appeared cyanotic despite a regular respiratory rate and normal oxygen saturation. The pediatric code response team was called. Enteral nutrition was stopped and then restarted without blue food coloring. Over the next 24 hours, the cyanotic appearance resolved and no further complications developed. At our institution, blue food coloring is used with enteral nutrition for detecting aspiration of stomach contents. The dietary department supplies food coloring to each nursing unit in pint-sized medicine bottles. Nurses place an unstandardized amount of blue food coloring into each enteral nutrition bag. This child received an unspecified amount of FD&C Blue No. 1 food coloring. No toxicity studies exist for acute or human ingestion, but the National Academy of Sciences lists 363 mg/d of FD&C Blue No. 1 as a safe level for humans. We estimated this child ingested 780-3,940 mg of dye over a 12-hour period. This is the first known report of an adverse effect from blue food coloring. To prevent similar occurrences within our institution, the blue food coloring for tube feedings will be dispensed by the pharmacy department in standardized units.

  6. Contact allergy to textile dyes in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ryberg, K; Isaksson, M; Gruvberger, B; Hindsén, M; Zimerson, E; Bruze, M

    2006-06-01

    Contact allergy to disperse dyes in textiles is documented in prevalence studies from southern Europe. To evaluate the prevalence of allergic patch test reactions to different textile dyes in southern Sweden, and to look at the sites of dermatitis in individuals hypersensitive to textile dyes, we retrospectively investigated 3325 consecutively patch-tested patients. They had all been patch tested with the standard test series supplemented with a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes, i.e. Disperse (D) Blue 35, 106 and 124, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3 and D Red 1 and 17. All but 3 of the TDM-positive patients were additionally tested with the separate dyes included in the mix. The frequency of contact allergy to TDM was 1.5%, which is comparable with studies from southern Europe. The most common dye allergen was D Orange 1. The high prevalence of allergic reactions to D Orange 1 was unexpected, whereas test reactions to D Blue 106 and 124 were lower than expected from other studies. Compared to all tested patients, the TDM-positive patients more often had dermatitis on their arms, face, neck and axillary folds, and women also had a higher frequency of hand dermatitis.

  7. Two intensified fluorescence colors' switching achieved by branched dye nanoaggregates.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ge; Lu, Yao; Su, Jihong; Qin, Xiaozhuan; Luo, Ziping; Gao, Fang; Chen, Lingyun; Li, Hongru

    2017-08-10

    In this study, a variety of branched target dyes containing double internal proton transfer segments were synthesized. For comparison, some linear analogs including a single internal proton transfer part were synthesized. The corresponding reference molecules lacking proton transfer segments were also prepared. The properties and aggregation modes of these dye aggregates were investigated on the basis of scanning electron microscopy images, transmission electron microscopy images, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, UV/visible absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra. The results showed that molecular aggregates with the morphologies of nano-scaled rounded or cubic particles of the target branched dyes could be yielded in mixed organic solvent/H2O solution. A remarkable emission enhancement and fluorescence switching process (from bright yellow to luminous pure blue) under 365 nm lamp irradiation was observed for these target branched dye nanoaggregates. However, no aggregates of the reference branched dyes free of hydroxyl groups were formed and no obvious spectral variations were found. In contrast, all the studied linear dyes yielded molecular nanoaggregates in mixed organic solvent/H2O solution, and only intensified single normal blue fluorescence emission was presented. This study provided real examples of some branched organic dye aggregates which were capable of displaying naked-eye enhanced fluorescence color switching under an UV lamp.

  8. Homogenous and heterogenous advanced oxidation of two commercial reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Balcioglu, I A; Arslan, I; Sacan, M T

    2001-07-01

    Two commercial reactive dyes, the azo dye Reactive Black 5 and the copper phythalocyanine dye Reactive Blue 21, have been treated at a concentration of 75 mg l(-1) by titanium dioxide mediated photocatalytic (TiO2/UV), dark and UV-light assisted Fenton (Fe2+/H2O2) and Fenton-like (Fe3+/H2O2) processes in acidic medium. For the treatment of Reactive Black 5, all investigated advanced oxidation processes were quite effective in terms of colour, COD as well as TOC removal. Moreover, the relative growth inhibition of the azo dye towards the marine algae Dunaliella tertiolecta that was initially 70%, did not exhibit an increase during the studied advanced oxidation reactions and complete detoxification at the end of the treatment period could be achieved for all investigated treatment processes. However, for Reactive Blue 21, abatement in COD and UV-VIS absorbance values was mainly due to the adsorption of the dye on the photocatalyst surface and/or the coagulative effect of Fe3+/Fe2+ ions. Although only a limited fraction of the copper phythalocyanine dye underwent oxidative degradation, 47% of the total copper in the dye was already released after 1 h photocatalytic treatment.

  9. Potentiation of photoinactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria mediated by six phenothiazinium dyes by addition of azide ion.

    PubMed

    Kasimova, Kamola R; Sadasivam, Magesh; Landi, Giacomo; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) using phenothiazinium dyes is mediated by reactive oxygen species consisting of a combination of singlet oxygen (quenched by azide), hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species. We recently showed that addition of sodium azide paradoxically potentiated APDI of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using methylene blue as the photosensitizer, and this was due to electron transfer to the dye triplet state from azide anion, producing azidyl radical. Here we compare this effect using six different homologous phenothiazinium dyes: methylene blue, toluidine blue O, new methylene blue, dimethylmethylene blue, azure A, and azure B. We found both significant potentiation (up to 2 logs) and also significant inhibition (>3 logs) of killing by adding 10 mM azide depending on Gram classification, washing the dye from the cells, and dye structure. Killing of E. coli was potentiated with all 6 dyes after a wash, while S. aureus killing was only potentiated by MB and TBO with a wash and DMMB with no wash. More lipophilic dyes (higher log P value, such as DMMB) were more likely to show potentiation. We conclude that the Type I photochemical mechanism (potentiation with azide) likely depends on the microenvironment, i.e. higher binding of dye to bacteria. Bacterial dye-binding is thought to be higher with Gram-negative compared to Gram-positive bacteria, when unbound dye has been washed away, and with more lipophilic dyes.

  10. The study of synthetic food dyes by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    By method of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), substances are food dyes were studied: E-102 (Tartrazine), E-124 (Ponso 4R), E 132 (Indigo carmine), E-133 (Brilliant Blue), E-151 (Black Shiny). They are examined for the presence of carcinogenic properties. The difference between dyes having explicit carcinogenic properties and mutagenic properties (non-explicit carcinogens) is established.

  11. Biosorption of water-soluble dyes on magnetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum cells.

    PubMed

    Safaríková, M; Ptácková, L; Kibriková, I; Safarík, I

    2005-05-01

    Brewer's yeast (bottom yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum) cells were magnetically modified using water based magnetic fluid stabilized with perchloric acid. Magnetically modified yeast cells efficiently adsorbed various water soluble dyes. The dyes adsorption can be described by the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of the magnetic cells differed substantially for individual dyes; the highest value was found for aniline blue (approx. 220 mg per g of dried magnetic adsorbent).

  12. Standard Dyes for Total Protein Staining in Gel-Based Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, François

    2010-01-01

    Staining of two-dimensional gels is a primary concern in proteomic studies using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with respect to the number of proteins analyzed, the accuracy of spot quantification and reproducibility. In this review article, the efficiency of the most widely used dyes was investigated. Visible dyes (Coomassie blue and silver nitrate), fluorescent dyes (Sypro Ruby, Deep Purple) and cyanine labeled methods were compared. PMID:28883353

  13. Decolorization of synthetic dyes by the deuteromycete Pestalotiopsis guepinii CLPS no. 786 strain.

    PubMed

    Saparrat, Mario Carlos Nazareno; Hammer, Elke

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Pestalotiopsis guepinii CLPS no. 786 to decolorize 13 dyes of varied structure was analyzed and compared with that of the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium . Nine dyes representing anthrapyridone, azo, N-heterocyclic and triphenylmethane chromophores, but none with the O-heterocyclic group, were decolorized by P. guepinii when added to an agar medium. Studies with liquid cultures revealed that P. guepinii transformed both crystal violet and methylene blue B dyes, and adsorbed different chromophores onto its mycelium.

  14. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  15. Cloth dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The outcome depends on the extent of this damage. Poisoning from dye containing an alkali may result in continuing injury to these tissues for weeks or months. If the person swallowed a nonpoisonous household dye, recovery is likely.

  16. A mathematical model for the description of the Coomassie brilliant blue protein assay.

    PubMed

    Atherton, B A; Cunningham, E L; Splittgerber, A G

    1996-01-15

    The Coomassie brilliant blue dye-binding method for protein assay has become important relatively recently. The basis of the assay method is the binding of dye to protein, with production of a dye-protein complex which absorbs light intensely at 620 nm, but the mechanism of the binding process is not well understood. In this paper, two mathematical models for the binding process are developed, one involving the binding of both protonated (green) and deprotonated (blue) forms of the dye. The second model allows only binding of the blue species to proteins. These models are tested for their ability to estimate number of dye-binding sites (n) and binding constants (Kd) from protein assay data. The models are also tested for their ability to reproduce the experimental assay curve using either known values or reasonable estimates of the equation parameters. The models are shown to be approximately equal in ability to reproduce experimental data related to the protein assay, which somewhat favors the simpler of the two models. In this paper, a method for estimating n and Kd from standard curve-fitting procedures is established. Hitherto, binding constants were only available from assay data taken under conditions of very large molar protein/dye ratios. The possibility of protonated forms of the dye binding to proteins was not ruled out by this study, but for many purposes the use of the simple dye-binding model, in which only the deprotonated dye species binds, is sufficient.

  17. Application of a sequential batch reactor system for textile dyes degradation: comparison between azo and phthalocyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Harrelkas, F; Pons, M N; Zahraa, O; Yaacoubi, A; Lakhal, E K

    2007-01-01

    Photocatalysis on supported TiO2 was combined with aerobic biological treatment in a sequential batch reactor to compare the degradation of two textile dyes: a blue azo dye (DR KBL CDG) and a green phthalocyanine dye (DR K4GN). Three reactors were run in parallel. SBR1 was used as a reference and was fed with urban wastewater only. SBR2 and SBR3 were fed with the same urban wastewater combined with pretreated (for SBR2) and non-pretreated (for SBR3) dye solution. For an azo dye concentration of 12 mg/L decolouration yields of 78 and 27% were achieved, respectively, in SBR2 and SBR3. For the phthalocyanine dye, the decolouration yields decreased to 24 and 15%, respectively. Concerning COD removal it decreases for both dyes with and without pretreatment, when the dye concentration increases. Although a detrimental effect on biomass could be observed, bacteria were able to cope with the inhibitory effect of the dyes.

  18. Biodegradation of benzidine based azodyes Direct red and Direct blue by the immobilized cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens D41.

    PubMed

    Puvaneswari, N; Muthukrishnan, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2002-10-01

    Benzidine based azodyes are proven carcinogens, mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer of human beings and laboratory animals. The textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry are the two major sources that released azodyes in their effluents. The dye, Direct blue contains two carcinogenic compounds namely benzidine (BZ), 4-amino biphenyl (4-ABP), while the dye Direct red has benzidine (BZ). Among 40 isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens screened, one isolate designated as D41 was found to be capable of extensively degrading the dyes Direct blue and Direct red. Immobilized cells of P. fluorescens D41 efficiently degraded Direct red (82%) and Direct blue (71%) in the presence of glucose.

  19. Biodistribution of Evans blue in an orthotopic AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma model: implication for the improved diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) using dye-guided white-light cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Elsen, Sanne; Lerut, Evelyne; Van Cleynenbreugel, Ben; van der Aa, Frank; van Poppel, Hein; de Witte, Peter A

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of using Evans blue (EB) as a novel diagnostic tool to detect bladder tumours with white-light (WL) cystoscopy, in this preclinical study we examine the biodistribution of EB in the different layers (urothelium, submucosa, muscle) of a normal rat bladder and a rat bladder bearing a malignant urothelium composed of syngeneic AY-27 tumour cells. EB was instilled into both normal as well as tumour-bearing rat bladders. After instillation, bladders were removed and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. The distribution of EB in the different layers was quantified using fluorescence microscopy. To gain more insight into the mechanism underlying the selective accumulation of EB in tumour tissue, bladder sections were prepared for ultrastructural investigations by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, we also examined the expression of E-cadherin, claudin-1 and desmoglein-1 by immunohistochemistry to study the integrity of the bladder wall, as these molecules are key constituents of adherens junctions, tight junctions and desmosomes, respectively. In most cases, the accumulation of EB in malignant bladders was substantially higher than in healthy bladders, at least when 1 mm EB instillations were used. In case of a 1 mm EB instillation for 2 h, the EB-associated fluorescence in malignant urothelial tissue was 55-times higher than the fluorescence found in normal urothelium. Ultrastructurally, malignant tissue displayed wider intercellular spaces and a decreased number of cell junction components compared with normal tissue, pointing to defects in the urothelial barrier. There were no differences in the expression of E-cadherin, whereas desmoglein-1 staining was stronger in the membranes of healthy bladder urothelium compared with tumour tissue. Claudin-1 expression was negative in all samples tested. EB is selectively taken up by tumour tissue after intravesical instillations in rats bearing bladder tumours. The lower

  20. Dye decolorization and detoxification by laccase immobilized on porous glass beads.

    PubMed

    Champagne, P-P; Ramsay, J A

    2010-04-01

    The decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes by fungal laccase immobilized on porous glass beads were evaluated. Anthraquinone (Reactive blue 19 and Dispersed blue 3) and indigoid (Acid blue 74) dyes were degraded more rapidly than the azo dyes (Acid red 27 and Reactive black 5). There was no dye sorption to the enzyme bed when decolorization rates were high (>12 microM dye/U-h) but at moderate rates (8 to>0.06 microM/U-h), there was a transient color which disappeared upon prolonged exposure. With Reactive black 5, permanent adsorption occurred most likely because laccase had been totally inactivated. Although laccase treatment was more efficient at decolorizing the anthraquinone dyes, their toxicity (as determined by the Microtox assay) increased while the less efficiently decolorized solutions of azo and indigoid dyes became less toxic. These results demonstrate the potential and limitations of using immobilized laccase to enzymatically decolorize a range of different dye classes and reduce dye toxicity in a single step. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of temperature on stability of multilamellar liposomes in wool dyeing.

    PubMed

    Montazer, M; Validi, M; Toliyat, T

    2006-01-01

    Liposomes are lipid vesicles that are composed of amphiphile molecules and can carry hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials. In this research work liposomes used as carrier for transfer of dye molecules into wool fibers. The preparation and production of multilamellar liposomes (MLV) from Soya lecithin were carried out and the behavior of liposomes at different temperature was studied. The effect of different concentration of liposomes in the dye exhaustion profile of two dyes (Namely, Irgalan Blue FBL and Lanaset Blue 2R) at two different temperatures of 85 degrees C and 95 degrees C on the wool fabric was investigated. The results showed that presence of liposomes in the dye-bath helps to increase the dye absorption on the wool fabric before 80 degrees C. Dyeing at higher temperature and longer time leads to a decrease in the final exhaustion along with increase in the liposomes concentration. Liposomes at high temperature converted to the disperse phospholipids unimers that may deposited on the fabric surface and may produce a hydrophobic barrier against absorption of dye. The presence of 1% o.w.f. (on weight of fabric) of liposomes at 85 degrees C improved the dye exhaustion of Irgalan Blue FBL on the wool fabric. The wash fastness properties of samples which dyed in the dye-bath containing liposomes also improved.

  2. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  3. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Abid, Mohammad Fadhil; Zablouk, Mumtaz Abdulahad; Abid-Alameer, Abeer Muhssen

    2012-12-05

    Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration = 65 mg/L, feed temperature = 39°C and pressure = 8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl) in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising.

  4. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    PubMed

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes.

  5. Decoloration and mineralization of reactive dyes using electron beam irradiation, Part I: Effect of the dye structure, concentration and absorbed dose (single, binary and ternary systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahdat, Ali; Bahrami, S. Hajir; Arami, M.; Bahjat, A.; Tabakh, F.; Khairkhah, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, three different reactive dyes (C.I. Reactive Red 4, C.I. Reactive Blue 2 and C.I. Reactive Yellow 4) and their blend solutions were irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam. Effect of absorbed dose, dye structure and primary solution concentrations on the pH value changes, degree of decoloration and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of solutions were investigated. Results show that this method is effective in decomposition and decoloration of the dyes solutions. This method can be applied in mineralization of wastewater containing different dyes.

  6. [Determination of the writing age of blue ballpoint ink by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Yao, Lijuan; Zhao, Pengcheng; Wang, Jinghan; Wang, Yanji

    2005-03-01

    A method of identifying the writing age of blue ballpoint ink has been established for imperative demand of forensic laboratory. The content of the volatile component in blue ballpoint ink was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The absorbance of the dye in the blue ballpoint ink was measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV-Vis). A writing age curve of the blue ballpoint ink has been established by the ratio of the content of the volatile components and the dye, based on the identification of 74 kinds of blue ballpoint inks, from both domestic and international origins. The change of benzyl alcohol or phenoxyethyl alcohol was tested with the writing age. Blue ballpoint inks of different kinds were detected and the repeatability of the experiment was investigated. The results indicated that the method is reliable and systematic, and especially suitable for practical cases.

  7. Association constants and heats of formation of heteroassociates of anions of sulphophthaleine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, S. A.

    2010-11-01

    The tendency of anions of sulphophthaleine dyes to heteroassociation was studied in aqueous solutions of phenol red, bromophenol blue, bromocresol green, bromocresol purple, and bromothymol blue. It was spectrophotometrically determined that single-(Han-) and double-charged anions (An2-) of sul-phophthaleines can form stable heteroassociates of composition Ct+ · HAn- and (Ct+)2 · An2- with cations (Ct+) of polymethine dyes, pinacyanol, and quinaldine red. The values of enthalpy formation of ions of dyes and heteroassociates were calculated using semi-empirical methods, then correlated with experimentally determined values of equilibrium association constants.

  8. Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9.

  9. Analytical procedures for the determination of disperse azo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Betowski, L.D.; Jones, T.L. ); Munslow, W.; Nunn, N.J. )

    1988-09-01

    Disperse Blue 79 is the most widely-used azo dye in the US. Its economic importance for the dye industry and textile industry is very great. Because of its use and potential for degradation to aromatic amines, this compound has been chosen for testing by the Interagency Testing Committee. The authors laboratory has been developing methods for the analytical determination of Disperse Blue 79 and any possible degradation products in wastewater. This work has been taking place in conjunction with the study of the fate of azo dyes in the wastewater treatment processes by the Water Engineering Research Laboratory of the US EPA in Cincinnati. There were various phases for this analytical development. The first step involved purifying the commercial material or presscake to obtain a standard for quantitative determination. A combination of HPLC, TLC and mass spectrometric methods was used to determine purity after extraction and column cleanup. Phase two involved the extraction of the dye from the matrices involved. The third phase was the actual testing of Disperse Blue 79 in the waste activated sludge system and anaerobic digester. Recovery of the dye and any degradation products at each sampling point (e.g., secondary effluent, waste activated sludge) was the goal of this phase.

  10. Laser dye stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N.

    1980-06-01

    Lasing characteristics and bleaching of four Eastman Kodak ir dyes have been examined in dimethyl sulfoxide. These ir dyes are shown to improve in performance in the absence of oxygen. Their photochemical stability was found to be comparable to the quinolone laser dyes when exposed to flashlamp excitation. Photodecomposition of the ir dyes under lasing conditions was found to vary between 1.6 and 6×10-10 moles of dye for each joule (electrical) of input energy; in comparison, the photodecomposition values for the better coumarin dyes was 0.2 to 1.0×10-10 moles/J at a concentration of 1.0×10-4 M in ethanol. It was also found that increasing the concentration of these tricarbocyanine dyes gives a marked improvement in the useful lifetime of these solutions as lasing media in the absence of oxygen.

  11. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing.

  12. Contact allergy from disperse dyes in textiles: a review.

    PubMed

    Malinauskiene, Laura; Bruze, Magnus; Ryberg, Kristina; Zimerson, Erik; Isaksson, Marléne

    2013-02-01

    Several disperse dyes (DDs) are still considered to be the most important allergens in textile dermatitis, but there are sparse data about their current use in textiles. The aim of this review was to evaluate published studies and reports on contact allergy to DDs published in PubMed during the last 22 years (1990-2012). Prevalence data are provided by study and by dye, as well as by the described clinical peculiarities of DD dermatitis. We reviewed 54 studies. In total, 26 DDs were tested. The average prevalence in screening studies was >1% for Disperse Blue 106, Disperse Blue 124, and Disperse Orange 3. There is a lack of data on patch testing with Disperse Blue 26, Disperse Blue 102, Disperse Orange 37, Disperse Orange 149, Disperse Yellow 23 and Disperse Yellow 49, which are listed as allergens by the EU Commission. It is necessary to check the purity and identity of dyes used for patch testing, confirm the clinical relevance of positive reactions by patch testing with suspected textiles, and, if the results are positive, determine the culprit dye. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Rapid Dye Decolorization Method for Screening Potential Wood Preservatives

    PubMed Central

    Borokhov, Olga; Rothenburger, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    We developed a new screening method for potential wood preservatives based on decolorization of the dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R by extracellular oxidative agents produced by wood decay fungi. Oxidative biodegradation of lignin yielded decolorized zones around and under fungal cultures on a dyed agar medium. Inhibitory effects were detected by direct observation and measurement of the decolorized zones. PMID:11097927

  14. Uptake of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by biosorption onto granular kohlrabi peel.

    PubMed

    Gong, Renmin; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Huijun; Sun, Yingzhi; Liu, Birong

    2007-04-01

    A new, low cost, locally available biomaterial was tested for its ability to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution. Granules prepared from kohlrabi peel had been utilized as a sorbent for uptake of three cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB), neutral red (NR) and acridine orange (AO). The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g., dye concentration, particle size, initial pH, contact time and other factors) were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Above the value of initial pH 4, three dyes studied could be removed effectively. The isothermal data fitted the Langmuir model in the case of NR sorption and the Freundlich model for all three dyes sorption. The biosorption processes followed the pseudo-first-order rate kinetics. The results in this study indicated that kohlrabi peel was an attractive candidate for removing cationic dyes from the dye wastewater.

  15. A study of dyes sorption on biobased cryogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobritoiu, Rodica; Patachia, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Three types of biopolymers based materials were synthesized and tested as adsorbents for the dyes from aqueous solutions. Blends based on poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and scleroglucan [Scl], cellulose micro-fibres [cel] and zein, respectively, have been prepared by repeated freezing-thawing cycles. Methylene blue [MB] was selected as a model dye in order to evaluate the capacity of the prepared materials to remove the dyes from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time and the composition of materials on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of sorption were discussed. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to better fit the experimental data thus being able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the entire sorption period. The sorption equilibrium data obey Freundlich isotherm. Sorption capacity was evaluated both by dye solution and cryogel analysis by using VIS spectrometry and image analysis with CIELAB system. The sorption of monomer or aggregated dye molecules was identified and correlated with the type and morphology of the gel. The highest efficiency in MB removal was obtained for Scl/PVA cryogels in 1:9 weight ratio (9.5279 mg/g MB for an initial concentration by 8 × 10-5 mol/L in MB). These materials are suitable as sorbents for the advanced removal of dyes from waste water.

  16. Selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes from aqueous solution on polydopamine microspheres.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianwei; Xin, Qianqian; Wu, Xuechen; Chen, Zhonghui; Yan, Ya; Liu, Shujun; Wang, Minghuan; Xu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Polydopamine (PDA) microspheres, synthesized by a facile oxidation polymerization route, were evaluated as a potential adsorbent for selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes. The adsorption processes towards nine water-soluble dyes (anionic dyes: methyl orange (MO), eosin-Y (EY), eosin-B (EB), acid chrome blue K (ACBK), neutral dye: neutral red (NR), and cationic dyes: rhodamine B (RhB), malachite green (MG), methylene blue (MB), safranine T (ST)) were thoroughly investigated. The adsorption selectivity of organic dyes onto PDA microspheres was successfully applied for the separation of dyes mixtures. Various influential factors such as solution pH, temperature, and contact time were employed to ascertain the optimal condition for adsorption of representative organic dyes including MB, MG and NR. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were used to fit the adsorption kinetics process. Five isothermal adsorption models (Langmuir, Dubnin-Radushkevich, Temkin, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura) were used to investigate the adsorption thermodynamics properties. The results showed that the PDA microspheres owned good selective adsorption ability towards cationic dyes. The adsorption kinetics process conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model was more appropriate for tracing the adsorption behavior than other isotherm models. Thus, we can conclude PDA microspheres may be a high-efficiency selective adsorbent towards some cationic dyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gamma irradiation and steam pretreatment of jute stick powder for the enhancement of dye adsorption efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvin, Fahmida; Sultana, Nargis; Habib, S. M. Ahsan; Bhoumik, Nikhil Chandra

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the facile and effective pretreatment technique to enhance the capacity of jute stick powder (JSP) in adsorbing dye from raw textile effluent. Hence, different pretreatment techniques, i.e., radiation treatment, alkali treatment, ammonia treatment, steam treatment and CaCl2 treatment were applied to JSP and the adsorbing performance were examined for synthetic dye solutions (Blue FCL and Red RL dye). Different gamma radiation doses were applied on JSP and optimum dye removal efficiency was found at 500 krad in removing these two dyes (50 ppm) from solutions. Among the different pretreatment techniques, gamma irradiated JSP (500 Krad) exhibits highest dye uptake capacity for RED RL dye, whereas steam-treated JSP shows highest performance in adsorbing blue FCL dye. Subsequently, we applied the gamma irradiated and steam-treated JSP on real textile effluent (RTE) and these two techniques shows potentiality in adsorbing dye from raw textile effluent and in reducing BOD5, COD load and TOC to some extent as well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis also proved that dye has been adsorbed on pretreated JSP.

  18. The degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Durham, D.E.; Heath, W.O.

    1992-02-01

    Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an in situ colorimeter and the effects of varying the current, voltage, gas phase, stirring rates, salinity, and electrode spacing were investigated. The highest reaction rates were observed using the highest current, highest voltage (up to 10kV), highest stirring rate, lowest salinity, smallest electrode spacing, and an environment containing enhanced levels of oxygen. Current was higher in the presence of nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen (for the same voltage), but the reaction of methylene blue did not proceed unless oxygen was present. These results help identify conditions using corona discharge in which dyes, and potentially other organics, can be destroyed. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  19. The degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Durham, D.E.; Heath, W.O.

    1992-02-01

    Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an in situ colorimeter and the effects of varying the current, voltage, gas phase, stirring rates, salinity, and electrode spacing were investigated. The highest reaction rates were observed using the highest current, highest voltage (up to 10kV), highest stirring rate, lowest salinity, smallest electrode spacing, and an environment containing enhanced levels of oxygen. Current was higher in the presence of nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen (for the same voltage), but the reaction of methylene blue did not proceed unless oxygen was present. These results help identify conditions using corona discharge in which dyes, and potentially other organics, can be destroyed. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C.; Dillehay, Tom D.; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans). PMID:27652337