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Sample records for isosulfan blue dye

  1. Intraoperative sentinel node identification in early stage cervical cancer using a combination of radiolabeled albumin injection and isosulfan blue dye injection.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Palones, José M; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Pérez-Benavente, María A; Roca, Isabel; Xercavins, Jordi

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the feasibility of sentinel lymph node identification using radioisotopic lymphatic mapping with technetium-99m-labeled human serum albumin and isosulfan blue dye injection in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for treatment of early cervical cancer. Between September 2000 and October 2002, 25 patients with cervical cancer FIGO stage I (n=24) or stage II (n=1) underwent sentinel lymph node detection with preoperative lymphoscintigraphy (technetium-99m colloid albumin injection around the tumor) and intraoperative lymphatic mapping with blue dye and a handheld or laparoscopic gamma probe. Complete pelvic or paraaortic lymphadenectomy was performed in all cases by open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. In 23 evaluable patients, a total of 51 sentinel lymph nodes were detected by lymphoscintigraphy (mean 2.21 nodes per patient). Intraoperatively, 61 sentinel lymph nodes were identified, with a mean of 2.52 nodes per patient by gamma probe and a mean of 1.94 nodes per patient after isosulfan blue injection. Forty percent of sentinel nodes were found in the interiliac region and 25% in the external iliac area. Microscopic nodal metastases (four nodes) were confirmed in 12% of cases. All these lymph nodes were previously detected as sentinel lymph nodes. The remaining 419 nodes after pelvic lymphadenectomy were histologically negative. Sentinel lymph node identification with technetium-99m-labeled nanocolloid combined with blue dye injection is feasible and showed a 100% negative predictive value, and potentially identified women in whom lymph node dissection can be avoided.

  2. Multicenter Trial of Sentinel Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer Using Both Technetium Sulfur Colloid and Isosulfan Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    Tafra, Lorraine; Lannin, Donald R.; Swanson, Melvin S.; Van Eyk, Jason J.; Verbanac, Kathryn M.; Chua, Arlene N.; Ng, Peter C.; Edwards, Maxine S.; Halliday, Bradford E.; Henry, C. Alan; Sommers, Linda M.; Carman, Claire M.; Molin, Melinda R.; Yurko, John E.; Perry, Roger R.; Williams, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the factors associated with false-negative results on sentinel node biopsy and sentinel node localization (identification rate) in patients with breast cancer enrolled in a multicenter trial using a combination technique of isosulfan blue with technetium sulfur colloid (Tc99). Summary Background Data Sentinel node biopsy is a diagnostic test used to detect breast cancer metastases. To test the reliability of this method, a complete lymph node dissection must be performed to determine the false-negative rate. Single-institution series have reported excellent results, although one multicenter trial reported a false-negative rate as high as 29% using radioisotope alone. A multicenter trial was initiated to test combined use of Tc99 and isosulfan blue. Methods Investigators (both private-practice and academic surgeons) were recruited after attending a course on the technique of sentinel node biopsy. No investigator participated in a learning trial before entering patients. Tc99 and isosulfan blue were injected into the peritumoral region. Results Five hundred twenty-nine patients underwent 535 sentinel node biopsy procedures for an overall identification rate in finding a sentinel node of 87% and a false-negative rate of 13%. The identification rate increased and the false-negative rate decreased to 90% and 4.3%, respectively, after investigators had performed more than 30 cases. Univariate analysis of tumor showed the poorest success rate with older patients and inexperienced surgeons. Multivariate analysis identified both age and experience as independent predictors of failure. However, with older patients, inexperienced surgeons, and patients with five or more metastatic axillary nodes, the false-negative rate was consistently greater. Conclusions This multicenter trial, from both private practice and academic institutions, is an excellent indicator of the general utility of sentinel node biopsy. It establishes the factors that play an

  3. 10 % fluorescein sodium vs 1 % isosulfan blue in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lidong; Liu, Zhao; Liang, Mengdi; Wang, Li; Song, Xingli; Wang, Shui

    2016-11-03

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is well accepted to be a standard procedure in breast cancer surgery with clinically negative lymph nodes. Isosulfan blue is the first dye approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration for the localization of the lymphatic system. Few alternative tracers have been investigated. In this study, we aimed to compare the differences between 10 % fluorescein sodium and 1 % isosulfan blue in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy and to investigate the feasibility of using 10 % fluorescein sodium as a new dye for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. A total of 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the fluorescein sodium group and the isosulfan blue group (15 rabbits per group). Fluorescein sodium or isosulfan blue was injected subcutaneously into the second pair of mammary areolas. The average fading time of the second lymph nodes in the isosulfan blue group was significantly shorter than that in the fluorescein sodium group. Moreover, the detection rates of SLNs were higher in the fluorescein sodium group than in the isosulfan blue group. No significant differences between the fluorescein sodium group and isosulfan blue group were observed regarding the distances between the detected sentinel lymph nodes and second pair of mammary areolas, the distances between the second lymph nodes and second pair of mammary areolas, the number of detected sentinel lymph nodes and second lymph nodes, the average dyeing time of the sentinel and the second lymph nodes, and the average fading time of the second lymph nodes. In summary, we first reported that fluorescein sodium is a potential new tracer for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  4. The effect of subareolar isosulfan blue injection on pulse oximeter readings.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Baha; Yararbas, Ulkem; Bingolballi, Ozge; Denecli, Ali Galip

    2014-02-01

    Besides several side effects including anaphylaxis, blue dyes are also known to cause false pulse oximeter readings. We aimed to examine the effects of subareolar isosulfan blue injection on pulse oximeter (SpO2) readings. The study group included 27 patients undergoing SLNB using both radiocolloid and isosulfan blue. Another group of 27 patients constituted the control group. Pulse oximeter readings were compared. SpO2 decline ≥4 % was defined as significant. All but one (96.2 %) of the patients in the study group showed SpO2 declines, compared to only one patient in the control group. Median ± Interqartile Range (IR) SpO2 decrease was 3.0 ± 4.0 % in the study and 0.0 ± 1.0 % in the control group (p < 0.001). There were significant (≥4 %) SpO2 decreases in 13 (48.1 %) patients in the study group. Statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups in all recordings between 15 and 180 min (p < 0.001). Initial time for SpO2 fall and the time to the lowest SpO2 recording were 10.0 ± 10.0 and 40.0 ± 30.0 min respectively. Using subareolar injection, the frequency of false readings is comparable with intraparenchymal injections, and is higher than intradermal injections. Time to peak SpO2 fall, and the recovery period, are delayed in the subareolar technique.

  5. Axillary reverse mapping with indocyanine green or isosulfan blue demonstrate similar crossover rates to radiotracer identified sentinel nodes.

    PubMed

    Foster, Deshka; Choy, Nicole; Porter, Catherine; Ahmed, Shushmita; Wapnir, Irene

    2018-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) resection is imperative for breast cancer staging. Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) can preserve arm draining nodes and lymphatics during surgery. ARM is generally performed with isosulfan blue (ISB), restricting its use for concurrent SLN biopsy. Indocyanine green (ICG) could serve as an alternative to ISB for ARM procedures. SLN mapping and biopsy was performed via periareolar injection of 99 technetium-sulfur colloid ( 99m TcSc, TSC). ISB and ICG were injected in the upper arm. Blue-stained lymphatics or nodes were visualized in the axilla; ICG was identified using the SPY Elite® system. Twenty-three patients underwent SLN biopsy with or without axillary node dissection and ARM procedures. Twenty of these patients had at least one hot node; 12 patients had SLNs that were only hot, 6 hot/blue/fluorescent, and 2 hot/fluorescent. Overall, crossover of ARM agents with SLNs occurred in 8 cases. Inspection of the axillary cavity after SLN biopsy revealed fluorescent lymphatics and nodes remaining in 14 and 7 patients, respectively. Blue lymphatics and blue nodes were detected in fewer cases. Nearly one-third of patients showed crossover between breast and arm draining nodes, which provides insight as to why some patients develop lymphedema symptoms after SLN biopsy. ICG and ISB identify similar numbers of SLNs. As such ICG could substitute for ISB in ARM procedures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Blue dye for identification of sentinel nodes in breast cancer and malignant melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peek, Mirjam Cl; Charalampoudis, Petros; Anninga, Bauke; Baker, Rose; Douek, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The combined technique (radioisotope and blue dye) is the gold standard for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and there is wide variation in techniques and blue dyes used. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the need for radioisotope and the optimal blue dye for SLNB. A total of 21 studies were included. The SLNB identification rates are high with all the commonly used blue dyes. Furthermore, methylene blue is superior to iso-sulfan blue and Patent Blue V with respect to false-negative rates. The combined technique remains the most accurate and effective technique for SLNB. In order to standardize the SLNB technique, comparative trials to determine the most effective blue dye and national guidelines are required.

  7. Sentinel lymph node mapping in endometrial cancer: comparison of fluorescence dye with traditional radiocolloid and blue.

    PubMed

    Papadia, Andrea; Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Buda, Alessandro; Mueller, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in endometrial cancer (EMCA) is rapidly gaining acceptance in the clinical community. As compared to a full lymphadenectomy in every patient, to a selective lymphadenectomy after frozen section of uterus in selected patients with intrauterine risk factors or to a strategy in which a lymphadenectomy is always omitted, SLN mapping seems to be a reasonable and oncologically safe middle ground. Various protocols can be used when applying an SLN mapping. In this manuscript we review the characteristics, toxicity and clinical impact of technetium-99m radiocolloid (Tc-99m), of the blue dyes (methylene blue, isosulfan blue and patent blue) and of indocyanine green (ICG). ICG has an excellent toxicity profile, has higher overall and bilateral detection rates as compared to blue dyes and higher bilateral detection rates as compared to a combination of Tc-99m and blue dye. The detrimental effect of BMI on the detection rates is attenuated when ICG is used as a tracer. The ease of use of the ICG SLN mapping is perceived by the patients as a better quality of care delivered. Whenever possible, ICG should be favored over the other tracers for SLN mapping in EMCA patients.

  8. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  9. Impact of Indocyanine Green for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in Early Stage Endometrial and Cervical Cancer: Comparison with Conventional Radiotracer (99m)Tc and/or Blue Dye.

    PubMed

    Buda, Alessandro; Crivellaro, Cinzia; Elisei, Federica; Di Martino, Giampaolo; Guerra, Luca; De Ponti, Elena; Cuzzocrea, Marco; Giuliani, Daniela; Sina, Federica; Magni, Sonia; Landoni, Claudio; Milani, Rodolfo

    2016-07-01

    To compare the detection rate (DR) and bilateral optimal mapping (OM) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in women with endometrial and cervical cancer using indocyanine green (ICG) versus the standard technetium-99m radiocolloid ((99m)Tc) radiotracer plus methylene or isosulfan blue, or blue dye alone. From October 2010 to May 2015, 163 women with stage I endometrial or cervical cancer (118 endometrial and 45 cervical cancer) underwent SLN mapping with (99m)Tc with blue dye, blue dye alone, or ICG. DR and bilateral OM of ICG were compared respectively with the results obtained using the standard (99m)Tc radiotracer with blue dye, or blue dye alone. SLN mapping with (99m)Tc radiotracer with blue dye was performed on 77 of 163 women, 38 with blue dye only and 48 with ICG. The overall DR of SLN mapping was 97, 89, and 100 % for (99m)Tc with blue dye, blue dye alone, and ICG, respectively. The bilateral OM rate for ICG was 85 %-significantly higher than the 58 % obtained with (99m)Tc with blue dye (p = 0.003) and the 54 % for blue dye (p = 0.001). Thirty-one women (19 %) had positive SLNs. Sensitivity and negative predictive value of SLN were 100 % for all techniques. SLNs mapping using ICG demonstrated higher DR compared to other modalities. In addition, ICG was significantly superior to (99m)Tc with blue dye in terms of bilateral OM in women with early stage endometrial and cervical cancer. The higher number of bilateral OM may consequently reduce the overall number of complete lymphadenectomies, reducing the duration and additional costs of surgical treatment.

  10. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    PubMed

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND BLEACHING BUILDINGS. PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1905 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. From the collection of Mr. George Durette, Photographer, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  12. Bioremediation of coractive blue dye by using Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the textile dye wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunar, N. M.; Mon, Z. K.; Rahim, N. A.; Leman, A. M.; Airish, N. A. M.; Khalid, A.; Ali, R.; Zaidi, E.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater released from the textile industry contains variety substances, mainly dyes that contains a high concentration of color and organic. In this study the potential for bacterial decolorization of coractive blue dye was examined that isolated from textile wastewater. The optimum conditions were determined for pH, temperature and initial concentration of the dye. The bacteria isolated was Pseudomonas spp. The selected bacterium shows high decolorization in static condition at an optimum of pH 7.0. The Pseudomonas spp. could decolorize coractive blue dye by 70% within 24 h under static condition, with the optimum of pH 7.0. Decolorization was confirmed by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. This present study suggests the potential of Pseudomonas spp. as an approach in sustainable bioremediation that provide an efficient method for decolorizing coractive blue dye.

  13. FTIR Spectroscopy Applied in Remazol Blue Dye Oxidation by Laccases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Hernández, J.; Zavala-Soto, M. E.; Bibbins-Martínez, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.; Díaz-Godinez, G.; Rojas-López, M.

    2008-04-01

    We have used FTIR with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) technique to analyze the decolourization process of Remazol Blue dye (RB19) caused by the oxidative activity of laccase enzyme. It is known that laccases catalyze the oxidation of a large range of phenolic compounds and aromatic amines carrying out one-electron oxidations, although also radicals could be formed which undergo subsequent nonenzymatic reactions. The enzyme laccase is a copper-containing polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.2) which has been tested as a potential alternative in detoxification of environmental pollutants such as dyes present in wastewaters generated for the textile industry. In order to ensure degradation or avoid formation of toxic compounds it is important to establish the mechanism by which laccase oxidizes dyes. In this research individual ATR-FTIR spectra have been recorded for several reaction times between 0 to 236 hours, and the temporal dependence of the reaction was analyzed through the relative diminution of the intensity of the infrared band at 1127 cm-1 (associated to C-N vibration), with respect to the intensity of the band at 1104 cm-1 (associated to S = O) from sulphoxide group. Decolourization process of this dye by laccase could be attributed to its accessibility on the secondary amino group, which is a potential point of attack of laccases, abstracting the hydrogen atom. This decolourization process of remazol blue dye by laccase enzyme might in a future replace the traditionally high chemical, energy and water consuming textile operations.

  14. The predictive value of methylene blue dye as a single technique in breast cancer sentinel node biopsy: a study from Dharmais Cancer Hospital.

    PubMed

    Brahma, Bayu; Putri, Rizky Ifandriani; Karsono, Ramadhan; Andinata, Bob; Gautama, Walta; Sari, Lenny; Haryono, Samuel J

    2017-02-07

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has been the standard treatment of breast cancer axillary staging in Indonesia. The limited facilities of radioisotope tracer and isosulfan or patent blue dye (PBD) have been the major obstacles to perform sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in our country. We studied the application of 1% methylene blue dye (MBD) alone for SNB to overcome the problem. This prospective study enrolled 108 patients with suspicious malignant lesions or breast cancer stages I-III. SNB was performed using 2-5 cc of 1% MBD and proceeded with ALND. The histopathology results of sentinel nodes (SNs) were compared with axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) for diagnostic value assessments. There were 96 patients with invasive carcinoma from July 2012 to September 2014 who were included in the final analysis. The median age was 50 (25-69) years, and the median pathological tumor size was 3 cm (1-10). Identification rate of SNs was 91.7%, and the median number of the identified SNs was 2 (1-8). Sentinel node metastasis was found in 53.4% cases and 89.4% of them were macrometastases. The negative predictive value (NPV) of SNs to predict axillary metastasis was 90% (95% CI, 81-99%). There were no anaphylactic reactions, but we found 2 cases with skin necrosis. The application of 1% MBD as a single technique in breast cancer SNB has favorable identification rates and predictive values. It can be used for axillary staging, but nevertheless the technique should be applied with attention to the tumor size and grade to avoid false negative results.

  15. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 8. Methylene blue, azure and violet.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2017-01-01

    Methylene blue was synthesized in 1877 and soon found application in medicine, staining for microscopy and as an industrial dye and pigment. An enormous literature has accumulated since its introduction. Early on, it was known that methylene blue could be degraded easily by demethylation; consequently, the purity of commercial samples often was low. Therefore, demethylation products, such as azures and methylene violet, also are considered here. The names and identity of the components, their varying modes of manufacture, analytical methods and their contribution to biological staining are discussed.

  16. Adverse drug reaction, patent blue V dye and anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Swagata; Nair, Priya V

    2012-11-01

    Patent blue vital (PBV) dye is used for varied perioperative indications, and has a potential for causing life-threatening allergic reactions. In this retrospective case series study, at a tertiary level neurosciences centre, we analysed the nature, management and outcome of adverse drug reaction to the preoperative use of PBV for marking vertebral level prior to back surgeries. Patients were identified from the theatre and radiology database. Data were collected from the patients' notes retrieved from the medical records division. Eleven of 1247 (0.88%) patients experienced adverse reactions: 6 (0.48%) patients had minor grade I reactions (urticaria, blue hives, pruritis or generalised rash), 4 (0.32%) had grade II reactions (transient hypotension/bronchospasm/laryngospasm) and grade III reaction (hypotension requiring prolonged vasopressor support) was noted in 1 (0.08%) patient. No mortality was seen. The time of onset (range 10-45 min) frequently coincided with induction of anaesthesia or prone positioning of patient. Seven (63.6%) cases were cancelled or postponed (range 2-63 days). Treatment varied independent of the grade of reaction. Allergy workup (often incomplete) was done for 6 (54%) patients. An awareness of the time of onset and infrequency of life-threatening reactions to patent blue dye may result in better management, less postponement, more complete workup and referral of these events.

  17. Dyeing behaviours of amino heterocyclic compounds as blue oxidative hair dye precursors applied to keratin fibres.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Huang, Y; Su, J

    2011-04-01

    Several novel heterocyclic compounds based on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 2,3-dihydroindole have been investigated for their application of colour keratin fibres as blue oxidative dye precursors, especially to human hair. The colourants we studied contained anyone of these dyes (concentration range from 0.005% to 6%), and some common oxidative hair dyes, such as p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine sulphate. Experiments were carried out on the method of mixing hair colourants with H(2)O(2) gel at the ratio of 1 : 1, accompanied by pH = 8∼11. It is demonstrated that 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives could be considered as an excellent candidate for blue dyes, and N-methyl-7-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is the most outstanding one among this kind of compounds. They own significant advantages of colour purity, stability and fastness. On the other hand, 2,3-dihydroindoles show the similar colours but not stable and brilliant enough. © 2010 The Authors. ICS © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is blue dye still required during sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Peek, Mirjam Cl; Kovacs, Tibor; Baker, Rose; Hamed, Hisham; Kothari, Ash; Douek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In early breast cancer, the optimal technique for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the combined technique (radioisotope and Patent Blue V) which achieves high identification rates. Despite this, many centres have decided to stop using blue dye due to blue-dye-related complications (tattoo, anaphylaxis). We evaluated the SLNB identification rate using the combined technique with and without Patent Blue V and the blue-dye-related complication rates. Clinical and histological data were analysed on patients undergoing SLNB between March 2014 and April 2015. SLNB was performed following standard hospital protocols using the combined technique. A total of 208 patients underwent SLNB and 160 patients (342 nodes) with complete operation notes were available for final analysis. The identification rate with the combined technique was 98.8% ( n = 158/160), with blue dye alone 92.5% ( n = 148/160) and with radioisotope alone 97.5% ( n = 156/160). A total of 76.9% (263/342) of nodes were radioactive and blue, 15.5% (53/342) only radioactive and 2.3% (8/342) only blue, 5.3% (18/342) were neither radioactive nor blue. No anaphylactic reactions were reported and blue skin staining was reported in six (3.8%) patients. The combined technique should continue be the preferred technique for SLNB and should be standardised. Radioisotope alone (but not blue dye alone) has comparable sentinel node identification rates in experienced hands. National guidelines are required to optimise operative documentation.

  20. Evans Blue Dye: A Revisit of Its Applications in Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linpeng; Xue, Xing; Yu, Peipei; Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Evans blue (EB) dye has owned a long history as a biological dye and diagnostic agent since its first staining application by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. Due to its high water solubility and slow excretion, as well as its tight binding to serum albumin, EB has been widely used in biomedicine, including its use in estimating blood volume and vascular permeability, detecting lymph nodes, and localizing the tumor lesions. Recently, a series of EB derivatives have been labeled with PET isotopes and can be used as theranostics with a broad potential due to their improved half-life in the blood and reduced release. Some of EB derivatives have even been used in translational applications in clinics. In addition, a novel necrosis-avid feature of EB has recently been reported in some preclinical animal studies. Given all these interesting and important advances in EB study, a comprehensive revisiting of EB has been made in its biomedical applications in the review.

  1. Characteristics of Alcian-blue Dye Adsorption of Natural Biofilm Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Sukandar; Guntur

    2018-01-01

    In this study, natural biofilm matrices formed on stones have been used for the adsorption of Alcian blue dye. Alcian blue is a member of polyvalent basic dyes that largely used from laboratory until industrial dying purposes. The adsorption of the dye onto the biofilm matrix has been carried out at different experimental conditions such as adsorption isotherm and kinetic of adsorption. The electric charge properties of biofilm matrix and its changes related to the adsorption of Alcian blue have been also investigated. Moreover, the results of Alcian blue adsorption to the biofilm were compared to those onto the acidic and neutral resin. The kinetics of adsorption result showed that the adsorption of the Alcian blue dye reached to a maximum adsorption amount within 60 minutes. The adsorption amount of Alcian blue to biofilm increased monotonously, and the maximum adsorption amount was greater compared to the resins. On the contrary, Alcian blue did not attach to the neutral resin having no electric charge. It seems that Alcian blue attached to the acidic resins due to electrostatic attractive force, and the same seems to be the case for adsorption of Alcian blue to biofilm. The adsorption of Alcian blue to the biofilm and acidic resins fitted to Langmuir type indicates that the binding of Alcian blue to the biofilm and acidic resins occurred in a monolayer like form. The maximum adsorption amount of Alcian blue on the biofilm (0.24 mmol/dry-g) was greater than those of acidic resin (0.025 mmol/dry-g). This indicates that the biofilm has many more sites for Alcian blue attachment than acidic resins. According to the result of this study, the biofilm matrix can be a good adsorbent for dye such as Alcian blue or other dyes that causing hazards in nature.

  2. [Exclusive use of blue dye to detect sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Bühler H, Simón; Rojas P, Hugo; Cayazzo M, Daniela; Cunill C, Eduardo; Vesperinas A, Gonzalo; Hamilton S, James

    2008-08-01

    The use of a dye and radiocolloid to detect sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer increases the detection rates. However the use of either method alone does not modify the false negative rate. Therefore there is no formal contraindication for the exclusive use of dye to detect nodes. To report a prospective analysis of the exclusive blue dye technique for sentinel node biopsy in patients with early breast cancer. We analyzed the first 100 women with pathologically proven breast cancer who met the inclusion criteria. Patent blue dye was used as colorant. In the first 25 cases sentinel node was identified using radiocolloid and blue dye an then an axillary dissection performed. In the next 25 women, blue dye was used exclusively for detection and an axillary dissection was performed. In the next 50 cases, blue dye was used and only isolated sentinel node biopsy was performed. In 92 of the 100 women a sentinel node was successfully detected. In the first 50 women, the false negative rate of sentinel lymph node detection was 6.9%. No complications occurred. During follow-up, lasting three to 29 months, no axillary relapse was observed. Sentinel node biopsy in patients with early breast cancer using exclusively blue dye is feasible and safe.

  3. Assessing Urinary Tract Junction Obstruction Defects by Methylene Blue Dye Injection.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kangsun

    2017-10-12

    Urinary tract junction obstruction defects are congenital anomalies inducing hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Murine urinary tract junction obstruction defects can be assessed by tracking methylene blue dye flow within the urinary system. Methylene blue dye is injected into the renal pelvis of perinatal embryonic kidneys and dye flow is monitored from the renal pelvis of the kidney through the ureter and into the bladder lumen after applying hydrostatic pressure. Dye accumulation will be evident in the bladder lumen of the normal perinatal urinary tract, but will be constrained between the renal pelvis and the end point of an abnormal ureter, if urinary tract obstructions occur. This method facilitates the confirmation of urinary tract junction obstructions and visualization of hydronephrosis and hydroureter. This manuscript describes a protocol for methylene blue dye injection into the renal pelvis to confirm urinary tract junction obstructions.

  4. Photoacoustic microscopy using Evans Blue dye as a contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-02-01

    Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBC) as an endogenous contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we used Evans Blue (EB) dye as a contrast agent for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. EB has strong optical absorption at 610 nm and distributes uniformly in the blood stream by chemically binding to albumin. By intravenous injection of EB (6%, 200 μL), complete and continuous microvascular networks-especially capillaries-of the ears of nude mice were imaged. The diffusion of EB (3%, 100 μL) leaving the blood stream was monitored for 2 hours. At lower administration dose of EB (3%, 50 μL), the clearance of the EB-albumin complex was imaged for 10 days and quantitatively investigated using a two-compartment model.

  5. Removing Trypan blue dye using nano-Zn modified Luffa sponge.

    PubMed

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Cicek, Semra; Gungor, Azize Alayli

    2017-02-05

    This study has presented specific features that are examined to remove the Trypan blue dye from the waste using Luffa sponge (LS) and modified Luffa sponge with zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs). Peroxidase enzyme was obtained from Euphorbia amygdaloides plant and it was used with the green synthesis of Zn nanoparticles. Luffa sponge was used to be a support material for immobilized nanoparticles and it also used in remediation work. The obtained membrane forms, fibrous materials, (LS, ZnNPs-LS) were characterized with SEM and XRD. LS and ZnNPs-LS were employed as adsorbent to be used for the removal of Trypan blue dye from aqueous via batch studies. Measurements were made for the equilibrium, pH, temperature, concentration of dye with UV-visible spectrometer (590nm; for Trypan blue dye). The optimum removal of Trypan blue dye was found at pH7, the equilibrium was attained within 30min. The thermodynamic properties ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , and ΔS 0 showed that adsorption of Trypan blue dye onto LS and ZnNPs-LS were spontaneous and endothermic. The equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models and the sorption process was described by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 45.32 and 47.3mg/g for LS and LS-ZnNPs at 303±1°K, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective biotransformation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 by using aerobic bacterial granules.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ashvini U; Paul, Dhiraj; Dhotre, Dhiraj; Kodam, Kisan M

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of textile wastewater containing anthraquinone dye is quite a huge challenge due to its complex aromatic structure and toxicity. Present study deals with the degradation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 using aerobic bacterial granules. Bacterial granules effectively decolorized reactive blue 4 at wide range of pH (4.0-11.0) and temperature (20-55 °C) as well as decolorized and tolerated high concentration of reactive blue 4 dye upto 1000 mg l -1 with V max 6.16 ± 0.82 mg l -1 h -1 and K m 227 ± 41 mg l -1 . Metagenomics study evaluates important role of Clostridia, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacterial members in biotransformation and tolerance of high concentrations of reactive blue 4 dye. Up-regulation of xenobiotic degradation and environmental information processing pathways during dye exposure signifies their noteworthy role in dye degradation. Biotransformation of dye was confirmed by significant decrease in the values of total suspended solids, biological and chemical oxygen demand. The metabolites formed after biotransformation was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The reactive blue 4 dye was found to be phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic whereas its biotransformed product were non-toxic. This study comprehensively illustrates that, bacterial aerobic granules can be used for eco-friendly remediation and detoxification of wastewater containing high organic load of anthraquinone dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solar light induced and TiO2 assisted degradation of textile dye reactive blue 4.

    PubMed

    Neppolian, B; Choi, H C; Sakthivel, S; Arabindoo, B; Murugesan, V

    2002-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of reactive blue 4 textile dye are totally mineralised when irradiated with TiO2 photocatalyst. A solution containing 4 x 10(-4) M dye was completely degraded in 24 h irradiation time. The intensity of the solar light was measured using Lux meter. The results showed that the dye molecules were completely degraded to CO2, SO4(2-), NO3-, NH4+ and H2O under solar irradiation. The addition of hydrogen peroxide and potassium persulphate influenced the photodegradation efficiency. The rapidity of photodegradation of dye intermediates were observed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide than in its absence. The auxiliary chemicals such as sodium carbonate and sodium chloride substantially affected the photodegradation efficiency. High performance liquid chromatography and chemical oxygen demand were used to study the mineralisation and degradation of the dye respectively. It is concluded that solar light induced degradation of textile dye in wastewater is a viable technique for wastewater treatment.

  8. Potential of roselle and blue pea in the dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayang, S.; Irwanto, M.; Gomesh, N.; Ismail, B.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discovers the use of natural dyes from Roselle flower and Blue Pea flower which act as a sensitizer in DSSC and in addition has a potential in absorbing visible light spectrum. The dyes were extracted using distilled water (DI) and ethanol (E) extract solvent in an ultrasonic cleaner for 30 minutes with a frequency of 37 Hz by using `degas' mode at the temperature of 30°C. Absorption spectra of roselle dye and blue pea dye with different extract solvent were tested using Evolution 201 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. It was found that Roselle dye absorbs at a range of 400 nm - 620 nm and Blue Pea absorbs at the range of wavelength 500 nm - 680 nm. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to identify the functional active group in extract dye. The concept of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) similar to photosynthesis process has attracted much attention since it demonstrates a great potential due to the use of low-cost materials and environmentally friendly sources of technology.

  9. Brilliant Blue Dyes in Daily Food: How Could Purinergic System Be Affected?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Leonardo Gomes Braga; Ferreira, Natiele Carla da Silva; Soares-Bezerra, Rômulo José

    2016-01-01

    Dyes were first obtained from the extraction of plant sources in the Neolithic period to produce dyed clothes. At the beginning of the 19th century, synthetic dyes were produced to color clothes on a large scale. Other applications for synthetic dyes include the pharmaceutical and food industries, which are important interference factors in our lives and health. Herein, we analyzed the possible implications of some dyes that are already described as antagonists of purinergic receptors, including special Brilliant Blue G and its derivative FD&C Blue No. 1. Purinergic receptor family is widely expressed in the body and is critical to relate to much cellular homeostasis maintenance as well as inflammation and cell death. In this review, we discuss previous studies and show purinergic signaling as an important issue to be aware of in food additives development and their correlations with the physiological functions. PMID:27833914

  10. Safety of methylene blue dye for lymphatic mapping in patients taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shah-Khan, Miraj G; Lovely, Jenna; Degnim, Amy C

    2012-11-01

    Methylene blue dye has an important role in lymphatic mapping for sentinel lymph node surgery. A recent safety announcement from the US Food and Drug Administration warned physicians about possible serious central nervous system reactions in patients on serotonergic medications who received intravenous methylene blue for the identification of parathyroid glands. This report summarizes evidence from the Food and Drug Administration's announcement and methylene blue pharmacokinetics. The authors conclude that the use of methylene blue dye at low doses for lymphatic mapping likely carries very little risk for serotonin neurotoxicity, although breast surgeons should be aware of this potential complication in the event of mental status or neuromuscular changes in patients after lymphatic mapping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel Blue Organic Dye for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieving High Efficiency in Cobalt-Based Electrolytes and by Co-Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Saygili, Yasemin; Cong, Jiayan; Eriksson, Anna; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Jinbao; Polanski, Enrico; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2016-12-07

    Blue and green dyes as well as NIR-absorbing dyes have attracted great interest because of their excellent ability of absorbing the incident photons in the red and near-infrared range region. A novel blue D-π-A dye (Dyenamo Blue), based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-core, has been designed and synthesized. Assembled with the cobalt bipyridine-based electrolytes, the device with Dyenamo Blue achieved a satisfying efficiency of 7.3% under one sun (AM1.5 G). The co-sensitization strategy was further applied on this blue organic dye together with a red D-π-A dye (D35). The successful co-sensitization outperformed a panchromatic light absorption and improved the photocurrent density; this in addition to the open-circuit potential result in an efficiency of 8.7%. The extended absorption of the sensitization and the slower recombination reaction between the blue dye and TiO 2 surface inhibited by the additional red sensitizer could be the two main reasons for the higher performance. In conclusion, from the results, the highly efficient cobalt-based DSSCs could be achieved with the co-sensitization between red and blue D-π-A organic dyes with a proper design, which showed us the possibility of applying this strategy for future high-performance solar cells.

  12. Decolorization pathways of anthraquinone dye Disperse Blue 2BLN by Aspergillus sp. XJ-2 CGMCC12963.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huiran; Xu, Xiaolin; Wen, Zhu; Kang, Yanshun; Wang, Xinhao; Ren, Youshan; Huang, Danqi

    2017-09-03

    Anthraquinone dye represents an important group of recalcitrant pollutants in dye wastewater. Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 showed broad-spectrum decolorization ability, which could efficiently decolorize and degrade various anthraquinone dyes (50 mg L -1 ) under microaerophilic condition. And the decolorization rate of 93.3% was achieved at 120 h with Disperse Blue 2BLN (the target dye). Intermediates of degradation were detected by FTIR and GC-MS, which revealed the cleavage of anthraquinone chromophoric group and partial mineralization of target dye. In addition, extracellular manganese peroxidase showed the most closely related to the increasing of decolorization rate and biomass among intracellular and extracellular ligninolytic enzymes. Given these results, 2 possible degraded pathways of target dye by Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 were proposed first in this work. The degradation of Disperse Blue 2BLN and broad spectrum decolorization ability provided the potential for Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 in the treatment of wastewater containing anthraquinone dyes.

  13. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  14. Microwave atmospheric pressure plasma jets for wastewater treatment: Degradation of methylene blue as a model dye.

    PubMed

    García, María C; Mora, Manuel; Esquivel, Dolores; Foster, John E; Rodero, Antonio; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Romero-Salguero, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution as a model dye using a non thermal microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. Argon has been used as feed gas and aqueous solutions with different concentrations of the dye were treated using the effluent from plasma jet in a remote exposure. The removal efficiency increased as the dye concentration decreased from 250 to 5 ppm. Methylene blue degrades after different treatment times, depending on the experimental plasma conditions. Thus, kinetic constants up to 0.177 min -1 were obtained. The higher the Ar flow, the faster the degradation rate. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to gather information about the species present in the gas phase, specifically excited argon atoms. Argon excited species and hydrogen peroxide play an important role in the degradation of the dye. In fact, the conversion of methylene blue was directly related to the density of argon excited species in the gas phase and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous liquid phase. Values of energy yield at 50% dye conversion of 0.296 g/kWh were achieved. Also, the use of two plasma applicators in parallel has been proven to improve energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dimethylformamide interferes with Coomassie dye staining of proteins on blue native gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, V; Oommen, Anna; Ramachandran, Anup

    2014-06-15

    Blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) is used extensively for characterization of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and uses the binding of Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 to visualize proteins. Oxidative modification of sulfhydryl groups of such proteins can be evaluated by labeling with iodoacetamide conjugated to biotin (BIAM) and detected with streptavidin peroxidase on Western blots following BN-PAGE. However, dissolving BIAM in dimethylformamide, a recommended solvent, reduces Coomassie blue G staining to proteins during BN-PAGE. This interference is prevented by dissolving BIAM in dimethyl sulfoxide. Precautions in the use of the dye for protein staining subsequent to BIAM labeling are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How Long Will I Be Blue? Prolonged Skin Staining Following Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Using Intradermal Patent Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    Gumus, Metehan; Gumus, Hatice; Jones, Sue E; Jones, Peter A; Sever, Ali R; Weeks, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Blue dye used for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients may cause prolonged skin discoloration at the site of injection. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of such skin discoloration. Patients and Methods 236 consecutive patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery and SLNB for breast cancer were reviewed prospectively from January 2007 to December 2009. Results Of the 236 patients, 2 had undergone bilateral surgery, and 41 had been examined in consecutive yearly reviews. Blue discoloration remained visible at the injection site after 12, 24, and > 36 months in 36.5, 23.6, and 8.6% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion The use of patent blue for identification of the sentinel lymph node in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery may result in prolonged discoloration of the skin at the injection site. PMID:24415970

  17. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Due to Oral Use of Blue Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Osman; Kose, Ösman; Safali, Mukerrem

    2011-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe pustular cutaneous adverse reaction characterized by a rapid clinical course with typical histological findings. It is accompanied by fever and acute eruption of non-follicular pustules overlying erythrodermic skin. The causative agents are most frequently antibacterial drugs. We present a patient with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by methylene blue and indigotin dyes. PMID:22016599

  18. Widening and diversifying the proteome capture by combinatorial peptide ligand libraries via Alcian Blue dye binding.

    PubMed

    Candiano, Giovanni; Santucci, Laura; Petretto, Andrea; Lavarello, Chiara; Inglese, Elvira; Bruschi, Maurizio; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Boschetti, Egisto; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) tend to bind complex molecules such as dyes due to their aromatic, heterocyclic, hydrophobic, and ionic nature that may affect the protein capture specificity. In this experimental work Alcian Blue 8GX, a positively charged phthalocyanine dye well-known to bind to glycoproteins and to glucosaminoglycans, was adsorbed on a chemically modified CPLL solid phase, and the behavior of the resulting conjugate was then investigated. The control and dye-adsorbed beads were used to harvest the human urinary proteome at physiological pH, this resulting in a grand total of 1151 gene products identified after the capture. Although the Alcian Blue-modified CPLL incremented the total protein capture by 115 species, it particularly enriched some families among the harvested proteins, such as glycoproteins and nucleotide-binding proteins. This study teaches that it is possible, via the two combined harvest mechanisms, to drive the CPLL capture toward the enrichment of specific protein categories.

  19. Decolorization and biodegradation of textile dye Navy blue HER by Trichosporon beigelii NCIM-3326.

    PubMed

    Saratale, R G; Saratale, G D; Chang, J S; Govindwar, S P

    2009-07-30

    Navy blue HER was decolorized and degraded within 24h by Trichosporon beigelii NCIM-3326 under static condition. In the present study, we investigated various physicochemical parameters such as agitation, temperature, pH, cell concentration, initial dye concentration and different carbon and nitrogen sources to achieve maximum dye degradation by T. beigelii. Sequentially, decolorization and decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) of Navy blue HER by T. beigelii were measured. Among five strains T. beigelii gave the better performance on the decolorization of Navy blue HER along with a 95% TOC reduction within 24h. A significant increase in the activities of NADH-DCIP (dichlorophenolindophenol) reductase and azoreductase in the cells obtained after complete decolorization presumably indicates involvement of these enzymes in decolorization process. UV-vis, TLC, HPLC and FTIR analysis of extracted products confirmed the biodegradation of Navy blue HER. Phytotoxicity study demonstrated no toxicity of the biodegraded products with respect to plants viz. Phaseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare. In addition to Navy blue HER, this strain also shows ability to decolorize various industrial dyes, including Red HE7B, Golden yellow 4BD, Green HE4BD, Orange HE2R, Malachite green, Crystal violet and Methyl violet.

  20. Adsorption of reactive blue BF-5G dye by soybean hulls: kinetics, equilibrium and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Honorio, Jacqueline Ferandin; Veit, Márcia Teresinha; Gonçalves, Gilberto da Cunha; de Campos, Élvio Antonio; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia Regina

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry is known for the high use of chemicals, such as dyes, and large volumes of effluent that contaminate waters, a fact that has encouraged research and improved treatment techniques. In this study, we used unprocessed soybean hulls for the removal of reactive blue BF-5G dye. The point of zero charge of soybean hulls was 6.76. Regarding the speed of agitation in the adsorption process, the resistance to mass transfer that occurs in the boundary layer was eliminated at 100 rpm. Kinetics showed an experimental amount of dye adsorbed at equilibrium of 57.473 mg g(-1) obtained under the following conditions: dye initial concentration = 400 mg L(-1); diameter of particle = 0.725 mm; dosage = 6 g L(-1); pH 2; 100 rpm; temperature = 30 °C; and duration of 24 hours. The pseudo-second order best showed the dye removal kinetics. The adsorption isotherms performed at different temperatures (20, 30, 40 and 50 °C) showed little variation in the concentration range assessed, being properly adjusted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum capacity of dye adsorption was 72.427 mg g(-1) at 30 °C. Since soybean hull is a low-cost industrial byproduct, it proved to be a potential adsorbent for the removal of the textile dye assessed.

  1. Fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using a low-power diode laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianhua; Yang, Yulou; Shi, Xiaoxuan; Li, Kexun

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the application of diode lasers as alternative light sources for the fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under 443 nm laser light irradiation was found to be technically feasible using Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as photocatalysts. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, light source, catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, pH, and laser energy on decolorization and degradation were investigated. The mineralization of methylene blue was confirmed by chemical oxygen demand analysis. The results demonstrate that the laser-induced photocatalytic process can effectively degrade methylene blue under the optimum conditions (pH 9.63, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 1.4 g/L Ag/AgCl nanoparticles). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biosorption of textile dye reactive blue 221 by capia pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Gürel, Levent

    2017-04-01

    Peppers are very important foodstuffs in the world for direct and indirect consumption, so they are extensively used. The seeds of these peppers are waste materials that are disposed of from houses and factories. To evaluate the performance of this biomass in the treatment of wastewaters, a study was conducted to remove a textile dye, reactive blue 221, which is commercially used in textile mills. Raw seed materials were used without any pre-treatment. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of dye, pH and dose of biosorbent were studied to determine the optimum conditions for this biomass on color removal from wastewaters. The optimum pH value for dye biosorption was found to be 2.0. At an initial dye concentration of 217 mg L -1 , treatment efficiency and biosorption capacity were 96.7% and 95.35 mg g -1 , respectively. A maximum biosorption capacity of 142.86 mg g -1 was also obtained. Equilibrium biosorption of dye by capia seeds was well described by the Langmuir isotherm with a correlation coefficient above 99%. The biosorption process was also successfully explained with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. This biomass was found to be effective in terms of textile dye removal from aqueous solutions.

  3. New observations on endometrial physiology after transcervical injection of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Guillermo; Vilela, Martín; Quintana, Ramiro; Diradourián, Marco; Young, Edgardo; Sueldo, Carlos

    2004-12-01

    We describe the in vivo features of endometrium stained with methylene blue dye and observed via microhysteroscopy, showing the patterns of endometrial glands and superficial cell changes during the midproliferative, periovulatory, and midluteal phases. These preliminary observations have allowed us to identify a series of changes occurring in the different phases of the ovulatory cycle of potential value in reproductive medicine for specific groups of infertile patients.

  4. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of WO3-ZnO nanocomposites for brilliant blue dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Hunge, Y M; Yadav, A A; Mathe, V L

    2018-07-01

    The present work deals with the preparation of WO 3 and WO 3 -ZnO nanocomposites in presence of ultrasonic irradiation, and its use in the sonocatalytic degradation of brilliant blue dye. WO 3 -ZnO nanocomposite is prepared using one step in-situ ultrasound assisted method. The successfully prepared WO 3 and WO 3 -ZnO nanocomposites were characterized using different characterization techniques such as XRD, Raman, BET, FE-SEM and EDS. The XRD pattern reveals that the formation of monoclinic and hexagonal crystal structures of WO 3 and ZnO respectively. BET study shows that WO 3 -ZnO nanocomposite have maximum surface area than that of the WO 3 . EDS study confirms the formation of WO 3 -ZnO nanocomposites. Further the use of the prepared WO 3 and WO 3 -ZnO nanocomposites as a sonocatalyst for the degradation of brilliant blue dye. The rate constant (k) was evaluated as a function of the initial concentration of brilliant blue dye. It is found that WO 3 -ZnO nanocomposites exhibits maximum sonocatalytic activity as compared to WO 3 photocatalyst. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging plus blue dye and blue dye alone for sentinel node navigation surgery in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Akira; Kamimura, Mari; Ogura, Kaoru; Kim, Naomi; Hattori, Akinori; Setoguchi, Yumika; Okubo, Fumie; Inoue, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Reiko; Kinoshita, Jun; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Shimizu, Tadao

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate two methods of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS) using blue dye with and without indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging (FI) to determine the usefulness of combined ICG and blue dye. Between 2005 and 2010, a total of 501 patients underwent SNNS in our hospital. Detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) was performed with sulfan blue (SB) alone until 2008 and with a combination of SB and ICG-FI since 2009. ICG 5 mg and SB 15 mg were injected in the subareolar region, and FI was obtained by a fluorescence imaging device. We attempted to identify SLNs in 393 patients by SB alone and in 108 patients by a combination of SB and FI. The mean number of SLNs detected was 1.6 (0-5) for SB alone and 2.2 (1-6) for the combination method. The SLN identification rate was 95.7 % for SB alone and 100 % for the combination method so that the combination was significantly superior to SB in terms of the identification rate (p = 0.0037). In patients who received the combination method, detection of SLN was made through only SB in 1 patient, only ICG in 8 patients, and both in 99 patients. Lymph node metastasis was found in 56 patients with SB alone and in 16 patients with the combination method. Recurrence of an axillary node was observed in 3 patients (0.8 %) with SB alone and in no patients with the combination method. ICG-FI is a useful method and is especially recommended in cases where no radiotracers are available.

  6. Comparison of sentinel lymph node biopsy guided by blue dye with or without indocyanine green in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Songjie; Xu, Qianqian; Zhou, Yidong; Mao, Feng; Guan, Jinghong; Sun, Qiang

    2018-05-22

    There were limited data available for a head-to-head comparison of the identification rate and survival between the combined method of indocyanine green fluorescence and blue dye versus the traditional blue dye alone method for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. From January 2013 to December 2015, 523 eligible breast cancer patients were included in this nonrandomized prospective analysis. The identification rates, the number of SLNs identified, and the disease-free survival (DFS) between the two mapping methods were compared. The identification rate of SLNs was significantly higher with the combined method than that with the blue dye alone method (99.2% vs 93.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). The average number of SLNs identified per patient in the combined method group was 3.7 ± 2.4, which was more than that in the blue dye alone group (3.2 ± 1.6; P = 0.004). With a median follow-up of 29 months, 0.5% patients in the combined group, and 1.3% patients in the blue dye group had axillary recurrences. The DFS between the two groups showed no significant difference (P = 0.161). The combined method achieved a higher identification rate and lower rate of axillary recurrence compared to the blue dye alone method. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Salivary fistula: Blue dye testing as part of an algorithm for early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kiong, Kimberley L.; Tan, Ngian Chye; Skanthakumar, Thakshayeni; Teo, Constance E.H.; Soo, Khee Chee; Tan, Hiang Khoon; Roche, Elizabeth; Yee, Kaisin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Orocutaneous and pharyngocutaneous fistula (OPCF) is a debilitating complication of head and neck surgery for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), resulting in delayed adjuvant treatment and prolonged hospitalization. As yet, there is no established test that can help in prompt and accurate diagnosis of OPCF. This study aims to determine the accuracy of bedside blue dye testing and its role as part of an algorithm for early diagnosis. We also analyze the risk factors predisposing to OPCF. Study Design Retrospective cohort study from 2012 to 2014. Methods Patients with head and neck SCC who underwent major resection and reconstruction, at risk of OPCF, were included. Results of blue‐dye and video‐fluoroscopic swallow‐studies (VFSS) testing for OPCF were recorded. For the patients that were noted to develop OPCF, the length of time to diagnosis of fistula and subsequent mode of management were examined. Results Of the 93 patients in this study, 25 (26.9%) developed OPCF. Advanced T‐classification (T3/T4) was the only significant predisposing risk factor (p = 0.013). The sensitivity and specificity of the bedside blue dye testing was found to be 36.4% and 100%, respectively. The test positive patients were diagnosed with OPCF at a median of postoperative day (POD) 9.5 as compared to POD 13 for the test negative patients (p = 0.001). Early diagnosis was associated with faster fistula resolution with treatment. Conclusion Blue dye testing is a simple bedside test that can assist in the early diagnosis of OPCF in patients, allowing treatment to be instituted earlier with improved outcomes. Level of Evidence 3 PMID:29299509

  8. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 Dye: An Application for Forensic Fingerprint Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brunelle, Erica; Le, Anh Minh; Huynh, Crystal; Wingfield, Kelly; Halámková, Lenka; Agudelo, Juliana; Halámek, Jan

    2017-04-04

    The Bradford reagent, comprised of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye, methanol, and phosphoric acid, has been traditionally used for quantifying proteins. Use of this reagent in the Bradford assay relies on the binding of the Coomassie Blue G-250 dye to proteins. However, the ability of the dye to react with a small group of amino acids (arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) makes it a viable chemical assay for fingerprint analysis in order to identify the biological sex of the fingerprint originator. It is recognized that the identification of biological sex has been readily accomplished using two other methods; however, both of those systems are reliant upon a large group of amino acids, 23 to be precise. The Bradford assay, described here, was developed specifically to aid in the transition from targeting large groups of amino acids, as demonstrated in the previous studies, to targeting only a single amino acid without compromising the intensity of the response and/or the ability to differentiate between two attributes. In this work, we aim to differentiate between female fingerprints and male fingerprints.

  9. Clinical utility of the additional use of blue dye for indocyanine green for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yinan; Luo, Ningbin; Jiang, Yi; Li, Qiuyun; Wei, Wei; Yang, Huawei; Liu, Jianlun

    2017-07-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is widely used as a tracer in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) of patients with breast cancer. Whether SLNB performance can be improved by supplementing ICG with methylene blue dye remains controversial. This study compared the performance of SLNB when ICG was used alone or with blue dye. Consecutive patients with T1-3 primary breast cancer at our hospital were recruited into our study and randomized to undergo SLNB with ICG alone (n = 62) or with the combination of ICG and blue dye (n = 65). We compared the two methods in terms of identification rate, number and detection time of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) removed. SLN identification rate were similar in the absence (95.2%) or presence of blue dye (98.5%, P = 0.578) but significantly, more average nodes were removed when blue dye was used (3.8 ± 1.5 versus 2.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.000), and the average time for detecting each SLN was significantly shorter (3.91 ± 1.87 versus 5.65 ± 2.95 min; P = 0.000). No patient in the study experienced severe adverse reactions or complications. Recurrence of axillary node was detected in one patient (1.6%) using ICG alone but not in any patients using ICG and blue dye. The efficiency and sensitivity of SLNB can be improved by combining ICG with blue dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Flexible graphene composites for removal of methylene blue dye-contaminant from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, J.; Martinez, A. I.; Oliva, A. I.; Garcia, C. R.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Garcia-Lobato, M.; Ochoa-Valiente, R.; Berlanga, A.

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the use of flexible graphene composites (FGCs) fabricated by a casting method for the removal of Methylene blue (MB) dye from water. Those FGCs with elastic modulus of 15 MPa had enough mechanical resistance to support the Al2O3:Eu3+ and SrAl2O4:Bi3+ photocatalytic powders. After the incorporation of those powders in the FGCs, their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of MB dye under solar irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrate that the surface of FGCs with catalysts powders presents pores with sizes in the range of 15-40 μm, which favored the sunlight absorption by scattering effects. Moreover, X-Ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the composites by displacements of their diffraction peaks. The MB dye was completely removed (by photocatalysis and by physical adsorption) from the water after 180 min and 270 min by using the FGCs with Al2O3:Eu3+ and SrAl2O4:Bi3+ catalysts respectively. Hence, the results of photocatalytic activity suggest that our FGCs could be used as an effective support of catalyst powders for the easy removal of dye contaminants in wastewater treatment plants.

  13. Adsorption of Acid Blue 25 dye by bentonite and surfactant modified bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeeva, Mark; Wan Zuhairi, W. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Adsorption of Acid Blue (AB 25) from water via batch adsorption experiments onto Na-Bentonite (NB) and CTAB-modified bentonite (CTAB-Ben) was investigated. Studies concerning the factors influencing the adsorption capacities of NB and CTAB-Ben, such as initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and temperature were investigated and discussed. The results revealed that CTAB-modified bentonite demonstrated high adsorption capacities toward acid dyes, while NB exhibited sorption capacities lower than CTAB-Ben. The maximum adsorption efficiency was found to be 50% at an AB 25 concentration of 50 mg/L, adsorbent dosage of 1.8 g/L, reaction time of 90 min and equilibrium pH of 11. The results of isotherm study fit the Langmuir and Freundlich models (R2 > 0.93) and (R2 > 0.9) respectively.

  14. Kinetics of zero-valent iron reductive transformation of the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4.

    PubMed

    Epolito, William J; Yang, Hanbae; Bottomley, Lawrence A; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2008-12-30

    The effect of operational conditions and initial dye concentration on the reductive transformation (decolorization) of the textile dye Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) using zero-valent iron (ZVI) filings was evaluated in batch assays. The decolorization rate increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature, mixing intensity, and addition of salt (100gL(-1) NaCl) and base (3gL(-1) Na2CO3 and 1gL(-1) NaOH), conditions typical of textile reactive dyebaths. ZVI RB4 decolorization kinetics at a single initial dye concentration were evaluated using a pseudo first-order model. Under dyebath conditions and at an initial RB4 concentration of 1000mgL(-1), the pseudo first-order rate constant (kobs) was 0.029+/-0.006h(-1), corresponding to a half-life of 24.2h and a ZVI surface area-normalized rate constant (kSA) of 2.9x10(-4)Lm(-2)h(-1). However, as the initial dye concentration increased, the kobs decreased, suggesting saturation of ZVI surface reactive sites. Non-linear regression of initial decolorization rate values as a function of initial dye concentration, based on a reactive sites saturation model, resulted in a maximum decolorization rate (Vm) of 720+/-88mgL(-1)h(-1) and a half-saturation constant (K) of 1299+/-273mgL(-1). Decolorization of RB4 via a reductive transformation, which was essentially irreversible (2-5% re-oxidation), is believed to be the dominant decolorization mechanism. However, some degree of RB4 irreversible sorption cannot be completely discounted. The results of this study show that ZVI treatment is a promising technology for the decolorization of commercial, anthraquinone-bearing, spent reactive dyebaths.

  15. Enzyme-mediated bacterial biodegradation of an azo dye (C.I. Acid blue 113): reuse of treated dye wastewater in post-tanning operations.

    PubMed

    Senthilvelan, T; Kanagaraj, J; Panda, R C

    2014-11-01

    "Dyeing" is a common practice used to color the hides during the post-tanning operations in leather processing generating plenty of wastewater. The waste stream containing dye as pollutant is severely harmful to living beings. An azo dye (C.I. Acid Blue 113) has been biodegraded effectively by bacterial culture mediated with azoreductase enzyme to reduce the pollution load in the present investigation. The maximum rate of dye degradation was found to be 96 ± 4 and 92 ± 4 % for the initial concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, respectively. The enzyme activity was measured using NADH as a substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was confirmed that the transformation of azo linkage could be transformed into N2 or NH3 or incorporated into complete biomass. Breaking down of dye molecules to various metabolites (such as aniline, naphthalene-1,4-diamine, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 8-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 5,8-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and mass (electrospray ionization (ESI)) spectra analysis. The treated wastewater could be reused for dyeing operation in the leather processing, and the properties of produced leather were evaluated by conventional methods that revealed to have improved dye penetration into the grain layer of experimental leather sample and resulted in high levelness of dyeing, which helps to obtain the desired smoothness and soft leather properties.

  16. The effects of Patent Blue dye on peripheral and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin saturations.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, T; Kotoda, M; Asano, N; Ikemoto, K; Mitsui, K; Sato, H; Matsukawa, T; Sessler, D I

    2015-04-01

    We measured the effect of Patent Blue dye on oxyhaemoglobin saturations after injection into breast tissue: 40 women had anaesthesia for breast surgery maintained with sevoflurane or propofol (20 randomly allocated to each). Saturations were recorded with a digital pulse oximeter, in arterial blood samples and with a cerebral tissue oximeter before dye injection and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min afterwards. Patent Blue did not decrease arterial blood oxyhaemoglobin saturation, but it did reduce mean (SD) digital and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin saturations by 1.1 (1.1) % and 6.8 (7.0) %, p < 0.0001 for both. The falsely reduced oximeter readings persisted for at least 2 h. The mean (SD) intra-operative digital pulse oxyhaemoglobin readings were lower with sevoflurane than propofol, 97.8 (1.2) % and 98.8 (1.0) %, respectively, p < 0.0001. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the μmol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  18. Synthesis, Spectrofluorometric Studies, Micellization and non Linear Optical Properties of Blue Emitting Quinoline (AMQC) Dye.

    PubMed

    Afzal, S M; Asiri, Abdullah M; Razvi, M A N; Bakry, Ahmed H; Khan, Salman A; Zayed, Mohie E M

    2016-03-01

    Blue emitting 2-amino-4-(3, 4, 5-tri methoxyphenyl)-9-methoxy-5,6 dihydrobenzo[f]isoquinoline-1-carbonitrile (AMQC) dye was synthesized by one-pot multicomponent reactions (MCRs) of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyd, malononitrile, 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalin-1-one and ammonium acetate. Results obtained from spectroscopic and elemental analysis of synthesized AMQC was in good agreement with their chemical structures. Fluorescence polarity study demonstrated that AMQC was sensitive to the polarity of the microenvironment provided by different solvents. In addition, spectroscopic and physicochemical parameters, including electronic absorption, excitation coefficient, stokes shift, oscillator strength, transition dipole moment and fluorescence quantum yield were investigated in order to explore the analytical potential of AMQC. Dye undergoes solubilization in different micelles and may be used as a quencher and a probe to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SDS and CTAB. Nonlinear optical parameters of AMQC dye shows relatively lower nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient at the power levels. Variation of n2 with concentration is linear in the concentration range used in the present study.

  19. Co-metabolic degradation of diazo dye- reactive blue 160 by enriched mixed cultures BDN.

    PubMed

    Balapure, Kshama H; Jain, Kunal; Chattaraj, Sananda; Bhatt, Nikhil S; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-08-30

    Mixed cultures BDN (BDN) proficient in decolourizing diazo dye-reactive blue 160 (RB160) consist of eight bacterial strains, was developed through culture enrichment method from soil samples contaminated with anthropogenic activities. The synthrophic interactions of BDN have led to complete decolourization and degradation of RB160 (100mg/L) within 4h along with co-metabolism of yeast extract (0.5%) in minimal medium. BDN microaerophilicaly decolourized even 1500mg/L of RB160 under high saline conditions (20g/L NaCl) at 37°C and pH 7.0. BDN exhibited broad substrate specificity and decolourized 27 structurally different dyes. The reductase enzymes symmetrically cleaved RB160 and oxidative enzymes further metabolised the degraded products and five different intermediates were identified using FTIR, (1)HNMR and GC-MS. The phytotoxicity assay confirmed that intact RB160 was more toxic than dye degraded intermediates. The BDN was able to colonize and decolourized RB160 in soil model system in presence of indigenous miocroflora as well as in sterile soil without any amendment of additional nutrients, which signifies it useful and potential application in bioremediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Hsu, Hsin-Chieh; Su, Ting-Yi; Lin, Keng-Yu; Lin, Chien-Ming

    2008-06-15

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater.

  1. Peach gum for efficient removal of methylene blue and methyl violet dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Huang, Jiachang; He, Benzhao; Zhang, Faai; Li, Huabin

    2014-01-30

    This study investigated the potential use of natural peach gum (PG) as alternative adsorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. The PG showed high adsorption capacities and selectivity for cationic dyes (e.g., methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV)) in the pH range 6-10. 98% of MB and MV could be adsorbed within 5 min, and both of the adsorptions reached equilibrium within 30 min. The dye uptake process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion was not the sole rate controlling step. Equilibrium adsorption isotherm data indicated a good fit to the Langmuir isotherm model. Regeneration study revealed that PG could be well regenerated in acid solution. The recovered PG still exhibited high adsorption capacity even after five cycles of desorption-adsorption. On the basis of its excellent adsorption performance and facile availability, PG can be employed as an efficient low cost adsorbent for environmental cleanup. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Removal of reactive blue 19 dye by sono, photo and sonophotocatalytic oxidation using visible light.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Abdul Nasir; Siddique, Maria; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Romana

    2015-09-01

    An efficient sonophotocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 19 (RB 19) dye was successfully carried out using sulfur-doped TiO2 (S-TiO2) nanoparticles. The effect of various treatment processes that is sonolysis, photolysis, catalysis, sonocatalysis, photocatalysis, and sonophotocatalysis were investigated for RB 19 removal. S-TiO2 were synthesized in 1, 3 and 5 wt.% of sulfur by sol-gel process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The results confirm anatase phase of TiO2, porous agglomerate structure, and a red shift in the absorbance spectra of S-TiO2. The dye degradation was studied by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λ max=594 nm. The reaction parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, initial dye concentration, ultrasonic power and effect of sulfur doping in different weight percent were studied to find out the optimum degradation conditions. Optimum conditions were found as: S-TiO2=5 wt.%, catalyst (S-TiO2 5 wt.%)=50mg, RB 19 solution concentration=20 mg L(-1), pH=3, ultrasound power=100 and operating temperature=25°C. The response of 5 wt.% S-TiO2 was found better than 1 and 3 wt.% S-TiO2 and other forms TiO2. The sonophotocatalysis process was superior to other methods. During this process the ultrasound cavitation and photocatalysis water splitting takes place which leads to the generation of OH. As reveled by the GCMS results the reactive blue 19 (20 mg L(-1)) was degraded to 90% within 120 min. The S-TiO2 sonophotocatalysis system was studied for the first time for dye degradation and was found practicable, efficient and cost effective for the degradation of complex and resistant dyes such as RB19. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The effect of 25% tannic acid on prepared dentin: a scanning electron microscope-methylene blue dye study.

    PubMed

    Bitter, N C

    1990-07-01

    The effect on the permeability of prepared dentin treated with 25% tannic acid and 6% citric acid was compared with the untreated dentinal surface. Methylene blue was applied to the dentin surface after treatment to evaluate penetration into dentinal tubules. The tannic acid solution reduced or prevented dye penetration of the dentinal tubules. Citric acid treatment permitted severe penetration. The 25% tannic acid solution removed the smear layer while inhibiting penetration of the dye.

  4. Assessment of the banana pseudostem as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye.

    PubMed

    Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Geraldi, Claudinéia A Q; Manenti, Diego R; Trigueros, Daniela E G; Oliveira, Ana Paula de; Borba, Carlos E; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the removal of reactive blue 5G (RB5G) dye using the drying biomass of banana pseudostem (BPS) was investigated. The characterization of BPS particles was performed. Improvement in the RB5G dye removal performance at the following sorption conditions was evidenced: pH 1, 30°C sorption temperature and 40 rpm shaking, regardless of the particle size range. Kinetic RB5G dye sorption data obtained at better conditions fit well in an Elovich model. A combined Langmuir-BET isotherm model provides a good representation of the RB5G dye equilibrium sorption data, which shows the evidence of a physical sorption process on the BPS surface. Based on the results, the removal of RB5G dye molecules by BPS is based on a physical sorption process.

  5. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  6. Evans blue dye-enhanced capillary-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-09-01

    Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBCs) as an endogenic contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we use Evans blue (EB) dye as a contrast agent for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. EB has strong optical absorption and distributes uniformly in the blood stream by chemically binding to albumin. With the help of EB, complete and continuous microvascular networks--especially capillaries--are imaged. The diffusion dynamics of EB leaving the blood stream and the clearance dynamics of the EB-albumin complex are also quantitatively investigated.

  7. Biodegradation of Methylene Blue Dye by Sequential Treatment Using Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor and Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooqi, Izharul H.; Basheer, Farrukh; Tiwari, Pradeepika

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to access the feasibility of sequential anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for the biodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye. Anaerobic studies were performed using anaerobic hybrid reactor (consisting of UASB and Anaerobic filter) whereas submerged aerobic fixed film reactor was used as aerobic reactor. Degradation of MB dye was attempted using neutralized acetic acid (1000 mg/L) as co-substrate. MB dye concentration was stepwise increased from 10 to 70 mg/L after reaching steady state in each dye concentration. Such a gradual increase in the dye concentration helps in the proper acclimatization of the sludge to dyes thereby avoiding the possible inhibitory effects to biological activities at high dye concentrations. The overall treatment efficiency of MB through sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactor operation was 90% at maximum attempted dye concentration of 70 mg/L. The effluent from anaerobic reactor was analysed for intermediate biodegradation products through HPLC. It was observed that catechol, quinone, amino pyrine, 1,4 diamino benzene were present. However they were absent in final effluent.

  8. Synthesis of surfactant-coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for adsorptive removal of acid blue 45 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waheed Mushtaq, Muhammad; Kanwal, Farah; Imran, Muhammad; Ameen, Naila; Batool, Madeeha; Batool, Aisha; Bashir, Shahid; Mustansar Abbas, Syed; Rehman, Ata ur; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Ullah, Zaka

    2018-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized by wet chemical coprecipitation method using metal chlorides as precursors and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a precipitant. The tergitol-1x (T-1x) and didecyldimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) are used as capping agents and their effect is investigated on particle size, size distribution and morphology of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CFNPs). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the synthesis of CFNPs and formation of metal-oxygen (M-O) bond. The spinel phase structure, morphology, polydispersity and magnetic properties of ferrite nanoparticles are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometry analyses, respectively. The addition of capping agents effects the secondary growth of CFNPs and reduces their particle size, as is investigated by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. The results evidence that the DDAB is more promising surfactant to control the particle size (∼13 nm), polydispersity and aggregation of CFNPs. The synthesized CFNPs, CFNPs/T-1x and CFNPs/DDAB are used to study their adsorption potential for removal of acid blue 45 dye, and a maximum adsorptive removal of 92.25% is recorded by 0.1 g of CFNPs/DDAB at pH 2.5 and temperature 20 ± 1 °C. The results show that the dye is physically adsorbed by magnetic NPs and follows the Langmuir isotherm model.

  9. Application of Synthetic Layered Sodium Silicate Magadiite Nanosheets for Environmental Remediation of Methylene Blue Dye in Water

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from water was investigated using synthetic nano-clay magadiite (SNCM). SNCM was synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment under autogenous pressure. A rosette-shaped single mesoporous magadiite phase with 16.63 nm average crystallite size and 33 m2∙g−1 Braunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET)-surface area was recorded. The adsorption results indicated the pronounced affinity of the SNCM to the MB dye molecules, which reached an adsorption uptake of 20.0 mg MB dye/g of SNCM. The elimination of MB dye by the SNCM was kinetically and thermodynamically considered; a pseudo-second-order kinetic model was attained, and its spontaneous, chemical, and endothermic nature was verified. SNCM was shown to be robust without a detectable reduction in the adsorption capacity after up to four times re-use. PMID:28773120

  10. Study of the sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye over slurry titanium dioxide and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    González, Antonia Sandoval; Martínez, Susana Silva

    2008-09-01

    The sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye has been studied in the presence of ultrasound (20 kHz) over a TiO(2) slurry employing an UV lamp (15 W, 352 nm). It was observed that the color removal efficiency was influenced by the pH of the solution, initial dye concentration and TiO(2) amount. It was found that the dye degradation followed apparent first order kinetics. The rate constant increased by decreasing dye concentration and was affected by the pH of the solution with the highest degradation obtained at pH 7. The first order rate constants obtained with sonophotocatalysis were twofold and tenfold than those obtained under photocatalysis and sonolysis, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand was abated over 80%.

  11. Brilliant Blue FCF as an Alternative Dye for Saphenous Vein Graft Marking Effect on Conduit Function

    PubMed Central

    Voskresensky, Igor V.; Wise, Eric S.; Hocking, Kyle M.; Li, Fan Dong; Osgood, Michael J.; Komalavilas, Padmini; Brophy, Colleen; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Surgical skin markers are used off-label to mark human saphenous veins (HSVs) to maintain orientation before implantation as aortocoronary or peripheral arterial bypass grafts. These surgical skin markers impair functional responses of the HSV tissue. OBJECTIVES To investigate the effect of brilliant blue dye 1 (brilliant blue FCF [for food coloring]; hereinafter, FCF) as a nontoxic alternative marking dye and to determine whether FCF has pharmacological properties. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Segments of HSVs were collected in university hospitals from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting procedures immediately after harvest (unmanipulated) or after typical intraoperative surgical graft preparation (after manipulation). Rat inferior venae cavae were used to determine the pharmacological properties and cellular targets of FCF. Endothelial and smooth muscle functional responses were determined in a muscle bath, and intimal thickening in HSVs was determined after 14 days in organ culture. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Contractile responses were measured in force and converted to stress. Smooth muscle function was expressed as maximal responses to potassium chloride depolarization contractions. Endothelial function was defined as the percentage of relaxation of maximal agonist-induced contraction. Neointimal thickness was measured by histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS Human saphenous veins stored in the presence of FCF had no loss of endothelial or smooth muscle function. Unmanipulated HSVs preserved in the presence of FCF demonstrated a significant increase in endothelial-dependent relaxation (mean [SEM], 25.2% [6.4%] vs 30.2% [6.7%]; P = .02). Application of FCF to functionally nonviable tissue significantly enhanced the smooth muscle responses (mean [SEM], 0.018 [0.004] × 105N/m2 vs 0.057 [0.016] × 105 N/m2; P = .05). Treatment with FCF reduced intimal thickness in organ culture (mean [SEM], −17.5% [2.1%] for unmanipulated HSVs vs

  12. Brilliant blue FCF as an alternative dye for saphenous vein graft marking: effect on conduit function.

    PubMed

    Voskresensky, Igor V; Wise, Eric S; Hocking, Kyle M; Li, Fan Dong; Osgood, Michael J; Komalavilas, Padmini; Brophy, Colleen; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce

    2014-11-01

    Surgical skin markers are used off-label to mark human saphenous veins (HSVs) to maintain orientation before implantation as aortocoronary or peripheral arterial bypass grafts. These surgical skin markers impair functional responses of the HSV tissue. To investigate the effect of brilliant blue dye 1 (brilliant blue FCF [for food coloring]; hereinafter, FCF) as a nontoxic alternative marking dye and to determine whether FCF has pharmacological properties. Segments of HSVs were collected in university hospitals from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting procedures immediately after harvest (unmanipulated) or after typical intraoperative surgical graft preparation (after manipulation). Rat inferior venae cavae were used to determine the pharmacological properties and cellular targets of FCF. Endothelial and smooth muscle functional responses were determined in a muscle bath, and intimal thickening in HSVs was determined after 14 days in organ culture. Contractile responses were measured in force and converted to stress. Smooth muscle function was expressed as maximal responses to potassium chloride depolarization contractions. Endothelial function was defined as the percentage of relaxation of maximal agonist-induced contraction. Neointimal thickness was measured by histomorphometric analysis. Human saphenous veins stored in the presence of FCF had no loss of endothelial or smooth muscle function. Unmanipulated HSVs preserved in the presence of FCF demonstrated a significant increase in endothelial-dependent relaxation (mean [SEM], 25.2% [6.4%] vs 30.2% [6.7%]; P = .02). Application of FCF to functionally nonviable tissue significantly enhanced the smooth muscle responses (mean [SEM], 0.018 [0.004] × 10⁵ N/m² vs 0.057 [0.016] × 10⁵ N/m²; P = .05). Treatment with FCF reduced intimal thickness in organ culture (mean [SEM], -17.5% [2.1%] for unmanipulated HSVs vs -27.9% [3.7%] for HSVs after manipulation; P < .001). In rat

  13. Adsorption of a textile dye "Indanthrene Blue RS (C.I. Vat Blue 4)" from aqueous solutions onto smectite-rich clayey rock.

    PubMed

    Chaari, Islem; Feki, Mongi; Medhioub, Mounir; Bouzid, Jalel; Fakhfakh, Emna; Jamoussi, Fakher

    2009-12-30

    The adsorption of a textile dye, namely, Indanthrene Blue RS (C.I. Vat Blue 4) onto smectite-rich clayey rock (AYD) and its sulphuric acid-activated products (AYDS) in aqueous solution was studied in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH, and temperature. The adsorbents employed were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area, cation exchange capacity and point of zero charge were also estimated. The effect of contact time on dye adsorption showed that the equilibrium was reached after a contact time of 40 min for the both adsorbents. The optimum pH for dye retention was found 6.0 for AYDS and 7.3 for AYD. The equilibrium adsorption data were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacities (Q(m)) for AYD and AYDS were found 13.92 mg/g and 17.85 mg/g, respectively. The effect of temperature on the adsorption was also investigated; adsorption of Indanthrene Blue RS is an endothermic process. This study demonstrates that all the considered adsorbents can be used as an alternative emerging technology for water treatment.

  14. Methylene blue dyeing of cellular nuclei during salpingoscopy, a new in-vivo method to evaluate vitality of tubal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Marconi, G; Quintana, R

    1998-12-01

    The Fallopian tube can be damaged by different noxious substances that may change cellular ultrastructure and function. Alteration of the cell membrane allows the passage of certain aniline dyes, which can stain the nucleus. A total of 310 Fallopian tubes from 163 patients who underwent a surgical or diagnostic laparoscopy during fertility studies was analysed by salpingoscopy. Cellular nuclei were stained by injection of 20 ml of a 10% solution of methylene blue in saline solution (NaCl 10%) through the cervical cannula prior to salpingoscopy. Evaluation of nuclear staining with methylene blue, adhesions, vascular alterations, and the flattening of folds in relation to pregnancy outcome was undertaken. Quantification of salpingoscopic findings was carried out according to a score. Flattening of folds and vascular alterations showed no difference in the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. On the other hand, adhesions and nuclear dyeing were significantly greater in the non-pregnant group (adhesions 13.6 versus 26.8%, P < 0.004, and nuclear dyeing: 25 versus 41.7%, P < 0.009, pregnant versus non-pregnant). Methylene blue dye is a new tool to evaluate in vivo cyto-histological tubal damage, and is a useful and simple method to provide a prognosis of salpingean function.

  15. Bioremediation of the heavy metal complex dye Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 by white rot fungus Irpex lacteus.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Lee, Yang Soo

    2011-12-30

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the decolorization and degradation of the chromium metal complex dye Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 by Irpex lacteus, a white rot lignolytic fungus. I. lacteus effectively decolorized the sulphonated reactive dye at a high concentration of 250 mg/l over a wide range of pH values of 5-9 and temperatures between 20 and 35°C. Complete (100%) decolorization occurred within 96h, and I. lacteus demonstrated resistance to the metallic dye. UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR analyses of the extracted metabolites confirmed that the decolorization process occurred due to degradation of the dye and not merely by adsorption. GC-MS analysis indicated the formation of 1(2H)-naphthalenone, 3,4-dihydro- and 2-naphthalenol as the main metabolite. ICP analysis demonstrated the removal of 13.49% chromium, and phytotoxicity studies using germinated seeds of Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed during the degradation of Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 dye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Photo-catalytic decolourisation of toxic dye with N-doped titania: a case study with Acid Blue 25.

    PubMed

    Chakrabortty, Dhruba; Gupta, Susmita Sen

    2013-05-01

    Dyes are one of the hazardous water pollutants. Toxic Acid Blue 25, an anthraquinonic dye, has been decolourised by photo-catalysing it with nitrogen doped titania in aqueous medium. The photo catalyst was prepared from 15% TiCl3 and 25% aqueous NH3 solution as precursor. XRD and TEM revealed the formation of well crystalline anatase phase having particle size in the nano-range. BET surface area of the sample was higher than that of pure anatase TiO2. DRS showed higher absorption of radiation in visible range compared to pure anatase TiO2. XPS revealed the presence of nitrogen in N-Ti-O environment. The experimental parameters, namely, photocatalyst dose, initial dye concentration as well as solution pH influence the decolourisation process. At pH 3.0, the N-TiO2 could decolourise almost 100% Acid Blue 25 within one hour. The influence of N-TiO2 dose, initial concentration of Acid Blue 25 and solution pH on adsorption-desorption equilibrium is also studied. The adsorption process follows Lagergren first order kinetics while the modified Langmuir-Hinselwood model is suitably fitted for photocatalytic decolourisation of Acid Blue 25.

  17. Column performance of carbon nanotube packed bed for methylene blue and orange red dye removal from waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, G. K.; Mubarak, N. M.; Nizamuddin, S.; Al-Salim, H. S.; Sahu, J. N.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental issues have always been a major issue among human kind for the past decades. As the time passes by, the technology field has grown and has helped a lot in order to reduce these environmental issues. Industries such as metal plating facilities, mining operations and batteries production are a few examples that involves in the environmental issues. Carbon nanotube is proven to possess excellent adsorption capacity for the removal of methylene blue and orange red dyes. The effect of process parameters such as pH and contact time was investigated The results revealed that optimized conditions for the highest removal for methylene blue (MB) (97%) and orange red (94%) are at pH 10, CNTs dosage of 1 grams, and 15 minutes for each dyes removal respectively. The equilibrium adsorption data obtained was best fit to Freundlich model, while kinetic data can be characterized by the pseudo second-order rate kinetics.

  18. Novelties of combustion synthesized titania ultrafiltration membrane in efficient removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous effluent.

    PubMed

    Doke, Suresh M; Yadav, Ganapati D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, titania nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion and used to make ultrafiltration membrane. Characteristics of titania membranes such as textural evaluation, surface morphology, pure water permeability and protein rejection were investigated. Titania membrane sintered at 450 °C showed pure water permeability 11 × 10−2 L h−1 m−2 kPa−1 and 76% protein rejection. The membrane presented good water flux and retention properties with regards to protein and methylene blue dye. Ultrafiltration process was operated at lower pressure (100 kPa) and showed 99% removal of methylene blue using adsorptive micellar flocculation at sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration below its critical micellar concentration. Ferric chloride was used as the coagulant. The method of making titania membrane and its use are new. These studies can be extended to other dyes and pollutants.

  19. [Flotation spectrophotometric determination of copper on isochromatic dye ion pair with crystal violet and bromopnenol blue].

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Chen, C; Zuo, B

    1999-02-01

    Bromophenol blue (BPB) was produced and entered into the aqueous phase when NaOH solution of pH = 10 was added to Cu(biq)2BPB by trichloromethane and isoamyl alcohol (20:1) extractive. And then CV x BPB was floated by crystal violet (CV) with benzene solution. The flotation was dissolved in ethanol and the absorbance of the solution measured at 590 nm. The sensitivity was raised because of the two dyes assistant effect. The molar absorptivity was 1.45 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1). Copper in the sample was separated first by extracting the Cu(biq)2BPB complex with trichloromethane and isoamyl alcohol, thus achieving a high selectivity. Beer's law was obeyd in the range of 0-0. 4 mg/L with a relative standard deviation of 3.6%. For 4.8 x 10(-8) g/mL copper solution, the recoveries were 97.8%-101.7%.

  20. The photocatalytic investigation of methylene blue dye with Cr doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Rajeev; Kumar, Ashavani, E-mail: ashavani@yahoo.com

    2015-08-28

    The present work reports eco-friendly and cost effective sol-gel technique for synthesis of Chromium doped ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. In this process Zinc nitrate, Chromium nitrate were used as precursor. Structural as well as optical properties of Cr induced ZnO samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), SEM, PL and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) respectively. XRD analysis shows that the samples have hexagonal (wurtzite) structure with no additional peak which suggests that Cr ions fit into the regular Zn sites of ZnO crystal structure. By using Scherrer’s formula for pure and Cr doped ZnO samples the average grain sizemore » was found to be 32 nm. Further band gap of pure and doped ZnO samples have been calculated by using UV-Vis spectra. The photo-catalytic degradation of methyl blue dye under UV irradiation was examined for synthesized samples. The results show that the concentration plays an important role in photo-catalytic activity.« less

  1. Comparative metabolism and genotoxicity of the structurally similar nitrophenylenediamine dyes, HC Blue 1 and HC Blue 2, in mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kari, F W; Driscoll, S M; Abu-Shakra, A; Strom, S C; Jenkins, W L; Volosin, J S; Rudo, K M; Langenbach, R

    1990-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that HC Blue 1 induced heptocellular carcinomas in B6C3F1 mice whereas the structurally similar nitroaromatic amine HC Blue 2 did not. In an attempt to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for their different carcinogenic potencies, comparative metabolism and genetic toxicity studies were undertaken. Eighteen-hour urinary recovery of administered radioactivity was equivalent for both compounds following oral gavage (100 mg/kg) in female B6C3F1 mice. By HPLC analysis, HC Blue 1 yielded 3 major polar metabolite peaks, one of which was susceptible to glucuronidase. In vivo metabolism of HC Blue 2 yielded a single major metabolite peak which was not hydrolyzed by glucuronidase. Metabolism by B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes yielded metabolite profiles which were qualitatively similar to the profiles observed after in vivo metabolism. HC Blue 1 was metabolized by hepatocytes at approximately twice the rate of HC Blue 2. Cytogenetic evaluations of mouse hepatocytes after in vitro treatment indicated HC Blue 1 was more potent than HC Blue 2 in inducing chromosomal aberrations while both chemicals showed weak activity for inducing sister-chromatid exchanges. Furthermore, in the V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay, HC Blue 1, but not HC Blue 2, inhibited cell-to-cell communication suggesting a non-genotoxic activity may be present for HC Blue 1. It is concluded that qualitative and quantitative differences exist in the metabolism of these compounds and that genotoxic as well as nongenotoxic effects may contribute to their different carcinogenic potencies.

  2. Decolorization of the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A with immobilized Coprinus cinereus in fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Moutaouakkil, A; Blaghen, M

    2011-01-01

    Coprinus cinereus, which was able to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A (CB) enzymatically, was used as a biocatalyst for the decolorization of synthetic solutions containing this reactive dye. Coprinus cinereus was immobilized in both calcium alginate and polyacrylamide gels, and was used for the decolorization of CB from synthetic water by using a fluidized bed bioreactor. The highest specific decolorization rate was obtained when Coprinus cinereus was entrapped in calcium alginate beads, and was of about 3.84 mg g(-1) h(-1) with a 50% conversion time (t1/2) of about 2.60 h. Moreover, immobilized fungal biomass in calcium alginate continuously decolorized CB even after 7 repeated experiments without significant loss of activity, while polyacrylamide-immobilized fungal biomass retained only 67% of its original activity. The effects of some physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH and dye concentration on decolorization performance of isolated fungal strain were also investigated.

  3. The food dye FD&C Blue No. 1 is a selective inhibitor of the ATP release channel Panx1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Jackson, David George; Dahl, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    The food dye FD&C Blue No. 1 (Brilliant Blue FCF [BB FCF]) is structurally similar to the purinergic receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG), which is a well-known inhibitor of the ionotropic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). The P2X7R functionally interacts with the membrane channel protein pannexin 1 (Panx1) in inflammasome signaling. Intriguingly, ligands to the P2X7R, regardless of whether they are acting as agonists or antagonists at the receptor, inhibit Panx1 channels. Thus, because both P2X7R and Panx1 are inhibited by BBG, the diagnostic value of the drug is limited. Here, we show that the food dye BB FCF is a selective inhibitor of Panx1 channels, with an IC50 of 0.27 µM. No significant effect was observed with concentrations as high as 100 µM of BB FCF on P2X7R. Differing by just one hydroxyl group from BB FCF, the food dye FD&C Green No. 3 exhibited similar selective inhibition of Panx1 channels. A reverse selectivity was observed for the P2X7R antagonist, oxidized ATP, which in contrast to other P2X7R antagonists had no significant inhibitory effect on Panx1 channels. Based on its selective action, BB FCF can be added to the repertoire of drugs to study the physiology of Panx1 channels. Furthermore, because Panx1 channels appear to be involved directly or indirectly through P2X7Rs in several disorders, BB FCF and derivatives of this "safe" food dye should be given serious consideration for pharmacological intervention of conditions such as acute Crohn's disease, stroke, and injuries to the central nervous system.

  4. A low-cost wheat bran medium for biodegradation of the benzidine-based carcinogenic dye Trypan Blue using a microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-03-25

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L-1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm-1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  5. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  6. Versatile ruthenium(II) dye towards blue-light emitter and dye-sensitizer for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoni, Kassio P. S.; Amaral, Ronaldo C.; Murakami Iha, Neyde Y.; Abreu, Felipe D.; de Carvalho, Idalina M. M.

    2018-06-01

    A versatile Ru(II) complex bearing an anthracene moiety was synthesized in our search for suitable compounds towards efficient molecular devices. The new engineered dye, cis‑[Ru(dcbH2)(NCS)2(mbpy‑anth)] (dcbH2 = 2,2‧‑bipyridyl‑4,4‧‑dicarboxylic acid, mbpy‑anth = 4‑[N‑(2‑anthryl)carbamoyl]‑4‧‑methyl‑2,2‧‑bipyridine), exhibits a blueish emission in a vibronically structured spectrum ascribed to the fluorescence of a 1LCAnth (ligand centered) excited state in the anthracene and has a potential to be exploited in the fields of smart lighting and displays. This complex was also employed in dye-sensitized solar cells with fairly efficient solar energy conversion with the use of self-assembled TiO2 compact layers beneath the TiO2 mesoporous film to prevent meso‑TiO2/dye back reactions. Further photoelectrochemical investigations through incident photon-to-current efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the all-nano-TiO2 compact layer acts as contact layers that increase the electron harvesting in the external circuit, enhancing efficiencies up to 50%.

  7. Versatile ruthenium(II) dye towards blue-light emitter and dye-sensitizer for solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Kassio P S; Amaral, Ronaldo C; Murakami Iha, Neyde Y; Abreu, Felipe D; de Carvalho, Idalina M M

    2018-06-05

    A versatile Ru(II) complex bearing an anthracene moiety was synthesized in our search for suitable compounds towards efficient molecular devices. The new engineered dye, cis‑[Ru(dcbH 2 )(NCS) 2 (mbpy‑anth)] (dcbH 2 =2,2'‑bipyridyl‑4,4'‑dicarboxylic acid, mbpy‑anth=4‑[N‑(2‑anthryl)carbamoyl]‑4'‑methyl‑2,2'‑bipyridine), exhibits a blueish emission in a vibronically structured spectrum ascribed to the fluorescence of a 1 LC Anth (ligand centered) excited state in the anthracene and has a potential to be exploited in the fields of smart lighting and displays. This complex was also employed in dye-sensitized solar cells with fairly efficient solar energy conversion with the use of self-assembled TiO 2 compact layers beneath the TiO 2 mesoporous film to prevent meso‑TiO 2 /dye back reactions. Further photoelectrochemical investigations through incident photon-to-current efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the all-nano-TiO 2 compact layer acts as contact layers that increase the electron harvesting in the external circuit, enhancing efficiencies up to 50%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitizing of TiO2 with a merocyanine dye in the photocatalytic reduction of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobasa, I. M.; Kondratyeva, I. V.; Kropelnytska, Yu. V.

    Three merocyanine dyes (D) with various polymethine chain lengths were checked for their applicability as sensitizers for TiO2. Based on the absorption data and cyclic voltammetric redox potentials, the lower unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy was calculated. The LUMO energy was higher than the conductance band edge energy of the anatase-type TiO2 for all the dyes, meaning that they all can act as efficient sensitizers for various functional materials to be used in the wide-zone visible light solar cells, toxic wastes decontamination technologies and other similar applications. Merocyanines applicability as effective sensitizing agents was approved by construction of the heterostructures (HS) D/TiO2 consisting of the merocyanines and acting as photocatalysts in the test reaction of methylene blue (MB) reduction by formaldehyde.

  9. Evans blue dye-enhanced imaging of the brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ram; Joo, Kyung-Il; Choi, Eun Sook; Jahng, Junghoon; Kim, Hyunmin

    2017-01-01

    We performed dye-enhanced imaging of mouse brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SF-CARS) microscopy. The resonant signals from C-H stretching in forward CARS usually show high background intensity in tissues, which makes CARS imaging of microvessels difficult. In this study, epi-detection of back-scattered SF-CARS signals showed a negligible background, but the overall intensity of resonant CARS signals was too low to observe the network of brain microvessels. Therefore, Evans blue (EB) dye was used as contrasting agent to enhance the back-scattered SF-CARS signals. Breakdown of brain microvessels by inducing hemorrhage in a mouse was clearly visualized using backward SF-CARS signals, following intravenous injection of EB. The improved visualization of brain microvessels with EB enhanced the sensitivity of SF-CARS, detecting not only the blood vessels themselves but their integrity as well in the brain vasculature. PMID:29049299

  10. Removal of vertigo blue dyes from Batik textile wastewater by adsorption onto activated carbon and coal bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmiyati, L., Puspita Adi; Deni, V.; Robi Indra, S.; Islamica, Dlia; Fuadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of vertigo blue dye from batik textile wastewater was studied by adsorptionprocess onto activated carbon (AC) and coal bottom ash (CBA).The influence of experimental conditions (pH solution, dye concentration, and contact time) were studied on the both adsorbents. At equilibrium conditions, the data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model for carbon active was 6.29mg/g at pH that found to be considerably higher than that obtained for coal bottom ash 3.72mg/g pH 9. From Freundlich model, the maximum adsorption capacity is less for coal bottom ash (pH 9) than that for carbon active (pH4).

  11. [Sentinel node detection in early stage of cervical carcinoma using 99mTc-nanocolloid and blue dye].

    PubMed

    Sevcík, L; Klát, J; Gráf, P; Koliba, P; Curík, R; Kraft, O

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the feasibility of intraoperative sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) detection using gamma detection probe and blue dye in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy for treatment of early stage of cervical cancer. Prospective case observational study. In the period from May 2004 to February 2006 77 patients with early stage of cervical cancer who underwent a radical surgery were included into the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to the tumour volume. First group consists of patients FIGO IA2 and FIGO IB1 with tumour diameter less than 2 cm, second group tumours FIGO IB1 with tumour diameter more than 2 cm and third group stadium IB2. SLN was detected by blue dye and Tc99. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was done after Tc99 colloid injection, intraoperative detection was performed by visual observation and by hand-held gamma-detection probe. SLN were histologically and immunohistochemically analysed. A total number of 2764 lymph nodes with an average 36 and 202 SLN with an average 2.6 were identified. The SLN detection rate was 94.8% per patient and 85.1% for the side of dissection and depends on the tumor volume. SLN were identified in obturator area in 48%, in external iliac area in 15%, in common iliac and internal iliac both in 9%, in interiliac region in 8%, in praesacral region in 6% and in parametrial area in 5%. Metastatic disease was detected in 31 patients (40.2%), metastatic involvement of SLN only in 12 patients (15.6%). False negative rate was 2.6%, sensitivity and negative predictive value calculated by patient were 923% and 95.7%. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping using combination of technecium-99-labeled nanocolloid and blue dye are feasible, safe and accurate techniques to identified SLN in early stage of cervical cancer.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye by zinc oxide nanoparticles obtained from precipitation and sol-gel methods.

    PubMed

    Balcha, Abebe; Yadav, Om Prakash; Dey, Tania

    2016-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods. The aim of this study was to understand how different synthetic methods can affect the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles. As-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. XRD patterns of ZnO powders synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods revealed their hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite sizes of 30 and 28 nm, respectively. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue, a common water pollutant, under UV radiation. The effects of operational parameters such as photocatalyst load and initial concentration of the dye on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue were investigated. While the degradation of dye decreased over the studied dye concentration range of 20 to 100 mg/L, an optimum photocatalyst load of 250 mg/L was needed to achieve dye degradation as high as 81 and 92.5 % for ZnO prepared by precipitation and sol-gel methods, respectively. Assuming pseudo first-order reaction kinetics, this corresponded to rate constants of 8.4 × 10 -3 and 12.4 × 10 -3  min -1 , respectively. Hence, sol-gel method is preferred over precipitation method in order to achieve higher photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures. Photocatalytic activity is further augmented by better choice of capping ligand for colloidal stabilization, starch being more effective than polyethylene glycol (PEG).

  13. Adsorption of Direct Blue 53 dye from aqueous solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Prola, Lizie D T; Machado, Fernando M; Bergmann, Carlos P; de Souza, Felipe E; Gally, Caline R; Lima, Eder C; Adebayo, Matthew A; Dias, Silvio L P; Calvete, Tatiana

    2013-11-30

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and powder activated carbon (PAC) were used as adsorbents for adsorption of Direct Blue 53 dye (DB-53) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterised using Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of initial pH, contact time and temperature on adsorption capacity of the adsorbents were investigated. At pH 2.0, optimum adsorption of the dye was achieved by both adsorbents. Equilibrium contact times of 3 and 4 h were achieved by MWCNT and PAC adsorbents, respectively. The general order kinetic model provided the best fit of the experimental data compared to pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic adsorption models. For DB-53 dye, the equilibrium data (298-323 K) were best fitted to the Sips isotherm model. The maximum sorption capacity for adsorption of the dye occurred at 323 K, with the values of 409.4 and 135.2 mg g(-1) for MWCNT and PAC, respectively. Studies of adsorption/desorption were conducted and the results showed that DB-53 loaded MWCNT could be regenerated (97.85%) using a mixture 50% acetone + 50% of 3 mol L(-1) NaOH. Simulated dye house effluents were used to evaluate the application of the adsorbents for effluent treatment (removal of 99.87% and 97.00% for MWCNT and PAC, respectively, were recorded). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of red dyes on blue light phototoxicity against VSC producing bacteria in an experimental oral biofilm.

    PubMed

    Jeffet, U; Nasrallah, R; Sterer, N

    2016-11-21

    Oral malodour is considered to be caused mainly by the production of volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by anaerobic Gram-negative oral bacteria. Previous study showed that these bacteria were susceptible to blue light (wavelengths of 400-500 nm). In the present study, we tested the effect of blue light in the presence of red dyes on malodour production in an experimental oral biofilm. Biofilms were exposed to a plasma-arc light source for 30, 60, and 120 s (i.e. fluences of 41, 82, and 164 J cm -2 , respectively) with the addition of erythrosine, natural red and rose bengal (0.01, 0.1 and 1% w/v). Following light exposure biofilm samples were examined for malodour production (Odour judge), VSC production (Halimeter ™ ), VSC producing bacteria quantification using microscopy sulfide assay (MSA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results showed that the exposure of experimental oral biofilm to blue light in the presence of rose bengal caused an increased reduction in VSC and malodour production concomitant with an increase in ROS production. These results suggest that rose bengal might be effective as a blue light photosensitizer against VSC producing bacteria.

  15. Concordance between peri-areolar blue dye and peri-incisional radiotracer injections for sentinel node mapping in patients with a history of primary breast cancer excisonal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Mehrabibahar, M; Azizi, S; Jangjoo, A; Saremi, E; Kakhki, V R Dabbagh; Sadeghi, R; Chicken, D W; Keshtgar, M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the concordance between peri-areolar blue dye and peri-incisional radiotracer injections for axillary sentinel node mapping of patients with the history of previous breast lesion excisional biopsy. 80 patients with the history of previous excisional biopsy of the breast lesions were included. All patients received two injections of 99mTc-antimony sulfide colloid in both ends of incision line in an intradermal fashion. 2 mL patient blue V dye was injection to all patients in the peri-areolar area of the index quadrant after induction of anesthesia. All blue or hot nodes were harvested as sentinel lymph nodes. At least one sentinel node could be detected during surgery in 79 patients. In total 94 sentinel nodes were detected. All detected sentinel nodes were hot. In three patients sentinel nodes were detected by gamma probe but not blue dye. The tumor location in all of these patients was in the upper lateral quadrant and the incision line was extended into the axillary tail of the breast in all of them. 91 out of 94 sentinel nodes were stained blue, which amounts to 95.8% concordance between blue dye and radiotracer on a per node analysis. Single peri-areolar injection in the index quadrant would suffice for sentinel node mapping of patients with history of excisional biopsy. Care should be taken in patients with large excisional biopsy in the extreme proximity to axilla.

  16. Fabrication of the novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dongzhuo; Zhu, Baodong; Cao, Bo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-11-01

    The novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk was synthetized by aqueous solution polymerization technique with functional monomers in the presence of organic montmorillonite (OMMT) under ultrasonic. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to research the effect of initial dye concentration, the dosage of hydrogel, stirring speed, contact time and temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye. The adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which confirmed that it should be a chemical process. Furthermore, we ascertained the rate controlling step by establishing the intraparticle diffusion model and the liquid film diffusion model. The adsorption and synthesis mechanisms were vividly depicted in our work as well. Structural and morphological characterizations by virtue of FTIR, FESEM, and Biomicroscope supported the relationship between the adsorption performance and material's microstructure. This research is a valuable contribution for the environmental protection, which not only converts waste corn stalks into functional materials, but improves the removal of organic dye from sewage water.

  17. Adsorption of Procion Blue MX-R dye from aqueous solutions by lignin chemically modified with aluminium and manganese.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Matthew A; Prola, Lizie D T; Lima, Eder C; Puchana-Rosero, M J; Cataluña, Renato; Saucier, Caroline; Umpierres, Cibele S; Vaghetti, Julio C P; da Silva, Leandro G; Ruggiero, Reinaldo

    2014-03-15

    A macromolecule, CML, was obtained by purifying and carboxy-methylating the lignin generated from acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse during bioethanol production from biomass. The CMLs complexed with Al(3+) (CML-Al) and Mn(2+) (CML-Mn) were utilised for the removal of a textile dye, Procion Blue MX-R (PB), from aqueous solutions. CML-Al and CML-Mn were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning differential calorimetry (SDC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pHPZC. The established optimum pH and contact time were 2.0 and 5h, respectively. The kinetic and equilibrium data fit into the general order kinetic model and Liu isotherm model, respectively. The CML-Al and CML-Mn have respective values of maximum adsorption capacities of 73.52 and 55.16mgg(-1) at 298K. Four cycles of adsorption/desorption experiments were performed attaining regenerations of up to 98.33% (CML-Al) and 98.08% (CML-Mn) from dye-loaded adsorbents, using 50% acetone+50% of 0.05molL(-1) NaOH. The CML-Al removed ca. 93.97% while CML-Mn removed ca. 75.91% of simulated dye house effluents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Axillary lymph node recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy performed using a combination of indocyanine green fluorescence and the blue dye method in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoo; Nishi, Toshio; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Nishimae, Ayaka; Sawai, Yuka; Yamasaki, Masaru; Inaji, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    There is limited information on indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence and blue dye for detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) in early breast cancer. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the feasibility of an SLN biopsy using the combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method. Seven hundred and fourteen patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer were included in this study. They underwent SLN biopsy using a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method from March 2007 to February 2014. The ICG (a fluorescence-emitting source) and patent blue (the blue dye) were injected into the patients' subareolar region. The removed lymph nodes that had ICG fluorescence and/or blue dye uptake were defined as SLNs. The results of the SLN biopsies and follow-up results of patients who underwent SLN biopsy alone were investigated. In 711 out of 714 patients, SLNs were identified by a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method (detection rate, 99.6 %). The average number of SLNs was 2.4 (range 1-7), and the average number of resected swollen para-SLNs was 0.4 (range 0-5). Ninety-nine patients with an SLN and/or para-SLN involvement during the intraoperative pathological diagnosis underwent axillary lymph node resection (ALND). In addition, two of three patients whose SLN was not identified also underwent ALND. In 46 of 101 patients with an ALND, non-SLN involvement was not found. Follow-up results were analyzed in 464 patients with invasive carcinoma excluding those with ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 148) and those who underwent ALND (n = 101). During the follow-up period (range 4.4-87.7 months; median, 38 months), two patients (0.4 %) developed axillary lymph node recurrence. They were successfully salvaged, and to date, no further locoregional recurrence has been observed. A high rate of SLN detection and low rate of axillary lymph node recurrence were confirmed by an SLN biopsy using a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye

  19. Adsorptive performance of MOF nanocomposite for methylene blue and malachite green dyes: Kinetics, isotherm and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Alqadami, Ayoub Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alothman, Z A; Ahamad, Tansir

    2018-06-06

    In the present study, Fe 3 O 4 @AMCA-MIL-53(Al) nanocomposite was utilized for the adsorptive removal of highly toxic MB and MG dyes from aqueous environment. The batch adsorption tests were performed at different contact time, pH, Fe 3 O 4 @AMCA-MIL-53(Al) dose, initial concentration of dyes and temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity of MB and MG dyes onto of Fe 3 O 4 @AMCA-MIL-53(Al) using Langmuir equation was 1.02 and 0.90 m mol/g, respectively. The isotherm and kinetic studies revealed that adsorption data were well fitted to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-first-order kinetics models. Various thermodynamic parameters were also calculated and interpreted. The positive and negative values of ΔH° and ΔG° indicated that the adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous, respectively. The adsorptive binding of MB and MG on Fe 3 O 4 @AMCA-MIL53(Al) nanocomposite was directed by carboxylate and amide groups through electrostatic interaction, π-π interaction and hydrogen bonding. The desorption of both dyes from Fe 3 O 4 @AMCA-MIL-53(Al) was also performed using mixed solution of 0.01 M HCl/ethanol. Thus, we conclude that the Fe 3 O 4 @AMCA-MIL-53(Al) was an outstanding material for the removal of dyes from aqueous environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluorescein isothiocyanate and rhodamine B dye encapsulated mesoporous SiO2 for applications of blue LED excited white LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sourav; Manam, J.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes were encapsulated in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNp). The MSNp-FITC-RhB nanohybrids phosphor showed a dichromatic PL emission at green region and orange region when excited at 460 nm. A Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) was observed from FITC to RhB. The materials were further characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, and temperature dependent photoluminescence. The CIE coordinates were tuned from greenish yellow to the orange region and quantum yield was reached 52.04% based on FRET. So by combining the MSNp-FITC-RhB nanohybrids phosphor with the blue LED chip, the white light emission with flexible Color Correlated Temperature and improved Color Rendering Index can be obtained.

  1. BRILLIANT BLUE FCF IS A NON-TOXIC DYE FOR SAPHENOUS VEIN GRAFT MARKING THAT ABROGATES RESPONSE TO INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Kyle M.; Luo, Weifeng; Li, Fan Dong; Komalavilas, Padmini; Brophy, Colleen; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Injury to saphenous vein grafts during surgical preparation may contribute to the subsequent development of intimal hyperplasia, the primary cause of graft failure. Surgical skin markers currently used for vascular marking contain gentian violet and isopropanol that damage tissue and impair physiologic functions. Brilliant blue FCF (FCF) is a nontoxic dye alternative that may also ameliorate preparation-induced injury. METHODS Porcine saphenous vein (PSV) was used to evaluate the effect of FCF on physiologic responses in a muscle bath. Cytotoxicity of FCF was measured using human umbilical venous smooth muscle cells (HUVSMC). Effect of FCF on the development of intimal hyperplasia was evaluated in organ culture using PSV. Intracellular calcium fluxes and contractile responses were measured in response to agonist and inhibitors in rat aorta and human saphenous vein (HSV). RESULTS Marking with FCF did not impair smooth muscle contractile responses and restored stretch injury-induced loss in smooth muscle contractility of PSV. Gentian violet has cytotoxic effects on HUVSMC while FCF is nontoxic. FCF inhibited intimal thickening in PSV in organ culture. 2′(3′)-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5′-triphosphate-induced contraction and intracellular calcium flux were inhibited by FCF, oxidized ATP, KN62, and brilliant blue G, suggesting that FCF may inhibit the purinergic receptor P2X7. CONCLUSIONS Our studies indicated that FCF is a non-toxic marking dye for vein grafts that ameliorates vein graft injury and prevents intimal thickening, possibly due to P2X7 receptor inhibition. FCF represents a non-toxic alternative for vein graft marking and a potentially therapeutic approach to enhance outcome in autologous transplantation of HSV into the coronary and peripheral arterial circulation. PMID:25704409

  2. One-step Preparation of graphene oxide/polypyrrole magnetic nanocomposite and its application in the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzali Nezhad, Ali; Alimoradi, Mohammad; Ramezani, Majid

    2018-02-01

    Herein, we report a novel one-step strategy to construct magnetic nanocomposite (polypyrrole/GO@Fe3O4) via a simple and effective chemical method. First, the GO nanosheets were fabricated through modified Hummers method, and then, the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and polypyrrole were decorated on surface of the GO nanosheets by coprecipitation of ferrous salts and pyrrole monomer in GO suspension. The ferric chloride could act both as oxidizing agent and also for preparation of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The prepared nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and TGA measurements. The prepared magnetic nanocomposite had a much higher thermal stability than pure graphene oxide. The magnetic nanocomposite has been employed as adsorbent for the magnetic separation of Methylene Blue dye from water. The adsorption test of Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrates that it only takes few minutes for MB to attain equilibrium. The effect of experimental conditions such as contact time and pH as well as kinetic and isotherm of adsorption of MB dye was also studied. The highest adsorption capacity for MB was 323.2 mg g-1. The pH optimization experiments showed that pH = 8 is optimum pH for investigation of MB dye adsorption. It is also must be mentioned that most of adsorption of MB dye achieved within first 10 min of exposure to MB dye which indicated the strong interaction between dye molecules and adsorbent and high rate of adsorption of dye on magnetic nanocomposite. Adsorption procedure of dye were fitted well by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models. The cycling reusability of magnetic nanocomposite showed comparable values to other studies. Results showed that the prepared new magnetic nanocomposite has great potential application for removal of organic dyes from polluted water.

  3. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of acidic blue 25 dye onto cucurbit[8]uril: A spectral and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hanhan; Huang, Xiangyu; Luo, Yuhan; Li, Zhuang; Li, Lan; Gao, Chao; Xiong, Jinyan; Li, Wei

    2018-03-01

    The acidic blue 25 (AB25) dye was efficiently adsorbed by CB [8]; the saturated adsorption capacity (qexp) reached 434.8 mg/g and was far higher than those of previous reported adsorbents. The Langmuir and Freundich isotherms were used to fit the equilibrium data, and the results showed that the Freundlich isotherm seemed to agree better with the AB25 adsorption. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. Calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of AB25 onto CB [8] was a spontaneous and enthalpy-driven process. The adsorption mechanism was explored by N2 adsorption-desorption, TG, FT-IR, UV-vis as well as MD simulation and DFT calculations. TG analysis revealed that a new inclusion complex was produced, and FT-IR,UV-vis spectrum and DFT calculations verify its structure. In this inclusion complex, the AB25 dye molecule inserted into cavities of CB [8] from portal, and the sulfonate and phenyl groups stayed in the hydrophobic cavity. TDDFT calculations indicated that all excitation arisen from π → π* transition.

  4. Removal of methyl orange and methylene blue dyes from aqueous solution using lala clam (Orbicularia orbiculata) shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eljiedi, Arwa Alseddig Ahmed; Kamari, Azlan

    2017-05-01

    Textile effluents are considered as potential sources of water pollution because they contain toxic dyes. In the present study, lala clam shell was used as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of two harmful dyes, namely methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption studies were carried out by varying experimental parameters such as solution pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pH values for MO and MB removal were pH 2.0 and pH 8.0, respectively. At an initial MO and MB concentration of 20 mg/L, the maximum removal percentage of MO and MB were 18.9 % and 81.3 %, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium data were correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The biomass adsorbent was characterised using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). Results from this study suggest that lala clam shell, a fishery waste, can be beneficial for water treatment.

  5. A Novel of Buton Asphalt and Methylene Blue as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell using TiO2/Ti Nanotubes Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhidayani; Muzakkar, M. Z.; Maulidiyah; Wibowo, D.; Nurdin, M.

    2017-11-01

    A study of TiO2/Ti nanotubes arrays (NTAs) based on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) used Asphalt Buton (Asbuton) extract and methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer dye has been conducted. The aim of this research is that the Asbuton extract and Methylene Blue (MB) performance as a dye on DSSC solar cells is able to obtain the voltage-currents produced by visible light irradiation. Electrode TiO2/Ti NTAs have been successfully synthesized by anodizing methods, then characterized by using XRD showed that the anatase crystals formed. Subsequently, the morphology showed that the nanotubes formed which has coated by Asbuton extract. The DSSC system was formed by a sandwich structure and tested by using Multimeter Digital with Potentiostat instrument. The characteristics of current (I) and potential (V) versus time indicated that the Asbuton was obtained in a high-performance in 30s of 14,000µV 0.844µA, meanwhile MB dyes were 8,000µV0.573µA. Based on this research, the Asbuton extract from Buton Island-Southeast Sulawesi-Indonesia was potential for natural dyes in DSSC system.

  6. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  7. Performance of zeolite ceramic membrane synthesized by wet mixing method as methylene blue dye wastewater filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masturi; Widodo, R. D.; Edie, S. S.; Amri, U.; Sidiq, A. L.; Alighiri, D.; Wulandari, N. A.; Susilawati; Amanah, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    Problem of pollution in water continues in Indonesia, with its manufacturing sector as biggest contributor to economic growth. One out of many technological solutions is post-treating industrial wastewater by membrane filtering technology. We presented a result of our fabrication of ceramic membrane made from zeolite with simple mixing and he. At 5% of (poring agent):(total weight), its permeability stays around 2.8 mD (10‑14m2) with slight variance around it, attributed to the mixture being in far below percolating threshold. All our membranes achieve remarkable above 90% rejection rate of methylene blue as solute waste in water solvent.

  8. Active MgO-SiO2 hybrid material for organic dye removal: A mechanism and interaction study of the adsorption of C.I. Acid Blue 29 and C.I. Basic Blue 9.

    PubMed

    Ciesielczyk, Filip; Bartczak, Przemysław; Zdarta, Jakub; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-12-15

    A comparative analysis was performed concerning the removal of two different organic dyes from model aqueous solution using an inorganic oxide adsorbent. The key element of the study concerns evaluation of the influence of the dyes' structure and their acid-base character on the efficiency of the adsorption process. The selection of sorbent material for this research - an MgO-SiO 2 oxide system synthesized via a modified sol-gel route - is also not without significance. The relatively high porous structure parameters of this material (A BET  = 642 m 2 /g, V p  = 1.11 mL and S p  = 9.8 nm) are a result of the proposed methodology for its synthesis. Both organic dyes (C.I. Acid Blue 29 and C.I. Basic Blue 9) were subjected to typical batch adsorption tests, including investigation of such process parameters as time, initial adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature. An attempt was also made to estimate the sorption capacity of the oxide material with respect to the analyzed organic dyes. To achieve the objectives of the research - determine the efficiency of adsorption - it was important to perform a thorough physicochemical analysis of the adsorbents (e.g. FTIR, elemental analysis and porous structure parameters). The results confirmed the significantly higher affinity of the basic dye to the oxide adsorbents compared with the acidic dye. The regeneration tests, which indirectly determine the nature of the adsorbent/adsorbate interactions, provide further evidence for this finding. On this basis, a probable mechanism of dyes adsorption on the MgO-SiO 2 oxide adsorbent was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of blue dye guided lymph channel ligation on the surgical morbidity of groin lymphadenectomy for vulval cancer: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, Rasiah; Madhuri, Kavitha; Fish, Andrew; Larsen-Disney, Peter; Chatterjee, Jayanthan; Butler-Manuel, Simon; Tailor, Anil; Kehoe, Sean

    2018-02-09

    Inguinal lymphadenectomy has significant morbidity. Blue dye-guided lymph channel ligation is an effective technique for resolving lymphocele. This was a feasibility study in a preventative setting. Patients with vulval cancer requiring bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy were recruited. After lymphadenectomy, patent blue V dye was injected and the severed lymph channels leaking blue dye, on the randomly-designated side were ligated. The median age was 72.5 years and the median body mass index was 25. The median lymph node harvest was 18.5. There were no significant surgical procedural differences between the right and the left sides. There was no significant difference between the two arms in terms of the duration or the volume of drainage and post-operative complications. All patients were alive at the follow-up period of 40.5 months. In this feasibility study, blue dye-guided lymph channel ligation did not significantly impact on post-operative outcomes. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Lymph channel ligation with blue dye-guidance is an effective strategy for managing recalcitrant inguinal lymphocyst. This strategy was prospectively-studied in a small series of patients with non-gynaecological cancers. This particular study by Nakamura et al. ( 2011 ) revealed that such a strategy might be efficacious in reducing wound drain output. What do the results of this study add? Our study is the first study to assess this technique exclusively in vulval cancer. Blue dye-guided lymph channel ligation at the time of inguinal lymphadenectomy does not appear to reduce wound drainage. However, this study suggests that primary lymphocyst predominantly results from inflammatory exudates, whereas persistent secondary lymphocysts are likely to result from lymphorrhoea. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Future studies, which aim to reduce the morbidity of open inguinal lymphadenectomy, should employ

  10. Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R 2) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution. PMID:25705714

  11. Ozonation of the food dye Brilliant Blue in aqueous medium: monitoring and characterization of products by direct infusion electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Júlio César Cardoso; Bispo, Glayson Leonardo; Pavanelli, Sérgio Pinton; Afonso, Robson José de Cássia Franco; Augusti, Rodinei

    2012-06-15

    Dyes have been widely used to accentuate or to provide different colors to foods. However, the high concentrations of dyes in effluents from the food industries can cause serious and unpredictable damages to aquatic life in general. Furthermore, since conventional biological treatments have been shown to be ineffective, the use of advanced oxidation processes to promote the depletion of such dyes in water bodies has turned out to be mandatory. The degradation of the food dye Brilliant Blue by ozone in aqueous solution is reported herein. The overall process was monitored in real time by using direct infusion electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode, ESI(-)-HRMS. Preliminary results (visual inspection and UV-vis spectra) showed the high efficiency of ozonation in causing the decoloration of an aqueous solution of the dye whereas TOC (total organic carbon) measurements revealed that such an oxidation process was unable to promote its complete mineralization. ESI(-)-HRMS data showed that the substrate consumption occurred concomitantly with the appearance of four by-products, all of them produced by an initial attack of hydroxyl radicals (generated via the decomposition of ozone) on the two imino moieties of the dye molecule. Structures were proposed for all the by-products based mainly on the high-resolution mass measurements and on the characteristic reactivity of typical functional groups towards hydroxyl radicals. An unprecedented degradation route of Brilliant Blue by ozone in aqueous solution could thus be proposed. A greater ecotoxicity against Artemia salina was observed for the by-products than for the original dye. This indicates that the identification of by-products arising from oxidation treatments is of primary importance since such compounds can be more hazardous than the precursor itself. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Porous synthetic hectorite clay-alginate composite beads for effective adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Radheshyam R; Lalhmunsiama; Gupta, Prabuddha; Sawant, Sandesh Y; Shahmoradi, B; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2018-07-15

    The present study deals with the preparation and characterization of mesoporous synthetic hectorite (MSH) clay which further encapsulated with Na-alginate for the preparation of mesoporous synthetic hectorite-alginate beads (MSH-AB) where Ca 2+ act as a cross-linking agent. The detail characterization of MSH and MSH-AB were carried out by various physicochemical techniques. The thermogravimetric analysis study showed better thermal stability results for MSH-AB. The textural properties results of MSH and MSH-AB showed the high surface area 468, 205m 2 /g, and the pore volume of 0.34, 0.29cm 3 /g respectively. The applicability of powder MSH and MSH-AB in wet (W) and dry (D) forms were assessed for the removal of cationic dye, methylene blue (MB) by optimizing various batch adsorption parameters. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity obtained for MSH-AB-W showed significant high adsorption efficacy (i.e., 785.45mgMB/g) compared to the MSH-AB-D (357.14mgMB/g) and powder MSH materials (196.00mgMB/g). The adsorption isotherm studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm model was best suitable for MSH, whereas the Freundlich model was utilised to describe the adsorption behavior of organized hydrogel composite beads. The pseudo-second-order kinetics model was observed best for MB sorption onto MSH, whereas pseudo-first order useful to describe the kinetic behavior of MSH-AB. The regeneration experimental results revealed that MSH-AB-W could be recycled more than six cycles with high MB removal efficiency. Furthermore, the adsorption property of the MSH-AB-W was examined for the binary mixture of MB with other dye solutions such as Methyl Red (MR), Methyl Orange (MO), Alizarine Yellow (AY), and Remazol Brilliant Blue (RBB) to evaluate the selective adsorption efficiency. The MSH composite beads were found potentially suitable as an efficient, selective and recyclable adsorbent for the removal of MB from the aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan composite as a bio-adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue and acid blue 29 dyes.

    PubMed

    Khanday, W A; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-02-01

    Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan (Z-AC/C) composite were prepared through the hydrothermal treatment of NaOH activated oil palm ash followed by beading with chitosan. The effects of initial dye concentration (50-400mg/L), temperature (30°C-50°C) and pH (3-13) on batch adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 29 (AB29) were studied. Adsorption of both dyes was better described by Pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Z-AC/C were 151.51, 169.49, and 199.20mg/g for MB and 212.76, 238.09, and 270.27mg/g for AB29 at 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Occupational Exposure of Glazers of a Ceramic Industry to Cobalt Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    KARGAR, Fatemeh; SHAHTAHERI, Seyed Jamaleddin; GOLBABAEI, Farideh; BARKHORDARI, Abolfazl; RAHIMI-FROUSHANI, Abbas; KHADEM, Monireh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cobalt is one of the most important constituent present in ceramic industries. Glazers are the relevant workers when they are producing blue colored ceramic, causing occupational exposure to such metal. Through this study, urinary cobalt was determined in glazers in a ceramic industry when they were producing blue-colored ceramic glazes. Methods: In this case-control study, spot urine samples were collected from 49 glazers at the start and end of work shifts (totally 98 samples) in 2011. Control group were well matched for age, height, and weight. A solid phase extraction system was used for separation and preconcentration of samples followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). All participants filled out a self administered questionnaire comprises questions about duration of exposure, work shift, use of mask, skin dermatitis, kind of job, ventilation system, overtime work, age, weight, and height. The lung function tests were performed on each control and cobalt exposed subjects. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the obtained results. Results: Urinary levels of cobalt were significantly higher in the glazers compared to the control group. There were significant differences at urinary concentration of cobalt at the start and end of the work shift in glazers. Spirometric parameters were significantly lower in the glazers compared to the control group. Among the variables used in questionnaire the significant variables were dermatitis skin, mask, ventilation, and overtime work. Conclusion: This study verified existence of cobalt in the urine glazers, showing lower amount than the ACGIH standard. PMID:26056641

  15. A comparison of mango seed kernel powder, mango leaf powder and Manilkara zapota seed powder for decolorization of methylene blue dye and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, B; Muthuramu, K L

    2016-11-01

    The waste mango seed generated from mango pulp industry in India is a major problem in handling the waste and hence, conversion of mango seed kernel. Mango seeds were collected and processed for oil extraction. Decolorization of methylene blue was achieved by mango seed kernel powder, mango leaf powder and Manilkara zapota seed powder. Higher efficiency was attained in mango seed kernel powder when compared to mango leaf powder and Manilkara zapota seed powder. A 60 to 95 % of removal efficiency was achieved by varying concentration. Effect of pH, dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature were studied. Mango seed kernel powder is a better option that can be used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue and basic red dye from its aqueous solutions.

  16. Rapid and sensitive detection of human astrovirus in water samples by loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper was to develop a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for rapid, sensitive and inexpensive detection of astrovirus. Results The detection limit of LAMP using in vitro RNA transcripts was 3.6×10 copies·μL-1, which is as sensitive as the presently used PCR assays. However, the LAMP products could be identified as different colors with the naked eye following staining with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (HNB). No cross-reactivity with other gastroenteric viruses (rotavirus and norovirus) was observed, indicating the relatively high specificity of LAMP. The RT-LAMP method with HNB was used to effectively detect astrovirus in reclaimed water samples. Conclusions The LAMP technique described in this study is a cheap, sensitive, specific and rapid method for the detection of astrovirus. The RT-LAMP method can be simply applied for the specific detection of astrovirus and has the potential to be utilized in the field as a screening test. PMID:24524254

  17. Rapid and sensitive detection of human astrovirus in water samples by loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Lu; Wei, Yu-Mei; Wang, Jing-Qi; He, Xiao-Qing; Jin, Yi; Wang, Zi-Jian

    2014-02-14

    The aim of this paper was to develop a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for rapid, sensitive and inexpensive detection of astrovirus. The detection limit of LAMP using in vitro RNA transcripts was 3.6 × 10 copies·μL⁻¹, which is as sensitive as the presently used PCR assays. However, the LAMP products could be identified as different colors with the naked eye following staining with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (HNB). No cross-reactivity with other gastroenteric viruses (rotavirus and norovirus) was observed, indicating the relatively high specificity of LAMP. The RT-LAMP method with HNB was used to effectively detect astrovirus in reclaimed water samples. The LAMP technique described in this study is a cheap, sensitive, specific and rapid method for the detection of astrovirus. The RT-LAMP method can be simply applied for the specific detection of astrovirus and has the potential to be utilized in the field as a screening test.

  18. Dye-sensitized TiO2-catalyzed photodegradation of sulfamethoxazole under blue or yellow light.

    PubMed

    Lu, Norman; Yeh, Yun-Peng; Wang, Guan-Bo; Feng, Tsung-Yao; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Chen, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Visible light-induced photocatalysis is potentially advantageous and could be an efficient approach to degrade contaminants because it can be used to selectively target specific wavelength for decomposition of organic contaminants in water and wastewater. This study demonstrates the photodegradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) using [Pt(3,3'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bpy)(1,2-benzenedithiolate)] (Complex 1)-sensitized and [Pt(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bpy)(1,2-benzenedithiolate)] (Complex 2)-sensitized titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) under blue or yellow light (420 or 580 nm, respectively) irradiation in water. The Complex 1-sensitized TiO 2 photocatalytic oxidation of SMX reached almost 100 % removal under 420 nm irradiation for 3 h in water. In addition, the formation of hydroxyl radicals can be facilitated by bubbling O 2 during the photodegradation in which an effective decomposition of SMX was observed. Based on HPLC and UV-Vis studies of the decomposed products, it was found that SMX underwent cleavage of aromatic rings during the photodegradation process.

  19. Photocatalytic Activity of W-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers for Methylene Blue Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Song, Yo-Seung; Cho, Nam-Ihn; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Lee, Deuk Yong

    2016-02-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was examined using W-doped TiO2 nanofibers prepared by a sol-gel derived electrospinning and subsequent calcination for 4 h at 550 degrees C. Different concentrations of W dopant in the range of 0 to 8 mol% were synthesized to evaluate the effect of W concentration on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. XRD results indicated that the undoped TiO2 is composed of anatase and rutile phases. The rutile phase was transformed to anatase phase completely with the W doping. Among W-TiO2 catalysts, the 2 mol% W-TiO2 catalyst showed the highest MB degradation rate. The degradation kinetic constant increased from 1.04 x 10(-3) min(-1) to 3.54 x 10(-3) min(-1) with the increase of W doping from 0 to 2 mol%, but decreased down to 1.77 x 10(-3) min(-1) when the W content was 8 mol%. It can be concluded that the degradation of MB under UV radiation was more efficient with W-TiO2 catalysts than with pure TiO2-

  20. The effect of surface charge on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using chargeable titania nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Azeez, Fadhel; Al-Hetlani, Entesar; Arafa, Mona; Abdelmonem, Yasser; Nazeer, Ahmed Abdel; Amin, Mohamed O; Madkour, Metwally

    2018-05-08

    Herein, a simple approach based on tailoring the surface charge of nanoparticles, NPs, during the preparation to boost the electrostatic attraction between NPs and the organic pollutant was investigated. In this study, chargeable titania nanoparticles (TiΟ 2 NPs) were synthesized via a hydrothermal route under different pH conditions (pH = 1.6, 7.0 and 10). The prepared TiΟ 2 NPs were fully characterized via various techniques including; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The influence of the preparation pH on the particle size, surface area and band gap was investigated and showed pH-dependent behavior. The results revealed that upon increasing the pH value, the particle size decreases and lead to larger surface area with less particles agglomeration. Additionally, the effect of pH on the surface charge was monitored by XPS to determine the amount of hydroxyl groups on the TiO 2 NPs surface. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared TiΟ 2 NPs towards methylene blue (MB) photodegradation was manifested. The variation in the preparation pH affected the point of zero charge (pH PZC ) of TiO 2 NPs, subsequently, different photocatalytic activities based on electrostatic interactions were observed. The optimum efficiency obtained was 97% at a degradation rate of 0.018 min -1 using TiO 2 NPs prepared at pH 10.

  1. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for the removal of methylene blue dye from water by nano zero-valent iron (NZVI).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Morteza; Arabi, Simin

    In this study, iron zero-valent nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and studied for removal of methylene blue dye in water solution. The reactions were mathematically described as the function of parameters such as nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) dose, pH, contact time and initial dye concentration, and were modeled by the use of response surface methodology. These experiments were carried out as a central composite design consisting of 30 experiments determined by the 2(4) full factorial designs with eight axial points and six center points. The results revealed that the optimal conditions for dye removal were NZVI dose 0.1-0.9 g/L, pH 3-11, contact time 20-100 s, and initial dye concentration 10-50 mg/L, respectively. Under these optimal values of process parameters, the dye removal efficiency of 92.87% was observed, which very close to the experimental value (92.21%) in batch experiment. In the optimization, R(2) and R(2)adj correlation coefficients for the model were evaluated as 0.96 and 0.93, respectively.

  2. Efficient degradation of Methylene Blue dye over highly reactive Cu doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles photocatalyst under visible light.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi Inamur; Ahmad, Musheer; Misra, Sunil Kumar; Lohani, Minaxi

    2012-09-01

    Visible light induced photocatalysts of Cu doped SrTiO3 (Cu/SrTiO3) nanoparticles with the size -60-75 nm were prepared via facile sol-gel method. The morphological, optical, crystalline properties and compositions of synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). A significant red shift in the UV-diffused reflectance spectrum was observed and the absorption edge shifted to visible region by the Cu doping. Surprisingly, the band gap of SrTiO3 was changed from 3.2 eV drop to 2.96 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles was demonstrated for the degradation of Methylene Blue dye under visible light irradiation. The formation of new acceptor region in Cu/SrTiO3 was responsible for high photocatalytic activity of Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. The results showed that the Methylene Blue dye was degraded by -66% within time span of 2 h over the Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. This dye degradation reaction followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and also exhibited first order reaction rate. The calculated rate constant for the degradation reaction following first order kinetics was k = 0.0016 min(-1).

  3. Sentinel lymph node detection in early stage cervical cancer: a prospective study comparing preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative gamma probe, and blue dye.

    PubMed

    Kara, P Pelin; Ayhan, Ali; Caner, Biray; Gültekin, Murat; Ugur, Omer; Bozkurt, M Fani; Usubutun, Alp

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine the feasibility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in patients with cervical cancer using lymphoscintigraphy (LS), gamma probe, and blue dye. A total of 32 patients with early stage cervical cancer (FIGO IA2-IIA) who were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic and paraortic lymphadenectomy underwent SLN biopsy. LS was performed on all the patients following the injection of 74 MBq technetium-99m-nanocolloid pericervically. The first appearing persistent focal accumulation on either dynamic or static images of LS was considered to be an SLN. Blue dye was injected just prior to surgical incision in 16 patients (50%) at the same locations as the radioactive isotope injection. During the operation, blue-stained node(s) were excised as SLNs. For gamma probe, a lymph node was accepted as an SLN, if its ex vivo radioactive counts were at least 10-fold above background radioactivity. SLNs, which were negative by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) examination, were histopathologically reevaluated for the presence of micrometastases by step sectioning and immunohistochemical staining with pancytokeratin. At least one SLN was identified for each patient by gamma probe. Intraoperative gamma probe was the most sensitive method with a technical success rate of SLN detection of 100% (32/32), followed by LS 87.5% (28/32) and blue dye 68.8% (11/16), respectively. The average number of SLNs per patient detected by gamma probe was 2.09 (range 1-5). The localizations of the SLNs were external iliac 47.8%, obturatory 32.8%, common iliac 9%, paraaortic 4.4%, and paracervical 6%. Micrometastases, not detected by routine H&E were found by immunohistochemistry in one patient. On the basis of the histopathological analysis, the negative predictive value for predicting metastases was 100%, and there were no false-negative results. Preoperative LS with radiocolloids, intraoperative lymphatic mapping with

  4. Graphene oxide/Fe3O4/chitosan nanocomposite: a recoverable and recyclable adsorbent for organic dyes removal. Application to methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hoang V.; Bui, Lieu T.; Dinh, Thuy T.; Le, Dang H.; Huynh, Chinh D.; Trinh, Anh X.

    2017-03-01

    In this research, the potential of chitosan/Fe3O4/graphene oxide (CS/Fe3O4/GO) nanocomposite for efficient removal of methylene blue (MB) as a cationic dye from aqueous solutions was investigated. For this purpose, first, graphene oxide (GO) was prepared from pencil’s graphite by Hummer’s method, then after, CS/Fe3O4/GO was synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method from a mixture solution of GO, Fe3+, Fe2+ and chitosan. The synthesized CS/Fe3O4/GO was characterized by XRD, VSM and SEM techniques. Also, the various parameters affecting dye removal were investigated. Dye adsorption equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm rather than Freundlich isotherm. The maximum monolayer capacity (q max), was calculated from the Langmuir as 30.10 mg · g-1. The results show that, CS/Fe3O4/GO nanocomposite, can be used as a cheap and efficient adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

  5. Enhanced removal of methylene blue and methyl violet dyes from aqueous solution using a nanocomposite of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum and incorporated nanosilica.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Asish; Raoufi, Mohammad; Panda, Asit Baran; Schönherr, Holger; Pal, Sagar

    2014-04-09

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel nanocomposite is reported that was developed as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of toxic methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solution. The nanocomposite comprises hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted onto xanthan gum as well as incorporated nanosilica. The synthesis exploits the saponification of the grafted polyacrylamide and the in situ formation of nanoscale SiO2 by a sol-gel reaction, in which the biopolymer matrix promotes the silica polymerization and therefore acts as a novel template for nanosilica formation. The detailed investigation of the kinetics and the adsorption isotherms of MB and MV from aqueous solution showed that the dyes adsorb rapidly, in accordance with a pseudo-second-order kinetics and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The entropy driven process was furthermore found to strongly depend on the point of zero charge (pzc) of the adsorbent. The remarkably high adsorption capacity of dyes on the nanocomposites (efficiency of MB removal, 99.4%; maximum specific removal Qmax, 497.5 mg g(-1); and efficiency of MV removal, 99.1%; Qmax, 378.8 mg g(-1)) is rationalized on the basis of H-bonding interactions as well as dipole-dipole and electrostatic interactions between anionic adsorbent and cationic dye molecules. Because of the excellent regeneration capacity the nanocomposites are considered interesting materials for the uptake of, for instance, toxic dyes from wastewater.

  6. Advancing Optical Imaging for Breast Margin Assessment: An Analysis of Excisional Time, Cautery, and Patent Blue Dye on Underlying Sources of Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Bydlon, Torre M.; Barry, William T.; Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Brown, J. Quincy; Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Wilke, Lee G.; Geradts, Joseph; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2012-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) is a recommended treatment for breast cancer patients where the goal is to remove the tumor and a surrounding rim of normal tissue. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients return for additional surgeries to remove all of the cancer. Post-operative pathology is the gold standard for evaluating BCS margins but is limited due to the amount of tissue that can be sampled. Frozen section analysis and touch-preparation cytology have been proposed to address the surgical needs but also have sampling limitations. These issues represent an unmet clinical need for guidance in resecting malignant tissue intra-operatively and for pathological sampling. We have developed a quantitative spectral imaging device to examine margins intra-operatively. The context in which this technology is applied (intra-operative or post-operative setting) is influenced by time after excision and surgical factors including cautery and the presence of patent blue dye (specifically Lymphazurin™, used for sentinel lymph node mapping). Optical endpoints of hemoglobin ([THb]), fat ([β-carotene]), and fibroglandular content via light scattering (<µs’>) measurements were quantified from diffuse reflectance spectra of lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens using a Monte Carlo model. A linear longitudinal mixed-effects model was used to fit the optical endpoints for the cautery and kinetics studies. Monte Carlo simulations and tissue mimicking phantoms were used for the patent blue dye experiments. [THb], [β-carotene], and <µs’> were affected by <3.3% error with <80 µM of patent blue dye. The percent change in [β-carotene], <µs’>, and [β-carotene]/<µs’> was <14% in 30 minutes, while percent change in [THb] was >40%. [β-carotene] and [β-carotene]/<µs’> were the only parameters not affected by cautery. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the post-excision kinetics of ex-vivo tissue and the presence of cautery and patent blue dye for

  7. Activated carbons from waste of oil-palm kernel shells, sawdust and tannery leather scraps and application to chromium(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Suarez, Sergio; Colpas-Castillo, Fredy; Meza-Fuentes, Edgardo; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Johana; Fernandez-Maestre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Phenol, chromium, and dyes are continuously dumped into water bodies; the adsorption of these contaminants on activated carbon is a low-cost alternative for water remediation. We synthesized activated carbons from industrial waste of palm oil seed husks (kernel shells), sawdust, and tannery leather scraps. These materials were heated for 24 h at 600, 700 or 800°C, activated at 900°C with CO2 and characterized by proximate analysis and measurement of specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir), and microporosity (t-plot). Isotherms showed micropores and mesopores in activated carbons. Palm seed activated carbon showed the highest fixed carbon content (96%), and Langmuir specific surface areas up to 1,268 m2/g, higher than those from sawdust (581 m2/g) and leather scraps (400 m2/g). The carbons were applied to adsorption of Cr(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions. Phenol adsorption on activated carbons was 78-82 mg/g; on palm seed activated carbons, Cr(VI) adsorption at pH 7 was 0.35-0.37 mg/g, and methylene blue adsorption was 40-110 mg/g, higher than those from sawdust and leather scraps. Activated carbons from palm seed are promising materials to remove contaminants from the environment and represent an alternative application for vegetal wastes instead of dumping into landfills.

  8. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-01-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500–650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm·W−1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

  9. Photodynamic Therapy Associated with a Blue Dye Papain-Based Gel and Evaluation of Its Degradation of Type I Collagen Fibers.

    PubMed

    Botta, Sergio Brossi; Ana, Patricia Aparecida; Gonçalves, Marcela Leticia Leal; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; de Araújo Prates, Renato; Brugnera, Aldo; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the degradation of type I collagen fibers after treatment with a papain-based gel associated with a blue dye (PapaMBlue™) for use in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. For such, 60 bioabsorbable membrane sponge discs were used. Group 1 was the negative control group. In groups 2, 3, and 4, the papain-based gel PapaMBlue gel was applied all over the samples for 4 min and irradiated using red laser (660 ± 10 nm) with 15, 30, and 40 J/cm 2 , respectively. In group 5, the papain-based gel was applied all over the samples for 4 min. In group 6, the photosensitizing dye was applied all over the samples for 4 min. The compositional analysis of the samples was performed using ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy). The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Neither classic Papacarie™ nor the modified product with a photosensitizing agent (PapaMBlue) promoted collagen degradation. The irradiation of methylene blue added to papain gel with red light did not alter the chemical structure of type I collagen.

  10. Application of magnetic ionomer for development of very fast and highly efficient uptake of triazo dye Direct Blue 71 form different water samples.

    PubMed

    Khani, Rouhollah; Sobhani, Sara; Beyki, Mostafa Hossein; Miri, Simin

    2018-04-15

    This research focuses on removing Direct Blue 71 (DB 71) from aqueous solution in an efficient and very fast route by ionic liquid mediated γ-Fe 2 O 3 magnetic ionomer. 2-hydroxyethylammonium sulphonate immobilized on γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles (γ-Fe 2 O 3 -2-HEAS) was used for this purpose. The influence of shaking time, medium pH, the concentration of sorbent and NaNO 3 on removal was evaluated to greatly influence removal extent. The optimal removal conditions were determined by response surface methodology based on the four-variable central composite design to obtain maximum removal efficiency and determine the significance and interaction effect of the variables on the removal of target triazo dye. The results have shown that an amount of 98.2% as % removal under the optimum conditions. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were well fitted to a pseudo-second order model and Freundlich model, respectively. Based on these models, the maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q m ) of 47.60mgg -1 was obtained. Finally, the proposed nano-adsorbent was applied satisfactorily for removal of target triazo dye from different water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Blue Diketopyrrolopyrrole Sensitizer with High Efficiency in Nickel-Oxide-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Farré, Yoann; Raissi, Mahfoudh; Fihey, Arnaud; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Jacquemin, Denis; Odobel, Fabrice

    2017-06-22

    We prepared a series of four new diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPPs)-based sensitizers that exhibit high-molar extinction coefficients, extended absorption into the long wavelengths, and well-suited photoredox properties to act as sensitizers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs). These new DPP dyes, composed of a thienyl DPP core, are substituted on one end either by a thiophene carboxylic (Th) or a 4,4'-[(phenyl)aza]dibenzoic acid as anchoring group and, on the other extremity, either by a proton or a naphthalene diimide (NDI) moiety. These new dyes were completely characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy along with electrochemistry and they were modeled by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) quantum chemical calculations. The photovoltaic study in p-DSSC with iodine-based electrolyte reveals that the Th-DPP-NDI dye is particularly efficient (J sc =7.38 mA cm -2 ; V oc =147 mV; FF=0.32; η=0.35 %) and quite active in the low-energy region of the solar spectrum (above 700 nm), where only a few NiO dyes are effective. To illustrate the potential of DPP dyes in photocathodes, we designed a highly efficient tandem DSSC composed of a TiO 2 photoanode sensitized by the dye D35 and a NiO photocathode sensitized by Th-DPP-NDI. This tandem DSSC gives the highest performances ever reported (J sc =6.73 mA cm -2 ; V oc =910 mV; η=4.1 %) and, importantly, the tandem cell outcompetes with the sub-cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Exogenous surfactant preserves lung function and reduces alveolar Evans blue dye influx in a rat model of ventilation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, S J; Vazquez de Anda, G; Gommers, D; Neggers, S J; Sorm, V; Böhm, S H; Lachmann, B

    1998-08-01

    Changes in pulmonary edema infiltration and surfactant after intermittent positive pressure ventilation with high peak inspiratory lung volumes have been well described. To further elucidate the role of surfactant changes, the authors tested the effect of different doses of exogenous surfactant preceding high peak inspiratory lung volumes on lung function and lung permeability. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were subjected to 20 min of high peak inspiratory lung volumes. Before high peak inspiratory lung volumes, four of these groups received intratracheal administration of saline or 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight surfactant; one group received no intratracheal administration. Gas exchange was measured during mechanical ventilation. A sixth group served as nontreated, nonventilated controls. After death, all lungs were excised, and static pressure-volume curves and total lung volume at a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cm H2O were recorded. The Gruenwald index and the steepest part of the compliance curve (Cmax) were calculated. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed; surfactant small and large aggregate total phosphorus and minimal surface tension were measured. In a second experiment in five groups of rats (n = 6 per group), lung permeability for Evans blue dye was measured. Before 20 min of high peak inspiratory lung volumes, three groups received intratracheal administration of 100, 200, or 400 mg/ kg body weight surfactant; one group received no intratracheal administration. A fifth group served as nontreated, nonventilated controls. Exogenous surfactant at a dose of 200 mg/kg preserved total lung volume at a pressure of 5 cm H2O, maximum compliance, the Gruenwald Index, and oxygenation after 20 min of mechanical ventilation. The most active surfactant was recovered in the group that received 200 mg/kg surfactant, and this dose reduced minimal surface tension of bronchoalveolar lavage to control values. Alveolar influx of Evans blue dye

  13. Effect of clay in controlling the non-fluorescence H-dimeric states of a cationic dye Nile Blue Chloride (NBC) in hybrid Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Chandan; Shil, Ashis; Hussain, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2018-01-01

    Present communication reports the effect of amphiphilic matrices and nano-clay platelets on the aggregation properties of a water soluble cationic fluorescent dye Nile Blue Chloride (NBC) in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. In-situ Brewster Angle Microscopic (BAM) studies showed distinct domain structures of complex and hybrid Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface. UV-vis absorption spectra showed non-fluorescent H-dimeric band in concentrated aqueous solution of NBC and in complex LB film of NBC with stearic acid. By changing various parameters, a great control over H-dimeric states has been achieved in clay incorporated hybrid LB films. These films can act as efficient fluorescence probe.

  14. Studies on hydrothermal synthesis of photolumniscent rare earth (Eu3+ & Tb3+) doped NG@FeMoO4 for enhanced visible light photodegradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Kumar, M.; Khajuria, H.; Sharma, S.; Sheikh, H. Nawaz

    2018-02-01

    FeMoO4 nanorods and their rare earth (Eu3+ and Tb3+) doped composites with nitrogen doped graphene (NG) were synthesized by facile hydrothermal method in aqueous medium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the as-synthesized samples was done to study the phase purity and crystalline nature. FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy have been studied for investigating the bonding in nanostructures. The surface morphology of the samples was investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photolumniscent nature of the samples was investigated by the using the fluorescence spectrophotometer. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the prepared pure FeMoO4 and its rare earth doped composites with nitrogen doped graphene was evaluated as function of visible light irradiation versus concentration of methylene blue (MB dye). The prepared nanocomposites show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency as compared to the bare FeMoO4 nanorods.

  15. Effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using a 660 nm laser and methyline blue dye for inactivating Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in compact and cancellous bones: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luciano Pereira; Silva, Francine Cristina da; Nader, Sumaia Alves; Meira, Giselle Andrade; Viana, Magda Souza

    2015-06-01

    New therapeutic modalities such as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has been investigated in order to be a valid alternative to the treatment of infections caused by different microorganisms. This work evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) using 660 nm laser combined with methylene blue dye to inactivate Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) biofilms in compact and cancellous bones specimens. Eighty specimens of compact bone and 80 specimens of cancellous bone were contaminated with a standard suspension of S. aureus and incubated for 14 days at 37°C to induce the formation of biofilms. The specimens were then divided into groups (n = 10) according to the established treatment: PS-L- (control--no treatment), PS+L- (only AM for 5 min in the dark), PS-L+90 (only laser irradiation for 90 s), PS-L+180 (only laser irradiation for 180 s), PS-L+300 (only laser irradiation for 300 s), APDT90 (APDT for 90 s), APDT180 (APDT for 180 s), and APDT300 (APDT for 300 s). The findings were statistically analyzed by ANOVA 5%. All of the experimental treatments showed a significant reduction (log 10 CFU/mL) of S. aureus biofilms in compact and cancellous bones specimens compared with the control group, and the APDT group was the most effective. Compact specimens treated with APDT showed the greatest reduction in biofilms compared with cancellous specimens, regardless of length of treatment. APDT with methylene blue dye and a 660 nm laser proved to be effective in inactivating S. aureus biofilms formed in compact and cancellous bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness and mechanisms of acetaminophen and methylene blue dye adsorption on activated biochar derived from municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Sumalinog, Divine Angela G; Capareda, Sergio C; de Luna, Mark Daniel G

    2018-03-15

    The adsorption potential and governing mechanisms of emerging contaminants, i.e. acetaminophen or acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP) and methylene blue (MB) dye, on activated carbon derived from municipal solid waste were investigated in this work. Results showed that MB adsorption was significantly more effective, with a maximum removal of 99.9%, than APAP adsorption (%R max  = 63.7%). MB adsorption was found to be unaffected by pH change, while the adsorption capacity of APAP drastically dropped by about 89% when the pH was adjusted from pH 2 to 12. Surface reactions during APAP adsorption was dominated by both physical and chemical interactions, with the kinetic data showing good fit in both pseudo-first order (R 2  = 0.986-0.997) and pseudo-second order (R 2 >0.998) models. On the other hand, MB adsorption was best described by the pseudo-second order model, with R 2 >0.981, denoting that chemisorption controlled the process. Electrostatic attractions and chemical reactions with oxygenated surface functional groups (i.e., -OH and -COOH) govern the adsorption of APAP and MB on the activated biochar. Thermodynamic study showed that APAP and MB adsorption were endothermic with positive ΔH° values of 16.5 and 74.7 kJ mol -1 , respectively. Negative ΔG° values obtained for APAP (-3.7 to -5.1 kJ mol -1 ) and MB (-11.4 to -17.1 kJ mol -1 ) implied that the adsorption onto the activated biochar was spontaneous and feasible. Overall, the study demonstrates the effectiveness of activated biochar from municipal solid wastes as alternative adsorbent for the removal of acetaminophen and methylene blue dye from contaminated waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physicochemical and Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) of Cationic (CATB) and Anionic (SDS) Surfactants with Environmentally Benign Blue Emitting TTQC Dye.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salman A; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2015-11-01

    4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-8-methoxy-2-oxo-1,2,5,6 tetrahydrobenzo[h]quinoline-3-carbonitrile (TTQC) dye has synthesized by one-pot multicomponent reactions (MCRs) of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyd, ethyl cyanoacetate, 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalin-1-one and ammonium acetate under microwave irradiation. The structures of the synthesized compound was established by spectroscopic (FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, EI-MS) and elemental analyses. In addition, spectroscopic and physicochemical parameters, including electronic absorption, excitation coefficient, Stokes shift, oscillator strength, transition dipole moment and fluorescence quantum yield were investigated in order to explore the analytical potential of synthesized compound. TTQC dye undergoes solubilization in different micelles and may be used as a probe to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CTAB and SDS.

  18. Development of an auto-phase separable and reusable graphene oxide-potato starch based cross-linked bio-composite adsorbent for removal of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Ghorai, Soumitra; Rana, Dipak; Roy, Indranil; Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; De, Sriparna; Ghosh, Tapas Kumar; Sadhukhan, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2018-05-15

    In this work, we report the development of a cross-linked bio-composite consisting of graphene oxide, potato starch, cross-linker glutaraldehyde and its application to adsorption of the industrial dye, methylene blue, from aqueous solution. The inexpensiveness, non-hazardous nature and easy bio-degradability are the major reasons for the selection of starch material as one of the components of the bio-composite. The bio-composite has been characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, particle size and zeta potential analysis. The FTIR analysis reveals the nature of the binding sites and surface morphology of the bio-composite can be understood through SEM. The auto-phase separability of the adsorbent i.e., the precipitation of the adsorbent without any mechanical means is another factor which makes this particular material very attractive as an adsorbent. Parameters like adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature, rotation speed and salt concentration have been varied to find out the suitable dye adsorption conditions. Furthermore, the time dependence of adsorption process has been analyzed using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetics. The adsorption isotherms have been constructed to suggest convincing mechanistic pathway for this adsorption process. Finally, desorption studies have been successfully performed in 3 cycles, establishing the reusability of the material, which should allow the adsorbent to be economically promising for practical application in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of Direct N Blue-106 from artificial textile dye effluent using activated carbon from orange peel: adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Azza; El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Sikaily, Amany; Abdelwahab, Ola

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to suggest an efficient process, which does not require a huge investment for the removal of direct dye from wastewater. Activated carbon developed from agricultural waste material was characterized and utilized for the removal of Direct Navy Blue 106 (DNB-106) from wastewater. Systematic studies on DNB-106 adsorption equilibrium and kinetics by low-cost activated carbons were carried out. Adsorption studies were carried out at different initial concentrations of DNB-106 (50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 mg l(-1)), contact time (5-180 min), pH (2.0, 3.0, 4.7, 6.3, 7.2, 8.0, 10.3 and 12.7) and sorbent doses (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 g l(-1)). Both Langmuir and Freundlich models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably (R(2)>97). The maximum adsorption capacity was 107.53 mg g(-1) for 150 mg l(-1) of DNB-106 concentration and 2 g l(-1) carbon concentration. Various mechanisms were established for DNB-106 adsorption on developed adsorbents. The kinetic studies were conducted to delineate the effect of initial dye concentration, contact time and solid to liquid concentration. The developed carbon might be successfully used for the removal of DNB-106 from liquid industrial wastes.

  20. Green Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by an Alginate Mediated Ion-Exchange Process and a case study for Photocatalysis of Methylene Blue Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keong, Choo Cheng; Sunitha Vivek, Yamini; Salamatinia, Babak; Amini Horri, Bahman

    2017-04-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was prepared via extrusion-dripping method through an ion exchange mediated process using sodium alginate. The samples were synthesized at 500 °C and 600 °C to study the effect of calcination temperature. The morphology, microstructure and optical activity of the calcined ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed by TGA, FESEM and XRD. It was found that ZnO nanoparticles synthesized at 600 °C was of higher purity with high crystallinity. To enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of zinc oxide, ZnO/NCC films were synthesized at varying ZnO loading fractions of 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt% and 25 wt% and were evaluated by photodegradation of Methylene blue dye and the highest dye percentage removal is found to be 96% which is obtained at ZnO loadings of 25 wt%. The usage of ion-exchange process has shown promising results in producing ZnO of desirable characteristics.

  1. Competitive effects of humic acid and wastewater on adsorption of Methylene Blue dye by activated carbon and non-imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Murray, Audrey; Örmeci, Banu

    2018-04-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM), present in natural waters and wastewater, decreases adsorption of micropollutants, increasing treatment costs. This research investigated mechanisms of competition for non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) and activated carbon with humic acid and wastewater. Three different types of activated carbons (Norit PAC 200, Darco KB-M, and Darco S-51) were used for comparison with the NIP. The lower surface area and micropore to mesopore ratio of the NIP led to decreased adsorption capacity in comparison to the activated carbons. In addition, experiments were conducted for single-solute adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) dye, simultaneous adsorption with humic acid and wastewater, and pre-loading with humic acid and wastewater followed by adsorption of MB dye using NIP and Norit PAC 200. Both the NIP and PAC 200 showed significant decreases of 27% for NIP (p=0.087) and 29% for PAC 200 (p=0.096) during simultaneous exposure to humic acid and MB dye. There was no corresponding decrease for NIP or PAC 200 pre-loaded with humic acid and then exposed to MB. In fact, for PAC 200, the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon increased when it was pre-loaded with humic acid by 39% (p=0.0005). For wastewater, the NIP showed no significant increase or decrease in adsorption capacity during either simultaneous exposure or pre-loading. The adsorption capacity of PAC 200 increased by 40% (p=0.001) for simultaneous exposure to wastewater and MB. Pre-loading with wastewater had no effect on MB adsorption by PAC 200. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Treatability study of the effluent containing reactive blue 21 dye by ozonation and the mass transfer study of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velpula, Priyadarshini; Ghuge, Santosh; Saroha, Anil K.

    2018-04-01

    Ozonation is a chemical treatment process in which ozone reacts with the pollutants present in the effluent by infusion of ozone into the effluent. This study includes the effect of various parameters such as inlet ozone dose, pH of solution and initial concentration of dye on decolorization of dye in terms CRE. The maximum CRE of 98.62% with the reaction rate constant of 0.26 min-1 is achieved in 18 minutes of reaction time at inlet ozone dose of 11.5 g/m3, solution pH of 11 and 30 mg/L of initial concentration of dye. The presence of radical scavenger (Tertiary Butyl Alcohol) suppressed the CRE from 98.62% to 95.4% at high pH values indicates that the indirect mechanism dominates due to the presence of hydroxyl radicals which are formed by the decomposition of ozone. The diffusive and convective mass transfer coefficients of ozone are calculated as 1.78 × 10-5 cm2/sec and 0.075 min-1. It is observed that the fraction of resistance offered by liquid is very much high compared to gas phase indicates that the ozonation is a liquid phase mass transfer controlled operation.

  3. Sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue and vesuvine dyes in the presence of blue light active photocatalyst of Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF: Central composite optimization and synergistic effect study.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, S; Rahimi, M R; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K

    2016-09-01

    An efficient simultaneous sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue (TB) and vesuvine (VS) using Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF as a novel visible light active photocatalyst was carried out successfully in a continuous flow-loop reactor equipped to blue LED light. Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF with activation ability under blue light illumination was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The effect of operational parameters such as the initial TB and VS concentration (5-45mg/L), flow rate (30-110mL/min), irradiation and sonication time (10-30min), pH (3-11) and photocatalyst dosage (0.15-0.35g/L) has been investigated and optimized using central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF). Maximum sonophotodegradation percentage (98.44% and 99.36% for TB and VS, respectively) was found at optimum condition set as: 25mg/L of each dye, 70mL/min of solution flow rate, 25min of irradiation and sonication time, pH 6 and 0.25g/L of photocatalyst dosage. At optimum conditions, synergistic index value was obtained 2.53 that indicated the hybrid systems including ultrasound irradiation and photocatalysis have higher efficiency compared with sum of the individual processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-10-01

    This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

  5. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-06-01

    This study used novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecules, namely BPVPDA, an organic fluorescence color thin film using BPVPDA exhibit deep blue fluorine with CIE coordinates of (0.13,0.16). The developed original Organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness, in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses organic dye dopent in limpid photo resist. With this technology , the following characteristics can be obtained: (1) high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and (2) improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescence thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD and OLED.

  6. Synthesis of zeolite/nickel ferrite/sodium alginate bionanocomposite via a co-precipitation technique for efficient removal of water-soluble methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Mahsa; Javanbakht, Vahid; Esmaili, Javad

    2018-05-05

    In this study, we sought to synthesize magnetic nanocomposite of zeolite/nickel ferrite through co-precipitation method and modify its surface by sodium alginate to enhance its methylene blue adsorption capacity and to prevent its oxidation. Nanocomposite characteristics were investigated by SEM, VSM, XRD and FTIR analyses. The results indicate that nanocomposite synthesis and modification has been completely successful. Adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics, and isotherms were examined and parameters were optimized by Minitab software using experimental design method, response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design. The highest capacity of methylene blue adsorption from the aqueous solution obtained at optimal pH of 5, the initial dye concentration of 10 mg/L and an adsorbent amount of 0.03 g was about 54.05 mg/g. Analyzing kinetic data of adsorption experiments confirmed that adsorption process complies with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Assessing equilibrium isotherm data at different temperatures showed that these data are in good agreement with Langmuir isotherm model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A simple way to prepare Au@polypyrrole/Fe3O4 hollow capsules with high stability and their application in catalytic reduction of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Tongjie; Cui, Tieyu; Wang, Hao; Xu, Linxu; Cui, Fang; Wu, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Metal nanoparticles are promising catalysts for dye degradation in treating wastewater despite the challenges of recycling and stability. In this study, we have introduced a simple way to prepare Au@polypyrrole (PPy)/Fe3O4 catalysts with Au nanoparticles embedded in a PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell. The PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell used as a support was constructed in one-step, which not only dramatically simplified the preparation process, but also easily controlled the magnetic properties of the catalysts through adjusting the dosage of FeCl2.4H2O. The component Au nanoparticles could catalyze the reduction of methylene blue dye with NaBH4 as a reducing agent and the reaction rate constant was calculated through the pseudo-first-order reaction equation. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles permitted quick recycling of the catalysts with a magnet due to their room-temperature superparamagnetic properties; therefore, the catalysts exhibited good reusability. In addition to catalytic activity and reusability, stability is also an important property for catalysts. Because both Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were wrapped in the PPy shell, compared with precursor polystyrene/Au composites and bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the stability of Au@PPy/Fe3O4 hollow capsules was greatly enhanced. Since the current method is simple and flexible to create recyclable catalysts with high stability, it would promote the practicability of metal nanoparticle catalysts in industrial polluted water treatment.Metal nanoparticles are promising catalysts for dye degradation in treating wastewater despite the challenges of recycling and stability. In this study, we have introduced a simple way to prepare Au@polypyrrole (PPy)/Fe3O4 catalysts with Au nanoparticles embedded in a PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell. The PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell used as a support was constructed in one-step, which not only dramatically simplified the preparation process, but also easily controlled the magnetic properties of the catalysts through adjusting

  8. Hydrothermally synthesized flower like MoS2 microsphere: A highly efficient adsorbent for methylene blue dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Jnanranjan; Tudu, Bharati

    2018-05-01

    Herein, a flower like MoS2 (M1) microsphere assembled by layered porous nanosheet was successfully prepared by facile hydrothermal synthesis procedure. The structural, chemical and morphological characterizations for the as synthesized sample (M1) were carried out by powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron microscope (FESEM) respectively and spectroscopic characterization was performed by UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the product was evaluated through photocatalytic degradation of Methylene Blue under visible light irradiation. The results indicate that layered MoS2structures possess significant adsorption ability, which may be useful for further research and practical applications of the layered MoS2 adsorbent in wastewater treatment.

  9. Adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on titanate nanotube powders prepared by hydrothermal process using metal Ti particles as a precursor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Keshui; Xiao, Xin; Cao, Xiufang; Hao, Rong; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiaojing; Nan, Junmin

    2011-08-30

    Titanate nanotube powders (TNTPs) with the twofold removal ability, i.e. adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation, are synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using metal Ti particles as a precursor in the concentrated alkaline solution, and their morphology, structure, adsorptive and photocatalytic properties are investigated. Under hydrothermal conditions, the titanate nanotubes (TNTs) with pore diameter of 3-4nm are produced on the surface of metal Ti particles, and stacked together to form three-dimensional (3D) network with porous structure. The TNTPs synthesized in the autoclave at 130°C for 24h exhibits a maximum adsorption capability of about 197mg g(-1) in the neutral methylene blue (MB) solution (40mg L(-1)) within 90min, the adsorption process can be described by pseudo second-order kinetics model. Especially, in comparison with the adsorptive and the photocatalytic processes are performed in turn, about 50min can be saved through synchronously utilizing the double removal ability of TNTPs when the removal ratio of MB approaches 95% in MB solution (40mg L(-1)) at a solid-liquid (S/L) ratio of 1:8 under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. These 3D TNTPs with the twofold removal properties and easier separation ability for recycling use show promising prospect for the treatment of dye pollutants from wastewaters in future industrial application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Precursors on the Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles Under Microwave for Photocatalytic Activity Towards Methylene Blue and Rhodamine B Dyes.

    PubMed

    Sanjini, N S; Winston, B; Velmathi, S

    2017-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by microwave assisted precipitation method. Different precursors like copper chloride, copper nitrate and copper sulphate were used for synthesis of CuO nanoparticles with different shape, size and catalytic activity. Sodium hydroxide acts as a capping agent and ethanol as solvent for the synthesis. The XRD study was conducted to confirm the single phase monoclinic structure of as-synthesized and annealed CuO nano particles. The morphology of the as-synthesized and annealed CuO samples was analyzed by high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was done for all the synthesized CuO nanoparticles for functional group characterization. The wide band gap and photocatalytic activity were studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) dyes in aqueous solution were investigated under UV light (254 nm). In all the cases annealed samples showed good catalytic activity compared to as-synthesized CuO nanoparticles. The CuO nanoparticles from CuCl2 precursor act as excellent photocatalyst for both MB and RhB compared to CuNO₃ and CuSO₄.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and bromophenol blue dyes in water using sol-gel synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanalakshmi, J.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2017-09-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel method using titanium tetra isopropoxide as a precursor. The structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), a high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman analysis, Photoluminescence (PL) and impedance spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman spectra revealed that the synthesized samples are in pure anatase phase with an average crystallite size of 18 nm. Photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated for the degradation of 10 ppm methyl orange (MO) and bromophenol blue (BPB) dye using 10 mg of catalyst. Anatase TiO2 exhibited the removal of 67.12% and 85.51% of MO and BPB, respectively, within 240 min. The photocatalytic degradation process is explained using pseudo second order kinetics and fits well with the higher correlation coefficient.

  12. Treatment of dye wastewater with permanganate oxidation and in situ formed manganese dioxides adsorption: cation blue as model pollutant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui; Zhang, Ran

    2010-04-15

    This study investigated the process of potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) oxidation and in situ formed hydrous manganese dioxides (deltaMnO(2)) (i.e., KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption) for the treatment of dye wastewater. The effectiveness of decolorization, removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and increasing biodegradable oxygen demand (BOD) were compared among these processes of KMnO(4) oxidation, deltaMnO(2) adsorption, and KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption. DeltaMnO(2) adsorption contributed to the maximum DOC removal of 65.0%, but exhibited limited capabilities of decolorizing and increasing biodegradability. KMnO(4) oxidation alone at pH 0.5 showed satisfactory decrease of UV-vis absorption peaks, and the maximum BOD(5)/DOC value of 1.67 was achieved. Unfortunately, the DOC removal was as low as 27.4%. Additionally, the great amount of acid for pH adjustment and the much too low pH levels limited its application in practice. KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption at pH 2.0 was the best strategy prior to biological process, in balancing the objectives of decolorization, DOC removal, and BOD increase. The optimum ratio of KMnO(4) dosage to X-GRL concentration (R(KMnO(4)/X-GRL)) was determined to be 2.5, at which KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption contributed to the maximal DOC removal of 53.4%. Additionally, the optimum pH for X-GRL treatment was observed to be near 3.0. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Crystal Structure and Photocatalytic Activity of Al-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers for Methylene Blue Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deuk Yong; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Cho, Nam-Ihn

    2016-05-01

    Al-TiO2 nanofibers were prepared using a sol-gel derived electrospinning by varying the Al/Ti molar ratio from 0 to 0.73 to investigate the effect of Al doping on the crystal structure and the photocatalytic activity of Al-TiO2 for methylene blue (MB) degradation. XRD results indicated that as the Al/Ti molar ratio rose, crystal structure of Al-TiO2 was changed from anatase/rutile (undoped), anatase (0.07-0.18), to amorphous phase (0.38-0.73), which was confirmed by XPS and Raman analysis. The degradation kinetic constant increased from 7.3 x 10(-4) min(-1) to 4.5 x 10(-3) min(-1) with the increase of Al/Ti molar ratios from 0 to 0.38, but decreased to 3.4 x 10(-3) min(-1) when the Al/Ti molar ratio reached 0.73. The Al-TiO2 catalyst doped with 0.38 Al/Ti molar ratio demonstrated the best MB degradation. Experimental results indicated that the Al doping in Al-TiO2 was mainly attributed to the crystal structure of TiO2 and the photocatalytic degradation of MB.

  14. Antiplasmodial activities of dyes against Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stages: Contrasted uptakes of triarylmethanes Brilliant green, Green S (E142), and Patent Blue V (E131) by erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Leba, Louis-Jérôme; Popovici, Jean; Estevez, Yannick; Pelleau, Stéphane; Legrand, Eric; Musset, Lise; Duplais, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falciparum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P. falciparum including chloroquine-resistant isolates. Herein we have studied the antimalarial activities of dyes with different scaffold and we report that the triarylmethane dye (TRAM) Brilliant green inhibits the growth of asexual stages (IC 50  ≤ 2 μM) and has exflagellation-blocking activity (IC 50  ≤ 800 nM) against P. falciparum reference strains (3D7, 7G8) and chloroquine-resistant clinical isolate (Q206). In a second step we have investigated the antiplasmodial activities of two polysulfonated triarylmethane food dyes. Green S (E142) is weakly active against P. falciparum asexual stage (IC 50 ≃ 17 μM) whereas Patent Blue V (E131) is inactive in both antimalarial assays. By applying liquid chromatography techniques for the culture supernatant analysis after cell washings and lysis, we report the detection of Brilliant green in erythrocytes, the selective uptake of Green S (E142) by infected erythrocytes, whereas Patent Blue V (E131) could not be detected within non-infected and 3D7-infected erythrocytes. Overall, our results suggest that two polysulfonated food dyes might display different affinity with transporters or channels on infected RBC membrane. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Subserosal uterine injection of blue dye for the identification of the sentinel node in patients with endometrial cancer: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Biliatis, Ioannis; Thomakos, Nikolaos; Koutroumpa, Ioanna; Haidopoulos, Dimitris; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Antsaklis, Aris; Vlachos, George; Akrivos, Nikolaos; Rodolakis, Alexandros

    2017-09-01

    To define the detection rate, sensitivity, and negative predictive value (NPV) of the sentinel node technique in patients with endometrial cancer. Patients with endometrial cancer after informed consent underwent subserosal injection of blue dye during hysterectomy in a tertiary gynae/oncology department between 2010 and 2014. The procedure was performed in all cases by the same team including two gynae/oncologist consultants and one trainee. All relevant perioperative clinicopathological characteristics of the population were recorded prospectively. The identified sentinel nodes were removed separately and a completion bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy followed in all cases. Simple statistics were used to calculate the sensitivity and NPV of the method on per patient basis. Fifty-four patients were included in this study. At least one sentinel node was mapped in 46 patients yielding a detection rate of 85.2%. Bilateral detection of sentinel nodes was accomplished in only 31 patients (57.4%). The mean number of sentinel nodes was 2.6 per patient and the commonest site of identification was the external iliac artery and vein area (66%). Six patients (11%) had a positive lymph node, and in five of them, this was the sentinel one yielding a sensitivity of 83.3% and an NPV of 97.5%. The overall detection rate improved significantly after the first 15 cases; however, this was not the case for the bilateral detection rate. Our study is in accordance with previous studies of sentinel node in endometrial cancer and further demonstrates and enhances the confidence in the technique. In the current era of an ongoing debate on whether a systematic lymphadenectomy in patients with endometrial cancer is still necessary, we believe that the sentinel node is an acceptable alternative and should be applied routinely in tertiary centres following a strict algorithm.

  16. Blue copper model complexes with distorted tetragonal geometry acting as effective electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Shigeki; Wada, Yuji; Yanagida, Shozo; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2005-07-06

    The electron self-exchange rate constants of blue copper model complexes, [(-)-sparteine-N,N'](maleonitriledithiolato-S,S')copper ([Cu(SP)(mmt)])(0/)(-), bis(2,9-dimethy-1,10-phenanthroline)copper ([Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+)), and bis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper ([Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+)) have been determined from the rate constants of electron transfer from a homologous series of ferrocene derivatives to the copper(II) complexes in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer. The resulting electron self-exchange rate constant increases in the order: [Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+) < [Cu(SP)(mmt)](0/)(-) < [Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+), in agreement with the order of the smaller structural change between the copper(II) and copper(I) complexes due to the distorted tetragonal geometry. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were constructed using the copper complexes as redox couples to compare the photoelectrochemical responses with those using the conventional I(3)(-)/I(-) couple. The light energy conversion efficiency (eta) values under illumination of simulated solar light irradiation (100 mW/cm(2)) of DSSCs using [Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+), [Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+), and [Cu(SP)(mmt)](0/)(-) were recorded as 0.1%, 1.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. The maximum eta value (2.2%) was obtained for a DSSC using the [Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+) redox couple under the light irradiation of 20 mW/cm(2) intensity, where a higher open-circuit voltage of the cell was attained as compared to that of the conventional I(3)(-)/I(-) couple.

  17. Limited effectiveness of patent blue dye in addition to isotope scanning for identification of sentinel lymph nodes: Cross-sectional real-life study in 1024 breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Philippe; Merlin, Jean-Louis; Leufflen, Lea; Salleron, Julia; Harlé, Alexandre; Olivier, Pierre; Marchal, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Although morbidity is reduced when sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is performed with dual isotopic and blue dye identification, the effectiveness of adding blue dye to radioisotope remains debated because side effects including anaphylactic reactions. Using data from a prospectively maintained database, 1884 lymph node-negative breast cancer patients who underwent partial mastectomy with SLN mapping by a dual-tracer using patent blue dye (PBD) and radioisotope were retrospectively studied between January 2000 and July 2013. Patients with tumors <3 cm and with >1 node detected by one of the two techniques (N = 1024) were included in this real-life cross-sectional study. Among the 1024 patients, 274 had positive SLN detected by isotopic and/or PBD staining. Only 4 patients having no detectable radioactivity in the axilla had SLN identified only by PBD staining (blue-only) while 26 patients had SLN only identified by isotopic detection (hot-only) illustrating failure rates of 9.5% (26/274) and 1.5% (4/274), respectively. Among these four patients, two had negative lymphoscintigraphy. Therefore, the contribution of PBD to metastatic nodes identification was relevant for only 2/274 patients (0.8%). Three patients (0.3%) had an allergic reaction with PBD, and anaphylactic shock occurred in two cases (0.2%). The added-value of PBD to reduce the false-negative rate of SLN mapping is only limited to the rare cases in which no radioactivity is detectable in the axilla (<1%). When a radioisotope mapping agent is available, the use of PBD should be avoided, because it can induce anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Textile dye decolorization using cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Amit; Madamwar, Datta

    2005-03-01

    Cyanobacterial cultures isolated from sites polluted by industrial textile effluents were screened for their ability to decolorize cyclic azo dyes. Gloeocapsa pleurocapsoides and Phormidium ceylanicum decolorized Acid Red 97 and FF Sky Blue dyes by more than 80% after 26 days. Chroococcus minutus was the only culture which decolorized Amido Black 10B (55%). Chlorophyll a synthesis in all cultures was strongly inhibited by the dyes. Visible spectroscopy and TLC confirmed that color removal was due to degradation of the dyes.

  19. Mixed titanium, silicon, and aluminum oxide nanostructures as novel adsorbent for removal of rhodamine 6G and methylene blue as cationic dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pal, Umapada; Sandoval, Alberto; Madrid, Sergio Isaac Uribe; Corro, Grisel; Sharma, Vivek; Mohanty, Paritosh

    2016-11-01

    Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing Ti, Si, and Al of 8-15 nm size range were synthesized using a combined sol-gel - hydrothermal method. Effects of composition on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of the nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), microRaman spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Dye removal abilities of the nanoparticles from aqueous solutions were tested for different cationic dyes. While all the mixed oxide nanoparticles revealed high and fast adsorption of cationic dyes, the particles containing Ti and Si turned out to be the best. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption behavior of the adsorbate - adsorbent systems could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Estimated thermodynamic parameters revealed the adsorption process is spontaneous, driven mainly by the electrostatic force between the cationic dye molecules and negative charge at nanoparticle surface. Highest dye adsorption capacity (162.96 mg MB/g) of the mixed oxide nanostructures containing Ti and Si is associated to their high specific surface area, and the presence of surface Si-O(δ-) groups, in addition to the hydroxyl groups of amorphous titania. Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing 75% Ti and 25% Si seen to be the most efficient adsorbents for removing cationic dye molecules from wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles: An easily recoverable effective photo-catalyst for the degradation of rose bengal and methylene blue dyes in the waste-water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Adhikary, Bibhutosh, E-mail: bibhutoshadhikary@yahoo.in

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs from a single-source precursor and characterized by XRD, TEM, UV–vis spectra. • The NPs were tested as effective photocatalyst toward degradation of RB and MB dyes. • The possible pathway of the photocatalytic decomposition process has been discussed. • The active species, OH·, was detected by TA photoluminescence probing techniques. - Abstract: γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from a single-source precursor complex [Fe{sub 3}O(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COO){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]NO{sub 3} by a simple thermal decomposition process and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)more » and UV–vis spectroscopic techniques. The NPs were highly pure and well crystallized having hexagonal morphology with an average particle size of 35 nm. The prepared γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite) NPs show effective photo-catalytic activity toward the degradation of rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) dyes under visible light irradiation and can easily be recoverable in the presence of magnetic field for successive re-uses. The possible photo-catalytic decomposition mechanism is discussed through the detection of hydroxyl radical (OH·) by terephthalic acid photo-luminescence probing technique.« less

  1. Fast microwave-assisted green synthesis of xanthan gum grafted acrylic acid for enhanced methylene blue dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Makhado, Edwin; Pandey, Sadanand; Nomngongo, Philiswa N; Ramontja, James

    2017-11-15

    In the present project, graft polymerization was employed to synthesis a novel adsorbent using acrylic acid (AA) and xanthan gum (XG) for cationic methylene dye (MB + ) removal from aqueous solution. The XG was rapidly grafted with acrylic acid (CH 2 =CHCOOH) under microwave heating. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were used to verify the adsorbent formed under optimized reaction conditions. Optimum reaction conditions [AA (0.4M), APS (0.05M), XG (2gL -1 ), MW power (100%), MW time (80s)] offer maximum %G and %GE of 484 and 78.3, respectively. The removal ratio of adsorbent to MB + reached to 92.8% at 100mgL -1 . Equilibrium and kinetic adsorptions of dyes were better explained by the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic model respectively. The results demonstrate xanthan gum grafted polyacrylic acid (mw XG-g-PAA) absorbent had the universality for removal of dyes through the chemical adsorption mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of Paper, Chemical Agent Detector, 3-Way Liquid Containing Non-Mutagenic Dyes. 2. Replacement of the Blue Indicator Dye Ethyl-bis-(2,4- Dinitrophenyl Acetate (EDA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Reaction MeOH, A (11) 40 7 - CH2 N2 No Reaction 0 0 cresol red (22) 8 Q12 N2 Complex Mixture bromoophenol blue (23) -I...of other analogues, e.g. cresol and thymolghthalein alkyl esters were not as succesfull since the oxidation step at the end was !ound to be more...this compound has both ortho positions blocked so the condensation reaction could occur only at the para position. Nevertheless, as the investigation

  3. Comparative performance of a genetically-encoded voltage indicator and a blue voltage sensitive dye for large scale cortical voltage imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mutoh, Hiroki; Mishina, Yukiko; Gallero-Salas, Yasir; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Traditional small molecule voltage sensitive dye indicators have been a powerful tool for monitoring large scale dynamics of neuronal activities but have several limitations including the lack of cell class specific targeting, invasiveness and difficulties in conducting longitudinal studies. Recent advances in the development of genetically-encoded voltage indicators have successfully overcome these limitations. Genetically-encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) provide sufficient sensitivity to map cortical representations of sensory information and spontaneous network activities across cortical areas and different brain states. In this study, we directly compared the performance of a prototypic GEVI, VSFP2.3, with that of a widely used small molecule voltage sensitive dye (VSD), RH1691, in terms of their ability to resolve mesoscopic scale cortical population responses. We used three synchronized CCD cameras to simultaneously record the dual emission ratiometric fluorescence signal from VSFP2.3 and RH1691 fluorescence. The results show that VSFP2.3 offers more stable and less invasive recording conditions, while the signal-to-noise level and the response dynamics to sensory inputs are comparable to RH1691 recordings. PMID:25964738

  4. Design and applications of biomimetic anthraquinone dyes. Purification of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase with immobilised terminal ring analogues of C.I. reactive blue 2.

    PubMed

    Lindner, N M; Jeffcoat, R; Lowe, C R

    1989-06-28

    A 330-fold one-step purification of alkaline phosphatase from a crude calf intestinal extract has been achieved using specific elution with inorganic phosphate (5 mM) from a purpose designed adsorbent comprising a terminal ring phosphonate analogue of C.I. Reactive Blue 2 coupled to Sepharose CL-6B-200. The resulting alkaline phosphatase preparation displayed a specific activity in excess of 1000 U/mg and was of equivalent purity to commercial "high purity" preparations as deduced by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and specific activity comparisons.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of the diazo dye naphthol blue black in water using MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 nanocomposites under simulated solar light.

    PubMed

    Mamba, Gcina; Mbianda, Xavier Yangkou; Mishra, Ajay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    A simple sol-gel method was employed to prepare gadolinium, nitrogen and sulphur tridoped titania decorated on oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2), using titanium (IV) butoxide and thiourea as titanium and nitrogen and sulphur source, respectively. Samples of varying gadolinium loadings (0.2%, 0.6%, 1.0% and 3.0% Gd3+) relative to titania were prepared to investigate the effect of gadolinium loading and the amounts of carbon nanotubes, nitrogen and sulphur were kept constant for all the samples. Furthermore, the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated for the degradation of naphthol blue black (NBB) in water under simulated solar light irradiation. Higher degradation efficiency (95.7%) was recorded for the MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) nanocomposites. The higher photocatalytic activity is attributed to the combined effect of improved visible light absorption and charge separation due to the synergistic effect of Gd, MWCNTs, N, S and TiO2. Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis revealed a higher degree of complete mineralisation of naphthol blue black (78.0% TOC removal) which minimises the possible formation of toxic degradation by-products such as the aromatic amines. The MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) was fairly stable and could be re-used for five times, reaching a maximum degradation efficiency of 91.8% after the five cycles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. From Conventional Radiotracer Tc-99(m) with Blue Dye to Indocyanine Green Fluorescence: A Comparison of Methods Towards Optimization of Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in Early Stage Cervical Cancer for a Laparoscopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Buda, Alessandro; Papadia, Andrea; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Vizza, Enrico; Ghezzi, Fabio; De Ponti, Elena; Lissoni, Andrea Alberto; Imboden, Sara; Diestro, Maria Dolores; Verri, Debora; Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Bussi, Beatrice; Di Martino, Giampaolo; de la Noval, Begoña Diaz; Mueller, Michael; Crivellaro, Cinzia

    2016-09-01

    The credibility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is becoming increasingly more established in cervical cancer. We aimed to assess the sensitivity of SLN biopsy in terms of detection rate and bilateral mapping in women with cervical cancer by comparing technetium-99 radiocolloid (Tc-99(m)) and blue dye (BD) versus fluorescence mapping with indocyanine green (ICG). Data of patients with cervical cancer stage 1A2 to 1B1 from 5 European institutions were retrospectively reviewed. All centers used a laparoscopic approach with the same intracervical dye injection. Detection rate and bilateral mapping of ICG were compared, respectively, with results obtained by standard Tc-99(m) with BD. Overall, 76 (53 %) of 144 of women underwent preoperative SLN mapping with radiotracer and intraoperative BD, whereas 68 of (47 %) 144 patients underwent mapping using intraoperative ICG. The detection rate of SLN mapping was 96 % and 100 % for Tc-99(m) with BD and ICG, respectively. Bilateral mapping was achieved in 98.5 % for ICG and 76.3 % for Tc-99(m) with BD; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The fluorescence SLN mapping with ICG achieved a significantly higher detection rate and bilateral mapping compared to standard radiocolloid and BD technique in women with early stage cervical cancer. Nodal staging with an intracervical injection of ICG is accurate, safe, and reproducible in patients with cervical cancer. Before replacing lymphadenectomy completely, the additional value of fluorescence SLN mapping on both perioperative morbidity and survival should be explored and confirmed by ongoing controlled trials.

  7. Corneal edema and permanent blue discoloration of a silicone intraocular lens by methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Scott; Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    To report a silicone intraocular lens (IOL) stained blue by inadvertent intraoperative use of methylene blue instead of trypan blue and the results of experimental staining of various lens materials with different concentrations of the same dye. A "blue dye" was used to enhance visualization during capsulorhexis in a patient undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of a three-piece silicone lens. Postoperatively, the patient presented with corneal edema and a discolored IOL. Various IOL materials were experimentally stained using methylene blue. Sixteen lenses (4 silicone, 4 hydrophobic acrylic, 4 hydrophilic acrylic, and 4 polymethylmethacrylate) were immersed in 0.5 mL of methylene blue at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%. These lenses were grossly and microscopically evaluated for discoloration 6 and 24 hours after immersion. The corneal edema resolved within 1 month after the initial surgical procedure. After explantation, gross and microscopic analyses of the explanted silicone lens revealed that its surface and internal substance had been permanently stained blue. In the experimental study, all of the lenses except the polymethylmethacrylate lenses were permanently stained by methylene blue. The hydrophilic acrylic lenses showed the most intense blue staining in all dye concentrations. This is the first clinicopathological report of IOL discoloration due to intraocular use of methylene blue. This and other tissue dyes may be commonly found among surgical supplies in the operating room and due diligence is necessary to avoid mistaking these dyes for those commonly used during ocular surgery.

  8. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  9. Decolorization of complex dyes and textile effluent by extracellular enzymes of Cyathus bulleri cultivated on agro-residues/domestic wastes and proposed pathway of degradation of Kiton blue A and reactive orange 16.

    PubMed

    Vats, Arpita; Mishra, Saroj

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the white-rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was cultivated on low-cost agro-residues, namely wheat bran (WB), wheat straw (WS), and domestic waste orange peel (OP) for production of ligninolytic enzymes. Of the three substrates, WB and OP served as good materials for the production of laccase with no requirement of additional carbon or nitrogen source. Specific laccase activity of 94.4 U mg -1 extracellular protein and 21.01 U mg -1 protein was obtained on WB and OP, respectively. Maximum decolorization rate of 13.6 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive black 5 and 22.68 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive orange 16 (RO) was obtained with the WB culture filtrate, and 11.7 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive violet 5 was observed with OP culture filtrate. Importantly, Kiton blue A (KB), reported not to be amenable to enzymatic degradation, was degraded by culture filtrate borne activities. Products of degradation of KB and RO were identified by mass spectrometry, and a pathway of degradation proposed. WB-grown culture filtrate decolorized and detoxified real and simulated textile effluents by about 40%. The study highlights the use of inexpensive materials for the production of enzymes effective on dyes and effluents.

  10. Synthesis and photocatalytic degradation study of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation by Fe1-xBixVO4 solid solutions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Ganesh; Reddy, V. R.; Mal, Priyanath; Das, Pradip; Turpu, G. R.

    2018-05-01

    The novel hetero-structures Fe1-xBixVO4 solid solutions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) with the two dissimilar end member of FeVO4 - BiVO4, were successfully synthesized by the standard solid state reaction method. The structural and chemical properties of as prepared photo-catalyst samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy techniques. It is confirmed from the results of XRD, Raman and FT-IR that FeVO4 and BiVO4 are in triclinic (space group P-1 (2)) and monoclinic (space group I2/b (15)) phases respectively. The Bi incorporation into Fe site of FeVO4 emerges as hetero-structures of both the end members of the solid solutions. In addition, the photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under visible light irradiation was carried out through UV-visible spectroscopy measurement of photo-catalysts FeVO4, BiVO4 and mixed phases of both photo-catalyst. The results indicate that under visible light irradiation the photocatalytic activity of mixed phases were very effective and higher than the both single phases of the solid solutions. The composition x= 0.25 exhibits an excellent photocatalytic property for the degradation of MB solution under visible light irradiation rather than other.

  11. Spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) nano-photocatalysts: Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmapriya, G.; Manikandan, A.; Krishnasamy, V.; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Antony, S. Arul

    2016-09-01

    Spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.0 to 1.0) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using metal nitrates as raw materials and glycine as the fuel. The structural, morphological and opto-magnetic properties of the spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 ferrites were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Powder XRD, and EDX analysis was confirmed the formation of pure phase of spinel ferrites. HR-SEM and HR-TEM analysis was confirmed the formation of sphere like-particle morphology of the samples with smaller agglomeration. VSM analysis clearly showed the superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic nature of the samples. The Ms value is 3.851 emu/g for undoped ZnFe2O4 sample and it increased with increase in Ni content. Photo-catalytic degradation (PCD) of methylene blue (MB) dye using the samples were carried out and observed good PCD results.

  12. Facile one-pot fabrication of nano-Fe3O4/carboxyl-functionalized baker's yeast composites and their application in methylene blue dye adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zongjun; Zhang, Yue; Li, Zhengjie; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Guangtu; Zou, Ping; Chen, Huaping; Zhang, Yunsong

    2017-01-01

    Nano-Fe3O4/carboxyl-functionalized baker's yeast composites (NF/CF-BYs) were prepared for the first time based on the ultrasonic cavitation assisted oxygen implosion method using single Fe2+ as iron source. The series of characterization analysis results showed that the obtained NF/CF-BYs had not only the superparamagnetic properties of nano-Fe3O4, but their surface also had plenty of functional groups (especially carboxyl groups) introduced by strong oxidization. The adsorption properties of NF/CF-BYs for methylene blue (MB) were also evaluated. The results displayed that the uptakes of NF/CF-BYs for MB were higher than that of pristine baker's yeast (P-BYs), and the adsorption process was followed by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity of NF/CF-BYs for MB was estimated to be 141.75 mg g-1 at pH 6. The regeneration efficiency of the obtained NF/CF-BYs was attained to be more than 90%.

  13. Two new Ni(II) supramolecular complexes based on ethyl isonicotinate and ethyl nicotinate for removal of acid blue 92 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Marie, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    Two new luminescent supramolecular complexes (SC); [Ni(EIN)4(NCS)2] SC1 and [Ni2(EN)8(NCS)4] SC2, (EIN = ethyl isonicotinate, EN = ethyl nicotinate), have been synthesized by self-assembly method and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra, PXRD, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Both SC1 and SC2 are monoclinic crystals however, they have different asymmetric units. Ni(II) atoms in both SC are isostructural and have similar hexa-coordinate environment. The structures of SC1 and SC2 consist of parallel polymeric 1D-chains, extended in two and three dimensional supramolecular frameworks by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. SC1 and SC2 are luminescent materials which can be used in applications as molecular sensing systems. SC1 and SC2 were used as heterogeneous catalysts for degradation of acid blue 92 (AB-92) under sun light irradiation. The fluorescence measurements of terephthalic acid technique as a probe molecule were used to determine the •OH radicals. Also the radicals trapping experiments using isopropanol alcohol (IPA) as radical scavenger were discussed. In addition a mechanism of degradation was proposed and discussed.

  14. Suppression of cucurbit scab on cucumber leaves by photodynamic dyes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to test the ability of the photodynamic dyes bengal rose, toluidine blue, and methylene blue, to protect systemically cucumber plants from cucurbit scab. At the stage of one true leaf, water or aqueous solutions of the dyes were applied to the leaf as droplets. When the se...

  15. Ultrasonic-assisted dyeing of Nylon-6 nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Ahmed, Farooq; Khatri, Muzamil; Tanwari, Anwaruddin; Khatri, Zeeshan; Lee, Hoik; Kim, Ick Soo

    2017-11-01

    We first time report ultrasonic dyeing of the Nylon 6 nanofibers with two disperse dyes CI Disperse blue 56 and CI Disperse Red 167:1 by utilising ultrasonic energy during dyeing process. The Nylon 6 nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning and dyed via batchwise method with and without sonication. Results revealed that ultrasonic dyeing produce higher color yield (K/S values) and substantially reduces dyeing time from 60min for conventional dyeing to 30min can be attributed to breakage of dye aggregate, transient cavitation near nanofiber surface and mass transfer within/between nanofibers. Color fastness results exhibited good to very good dye fixation. SEM images exhibit insignificant effect of sonication on morphology of the nanofibers. Our research results demonstrate ultrasonic dyeing as a better dyeing technique for Nylon 6 nanofibers with higher color yield and substantially reduced dyeing time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of some novel Schiff bases and their Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes: A new route for Co3O4 and NiO nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Aly, Hisham M.; Abdelrahman, Ehab A.; Moustafa, Moustafa E.

    2017-09-01

    Six novel Co(II) and Ni(II)-triazole Schiff base complexes have been successfully synthesized by refluxing the prepared triazole Schiff bases with CoCl2·6H2O or NiCl2·6H2O. The Schiff base ligands were prepared through condensation of 3-R-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazole with dibenzoylmethane [Rdbnd H, CH3, and CH2CH3; namely, L1, L2, and L3, respectively]. The prepared Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have been identified using elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment, conductivity, and thermal analysis. On the basis of the conductance results, it was concluded that all the prepared complexes are nonelectrolytes. Interestingly, the prepared Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes were employed as precursors for producing of Co3O4 and NiO nanoparticles, respectively. The produced nanostructures have been identified by XRD, HR-TEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra. The produced nanoparticles revealed good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under UV illumination in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The percent of degradation was estimated to be 55.71% in 420.0 min and 90.43% in 360.0 min for Co3O4 and NiO, respectively. Moreover, the synthesized complexes, nano-sized Co3O4, and NiO products have been examined, employing modified Bauer- Kirby method, for antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus) and antibacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) activities.

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye and magneto-optical studies of magnetically recyclable spinel NixMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.0-1.0) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathubala, G.; Manikandan, A.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramar, P.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel doped spinel manganese ferrite (NixMn1-xFe2O4: x = 0.0-1.0) nanoparticles were prepared successfully by a superficial microwave irradiation technique using urea as the fuel. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was recognized the configuration of single phase spinel structure of NixMn1-xFe2O4. Debye Sherrer's formula was used to calculate the average crystallite size of the samples, which were found in the range of 15-20 nm. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the samples, which showed the particle like-morphology with smaller agglomeration, and it was also confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the elemental composition, which also evidence for the formation of single pure phase. Microwave heating method produced well crystalline nature of the products, which was confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were used to calculate the energy band gap and the observed values are increased slightly from 2.05 eV to 2.44 eV with increasing the Ni-dapant. Magnetic characterization of the samples were analyzed by room temperature vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) technique and the observed magnetization (Ms) values are decreased with increasing Ni content, due to the different magnetic moments of Mn2+ and Ni2+ cations. Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of methylene blue dye was carried out by self designed photo-catalytic reactor. It was observed that PCD efficiency is increased with increase in concentration of Ni and the sample Ni0.6Mn0.4Fe2O4 shows better photocatalytic activity (96.73%) than other samples.

  19. Bichromophoric dyes for wavelength shifting of dye-protein fluoromodules.

    PubMed

    Pham, Ha H; Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Brotherton, Wendy L; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Zanotti, Kimberly J; Waggoner, Alan S; Armitage, Bruce A

    2015-03-28

    Dye-protein fluoromodules consist of fluorogenic dyes and single chain antibody fragments that form brightly fluorescent noncovalent complexes. This report describes two new bichromophoric dyes that extend the range of wavelengths of excitation or emission of existing fluoromodules. In one case, a fluorogenic thiazole orange (TO) was attached to an energy acceptor dye, Cy5. Upon binding to a protein that recognizes TO, red emission due to efficient energy transfer from TO to Cy5 replaces the green emission observed for monochromophoric TO bound to the same protein. Separately, TO was attached to a coumarin that serves as an energy donor. The same green emission is observed for coumarin-TO and TO bound to a protein, but efficient energy transfer allows violet excitation of coumarin-TO, versus longer wavelength, blue excitation of monochromophoric TO. Both bichromophores exhibit low nanomolar KD values for their respective proteins, >95% energy transfer efficiency and high fluorescence quantum yields.

  20. Bichromophoric Dyes for Wavelength Shifting of Dye-Protein Fluoromodules

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Ha H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Brotherton, Wendy L.; Schmidt, Brigitte F.; Zanotti, Kimberly J.; Waggoner, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    Dye-protein fluoromodules consist of fluorogenic dyes and single chain antibody fragments that form brightly fluorescent noncovalent complexes. This report describes two new bichromophoric dyes that extend the range of wavelengths of excitation or emission of existing fluoromodules. In one case, a fluorogenic thiazole orange (TO) was attached to an energy acceptor dye, Cy5. Upon binding to a protein that recognizes TO, red emission due to efficient energy transfer from TO to Cy5 replaces the green emission observed for monochromophoric TO bound to the same protein. Separately, TO was attached to a coumarin that serves as an energy donor. The same green emission is observed for coumarin-TO and TO bound to a protein, but efficient energy transfer allows violet excitation of coumarin-TO, versus longer wavelength, blue excitation of monochromophoric TO. Both bichromophores exhibit low nanomolar KD values for their respective proteins, >95% energy transfer efficiency and high fluorescence quantum yields. PMID:25679477

  1. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  2. Azacoumarin dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

  3. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  4. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation.

  5. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2017-12-09

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  6. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  7. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  8. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  9. Photolysis of Diazo Dye in Aqueous Solutions of Metal Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, N. A.; Evstrop'ev, S. K.; Istomina, O. V.; Kolobkova, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    The photolysis of Chicago Blue Sky diazo dye is studied. It is experimentally shown that the presence of metal nitrates in aqueous solutions changes the photolysis mechanism and sharply increases the photolysis rate.

  10. Intense Excitation Source of Blue-Green Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-15

    plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense uv photons (200-300nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near uv and blue green dye lasers (300-400nm...existing blue green dye laser. On the other hand the dense- plasma focus (DPF) with new optical coupling has been designed and constructed. For the...optimization of the DPF device as the uv pumping light source, the velocity of current sheath and the formation of plasma focus have been measured as

  11. Dye to use with virus challenge for testing barrier materials.

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, C D; Felten, R P; Truscott, W

    1991-01-01

    Can FD&C Blue no. 1 dye photoinactivate bacteriophages phi X174, T7, PRD1, and phi 6 under laboratory lighting conditions? At high levels of light, the dye (500 microM) photoinactivated only phi 6. Thus, this dye can be used at concentrations up to 500 microM with bacteriophages phi X174, T7, and PRD1 to test barrier material integrity. PMID:1872612

  12. The photokilling of bladder carcinoma cells in vitro by phenothiazine dyes.

    PubMed

    Fowler, G J; Rees, R C; Devonshire, R

    1990-09-01

    The potential photodynamic therapy photosensitizers Methylene Blue, Azure C, Methylene Violet, Thionine, Methylene Green, Haematoporphyrin, Nile Blue A, chloroaluminium phthalocyanine and bis-aluminium phthalocyanine were examined for their photoeffects and dark toxicity against a human superficial bladder carcinoma cell-line. By examination of [3H]thymidine uptake into dye-treated cells after irradiation with a copper-vapour pumped dye laser, it was found that Methylene Blue was the most phototoxic and dark toxic of all the dyes tested, suggesting that the dye might be of some use as a topically applied photodrug for use in photodynamic therapy of superficial or early-recurring carcinomas.

  13. What Is Happening when the Blue Bottle Bleaches: An Investigation of the Methylene Blue-Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laurens; Wittkopp, Stacy M.; Painter, Christopher J.; Liegel, Jessica J.; Schreiner, Rodney; Bell, Jerry A.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the Blue Bottle Experiment, a well-known lecture demonstration reaction involving the dye-catalyzed air oxidation of a reducing sugar in alkaline solution, has delineated the sequence of reactions leading to the bleaching of the dye, the regeneration of color, and so forth. Enolization of the sugar is proposed as a key step in…

  14. Comparative performance evaluation of Aspergillus lentulus for dye removal through bioaccumulation and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

    2013-05-01

    Dyes used in various industries are discharged into the environment and pose major environmental concern. In the present study, fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulus was utilized for the treatment of various dyes, dye mixtures and dye containing effluent in dual modes, bioaccumulation (employing growing biomass) and biosorption (employing pre-cultivated biomass). The effect of dye toxicity on the growth of the fungal isolate was studied through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Dye biosorption was studied using first and second-order kinetic models. Effects of factors influencing adsorption and isotherm studies were also conducted. During bioaccumulation, good removal was obtained for anionic dyes (100 mg/l), viz. Acid Navy Blue, Fast Red A and Orange-HF dye (99.4 %, 98.8 % and 98.7 %, respectively) in 48 h. Cationic dyes (10 mg/l), viz. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue, had low removal efficiency (80.3 % [48 h] and 92.7 % [144 h], respectively) as compared to anionic dyes. In addition to this, fungal isolate showed toxicity response towards Methylene Blue by producing larger aggregates of fungal pellets. To overcome the limitations of bioaccumulation, dye removal in biosorption mode was studied. In this mode, significant removal was observed for anionic (96.7-94.3 %) and cationic (35.4-90.9 %) dyes in 24 h. The removal of three anionic dyes and Rhodamine B followed first-order kinetic model whereas removal of Methylene Blue followed second-order kinetic model. Overall, fungal isolate could remove more than 90 % dye from different dye mixtures in bioaccumulation mode and more than 70 % dye in biosorption mode. Moreover, significant color removal from handmade paper unit effluent in bioaccumulation mode (86.4 %) as well as in biosorption mode (77.1 %) was obtained within 24 h. This study validates the potential of fungal isolate, A. lentulus, to be used as the primary organism for treating dye containing wastewater.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  16. Jagua blue derived from Genipa americana L. fruit: A natural alternative to commonly used blue food colorants?

    PubMed

    Brauch, J E; Zapata-Porras, S P; Buchweitz, M; Aschoff, J K; Carle, R

    2016-11-01

    Due to consumers' increasing health awareness, food industry aims at replacing synthetic dyes by natural counterparts. The substitution of blue synthetic dyes is particularly challenging since current natural alternatives such as phycocyanin (Spirulina) suffer from poor stability. Jagua blue (produced from Genipa americana L. fruit) might represent a potential novel blue pigment source. However, only little is known about its color properties, and application in food systems. Therefore, the blue color and the stability of Jagua blue were assessed for the first time and compared to commonly used colorants, namely, Spirulina, brilliant blue FCF (Blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (Blue no. 2). The reaction rate of Jagua blue was independent of its concentration, confirming thermal degradation to follow first-order kinetics. Between pH 3.6 and 5.0, the color hue of Jagua blue solutions was similar to that of Blue no. 2. However, Jagua blue revealed markedly higher storage stabilities (t 1/2 =86-105days) than Blue no. 2 (t 1 /2 ≤9days) and was less susceptible to acidic pH of 3.6 (t 1 /2 =86days) than Spirulina (t 1 /2 =70days). High negative b* values (blueness) of colored gelatin gels were only obtained for Jagua blue and Spirulina, and the former exhibited higher light stabilities (t 1 /2 =15days) than Spirulina gels (t 1 /2 =4days). Our findings indicate Jagua blue to be a most promising alternative to synthetic dyes, providing relevant information regarding potential food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transforming Benzophenoxazine Laser Dyes into Chromophores for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Molecular Engineering Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Schröder, Florian A. Y. N.; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Waddell, Paul G.

    2015-02-03

    The re-functionalization of a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, is explored with the prospect of molecularly engineering new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Such engineering is important since a lack of suitable dyes is stifling the progress of DSC technology. The conceptual idea involves making laser dyes DSC-active by chemical modification, while maintaining their key property attributes that are attractive to DSC applications. This molecular engineering follows a step-wise approach. Firstly, molecular structures and optical absorption properties are determined for the parent laser dyes: Cresyl Violet (1); Oxazine 170 (2); Nile Blue Amore » (3), Oxazine 750 (4). These reveal structure-property relationships which define the prerequisites for computational molecular design of DSC dyes; the nature of their molecular architecture (D-π-A) and intramolecular charge transfer. Secondly, new DSC dyes are computationally designed by the in silico addition of a carboxylic acid anchor at various chemical substitution points in the parent laser dyes. A comparison of the resulting frontier molecular orbital energy levels with the conduction band edge of a TiO2 DSC photoanode and the redox potential of two electrolyte options I-/I3- and Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl) suggests promise for these computationally designed dyes as co-sensitizers for DSC applications.« less

  18. Pad ultrasonic batch dyeing of causticized lyocell fabric with reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Babar, Aijaz Ahmed; Peerzada, Mazhar Hussain; Jhatial, Abdul Khalique; Bughio, Noor-Ul-Ain

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, cellulosic fabric dyed with reactive dyes requires significant amount of salt. However, the dyeing of a solvent spun regenerated cellulosic fiber is a critical process. This paper presents the dyeing results of lyocell fabrics dyed with conventional pad batch (CPB) and pad ultrasonic batch (PUB) processes. The dyeing of lyocell fabrics was carried out with two commercial dyes namely Drimarine Blue CL-BR and Ramazol Blue RGB. Dyeing parameters including concentration of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dwell time were compared for the two processes. The outcomes show that PUB dyed samples offered reasonably higher color yield and dye fixation than CPB dyed samples. A remarkable reduction of 12h in batching time, 18ml/l in NaOH and 05g/l in Na 2 CO 3 quantity was observed for PUB processed samples producing similar results compared to CPB process, making PUB a more economical, productive and an environment friendly process. Color fastness examination witnessed identical results for both PUB and CPB methods. No significant change in surface morphology of PUB processed samples was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of static and shake culture in the decolorization of textile dyes and dye effluents by Phanerochaete chrysoporium.

    PubMed

    Sani, R K; Azmi, W; Banerjee, U C

    1998-01-01

    Decolorization of several dyes (Red HE-8B, Malachite Green, Navy Blue HE-2R, Magenta, Crystal Violet) and an industrial effluent with growing cells of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in shake and static culture was demonstrated. All the dyes and the industrial effluent were decolorized to some extent with varying percentages of decolorization (20-100%). The rate of decolorization was very rapid with Red HE-8B, an industrial dye. Decolorization rates for all the dyes in static condition were found to be less than the shake culture and also dependent on biomass concentration.

  20. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  1. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-10-01

    An intense and efficient excitation source for blue-green lasers useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and a newly designed dense-plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense UV photons (200 to 300 nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400 nm). During the current project period, the successful enhancement of blue-green laser output of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 dye through the spectral conversion of the HCP pumping light has been achieved with a converter dye BBQ. The factor of enhancement in the blue-green laser output energy of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 is almost 73%. This enhancement will definitely be helpful in achieving the direct high power blue-green laser (> 1 MW) with the existing blue green dye laser. On the other hand the dense-plasma focus (DPF) with new optical coupling has been designed and constructed. For the optimization of the DPF device as the UV pumping light source, the velocity of current sheath and the formation of plasma focus have been measured as function of argon or argon-deuterium fill gas pressure. Finally, the blue-green dye laser (LD490) has been pumped with the DPF device for preliminary tests. Experimental results with the DPF device show that the velocity of the current sheath follows the inverse relation of sq st. of pressure as expected. The blue-green dye (LD490) laser output exceeded 3.1 m at the best cavity tuning of laser system. This corresponds to 3J/1 cu cm laser energy extraction.

  2. Albumin binds self-assembling dyes as specific polymolecular ligands.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Barbara; Rybarska, Janina; Drozd, Anna; Konieczny, Leszek; Król, Marcin; Lisowski, Marek; Piekarska, Barbara; Roterman, Irena; Spólnik, Paweł; Zemanek, Grzegorz

    2006-12-15

    Self-assembling dyes with a structure related to Congo red (e.g. Evans blue) form polymolecular complexes with albumin. The dyes, which are lacking a self-assembling property (Trypan blue, ANS) bind as single molecules. The supramolecular character of dye ligands bound to albumin was demonstrated by indicating the complexation of dye molecules outnumbering the binding sites in albumin and by measuring the hydrodynamic radius of albumin which is growing upon complexation of self-assembling dye in contrast to dyes lacking this property. The self-assembled character of Congo red was also proved using it as a carrier introducing to albumin the intercalated nonbonding foreign compounds. Supramolecular, ordered character of the dye in the complex with albumin was also revealed by finding that self-assembling dyes become chiral upon complexation. Congo red complexation makes albumin less resistant to low pH as concluded from the facilitated N-F transition, observed in studies based on the measurement of hydrodynamic radius. This particular interference with protein stability and the specific changes in digestion resulted from binding of Congo red suggest that the self-assembled dye penetrates the central crevice of albumin.

  3. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE INHIBITION OF CYPRIDINA LUMINESCENCE BY LIGHT, WITH SOME OBSERVATIONS ON METHYLENE BLUE

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, E. Newton

    1926-01-01

    1. Eosin, erythrosin, rose bengale, cyanosin, acridine, and methylene blue act photodynamically on the luminescence of a Cypridina luciferin-luciferase solution. In presence of these dyes inhibition of luminescence, which without the dye occurs only in blue-violet light, takes place in green, yellow, orange, or red light, depending on the position of the absorption bands of the dye. 2. Inhibition of Cypridina luminescence without photosensitive dye in blue-violet light, or with photosensitive dye in longer wave-lengths, does not occur in absence of oxygen. Light acts by accelerating the oxidation of luciferin without luminescence. Eosin or methylene blue act by making longer wave-lengths effective, but there is no evidence that these dyes become reduced in the process. 3. The luciferin-oxyluciferin system is similar to the methylene white-methylene blue system in many ways but not exactly similar in respect to photochemical change. Oxidation of the dye is favored in acid solution, reduction in alkaline solution. However, oxidation of luciferin is favored in all pH ranges from 4 to 10 but is much more rapid in alkaline solution, either in light or darkness. There is no evidence that reduction of oxyluciferin is favored in alkaline solution. Clark's observation that oxidation (blueing) of methylene white occurs in complete absence of oxygen has been confirmed for acid solutions. I observed no blueing in light in alkaline solution. PMID:19872301

  4. High-throughput screening of dye-ligands for chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Punekar, Narayan S

    2014-01-01

    Dye-ligand-based chromatography has become popular after Cibacron Blue, the first reactive textile dye, found application for protein purification. Many other textile dyes have since been successfully used to purify a number of proteins and enzymes. While the exact nature of their interaction with target proteins is often unclear, dye-ligands are thought to mimic the structural features of their corresponding substrates, cofactors, etc. The dye-ligand affinity matrices are therefore considered pseudo-affinity matrices. In addition, dye-ligands may simply bind with proteins due to electrostatic, hydrophobic, and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Because of their low cost, ready availability, and structural stability, dye-ligand affinity matrices have gained much popularity. Choice of a large number of dye structures offers a range of matrices to be prepared and tested. When presented in the high-throughput screening mode, these dye-ligand matrices provide a formidable tool for protein purification. One could pick from the list of dye-ligands already available or build a systematic library of such structures for use. A high-throughput screen may be set up to choose best dye-ligand matrix as well as ideal conditions for binding and elution, for a given protein. The mode of operation could be either manual or automated. The technology is available to test the performance of dye-ligand matrices in small volumes in an automated liquid-handling workstation. Screening a systematic library of dye-ligand structures can help establish a structure-activity relationship. While the origins of dye-ligand chromatography lay in exploiting pseudo-affinity, it is now possible to design very specific biomimetic dye structures. High-throughput screening will be of value in this endeavor as well.

  5. Optical properties of cyanine dyes in nanotubes of chrysotile asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starovoytov, Anton A.; Vartanyan, Tigran A.; Belotitskii, Vladimir I.; Kumzerov, Yuri A.; Sysoeva, Anna A.

    2017-08-01

    Optical properties of cyanine dye molecules incorporated in nanotubes of natural chrysotile asbestos are studied. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of dye in asbestos have the similar shapes as in the ethanol solution, apart from small blue shift of the maxima. The Stokes shift in asbestos is smaller than in the ethanol solution. The fluorescence decay times of the dyes in asbestos nanotubes are found to be larger than that in the case of thin films of the same dyes formed on the transparent dielectric supports. This observation is rationalized in terms of the stereoisomerization hindrance in the excited electronic state of dye molecules. At the same time linear dichroism and fluorescence anisotropy observed in the experiment indicate that the embedded dye molecules are well-isolated monomer oriented predominantly along asbestos nanotubes.

  6. Blue Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-19

    Bands and spots in Saturn's atmosphere, including a dark band south of the equator with a scalloped border, are visible in this image from the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft. The narrow angle camera took the image in blue light on Feb. 29, 2004. The distance to Saturn was 59.9 million kilometers (37.2 million miles). The image scale is 359 kilometers (223 miles) per pixel. Three of Saturn's moons are seen in the image: Enceladus (499 kilometers, or 310 miles across) at left; Mimas (398 kilometers, or 247 miles across) left of Saturn's south pole; and Rhea (1,528 kilometers, or 949 miles across) at lower right. The imaging team enhanced the brightness of the moons to aid visibility. The BL1 broadband spectral filter (centered at 451 nanometers) allows Cassini to "see" light in a part of the spectrum visible as the color blue to human eyes. Scientist can combine images made with this filter with those taken with red and green filters to create full-color composites. Scientists can also assess cloud heights by combining images from the blue filter with images taken in other spectral regions. For example, the bright clouds that form the equatorial zone are the highest in altitude and have pressures at their tops of about one quarter of Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level. The cloud tops at middle latitudes are lower in altitude and have higher pressures of about half that found at sea level. Analysis of Saturn images like this one will be extremely useful to researchers assessing cloud altitudes during the Cassini-Huygens mission. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05383

  7. Alkali, thermo and halo tolerant fungal isolate for the removal of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

    2010-11-01

    In the present study potential of a fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulusFJ172995, was investigated for the removal of textile dyes. The removal percentages of dyes such as Acid Navy Blue, Orange-HF, Fast Red A, Acid Sulphone Blue and Acid Magenta were determined as 99.43, 98.82, 98.75, 97.67 and 69.98, respectively. None of the dyes inhibited the growth of A. lentulus. Detailed studies on growth kinetics, mechanism of dye removal and effect of different parameters on dye removal were conducted using Acid Navy Blue dye. It was observed that A. lentulus could completely remove Acid Navy Blue even at high initial dye concentrations, up to 900 mg/L. Highest uptake capacity of 212.92 mg/g was observed at an initial dye concentration of 900 mg/L. Dye removing efficiency was not altered with the variation of pH; and biomass production as well as dye removal was favored at higher temperatures. Dye removal was also efficient even at high salt concentration. Through growth kinetics studies it was observed that the initial exponential growth phase coincided with the phase of maximal dye removal. Microscopic studies suggest that bioaccumulation along with biosorption is the principle mechanism involved in dye removal by A. lentulus. Thus, it is concluded that being alkali, thermo and halo tolerant, A. lentulus isolate has a great potential to be utilized for the treatment of dye bearing effluents which are usually alkaline, hot and saline. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1986-10-01

    An intense and efficient source for blue green laser useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, the hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and the dense plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense uv photons (200 to 400nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400nm). As a result of optimization of the DPF light at 355nm, the blue green dye (LD490) laser output exceeding 4mJ was obtained at the best cavity tunning of the laser system. With the HCP pumped system a significant enhancement of the blue green laser outputs with dye LD490 and coumarin 503 has been achieved through the spectrum conversion of the pumping light by mixing a converter dye BBQ. The maximum increase of laser output with the dye mixture of LD490+BBQ and coumarin 503+BBQ was greater than 80%. In addition, the untunned near UV lasers were also obtained. The near UV laser output energy of P-terphenyl dye was 0.5mJ at lambda sub C=337nm with the bandwidth of 3n m for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2microsec.

  9. An organic white light-emitting dye: very small molecular architecture displays panchromatic emission.

    PubMed

    Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Heagy, Michael D

    2010-11-14

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a new white-light fluorophore is described. The optimization of excitation wavelengths allows the naphthalimide (NI) dyes to display blue, green or white light emission depending on the excitation wavelength.

  10. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytoremediation in education: textile dye teaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Ibbini, Jwan H; Davis, Lawrence C; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-07-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up contaminated soil and water, has a wide range of applications and advantages, and can be extended to scientific education. Phytoremediation of textile dyes can be used as a scientific experiment or demonstration in teaching laboratories of middle school, high school and college students. In the experiments that we developed, students were involved in a hands-on activity where they were able to learn about phytoremediation concepts. Experiments were set up with 20-40 mg L(-1) dye solutions of different colors. Students can be involved in the set up process and may be involved in the experimental design. In its simplest forms, they use two-week-old sunflower seedlings and place them into a test tube of known volume of dye solution. Color change and/or dye disappearance can be monitored by visual comparison or with a spectrophotometer. Intensity and extent of the lab work depends on student's educational level, and time constraints. Among the many dyes tested, Evan's Blue proved to be the most readily decolorized azo dye. Results could be observed within 1-2 hours. From our experience, dye phytoremediation experiments are suitable and easy to understand by both college and middle school students. These experiments help visual learners, as students compare the color of the dye solution before and after the plant application. In general, simple phytoremediation experiments of this kind can be introduced in many classes including biology, biochemistry and ecological engineering. This paper presents success stories of teaching phytoremediation to middle school and college students.

  12. The Blue Bottle Experiment--Simple Demonstration of Self-Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamcikova, L'ubica; Sevcik, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explains a way of observing pattern formation in the Blue Bottle chemistry demonstration by pouring a solution containing sodium hydroxide, glucose, and dye into a Petri dish and placing the dish on an overhead projector. (WRM)

  13. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  14. A switchable digital microfluidic droplet dye-laser.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Alexander J C; Gather, Malte C; Eydelnant, Irwin A; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Weitz, David A; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2011-11-07

    Digital microfluidic devices allow the manipulation of droplets between two parallel electrodes. These electrodes can act as mirrors generating a micro-cavity, which can be exploited for a droplet dye-laser. Three representative laser-dyes with emission wavelengths spanning the whole visible spectrum are chosen to show the applicability of this concept. Sub-microlitre droplets of laser-dye solution are moved in and out of a lasing site on-chip to down-convert the UV-excitation light into blue, green and red laser-pulses. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  15. Effect of adsorbed/intercalated anionic dyes into the mechanical properties of PVA: layered zinc hydroxide nitrate nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Rafael; Mikowski, Alexandre; Wypych, Fernando

    2010-11-15

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) was adsorbed with anions of blue dyes (Chicago sky blue, CSB; Evans blue, EB; and Niagara blue, NB) and intercalated with anions of orange dyes (Orange G, OG; Orange II, OII; methyl orange, MO). Transparent, homogeneous and colored nanocomposite films were obtained by casting after dispersing the pigments (dye-intercalated/adsorbed into LHSs) into commercial poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The films were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. The mechanical properties of the PVA compounded with the dye-intercalated/adsorbed ZHN were evaluated, and reasonable increases in Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength were observed, depending on the amount and choice of layered filler. These results demonstrate the possibility of using a new class of layered hydroxide salts intercalated and adsorbed with anionic dyes to prepare multifunctional polymer nanocomposite materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma proteomics for biomarker discovery: a study in blue.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2011-12-01

    The performance of Cibacron Blue dye (HiTrapBlue or Affigel Blue) in depleting albumin from plasma, as a pre-treatment for biomarker searching in the low-abundance proteome, is here assessed. It is shown that (i) co-depletion of non-albumin species is an ever-present hazard; (ii) the only proper eluant able to release quantitatively the proteins bound to the dye is boiling 4% SDS-25 mM DTT, an ion shock (2 M NaCl) being quite ineffective in releasing the low-abundance species tightly bound to the dye moiety; (iii) the mechanism of dye-protein interaction, after an initial ion-ion docking, is a robust hydrophobic interaction, which progressively augments at lower and lower pH values; (iv) at pH 2.2 in the presence of 0.1% TFA, the blue resin behaves, for all practical purposes, just as a reverse-phase chromatography column, since all residual proteins present in plasma are completely harvested. However Cibacron Blue technology should not necessarily be discarded: As long as also the plasma fraction adsorbed is properly released and analyzed, together with the flow through, one should be able to perform a viable analysis of the low-abundance proteome. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  18. Cloth dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this damage. Poisoning from dye containing an alkali may result in continuing injury to these tissues for weeks or months. If the person swallowed a nonpoisonous household dye, recovery is likely.

  19. Jupiter Blues

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-30

    See Jovian clouds in striking shades of blue in this new view taken by NASA's Juno spacecraft. The Juno spacecraft captured this image when the spacecraft was only 11,747 miles (18,906 kilometers) from the tops of Jupiter's clouds -- that's roughly as far as the distance between New York City and Perth, Australia. The color-enhanced image, which captures a cloud system in Jupiter's northern hemisphere, was taken on Oct. 24, 2017 at 10:24 a.m. PDT (1:24 p.m. EDT) when Juno was at a latitude of 57.57 degrees (nearly three-fifths of the way from Jupiter's equator to its north pole) and performing its ninth close flyby of the gas giant planet. The spatial scale in this image is 7.75 miles/pixel (12.5 kilometers/pixel). Because of the Juno-Jupiter-Sun angle when the spacecraft captured this image, the higher-altitude clouds can be seen casting shadows on their surroundings. The behavior is most easily observable in the whitest regions in the image, but also in a few isolated spots in both the bottom and right areas of the image. Citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Seán Doran processed this image using data from the JunoCam imager. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21972

  20. Homogenous and heterogenous advanced oxidation of two commercial reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Balcioglu, I A; Arslan, I; Sacan, M T

    2001-07-01

    Two commercial reactive dyes, the azo dye Reactive Black 5 and the copper phythalocyanine dye Reactive Blue 21, have been treated at a concentration of 75 mg l(-1) by titanium dioxide mediated photocatalytic (TiO2/UV), dark and UV-light assisted Fenton (Fe2+/H2O2) and Fenton-like (Fe3+/H2O2) processes in acidic medium. For the treatment of Reactive Black 5, all investigated advanced oxidation processes were quite effective in terms of colour, COD as well as TOC removal. Moreover, the relative growth inhibition of the azo dye towards the marine algae Dunaliella tertiolecta that was initially 70%, did not exhibit an increase during the studied advanced oxidation reactions and complete detoxification at the end of the treatment period could be achieved for all investigated treatment processes. However, for Reactive Blue 21, abatement in COD and UV-VIS absorbance values was mainly due to the adsorption of the dye on the photocatalyst surface and/or the coagulative effect of Fe3+/Fe2+ ions. Although only a limited fraction of the copper phythalocyanine dye underwent oxidative degradation, 47% of the total copper in the dye was already released after 1 h photocatalytic treatment.

  1. The study of synthetic food dyes by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    By method of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), substances are food dyes were studied: E-102 (Tartrazine), E-124 (Ponso 4R), E 132 (Indigo carmine), E-133 (Brilliant Blue), E-151 (Black Shiny). They are examined for the presence of carcinogenic properties. The difference between dyes having explicit carcinogenic properties and mutagenic properties (non-explicit carcinogens) is established.

  2. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  3. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An evaluation of novel vital dyes for intraocular surgery.

    PubMed

    Haritoglou, Christos; Yu, Alice; Freyer, Wolfgang; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Alge, Claudia; Eibl, Kirsten; May, Christian A; Welge-Luessen, Ulrich; Kampik, Anselm

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate systematically the staining characteristics and safety of potential new dyes for intraocular surgery. Six dyes were included in the investigation: light green SF (LGSF) yellowish, E68, bromophenol blue (BPB), Chicago blue (CB), rhodamine 6G, rhodulinblau-basic 3 (RDB-B3). All dyes were dissolved and diluted in a balanced saline saline solution. The light-absorbing properties of each dye were measured at a concentration of 0.05% between 200 and 1000 nm. Staining characteristics were examined by staining lens capsule tissue and epiretinal membranes (ERMs), removed intraoperatively, with dye concentrations of 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.05%. Enucleated porcine eyes (postmortem time, 9 hours) were also stained. Dye-related toxicity was evaluated by a colorimetric test (MTT) measuring the inhibition of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell proliferation (ARPE-19 and primary human RPE cells, passages 3-6). Cell viability was also quantified based on a two-color fluorescence cell-viability assay. Dyes were investigated in concentrations of 0.2% and 0.02%. All dyes investigated in this study stained human lens capsules, removed intraoperatively; ERMs, peeled during macular pucker surgery; and enucleated porcine eyes, depending on the concentration applied. The long-wavelength absorption maximum of the dyes was within the range of 527 to 655 nm at concentrations of 0.05%. Rhodamine G6 and RDB-B3 showed adverse effects on ARPE-19 cell proliferation at a concentration of 0.2% and were excluded from further investigation in primary RPE cells. The remaining four dyes showed no toxic effect on ARPE-19 and primary RPE cell proliferation at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.02%. Cell viability was affected by LGSF yellowish (0.2%) and CB (0.2% and 0.02%). Two dyes (E68 and BPB) showed no relevant toxicity in vitro. The systematic evaluation of dyes for intraocular use seems mandatory. In this study four dyes were identified with effective staining characteristics, with two of

  5. Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    PubMed

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes.

  7. Gamma irradiation and steam pretreatment of jute stick powder for the enhancement of dye adsorption efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvin, Fahmida; Sultana, Nargis; Habib, S. M. Ahsan; Bhoumik, Nikhil Chandra

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the facile and effective pretreatment technique to enhance the capacity of jute stick powder (JSP) in adsorbing dye from raw textile effluent. Hence, different pretreatment techniques, i.e., radiation treatment, alkali treatment, ammonia treatment, steam treatment and CaCl2 treatment were applied to JSP and the adsorbing performance were examined for synthetic dye solutions (Blue FCL and Red RL dye). Different gamma radiation doses were applied on JSP and optimum dye removal efficiency was found at 500 krad in removing these two dyes (50 ppm) from solutions. Among the different pretreatment techniques, gamma irradiated JSP (500 Krad) exhibits highest dye uptake capacity for RED RL dye, whereas steam-treated JSP shows highest performance in adsorbing blue FCL dye. Subsequently, we applied the gamma irradiated and steam-treated JSP on real textile effluent (RTE) and these two techniques shows potentiality in adsorbing dye from raw textile effluent and in reducing BOD5, COD load and TOC to some extent as well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis also proved that dye has been adsorbed on pretreated JSP.

  8. Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.S.; Roy, W.R.; Cole, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

  9. Color removal from acid and reactive dye solutions by electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation/adsorption processes.

    PubMed

    Bellebia, S; Kacha, S; Bouberka, Z; Bouyakoub, A Z; Derriche, Z

    2009-04-01

    In this study, electrocoagulation of Marine Blue Erionyl MR (acid dye) and electrocoagulation followed by adsorption of Brilliant Blue Levafix E-BRA (reactive dye) from aqueous solutions were investigated, using aluminum electrodes and granular activated carbon (GAC). In the electrocoagulation and adsorption of dyestuff solutions, the effects of current density, loading charge, pH, conductivity, stirring velocity, contact time, and GAC concentration were examined. The optimum conditions for the electrocoagulation process were identified as loading charges 7.46 and 1.49 F/m3, for a maximum abatement of 200 mg/L reactive and acid dye, respectively. The residual reactive dye concentration was completely removed with 700 mg/L GAC. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development of a combined process to remove significant concentrations of recalcitrant dyes from water, using moderate activated carbon energy and aluminum consumption, and thereby lowering the cost of treatment.

  10. Photodynamic Inactivation of Acinetobacter baumannii Using Phenothiazinium Dyes: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ragàs, Xavier; Dai, Tianhong; Tegos, George P.; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective Phenothiazinium dyes have been reported to be effective photosensitizers inactivating a wide range of microorganisms in vitro after illumination with red light. However, their application in vivo has not extensively been explored. This study evaluates the bactericidal activity of phenothiazinium dyes against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii both in vitro and in vivo. Study Design/Materials and Methods We report the investigation of toluidine blue O, methylene blue, 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue, and new methylene blue for photodynamic inactivation of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in vitro. The most effective dye was selected to carry out in vivo studies using third-degree mouse burns infected with a bioluminescent A. baumannii strain, upon irradiation with a 652 nm noncoherent light source. The mice were imaged daily for 2 weeks to observe differences in the bioluminescence–time curve between the photodynamic therapy (PDT)-treated mice in comparison with untreated burns. Results All the dyes were effective in vitro against A. baumannii after 30 J/cm2 irradiation of 635 or 652 nm red light had been delivered, with more effective killing when the dye remained in solution. New methylene blue was the most effective of the four dyes, achieving a 3.2-log reduction of the bacterial luminescence during PDT in vivo after 360 J/cm2 and an 800 μM dye dose. Moreover, a statistically significant reduction of the area under the bioluminescence–time curve of PDT-treated mice was observed showing that the infection did not recur after PDT. Conclusions Phenothiazinium dyes, and especially new methylene blue, are potential photosensitizers for PDT to treat burns infected with multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in vivo. PMID:20583252

  11. [Degradation of anthraquinone blue by Trametes trogii].

    PubMed

    Levin, L; Jordan, A; Forchiassin, F; Viale, A

    2001-01-01

    The ability of the white rot fungus Trametes trogii BAFC 463 (high producer of ligninolytic enzymes, especially laccase and manganese peroxidase) to degrade the dye anthraquinone blue, refractory to bacterial attack, was evaluated. Both tropho- and idiophasic T. trogii cultures in synthetic medium (glucose/asparagine) and complex medium (malt extract/glucose) were able to transform up to 88% dye in 4 hours. The activity of laccase, an oxygen-dependent phenoloxidase which was present at high levels in all the conditions assayed, might be related to the ability of the fungus to degrade the colorant. This is supported by the fact that in bioreactor experiences carried out at pH 4.5 the addition of anthraquinone blue caused a decrease in the levels of soluble oxygen. However, although high levels of laccase were produced at pH 7.5, the enzyme was not active, and neither dye transformation nor loss in the levels of soluble oxygen were quantified.

  12. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C.; Dillehay, Tom D.; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans). PMID:27652337

  13. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru.

    PubMed

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C; Dillehay, Tom D; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans).

  14. [Anaphylactic shock due to patent blue: four case report and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Lucas, N; Interne, S Benay; Laine, P; Nicolie, B; Fondrinier, E

    2010-04-01

    Description of four cases of anaphylactic shock with blue dye injection (bleu patenté V Guerbet 2.5%) during sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer. Women with breast carcinoma and combined approach with radioactive tracer and blue patent injection. Four cases were observed, which means an incidence of 0.57%. We report one case of grade II anaphylactic reaction and three cases of grade III requiring active reanimation and adrenaline perfusion. One patient developed a pulmonary embolism during the postoperative period, but no death was observed. We find an incidence of 1.06% of allergy but only 0.25% of anaphylactic shock (grade III). These rare but serious cases must weigh up the benefits and risks of using blue dye. We suggest using blue dye injection only in case of radioisotope detection failure. Of course, this approach must be evaluated. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of 23 commercial textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Ingrid; Ibn Hadj Hassine, Aziza; Haj Hamouda, Yosra; Mnif, Wissem; Bartegi, Ahgleb; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel; De Waard, Michel; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    The presence of dyes in wastewater effluent of textile industry is well documented. In contrast, the endocrine disrupting effects of these dyes and wastewater effluent have been poorly investigated. Herein, we studied twenty-three commercial dyes, usually used in the textile industry, and extracts of blue jean textile wastewater samples were evaluated for their agonistic and antagonistic estrogen activity. Total estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities were measured using the Yeast Estrogen Screen bioassay (YES) that evaluates estrogen receptor binding-dependent transcriptional and translational activities. The estrogenic potencies of the dyes and wastewater samples were evaluated by dose-response curves and compared to the dose-response curve of 17β-estradiol (E2), the reference compound. The dose-dependent anti-estrogenic activities of the dyes and wastewater samples were normalized to the known antagonistic effect of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) on the induction of the lac Z reporter gene by E2. About half azo textile dyes have anti-estrogenic activity with the most active being Blue HFRL. Most azo dyes however have no or weak estrogenic activity. E2/dye or E2/waste water ER competitive binding assays show activity of Blue HFRL, benzopurpurine 4B, Everzol Navy Blue FBN, direct red 89 BNL 200% and waste water samples indicating a mechanism of action common to E2. Our results indicate that several textile dyes are potential endocrine disrupting agents. The presence of some of these dyes in textile industry wastewater may thus impact the aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... is found in the blue nightshade ( Solanum dulcamara ) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  17. Blue Origin testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-20

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden (r) discusses the upcoming testing of Blue Origin's BE-3 engine thrust chamber assembly with Steve Knowles, Blue Origin project manager, at the E-1 Test Stand during an April 20, 2012, visit to Stennis Space Center. Blue Origin is one of NASA's partners developing innovative systems to reach low-Earth orbit.

  18. Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as...a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo ZL-30) were microencapsulated and tested on

  19. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  20. Ozonation of exhausted dark shade reactive dye bath for reuse.

    PubMed

    Sundrarajan, M; Vishnu, G; Joseph, Kurian

    2006-10-01

    Exhausted reactive dye bath of dark shades were collected from cotton knit wear dyeing units in Tirupur. Ozonation was conducted in a column reactor system fed with ozone at the rate of 0.16 g/min to assess its efficiency in reducing the color, chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon. The potential of the decolorized dye bath for its repeated reuse was also analyzed. The results from the reusability studies indicate that the dyeing quality was not affected by the reuse of decolorized dye bath for two successive cycles. Complete decolorization of the effluent was achieved in 60 minutes contact time at an ozone consumption of 183 mg/L for Red, 175 for Navy Blue and 192 for Green shades respectively. The corresponding COD removal was 60%, 54% and 63% for the three shades while TOC removal efficiency was 59%, 55% and 62% respectively. It is concluded that ozonation is efficient in decolorization of exhausted dye bath effluents containing conventional reactive dyes. However, the corresponding removal of COD from the textile effluent was not significant.

  1. Indigo Dye Derived from Indigofera Tinctoria as Natural Food Colorant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Wardani, D. K.; Aini, F. N.; Sari, P. L.; Tamtama, B. P. N.; Kristiawan, Y. R.

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the uses of dyes are increasingly widespread especially in foods and beverages as food colors to attract the consumers. The dye that currently attracts is indigo. Indigo is a group of carbonyl compounds, one of the oldest known dyes in terms of natural blue dye derived from the Indigofera tinctoria plant. The use of indigo as a natural food dye intended to reduce the use of synthetic dyes are carcinogenic impact. The method used in this study includes the analysis of indigo using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and FTIR analysis. Based on the UV-Vis Spectrophotometer analysis results with the various concentrations of 0.002 mg/mL; 0.004 mg/mL; 0.006 mg/mL and 0.008 mg/mL were obtained maximum absorption peak at wavelength of 550-700 nm. The indigo dyes in various concentrations produce a stable pH at an average pH 9, therefore it can make the colors not easily fade (strong staining). Based on infrared spectrophotometer measurement were obtained absorption spectrum at 3100-3500 cm-1 as primary N-H and secondary amine, 1600 cm-1 as aromatic C=C, 1000-1350 cm-1 as aromatic C-N, 690-900 cm-1 as aromatic C-H.

  2. Textile dyes induce toxicity on zebrafish early life stages.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Teixidó, Elisabet; Porredón, Constança; Borràs, Miquel; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2016-02-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the most polluting industrial sectors because of the release of potentially toxic compounds, such as synthetic dyes, into the environment. Depending on the class of the dyes, their loss in wastewaters can range from 2% to 50% of the original dye concentration. Consequently, uncontrolled use of such dyes can negatively affect human health and the ecological balance. The present study assessed the toxicity of the textile dyes Direct Black 38 (DB38), Reactive Blue 15 (RB15), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Vat Green 3 (VG3) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for 144 h postfertilization (hpf). At the tested conditions, none of the dyes caused significant mortality. The highest RO16 dose significantly delayed or inhibited the ability of zebrafish embryos to hatch from the chorion after 96 hpf. From 120 hpf to 144 hpf, all the dyes impaired the gas bladder inflation of zebrafish larvae, DB38 also induced curved tail, and VG3 led to yolk sac edema in zebrafish larvae. Based on these data, DB38, RB15, RO16, and VG3 can induce malformations during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Therefore, it is essential to remove these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging textile industry effluents into the aquatic environment. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  4. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  5. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Daizong; Zhang, Hao; He, Rubao; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    An anaerobic sludge (AS), capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid) were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes. PMID:27801853

  6. MUTAGENICITY EVALUATION OF THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCT CI DISPERSE BLUE 291 USING DIFFERENT PROTOCOLS OF THE SALMONELLA ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Textile dyes can enter the water ecosystem through wastewater discharges potentially exposing humans through the consumption of water and food. The commercial disperse dye product C.I. Disperse Blue 291 containing the aminoazobenzene 2-[(2-bromo-4,6-dinitrophenyl)azo]-5(diethylam...

  7. Protocol for vital dye staining of corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunju; Fong, Alan G; Cho, Hyung; Zhang, Cheng; Gritz, David C; Mian, Gibran; Herzlich, Alexandra A; Gore, Patrick; Morganti, Ashley; Chuck, Roy S

    2012-12-01

    To describe a step-by-step methodology to establish a reproducible staining protocol for the evaluation of human corneal endothelial cells. Four procedures were performed to determine the best protocol. (1) To determine the optimal trypan blue staining method, goat corneas were stained with 4 dilutions of trypan blue (0.4%, 0.2%, 0.1%, and 0.05%) and 1% alizarin red. (2) To determine the optimal alizarin red staining method, goat corneas were stained with 2 dilutions of alizarin red (1% and 0.5%) and 0.2% trypan blue. (3) To ensure that trypan blue truly stains damaged cells, goat corneas were exposed to either 3% hydrogen peroxide or to balanced salt solution, and then stained with 0.2% trypan blue and 0.5% alizarin red. (4) Finally, fresh human corneal buttons were examined; 1 group was stained with 0.2% trypan blue and another group with 0.4% trypan blue. For the 4 procedures performed, the results are as follows: (1) trypan blue staining was not observed in any of the normal corneal samples; (2) 0.5% alizarin red demonstrated sharper cell borders than 1% alizarin red; (3) positive trypan blue staining was observed in the hydrogen peroxide exposed tissue in damaged areas; (4) 0.4% trypan blue showed more distinct positive staining than 0.2% trypan blue. We were able to determine the optimal vital dye staining conditions for human corneal endothelial cells using 0.4% trypan blue and 0.5% alizarin red.

  8. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  9. Chitosan-edible oil based materials as upgraded adsorbents for textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Clayane Carvalho; Mouta, Rodolpho; Junior, Manoel Carvalho Castro; Santana, Sirlane Aparecida Abreu; Silva, Hildo Antonio Dos Santos; Bezerra, Cícero Wellington Brito

    2018-01-15

    Biopolymer chitosan is a low cost, abundant, environmentally friendly, very selective and efficient anionic dyes adsorbent, being a promising material for large-scale removal of dyes from wastewater. However, raw chitosan (CS) is an ineffective cationic dyes adsorbent and its performance is pH sensitive, thus, CS modifications that address these issues need to be developed. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of two new CS modifications using edible oils (soybean oil or babassu oil), and their adsorption performance for two dyes, one anionic (remazol red, RR) and one cationic (methylene blue, MB). Both modifications extended the pH range of RR adsorption. The babassu oil modification increased adsorption capacity of the cationic dye MB, whereas the soybean oil modification increased that of RR. Such improvements demonstrate the potential of these two new CS modifications as adsorbent candidates for controlling dyes pollution in effluents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dyes for displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, U.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of contrast and visibility of LCD by two different means was undertaken. The two methods are: (1) development of fluorescent dyes to increase the visibility of fluorescent activated displays (FLAD); and (2) development of dichroic dyes to increase the contrast of displays. This work was done in close cooperation with the electronic industry, where the newly synthesized dyes were tested. The targets for the chemical synthesis were selected with the help of computer model calculations. A marketable range of dyes was developed. Since the interest of the electronic industries concerning FLAD was low, the investigations were stopped. Dichroic dyes, especially black mixtures with good light fastness, order parameter, and solubility in nematic phases were developed. The application of these dyes is restricted to indoor use because of an increase of viscosity below -10 C. Applications on a technical scale, e.g., for the automotive industry, will be possible if the displays work at temperatures down to -40 C. This problem requires a complex optimization of the dye/nematic phase system.

  11. Use of vital dyes to assess embryonic viability in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Hutz, R.J.; DeMayo, F.J.; Dukelow, W.R.

    1985-05-01

    Experiments were designed to assess the use of the vital dyes trypan blue and fluorescein diacetate as indicators of the viability of hamster ova and embryos. Exclusion of trypan blue and fluorescence with fluorescein diacetate showed high correlations with uptake of (/sup 3/H)uridine by ova and further development of embryos in vitro. Ova killed by freezing and thawing incorporated (/sup 3/H)uridine at background levels. Trypan blue exclusion and fluorescein diacetate uptake were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.99). Trypan blue and fluorescein diacetate serve as excellent indices of viability in ova and early embryos of hamsters.

  12. Photophysical properties, photodegradation characteristics, and lasing action for coumarin dye C540A in polymeric media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Guilford, II; Huang, Zhennian; Pacheco, Dennis P., Jr.; Russell, Jeffrey A.

    2004-07-01

    Tunable solid-state dye lasers operating in the blue-green spectral region are attractive for a variety of applications. An important consideration in assessing the viability of this technology is the service life of the gain medium, which is presently limited by dye photodegradation. In this study, solid polymeric samples consisting of the coumarin dye C540A in modified PMMA were subjected to controlled photodegradation tests. The excitation laser was a flashlamp-pumped dye laser operating at 440 nm with a pulse duration of 1 μs. A complementary set of data was obtained for dye in solution phase for comparison purposes. Photophysical properties of C540A in water solution of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) have been investigated with a view to assess the suitability of the sequestering polymer (PMAA) as an effective additive to facilitate use of a water medium for highly efficient blue-green dye lasers. Lasing action of C540A in aqueous PMAA has been realized using flashlamp-pumped laser system, yielding excellent laser efficiencies superior to that achieved in ethanolic solutions with the same dye. Laser characterization of dye in media included measurement of laser threshold, slope efficiency, pulse duration and output wavelength.

  13. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePlus

    Mongolian spots; Congenital dermal melanocytosis; Dermal melanocytosis ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, Native American, Hispanic, East Indian, and African descent. The color ...

  14. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biosorption and biodegradation of a sulfur dye in high-strength dyeing wastewater by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thai Anh; Fu, Chun-Chieh; Juang, Ruey-Shin

    2016-11-01

    The ability of the bacterial strain Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans to remove sulfur blue 15 (SB15) dye from water samples was examined. This bacterium could not only oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid but also promote the attachment of the cells to the surface of sulfidic particles, therefore serving as an efficient biosorbent. The biosorption isotherms were better described by the Langmuir equation than by the Freundlich or Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Also, the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. At pH 8.3 and SB15 concentrations up to 2000 mg L(-1) in the biomass/mineral salt solution, the dye removal and decolorization were 87.5% and 91.4%, respectively, following the biosorption process. Biodegradation was proposed as a subsequent process for the remaining dye (250-350 mg L(-1)). A central composite design was used to analyze independent variables in the response surface methodology study. Under the optimal conditions (i.e., initial dye concentration of 300 mg L(-1), initial biomass concentration of 1.0 g L(-1), initial pH of 11.7, and yeast extract dose of 60 mg L(-1)), up to 50% of SB15 was removed after 4 days of biodegradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dyes for caries detection: influence on composite and compomer microleakage.

    PubMed

    Piva, Evandro; Meinhardt, Luciene; Demarco, Flávio F; Powers, John M

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of caries-detecting dyes on the microleakage of adhesive materials. Sixty cubic class V cavities were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces of 30 human third molars. Coronal margins were located in enamel and gingival margins in cementum. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups of ten restorations each. Cavities were restored with an adhesive system (Single Bond, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn., USA), a compomer (F2000, 3M ESPE), or a composite resin (Z100, 3M ESPE) according to the manufacturer's directions. Acid red dye (Seek, Ultradent, South Jordan, Ut., USA) and basic fuchsin dye (Vide Cárie, Inodon, Porto Alegre, Brazil) were tested. Control groups were prepared without the use of dyes. After 7 days of storage in distilled water, the restorations were polished and the teeth were subjected to thermal cycling followed by immersion in 2% methylene blue. The teeth were sectioned, and microleakage scores were evaluated under magnification (40x). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. A statistically significant difference ( P<0.05) in microleakage was found between the materials in cementum (Z100>F2000) but not in enamel. Control and experimental groups using dyes showed similar results. It was concluded that dyes for caries detection did not increase microleakage of the adhesive materials tested.

  17. Mutagenicity of commercial hair dyes and detection of 2,7-diaminophenazine.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Hirayama, T; Fukui, S

    1990-08-01

    Four commercial oxidative-type hair dye formulations, A, B, C, and D, were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to simulate normal conditions of use, and the oxidized hair dyes were tested for their mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the presence of a mammalian metabolic activation system (S9 mix). Most of them did not show obvious mutagenicity in the range of 1-25 microliters/plate and all exhibited bactericidal activity at 10 microliters/plate. In order to evaluate the mutagenicity of hair dyes both before and after H2O2 oxidation, rayon linked to a copper-phthalocyanine derivative (blue rayon) was used as an adsorbent for the elimination of interfering bactericidal compounds. Adsorbed compounds on blue rayon were eluted with ammoniacal methanol and eluents were subjected to the Ames test. The mutagenicity of the blue-rayon extracts in TA98 with S9 mix was increased by H2O2 oxidation. The blue-rayon extracts obtained from oxidized A and B were potent mutagens and reverted 334 and 999 colonies/10 microliters of original substance, respectively. In addition, 88 and 249 ng of 2,7-diaminophenazine, which was extremely mutagenic in TA98 with S9 mix, were detected in the extracts of 40 ml of the hair dye formulations A and B, respectively. The mutagenicity in oxidized hair dye formulations was successfully detected by use of blue-rayon extraction. 2,7-Diaminophenazine was only formed in the hair dye formulations containing m-phenylenediamine by H2O2 oxidation. Therefore, attention needs to be paid to the use of m-phenylenediamine as a hair dye component, not only for its own toxicity but also for that of its oxidation products.

  18. Conversion efficiency versus sensitizer for electrospun TiO2 nanorod electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, R.; Kumar, A.; Thavasi, V.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2008-10-01

    The electrochemical and optical properties of three indoline dyes, namely C35H28N2O2 (D131), C37H30N2O3S2 (D102), and C42H35N3O4S3 (D149), were studied and compared with that of the N3 dye. D131 has the largest bandgap and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies compared to the other dyes. A size-dependent variation in the absorptivity of the indoline dyes was observed—the absorptivity increased with increase in the molecular size. The dyes were anchored onto TiO2 nanorods. The TiO2 nanorods were obtained by electrospinning a polymeric solution containing titanium isopropoxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone and subsequent sintering of the as-spun composite fibers. Absorption spectral measurements of the dye-anchored TiO2 showed blue shifts in the excitonic transition of the indoline dyes, the magnitude of which increased with decrease in the molecular size. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using the indoline dyes, TiO2 nanorods, and iodide/triiodide electrolyte. The D131 dye showed comparable energy conversion efficiency (η) to that of the N3 dye. A systematic change in the short circuit current density (JSC) and η of the indoline DSSCs was observed. The observed variation in JC is most likely originated from the difference in the electronic coupling strengths between the dye and the TiO2.

  19. Oxidation of Levafix CA reactive azo-dyes in industrial wastewater of textile dyeing by electro-generated Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, Hanaa S; Ghoneim, Mohamed M; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; Zidan, Naglaa M

    2010-03-15

    The indirect electrochemical removal of pollutants from effluents has become an attractive method in recent years. Removal (decolorization and mineralization) of Levafix Blue CA and Levafix Red CA reactive azo-dyes from aqueous media by electro-generated Fenton's reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) using a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and a platinum gauze anode was optimized. Progress of oxidation (decolorization and mineralization) of the investigated azo-dyes with time of electro-Fenton's reaction was monitored by UV-visible absorbance measurements, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and HPLC analysis. The results indicated that the electro-Fenton's oxidation system is efficient for treatment of such types of reactive dyes. Oxidation of each of the investigated azo-dyes by electro-generated Fenton's reagent up to complete decolorization and approximately 90-95% mineralization was achieved. Moreover, the optimized electro-Fenton's oxidation was successfully applied for complete decolorization and approximately 85-90% mineralization of both azo-dyes in real industrial wastewater samples collected from textile dyeing house at El-Mahalla El-Kobra, Egypt. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Binding affinities of cationic dyes in the presence of activated charcoal and anionic surfactant in the premicellar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Farman; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Fawad; Bibi, Iram; Shah, Syed W. H.

    2018-03-01

    Binding preferences of cationic dyes malachite green and methylene blue in a mixed charcoal-sodium dodecyl sulfate system have been investigated using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The dye adsorption shows surfactant-dependent patterns, indicating diverse modes of interactions. At low surfactant concentration, a direct binding to charcoal is preferred. Comparatively greater quantities of surfactant lead to attachment of dye-surfactant complex to charcoal through hydrophobic interactions. A simple model was employed for determination of equilibrium constant K eq and concentration of dye-surfactant ion pair N DS for both dyes. The values of binding parameters revealed that malachite green was directly adsorbed onto charcoal, whereas methylene blue was bound through surfactant monomers. The model is valid for low surfactant concentrations in the premicellar region. These findings have significance for material and environmental sciences.

  1. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  2. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  3. Dermatoscopy of blue vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, L

    2009-07-01

    Blue vitiligo is a distinct variant of vitiligo characterized by a blue-grey appearance of the skin, which corresponds histologically with absence of epidermal melanocytes and presence of numerous dermal melanophages. A 23-year-old woman of Indian origin with Fitzpatrick skin type V presented with a 1-month history of normoaesthetic depigmented macules over the right forearm, dorsa of the hands and right areola. The macule over the right forearm had a bluish tinge. A clinical diagnosis of vitiligo vulgaris with blue vitiligo was made. Dermatoscopy of the interface between the blue macule and the hypopigmented macule revealed a linear depigmented macule in the centre with multiple blue dots and absence of epidermal melanin on the side of the blue macule, and reticular pigmentation with a few depigmented macules and scattered blue dots over the side of the hypopigmented macule. Blue vitiligo was described previously in a patient seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus, and believed to represent postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in areas bordering the vitiliginous patches as a result of psoralen ultraviolet A treatment. This case is unusual because of its rarity and the description of the associated dermatoscopical findings.

  4. Breathing Monitor Using Dye-Doped Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Shinzo; Fukasawa, Akihiko; Ogawa, Takayuki; Morisawa, Masayuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    1990-08-01

    A new monitoring system of human breathing using umbelliferon dye-doped plastic fiber has been studied. Under UV light pumping, the fiber which was used as a sensor head generates blue fluorescence depending on human expiration. By converting the light signal to electronic pulses, the counting of breathing and real-time monitoring of abnormal breathing such as a heavy cough or a cloggy sputum have easily been obtained.

  5. Adsorption performance of mixed dyes on alkalization loofah fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongli; Liu, Jinyan; Li, Xingxing

    2018-02-01

    When the polyporous structures of loofah fiber is adequately exposed after alkali treatment,lignin, hemicellulose and pectin are removed. Specific surface area is increased to maximum, which means the efficiency of absorptivity is highest. In this paper, by using alkalization loofah (AL) as adsorbent, the effect of loofah fiber on waste water treatment is studied under the efficiency of loofah fiber which contain acridine yellow, methylene blue, mixed solution of the two dyes. The optimum treatment conditions of loofah fiber were studied from five aspects which include dosage, temperature, mixing time, pH and concentration. The results showed that the optimal conditions are 30°C, pH 8.0, 20mg dosage of loofah fiber in 40ml solution and mixing time 25min. The optimal treatment conditions of mixed dyes were studied from the aspects of mixing time, the dosage of AL and the molar ratio of the two components in the mixed dyes.

  6. Patch testing to a textile dye mix by the international contact dermatitis research group.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E; Diepgen, Thomas; Goh, Chee-Leok; Goossens R, An; Jerajani, Hemangi; Maibach, Howard I; Sasseville, Denis; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers not included in the majority of commercially available baseline series. To investigate the outcome of patch testing to a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes. Two thousand four hundred ninety-three consecutive dermatitis patients in 9 dermatology clinics were patch tested with a TDM 6.6%, consisting of Disperse (D) Blue 35, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3, D Red 1 and 17, all 1.0% each, and D Blue 106 and D Blue 124, each 0.3%. 90 reacted positively to the TDM. About 92.2% of the patients allergic to the TDM were also tested with the 8 separate dyes. Contact allergy to TDM was found in 3.6% (1.3-18.2) Simultaneous reactivity to p-phenylenediamine was found in 61.1% of the TDM-positive patients. Contact allergy to TDM and not to other p-amino-substituted sensitizers was diagnosed in 1.2%. The most frequent dye allergen in the TDM-positive patients was D Orange 3. Over 30% of the TDM allergic patients had been missed if only the international baseline series was tested. Contact allergy to TDM could explain or contribute to dermatitis in over 20% of the patients. Textile dye mix should be considered for inclusion into the international baseline series.

  7. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luiz C A; Gonçalves, Maraísa; Oliveira, Diana Q L; Guerreiro, Mário C; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Dallago, Rogério M

    2007-03-06

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80mgg(-1)) and textile dye reactive red (163mgg(-1)), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials.

  8. Rapid Dye Regeneration Mechanism of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jiwon; Park, Young Choon; Han, Sang Soo; Goddard, William A; Lee, Yoon Sup; Kim, Hyungjun

    2014-12-18

    During the light-harvesting process of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the hole localized on the dye after the charge separation yields an oxidized dye, D(+). The fast regeneration of D(+) using the redox pair (typically the I(-)/I3(-) couple) is critical for the efficient DSSCs. However, the kinetic processes of dye regeneration remain uncertain, still promoting vigorous debates. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine that the inner-sphere electron-transfer pathway provides a rapid dye regeneration route of ∼4 ps, where penetration of I(-) next to D(+) enables an immediate electron transfer, forming a kinetic barrier. This explains the recently reported ultrafast dye regeneration rate of a few picoseconds determined experimentally. We expect that our MD based comprehensive understanding of the dye regeneration mechanism will provide a helpful guideline in designing TiO2-dye-electrolyte interfacial systems for better performing DSSCs.

  9. The role of natural indigo dye in alleviation of genotoxicity of sodium dithionite as a reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Bektaş, İdris; Karaman, Şengül; Dıraz, Emel; Çelik, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    Indigo blue is a natural dye used for thousands of years by civilizations to dye fabric blue and it is naturally obtained from Isatis tinctoria. I. tinctoria is not only used for extraction of indigo blue color but also used medicinally in Traditional Chinese Medicine because of its active compounds. Sodium dithionite (Na 2 S 2 O 4 ) is used in dye bath for indigo blue extraction, but this reducing agent and its derivatives are major pollutants of textile industry and subsequently have hazardous influences on public health. Herein, the present study was designed to obtain the high yield of natural indigo dye but with low possible toxic effect. In this context, genotoxic effects of particular combinations of natural dye solutions obtained from Isatis tinctoria subsp. tomentolla with Na 2 S 2 O 4 as reducing agent were investigated. Dye solutions were obtained using two different pH levels (pH 9 and 11) and three different concentrations of Na 2 S 2 O 4 (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml). In addition to the dye solutions and reducing agent, aqueous extracts of I. tinctoria were assessed for their genotoxicity on human lymphocytes. For in vitro testing of genotoxicity, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and mitotic indexes (MI) assays were used. Accordingly, Na 2 S 2 O 4 caused significant increases in CA and SCE as well decrease in MI but the genotoxic effects of sodium dithionite were reduced with natural indigo dye. As a result, aqueous extracts of Isatis leaves removed the toxic effects of sodium dithionite and showed anti-genotoxic effect. For the optimal and desired quality but with less toxic effects of natural dye, 2.5 mg/ml (for wool yarn) and 5 mg/ml (for cotton yarn) of Na 2 S 2 O 4 doses were found to be the best doses for reduction in the dye bath at Ph 9.

  10. Delineation of the vitreous and posterior hyaloid using bromophenol blue.

    PubMed

    Haritoglou, Christos; Strauss, Rupert; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Kreutzer, Thomas; Kampik, Anselm

    2008-02-01

    To describe visualization of the vitreous and the posterior hyaloid membrane using bromophenol blue during vitrectomy for macular hole and retinal detachment. Six patients with macular holes and four with retinal detachments were included in the study. Before and after surgery, complete clinical examination, including funduscopy and measurements of best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure, was performed. Additional functional tests, such as fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany, Germany), Goldmann perimetry, and multifocal electroretinography as well as photography of the posterior pole, were performed for macular hole patients. Bromophenol blue was used in concentrations of 0.2%. During macular hole surgery, the dye was injected into the air-filled globe, while during surgery for retinal detachment, the globe was partially filled with perfluorocarbon before dye injection after induction of a posterior vitreous detachment to stain the vitreous peripherally. Bromophenol blue provided sufficient staining of the attached posterior hyaloid membrane and vitreous remnants in the periphery. This was especially helpful for patients in whom a posterior vitreous detachment could not be induced mechanically by suction using the vitrectomy probe alone, as seen in three of six interventions for a macular hole in this series. In addition, staining of the vitreous or vitreous remnants in the periphery and at the vitreous base was seen in all patients and helped to completely remove the vitreous in a controlled fashion. After macular hole surgery, increase of visual acuity from 20/100 (mean) to 20/40 was seen during follow-up up to 6 months. In one case, the hole persisted and required a second operation. Finally, closure of the hole was achieved in all patients. After retinal detachment surgery, reattachment was achieved in all cases. No dye-related adverse events were seen during follow-up as shown by

  11. Methylene blue, curcumin and ion pairing nanoparticles effects on photodynamic therapy of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of current study was to use methylene blue-curcumin ion pair nanoparticles and single dyes as photosensitizer for comparison of photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy on MDA-MB-231 cancer cells, also various light sources effect on activation of photosensitizer (PS) was considered. Ion pair nanoparticles were synthesized using opposite charge ions precipitation and lyophilized. The PDT experiments were designed and the effect of PSs and light sources (Red LED (630nm; power density: 30mWcm -2 ) and blue LED (465nm; power density: 34mWcm -2 )) on the human breast cancer cell line were examined. The effect of PS concentration (0-75μg.mL -1 ), incubation time, irradiation time and light sources, and priority in irradiation of blue or red lights were determined. The results show that the ion pairing of methylene blue and curcumin enhance the photodynamic activity of both dyes and the cytotoxicity of ion pair nanoparticles on the MDA-231 breast cancer cell line. Blue and red LED light sources were used for photo activation of photosensitizers. The results demonstrated that both dyes can activate using red light LED better than blue light LED for singlet oxygen producing. Nano scale ion pair precipitating of methylene blue-curcumin enhanced the cell penetrating and subsequently cytotoxicity of both dyes together. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  13. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  14. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. Degradation of immobilized azo dyes by Klebsiella sp. UAP-b5 isolated from maize bioadsorbent.

    PubMed

    Elizalde-González, M P; Fuentes-Ramírez, L E; Guevara-Villa, M R G

    2009-01-30

    The degradation of two immobilized dyes by Klebsiella sp. UAP-b5 was studied. In batch experiments, the azo dyestuffs Basic Blue 41 and Reactive Black 5 were immobilized onto corn cobs by adsorption, and the adsorption process was characterized by a pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. Klebsiella sp. UAP-b5 was previously isolated from the corn waste and shown to decolorize these dyes in liquid systems. Here, we demonstrate anaerobic decolorization and reductive biodegradation of these dyes by means of spectrophotometry, HPLC, and IR spectroscopy of the solid waste and desorption solutions. We also demonstrate adsorption of compounds that resemble known degradation products.

  16. Development of New Laser Protective Dyes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-31

    Science’s Phase I research, the feasibility of thermally stabilizing cyanine and squarylium dyes for simulated polycarbonate injection-molding... SQUARYLIUM & CROCONIUM FIUORENE DYE SYNTHESIS SYNTHESIS OF NEW DYES DYE SYNTHESES IENGFICA TION ASYNTHESIS OF SUSSTITUTED DYES EVELOP OH TECHNOLOGIES...region, three dyes were successfully extruded into PETG and/or PC: (a.) the croconium dye SS-1044 (,%max = 834 um in PETG). (b.) the squarylium dye

  17. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  18. Use of cellulose-based wastes for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Annadurai, Gurusamy; Juang, Ruey-Shin; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2002-06-10

    Low-cost banana and orange peels were prepared as adsorbents for the adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions. Dye concentration and pH were varied. The adsorption capacities for both peels decreased in the order methyl orange (MO) > methylene blue (MB) > Rhodamine B (RB) > Congo red (CR) > methyl violet (MV) > amido black 10B (AB). The isotherm data could be well described by the Freundlich and Langmuir equations in the concentration range of 10-120 mg/l. An alkaline pH was favorable for the adsorption of dyes. Based on the adsorption capacity, it was shown that banana peel was more effective than orange peel. Kinetic parameters of adsorption such as the Langergren rate constant and the intraparticle diffusion rate constant were determined. For the present adsorption process intraparticle diffusion of dyes within the particle was identified to be rate limiting. Both peel wastes were shown to be promising materials for adsorption removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.

  19. Usage of FTIR-ATR as Non-Destructive Analysis of Selected Toxic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Michalíková, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The degradation of the environment which is due to the discharge of polluting wastewater from industrial sources poses a real problem in several countries. Textile industries use large volumes of water in their operations, discharging thus large volume of wastewater into the environment, most of which is untreated. The wastewater contains a variety of chemicals from various stages of process operations, including desizing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce Infrared Spectrometry with Fourier transformation as a non-destructive method for study, identifation and rapid determination of selected representatives of cationic (Methylene Blue), azo (Congo Red, Eriochrome Black T) and nitroso (Naphthol Green B) dyes. In conjunction with the ATR technique, FTIR offers a reliable detection method of dyes without extraction by other dangerous substances. Spectral interpretation of dye spectra revealed valuable information about the identification and characterization of each group of dyes.

  20. Dye removal from textile industrial effluents by adsorption on exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Carvallho, Marilda N; da Silva, Karolyne S; Sales, Deivson C S; Freire, Eleonora M P L; Sobrinho, Maurício A M; Ghislandi, Marcos G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of physical adsorption was applied for the removal of direct and reactive blue textile dyes from industrial effluents. Commercial graphite nanoplatelets were used as substrate, and the quality of the material was characterized by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies. Dye/graphite nanoplatelets water solutions were prepared varying their pH and initial dye concentration. Exceptionally high values (beyond 100 mg/L) for adsorptive capacity of graphite nanoplatelets could be achieved without complicated chemical modifications, and equilibrium and kinetic experiments were performed. Our findings were compared with the state of the art, and compared with theoretical models. Agreement between them was satisfactory, and allowed us to propose novel considerations describing the interactions of the dyes and the graphene planar structure. The work highlights the important role of these interactions, which can govern the mobility of the dye molecules and the amount of layers that can be stacked on the graphite nanoplatelets surface.

  1. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  2. High Power Dye Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-30

    sphere is greatly reduced when compared to the axial flow dye cell. This is because the focusing optics can only direct light from a limited angle into...Distribution in Flashlamp . . . „ [ [ TTIH Flashlamp Cooling and Thermal Limits [ [ [ ii~ik Optical Characteristics ’,,: •*••••••••••• il-ib...Tracing Program e Dye Pumping System Laser Tests ! 1 i * * TTT’I Laser Output Fall Off !!!.’!!!" ’ TTT’H Single Shot Optical Distortion TTT’I

  3. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  4. Blue Nevi and Related Tumors.

    PubMed

    Zembowicz, Artur

    2017-09-01

    The major entities related to blue nevus are common blue nevus, cellular blue nevus, atypical blue nevus, and malignant blue nevus. These lesions share presence of dermal pigmented dendritic melanocytes derived from embryonal precursors to melanocytes, Schwann cells, and glial cells migrating to the skin from the ventral neural crest. Genetically, blue nevi harbor mutations in G-protein-coupled receptor subunits GNAQ and GNA11. Progression to malignant blue nevus is associated with additional mutations and partial gains and losses of chromosomal material. This article discusses recent advances in pathology of blue nevi with emphasis on differential diagnosis and molecular pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of dissolved oxygen on dye removal by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wei, Ming-Chi; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Li, Heng-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hua; Fang, Yung-Tai; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2010-10-15

    Effects of dissolved oxygen concentrations on dye removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated. The Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was employed to evaluate toxicity of decolorized solution. Three dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7, monoazo), Reactive Red 120 (RR120, diazo), and Acid Blue 9 (AB9, triphenylmethane), were selected as model dyes. The dye concentration and Fe(0) dose used were 100 mg L(-1) and 30 g L(-1), respectively. Under anoxic condition, the order for dye decolorization was AO7>RR120>AB9. An increase in the dissolved oxygen concentrations enhanced decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of the three dyes. An increase in gas flow rates also improved dye and COD removals by Fe(0). At dissolved oxygen of 6 mg L(-1), more than 99% of each dye was decolorized within 12 min and high COD removals were obtained (97% for AO7, 87% for RR120, and 93% for AB9). The toxicity of decolorized dye solutions was low (I(5)<40%). An increase in DO concentrations obviously reduced the toxicity. When DO above 2 mg L(-1) was applied, low iron ion concentration (13.6 mg L(-1)) was obtained in the decolorized AO7 solution. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous identification of synthetic and natural dyes in different food samples by UPLC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Badal Kumar; Mathiyalagan, Siva; Dalavai, Ramesh; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2017-11-01

    Fast foods and variety food items are populating among the food lovers. To improve the appearance of the food product in surviving gigantic competitive environment synthetic or natural food dyes are added to food items and beverages. Although regulatory bodies permit addition of natural colorants due to its safe and nontoxic nature in food, synthetic dyes are stringently controlled in all food products due to their toxicity by regulatory bodies. Artificial colors are need certification from the regulatory bodies for human consumption. To analyze food dyes in different food samples many analytical techniques are available like high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), spectroscopic and gas chromatographic methods. However all these reported methods analyzed only synthetic dyes or natural dyes. Not a single method has analyzed both synthetic and natural dyes in a single run. In this study a robust ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous identification of 6 synthetic dyes (Tartrazine, Indigo carmine, Briliant blue, Fast green, malachite green, sunset yellow) and one natural dye (Na-Cu-Chlorophyllin) was developed using acquitic UPLC system equipped with Mass detector and acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm, 100Å). All the dyes were separated and their masses were determined through fragments’ masses analyses.

  7. Decolorization of different textile dyes by Penicillium simplicissimum and toxicity evaluation after fungal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bergsten-Torralba, L.R.; Nishikawa, M.M.; Baptista, D.F.; Magalhães, D.P.; da Silva, M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of decolorization and detoxification of the textile dyes Reactive Red 198 (RR198), Reactive Blue 214 (RB214), Reactive Blue 21 (RB21) and the mixture of the three dyes (MXD) by Penicillium simplicissimum INCQS 40211. The dye RB21, a phthalocyanine, was totally decolorized in 2 days, and the others, the monoazo RR198, the diazo RB214 and MXD were decolorized after 7 days by P. simplicissimum. Initially the dye decolorization involved dye adsorption by the biomass followed by degradation. The acute toxicity after fungal treatment was monitored with the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex and measured through Effective Concentration 50% (EC50). P. simplicissimum reduced efficiently the toxicity of RB21 from moderately acutely toxic to minor acutely toxic and it also reduced the toxicity of RB214 and MXD, which remained minor acutely toxic. Nevertheless, the fungus increased the toxicity of RR198 despite of the reduction of MXD toxicity, which included this dye. Thus, P. simplicissimum INCQS 40211 was efficient to decolorize different textile dyes and the mixture of them with a significant reduction of their toxicity. In addition this investigation also demonstrated the need of toxicological assays associated to decolorization experiments. PMID:24031428

  8. Sorption of hydrophilic dyes on anodic aluminium oxide films and application to pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Silina, Yuliya E; Kuchmenko, Tatyana A; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2015-02-07

    The sorption of selected hydrophilic pH-sensitive dyes (bromophenol blue, bromothymol blue, bromocresol purple, alizarin red, methyl orange, congo red, rhodamine 6G) on films of anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) was investigated in this study. Depth and pore structure of the AAO channels were adjusted by changing electrolysis time and current density during treatment of aluminium foil in oxalic acid, sulfosalycilic acid and sulfuric acid at concentration levels between 0.2 and 0.6 M. The dyes were immobilized on the AAO surface by direct saturation of the films in dye solutions. It was shown by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral analysis that the dyes penetrated into the AAO channels by more than 1.5 μm, even at static saturation conditions. The anionic dyes linked to the porous AAO surface exhibited differential shifts of the UV absorption bands in their acidic/basic forms. By combining several dyes, the films have an application range between pH = 0.5-9 in aqueous media. The dye-modified AAO film was a simple, portable, inexpensive and reusable pH sensor with very fast response time and clear colour transitions.

  9. Dye injection for predicting pesticide movement in micro-irrigated polyethylene film mulch beds.

    PubMed

    Csinos, Alex S; Laska, James E; Childers, Stan

    2002-04-01

    A new method is described for tracing water movement in polyethylene film covered soil beds. Dye was delivered via a drip tape micro-irrigation system which was placed in the bed as the soil beds were shaped and covered with polyethylene film. The dye was injected into the system and irrigated with water for 4-24 h at 0.41-1.38 bar (41-138 kPa) pressure depending on the experiment. The dye appeared as blue circles on the soil surface within 20 min of injection and produced a three-dimensional pattern in the soil profile. Injection-irrigation-pressure scenarios were evaluated by measuring dye movement directly below and between emitters by sliding fabricated blades vertically into the bed at the desired examination point and excavating the soil away from the blade. The dye typically produced a U shape on the face of the bed and the area was calculated for each of these exposed faces. The area increased as the length of irrigation and water pressure increased. Interrupted irrigation (pulsing) scenarios did not alter the calculated areas encompassed by the dye compared to uninterrupted irrigation scenarios. The blue dye provided a direct, inexpensive and easy method of visualizing water movement in soil beds. This information will be used to optimize application of emulsifiable plant-care products in polyethylene film mulch beds.

  10. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Extracts from Four Cassia Flowers as Natural Sensitizers: Studies on Dye Ingredient Effect on Photovoltaic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Ishwar Chandra; Singh, Shalini; Neetu; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2018-01-01

    Natural dyes extracted from four different flowers, namely, Cassia surattensis, Cassia tora, Cassia alata and Cassia occidentalis were used as sensitizers for TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The dye extracts from flowers were obtained by a simple extraction technique and used without any further purification. Optical characteristics of dye extracts were studied. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were used to identify the constituents of extracted dyes. The photovoltaic performance of DSSC employing dye-capped TiO2 photoanodes was measured. The sensitization performance related to anchoring groups present and interaction between dyes with TiO2 surface is demonstrated. An attempt has been made to rationalize the observations by light absorption of the dye extracts and their adsorption on TiO2. The short-circuit current density ( I SC) values ranged from 0.06 mA/cm2 to 0.20 mA/cm2; open circuit voltage ( V OC) from 0.292 V to 0.833 V; fill factor (FF) from 0.7 to 0.9; efficiencies ( η) from 0.013% to 0.15% and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency from 13% to 20%, were obtained for DSSC using these natural dye extracts. Cassia occidentalis showed the highest current density of 0.20 mA/cm2 and power conversion efficiency of 0.15%, which was due to better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl group of the anthocyanin molecule of C. occidentalis and surface of TiO2 film. The red and blue shift of absorption wavelength of C. surattensis and the blue shift of absorption wavelength of the C. tora, C. alata and C. occidentalis extract in ethanol solution compared to that on TiO2 film has been used for the interpretation of obtained results.

  11. Adsorption of a Textile Dye on Commercial Activated Carbon: A Simple Experiment to Explore the Role of Surface Chemistry and Ionic Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Angela; Nunes, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an adsorption experiment is proposed using commercial activated carbon as adsorbent and a textile azo dye, Mordant Blue-9, as adsorbate. The surface chemistry of the activated carbon is changed through a simple oxidation treatment and the ionic strength of the dye solution is also modified, simulating distinct conditions of water…

  12. Chronic toxicity of azo and anthracenedione dyes to embryo-larval fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Joanne L; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Balakrishnan, Vimal K

    2016-03-01

    The toxicity of selected azo and anthracenedione dyes was studied using chronic exposures of embryo-larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Newly fertilized fathead minnow embryos were exposed through the egg stage, past hatching, through the larval stage (until 14 days post-hatch), with dye solutions renewed daily. The anthracenedione dyes Acid Blue 80 (AB80) and Acid Blue 129 (AB129) caused no effects in larval fish at the highest measured concentrations tested of 7700 and 6700 μg/L, respectively. Both azo dyes Disperse Yellow 7 (DY7) and Sudan Red G (SRG) decreased survival of larval fish, with LC50s (based on measured concentrations of dyes in fish exposure water) of 25.4 μg/L for DY7 and 16.7 μg/L for SRG. Exposure to both azo dyes caused a delayed response, with larval fish succumbing 4-10 days after hatch. If the exposures were ended at the embryo stage or just after hatch, the potency of these two dyes would be greatly underestimated. Concentrations of dyes that we measured entering the Canadian environment were much lower than those that affected larval fish survival in the current tests. In a total of 162 samples of different municipal wastewater effluents from across Canada assessed for these dyes, all were below detection limits. The similarities of the structures and larval fish responses for the two azo and two anthracenedione dyes in this study support the use of read-across data for risk assessment of these classes of compounds. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combinatorial effects of charge characteristics and hydrophobicity of silk fibroin on the sorption and release of charged dyes.

    PubMed

    Wongpanit, Panya; Rujiravanit, Ratana

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the influence of the charge characteristics of silk fibroin on the sorption and release of charged dyes by varying the pH values of the sorption and release media as well as types of charged dyes. Negatively charged dyes (phenol red and chromotrope 2R) and positively charged dyes (crystal violet and indoine blue) were used as the model compounds. Silk fibroin films were prepared by using a solution casting technique. The prepared films were then treated with an aqueous methanol solution or annealed with water to control their conformation. The sorption behavior of the model compounds made by the methanol-treated and water-annealed silk fibroin films was investigated. Compared to the water- annealed silk fibroin films, a higher hydrophobicity of the methanol-treated silk fibroin films caused a higher sorption of the hydrophobic dyes. The dye molecules had a fairly high affinity to the silk fibroin film, even though the dye and the matrix possessed the same charge. However, in the presence of two charged groups in a single dye molecule, the electrostatic repulsion become more dominant. Stronger interaction was observed when the charges of the film and the dye were opposite. The results of dye sorption and release experiments showed that the degree of synergism or competition between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions directly depended on the charges and chemical structure of the dye molecules and the environmental pH conditions of the existing silk fibroin film.

  14. Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with early stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Seong, Seok Ju; Park, Hyun; Yang, Kwang Moon; Kim, Tae Jin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Shim, Jae Uk; Park, Chong Taik; Lee, Ki Heon

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of identifying the sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) as well as to evaluate factors that might influence the SN detection rate in patients with cervical cancer of the uterus. Eighty nine patients underwent intracervical injection of 1% isosulfan blue dye at the time of planned radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy between January 2003 and December 2003. With the visual detection of lymph nodes that stained blue, SNs were identified and removed separately. Then all patients underwent complete pelvic lymph node dissection and/or para-aortic lymph node dissection. SNs were identified in 51 of 89 (57.3%) patients. The most common site for SN detection was the external iliac area. Metastatic nodes were detected in 21 of 89 (23.5%) patients. One false negative SN was obtained. Successful SN detection was more likely in patients younger than 50 yr (p=0.02) and with a history of preoperative conization (p=0.05). However, stage, histological type, surgical procedure and neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed no significant difference for SN detection rate. Therefore, the identification of SNs with isosulfan blue dye is feasible and safe. The SN detection rate was high in patients younger than 50 yr or with a history of preoperative conization.

  15. Surgical Marking Pen Dye Inhibits Saphenous Vein Cell Proliferation and Migration in Saphenous Vein Graft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Shinsuke; Kenagy, Richard D; Gao, Lu; Wight, Thomas N; Azuma, Nobuyoshi; Sobel, Michael; Clowes, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Markers containing dyes such as crystal violet (CAS 548-62-9) are routinely used on the adventitia of vein bypass grafts to avoid twisting during placement. Since little is known about how these dyes affect vein graft healing and function, we determined the effect of crystal violet on cell migration and proliferation, which are responses to injury after grafting. Methods Fresh human saphenous veins were obtained as residual specimens from leg bypass surgeries. Portions of the vein that had been surgically marked with crystal violet were analyzed separately from those that had no dye marking. In the laboratory, they were split into easily dissected inner and outer layers after removal of endothelium. This f cleavage plane was within the circular muscle layer of the media. Cell migration from explants was measured daily as either 1) % migration positive explants, which exclusively measures migration, or 2) the number of cells on the plastic surrounding each explant, which measures migration plus proliferation. Cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively) were determined in dye-marked and unmarked areas of cultured vein rings. The dose-dependent effects of crystal violet were measured for cell migration from explants as well as proliferation, migration, and death of cultured outer layer cells. Dye was extracted from explants with ethanol and quantified by spectrophotometry. Results There was significantly less cell migration from visibly blue, compared to unstained, outer layer explants by both methods. There was no significant difference in migration from inner layer explants adjacent to blue-stained or unstained sections of vein, because dye did not penetrate to the inner layer. Ki67 staining of vein in organ culture, which is a measure of proliferation, progressively increased up to 6 days in non-blue outer layer and was abolished in the blue outer layer. Evidence of apoptosis (TUNEL staining) was present throughout the wall

  16. Pale Blue Orb

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-19

    NASA Cassini casts powerful eyes on our home planet, and captures Earth, a pale blue orb, and a faint suggestion of our moon, among the glories of the Saturn system in this image taken Sept. 15, 2006.

  17. Village Blue Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Village Blue research project provides real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay.

  18. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePlus

    The methylene blue test is a test to determine the type or to treat methemoglobinemia , a blood disorder. ... higher, you can become sick because the protein is not carrying ... of red. Methemoglobinemia has several causes, many of which are ...

  19. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  20. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  1. An overview of nanomaterials applied for removing dyes from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhengqing; Sun, Youmin; Liu, Wen; Pan, Fei; Sun, Peizhe; Fu, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Organic dyes are one of the most commonly discharged pollutants in wastewaters; however, many conventional treatment methods cannot treat them effectively. Over the past few decades, we have witnessed rapid development of nanotechnologies, which offered new opportunities for developing innovative methods to treat dye-contaminated wastewater with low price and high efficiency. The large surface area, modified surface properties, unique electron conduction properties, etc. offer nanomaterials with excellent performances in dye-contaminated wastewater treatment. For examples, the agar-modified monometallic/bimetallic nanoparticles have the maximum methylene blue adsorption capacity of 875.0 mg/g, which are several times higher than conventional adsorbents. Among various nanomaterials, the carbonaceous nanomaterials, nano-sized TiO 2 , and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) are considered as the most promising nanomaterials for removing dyes from water phase. However, some challenges, such as high cost and poor separation performance, still limit their engineering application. This article reviewed the recent advances in the nanomaterials used for dye removal via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, and biological treatment. The modification methods for improving the effectiveness of nanomaterials are highlighted. Finally, the current knowledge gaps of developing nanomaterials on the environmental application were discussed, and the possible further research direction is proposed.

  2. Guided surgical debridement: staining tissues with methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Dorafshar, Amir H; Gitman, Marina; Henry, Ginard; Agarwal, Shailesh; Gottlieb, Lawrence J

    2010-01-01

    Precise surgical debridement of wounds is required to achieve wound closure. The authors describe their experience with a technique using topical methylene blue to facilitate precise surgical debridement. In this technique, methylene blue dye is applied topically to the wound surface at the onset of surgery. The stained wound site is then wiped to remove dye from the surface of normal epithelium; eschar, nonviable tissue, and granulation tissue remain stained. The methylene blue-stained tissue is surgically removed, and the newly debrided surface of the wound is assessed for adequate vascularity and biopsied to verify presence of bacteriologic balance before closure. The authors have used this technique in more than 200 wound debridements during the past year, including acute surgical or traumatic wounds, acute and subacute burn wounds, chronic granulating wounds, partially epithelialized wounds, sinus tracts, and fistulae. No adverse reactions have been noted, even on patients undergoing multiple applications through serial operations. Topical application of methylene blue to wounds with mixed tissue content helps to distinguish between viable and nonviable tissue and between epithelialized and nonepithelialized areas, facilitating more precise and complete wound debridement.

  3. Molecular mechanism of tau aggregation induced by anionic and cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Lira-De León, Karla I; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Serratos, Iris N; Palomera-Cárdenas, Marianela; Figueroa-Corona, María Del P; Campos-Peña, Victoria; Meraz-Ríos, Marco A

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal tau filaments are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Anionic dyes such as Congo Red, Thiazine Red, and Thioflavin S are able to induce tau fibrillization in vitro. SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with each dye for seven days leading to intracellular aggregates of tau protein, with different morphological characteristics. Interestingly, these tau aggregates were not observed when the Methylene Blue dye was added to the cell culture. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we developed a computational model for the interaction of the tau paired helical filament (PHF) core with every dye by docking analysis. The polar/electrostatic and nonpolar contribution to the free binding energy in the tau PHF core-anionic dye interaction was determined. We found that the tau PHF core can generate a positive net charge within the binding site localized at residuesLys311 and Lys340 (numbering according to the longest isoform hTau40). These residues are important for the binding affinity of the negative charges present in the anionic dyes causing an electrostatic environment that stabilizes the complex. Tau PHF core protofibril-Congo Red interaction has a stronger binding affinity compared to Thiazine Red or Thioflavin S. By contrast, the cationic dye Methylene Blue does not bind to nor stabilize the tau PHF core protofibrils. These results characterize the driving forces responsible for the binding of tau to anionic dyes leading to their self-aggregation and suggest that Methylene Blue may act as a destabilizing agent of tau aggregates.

  4. Blue nevus and "malignant blue nevus:" A concise review.

    PubMed

    Sugianto, Jessica Zarah; Ralston, Jonathan Scott; Metcalf, John S; McFaddin, Courtney L; Smith, M Timothy

    2016-07-01

    Blue nevi are a heterogeneous group of lesions that can display a variety of different clinicopathological characteristics. Although attempts are made to classify each lesion into defined subtypes, there can be overlap between the subtypes. The clinical and histolopathologic features of common blue nevi and cellular blue nevi are discussed, as well as blue nevi with atypical features and malignant lesions with features of blue nevi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct identification of early synthetic dyes: FT-Raman study of the illustrated broadside prints of José Gaudalupe Posada (1852-1913)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, F.; Mauck, K.; Chefitz, M.; Freeman, R.

    2010-09-01

    Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy was used for the non-invasive, direct identification of colorants used to dye historical printed papers, overcoming obstacles such as low concentration of the dye, faded colors and fluorescence interference of the aged paper substrate. Based on a newly created FT-Raman reference database of 20 widely used dyes in the 19th century paper industry, the detectability of these dyes on aged biomaterials was determined by studying dyed paper samples from contemporary dye manuals, and identifying diagnostic peaks detectable on those substrates. Lastly, the method was applied to analyze the colorants used to dye the papers of a group of prints illustrated by the influential Mexico City artist José Guadalupe Posada, active 1876-1913. Unambiguous identification of the synthetic organic colorants Malachite Green (a triarylmethane dye), Orange II and Metanil Yellow (two acid monoazo dyes), Cotton Scarlet (an acid diazo dye), Phloxine (a xanthene dye) and Victoria Blue (a triarylmethane dye) in several of Posada’s prints challenged previous art-historical assumptions that these artworks were colored with natural dyes. The acquired knowledge has important conservation implications given that aniline dyes are sensitive to light and to aqueous treatments otherwise commonly carried out on works of art on paper.

  6. Treatment of synthetic textile wastewater containing dye mixtures with microcosms.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Dina A; Scholz, Miklas

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to assess the ability of microcosms (laboratory-scale shallow ponds) as a post polishing stage for the remediation of artificial textile wastewater comprising two commercial dyes (basic red 46 (BR46) and reactive blue 198 (RB198)) as a mixture. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of Lemna minor L. (common duckweed) on the water quality outflows; the elimination of dye mixtures, organic matter, and nutrients; and the impact of synthetic textile wastewater comprising dye mixtures on the L. minor plant growth. Three mixtures were prepared providing a total dye concentration of 10 mg/l. Findings showed that the planted simulated ponds possess a significant (p < 0.05) potential for improving the outflow characteristics and eliminate dyes, ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4 -N), and nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 -N) in all mixtures compared with the corresponding unplanted ponds. The removal of mixed dyes in planted ponds was mainly due to phyto-transformation and adsorption of BR46 with complete aromatic amine mineralisation. For ponds containing 2 mg/l of RB198 and 8 mg/l of BR46, removals were around 53%, which was significantly higher than those for other mixtures: 5 mg/l of RB198 and 5 mg/l of BR46 and 8 mg/l of RB198 and 2 mg/l of BR46 achieved only 41 and 26% removals, respectively. Dye mixtures stopped the growth of L. minor, and the presence of artificial wastewater reduced their development.

  7. Dye-ligand affinity systems.

    PubMed

    Denizli, A; Pişkin, E

    2001-10-30

    Dye-ligands have been considered as one of the important alternatives to natural counterparts for specific affinity chromatography. Dye-ligands are able to bind most types of proteins, in some cases in a remarkably specific manner. They are commercially available, inexpensive, and can easily be immobilized, especially on matrices bearing hydroxyl groups. Although dyes are all synthetic in nature, they are still classified as affinity ligands because they interact with the active sites of many proteins mimicking the structure of the substrates, cofactors, or binding agents for those proteins. A number of textile dyes, known as reactive dyes, have been used for protein purification. Most of these reactive dyes consist of a chromophore (either azo dyes, anthraquinone, or phathalocyanine), linked to a reactive group (often a mono- or dichlorotriazine ring). The interaction between the dye ligand and proteins can be by complex combination of electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding. Selection of the supporting matrix is the first important consideration in dye-affinity systems. There are several methods for immobilization of dye molecules onto the support matrix, in which usually several intermediate steps are followed. Both the adsorption and elution steps should carefully be optimized/designed for a successful separation. Dye-affinity systems in the form of spherical sorbents or as affinity membranes have been used in protein separation.

  8. International, prospective haemovigilance study on methylene blue-treated plasma.

    PubMed

    Noens, L; Vilariño, Ma D; Megalou, A; Qureshi, H

    2017-05-01

    Methylene blue is a phenothiazine dye, which in combination with visible light has virucidal and bactericidal properties, disrupting the replication of a broad range of enveloped viruses and some non-enveloped viruses. The study objective was to collect data on adverse reactions occurring with methylene blue plasma administered in a routine clinical practice environment and document their characteristics and severity. This was an open label, multicentre, non-controlled, non-randomized, non-interventional study. Patients who receive a methylene blue plasma transfusion were observed for any signs and symptoms (adverse reactions) within 24 h safter the start of the transfusion, in different hospitals for a study duration of at least 1 year. A total of 19 315 methylene blue plasma units were transfused. There were eight patients with adverse reactions recorded during the study, one of them serious. Two had more than one reaction (two and four, respectively). Three patients had previous transfusions with methylene blue plasma only. Methylene blue plasma has a very acceptable safety profile with a rate of serious adverse reactions of 0·5/10 000 units. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Adsorption Properties of p -Methyl Red Monomeric-to-Pentameric Dye Aggregates on Anatase (101) Titania Surfaces: First-Principles Calculations of Dye/TiO 2 Photoanode Interfaces for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M.

    2014-08-29

    The optical and electronic properties of dye aggregates of p-methyl red on a TiO2 anatase (101) surface were modeled as a function of aggregation order (monomer to pentameric dye) via first principles calculations. A progressive red-shifting and intensity increase toward the visible region in UV/vis absorption spectra is observed from monomeric-to-tetrameric dyes, with each molecule in a given aggregate binding to one of the four possible TiO2 (101) adsorption sites. The pentamer exhibits a blue-shifted peak wave- length in the UV/vis absorption spectra and less absorption intensity in the visible region in comparison; a corresponding manifestation of H-aggregation occurs sincemore » one of these five molecules cannot occupy an adsorption site. This finding is consistent with experiment. Calculated density of states (DOS) and partial DOS spectra reveal similar dye…TiO2 nanocomposite conduction band characteristics but different valence band features. Associated molecular orbital distributions reveal dye-to-TiO2 interfacial charge transfer in all five differing aggregate orders; meanwhile, the level of intramolecular charge transfer in the dye becomes progressively localized around its azo- and electron-donating groups, up to the tetrameric dye/TiO2 species. Dye adsorption energies and dye coverage levels are calculated and compared with experiment. Overall, the findings of this case study serve to aid the molecular design of azo dyes towards better performing DSSC devices wherein they are incorporated. In addition, they provide a helpful example reference for understanding the effects of dye aggregation on the adsorbate…TiO2 interfacial optical and electronic properties.« less

  10. Photophysics and photochemistry of dyes bound to human serum albumin are determined by the dye localization.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Emilio; Edwards, Ana Maria; Aspee, Alexis; Moran, Faustino E; Borsarelli, Claudio D; Lissi, Eduardo A; Gonzalez-Nilo, Danilo; Poblete, Horacio; Scaiano, J C

    2010-01-01

    The photophysics and photochemistry of rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) bound to human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated under a variety of experimental conditions. Distribution of the dyes between the external solvent and the protein has been estimated by physical separation and fluorescence measurements. The main localization of protein-bound dye molecules was estimated by the intrinsic fluorescence quenching, displacement of fluorescent probes bound to specific protein sites, and by docking modelling. All the data indicate that, at low occupation numbers, RB binds strongly to the HSA site I, while MB localizes predominantly in the protein binding site II. This different localization explains the observed differences in the dyes' photochemical behaviour. In particular, the environment provided by site I is less polar and considerably less accessible to oxygen. The localization of RB in site I also leads to an efficient quenching of the intrinsic protein fluorescence (ascribed to the nearby Trp residue) and the generation of intra-protein singlet oxygen, whose behaviour is different to that observed in the external solvent or when it is generated by bound MB.

  11. Biosorption of alpacide blue from aqueous solution by lignocellulosic biomass: Luffa cylindrica fibers.

    PubMed

    Kesraoui, Aida; Moussa, Asma; Ali, Ghada Ben; Seffen, Mongi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop an effective and inexpensive pollutant-removal technology using lignocellulosic fibers: Luffa cylindrica, for the biosorption of an anionic dye: alpacide blue. The influence of some experimental parameters such as pH, temperature, initial concentration of the polluted solution, and mass of the sorbent L. cylindrica on the biosorption of alpacide blue by L. cylindrica fibers has been investigated. Optimal parameters for maximum quantity of biosorption dye were achieved after 2 h of treatment in a batch system using an initial dye concentration of 20 mg/L, a mass of 1 g of L. cylindrica fibers, and pH 2. In these conditions, the quantity of dye retained is 2 mg/g and the retention rate is 78 %. Finally, a mathematical modeling of kinetics and isotherms has been used for mathematical modeling; the model of pseudo-second order is more appropriate to describe this phenomenon of biosorption. Concerning biosorption isotherms, the Freundlich model is the most appropriate for a biosorption of alpacide blue dye by L. cylindrica fibers.

  12. A novel biosorbent for dye removal: extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Wang, Xuejiang; Yang, Aming; Xu, Bin; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier

    2009-04-15

    This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery.

  13. Performance evaluation of two Aspergillus spp. for the decolourization of reactive dyes by bioaccumulation and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Megha; Gola, Deepak; Panja, Rupobrata; Malik, Anushree; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2018-01-01

    A biological method was adopted to decolourize textile dyes, which is an economic and eco-friendly technology for textile wastewater remediation. Two fungal strains, i.e. Aspergillus lentulus and Aspergillus fumigatus, were used to study the removal of low to high concentrations (25 to 2000 mg L -1 ) of reactive remazol red, reactive blue and reactive yellow dyes by biosorption and bioaccumulation. The biosorption was successful only at the lower concentrations. A. lentulus was capable of removing 67-85% of reactive dyes during bioaccumulation mode of treatment at 500 mg L -1 dye concentration with an increased biomass uptake capacity. To cope up with the high dye concentration of 2000 mg L -1 , a novel combined approach was successful in case of A. lentulus, where almost 76% removal of reactive remazol red dye was observed during bioaccumulation followed by biosorption. The scanning electron microscopy also showed the accumulation of dye on the surface of fungal mycelium. The results signify the application of such robust fungal strains for the removal of high concentration of dyes in the textile wastewaters.

  14. Degradation of disperse blue 79 in anaerobic sediment-water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.J.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years, concern over the environmental fate of the disperse azo dyes in natural water systems has grown. This concern arises from the fact that these dyes are very hydrophobic compounds, suggesting that they will partition strongly to bottom sediments where reductive cleavage of the azo linkage may occur. This transformation process could result in the release of potentially hazardous aromatic amines into the water column. Earlier studies in this laboratory demonstrated that the reductive cleavage of simple substituted azobenzenes in anaerobic sediment-water systems is a facile process. To determine whether reductive transformation of disperse azo dyes in naturalmore » water systems is an important environmental process, the fate of disperse Blue 79 in anaerobic sediment-water systems was studied. Disperse Blue 79 was selected for study for several reasons. It is by far the largest volume dye on the market today; the average annual production in the US from 1983 to 1985 was approximately 3.2 million kilograms. Furthermore, the reductive cleavage of the azo linkage of Disperse Blue 79 results in the formation of 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline (BDNA), which has been shown to be both toxic and mutagenic. Recently, the Interagency Testing Committee, a Federal body established under the Toxic Substances Control Act, selected Disperse Blue 79 as a compound needing study with respect to its environmental fate and impact.« less

  15. Trypan blue to assess Baerveldt tube patency after repair of its obstruction.

    PubMed

    Grigg, John; Jang, John D W; Fung, Adrian T; Hunyor, Alex P; Wilson, Trevor

    2011-12-01

    Tubal obstruction is a recognized complication of glaucoma drainage implants. In correcting a blocked tube, the surgeon may be uncertain about shunt competence even after removing the suspected cause of obstruction. We report the use of trypan blue dye to show tubal patency directly after the repair of a blocked Baerveldt tube.

  16. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF C.I. DISPERSE BLUE 79 - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the fate of C.I. Disperse Blue 79, one of the largest production volume dyes, and select biodegradation products in a conventionally operated activated sludge process and an anaerobic sludge digestion system. To achieve this objective, a pilo...

  17. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF C.I. DISPERSE BLUE 79 - VOLUME II, APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the fate of C.I. Disperse Blue 79, one of the largest production volume dyes, and select biodegradation products in a conventionally operated activated sludge process and an anaerobic sludge digestion system. To achieve this objective, a pilo...

  18. The feasibility of using methylene blue sensitized polyvinylalcohol film as a linear polarizer

    SciTech Connect

    Jyothilakshmi, K.; Anju, K. S.; Arathy, K.

    2014-01-28

    Linear light polarizing films selectively transmit radiations vibrating along an electromagnetic radiation vector and selectively absorb radiations vibrating along a second electromagnetic radiation vector. It happens according to the anisotropy of the film . In the present study the polarization effects of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol is investigated. The polarization effects on the dye concentration, heating and stretching of film also are evaluated.

  19. Citrus pectin derived porous carbons as a superior adsorbent toward removal of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenlin; Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-11-01

    An adsorbent, citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of methylene blue, was synthesized by a facile zinc chloride activation approach in this study. The materials hold a great potential for treatment of dye wastewater.

  20. Graphene oxide supported copper oxide nanoneedles: An efficient hybrid material for removal of toxic azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Rajendiran; Iyer, Sahithya S.; Ezhilan, Jayabal; Kumar, S. Senthil; Venkatesan, Rengarajan

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we report a simple, one step synthesis of hybrid copper oxide nanoneedles on graphene oxide sheets (GO-CuONNs) through sonochemical method. The present method affords a facile mean for controlling effective concentration of the active CuO nanoneedles on the graphene oxide sheets, and also offers the necessary stability to the resulting GO-CuONNs structure for adsorption transformations.Furthermore, this hybrid GO-CuONNs is successfully employed in the removal of a series of hazardous ionic organic dyes namely coomassie brilliant blue, methylene blue, congo red and amidoblack 10B. Through careful investigation of the material, we found that the synergetic effect between CuONNs and GO play a significant role in the adsorption of all the dyes studied. The prepared hybrid material contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic environment which is expected to enhance the electrostatic interaction between the adsorbent and the dye molecules, consequently favouring the adsorption process.

  1. Natural adsorbents of dyes from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Meryem; El Hajjaji, souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; El M'Rabet, Mohammadine

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of natural waters is a current environmental problem and lot of work has been done to find methods for its, prevention and remediation such as ionic exchange, adsorption on active carbon, filtration, electrolysis, biodegradation …etc. Adsorption is one of the most applied methods according to its effectiveness and easy management. Some adsorbents with good properties such as active alumina, zeolites, crop residues … etc, are suitable to substitute usual active carbon. This study aimed at the removal of dyes using oil shale as natural support, and its optimization by factorial experiment. Three factors were considered namly:pollutant concentration, pH and weight of the adsorbent. Tests have been performed with cationic and anionic dyes. Experimental results show that pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data for the adsorption by the oil shale. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were tested to fit experimental data, the adsorption equilibrium was well described by Freundlich isotherm for methylorange and Temkin for methyl blue. Analysis were completed by oil shale characterization educing XRD, IR, XRF techniques, and cationic exchange capacity.

  2. Decolorization and biodegradation of remazol brilliant blue R by bilirubin oxidase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youxun; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2009-12-01

    The dye-decolorizing potential of bilirubin oxidase (BOX) was demonstrated for an anthraquinone dye, remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR). The dye was decolorized 40% within 4 h by the BOX alone, whereas it was more efficient in the presence of 2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), showing 91.5% decolorization within 25 min. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization were examined. The results showed that the decolorization efficiency decreased with increasing RBBR concentration, and a marked inhibition effect was exhibited when the dye concentrations were above 100 mg l(-1). The optimum temperature for enzymatic decolorization was 40 degrees C. BOX showed efficient decolorization of the dye with a wide pH range of 5-8.5. The maximum decolorization activity occurred at pH 8 with ABTS and at pH 5 without ABTS. Analysis of RBBR ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) spectra after BOX treatment indicated that the decolorization of RBBR was due to biodegradation. Our results suggested that ABTS can serve as an electron mediator to facilitate the oxidation of RBBR, and the BOX-ABTS mediator-involved dye decolorization mechanism was similar to that of laccase. Operation over a wide range of pH and efficient decolorization suggested that the BOX can be used to decolorize synthetic dyes from effluents, especially for anthraquinonic dyes.

  3. Interaction of phenazinium dyes with double-stranded poly(A): Spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asma Yasmeen; Saha, Baishakhi; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive study on the binding of phenazinium dyes viz. janus green B, indoine blue, safranine O and phenosafranine with double stranded poly(A) using various spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques is presented. A higher binding of janus green B and indoine blue over safranine O and phenosafranine to poly(A) was observed from all experiments. Intercalative mode of binding of the dyes was inferred from fluorescence polarization anisotropy, iodide quenching and viscosity experiments. Circular dichroism study revealed significant perturbation of the secondary structure of poly(A) on binding of these dyes. Results from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments suggested that the binding was predominantly entropy driven with a minor contribution of enthalpy to the standard molar Gibbs energy. The results presented here may open new opportunities in the application of these dyes as RNA targeted therapeutic agents.

  4. Magnetic removal of dyes from aqueous solution using multi-walled carbon nanotubes filled with Fe2O3 particles.

    PubMed

    Qu, Song; Huang, Fei; Yu, Shaoning; Chen, Gang; Kong, Jilie

    2008-12-30

    The Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been introduced into the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via wet chemical method. The resulting products are characterized by TEM, EDX, XRD and VSM. The magnetic MWCNTs have been employed as adsorbent for the magnetic separation of dye contaminants from water. The adsorption test of dyes (Methylene Blue and Neutral Red) demonstrates that it only takes 60min to attain equilibrium and the adsorption capacities for Methylene Blue and Neutral Red in the concentration range studied are 42.3 and 77.5mg/g, respectively. The magnetic MWCNTs can be easily manipulated in magnetic field for desired separation, leading to the removal of dyes from polluted water. The integration of MWCNTs with Fe2O3 nanoparticles has great potential application to remove organic dyes from polluted water.

  5. A prospective randomized trial comparing patent blue and methylene blue for the detection of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Paulinelli, Régis Resende; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Rahal, Rosemar Macedo de Souza; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de Pádua; Vilela, Maria Helena Tavares; Moreira, Marise Amaral Rebouças; Alves, Katyane Larissa; Peleja, Marina Berquó; Resende, Tatiane Coelho Capel de

    2017-02-01

    Methylene blue is more widely available and less expensive than patent blue, with an apparently lower risk of anaphylaxis. The two dyes were compared regarding detection of the sentinel lymph node (SLN). A prospective, randomized trial involved 142 patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Sixty-nine (49.3%) assigned to patent blue (group A) and 71 (50.70%) to methylene blue (group B). Thirty-five patients (25.0%) were clinical stage III or IV; 55 (38.7%) had axillary lymph nodes affected; and 69 (49.3%) underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Two patients were excluded because the dye type was not recorded. Patients and tumor characteristics were similar in both groups. SLNs were identified in 47 women (68.1%) in group A and 43 (60.6%) in group B (p=0.35). SLNs were affected in 22 cases (51.2%) in group A and 21 (48.8%) in group B (p=0.62). The SLN was the only node affected in 12 cases (54.5%) in group A and six (33.3%) in group B (p=0.18). The time and degree of difficulty involved in identifying the SLN were similar in both groups. There were no complications or allergies. Methylene blue performed as well as patent blue in identifying the SLN in breast cancer patients.

  6. Rapid alkaline methylene blue supravital staining for assessment of anterior segment infections.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Katsuji

    2016-01-01

    To present the Löffler's alkaline methylene blue technique of staining eye discharges in eyes with anterior segment infections. The Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining method is a simple staining technique that can be used to differentiate bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. It is a cationic dye that stains cells blue because the positively charged dye is attracted to negatively charged particles such as polyphosphates, DNAs, and RNAs. Specimens collected from patients by swabbing are smeared onto microscope slides and the methylene blue solution is dropped on the slide. The slide is covered with a glass cover slip and examined under a microscope. The entire time from the collection to the viewing is about 30 seconds. Histopathological images of the conjunctival epithelial cells and neutrophils in eye discharges were dyed blue and the nuclei were stained more intensely blue. Bacterial infections consisted mainly of neutrophils, and viral infections consisted mainly of lymphocytes. Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining can be done in about 30 seconds for diagnosis. Even though this is a one color stain, it is possible to infer the cause of the infection by detection of the absence of bacteria and/or fungi in context of the differential distribution of neutrophils and lymphocytes.

  7. Removal of anionic and cationic dyes with bioadsorbent oxidized chitosans.

    PubMed

    León, Orietta; Muñoz-Bonilla, Alexandra; Soto, Diana; Pérez, Daniela; Rangel, Medarda; Colina, Marinela; Fernández-García, Marta

    2018-08-15

    Different oxidized chitosans were prepared following various approaches, by thermo-acid oxidation or by using KMnO 4 /NaHSO 3 , (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 /NaHSO 3 and K 2 Cr 2 O 7 /NaHSO 3 redox pairs added sequentially or simultaneously. All these reactions pursue the formation of carboxylic groups which enhance their capability to remove model cationic and anionic dyes such as methylene blue and methyl orange, respectively. The resulting oxidized chitosans were structurally and thermally characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The swelling capacity of these hydrogels was also determined as well as the remediation ability of dyes in different conditions. The results showed that the adsorption of methylene blue followed a pseudo second-order kinetics model, while the adsorption behavior was in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model. Remarkably, the oxidized chitosans showed removal ability for both dyes cationic and anionic, which of great importance for application of these materials as versatile bioadsorbents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Two-photon excited photoconversion of cyanine-based dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Choi, Myunghwan; Bhayana, Brijesh; Zhang, Xueli; Ran, Chongzhao; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The advent of phototransformable fluorescent proteins has led to significant advances in optical imaging, including the unambiguous tracking of cells over large spatiotemporal scales. However, these proteins typically require activating light in the UV-blue spectrum, which limits their in vivo applicability due to poor light penetration and associated phototoxicity on cells and tissue. We report that cyanine-based, organic dyes can be efficiently photoconverted by nonlinear excitation at the near infrared (NIR) window. Photoconversion likely involves singlet-oxygen mediated photochemical cleavage, yielding blue-shifted fluorescent products. Using SYTO62, a biocompatible and cell-permeable dye, we demonstrate photoconversion in a variety of cell lines, including depth-resolved labeling of cells in 3D culture. Two-photon photoconversion of cyanine-based dyes offer several advantages over existing photoconvertible proteins, including use of minimally toxic NIR light, labeling without need for genetic intervention, rapid kinetics, remote subsurface targeting, and long persistence of photoconverted signal. These findings are expected to be useful for applications involving rapid labeling of cells deep in tissue.

  9. Effect of vital dyes on human corneal endothelium and elasticity of Descemet’s membrane

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Peter B. M.; Dimov, Ivan B.; Franze, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of vital dyes on human Descemet's membranes (DMs) and endothelia. DMs of 25 human cadaveric corneas with research consent were treated with dyes routinely used in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK), 0.05% Trypan blue (TB) or a combination of 0.15% Trypan blue, 0.025% Brilliant blue and 4% Polyethylene glycol (commercial name Membrane Blue Dual; MB). The effects of these two dyes on (i) endothelial cell viability, (ii) DM mechanical properties as assessed by atomic force microscopy, and iii) qualitative DM dye retention were tested for two varying exposure times (one or four minutes). No significant differences in cell toxicity were observed between treatments with TB and MB at the two different exposure times (P = 0.21). Further, both dyes led to a significant increase in DM stiffness: exposure to TB and MB for one minute increased the apparent elastic modulus of the DM by 11.2% (P = 8*10−3) and 17.7%, respectively (P = 4*10−6). A four-minute exposure led to an increase of 8.6% for TB (P = 0.004) and 13.6% for MB (P = 0.03). Finally, at 25 minutes, the dye retention of the DM was considerably better for MB compared to TB. Taken together, a one-minute exposure to MB was found to improve DM visibility compared to TB, with a significant increase in DM stiffness and without detrimental effects on endothelial cell viability. The use of MB could therefore improve (i) visibility of the DM scroll, and (ii) intraoperative unfolding, enhancing the probability of successful DMEK surgery. PMID:28902856

  10. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks: An Efficient Adsorbent for Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Deb, Madhurima; Tiwari, Shreya; Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2018-04-01

    Extraordinary properties of graphene and its derivatives have found application in varied areas such as energy, electronics, optical devices and sensors, to name a few. Large surface area along with specialized functional groups make these materials attractive for removal of dye molecules in solution via adsorption. Industrial effluents contain large amounts of toxic chemicals resulting in pollution of water bodies, which pose environmental hazards in general. Here we report application of 3D oxidized graphene frameworks in the efficient removal of cationic dye molecules such as methylene blue via adsorption. Systematic parametric studies investigating the effect of the initial dye concentration, pH and contact time have been performed. Spectroscopic analysis of the filtrate suggests that tortuous paths in 3D oxidized graphene frameworks result in efficient removal of dye molecules due to enhanced interaction. The hydroxyl groups retained in these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks facilitate adsorption of the dye molecules while passing through the adsorbent. pH studies suggest that maximum removal efficiency for methylene blue was achieved at pH value of 9. The results suggest that these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks can be used for purification of large volumes of contaminated water from cationic dyes in waste water treatment plants.

  11. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectrophotometric investigation of the hetero-association of Caffeine and thiazine dye in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, P. A.; Baranovsky, S. F.; Evstigneev, M. P.

    2006-06-01

    The self-association of thiazine dye, Methylene Blue (MB), and its hetero-association with Caffeine (CAF), were studied in aqueous solution by means of spectrophotometry in the visible range of spectrum. Concentration and temperature dependences of molar absorption of the interacting molecules were used to analyse dynamic equilibrium in solution in terms of two-component model of molecular hetero-association. The magnitudes of equilibrium dimerization and hetero-association constants as well as thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy and entropy, were determined. The calculation of the fraction of different types of associates in the mixed solution, containing Methylene Blue and Caffeine, was done. It was concluded that the hetero-association of Methylene Blue and Caffeine molecules results in lower effective concentration of the dye in solution, which may account for the alteration of its biological activity.

  13. Decolorization of acid, disperse and reactive dyes by Trametes versicolor CBR43.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Ok; Sodaneath, Hong; Lee, Jung-In; Jung, Hyekyeng; Choi, Jin-Hee; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-07-29

    The mycoremediation has been considered as a promising method for decolorizing dye wastewater. To explore new bioresource for mycoremediation, a new white-rot fungus that could decolorize various dyes commonly used in textile industries was isolated, and its ligninolytic enzyme activity and decolorization capacity were characterized. The isolated CBR43 was identified as Trametes versicolor based on the morphological properties of its fruit body and spores, as well as through partial 18S rDNA gene sequences. Isolated CBR43 displayed high activities of laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase, whereas its lignin peroxidase activity was relatively low. These ligninolytic enzyme activities in potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium were enhanced by the addition of yeast extract (1-10 g L -1 ). In particular, lignin peroxidase activity was increased more than 5 times in the PDB medium amended with 10 g L -1 of yeast extract. The CBR43 decolorized more than 90% of 200 mg L -1 acid dyes (red 114, blue 62 and black 172) and reactive dyes (red 120, blue 4, orange 16 and black 5) within 6 days in the PDB medium. CBR43 decolorized 67% of 200 mg L -1 acid orange 7 within 9 days. The decolorization efficiencies for disperse dyes (red 1, orange 3 and black 1) were 51-80% within 9 days. The CBR43 could effectively decolorize high concentrations of acid blue 62 and acid black 172 (500-700 mg L -1 ). The maximum dye decolorization rate was obtained at 28°C, pH 5, and 150 rpm in the PDB medium. T. versicolor CBR43 had high laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase activities, and could decolorize a wide variety of dyes such as acid, disperse and reactive textile dyes. This fungus had decolorizing activities of azo-type dyes as well as anthraquinone-type dyes. T. versicolor CBR43 is one of promising bioresources for the decolorization of textile wastewater including various dyes.

  14. Blue-Green Algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... weeks does not improve fatigue in adults with long-term complaints of fatigue. Malnutrition. Early research on the use of blue-green algae in combination with other dietary treatments for malnutrition in infants and children shows conflicting results. Weight gain was seen in ...

  15. The Blue Tube.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallisch, Bill; Taylor, Bob

    The "Blue Tube" is a 2-part academic package developed at the U.S. Air Force Academy consisting of an English course in communication and writing skills and a management course in advertising and marketing; the two courses are interrelated through student assignments in television production. The first part of the package includes…

  16. Investigation of the chemical origin and evidential value of differences in the SERS spectra of blue gel inks.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yen Cheng; Lee, Wendy W Y; Bell, Steven E J

    2016-08-15

    Highly swellable polymer films doped with Ag nanoparticle aggregates (poly-SERS films) have been used to record very high signal : noise ratio, reproducible surface-enhanced (resonance) Raman (SER(R)S) spectra of in situ dried ink lines and their constituent dyes using both 633 and 785 nm excitation. These allowed the chemical origins of differences in the SERRS spectra of different inks to be determined. Initial investigation of pure samples of the 10 most common blue dyes showed that the dyes which had very similar chemical structures such as Patent Blue V and Patent Blue VF (which differ only by a single OH group) gave SERRS spectra in which the only indications that the dye structure had been changed were small differences in peak positions or relative intensities of the bands. SERRS studies of 13 gel pen inks were consistent with this observation. In some cases inks from different types of pens could be distinguished even though they were dominated by a single dye such as Victoria Blue B (Zebra Surari) or Victoria Blue BO (Pilot Acroball) because their predominant dye did not appear in other inks. Conversely, identical spectra were also recorded from different types of pens (Pilot G7, Zebra Z-grip) because they all had the same dominant Brilliant Blue G dye. Finally, some of the inks contained mixtures of dyes which could be separated by TLC and removed from the plate before being analysed with the same poly-SERS films. For example, the Pentel EnerGel ink pen was found to give TLC spots corresponding to Erioglaucine and Brilliant Blue G. Overall, this study has shown that the spectral differences between different inks which are based on chemically similar, but nonetheless distinct dyes, are extremely small, so very close matches between SERRS spectra are required for confident identification. Poly-SERS substrates can routinely provide the very stringent reproducibility and sensitivity levels required. This, coupled with the awareness of the reasons

  17. Fast adsorption kinetics of highly dispersed ultrafine nickel/carbon nanoparticles for organic dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taek-Seung; Song, Hee Jo; Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad; Lee, Hack-Jun; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic metal/carbon nano-materials are attractive for pollutant adsorption and removal. In this study, ultrafine nickel/carbon nanoparticles are successfully prepared via electrical wire explosion processing in ethanol media for the elimination of pollutant organic dyes such as Rhodamine B and methylene blue in aqueous solutions. High specific surface areas originating from both the nano-sized particles and the existence of carbon on the surface of Ni nanoparticles enhance dye adsorption capacity. In addition to this, the excellent dispersity of Ni/C nanoparticles in aqueous dye solutions leads to superior adsorption rates. The adsorption kinetics for the removal of organic dyes by Ni/C nanoparticles agree with a pseudo-second-order model and follow Freundlich adsorption isotherm behavior.

  18. New physicochemical interpretations for the adsorption of food dyes on chitosan films using statistical physics treatment.

    PubMed

    Dotto, G L; Pinto, L A A; Hachicha, M A; Knani, S

    2015-03-15

    In this work, statistical physics treatment was employed to study the adsorption of food dyes onto chitosan films, in order to obtain new physicochemical interpretations at molecular level. Experimental equilibrium curves were obtained for the adsorption of four dyes (FD&C red 2, FD&C yellow 5, FD&C blue 2, Acid Red 51) at different temperatures (298, 313 and 328 K). A statistical physics formula was used to interpret these curves, and the parameters such as, number of adsorbed dye molecules per site (n), anchorage number (n'), receptor sites density (NM), adsorbed quantity at saturation (N asat), steric hindrance (τ), concentration at half saturation (c1/2) and molar adsorption energy (ΔE(a)) were estimated. The relation of the above mentioned parameters with the chemical structure of the dyes and temperature was evaluated and interpreted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic graphene oxide for adsorption of organic dyes from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drashya, Lal, Shyam; Hooda, Sunita

    2018-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), a 2-D carbon nanomaterial, large surface area, oxygen-containing groups (like: hydroxyl, epoxy and carboxyl) and excellent water dispersibility due to it is good adsorbent dye removal from pollutant water1. But it's difficult to separate GO from water after adsorption. Therefore, Iron oxide was introduced in Graphene oxide by decorating method to make separation more efficient2. We present herein a one step process to prepare Magnetic Graphene oxide (MGO). The Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy characterized the chemical structure of the MGO composite. The adsorption of dyes onto MGO was studied in relation to initial concentration of Dyes, contact time, adsorbent dose, temperature and pH value of solution. We have studied adsorption capacity of different dyes (Methylene blue and crystal violet) by MGO.

  20. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  1. Village Blue Frequently Asked Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Village Blue project to increase public awareness about local water quality in the Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. This document answers frequently asked questions about Village Blue.

  2. Dyeing and characterization of regenerated cellulose nanofibers with vat dyes.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Shaikh, Irfan; Phan, Duy-Nam; Khan, Qamar; Khatri, Zeeshan; Lee, Hoik; Kim, Ick Soo

    2017-10-15

    Recent advancement in dyeing of nanofibers has been accelerated to improve their aesthetic properties, however, achieving good color fastness remains a challenge. Therefore, we attempt to improve the color fastness properties nanofibers. Vat dyes are known for better color fastness and their application on nanofibers has not been investigated to date. Herein, we report dyeing of regenerated cellulose nanofibers (RCNF) that were produced from precursor of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation process. The resultant RCNF was dyed with two different vat dyes and the color attributes were examined under spectrophotometer which showed outstanding color build-up. Morphological of CA before and after deacetylation and before and after vat dyeing was investigated under TEM, FE-SEM and SEM respectively. The vat dyed RCNF were further characterized by FTIR and WAXD. Excellent color fastness results demonstrate that vat dyed RCNF can potentially be considered for advanced apparel applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation and dyeing of super hydrophilic polyethylene terephthalate fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, D. D.; Zhou, J. F.; Xu, F.; Zhang, F. X.; Zhang, G. X.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the dyeing properties of PET fabrics modified with sulfuric acid was investigated using disperse red E-4B and disperse blue 2BLNG-L at high temperature and high pressure. The results revealed that the sulfuric acid modification improved the K/S value of dyeing PET fabrics, and the modified PET fabric could be dyed uniformly. The a, b, C, L and H of modified PET fabric were almost the same as that of original PET fabric. The water contact angles were still 0o after 10s, indicating that the hydrophilic property of modified PET fabrics still kept excellent. The wash fastness of dyed PET fabrics after modification was generally good.

  4. Low-power upconversion in dye-doped polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Simon, Yoan C; Bai, Shuo; Sing, Michelle K; Dietsch, Hervé; Achermann, Marc; Weder, Christoph

    2012-04-13

    Examples of nanoscale low-power upconverting systems are rapidly increasing because of their potential application in numerous areas such as bioimaging or drug delivery. The fabrication of dye-doped cross-linked rubbery nanoparticles that exhibit upconversion even at relatively low power densities is reported here. The nanoparticles were prepared by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization of n-butylacrylate with divinylbenzene as a cross-linker, followed by dyeing of the resulting particles with a two-chromophore system composed of a palladium porphyrin sensitizer, and diphenylanthracene. Blue emission (≈440 nm) of these systems was observed upon excitation at 532 nm. In addition to their optical properties, the particles were characterized by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž.; Prlainović, Nevena Ž.; Stefanović, Andrea B.; Žuža, Milena G.; Čičkarić, Dragana Z.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D.

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  6. Influence of ZnO nanorod on the luminescent and electrical properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Xu, Z.; Qian, L.; Tao, D. L.; Teng, F.; Xu, X. R.

    2006-11-01

    The luminescent properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer dispersed with ZnO nanorods were investigated. Embedding ZnO nanorods in blend film results in a blue-shifted emission of fluorescent dye. It is accounted for in terms of the difference in permittivity between inorganic oxide nano-material and dye-doped polymer. Moreover, polymer light-emitting diodes with the addition of ZnO nanorods showed the lower threshold voltage and the higher charge current and electroluminescence efficiency.

  7. Learning the Blues. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This lesson introduces students to the "blues," one of the most distinctive and influential elements of African-American musical tradition. With this lesson plan, students can take a virtual field trip to Memphis, Tennessee, one of the prominent centers of blues activities, and explore the history of the blues in the work of W. C. Handy…

  8. Optimization of Evans blue quantitation in limited rat tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hwai-Lee; Lai, Ted Weita

    2014-10-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) is an inert tracer that measures plasma volume in human subjects and vascular permeability in animal models. Quantitation of EBD can be difficult when dye concentration in the sample is limited, such as when extravasated dye is measured in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) intact brain. The procedure described here used a very small volume (30 µl) per sample replicate, which enabled high-throughput measurements of the EBD concentration based on a standard 96-well plate reader. First, ethanol ensured a consistent optic path length in each well and substantially enhanced the sensitivity of EBD fluorescence spectroscopy. Second, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) removed false-positive EBD measurements as a result of biological solutes and partially extracted EBD into the supernatant. Moreover, a 1:2 volume ratio of 50% TCA ([TCA final] = 33.3%) optimally extracted EBD from the rat plasma protein-EBD complex in vitro and in vivo, and 1:2 and 1:3 weight-volume ratios of 50% TCA optimally extracted extravasated EBD from the rat brain and liver, respectively, in vivo. This procedure is particularly useful in the detection of EBD extravasation into the BBB-intact brain, but it can also be applied to detect dye extravasation into tissues where vascular permeability is less limiting.

  9. Optimization of Evans blue quantitation in limited rat tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hwai-Lee; Lai, Ted Weita

    2014-01-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) is an inert tracer that measures plasma volume in human subjects and vascular permeability in animal models. Quantitation of EBD can be difficult when dye concentration in the sample is limited, such as when extravasated dye is measured in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) intact brain. The procedure described here used a very small volume (30 µl) per sample replicate, which enabled high-throughput measurements of the EBD concentration based on a standard 96-well plate reader. First, ethanol ensured a consistent optic path length in each well and substantially enhanced the sensitivity of EBD fluorescence spectroscopy. Second, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) removed false-positive EBD measurements as a result of biological solutes and partially extracted EBD into the supernatant. Moreover, a 1:2 volume ratio of 50% TCA ([TCA final] = 33.3%) optimally extracted EBD from the rat plasma protein-EBD complex in vitro and in vivo, and 1:2 and 1:3 weight-volume ratios of 50% TCA optimally extracted extravasated EBD from the rat brain and liver, respectively, in vivo. This procedure is particularly useful in the detection of EBD extravasation into the BBB-intact brain, but it can also be applied to detect dye extravasation into tissues where vascular permeability is less limiting. PMID:25300427

  10. Study of Methylene Blue Ototoxicity in the Guinea Pig.

    PubMed

    Belhassen, Sarah; Alzahrani, Musaed; Nader, Marc-Elie; Gaboury, Louis; Saliba, Issam

    2017-11-01

    Methylene blue is widely used in the medical field, especially as a blue dye for staining. It is also used as a photosensitizing agent in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, which once photoactivated is effective for the eradication of several multi-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate the ototoxic potential of methylene blue and precise its use in otology. It was a prospective animal study performed on guinea pigs in our tertiary medical center. We divided the animals into two groups: an experimental group and a control group, who underwent a series of three intratympanic (IT) injections. In the control group (n = 10), they received injections of gentamicin in one ear (positive control) and normal saline in the contralateral ear (negative control). The experimental group (n = 10) received injections of methylene blue in one ear, compared to injections of normal saline in the contralateral ear. We conducted auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) before and 1 week after the injection series. Once this is completed, the cochlea was dissected and caspase-3 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The mean difference of hearing loss in the methylene blue group compared to normal saline was 1.50 dB, and it was not shown to be statistically significant (P = 0.688). For the positive control group, which received IT injections of gentamicin, the mean threshold of hearing loss difference for all the frequencies combined was 66.25 dB (P < 0.001). Furthermore, uptake of caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry (apoptotic marker) was negative in our group, which received injections of methylene blue. In light of our results, IT injections of methylene blue did not demonstrate an ototoxic potential. We recommend further studies to precise its use in the otologic field.

  11. Study of Methylene Blue Ototoxicity in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Belhassen, Sarah; Alzahrani, Musaed; Nader, Marc-Elie; Gaboury, Louis; Saliba, Issam

    2017-01-01

    Background Methylene blue is widely used in the medical field, especially as a blue dye for staining. It is also used as a photosensitizing agent in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, which once photoactivated is effective for the eradication of several multi-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate the ototoxic potential of methylene blue and precise its use in otology. Methods It was a prospective animal study performed on guinea pigs in our tertiary medical center. We divided the animals into two groups: an experimental group and a control group, who underwent a series of three intratympanic (IT) injections. In the control group (n = 10), they received injections of gentamicin in one ear (positive control) and normal saline in the contralateral ear (negative control). The experimental group (n = 10) received injections of methylene blue in one ear, compared to injections of normal saline in the contralateral ear. We conducted auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) before and 1 week after the injection series. Once this is completed, the cochlea was dissected and caspase-3 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results The mean difference of hearing loss in the methylene blue group compared to normal saline was 1.50 dB, and it was not shown to be statistically significant (P = 0.688). For the positive control group, which received IT injections of gentamicin, the mean threshold of hearing loss difference for all the frequencies combined was 66.25 dB (P < 0.001). Furthermore, uptake of caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry (apoptotic marker) was negative in our group, which received injections of methylene blue. Conclusion In light of our results, IT injections of methylene blue did not demonstrate an ototoxic potential. We recommend further studies to precise its use in the otologic field. PMID:29038666

  12. Use of dyes in cariology.

    PubMed

    van de Rijke, J W

    1991-04-01

    The property of dyes to enhance contrast by their colour can be used in clinical dentistry and in investigations in vitro or in vivo. They have been used for indication of affected dental tissues, improvement of diagnostic methods, enhancement of patient awareness and information about specific processes. The development of particular dye systems, aimed at clinical application, is often laborious because of toxic effects, lack of specificity, irreversible staining or difficulties with removal of the dye. Clinically used dyes are often visually observed, which means a qualitative assessment of the staining, while quantification of the staining, if performed at all, is confined mostly to laboratory experiments. In this paper the application of dyes, arranged according to their specific purpose in cariology, is discussed, and a brief historical overview is given of the development of two particular dye applications for which commercial dye systems are now available. If certain requirements are met, dyes can be of great help in detection and quantification when used with several diagnostic methods.

  13. Decolorisation of Basic Textile Dye from Aqueous Solutions using a Biosorbent derived from Thespesia populnea used Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunturu, Bhargavi; Rao Palukuri, Nageswara; Sahadevan, Renganathan

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, the efficiency of a biosorbent derived from seeds of Thespesia populnea was investigated towards the removal of basic textile dye Methylene Blue from an aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were carried out in batch system. Influence of experimental parameters such as adsorbent dosage (0.1g/L-0.3g/L), PH (2-10) and initial dye concentration (50-130mg/L) on adsorption of dye onto biosorbent was investigated. Maximum uptake of dye was observed with 0.1g/L adsorbent dosage at PH 8.0. Equilibrium uptake of methylene blue dye by the adsorbent was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The data fitted best with Freundlich model, suggesting that adsorption of the dye was by multilayer model on the surface of the adsorbent. Experimental results obtained support that the biosorbent used in the present study can be a suitable low cost alternate for the removal of basic textile dyes.

  14. Solar/UV-induced photocatalytic degradation of three commercial textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Neppolian, B; Choi, H C; Sakthivel, S; Arabindoo, Banumathi; Murugesan, V

    2002-01-28

    The photocatalytic degradation of three commercial textile dyes with different structure has been investigated using TiO(2) (Degussa P25) photocatalyst in aqueous solution under solar irradiation. Experiments were conducted to optimise various parameters viz. amount of catalyst, concentration of dye, pH and solar light intensity. Degradation of all the dyes were examined by using chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. The degradation efficiency of the three dyes is as follows: Reactive Yellow 17(RY17) > Reactive Red 2(RR2) > Reactive Blue 4 (RB4), respectively. The experimental results indicate that TiO(2) (Degussa P25) is the best catalyst in comparison with other commercial photocatalysts such as, TiO(2) (Merck), ZnO, ZrO(2), WO(3) and CdS. Though the UV irradiation can efficiently degrade the dyes, naturally abundant solar irradiation is also very effective in the mineralisation of dyes. The comparison between thin-film coating and aqueous slurry method reveals that slurry method is more efficient than coating but the problems of leaching and the requirement of separation can be avoided by using coating technique. These observations indicate that all the three dyes could be degraded completely at different time intervals. Hence, it may be a viable technique for the safe disposal of textile wastewater into the water streams.

  15. Spectroscopic properties and amplified spontaneous emission of fluorescein laser dye in ionic liquids as green media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Aqmar, Dalal M.; Abdelkader, H. I.; Abou Kana, Maram T. H.

    2015-09-01

    The use of ionic liquids (ILs) as milieu materials for laser dyes is a promising field and quite competitive with volatile organic solvents and solid state-dye laser systems. This paper investigates some photo-physical parameters of fluorescein dye incorporated into ionic liquids; 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl), 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroaluminate (BMIM AlCl4) and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM BF4) as promising host matrix in addition to ethanol as reference. These parameters are: absorption and emission cross-sections, fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield, in addition to the transition dipole moment, the attenuation length and oscillator strength were also investigated. Lasing characteristics such as amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), the gain, and the photostability of fluorescein laser dye dissolved in different host materials were assessed. The composition and properties of the matrix of ILs were found that it has great interest in optimizing the laser performance and photostability of the investigated laser dye. Under transverse pumping of fluorescein dye by blue laser diode (450 nm) of (400 mW), the initial ASE for dye dissolved in BMIM AlCl4 and ethanol were decreased to 39% and 36% respectively as time progressed 132 min. Relatively high efficiency and high fluorescence quantum yield (11.8% and 0.82% respectively) were obtained with good photostability in case of fluorescein in BMIM BF4 that was decreased to ∼56% of the initial ASE after continuously pumping with 400 mW for 132 min.

  16. Mechanisms and chemistry of dye adsorption on manganese oxides-modified diatomite.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Al-Degs, Yehya S; Khraisheh, Majeda A M; Ahmad, Mohammad N; Allen, Stephen J

    2009-08-01

    The investigations into structural changes which occur during adsorbent modification and the adsorption mechanisms are essential for an effective design of adsorption systems. Manganese oxides were impregnated onto diatomite to form the type known as delta-birnessite. Initial investigations established the effectiveness of manganese oxides-modified diatomite (MOMD) to remove basic and reactive dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorption capacity of MOMD for methylene blue (MB), hydrolysed reactive black (RB) and hydrolysed reactive yellow (RY) was 320, 419, and 204mg/g, respectively. Various analytical techniques were used to characterise the structure and the mechanisms of the dye adsorption process onto MOMD such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic absorption spectrometry (A.A.). A small shift to higher values of the d-spacing of dye/MOMD was observed indicating that a small amount of the dye molecules were intercalated in the MOMD structure and other molecules were adsorbed on the external surface of MOMD. Two mechanisms of dye adsorption onto MOMD were proposed; intercalation of the dye in the octahedral layers and adsorption of the dye on the MOMD external surface. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the MOMD structure was changed upon insertion of MB and RY with an obvious decrease in the intensity of the second main peak of the MOMD X-ray pattern.

  17. Probing horseradish peroxidase catalyzed degradation of azo dye from tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Sadhanandam; Anumary, Ayyappan; Ashokkumar, Meiyazhagan; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    Biocatalysis based effluent treatment has outclassed the presently favored physico-chemical treatments due to nil sludge production and monetary savings. Azo dyes are commonly employed in the leather industry and pose a great threat to the environment. Here, we show the degradation of C. I. Acid blue 113 using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) assisted with H2O2 as a co-substrate. It was observed that 0.08 U HRP can degrade 3 mL of 30 mg/L dye up to 80% within 45 min with the assistance of 14 μL of H2O2 at pH 6.6 and 30°C. The feasibility of using the immobilized HRP for dye degradation was also examined and the results show up to 76% dye degradation under similar conditions to that of free HRP with the exception of longer contact time of 240 min. Recycling studies reveal that the immobilized HRP can be recycled up to 3 times for dye degradation. Kinetics drawn for the free HRP catalyzed reaction marked a lower K m and higher V max values, which denotes a proper and faster affinity of the enzyme towards the dye, when compared to the immobilized HRP. The applicability of HRP for treating the actual tannery dye-house wastewater was also demonstrated.

  18. Pluto Blue Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-08

    Pluto's haze layer shows its blue color in this picture taken by the New Horizons Ralph/Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC). The high-altitude haze is thought to be similar in nature to that seen at Saturn's moon Titan. The source of both hazes likely involves sunlight-initiated chemical reactions of nitrogen and methane, leading to relatively small, soot-like particles (called tholins) that grow as they settle toward the surface. This image was generated by software that combines information from blue, red and near-infrared images to replicate the color a human eye would perceive as closely as possible. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19964

  19. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  20. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  1. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  2. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James E.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, Frederick A.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  3. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  4. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by Artist's Bracket fungi: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Naghipour, Daryush; Taghavi, Kamran; Moslemzadeh, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye onto Artist's Bracket (AB) fungi was investigated in aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate surface characteristic of AB fungi. Influence of operational parameters such as pH, contact time, biosorbent dosage, dye concentration, inorganic salts and temperature was studied on dye removal efficiency. With the increase of pH from 3 to 9, removal efficiency increased from 74.0% to 90.4%. Also, it reduced from 99.8% to 81.8% with increasing initial MB concentration from 25 mg L(-1) to 100 mg L(-1), whereas it increased from 54.7% to 98.7% and from 98.5% to 99.9% with increasing biosorbent dosage from 0.5 g L(-1) to 2 g L(-1) and with increasing temperature from 25 °C to 50 °C, respectively. Isotherm studies have shown adsorption of MB dye over the AB fungi had a better coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.98 for Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (qm) was 100 mg g(-1). Also, the MB dye adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetic. In general, AB fungi particles can be favorable for removal of MB dye from dye aqueous solution with natural pH and high temperature.

  5. Chromogenic sensing of biological thiols using squarylium dye.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sub; Gwon, Seon-Yeong; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    A new highly selective probe for biothiols, squarylium dye (SQ), was designed and synthesized. The probe displayed a color change from blue to colorless upon reaction with biothilos such as cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH). The competition experiments revealed that no obvious interference was observed by performing the titration with the mixtures of Cys and other amino acids. The results indicated that SQ was highly selective for Cys detection. Moreover, SQ could also serve as a "naked-eye" probe for Cys with a minimum detectable concentration of approximately 4 μM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluorescence dye tagging scheme for mercury quantification and speciation

    DOEpatents

    Jiao, Hong; Catterall, Hannah

    2015-09-22

    A fluorescent dye or fluorophore capable of forming complexes with mercury comprises 6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxylate amide, wherein the amide is formed by reacting the succinimidyl ester (Pacific Blue.TM.) with an amino acid containing a thiol group, such as cysteine or glutathione. Mercury complexes of the fluorophore fluoresce when excited by a UV or violet laser diode, and the detected intensity can be calibrated to quantify the concentration of mercury in a sample reacted with the fluorophore.

  7. Development of a Direct Spectrophotometric and Chemometric Method for Determining Food Dye Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Arroz, Erin; Jordan, Michael; Dumancas, Gerard G

    2017-07-01

    An ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometric and partial least squares (PLS) chemometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of erythrosine B (red), Brilliant Blue, and tartrazine (yellow) dyes. A training set (n = 64) was generated using a full factorial design and its accuracy was tested in a test set (n = 13) using a Box-Behnken design. The test set garnered a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.79 × 10 -7 for blue, 4.59 × 10 -7 for red, and 1.13 × 10 -6 for yellow dyes. The relatively small RMSE suggests only a small difference between predicted versus measured concentrations, demonstrating the accuracy of our model. The relative error of prediction (REP) for the test set were 11.73%, 19.52%, 19.38%, for blue, red, and yellow dyes, respectively. A comparable overlay between the actual candy samples and their replicated synthetic spectra were also obtained indicating the model as a potentially accurate method for determining concentrations of dyes in food samples.

  8. Ethnobotany of dye plants in Dong communities of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujing; Ahmed, Selena; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhiyong; Huang, Weijuan; Wu, Xianjin; Li, Shenghua; Zhou, Jiangju; Lei, Qiyi; Long, Chunlin

    2014-02-19

    Dyes derived from plants have an extensive history of use for coloring food and clothing in Dong communities and other indigenous areas in the uplands of China. In addition to use as coloring agents, Dong communities have historically utilized dye plants for their value for enhancing the nutritive, medicinal and preservative properties of foods. However, the persistence of plant-derived dyes and associated cultural practices and traditional knowledge is threatened with rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to document the ethnobotany of dye plants in indigenous communities towards their conservation and potential commercialization as a sustainable means of supporting local development initiatives. Semi-structured surveys on plants used for coloring agents and associated traditional knowledge were conducted in fifteen Dong villages of Tongdao County in Hunan Province of South Central China during 2011-2012. Transect walks were carried out with key informants identified from semi-structured surveys to collect samples and voucher specimens for each documented plant species for taxonomic identification. Dong households at the study sites utilize the flowers, bark, stems, tubers and roots of 13 plant species from 9 families as dyes to color their customary clothing and food. Out of the documented plants, a total of 7 are used for coloring food, 3 for coloring clothing and 3 for both food and clothing. Documented plants consist of 3 species that yield black pigments, 3 for brownish red/russet pigments, 3 for red pigments, 2 for dark blue pigments and 2 for yellow pigments. In addition to dyes, the plants have multiple uses including medicinal, ornamental, sacrificial, edible, and for timber. The use of dyes derived from plants persists at the study sites for their important role in expressing Dong cultural identity through customary clothing and food. Further research is needed to evaluate the safety of dye plants, their efficacy in enhancing food

  9. Ethnobotany of dye plants in Dong communities of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyes derived from plants have an extensive history of use for coloring food and clothing in Dong communities and other indigenous areas in the uplands of China. In addition to use as coloring agents, Dong communities have historically utilized dye plants for their value for enhancing the nutritive, medicinal and preservative properties of foods. However, the persistence of plant-derived dyes and associated cultural practices and traditional knowledge is threatened with rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to document the ethnobotany of dye plants in indigenous communities towards their conservation and potential commercialization as a sustainable means of supporting local development initiatives. Methods Semi-structured surveys on plants used for coloring agents and associated traditional knowledge were conducted in fifteen Dong villages of Tongdao County in Hunan Province of South Central China during 2011–2012. Transect walks were carried out with key informants identified from semi-structured surveys to collect samples and voucher specimens for each documented plant species for taxonomic identification. Results Dong households at the study sites utilize the flowers, bark, stems, tubers and roots of 13 plant species from 9 families as dyes to color their customary clothing and food. Out of the documented plants, a total of 7 are used for coloring food, 3 for coloring clothing and 3 for both food and clothing. Documented plants consist of 3 species that yield black pigments, 3 for brownish red/russet pigments, 3 for red pigments, 2 for dark blue pigments and 2 for yellow pigments. In addition to dyes, the plants have multiple uses including medicinal, ornamental, sacrificial, edible, and for timber. Conclusions The use of dyes derived from plants persists at the study sites for their important role in expressing Dong cultural identity through customary clothing and food. Further research is needed to evaluate the safety of dye

  10. Emulsion liquid membrane for textile dye removal: Stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumastuti, Adhi; Syamwil, Rodia; Anis, Samsudin

    2017-03-01

    Although textile dyes is basically available in very low concentration; it should be removed due to the toxicity to human body and environment. Among the existing methods, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) is a promising method by providing high interfacial area and the ability to remove a very low concentration of the solute. The optimal emulsions were produced using commercially supplied homogeniser. The drop size was measured by the aid of microscope and image J software. Initially, methylene blue in simulated wastewater was extracted using a stirrer. Methylene blue concentration was determined using spectrophotometer. The research obtained optimal emulsion at surfactant concentration of 4 wt. %, kerosene as diluent, emulsification time of 30 min, emulsification speed of 2000 rpm. The lowest membrane breakage and the longest stability time were about 0.11% and 150 min, respectively.

  11. SERS of Methylene Blue induced by plasmonic coupled nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaydashev, V. E.; Lyanguzov, N. V.; Anokhin, A. S.; Chernishov, A.; Kaidashev, E. M.

    2018-04-01

    We study the surface enhanced Raman scattering of Methylene Blue (MB) dye molecules induced by large quasihomogeneous arrays of plasmon coupled 5-8 nm Au nanoparticle separated by distances less than 10 nm. Also, the variation of the fluorescence enhancement/SERS properties for as-prepared coupled particles and agglomerated particles obtained upon heat treatment and percolation-like films is analyzed for two measurement protocols, i.e. when measured through the solution and for a monolayer of MB molecules chemisorbed on a surface.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of cellulose modified nano zero-valent iron for dye discoloration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Pei; Ma, Jun; Liu, Huiling; Ning, Ping

    2015-08-01

    Nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) was innovatively and successfully modified by using hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) as dispersants. The systematic characterization observations (including XRD, SEM and TEM) illustrate that, compared with bare nano zero-valent iron particles (BNZVI), the particle sizes of hydroxyethyl cellulose modified (ENZVI) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose modified (PNZVI) were decreased, while the dispersity and antioxidizability of ENZVI and PNZVI particles were increased. The discoloration efficiencies of ENZVI, PNZVI, and BNZVI were compared by using dyes (including orange II, methyl orange, methyl blue, and methylene blue) as target pollutant. The results show that both the discoloration efficiency and reaction rate of ENZVI and PNZVI are higher than that of BNZVI. In addition, effects of dispersant content, dye type, pH value, initial dye concentration, iron dosage, and reaction temperature on discoloration efficiencies were studied. The results show that discoloration efficiency was decreased by increasing initial pH value and dye concentration, and it was increased with the increase the iron dosage and reaction temperature. Under optimized NZVI addition of 0.7 g L-1, the discoloration efficiencies of ENZVI and PNZVI were increased to 96.33% and 98.62%, respectively. And the possible discoloration pathway and dispersant modification mechanism of NZVI were discussed. This study suggests hydroxyethyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose dispersed NZVI can be utilized as a promising modified nano-material for degradation of dye wastewater.

  13. Modification of mutagenesis initiated by ultraviolet light through posttreatment of bacteria with basic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Witkin, E M

    1961-12-01

    Post treatment with basic dyes, in concentrations that retard cell division, was found to influence the tnduction of mutations to prototrophy by UV light in a tyrosine-requirtng strain of E.Coli. Pyronin, which is unique among the dyes in tts selective affinity for RNA, was found to duplicate the effects of chloramphenicol or amino acfd deprtvatfon in causfng the rapid and irreversible loss of potential prototrophs (mutation frequency decline, or MFD). Acriflavtne, methyl green. crystal violet, methylene blue, and toluidine blue, all of which are known to combine with DNA, delay or retard the occurrence of MFD under conditions of aminomore » acid deprivation. When acriflavine is removed from its combination with cellular components by the addition of an excess of sodium deoxyrtbonucleate, MFD begins promptly. The same basic dyes that delay MFD were also found to interfere with the fixation of mutations (MF) in an amino acid- enriched medium, and to cause marked enhancement of the mutagenic potency of low doses of UV light. While showing no independent mutagenic activity for unirradiated bacteria, all the dyes except pyronin increased the yield of induced mutations signtficantly when added to the enriched medium upon which trradiated bacteria were incubated.These results were interpreted as evidence that UV light initiates mutagenesis by producing unstable changas directly in genic DNA. MFD is interpreted as a repair process, blocked by the machinery of RNA and protein synthesis and by the presence of certain basic dyes.« less

  14. Carbon composite lignin-based adsorbents for the adsorption of dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Jiang, Chenglong; Hou, Bingxia; Wang, Yingying; Hao, Chen; Wu, Jingbo

    2018-05-10

    Carbon composite lignin-based adsorbent were prepared through hydrothermal method with glucose as carbon source, calcium lignosulfonate and triethylene tetramine as raw materials, respectively. The optimum synthesis conditions were determined by investigating the addition of carbon and triethylene tetramine. The adsorbent was used for the adsorption of azo dyes Congo red and Eriochrome blue black R, and the five factors affecting the adsorption were discussed, including pH of dyes, initial concentration, adsorption time, adsorption temperature and adsorbent dosage. The corresponding adsorption mechanism such as pseudo first order kinetics, pseudo second order kinetics, intraparticle diffusion, Langmuir adsorption isotherm, Freundlich isotherm, Temkin isotherm, Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm, thermodynamics were also studied. When the dye concentration is 40 mg L -1 , Congo red and Eriochrome blue black R dye removal rates reach 99%. Moreover, the adsorption process of two kinds of dyes follow the pseudo second order kinetics and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  17. Decolorization of textile dyes in an air-lift bioreactor inoculated with Bjerkandera adusta OBR105.

    PubMed

    Sodaneath, Hong; Lee, Jung-In; Yang, Seung-Ok; Jung, Hyekyeng; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-09-19

    A new decolorizing white-rot fungus, OBR105, was isolated from Mount Odae in South Korea and identified by the morphological characterization of its fruit body and spores and partial 18s rDNA sequences. The ligninolytic enzyme activity of OBR105 was studied to characterize their decolorizing mechanism using a spectrophotometric enzyme assay. For the evaluation of the decolorization capacity of OBR105, the isolate was incubated in an erlenmeyer flask and in an airlifte bioreator with potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium supplemented with each dye. In addition, the decolorization efficiency of real textile wastewater was evaluated in an airlift bioreactor inoculated with the isolate. The isolate was identified as Bjerkandera adusta and had ligninolytic enzymes such as laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), and Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP). Its LiP activity was higher than its MnP and laccase activities. B. adusta OBR105 successfully decolorized reactive dyes (red 120, blue 4, orange 16, and black 5) and acid dyes (red 114, blue 62, orange 7, and black 172). B. adusta OBR105 decolorized 91-99% of 200 mg L -1 of each dye (except acid orange 7) within 3 days in a PDB medium at 28°C, pH 5, and 150 rpm. This fungus decolorized only 45% of 200 mg L -1 acid orange 7 (single azo-type dye) within 3 days, and the decolorization efficiency did not increase by prolonging the cultivation time. In the air-lift bioreactor, B. adusta OBR105 displayed a high decolorization capacity, greater than 90%, for 3 acid dyes (red 114, blue 62, and black 172) and 1 reactive dye (blue 4) within 10-15 h of treatment. B. adusta OBR105 could decolorize real textile wastewater in the air-lift bioreactor. This result suggests that an air-lift reactor employing B. adusta OBR105 is a promising bioreactor for the treatment of dye wastewater.

  18. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  19. Trypan blue staining of the anterior capsule under an air bubble with a modified cannula.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Ahmet Baris; Erkin, Esin Fatma; Guler, Cenap

    2003-01-01

    To attain good visibility of the anterior capsule in the advanced or white cataract, trypan blue 0.1% is used to stain the anterior capsule. The dye is usually injected under an air bubble. However, it is difficult to inject the dye properly due to capillary forces. An ordinary anterior chamber cannula was modified and its coverage area increased to facilitate the staining of the anterior capsule under an air bubble. The anterior capsule was stained properly by using the modified cannula in all of the cases.

  20. [Adsorption of a dye by sludges and the roles of extracellular polymeric substances].

    PubMed

    Kong, Wang-sheng; Liu, Yan

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigated the adsorption of a dye, acid turquoise blue A, by four kinds of sludges including activated sludge, anaerobic sludge, dried activated sludge, and dried anaerobic sludge, respectively. The roles of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) including the soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) for the biosorption of activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were further studied. Results show that the relation between four kinds of sludge adsorption amount and remained concentration of the dye fitted well both Freundlich model (R2: 0.921-0.995) and Langmuir model (R2: 0.958-0.993), but not quite fitted BET model (R2: 0.07-0.863). The adsorption capability of dried anaerobic sludge ranked the highest, and dried activated sludge was the lowest. According to Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption amount of dried anaerobic, anaerobic, activated, and dried activated sludge was 104 mg/g, 86 mg/g, 65 mg/g, 20 mg/g, respectively. The amount of the dye found in EPS for both activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were over 50%, illustrating that EPS adsorption was predominant in adsorption of the dye by sludge. The amount of adsorbed dye by BEPS was greater than that by SEPS for anaerobic sludge, but for activated sludge the result was quite opposite. The amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was much higher than the corresponding values of BEPS for both sludges. The average amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was 52 times of the corresponding value of BEPS for activated sludge, and 10 times for anaerobic sludge. The relation between adsorption amount of dye by BEPS from anaerobic sludge and remained concentration of the dye in mixed liquor was best fitted to Langmuir model (R2: 0.9986).

  1. Lipid, Detergent, and Coomassie Blue G-250 Affect the Migration of Small Membrane Proteins in Blue Native Gels

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Paul G.; Harding, Marilyn; Ruprecht, Jonathan J.; Lee, Yang; Kunji, Edmund R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Blue native gel electrophoresis is a popular method for the determination of the oligomeric state of membrane proteins. Studies using this technique have reported that mitochondrial carriers are dimeric (composed of two ∼32-kDa monomers) and, in some cases, can form physiologically relevant associations with other proteins. Here, we have scrutinized the behavior of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier AAC3 in blue native gels. We find that the apparent mass of AAC3 varies in a detergent- and lipid-dependent manner (from ∼60 to ∼130 kDa) that is not related to changes in the oligomeric state of the protein, but reflects differences in the associated detergent-lipid micelle and Coomassie Blue G-250 used in this technique. Higher oligomeric state species are only observed under less favorable solubilization conditions, consistent with aggregation of the protein. Calibration with an artificial covalent AAC3 dimer indicates that the mass observed for solubilized AAC3 and other mitochondrial carriers corresponds to a monomer. Size exclusion chromatography of purified AAC3 in dodecyl maltoside under blue native gel-like conditions shows that the mass of the monomer is ∼120 kDa, but appears smaller on gels (∼60 kDa) due to the unusually high amount of bound negatively charged dye, which increases the electrophoretic mobility of the protein-detergent-dye micelle complex. Our results show that bound lipid, detergent, and Coomassie stain alter the behavior of mitochondrial carriers on gels, which is likely to be true for other small membrane proteins where the associated lipid-detergent micelle is large when compared with the mass of the protein. PMID:23744064

  2. Hematoxylin shortages: their causes and duration, and other dyes that can replace hemalum in routine hematoxylin and eosin staining.

    PubMed

    Dapson, R; Horobin, R W; Kiernan, J

    2010-02-01

    The origins of repeated hematoxylin shortages are outlined. Lack of integration in the hematoxylin trade exacerbates the problems inherent in using a natural product. Separate corporations are engaged in tree growth and harvesting, dye extraction, processing of extracts to yield hematoxylin, and formulation and sale of hematoxylin staining solutions to the end users in biomedical laboratories. Hematoxylin has many uses in biological staining and no single dye can replace it for all applications. Probably, the most satisfactory substitutes for aluminum-hematoxylin (hemalum) are the ferric complexes of celestine blue (CI 51050; mordant blue 14) and eriochrome cyanine R (CI 43820; mordant blue 3, also known as chromoxane cyanine R and solochrome cyanine R). The iron-celestine blue complex is a cationic dye that binds to nucleic acids and other polyanions, such as those of cartilage matrix and mast cell granules. Complexes of iron with eriochrome cyanine R are anionic and give selective nuclear staining similar to that obtained with acidic hemalum solutions. Iron complexes of gallein (CI 45445; mordant violet 25), a hydroxyxanthene dye, can replace iron-hematoxylin in formulations for staining nuclei, myelin, and protozoa.

  3. Hubble's Blue Bubble

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    A large blue bubble with a bright star in the center on a black background filled with stars Sparkling at the center of this beautiful NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is a Wolf–Rayet star known as WR 31a, located about 30,000 light-years away in the constellation of Carina (The Keel). The distinctive blue bubble appearing to encircle WR 31a is a Wolf–Rayet nebula — an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other gases. Created when speedy stellar winds interact with the outer layers of hydrogen ejected by Wolf–Rayet stars, these nebulae are frequently ring-shaped or spherical. The bubble — estimated to have formed around 20,000 years ago — is expanding at a rate of around 220,000 kilometers (136,700 miles) per hour! Unfortunately, the lifecycle of a Wolf–Rayet star is only a few hundred thousand years — the blink of an eye in cosmic terms. Despite beginning life with a mass at least 20 times that of the sun, Wolf–Rayet stars typically lose half their mass in less than 100,000 years. And WR 31a is no exception to this case. It will, therefore, eventually end its life as a spectacular supernova, and the stellar material expelled from its explosion will later nourish a new generation of stars and planets. Image credi: ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt

  4. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  5. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  6. Those conversion blues.

    PubMed

    Forgione, D A

    1999-01-01

    With the ever-increasing market penetration of capitated payment systems throughout health care markets, average payment rates for health services have dropped correspondingly. At the same time, the added competitive pressures from managed care organizations have served to increase the demand for new capital investment in information systems, lower cost facilities, and innovative modes for delivering all types of health care services. As a result, many nonprofit health care organizations have converted, or have attempted to convert, to for-profit status in an effort to gain access to the public equity capital markets. As hospitals, Blue Cross and Blue Shield organizations, and other nonprofit health care organizations across the U.S. seek to convert to for-profit status, they are finding the path is not easy. Access to capital, operating efficiencies, and the need to accelerate movement into new markets are offset by public benefit obligations, potential private inurement, and significant political cost issues. The bottom line is whether the conversion will be structured to both protect the public interest and allow the health care organization the flexibility and access to capital it needs in order to continue as a viable, competitive organization into the next millennium.

  7. Study of the sensitising potential of various textile dyes using a biphasic murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V; Platzek, T; Fink, H; Sonnenburg, A; Stahlmann, R

    2010-09-01

    Disperse dyes, which are suitable for dyeing synthetic fibres, are responsible for the great majority of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) cases to textile dyes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitising potential of various disperse dyes using a biphasic protocol of the local lymph node assay (LLNA). Briefly, mice were shaved over a surface of approximately 2 cm(2) on their backs and treated using a "sensitisation-challenge protocol". The shaved surface was treated once daily on days 1-3 with 50 microl of the test solution. Animals remained untreated on days 4-14. On days 15-17, mice were treated with 25 microl of the test solution on the dorsum of both ears. Mice were killed on day 19 with deep CO(2) anaesthesia, the lymph nodes prepared and various end points, such as ear thickness, ear punch weight, lymph node weight, lymph node cell count and the proportion of various lymphocyte subpopulations, were determined by flow cytometry. The results were compared to control group treated with the vehicle alone. Our results showed that almost all of the tested textile dyes caused a significant increase in lymph node cell count and lymph node weight. We also observed an increase in ear thickness and ear punch weight in most of the concentrations tested for various textile dyes. We observed a decrease in CD4+ and CD8+ cells and an increase in CD19+, CD45+ and CD45+/1A+ cells in most of the cases, which is characteristic for allergens. The CD4+/CD69+ cells increased in only few experiments mainly with Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106. Based on our results, the disperse dyes could be arranged in four groups on the basis of their sensitising potency in the following decreasing order (in parenthesis: lowest concentration causing a significant increase in lymph node cell number): group 1, strong: Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106 (0.003%); group 2, moderate: Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Blue 1 (3%); group 3, weak: Disperse Orange 37 and

  8. Additive-induced aggregate changes of two structurally similar dyes in aqueous solutions: A comparative photophysical study.

    PubMed

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A; Poormohammadi-Ahandani, Z; Kian, R

    2018-01-15

    Absorption and emission spectral characteristics of the two structurally similar phenothiazine dyes, azure B and toluidine blue, in aqueous solutions of the two sets of molecular additives (ureas and monosaccharides) were studied as a function of the dye and additive concentrations. The absorption spectra of the dyes were also studied in pure tetramethylurea with an aprotic nature. The spectral data were analyzed using DECOM Program. The dimer structure of the interacting molecules in these dyes was discussed using the exciton model. The urea class of additives was found to act as water structure-breakers over the range of studied concentration. The carbohydrate additives were found to act as water structure-breakers at low concentrations. However, the water structure breaking process may be disfavored by the additive-additive interactions at higher concentrations. It can be concluded that at low additive concentrations, the main driving force for breaking the dye association is water-additive interaction, which disrupts the water hydrogen bonds induced by the additives. However, at the high additive concentrations, the different phenomena including additive-additive and additive-dye interactions can change the structure, strength, and aggregative properties of the dyes. Finally, the urea in water induces noticeably fluorescence quenching in emission spectra of both the dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Additive-induced aggregate changes of two structurally similar dyes in aqueous solutions: A comparative photophysical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Poormohammadi-Ahandani, Z.; Kian, R.

    2018-01-01

    Absorption and emission spectral characteristics of the two structurally similar phenothiazine dyes, azure B and toluidine blue, in aqueous solutions of the two sets of molecular additives (ureas and monosaccharides) were studied as a function of the dye and additive concentrations. The absorption spectra of the dyes were also studied in pure tetramethylurea with an aprotic nature. The spectral data were analyzed using DECOM Program. The dimer structure of the interacting molecules in these dyes was discussed using the exciton model. The urea class of additives was found to act as water structure-breakers over the range of studied concentration. The carbohydrate additives were found to act as water structure-breakers at low concentrations. However, the water structure breaking process may be disfavored by the additive-additive interactions at higher concentrations. It can be concluded that at low additive concentrations, the main driving force for breaking the dye association is water-additive interaction, which disrupts the water hydrogen bonds induced by the additives. However, at the high additive concentrations, the different phenomena including additive-additive and additive-dye interactions can change the structure, strength, and aggregative properties of the dyes. Finally, the urea in water induces noticeably fluorescence quenching in emission spectra of both the dyes.

  10. Synthesis of malachite@clay nanocomposite for rapid scavenging of cationic and anionic dyes from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Varsha; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of malachite@clay nanocomposite was successfully carried out for the removal of cationic (Methylene Blue, MB) and anionic dyes (Congo Red, CR) from synthetic wastewater. Nanocomposite was characterized by TEM, SEM, FT-IR, EDS analysis and zeta potential. TEM analysis indicated that the particle diameter of nanocomposite was in the range of 14 to 23nm. Various important parameters viz. contact time, concentration of dyes, nanocomposite dosage, temperature and solution pH were optimized to achieve maximum adsorption capacity. In the case of MB, removal decreased from 99.82% to 93.67% while for CR, removal decreased from 88.55% to 75.69% on increasing dye concentration from 100 to 450mg/L. pH study confirmed the higher removal of CR in acidic range while MB removal was higher in alkaline range. Kinetic study revealed the applicability of pseudo-second-order model for the adsorption of both dyes. Negative values of ΔG 0 for both systems suggested the feasibility of dye removal and support for spontaneous adsorption of CR and MB on nanocomposite. Nanocomposite showed 277.77 and 238.09mg/g Langmuir adsorption capacity for MB and CR respectively. Desorption of dyes from the dye loaded nanocomposite was easily carried out with acetone. The results indicate that the prepared malachite@clay nanocomposite is an efficient adsorbent with high adsorption capacity for the aforementioned dyes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Sono- and photocatalytic activities of SnO2 nanoparticles for degradation of cationic and anionic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramarta, Valentinus; Taufik, Ardiansyah; Munisa, Lusitra; Saleh, Rosari

    2017-01-01

    The current research work focuses on the catalytic activity of SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) against degradation of both cationic dye (methylene blue) and anionic dye (Congo-red). SnO2 NPs were synthesized under the sol-gel method and were characterized by performing X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that SnO2 NPs has well crystalline structure with the crystallite size of 44 nm. The degradation of dyes was studied under ambient temperature using ultrasonicator and UV light, respectively. The sono- and photocatalytic activities of SnO2 NPs on dyes were analyzed by measuring the change in absorbance of dyes under UV-spectrophotometer. The degradation of the organic dyes has been calculated by monitoring the degradation in the concentration of the dyes before and after irradiation of ultrasonic and light, respectively. The influence of other parameters such as catalyst dosage, pH and scavenger have also been investigated. The catalytic activity is enhanced in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation. The degradation of both dyes follows pseudo-first order kinetics. The reusability tests have also been done to ensure the stability of the used catalysts. A reasonable mechanism of sono- and photocatalysis with SnO2 NPs has been proposed by correlating the active radical species involved with the physical properties of the as-synthesized samples.

  12. Sentinel lymph node detection using methylene blue in patients with early stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Song-Hua; Xiong, Ying; Wei, Mei; Yan, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Hui-Zhong; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Liang, Li-Zhi

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in patients with cervical cancer using the low-cost methylene blue dye and to optimize the application procedure. Patients with stage Ib(1)-IIa cervical cancer and subjected to abdominal radical abdominal hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were enrolled. Methylene blue, 2-4 ml, was injected into the cervical peritumoral area in 77 cases (4 ml patent blue in the other four cases) 10-360 min before the incision, and surgically removed lymph nodes were examined for the blue lymph nodes that were considered as SLNs. High SLN detection rate was successfully achieved when 4 ml of methylene blue was applied (93.9%, 46/49). Bilaterally SLN detection rate was significantly higher (78.1% vs. 47.1% P=0.027) in cases when the timing of application was more than 60 min before surgery than those with timing no more than 30 min. The blue color of methylene blue-stained SLNs sustained both in vivo and ex vivo, compared with the gradually faded blue color of patent blue that detected in 3 of 4 cases unilaterally. In the total of 112 dissected sides, the most common location of SLNs was the obturator basin (65.2%, 73/112), followed by external iliac area (30.4%, 34/112) and internal iliac area (26.8%, 30/112). Three patients who gave false negative results all had enlarged nodes. Methylene blue is an effective tracer to detect SLNs in patients with early stage cervical cancer. The ideal dose and timing of methylene blue application are 4 ml and 60-90 min prior surgery, respectively.

  13. Multicolor fluorescence of a styrylquinoline dye tuned by metal cations.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Ichimura, Chizuru; Sumiya, Shigehiro; Hirai, Takayuki

    2011-07-18

    A styrylquinoline dye with a dipicolylamine (DPA) moiety (1) has been synthesized. The dye 1 in acetonitrile demonstrates multicolor fluorescence upon addition of different metal cations. Compound 1 shows a green fluorescence without cations. Coordination of 1 with Cd(2+) shows a blue emission, while with Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) exhibits yellow and orange emissions, respectively. The different fluorescence spectra are due to the change in intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) properties of 1 upon coordination with different cations. The DPA and quinoline moieties of 1 behave as the electron donor and acceptor units, respectively, and both units act as the coordination site for metal cations. Cd(2+) coordinates with the DPA unit. This reduces the donor ability of the unit and decreases the energy level of HOMO. This results in an increase in HOMO-LUMO gap and blue shifts the emission. Hg(2+) or Pb(2+) coordinate with both DPA and quinoline units. The coordination with the quinoline unit decreases the energy level of LUMO. This results in a decrease in HOMO-LUMO gap and red shifts the emission. Addition of two different metal cations successfully creates intermediate colors; in particular, the addition of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) at once creates a bright white fluorescence. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Intravital multiphoton photoconversion with a cell membrane dye.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Raphaël; Wu, Juwell W; Lin, Charles P

    2017-02-01

    Photoconversion, an irreversible shift in a fluorophore emission spectrum after light exposure, is a powerful tool for marking cellular and subcellular compartments and tracking their dynamics in vivo. This paper reports on the photoconversion properties of Di-8-ANEPPS, a commercially available membrane dye. When illuminated with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses, Di-8-ANEPPS undergoes multiphoton photoconversion as indicated by the supralinear dependence of the conversion rate ρ pc on the incident power (ρpc∝Iexc2.27), and by the ability to photoconvert a thin optical section in a three-dimensional matrix. The characteristic emission spectrum changed from red to blue, and ratiometric analysis on single cells in vitro revealed a 65-fold increase in the blue to red wavelength ratio after photoconversion. The spectral shift is preserved in vivo for hours, making Di-8-ANEPPS a useful dye for intravital cell marking and tracking applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Biosorption of six basic and acidic dyes on brown alga Sargassum ilicifolium: optimization, kinetic and isotherm studies.

    PubMed

    Tabaraki, Reza; Sadeghinejad, Negar

    2017-06-01

    Biosorption of Methyl Blue (MB), Fuchsin Acid (FA), Rhodamine B (RB), Methylene Blue (MEB), Bromocresol purple (BC) and Methyl Orange (MO) onto Sargassum ilicifolium was studied in a batch system. Effect of dye structure on biosorption by Sargassum ilicifolium was studied to define the correlation between chemical structure and biosorption capacity. Different dye groups such as triarylmethane (MB, FA and BC), monoazo (MO), thiazine (MEB) and xanthene (RB) were studied. At optimum experimental conditions for each dye, biosorption capacity was determined and compared. The results indicate that the chemical structure (triarylmethane, monoazo, thiazine, xanthene), number of sulfonic groups, basicity (element of chromophore group: S, N, O) and molecular weight of dye molecules influence their biosorption capacity. Experimental parameters such as biosorbent dose, pH, contact time, and initial dye concentration were optimized for each dye. The biosorption kinetic data were successfully described by the pseudo second-order model. The biosorption results were also analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Finally, biosorption capacities obtained using Sargassum ilicifolium were compared with the ones presented in the literature.

  16. Mechanisms of Alizarin Red S and Methylene blue biosorption onto olive stone by-product: Isotherm study in single and binary systems.

    PubMed

    Albadarin, Ahmad B; Mangwandi, Chirangano

    2015-12-01

    The biosorption process of anionic dye Alizarin Red S (ARS) and cationic dye methylene blue (MB) as a function of contact time, initial concentration and solution pH onto olive stone (OS) biomass has been investigated. Equilibrium biosorption isotherms in single and binary systems and kinetics in batch mode were also examined. The kinetic data of the two dyes were better described by the pseudo second-order model. At low concentration, ARS dye appeared to follow a two-step diffusion process, while MB dye followed a three-step diffusion process. The biosorption experimental data for ARS and MB dyes were well suited to the Redlich-Peterson isotherm. The maximum biosorption of ARS dye, qmax = 16.10 mg/g, was obtained at pH 3.28 and the maximum biosorption of MB dye, qmax = 13.20 mg/g, was observed at basic pH values. In the binary system, it was indicated that the MB dye diffuses firstly inside the biosorbent particle and occupies the biosorption sites forming a monodentate complex and then the ARS dye enters and can only bind to untaken sites; forms a tridentate complex with OS active sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of New Laser Protective Dyes. Phase 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DYE LASERS, PROTECTION, LASERS, DYES , HAZARDS, SYNTHESIS, EYE SAFETY, OPTICAL MATERIALS, PLASTICS, LENSES, THERMAL STABILITY, CYANINE DYES , POLYCARBONATES, INJECTION MOLDING, NEAR INFRARED RADIATION, FLUORENES.

  18. Green synthesis, structure and fluorescence spectra of new azacyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enchev, Venelin; Gadjev, Nikolai; Angelov, Ivan; Minkovska, Stela; Kurutos, Atanas; Markova, Nadezhda; Deligeorgiev, Todor

    2017-11-01

    A series of symmetric and unsymmetric monomethine azacyanine dyes (monomethine azacyanine and merocyanine sulfobetaines) were synthesized with moderate to high yields via a novel method using microwave irradiation. The compounds are derived from a condensation reaction between 2-thiomethylbenzotiazolium salts and 2-imino-3-methylbenzothiazolines proceeded under microwave irradiation. The synthetic approach involves the use of green solvent and absence of basic reagent. TD-DFT calculations were performed to simulate absorption and fluorescent spectra of synthesized dyes. Absorption maxima, λmax, of the studied dyes were found in the range 364-394 nm. Molar absorbtivities were evaluated in between 40300 and 59200 mol-1 dm3 cm-1. Fluorescence maxima, λfl, were registered around 418-448 nm upon excitation at 350 nm. A slight displacements of theoretically estimated absorption maxima according to experimental ones is observed. The differences are most probably due to the fact that the DFT calculations were carried out without taking into account the solvent effect. In addition, the merocyanine sulfobetaines also fluorescence in blue optical range (420-480 nm) at excitation in red range (630-650 nm).

  19. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

  20. Short-term in vivo evaluation of novel vital dyes for intraocular surgery.

    PubMed

    Haritoglou, Christos; Tadayoni, Ramin; May, Christian A; Gass, Carolin A; Freyer, Wolfgang; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Kampik, Anselm

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the staining characteristics and safety of potential new dyes for intraocular surgery in porcine eyes. Four dyes in different solutions (light green SF yellowish [LGSF]: 2%; copper(II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid [E68]: 2% and 0.5%; bromophenol blue [BPB]: 2%, 1%, and 0.2%; and Chicago blue [CB]: 2% and 0.5%) were included in this investigation. All dyes were dissolved and diluted using balanced salt solution (BSS plus; Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). After triamcinolone-assisted vitrectomy on 10 porcine eyes in vivo, the dyes were first injected into the air-filled vitreous cavity. After 1 minute, the dye was removed by irrigation with BSS, and the staining effect was graded by two examiners. After vitrectomy, the same dyes and concentrations were injected in the air-filled anterior chamber to stain the lens capsule of the same eye. After surgery, the eyes were enucleated and underwent fixation for light and electron microscopy. The animals were killed by injection of pentobarbital (50 mg/kg). For controls, each BSS plus alone and indocyanine green 0.5% were applied in one eye. On the retinal surface, bright staining of the retinal surface was seen after application of BPB 2% and 1%. The staining effect was less pronounced but still very good using E68 2%, and CB 2% and weak using BPB 0.2%, E68 0.5% and CB 0.5% as well as indocyanine green 0.5%. No staining of the retinal surface but of the vitreous was seen after application of LGSF 2%. The lens capsule stained very well with E68 2%, CB 2% and 0.5%, and BPB 2%, 1%, and 0.2% but not with LGSF. No histologic abnormalities were seen after the application in any eye after dye injection. No dye-related complications occurred during surgery. In this study, we identified three dyes with satisfying staining characteristics in both anterior and posterior segments. Because BPB stained the retinal surface and lens capsule at a low concentration (0.2%) with no signs of toxicity, this dye seems to

  1. Fabrication and characterization of nanowalls CdS/dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulelah, Haider; Ali, Basil; Mahdi, M. A.; Hassan, J. J.; Al-Taay, H. F.; Jennings, P.

    2017-06-01

    A microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MA-CBD) was adopted to fabricate nanowalls CdS nanocrystalline thin film. Nanomaterials (such as nanowalls structure) have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating properties and unique applications, especially in optoelectronic nanodevices. Here we describe the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based nanowalls cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanocrystalline thin films. The surface morphology, crystalline structure, and optical properties of the prepared nanocrystalline thin films are investigated. Rhodamine B, Malachite green, Eosin methylene blue, and Cresyl violet perchlorate dyes are used to fabricate the DSSCS devices. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics show that the nanowall CdS/Eosin methylene blue device is the highest conversion efficiency of 0.89% under 100 mW/cm2. However, heat treatment of the fabricated solar cells causes significant enhancement in the output of all devices.

  2. Molecular modelling for the design of chimaeric biomimetic dye-ligands and their interaction with bovine heart mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Labrou, N E; Eliopoulos, E; Clonis, Y D

    1996-01-01

    Molecular modelling and kinetic inhibition studies, as well as KD determinations by both difference-spectra and enzyme-inactivation studies, were employed to assess the ability of purpose-designed chimaeric biomimetic dyes (BM dyes) to act as affinity ligands for bovine heart L-malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Each BM dye was composed of two enzyme-recognition moieties. The terminal biomimetic moiety bore a carboxyl or a keto acid structure linked to the triazine ring, thus mimicking the substrate of MDH. The chromophore anthraquinone moiety remained unchanged and the same as that of the parent dye Vilmafix Blue A-R (VBAR), recognizing the nucleotide-binding site of MDH. The monochlorotriazine BM dyes did not inactivate MDH but competitively inhibited inactivation by the parent dichlorotriazine dye VBAR. Dye binding to MDH was accompanied by a characteristic spectral change in the range 500-850 nm. This phenomenon was reversed after titration with increasing amounts of NADH. When compared with VBAR, Cibacron Blue 3GA and two control non-biomimetic anthraquinone dyes, all BM dyes exhibited lower KD values and therefore higher affinity for MDH. The enzyme bound preferably to BM ligands substituted with a biomimetic aromatic moiety bearing an alpha-keto acid group and an amide linkage, rather than a monocarboxyl group. Thus the biomimetic dye bearing p-aminobenzyloxanilic acid as its terminal biomimetic moiety (BM5) exhibited the highest affinity (KD 1.3 microM, which corresponded to a 219-fold decrease over the KD of a control dye). BM5 displayed competitive inhibition with respect to both NADH (Ki 2.7 microM) and oxaloacetate (Ki 9.6 microM). A combination of molecular modelling and experimental studies has led to certain conclusions. The positioning of the dye in the enzyme is primarily achieved by the recognition and positioning of the nucleotide-pseudomimetic anthraquinone moiety. The hydrophobic groups of the dye provide the driving force for positioning of the

  3. Blue Origin Facility - Construction Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-21

    Construction is progressing on Blue Origin's 750,000-square-foot facility being built at Exploration Park on NASA Kennedy Space Center property in Florida. Blue Origin will use the factory to manufacture its two-stage super-heavy-lift New Glenn launch vehicle and launch the vehicles from Space Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  4. A microdestructive capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper.

    PubMed

    Calcerrada, Matías; González-Herráez, Miguel; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-26

    This manuscript describes the development of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the detection of acid and basic dyes and its application to real samples, blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper. First, a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation of basic and acid dyes, by studying the separation medium (buffer nature, pH and relative amount of additive) and instrumental parameters (temperature, voltage and capillary dimensions). The method performance was evaluated in terms of selectivity, resolution (above 5 and 2 for acid dyes and basic dyes, respectively, except for two basic dye standards), LOD (lower than 0.4 mg/L) and precision as intraday and interday RSD values of peak migration times (lower than 0.6%). The developed method was then applied to 34 blue pens from different technologies (rollerball, ballpoint, markers) and with different ink composition (gel, water-based, oil-based). A microdestructive sample treatment using a scalpel to scratch 0.3mg of ink stroke was performed. The entire electropherogram profile allowed the visual discrimination between different types of ink and brands, being not necessary a statistical treatment. A 100% of discrimination was achieved between pen technologies, brands, and models, although non-reproducible zones in the electropherograms were found for blue gel pen samples. The two different batches of blue oil-based pens were also differentiated. Thus, this method provides a simple, microdestructive, and rapid analysis of different blue pen technologies which may complement the current analysis of questioned documents performed by forensic laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous Preconcentration and Determination of Brilliant Blue and Sunset Yellow in Foodstuffs by Solid-Phase Extraction Combined UV-Vis Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Bişgin, Abdullah Taner

    2018-05-29

    Background: Brilliant Blue and Sunset Yellow, two highly water-soluble synthetic food dyes, are the most popular food dyes used and consumed. Although they are not highly toxic, some health problems can be observed when excessive amounts of food products containing these dyes are consumed. Objectives: The aim of the study was to develop a simultaneous UV-Vis combined solid-phase extraction method, based on the adsorption onto Amberlite XAD-8 resin, for determination of Brilliant Blue and Sunset Yellow dyes. Methods: Sample solution was poured into the reservoir of the column and permitted to gravitationally pass through the column at 2 mL/min flow rate. Adsorbed dyes were eluted to 5 mL of final volume with 1 mol/L HNO₃ in ethanol solution by applying a 2 mL/min flow rate. Dye concentrations of the solution were determined at 483 and 630 nm for Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue, respectively. Results: The detection limits of the method for Brilliant Blue and Sunset Yellow were determined as 0.13 and 0.66 ng/mL, respectively. Preconcentration factor was 80. Brilliant Blue contents of real food samples were found to be between 11 and 240 μg/g. Sunset Yellow concentrations of foodstuffs were determined to be between 19 and 331 μg/g. Conclusions: Economical, effective, and simple simultaneous determination of Brilliant Blue and Sunset Yellow was achieved by using a solid-phase extraction combined UV-Vis spectrometry method. Highlights: The method is applicable and suitable for routine analysis in quality control laboratories without the need for expert personnel and high operational costs because the instrumentation is simple and inexpensive.

  6. The Combination of Trypan Blue and Brilliant Blue G-Assisted Vitrectomy for Macular Pucker: Histopathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Tognetto, Daniele; De Giacinto, Chiara; D'Aloisio, Rossella; Papagno, Claudia; Pastore, Marco; Zweyer, Marina

    2018-01-01

    To report on the combined use of trypan blue (TB) and brilliant blue G (BBG) for staining the epiretinal membrane (ERM) and internal limiting membrane (ILM) during vitrectomy and to describe the histopathological findings. 10 surgical specimens were removed from 10 eyes with macular pucker during vitrectomy using a commercially available combination of TB and BBG for ERM and ILM staining and peeling. Specimens were evaluated using light and transmission electron microscopy. In all cases the combination of TB and BBG was useful for identifying and delineating ERM and ILM. No complications related to the use of the dye were observed during or after surgery. Glial cells were present in all specimens. Hyalocytes were observed in 6 cases and myofibroblasts in 3 of them. In 7 cases native vitreous collagen fibrils were found on the ILM, while in 5 specimens newly formed collagen was present. No clinical evidence of toxicity was observed during the 3-month follow-up. The combined use of TB and BBG appeared to be very useful intraoperatively to improve the visualization of ERM and ILM, thus facilitating their complete removal. Anatomical and histopathological findings demonstrated the safety and the efficacy of this vital dye. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Removal of Reactofix Navy Blue 2 GFN from aqueous solutions using adsorption techniques.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Jain, Rajeev; Varshney, Shaily; Saini, Vipin Kumar

    2007-03-15

    The wheat husk, an agricultural by-product, has been activated and used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of Reactofix Navy Blue 2 GFN from aqueous solution. In this work, adsorption of Reactofix Navy Blue 2 GFN on wheat husk and charcoal has been studied by using batch studies. The equilibrium adsorption level was determined to be a function of the solution pH, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration and contact time. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of wheat husk and charcoal for dye removal were obtained using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as the free energies, enthalpies and entropies of adsorption were also evaluated. Adsorption process is considered suitable for removing color, COD from waste water.

  8. Interaction of nucleic acids with Coomassie Blue G-250 in the Bradford assay.

    PubMed

    Wenrich, Broc R; Trumbo, Toni A

    2012-09-15

    The Bradford assay has been used reliably for decades to quantify protein in solution. The analyte is incubated in acidic solution of Coomassie Blue G-250 dye, during which reversible ionic and nonionic binding interactions form. Bradford assay color yields were determined for salmon, bovine, shrimp, and kiwi fruit genomic DNA; baker's yeast RNA; bovine serum albumin (BSA); and hen egg lysozyme. Pure DNA and RNA bound the dye, with color yields of 0.0017 mg⁻¹ cm⁻¹ and 0.0018 mg⁻¹ cm⁻¹, respectively. The nucleic acid-Coomassie Blue response was significant, at roughly 9% of that for BSA and 18% of that for lysozyme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of initial treatment in the preparation of natural indigo dye from Indigofera tinctoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnama, Herry; Hidayati, Nur; Safitri, Dyah S.; Rahmawati, Sofia

    2017-06-01

    The current tinting industries return to the use of natural dyes because of their characteristics including safe and environmentally friendly. Indonesia can widely promote the potential of natural colours due to the availability of abundant natural dye plants. One of the potential plants that generates blue colour is Indigofera tinctoria. This research was conducted to improve the quality and quantity of natural indigo dye for batik production that supports the environment sustainability. The indigo dark blue paste was produced by initial treatment of soaking in cold water for 48 hours. The 48 hours fermentation anaerobic conditions reached optimum temperature, due to time and pH were also met by nutrients. Aeration was done in ten minutes using an aquarium air pump to increase mixing in water immersion with solution of calcium oxide. Indoxyl in the fermented leaves of Indigofera tinctoria is easily oxidized by air in alkali solution that will form pigment indigo. In that condition, lime (CaO) can be used in the manufacture of indigo paste. In this study, the higher concentrated of blue colour was achieved by lesser amount of lime. The soaking treatment in cold water produced high amount of dyes rather than the initial treatment by both hot water and grounding the indigo leaves. Analysis were done by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry which showed the value of absorbance. The sample that was soaked in 5 liters of water added by a kilogram of Indigofera tinctoria leaves and 15 grams of lime for 48 hours, obtained the highest absorbance or concentration level. The application of the indigo dyes with or without mordanting agent was also tested for colour fastness.

  10. Discovery of black dye crystal structure polymorphs: Implications for dye conformational variation in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Cole, Jacqueline M.; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-11-24

    Here, we present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world’s leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black Dye···TiO 2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiplemore » conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dye···TiO 2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dye···TiO 2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes.« less

  11. Blues fans and suicide acceptability.

    PubMed

    Stack, S

    2000-01-01

    Research has neglected the possible impact of the blues music subculture on suicide acceptability (SA). The sad themes in the blues may attract suicidal persons and reinforce their suicidal moods and attitudes. The present study performs the first test of the thesis that associates SA with being a blues fan. It uses data on a national sample of 961 adults drawn from the General Social Survey of 1993. The results of a multivariate logistic regression analysis found that blues fans were no more accepting of suicide than nonfans. However, blues fanship was found to have substantial indirect effects on SA through its influence on such factors as lowered religiosity levels, the most important predictor of SA. Race-specific analyses found more support for the model for whites than for African Americans.

  12. Adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes on activated carbon from aqueous solutions: equilibrium and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Araceli; García, Juan; Ovejero, Gabriel; Mestanza, María

    2009-12-30

    Activated carbon was utilized as adsorbent to remove anionic dye, Orange II (OII), and cationic dye, Methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions by adsorption. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of temperature (30-65 degrees C), initial concentration of adsorbate (300-500 mg L(-1)) and pH (3.0-9.0) on dyes adsorption. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The equilibrium experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Toth and Redlich-Peterson models. The kinetic data obtained with different carbon mass were analyzed using a pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion, Bangham and Chien-Clayton equations. The best results were achieved with the Langmuir isotherm equilibrium model and with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The activated carbon was found to be very effective as adsorbent for MB and OII from aqueous solutions.

  13. Application of Anthocyanins from Blackcurrant ( Ribes nigrum L.) Fruit Waste as Renewable Hair Dyes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul M; Cantrill, Victoria; Benohoud, Meryem; Tidder, Alenka; Rayner, Christopher M; Blackburn, Richard S

    2018-05-29

    There is much concern about the toxicological effects of synthetic hair dyes. As an alternative approach, renewable waste blackcurrant ( Ribes nigrum L.) fruit skins from the fruit pressing industry were extracted using acidified water with a solid-phase purification stage. Anthocyanin colorants were isolated in good yields (2-3% w/ w) and characterized by HPLC. Sorption of anthocyanins onto hair followed a Freundlich isotherm; anthocyanin-anthocyanin aggregation interactions enabled high buildup on the substrate. Sorption energy of cyanidin-3- O-glucoside (monosaccharide) > cyanidin-3- O-rutinoside (disaccharide), but sorption properties of different anthocyanin glucosides were very similar. Intense blue-colored dyeing on hair could be achieved with λ max-vis at 580 nm, typical of the anionic quinonoid base; it is suggested that hair provides an environment that enables the stabilization of the anionic quinonoid base on adsorption through association with cations in the hair and copigmentation effects. Dyeings were stable to multiple washes.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes using composite nanofibers under UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Ahmed; Mohamed, Alaa; Aboamera, Nada M.; Osman, T. A.; Khattab, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and indigo carmine (IC) have been studied by composite nanofibers systems containing cellulose acetate (CA), multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) and TiO2 nanoparticles under UV light. The amino factionalized TiO2-NH2 NPs cross-linked to the CA/CNT composite nanofibers works as a semiconductor catalyst. The morphology and crystallinity were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was also seen that many factors affected the photodegradation rate, mainly the pH of the solution and the dye concentration, temperature, etc. The study demonstrated that IC degrades at a higher rate than MB. The maximum photodegradation rate of both organic dyes was achieved at a pH 2. In comparison to other studies, this work achieved high photodegradation rate in lower time and using less power intensity.

  15. Organo/Zn-Al LDH Nanocomposites for Cationic Dye Removal from Aqueous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starukh, G.; Rozovik, O.; Oranska, O.

    2016-04-01

    Cationic dye sorption by Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with anionic surfactants was examined using methylene blue (MB) dye as a compound model in aqueous solutions. The modification of Zn-Al LDHs was performed by reconstruction method using dodecyl sulfate anion (DS) solutions. DS contained Zn-Al LDHs were characterized by XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric, and SEM analysis. The reconstructed organo/Zn-Al LDHs comprise the crystalline phases (DS-intercalated LDHs, hydrotalcite), and the amorphous phase. The intercalation of DS ions into the interlayer galleries and DS adsorption on the surface of the LDHs occurred causing the MB adsorption on the external and its sorption in the internal surfaces of modified LDHs. The presence of DS greatly increased the affinity of organo/Zn-Al LDHs for MB due to hydrophobic interactions between the surfactants and the dye molecules. The optical properties of sorbed MB were studied.

  16. Ability of a montmorillonitic clay to interact with cationic and anionic dyes in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleşa Chicinaş, R.; Bedelean, H.; Stefan, R.; Măicăneanu, A.

    2018-02-01

    A montmorillonitic clay in raw and treated forms (size-fractionated, organoclay, Al pillared) was evaluated as adsorbent for cationic (toluidine blue - TB and malachite green - MG) and anionic (Congo red - CR) dyes. A thorough characterization using XRD, SEM-EDS, N2 adsorption, and FTIR of the considered samples was realized, all highlighting the structural changes after various treatments. UV-VIS analysis demonstrated the interaction between dyes and the adsorbent surface. The investigation of the effects of various experimental parameters using a batch adsorption technique showed that ON has a high adsorption potential for cationic dyes (33 and 39 mg/g in case of TB and MG, respectively). The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model, while Freundlich isotherm showed a favorable adsorption. The calculated values of Gibbs free energy suggested also that the adsorption is spontaneous and is more favorable at higher temperatures.

  17. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  18. Amino Acid-Assisted Incorporation of Dye Molecules within Calcite Crystals.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Bartosz; Green, David C; Holden, Mark A; Coté, Alexander S; Ihli, Johannes; Khalid, Saba; Kulak, Alexander; Walker, Daniel; Tang, Chiu; Duffy, Dorothy M; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2018-05-23

    Biomineralisation processes invariably occur in the presence of multiple organic additives, which act in combination to give exceptional control over structures and properties. However, few synthetic studies have investigated the cooperative effects of soluble additives. This work addresses this challenge and focuses on the combined effects of amino acids and coloured dye molecules. The experiments demonstrate that strongly coloured calcite crystals only form in the presence of Brilliant Blue R (BBR) and four of the seventeen soluble amino acids, as compared with almost colourless crystals using the dye alone. The active amino acids are identified as those which themselves effectively occlude in calcite, suggesting a mechanism where they can act as chaperones for individual molecules or even aggregates of dyes molecules. These results provide new insight into crystal-additive interactions and suggest a novel strategy for generating materials with target properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Aluminium - Cobalt-Pillared Clay for Dye Filtration Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, A.; Widiarsih

    2018-04-01

    The manufacture of membrane support from cobalt aluminium pillared clay has been conducted. This research was conducted by mixing a clay suspension with pillared solution prepared from the mixture of Co(NO3)2.6H2O and AlCl3.6H2O. The molar ratio between Al and Co was 75:25 and the ratio of [OH-]/[metal] was 2. The clay suspension was stirred for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and dried. The dried clay was then calcined at 200°C, 300°C and 400°C with a ramp rate of 2°C/min. Aluminium-cobalt-pillared clay was then characterized by XRD and GSA and moulded become a membrane support for subsequent tests on dye filtration. The XRD analysis showed that basal spacing (d 001) value of aluminium cobalt was 19.49 Å, which was higher than the natural clay of 15.08Å however, the basal spacing decreased with increasing calcination temperature. The result of the GSA analysis showed that the pore diameter of the aluminium cobalt pillared clay membrane was almost the same as that of natural clay that were 34.5Å and 34.2Å, respectively. Nevertheless, the pillared clay has a more uniform pore size distribution. The results of methylene blue filtration measurements demonstrated that the membrane filter support could well which shown by a clear filtrate at all concentrations tested. The value of rejection and flux decreased with the increasing concentration of methylene blue. The values of dye rejection and water flux reached 99.89% and 5. 80 x 10-6 kg min-1, respectively but they decreased with increasing concentration of methylene blue. The results of this study indicates that the aluminium-pillared clay cobalt could be used as membrane materials especially for ultrafiltration.

  20. Elimination of textile dyes using activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Cid, Alejandra-Alicia; Herrera-González, Ana-María; Salazar-Villanueva, Martín; Bautista-Hernández, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    In this study, three mesoporous activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues were used to remove acid, basic, and direct dyes from aqueous solutions, and reactive and vat dyes from textile wastewater. Granular carbons obtained by chemical activation at 673 K with phosphoric acid from prickly pear peels (CarTunaQ), broccoli stems (CarBrocQ), and white sapote seeds (CarZapQ) were highly efficient for the removal of dyes. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out in batch systems and treated with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherms ranged between 131.6 and 312.5 mg/g for acid dyes, and between 277.8 and 500.0 mg/g for basic dyes at 303 K. Our objective in this paper was to show that vegetable wastes can serve as precursors for activated carbons that can be used for the adsorption of dyes. Specifically CarBrocQ was the best carbon produced for the removal of textile dyes. The color removal of dyes present in textile wastewaters was compared with that of a commercial powdered carbon, and it was found that the carbons produced using waste material reached similar efficiency levels. Carbon samples were characterized by bulk density, point of zero charge, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, methylene blue adsorption isotherms at 303 K, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (SBET). The results show that the activated carbons possess a large specific surface area (1025-1177 m(2)/g) and high total pore volume (1.06-2.16 cm(3)/g) with average pore size diameters between 4.1 and 8.4 nm. Desorption and regeneration tests were made to test the viability of reusing the activated carbons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Decolorization of basic dye solutions by electrocoagulation: an investigation of the effect of operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, N; Oladegaragoze, A; Djafarzadeh, N

    2006-02-28

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is one of the most effective techniques to remove color and organic pollutants from wastewater, which reduces the sludge generation. In this paper, electrocoagulation has been used for the removal of color from solutions containing C. I. Basic Red 46 (BR46) and C. I. Basic Blue 3 (BB3). These dyes are used in the wool and blanket factories for fiber dyeing. The effect of operational parameters such as current density, initial pH of the solution, time of electrolysis, initial dye concentration and solution conductivity were studied in an attempt to reach higher removal efficiency. The findings in this study shows that an increase in the current density up to 60-80 A m(-2) enhanced the color removal efficiency, the electrolysis time was 5 min and the range of pH was determined between 5.5 and 8.5 for two mentioned dye solutions. It was found that for, the initial concentration of dye in solutions should not be higher than 80 mg l(-1) in order to achieve a high color removal percentage. The optimum conductivity was found to be 8 mS cm(-1), which was adjusted using proper amount of NaCl with the dye concentration of 50 mg l(-1). Electrical energy consumption in the above conditions for the decolorization of the dye solutions containing BR46 and BB3 were 4.70 kWh(kgdye removed)(-1) and 7.57 kWh(kgdye removed)(-1), respectively. Also, during the EC process under the optimized conditions, the COD decreased by more than 75% and 99% in dye solutions containing BB3 and BR46, respectively.

  2. Treatment of artificial wastewater containing two azo textile dyes by vertical-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Amjad; Scholz, Miklas

    2018-03-01

    The release of untreated dye textile wastewater into receiving streams is unacceptable not only for aesthetic reasons and its negative impacts on aquatic life but also because numerous dyes are toxic and carcinogenic to humans. Strategies, as of now, used for treating textile wastewaters have technical and economical restrictions. The greater part of the physico-chemical methods, which are used to treat this kind of wastewater, are costly, produce large amounts of sludge and are wasteful concerning some soluble dyes. In contrast, biological treatments such as constructed wetlands are cheaper than the traditional methods, environmental friendly and do not produce large amounts of sludge. Synthetic wastewater containing Acid Blue 113 (AB113) and Basic Red 46 (BR46) has been added to laboratory-scale vertical-flow construction wetland systems, which have been planted with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed). The concentrations 7 and 208 mg/l were applied for each dye at the hydraulic contact times of 48 and 96 h. Concerning the low concentrations of BR46 and AB113, the unplanted wetlands are associated with significant (ρ < 0.05) reduction performances, if compared with planted wetlands concerning the removal of dyes. For the high concentrations of AB113, BR46 and a mixture of both of them, wetlands with long contact times were significantly (ρ < 0.05) better than wetlands that had short contact times in terms of dye, colour and chemical oxygen demand reductions. Regarding nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N), the reduction percentage rates of AB113, BR46 and a mixture dye of both of them were between 85 and 100%. For low and high inflow dye concentrations, best removals were generally recorded for spring and summer, respectively.

  3. Kinetic study of gold nanoparticle mediated photocatalytic degradation of Victoria blue.

    PubMed

    Jishma, P; Roshmi, Thomas; Snigdha, S; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2018-02-01

    In the study, biogenic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used for the photocatalytic degradation of triphenylmethane dyes Victoria blue B (VBB) and R (VBR). The process was found to result in an approximate degradation of 65 and 52%, respectively, for VBB and VBR within a period of 8 h. The relative rate of photocatalytic degradation of VBB and VBR was identified to be 0.0195 ± 0.0031/min and 0.0295 ± 0.0025/min, respectively, by using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. By using the Vigna unguiculata model system, the degradation products were demonstrated to have non-toxic effect. Moreover, the less toxic nature of AuNPs used for dye removal highlights its feasibility for large-scale application. Hence, the AuNPs-based photocatalytic dye degradation as described in the study is cost-effective, rapid and environment-friendly.

  4. The brilliant blue FCF ion-molecular forms in solutions according to the spectrophotometry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebotarev, A. N.; Bevziuk, K. V.; Snigur, D. V.; Bazel, Ya. R.

    2017-10-01

    The brilliant blue FCF acid-base properties in aqueous solutions have been studied and its ionization constants have been defined by tristimulus colorimetry and spectrophotometry methods. The scheme of the acid-base dye equilibrium has been proposed and a diagram of the distribution of its ionic-molecular forms has been built. It has been established that the dominant form of the dye was the electroneutral form, which molar absorptivity (ɛ625 = 0.97 × 105) increases with the increase of the dielectric permittivity of the solvent. It has been shown that the replacement of polar solvents by less polar ones is causing a bathochromic shift of the maximum absorption band of the dye, the value of which is correlated with the value of the Hansen parameter. Tautomerization constants have been defined in a number of solvents and associated with the value of the Dimroth-Reichardt parameter.

  5. Biodegradation of Direct Blue 15 by free and immobilized Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara; Akkaya, Alper; Akdogan, Hatice Ardag; Gungor, Burcin

    2010-07-01

    To investigate biodegradability by Trametes versicolor, five structurally different direct azo-dyes--Direct Black 38, Direct Blue 15 (DB 15), Direct Orange 26, Direct Green 6, and Direct Yellow 12--were studied. The DB 15 was determined as the best biodegradable dye by this white-rot fungus. Laccase and manganese peroxidase activities were monitored with the biodegradation process; it was observed that laccase played an important role in the dye degradation, while manganese peroxidase activity could not be detected. Possible degradation products also were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but no metabolite was detected after the degradation and/or decolorization process. To enhance performance of the fungi during the degradation, Trametes versicolor cells were immobilized in alginate beads. Then, DB 15 decolorization by immobilized Trametes versicolor was studied in a small-scale packed-bed reactor. The color removal efficiency in repeated batches was found to be 98 and 93% for 50 mg/L DB 15.

  6. A simple method to prepare magnetic modified beer yeast and its application for cationic dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to use a simple method to prepare magnetic modified biomass with good adsorption performances for cationic ions. The magnetic modified biomass was prepared by two steps: (1) preparation of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified biomass in N, N-dimethylacetamide solution and (2) preparation of magnetic PMDA modified biomass by a situ co-precipitation method under the assistance of ultrasound irradiation in ammonia water. The adsorption potential of the as-prepared magnetic modified biomass was analyzed by using cationic dyes: methylene blue and basic magenta as model dyes. Optical micrograph and x-ray diffraction analyses showed that Fe(3)O(4) particles were precipitated on the modified biomass surface. The as-prepared biosorbent could be recycled easily by using an applied magnetic field. Titration analysis showed that the total concentration of the functional groups on the magnetic PMDA modified biomass was calculated to be 0.75 mmol g(-1) by using the first derivative method. The adsorption capacities (q(m)) of the magnetic PMDA modified biomass for methylene blue and basic magenta were 609.0 and 520.9 mg g(-1), respectively, according to the Langmuir equation. Kinetics experiment showed that adsorption could be completed within 150 min for both dyes. The desorption experiment showed that the magnetic sorbent could be used repeatedly after regeneration. The as-prepared magnetic modified sorbent had a potential in the dyeing industry wastewater treatment.

  7. Adsorption of Dyes in Studying the Surface Chemistry of Ultradispersed Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, T. D.; Yunusova, G. R.; Lanin, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    The effect the surface chemistry of ultradispersed diamond (UDD) has on the adsorption of watersoluble dyes is considered. A comparison is made to adsorption on graphitized thermal carbon black (GTCB), which has a homogeneous and nonporous surface. The adsorption isotherms of dyes and the dependence of the adsorption on the pH of solutions are measured. It is found that UDD adsorbs acid (anionic) dyes—acid orange (AO) and acid anthraquinone blue (AAB)—but barely adsorbs a basic (cationic) dye, methylene blue (MB), because of the predominance of positively charged basic groups on the surface of UDD. The maximum adsorption of AO is much lower on UDD than on GTCB, while the maximum adsorption of AAB is similar for both surfaces. The adsorption of AO on UDD depends strongly on the pH of the solution, while the adsorption of AAB is independent of this parameter. It is suggested that the adsorption of AAB is determined not only by ionic and hydrophobic interactions but also by coordination interactions with impurity metal ions on a UDD surface. It is concluded that the adsorption of dyes characterizes the chemistry of a UDD surface with high sensitivity.

  8. Facile synthesis of surface-functionalized magnetic nanocomposites for effectively selective adsorption of cationic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yani; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Qinqin; Cui, Chang; Wang, Chuan

    2018-04-01

    A new magnetic nano-adsorbent, polycatechol modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4/PCC MNPs) were prepared by a facile chemical coprecipitation method using iron salts and catechol solution as precursors. Fe3O4/PCC MNPs owned negatively charged surface with oxygen-containing groups and showed a strong adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rates for the removal of cationic dyes in water. The adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB), cationic turquoise blue GB (GB), malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV) and cationic pink FG (FG) were 60.06 mg g- 1, 70.97 mg g- 1, 66.84 mg g- 1, 66.01 mg g- 1 and 50.27 mg g- 1, respectively. The adsorption mechanism was proposed by the analyses of the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics of cationic dyes on Fe3O4/PCC MNPs. Moreover, the cationic dyes adsorbed on the MNPs as a function of contact time, pH value, temperature, coexisting cationic ions and ion strength were also investigated. These results suggested that the Fe3O4/PCC MNPs is promising to be used as a magnetic adsorbent for selective adsorption of cationic dyes in wastewater treatment.

  9. Toxicity of textile dyes and their degradation by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP).

    PubMed

    Ulson de Souza, Selene Maria Arruda Guelli; Forgiarini, Eliane; Ulson de Souza, Antônio Augusto

    2007-08-25

    The enzyme peroxidase is known for its capacity to remove phenolic compounds and aromatic amines from aqueous solutions and also to decolorize textile effluents. This study evaluates the potential of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the decolorization of textile dyes and effluents. Some factors such as pH and the amount of H(2)O(2) and the enzyme were evaluated in order to determine the optimum conditions for the enzyme performance. For the dyes tested, the results indicated that the decolorization of the dye Remazol Turquoise Blue G 133% was approximately 59%, and 94% for the Lanaset Blue 2R; for the textile effluent, the decolorization was 52%. The tests for toxicity towards Daphnia magna showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. However, the toxicity of the textile effluent showed no change towards Artemia salina after the enzyme treatment. This study verifies the viability of the use of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase in the biodegradation of textile dyes.

  10. Administration of novel dyes for intraocular surgery: an in vivo toxicity animal study.

    PubMed

    Schuettauf, Frank; Haritoglou, Christos; May, Christian A; Rejdak, Robert; Mankowska, Anna; Freyer, Wolfgang; Eibl, Kirsten; Zrenner, Eberhart; Kampik, Anselm; Thaler, Sebastian

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the effect of intravitreal injections of new vital dyes on the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroid in an in vivo rat model. Rats were injected intravitreally with four dyes: light-green SF yellowish (LGSF), copper(II)phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid (E68), bromphenol blue (BPB), and Chicago blue (CB) dissolved in physiologic saline solution (PSS) at concentrations of 0.5% and 0.02%. PSS served as the control. Additional animals were treated with single injections of 0.5%, 0.02%, 0.002%, and 0.0002% ICG or 0.002% E68 into one eye. Adverse effects on anterior and posterior segments were evaluated by slit lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. Retinal toxicity was assessed by histology and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) quantification 7 days after dye administration. Eyes treated with 0.5% E68, 0.5% ICG, or 0.5% CB showed discrete staining of both cornea and lens not seen at lower concentrations or with other dyes. Histology revealed dose-dependent reactions after E68 administration. ICG 0.5% induced significant thinning of inner retinal layers compared with PSS. ICG 0.02% caused focal degenerative changes of the outer retina in three of seven eyes, whereas 0.002% and 0.0002% ICG did not. CB led to heterogeneous morphologic alterations. BPB- or LGSF-treated eyes showed normal retinal morphology. ICG at all tested concentrations induced significant RGC loss, as did E68 at 0.5% but not at lower concentrations. BPB or LGSF produced no significantly detectable toxic effects on the retina in vivo. The safety of these new dyes must be established in other models and/or in preclinical studies before the clinical use of any of these dyes.

  11. An investigation of anthraquinone dye biodegradation by immobilized Aspergillus flavus in fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Andleeb, Saadia; Atiq, Naima; Robson, Geoff D; Ahmed, Safia

    2012-06-01

    Biodegradation and biodecolorization of Drimarene blue K(2)RL (anthraquinone) dye by a fungal isolate Aspergillus flavus SA2 was studied in lab-scale immobilized fluidized bed bioreactor (FBR) system. Fungus was immobilized on 0.2-mm sand particles. The reactor operation was carried out at room temperature and pH 5.0 in continuous flow mode with increasing concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 500 mg l(-1)) of dye in simulated textile effluent on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, 8th, 11th, and 14th days. The reactors were run on fill, react, settle, and draw mode, with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24-72 h. Total run time for reactor operation was 17 days. The average overall biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and color removal in the FBR system were up to 85.57%, 84.70%, and 71.3%, respectively, with 50-mg l(-1) initial dye concentration and HRT of 24 h. Reductions in BOD and COD levels along with color removal proved that the mechanism of biodecolorization and biodegradation occurred simultaneously. HPLC and LC-MS analysis identified phthalic acid, benzoic acid, 1, 4-dihydroxyanthraquinone, 2,3-dihydro-9,10-dihydroxy-1,4-anthracenedione, and catechol as degradation products of Drimarene blue K(2)RL dye. Phytotoxicity analysis of bioreactor treatments provided evidence for the production of less toxic metabolites in comparison to the parent dye. The present fluidized bed bioreactor setup with indigenously isolated fungal strain in its immobilized form is efficiently able to convert the parent toxic dye into less toxic by-products.

  12. In vivo multispectral photoacoustic and photothermal flow cytometry with multicolor dyes: a potential for real-time assessment of circulation, dye-cell interaction, and blood volume.

    PubMed

    Proskurnin, Mikhail A; Zhidkova, Tatyana V; Volkov, Dmitry S; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Mock, Donald; Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2011-10-01

    Recently, photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) has been developed for in vivo detection of circulating tumor cells and bacteria targeted by nanoparticles. Here, we propose multispectral PAFC with multiple dyes having distinctive absorption spectra as multicolor PA contrast agents. As a first step of our proof-of-concept, we characterized high-speed PAFC capability to monitor the clearance of three dyes (Indocyanine Green [ICG], Methylene Blue [MB], and Trypan Blue [TB]) in an animal model in vivo and in real time. We observed strong dynamic PA signal fluctuations, which can be associated with interactions of dyes with circulating blood cells and plasma proteins. PAFC demonstrated enumeration of circulating red and white blood cells labeled with ICG and MB, respectively, and detection of rare dead cells uptaking TB directly in bloodstream. The possibility for accurate measurements of various dye concentrations including Crystal Violet and Brilliant Green were verified in vitro using complementary to PAFC photothermal (PT) technique and spectrophotometry under batch and flow conditions. We further analyze the potential of integrated PAFC/PT spectroscopy with multiple dyes for rapid and accurate measurements of circulating blood volume without a priori information on hemoglobin content, which is impossible with existing optical techniques. This is important in many medical conditions including surgery and trauma with extensive blood loss, rapid fluid administration, and transfusion of red blood cells. The potential for developing a robust clinical PAFC prototype that is safe for human, and its applications for studying the liver function are further highlighted. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  13. Blue ellipticals in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    1990-01-01

    By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

  14. Microcolumn studies of dye adsorption onto manganese oxides modified diatomite.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghouti, M A; Khraisheh, M A M; Ahmad, M N; Allen, S J

    2007-07-19

    The method described here cannot fully replace the analysis of large columns by small test columns (microcolumns). The procedure, however, is suitable for speeding up the determination of adsorption parameters of dye onto the adsorbent and for speeding up the initial screening of a large adsorbent collection that can be tedious if a several adsorbents and adsorption conditions must be tested. The performance of methylene blue (MB), a basic dye, Cibacron reactive black (RB) and Cibacron reactive yellow (RY) was predicted in this way and the influence of initial dye concentration and other adsorption conditions on the adsorption behaviour were demonstrated. On the basis of the experimental results, it can be concluded that the adsorption of RY onto manganese oxides modified diatomite (MOMD) exhibited a characteristic "S" shape and can be simulated effectively by the Thomas model. It is shown that the adsorption capacity increased as the initial dye concentration increased. The increase in the dye uptake capacity with the increase of the adsorbent mass in the column was due to the increase in the surface area of adsorbent, which provided more binding sites for the adsorption. It is shown that the use of high flow rates reduced the time that RY in the solution is in contact with the MOMD, thus allowing less time for adsorption to occur, leading to an early breakthrough of RY. A rapid decrease in the column adsorption capacity with an increase in particle size with an average 56% reduction in capacity resulting from an increase in the particle size from 106-250 microm to 250-500 microm. The experimental data correlated well with calculated data using the Thomas equation and the bed depth-service time (BDST) equation. Therefore, it might be concluded that the Thomas equation and the BDST equations can produce accurate predication for variation of dye concentration, mass of the adsorbent, flow rate and particle size. In general, the values of adsorption isotherm capacity

  15. Experimental and kinetic studies on methylene blue adsorption by coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, D; Namasivayam, C

    2007-01-01

    Varying the parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature carried out the potential feasibility of thermally activated coir pith carbon prepared from coconut husk for removal of methylene blue. Greater percentage of dye was removed with decrease in the initial concentration of dye and increase in amount of adsorbent used. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye on coir pith carbon was a gradual process. Lagergren first-order, second-order, intra particle diffusion model and Bangham were used to fit the experimental data. Equilibrium isotherms were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubnin-Radushkevich, and Tempkin isotherm. The adsorption capacity was found to be 5.87 mg/g by Langmuir isotherm for the particle size 250-500 microm. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 and 60 min for 10 and 20 mg/L and 100 min for 30, 40 mg/L dye concentrations, respectively. A maximum removal of 97% was obtained at natural pH 6.9 for an adsorbent dose of 100 mg/50 mL and 100% removal was obtained for an adsorbent dose of 600 mg/50 mL of 10 mg/L dye concentration. The pH effect and desorption studies suggest that chemisorption might be the major mode of the adsorption process. The change in entropy (DeltaS0) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH0) of coir pith carbon was estimated as 117.20 J/mol/K and 30.88 kJ/mol, respectively. The high negative value of change in Gibbs free energy indicates the feasible and spontaneous adsorption of methylene blue on coir pith carbon.

  16. Blue bubble in Carina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-22

    Sparkling at the centre of this beautiful NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is a Wolf–Rayet star known as WR 31a, located about 30 000 light-years away in the constellation of Carina (The Keel). The distinctive blue bubble appearing to encircle WR 31a, and its uncatalogued stellar sidekick, is a Wolf–Rayet nebula — an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other gases. Created when speedy stellar winds interact with the outer layers of hydrogen ejected by Wolf–Rayet stars, these nebulae are frequently ring-shaped or spherical. The bubble — estimated to have formed around 20 000 years ago — is expanding at a rate of around 220 000 kilometres per hour! Unfortunately, the lifecycle of a Wolf–Rayet star is only a few hundred thousand years — the blink of an eye in cosmic terms. Despite beginning life with a mass at least 20 times that of the Sun, Wolf–Rayet stars typically lose half their mass in less than 100 000 years. And WR 31a is no exception to this case. It will, therefore, eventually end its life as a spectacular supernova, and the stellar material expelled from its explosion will later nourish a new generation of stars and planets.

  17. Faint blue galaxies revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Henry C.

    If dwarf-elliptical galaxies formed their stars very rapdily (on timescales of less than 1 Gyr), they may in principle be detectable out to high redshift. Prior to the discovery of cosmic acceleration, it appeared that rapid and late formation dwarf elliptical galaxies might be required to explain the number counts of faint galaxies. A plausible hypothesis emerged: that photoionization by the UV background prevents gas cooling in low-mass halos until z ≲ 1.5. The discovery of cosmic acceleration eased the tension between predicted galaxy number counts and galaxy-evolution models. Nevertheless, there is some evidence for relatively late star formation in nearby dE's, and the photoionization delay mechanism still appears to have some merit. It is thus of interest to look back in time to see if we can find starbursting dwarf galaxies at moderate redshift. We review the connection between faint-blue galaxies and bursting-dwarf galaxies and discuss some attempts to identify progenitors to dE galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) observations. We find roughly 85 galaxies in the HUDF with redshifts 0.6 that appear to have formed most of their stars at z. Of these, 70% have half-light radii less than 1.5 kpc. These are thus "smoking gun" candidates for dwarf galaxies that are either collapsing for the first time at moderate redshifts or have otherwise been unable to form stars for more than 1/3 of a Hubble time.

  18. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

  19. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  20. A novel porous anionic metal–organic framework with pillared double-layer structure for selective adsorption of dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shu-Nan; Han, Yi; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-15

    A novel porous anionic metal–organic framework, (Me{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}[Zn{sub 2}L{sub 1.5}bpy]·2DMF (BUT-201; H{sub 4}L=4,8-disulfonaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; bpy=4,4-bipyridine; DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), with pillared double-layer structure has been synthesized through the reaction of a sulfonated carboxylic acid ligand and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O with 4,4-bipyridine as a co-ligand. It is found that BUT-201 can rapidly adsorb cationic dyes with a smaller size such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Acriflavine Hydrochloride (AH) by substitution of guest (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NH{sub 2}{sup +}, but has no adsorption towards the cationic dyes with a lager size such as Methylene Violet (MV), the anionic dyes like C. I. Acidmore » Yellow 1 (AY1) and neutral dyes like C. I. Solvent Yellow 7 (SY7), respectively. The results show that the adsorption behavior of BUT-201 relates not only to the charge but also to the size/shape of dyes. Furthermore, the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: A porous anionic metal–organic framework (BUT-201) can selectively adsorb the cationic dyes by cationic guest molecule substitution, and the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • An anionic metal-organic framework (BUT-201) has been synthesized and characterized. • BUT-201 has a three-dimensional (3D) pillared double-layer structure. • BUT-201 can selectively and rapidly adsorb cationic dyes. • The adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}.« less

  1. Counterion dye staining of proteins in one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tryptic gel digestion of stained protein for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei-Tao; Wang, Xu; Hwang, Sun-Young; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2012-01-01

    A fast and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry compatible protein staining method in one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is described. It is based on the counterion dye staining method that employs oppositely charged two dyes, zincon and ethyl violet, to form an ion-pair complex. The protocol, including fixing, staining, and quick washing steps, can be completed in 1-1.5 h, depending upon gel thickness. It has the sensitivity comparable to the colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue G stain using phosphoric acid as a component of staining solution (4-8 ng). The counterion dye stain does not induce protein modifications that complicate interpretation of peptide mapping data from mass spectrometry. Considering the speed, sensitivity, and compatibility with mass spectrometry, the counterion dye stain may be more practical than any other dye-based protein stains for routine proteomic researches.

  2. Infrared Dyes For Optical Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jipson, V. B.; Jones, C. R.

    1981-06-01

    There is current interest in developing optical storage materials that can be written with GaAlAs lasers. Dyes which absorb strongly at those wavelengths are potential candidates for this application due to their attractive thermal properties. Through optical and thermal modelling, the properties that are necessary if they are to be writeable at energies of <=1 nJ are examined. A specific class of infrared absorbing dyes, squarylium, is discussed and preliminary data on optical characteristics, writing energy, and stability are presented.

  3. Kinetic and calorimetric study of the adsorption of dyes on mesoporous activated carbon prepared from coconut coir dust.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Jeremias de Souza; da Costa Júnior, Nivan Bezerra; Almeida, Luis Eduardo; Vieira, Eunice Fragoso da Silva; Cestari, Antonio Reinaldo; Gimenez, Iara de Fátima; Villarreal Carreño, Neftali Lênin; Barreto, Ledjane Silva

    2006-06-15

    Mesoporous activated carbon has been prepared from coconut coir dust as support for adsorption of some model dye molecules from aqueous solutions. The methylene blue (MB) and remazol yellow (RY) molecules were chosen for study of the adsorption capacity of cationic and anionic dyes onto prepared activated carbon. The adsorption kinetics was studied with the Lagergren first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models as well as the intraparticle diffusion model. The results for both dyes suggested a multimechanism sorption process. The adsorption mechanisms in the systems dyes/AC follow pseudo-second-order kinetics with a significant contribution of intraparticle diffusion. The samples simultaneously present acidic and basic sites able to act as anchoring sites for basic and acidic dyes, respectively. Calorimetric studies reveal that dyes/AC interaction forces are correlated with the pH of the solution, which can be related to the charge distribution on the AC surface. These AC samples also exhibited very short equilibrium times for the adsorption of both dyes, which is an economically favorable requisite for the activated carbon described in this work, in addition to the local abundance of the raw material.

  4. Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1987-01-01

    Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

  5. Altered blood-brain barrier permeability and its effect on the distribution of Evans blue and sodium fluorescein in the rat brain applied by intracarotid injection.

    PubMed

    Kozler, P; Pokorný, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to study the blood-brain permeability according to the distribution in the rat brain of Evans blue (EB) and sodium fluorescein (NaFl) administered by an intracarotid injection. Eighteen animals were divided into six groups according to the state of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at the moment when the dyes were being applied. In the first two groups, the BBB was intact, in groups 3 and 4 the barrier had been opened osmotically prior to the application of the dyes, and in groups 5 and 6 a cellular edema was induced by hyperhydration before administration of the dyes. The intracellular and extracellular distribution of the dyes was studied by fluorescence microscopy. The histological picture thus represented the morphological correlate of the way BBB permeability had been changed before the application of the dyes.

  6. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

  7. Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: nm_mahmoodi@yahoo.com; Najafi, Farhood

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ► Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ► Q{sub 0} of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ► Q{sub 0} of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ► AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticlemore » (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.« less

  8. Red and far-red fluorescent dyes for the characterization of head and neck cancer at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Abbaci, Muriel; Casiraghi, Odile; Temam, Stephane; Ferchiou, Malek; Bosq, Jacques; Dartigues, Peggy; De Leeuw, Frederic; Breuskin, Ingrid; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne

    2015-11-01

    Primary upper aerodigestive tract malignancy remains a cancer having a poor prognosis, despite current progress in treatment, due to a generally late diagnosis. We conducted a preliminary assessment of five dyes approved for human use for the imaging of head and neck tissues at the cellular level, which could be considered for clinical examination. We investigated fluorescence endomicroscopic images on fresh samples obtained from head and neck surgeries after staining with hypericin, methylene blue, toluidine blue, patent blue or indocyanine green to provide a preliminary consideration as to whether these images contain enough information for identification of non-pathologic and pathologic tissues. The distribution pattern of dye has been examined using probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) in ex vivo specimens and compared with corresponding histology. In most samples, the image quality provided by pCLE with both dyes allowed pathologists to recognize histological characteristics to identify the tissues. The combination of pCLE imaging with these dyes provides interpretable images close to conventional histology; a promising clinical tool to assist physicians in examination of upper aerodigestive tract, as long as depth imaging issues can be overcome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Blue Skies Bluer?

    PubMed

    Marshall, Julian D; Apte, Joshua S; Coggins, Jay S; Goodkind, Andrew L

    2015-12-15

    The largest U.S. environmental health risk is cardiopulmonary mortality from ambient PM2.5. The concentration-response (C-R) for ambient PM2.5 in the U.S. is generally assumed to be linear: from any initial baseline, a given concentration reduction would yield the same improvement in health risk. Recent evidence points to the perplexing possibility that the PM2.5 C-R for cardiopulmonary mortality and some other major endpoints might be supralinear: a given concentration reduction would yield greater improvements in health risk as the initial baseline becomes cleaner. We explore the implications of supralinearity for air policy, emphasizing U.S. If C-R is supralinear, an economically efficient PM2.5 target may be substantially more stringent than under current standards. Also, if a goal of air policy is to achieve the greatest health improvement per unit of PM2.5 reduction, the optimal policy might call for greater emission reductions in already-clean locales-making "blue skies bluer"-which may be at odds with environmental equity goals. Regardless of whether the C-R is linear or supralinear, the health benefits of attaining U.S. PM2.5 levels well below the current standard would be large. For the supralinear C-R considered here, attaining the current U.S. EPA standard, 12 μg m(-3), would avert only ~17% (if C-R is linear: ∼ 25%) of the total annual cardiopulmonary mortality attributable to PM2.5.

  10. Dawn Blue Glow Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-02

    This artist concept shows NASA Dawn spacecraft arriving at the dwarf planet Ceres. Dawn travels through space using a technology called ion propulsion, with ions glowing with blue light are accelerated out of an engine, giving the spacecraft thrust.

  11. Reuse of waste beer yeast sludge for biosorptive decolorization of reactive blue 49 from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoe; Guo, Xiu

    2011-06-01

    Reactive blue 49 was removed from aqueous solution by biosorption using powder waste sludge composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the beer-brewing industry. The effect of initial pH, temperature and the biosorption thermodynamics, equilibrium, kinetics was investigated in this study. It was found that the biosorption capacity was at maximum at initial pH 3, that the effect of temperature on biosorption of reactive blue 49 was only slight in relation to the large biosorption capacity (25°C, 361 mg g(-1)) according as the biosorption capacity decreased only 43 mg g(-1) at the temperature increased from 25 to 50°C. The biosorption was spontaneous, exothermic in nature and the dye molecules movements decreased slightly in random at the solid/liquid interface during the biosorption of dye on biosorbents. The biosorption equilibrium data could be described by Freundich isotherm model. The biosorption rates were found to be consistent with a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The functional group interaction analysis between waste beer yeast sludge and reactive blue 49 by the aid of Fourier transform infrared (abbr. FTIR) spectroscopy indicated that amino components involved in protein participated in the biosorption process, which may be achieved by the mutual electrostatic adsorption process between the positively charged amino groups in waste beer yeast sludge with negatively charged sulfonic groups in reactive blue 49.

  12. Utilization of magnetically responsive cereal by-product for organic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Baldikova, Eva; Politi, Dorothea; Maderova, Zdenka; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Sidiras, Dimitrios; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    Barley straw, an agricultural by-product, can also serve as a low-cost and relatively efficient adsorbent of various harmful compounds. In this case, adsorption of four water-soluble dyes belonging to different dye classes (specifically Bismarck brown Y, representing the azo group; methylene blue, quinone-imine group; safranin O, safranin group; and crystal violet, triphenylmethane group) on native and citric acid-NaOH-modified barley straw, both in magnetic and non-magnetic versions, was studied. The adsorption was characterized using three adsorption models, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips. To compare the maximum adsorption capacities (qmax), the Langmuir model was employed. The qmax values reached 86.5-124.3 mg of dye per g of native non-magnetic straw and 410.8-520.3 mg of dye per g of magnetic chemically modified straw. Performed characterization studies suggested that the substantial increase in qmax values after chemical modification could be caused by rougher surface of adsorbent (observed by scanning electron microscopy) and by the presence of higher amounts of carboxyl groups (detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The adsorption processes followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and thermodynamic studies indicated spontaneous and endothermic adsorption. The chemical modification of barley straw led to a significant increase in maximum adsorption capacities for all tested dyes, while magnetic modification substantially facilitated the manipulation with adsorbent. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Electroplating sludge derived zinc-ferrite catalyst for the efficient photo-Fenton degradation of dye.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhenbang; Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Jizhi; Ruan, Xiuxiu; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jianyong; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2017-05-15

    A zinc-dominant ferrite catalyst for efficient degradation of organic dye was prepared by the calcination of electroplating sludge (ES). Characterizations indicated that zinc ferrite (ZnFe 2 O 4 ) coexisted with Fe 2 O 3 structure was the predominant phase in the calcined electroplating sludge (CES). CES displayed a high decolorization ratio (88.3%) of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H 2 O 2 combined with UV irradiation. The high efficiency could be ascribed to the photocatalytic process induced by ZnFe 2 O 4 and the photo-Fenton dye degradation by ferrous content, and a small amount of Al and Mg in the sludge might also contribute to the catalysis. Moreover, the degradation capability of dye by CES was supported by the synthetic ZnFe 2 O 4 with different Zn to Fe molar ratio (n(Zn): n(Fe)), as 84.81%-86.83% of dye was removed with n(Zn): n(Fe) ranged from 1:0.5 to 1:3. All synthetic ferrite samples in the simulation achieved adjacent equilibrium decolorization ratio, the flexible proportioning of divalent metal ions (M 2+ ) to trivalent metal ions (M 3+ ) applied in the synthesis indicated that the catalyst has a high availability. Therefore, an efficacious catalyst for the degradation of dye can potentially be derived from heavy metal-containing ES, it's a novel approach for the reutilization of ES. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. pH-sensitive Itaconic acid based polymeric hydrogels for dye removal applications.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, M; Franklin, D S; Guhanathan, S

    2016-12-01

    A series of Itaconic Acid (IA) based pH-sensitive polymeric hydrogels were synthesized by condensation polymerization of Itaconic Acid (IA) with Ethylene Glycol (EG) in the presence of an acid medium resulted into pre-polymer. Further, pre-polymer were co-polymerized with Acrylic Acid (AA) through free radical polymerization using Potassium persulphate (KPS). The structural and surface morphological characterizations of the synthesized hydrogels were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) respectively. The swelling and swelling equilibrium were performed at varies pH (4.0-10.0). Further, the effects of IA, EG and AA on swelling properties have also been investigated. Thermal stability of synthesized hydrogels have been investigated by TGA, DTA and DSC. The synthesized hydrogels have shown good ability to uptake a Cationic dye. The Methylene blue has been chosen as a model cationic dye. The results of dye removal using IA hydrogels found to have excellent dye removal capacity. Such kind of IA based hydrogels may be recommended for eco-friendly environmental application. viz., removal of dyes and metal ions and sewage water treatment, purification of water etc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tuning Solvatochromism of Azo Dyes with Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Solution and on Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Liu, Xiaogang

    2013-11-25

    “Smart tuning” of optical properties in three azo dyes containing intramolecular hydrogen bonding is realized by the judicious control of solvents, when the dyes are in solution or adsorbed onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles. In solution, certain solvents destabilizing intramolecular hydrogen bonding induce a distinctive ≈70 nm “blue-shifted” absorption peak, compared with other solvents. In parallel, the optical properties of azo dye/TiO2 nanocomposites can be tuned using solvents with different hydrogen-bond accepting/donating abilities, giving insights into smart materials and dye-sensitized solar cell device design. It is proposed that intramolecular hydrogen bonding alone plays the leading role in such phenomena, which ismore » fundamentally different to other mechanisms, such as tautomerism and cis–trans isomerization, that explain the optical control of azo dyes. Hybrid density functional theory (DFT) is employed in order to trace the origin of this optical control, and these calculations support the mechanism involving intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Two complementary studies are also reported: 1H NMR spectroscopy is conducted in order to further understand the solvent effects on intramolecular hydrogen bonding; crystal structure analysis from associated research indicates the importance of intramolecular hydrogen bonding on intramolecular charge transfer.« less

  16. Fluorescent measurements in whole blood and plasma using red-emitting dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abugo, Omoefe O.; Herman, Petr; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2000-04-01

    We have determined the fluorescence characteristics of albumin blue 670 and Rhodamine 800 in plasma and blood in order to test the feasibility of making direct fluorescence sensing measurements in blood. These dyes were used because of their absorption in the red/NIR where absorption by hemoglobin is minimized. Front face illumination and detection was used to minimize absorption and scattering during measurement. Fluorescence emission was observed for these dyes in plasma and blood. Attenuation of the fluorescence emission was observed in blood because of hemoglobin absorption. Using frequency domain fluorometry, we recovered the expected lifetime parameters for both dyes in blood and plasma. We were able to quantify HSA concentrations using changes in the mean lifetime of AB670, a dye previously shown to bind preferentially to HSA. Rh800 concentrations in plasma and blood were also determined using modulation sensing. Anisotropy measurements revealed high Anisotropy for these dyes in plasma and blood. It also showed an increase in the anisotropy of AB670 with increase in HSA concentration in the presence of red blood cells. These results indicate that qualitative and quantitative fluorescence measurements can be made directly in blood without the need to process the blood.

  17. Optical coherence tomography using images of hair structure and dyes penetrating into the hair.

    PubMed

    Tsugita, Tetsuya; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Hair dyes are commonly evaluated by the appearance of the hair after dyeing. However, this approach cannot simultaneously assess how deep the dye has penetrated into hair. For simultaneous assessment of the appearance and the interior of hair, we developed a visible-range red, green, and blue (RGB) (three primary colors)-optical coherence tomography (OCT) using an RGB LED light source. We then evaluated a phantom model based on the assumption that the sample's absorbability in the vertical direction affects the tomographic imaging. Consistent with theory, our device showed higher resolution than conventional OCT with far-red light. In the experiment on the phantom model, we confirmed that the tomographic imaging is affected by absorbability unique to the sample. Furthermore, we verified that permeability can be estimated from this tomographic image. We also identified for the first time the relationship between penetration of the dye into hair and characteristics of wavelength by tomographic imaging of dyed hair. We successfully simultaneously assessed the appearance of dyed hair and inward penetration of the dye without preparing hair sections. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Delport, Anzelle; Harvey, Brian H; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2017-06-15

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, the present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC 50 =0.0037μM), Nile blue (IC 50 =0.0077μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC 50 =0.018μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC 50 =0.07μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC 50 value of 0.012μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution using green macroalgaePosidonia oceanica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, F.-N.; Yassaa, N.

    2018-03-01

    The use of inexpensive biological materials, such as marine algae for removing dyes from contaminated industrial effluents appears as a potential alternative method. The aim of this study is to investigate the aptitude of marine macroalgae Posidonia Oceanica local biomass abundant on the coasts of Algeria for selective sorption of methylene blue (MB) from an aqueous solution in batch experiments at 20 °C. A maximum percentage removal of Posidonia oceanica occurs at pH 5. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption equilibrium of methylene blue was best describe by Langmuir model than the Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacity was 357 mgg-1at pH 5. The sorption data were very well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Keywords: Posidonia oceanica, Methylene blue (MB), Biosorption, Isotherm Equilibrium, Kinetics; Modelling.

  20. Luminescence enhancement in nanocomposite consisting of polyvinyl alcohol incorporated gold nanoparticles and Nile blue 690 perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Chubinidze, Ketevan; Partsvania, Besarion; Sulaberidze, Tamaz; Khuskivadze, Aleksandre; Davitashvili, Elene; Koshoridze, Nana

    2014-11-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated that the emission of visible light from the polymer matrix doped with luminescent dye and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can be enhanced with the use of surface plasmon coupling. GNPs can enhance the luminescence intensity of nearby luminescent dye because of the interactions between the dipole moments of the dye and the surface plasmon field of the GNPs. The electric charge on the GNPs and the distance between GNPs and luminescent dye molecules have a significant effect on the luminescence intensity, and this enhancement depends strongly upon the excitation wavelength of the pumping laser source. In particular, by matching the plasmon frequency of GNPs to the frequency of the laser light source we have observed a strong luminescence enhancement of the nanocomposite consisting of GNPs coupled with luminescent dye Nile blue 690 perchlorate. This ability of controlling luminescence can be beneficially used in developing contrast agents for highly sensitive and specific optical sensing and imaging. This opens new possibilities for plasmonic applications in the solar energy field.

  1. Methylene Blue: The Long and Winding Road From Stain to Brain: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Methylene blue was the first synthetic drug ever used in medicine, having been used to treat clinical pain syndromes, malaria, and psychotic disorders more than one century ago. Methylene blue is a cationic thiazine dye with redox-cycling properties and a selective affinity for the nervous system. This drug also inhibits the activity of monoamine oxidase, nitric oxide synthase, and guanylyl cyclase, as well as tau protein aggregation; increases the release of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine; reduces amyloid-beta levels; and increases cholinergic transmission. The action of methylene blue on multiple cellular and molecular targets justifies its investigation in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Investigations of methylene blue were instrumental in the serendipitous development of phenothiazine antipsychotic drugs. Although chlorpromazine is heralded as the first antipsychotic drug used in psychiatry, methylene blue is a phenothiazine drug that had been used to treat psychotic patients half a century earlier. It has also been studied in bipolar disorder and deserves further investigation for the treatment of unipolar and bipolar disorders. More recently, methylene blue has been the subject of preclinical and clinical investigations for cognitive dysfunction, dementia, and other neurodegenerative disorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(10), 21-26.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Influence of styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizomov, Negmat; Barakaeva, Mubaro; Kurtaliev, Eldar N.; Rahimov, Sherzod I.; Khakimova, Dilorom P.; Khodjayev, Gayrat; Yashchuk, Valeriy N.

    2008-08-01

    It was studied the influence of F, Sbt, Sil, Sbo monomer and homodimer Dst-5, Dst-10, Dbt-5, Dbt-10, Dil-10, Dbo-10 styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes of white rats. It was shown that the homodimer styryl dyes Dst-5, Dbt-5 and Dbo-10 decrease the erythrocytes quantity by 1.5-2 times more as compared with monomer dyes Sbt and Sbo. The main cause of dyes different action is the different oxidation degree of intracellular hemoglobin evoked by these dyes. It was established that the observed effects was connected with different penetration of these dyes through membrane of erythrocytes and with interaction of these dyes with albumin localized in membranes of cells.

  3. Textile Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution using Modified Graphite Waste/Lanthanum/Chitosan Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusrini, E.; Wicaksono, B.; Yulizar, Y.; Prasetyanto, EA; Gunawan, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated various pre-treatment processes of graphite waste using thermal, mechanical and chemical methods. The aim of this work is to study the performance of modified graphite waste/lanthanum/chitosan composite (MG) as adsorbent for textile dye removal from aqueous solution. Effect of graphite waste resources, adsorbent size and lanthanum concentration on the dye removal were studied in batch experiments. Selectivity of MG was also investigated. Pre-heated graphite waste (NMG) was conducted at 80°C for 1 h, followed by mechanical crushing of the resultant graphite to 75 μm particle size, giving adsorption performance of ˜58%, ˜67%, ˜93% and ˜98% of the model dye rhodamine B (concentration determined by UV-vis spectroscopy at 554 nm), methyl orange (464 nm), methylene blue (664 nm) and methyl violet (580 nm), respectively from aqueous solution. For this process, the system required less than ˜5 min for adsorbent material to be completely saturated with the adsorbate. Further chemical modification of the pre-treated graphite waste (MG) with lanthanum (0.01 – V 0.03 M) and chitosan (0.5% w/w) did not improve the performance of dye adsorption. Under comparable experimental conditions, as those of the ‘thermal-mechanical-pre-treated-only’ (NMG), modification of graphite waste (MG) with 0.03 M lanthanum and 0.5% w/w chitosan resulted in ˜14%, ˜47%, ˜72% and ˜85% adsorption of rhodamine B, methyl orange, methylene blue and methyl violet, respectively. Selective adsorption of methylene blue at most to ˜79%, followed by methyl orange, methyl violet and rhodamine B with adsorption efficiency ˜67, ˜38, and ˜9% sequentially using MG with 0.03 M lanthanum and 0.5% w/w chitosan.

  4. Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

  5. Characteristics of a broadband dye laser using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine dyes.

    PubMed

    Tedder, Sarah A; Wheeler, Jeffrey L; Danehy, Paul M

    2011-02-20

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full width at half-maximum from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system called width increased dual-pump enhanced CARS (WIDECARS). The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes was used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser, a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640 and Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650, as well as mixtures of these dyes.

  6. Immobilization of laccase on a novel ZnO/SiO2 nano-composited support for dye decolorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Xun; Sun, Huai-Yan; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2015-07-01

    ZnO nanowires were introduced into macroporous SiO2 by means of in situ hydrothermal growth. The obtained nano-composite was then used to immobilize laccase (secured from Trametes versicolor) through the process of static adsorption. The average loading amount was as high as 193.4 μmol-g-1. The immobilized laccase was proven to be an effective biocatalyst in the decolorization of two dyes: Remazol Brilliant Blue B, and Acid Blue 25. The decolorization percentage of Remazol Brilliant Blue B and Acid Blue 25 reached 93% and 82% respectively. The immobilized laccase exhibited enhanced thermal stability and pH adaptability compared to free laccase. After ten recycles, the immobilized laccase retained 42% decolorization catalytic activity.

  7. Photodynamic dye adsorption and release performance of natural zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) is a promising material for biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to its non-toxicity, thermal stability, expanded surface area, and exceptional ability to adsorb various atoms and organic molecules into micropores. Using multiphoton microscopy, we demonstrated that individual CZ particles produce two-photon excited luminescence and second harmonic generation signal at femtosecond laser excitation, and adsorb photo-dynamically active dyes such as hypericin and methylene blue. Furthermore, the release of hypericin from CZ pores in the presence of biomolecules is shown, and CZ can be considered as an effective material for drug delivery and controlled release in biological systems. The results may open new perspectives in application of CZ in biomedical imaging, and introducing of the optical approaches into the clinical environment. PMID:28361968

  8. Photodynamic dye adsorption and release performance of natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-03-01

    Clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) is a promising material for biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to its non-toxicity, thermal stability, expanded surface area, and exceptional ability to adsorb various atoms and organic molecules into micropores. Using multiphoton microscopy, we demonstrated that individual CZ particles produce two-photon excited luminescence and second harmonic generation signal at femtosecond laser excitation, and adsorb photo-dynamically active dyes such as hypericin and methylene blue. Furthermore, the release of hypericin from CZ pores in the presence of biomolecules is shown, and CZ can be considered as an effective material for drug delivery and controlled release in biological systems. The results may open new perspectives in application of CZ in biomedical imaging, and introducing of the optical approaches into the clinical environment.

  9. Photodynamic dye adsorption and release performance of natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-03-31

    Clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) is a promising material for biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to its non-toxicity, thermal stability, expanded surface area, and exceptional ability to adsorb various atoms and organic molecules into micropores. Using multiphoton microscopy, we demonstrated that individual CZ particles produce two-photon excited luminescence and second harmonic generation signal at femtosecond laser excitation, and adsorb photo-dynamically active dyes such as hypericin and methylene blue. Furthermore, the release of hypericin from CZ pores in the presence of biomolecules is shown, and CZ can be considered as an effective material for drug delivery and controlled release in biological systems. The results may open new perspectives in application of CZ in biomedical imaging, and introducing of the optical approaches into the clinical environment.

  10. Solar photoassisted advanced oxidation process of azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Prato-Garcia, D; Buitrón, G

    2009-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes assisted with natural solar radiation in CPC type reactors (parabolic collector compound), was applied for the degradation of three azo dyes: acid orange (AO7), acid red 151 (AR151) and acid blue 113 (AB113). Fenton, Fenton like and ferrioxalate-type complexes showed to be effective for degrade the azo linkage and moieties in different extensions. Initially, the best dose of reagents (Fe(3 + )-H(2)O(2)) was determined through a factorial experimental design, next, using response surface methodologies, the reagent consumption was reduced up to 40%, maintaining in all cases high decolourisation percentages (>98%) after 60 min. of phototreatment. In this work, it was also studied the effect of concentration changes of the influent between 100-300 mg/L and the operation of the photocatalytic process near neutral conditions (pH 6.0-6.5) by using ferrioxalate type complex (FeOx).

  11. From non-covalent binding to irreversible DNA lesions: nile blue and nile red as photosensitizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Gattuso, Hugo; Besancenot, Vanessa; Grandemange, Stéphanie; Marazzi, Marco; Monari, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study, coupled with spectroscopy experiments, on the behavior of two well known organic dyes, nile blue and nile red, when interacting with B-DNA. In particular, we evidence the presence of two competitive binding modes, for both drugs. However their subsequent photophysical behavior is different and only nile blue is able to induce DNA photosensitization via an electron transfer mechanism. Most notably, even in the case of nile blue, its sensitization capabilities strongly depend on the environment resulting in a single active binding mode: the minor groove. Fluorescence spectroscopy confirms the presence of competitive interaction modes for both sensitizers, while the sensitization via electron transfer, is possible only in the case of nile blue. PMID:27329409

  12. Toxicity of xanthene food dyes by inhibition of human drug-metabolizing enzymes in a noncompetitive manner.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC(50) values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC(50) values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of (1)O(2) originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by (1)O(2) quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin.

  13. Toxicity of Xanthene Food Dyes by Inhibition of Human Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in a Noncompetitive Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of 1O2 originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by 1O2 quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin. PMID:20041016

  14. Decolorization of adsorbed textile dyes by developed consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Telke, Amar A; Jagtap, Sujit S; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to develop consortium using Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 to decolorize adsorbed dyes from textile effluent wastewater under solid state fermentation. Among various agricultural wastes rice bran showed dye adsorption up to 90, 62 and 80% from textile dye reactive navy blue HE2R (RNB HE2R) solution, mixture of textile dyes and textile industry wastewater, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 showed 62 and 38% decolorization of RNB HE2R adsorbed on rice bran in 24h under solid state fermentation. However, the consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 (consortium-PA) showed 80% decolorization in 24h. The consortium-PA showed effective ADMI removal ratio of adsorbed dyes from textile industry wastewater (77%), mixture of textile dyes (82%) and chemical precipitate of textile dye effluent (CPTDE) (86%). Secretion of extracellular enzymes such as laccase, azoreductase, tyrosinase and NADH-DCIP reductase and their significant induction in the presence of adsorbed dye suggests their role in the decolorization of RNB HE2R. GCMS and HPLC analysis of product suggests the different fates of biodegradation of RNB HE2R when used Pseudomonas sp. SUK1, A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 and consortium PA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasonic enhancement of the simultaneous removal of quaternary toxic organic dyes by CuO nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Central composite design, kinetic and isotherm study.

    PubMed

    Dashamiri, Somayeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Rahimi, Mahmood Reza; Goudarzi, Alireza; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (CuO-NPs-AC) were prepared and fully analyzed and characterized with FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Subsequently, this novel material was used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of brilliant green (BG), auramine O (AO), methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellow (EY) dyes. Problems regard to dyes spectra overlap in quaternary solution of this dyes were omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method. The best pH in quaternary system was studied by using one at a time method to achieved maximum dyes removal percentage. Subsequently, sonication time, adsorbent dosage and initial dyes concentrations influence on dyes removal was optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function approach (DFA). Desirability score of 0.978 show optimum conditions set at sonication time (4.2 min), adsorbent mass (0.029 g), initial dyes concentration (4.5 mg L(-1)). Under this optimum condition the removal percentage for MB, AO, EY and BG dyes 97.58, 94.66, 96.22 and 94.93, respectively. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order while adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir model as best equilibrium isotherm model for BG, MB, AO and EY was 20.48, 21.26, 22.34 and 21.29 mg g(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Modified BiOCl and Their Application in Adsorption of Low-Concentration Dyes from Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qihang; Xing, Yongxing; Liu, Zhiliang; Ouyang, Jing; Du, Chunfang

    2018-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of BiOCl and Fe3+-grafted BiOCl (Fe/BiOCl) is reported that are developed as efficient adsorbents for the removal of cationic dyes rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) as well as anionic dyes methyl orange (MO) and acid orange (AO) from aqueous solutions with low concentration of 0.01 0.04 mmol/L. Characterizations by various techniques indicate that Fe3+ grafting induced more open porous structure and higher specific surface area. Both BiOCl and Fe/BiOCl with negatively charged surfaces showed excellent adsorption efficiency toward cationic dyes, which could sharply reach 99.6 and nearly 100% within 3 min on BiOCl and 97.0 and 98.0% within 10 min on Fe/BiOCl for removing RhB and MB, respectively. However, Fe/BiOCl showed higher adsorption capacity than BiOCl toward ionic dyes. The influence of initial dye concentration, temperature, and pH value on the adsorption capacity is comprehensively studied. The adsorption process of RhB conforms to Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic feature. The excellent adsorption capacities of as-prepared adsorbents toward cationic dyes are rationalized on the basis of electrostatic attraction as well as open porous structure and high specific surface area. In comparison with Fe/BiOCl, BiOCl displays higher selective efficiency toward cationic dyes in mixed dye solutions.

  17. Some properties of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch reactor (GAC-SBR) system for treatment of textile wastewater containing direct dyes.

    PubMed

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sadahiro, Ohmomo; Salee, Paneeta

    2007-10-01

    Resting (living) bio-sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant was used as an adsorbent of both direct dyes and organic matter in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system. The dye adsorption capacity of the bio-sludge was not increased by acclimatization with direct dyes. The adsorption of Direct Red 23 and Direct Blue 201 onto the bio-sludge was almost the same. The resting bio-sludge showed higher adsorption capacity than the autoclaved bio-sludge. The resting bio-sludge that was acclimatized with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) without direct dyes showed the highest Direct Blue 201, COD, and BOD(5) removal capacities of 16.1+/-0.4, 453+/-7, and 293+/-9 mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively. After reuse, the dye adsorption ability of deteriorated bio-sludge was recovered by washing with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. The direct dyes in the STWW were also easily removed by a GAC-SBR system. The dye removal efficiencies were higher than 80%, even when the system was operated under a high organic loading of 0.36kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d. The GAC-SBR system, however, showed a low direct dye removal efficiency of only 57+/-2.1% with raw textile wastewater (TWW) even though the system was operated with an organic loading of only 0.083kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d. The dyes, COD, BOD(5), and total kjeldalh nitrogen removal efficiencies increased up to 76.0+/-2.8%, 86.2+/-0.5%, 84.2+/-0.7%, and 68.2+/-2.1%, respectively, when 0.89 g/L glucose (organic loading of 0.17kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d) was supplemented into the TWW.

  18. New energy transfer dyes for DNA sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L G; Spurgeon, S L; Heiner, C R; Benson, S C; Rosenblum, B B; Menchen, S M; Graham, R J; Constantinescu, A; Upadhya, K G; Cassel, J M

    1997-01-01

    We have synthesized a set of four energy transfer dyes and demonstrated their use in automated DNA sequencing. The donor dyes are the 5- or 6-carboxy isomers of 4'-aminomethylfluorescein and the acceptor dyes are a novel set of four 4,7-dichloro-substituted rhodamine dyes which have narrower emission spectra than the standard, unsubstituted rhodamines. A rigid amino acid linker, 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid, was used to separate the dyes. The brightness of each dye in an automated sequencing instrument equipped with a dual line argon ion laser (488 and 514 nm excitation) was 2-2.5 times greater than the standard dye-primers with a 2 times reduction in multicomponent noise. The overall improvement in signal-to-noise was 4- to 5-fold. The utility of the new dye set was demonstrated by sequencing of a BAC DNA with an 80 kb insert. Measurement of the extinction coefficients and the relative quantum yields of the dichlororhodamine components of the energy transfer dyes showed their values were reduced by 20-25% compared with the dichlororhodamine dyes alone. PMID:9207029

  19. Super Blue Moon Lunar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-31

    NASA TV provided coverage of Super Blue Moon Lunar Eclipse on Jan. 31. The full moon was the third in a series of “supermoons,” when the Moon is closer to Earth in its orbit -- known as perigee -- and about 14 percent brighter than usual. It was also the second full moon of the month, commonly known as a “blue moon.” As the super blue moon passed through Earth’s shadow, viewers in some locations experienced a total lunar eclipse. While in Earth’s shadow, the moon also took on a reddish tint – which is sometimes referred to as a “blood moon.”

  20. Crystalline liquids: the blue phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David C.; Mermin, N. David

    1989-04-01

    The blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals are liquids that exhibit orientational order characterized by crystallographic space-group symmetries. We present here a pedagogical introduction to the current understanding of the equilibrium structure of these phases accompanied by a general overview of major experimental results. Using the Ginzburg-Landau free energy appropriate to the system, we first discuss in detail the character and stability of the usual helical phase of cholesterics, showing that for certain parameter ranges the helical phase is unstable to the appearance of one or more blue phases. The two principal models for the blue phases are two limiting cases of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. We explore each limit and conclude with some general considerations of defects in both models and an exact minimization of the free energy in a curved three-dimensional space.

  1. Warm-White-Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Dye-Loaded Metal-Organic Framework for Fast White-Light Communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiye; Wang, Zi; Lin, Bangjiang; Hu, XueFu; Wei, YunFeng; Zhang, Cankun; An, Bing; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin

    2017-10-11

    A dye@metal-organic framework (MOF) hybrid was used as a fluorophore in a white-light-emitting diode (WLED) for fast visible-light communication (VLC). The white light was generated from a combination of blue emission of the 9,10-dibenzoate anthracene (DBA) linkers and yellow emission of the encapsulated Rhodamine B molecules. The MOF structure not only prevents dye molecules from aggregation-induced quenching but also efficiently transfers energy to the dye for dual emission. This light-emitting material shows emission lifetimes of 1.8 and 5.3 ns for the blue and yellow components, respectively, which are significantly shorter than the 200 ns lifetime of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ in commercial WLEDs. The MOF-WLED device exhibited a modulating frequency of 3.6 MHz for VLC, six times that of commercial WLEDs.

  2. Fate of Colored Smoke Dyes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    4.13] have been applied to their estimation. This approach has the advantages of sensitivity and of not requiring high purity and known structures...Chrom absorbance detector, and an Alltech Econosil C-18 (10 micrometer) column (4.6 mm X 25 cm with guard column). The mobile phase, HPLC-grade methanol...water partition coefficient or vice versa. The HPLC method is of similar precision and has the advantage that known structure and purity of the dye are

  3. Dye laser traveling wave amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, F.; Hohman, J.

    1984-01-01

    A flashlamp pumped dye laser suitable for use as a single stage amplifier is described. Particular emphasis is placed on the efforts to increase output pulse energy and improve the temporal profile of the injected pulse. By using high power thin film polarizers, output energies reach from 4 to 45 mJ. Various dispersive elements are used to develop an amplified pulse with an extremely clean temporal profile.

  4. Production of granular activated carbon from waste Rosa canina sp. seeds and its adsorption characteristics for dye.

    PubMed

    Gürses, A; Doğar, C; Karaca, S; Açikyildiz, M; Bayrak, R

    2006-04-17

    An activated carbon was developed from Rosa canina sp. seeds, characterized and used for the removal of methylene blue (basic dye) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption studies were carried out at 20 degrees C and various initial dye concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) for different times (15, 30, 60, and 120 min). The adsorption isotherm was obtained from data. The results indicate that the adsorption isotherm of methylene blue is typically S-shaped. The shape of isotherm is believed to reflect three distinct modes of adsorption. In region 1, the adsorption of methylene blue is carried out mainly by ion exchange. In region 2 by polarizations of pi-electrons established at cyclic parts of the previously adsorbed methylene blue molecules is occurred. However, it is not observed any change at the sign of the surface charge although zeta potential value is decreased with increase of amount adsorbed. In region 3, the slope of the isotherm is reduced, because adsorption now must overcome electrostatic repulsion between oncoming ions and the similarly charged solid. Adsorption in this fashion is usually complete when the surface is covered with a monolayer of methylene blue. To reveal the adsorptive characteristics of the produced active carbon, porosity and BET surface area measurements were made. Structural analysis was performed using SEM-EDS. The produced active carbon has the specific surface area of 799.2 m2 g-1 and the iodine number of 495 mg/g.

  5. Removal of organic dyes by magnetic alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Vincent; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Cabuil, Valérie; Bee, Agnès

    2008-02-01

    This study deals with the development of a clean and safe process for water pollution remediation. We have synthesized a magnetic adsorbent in order to develop a solid-phase extraction process assisted by a magnetic field. To follow an 'ecoconception' approach, magnetic beads containing magnetic nanoparticles and activated carbon are prepared with a biopolymer extracted from algae, sodium alginate. The use of renewable bioresources of low cost and those disposable in large amount allows the development of a product with a low impact on the environment. The adsorption properties of activated carbon and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles are combined to produce an interesting magnetic composite. Synthesis and characterization of the magnetic beads have been reported. Their adsorption capacity was investigated by measuring the removal of two dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) of different charges from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the beads has been compared with that of non-encapsulated activated carbon. The effects of initial dye concentration, pH and calcium content of the beads have been studied. Adsorption kinetics experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation.

  6. Process Improvement of Reactive Dye Synthesis Using Six Sigma Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwanich, Thanapat; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    This research focuses on the problem occurred in the reactive dye synthesis process of a global manufacturer in Thailand which producing various chemicals for reactive dye products to supply global industries such as chemicals, textiles and garments. The product named “Reactive Blue Base” is selected in this study because it has highest demand and the current chemical yield shows a high variation, i.e. yield variation of 90.4% - 99.1% (S.D. = 2.405 and Cpk = -0.08) and average yield is 94.5% (lower than the 95% standard set by the company). The Six Sigma concept is applied aiming at increasing yield and reducing variation of this process. This approach is suitable since it provides a systematic guideline with five improvement phases (DMAIC) to effectively tackle the problem and find the appropriate parameter settings of the process. Under the new parameter settings, the process yield variation is reduced to range between 96.5% - 98.5% (S.D. = 0.525 and Cpk = 1.83) and the average yield is increased to 97.5% (higher than the 95% standard set by the company).

  7. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dye laser traveling wave amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, F.; Hohman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Injection locking was applied to a cavity-dumped coaxial flashlamp pumped dye laser in an effort to obtain nanosecond duration pulses which have both high energy and narrow-linewidth. In the absence of an injected laser pulse, the cavity-dumped dye laser was capable of generating high energy (approx. 60mJ) nanosecond duration output pulses. These pulses, however, had a fixed center wavelength and were extremely broadband (approx. 6nm FWHM). Experimental investigations were performed to determine if the spectral properties of these outputs could be improved through the use of injection-locking techniques. A parametric study to determine the specific conditions under which the laser could be injection-locked was also carried out. Significant linewidth reduction to 0.0015nm) of the outputs was obtained through injection-locking but only at wavelengths near the peak lasing wavelength of the dye. It was found, however; that by inserting weakly dispersive tuning elements in the laser cavity, these narrow-linewidth outputs could be obtained over a wide (24nm) tuning range. Since the tuning elements had low insertion losses, the tunability of the output was obtained without sacrificing output pulse energy.

  9. Recordings from human myenteric neurons using voltage-sensitive dyes.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Sheila; Peter, Nadine; Ceyhan, Güralp; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Zeller, Florian; Senseman, David; Michel, Klaus; Schemann, Michael

    2010-10-15

    Voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging became a powerful tool to detect neural activity in the enteric nervous system, including its routine use in submucous neurons in freshly dissected human tissue. However, VSD imaging of human myenteric neurons remained a challenge because of limited visibility of the ganglia and dye accessibility. We describe a protocol to apply VSD for recordings of human myenteric neurons in freshly dissected tissue and myenteric neurons in primary cultures. VSD imaging of guinea-pig myenteric neurons was used for reference. Electrical stimulation of interganglionic fiber tracts and exogenous application of nicotine or elevated KCl solution was used to evoke action potentials. Bath application of the VSDs Annine-6Plus, Di-4-ANEPPS, Di-8-ANEPPQ, Di-4-ANEPPDHQ or Di-8-ANEPPS revealed no neural signals in human tissue although most of these VSD worked in guinea-pig tissue. Unlike methylene blue and FM1-43, 4-Di-2-ASP did not influence spike discharge and was used in human tissue to visualize myenteric ganglia as a prerequisite for targeted intraganglionic VSD application. Of all VSDs, only intraganglionic injection of Di-8-ANEPPS by a volume controlled injector revealed neuronal signals in human tissue. Signal-to-noise ratio increased by addition of dipicrylamine to Di-8-ANEPPS (0.98±0.16 vs. 2.4±0.62). Establishing VSD imaging in primary cultures of human myenteric neurons led to a further improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. This allowed us to routinely record spike discharge after nicotine application. The described protocol enabled reliable VSD recordings from human myenteric neurons but may also be relevant for the use of other fluorescent dyes in human tissues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Triazine dyes are agonists of the NAADP receptor

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Richard A; Bak, Judit; Martinez-Coscolla, Ana; Debidda, Marcella; Genazzani, Armando A

    2004-01-01

    NAADP has been shown to be a potent calcium-releasing second messenger in a wide variety of cell types to date. However, research has been hampered by a lack of pharmacological agents, with which to investigate NAADP-induced calcium release, and by the molecular identity of its cellular target protein being unknown.In the present paper, the sea urchin egg model was used to investigate whether triazine dyes, which can act as nucleotide mimetics, can bind to the NAADP receptor, induce Ca2+ release and be used for affinity chromatography of the receptor.Indeed, all the triazine dyes tested (Reactive Red 120 (RR120), Reactive Green 19 (RG19), Reactive Green 5 (RG5), Cibacron Blue 3GA and Reactive Yellow 86) displayed micromolar affinities, except for Reactive Orange 14. Furthermore, unlike NAADP, RR120, RG19 and RG5 did not bind in an irreversible manner.The compound that displayed the highest affinity, RR120, was tested in a 45Ca2+ efflux assay. This compound released Ca2+ via the NAADP receptor, as shown by the ability of subthreshold NAADP concentrations to inhibit this release. Furthermore, heparin and ruthenium red were unable to block RR120-induced Ca2+ release.We have also shown that RG5 and RG19, immobilised on resins, retain the ability to bind to the receptor, and that this interaction can be disrupted by high salt concentrations. As a proof of principle, we have shown that this can be used to partially purify the NAADP receptor by at least 75-fold.In conclusion, triazine dyes interact with the NAADP receptor, and this could be exploited in future to create a new generation of pharmacological tools to investigate this messenger and, in combination with other techniques, to purify the receptor. PMID:15265807

  11. Comparative study on the process behavior and reaction kinetics in sonocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by powder and nanotubes TiO2.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yean Ling; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi

    2012-05-01

    Sonocatalytic degradation of various organic dyes (Congo Red, Reactive Blue 4, Methyl Orange, Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue) catalyzed by powder and nanotubes TiO(2) was studied. Both catalysts were characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), surface analyzer, Raman spectroscope and thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA). Sonocatalytic activity of powder and nanotubes TiO(2) was elucidated based on the degradation of various organic dyes. The former catalyst was favorable for treatment of anionic dyes, while the latter was more beneficial for cationic dyes. Sonocatalytic activity of TiO(2) nanotubes could be up to four times as compared to TiO(2) powder under an ultrasonic power of 100 W and a frequency of 42 kHz. This was associated with the higher surface area and the electrostatic attraction between dye molecules and TiO(2) nanotubes. Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to identify changes that occurred on the functional group in Rhodamine B molecules and TiO(2) nanotubes after the reaction. Sonocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B by TiO(2) nanotubes apparently followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption kinetic model with surface reaction rate of 1.75 mg/L min. TiO(2) nanotubes were proven for their high potential to be applied in sonocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Binding of 3O2 and 1O2 to dyes used in photodynamic therapy in gas phase and aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, P. S.; Mishra, P. C.

    Density functional theory (DFT) was employed at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level to study complexes of 1O2 and 3O2 with the dye molecules proflavine, methylene blue, and acridine orange, which are useful in photodynamic therapy. It was found that the most stable complex between 1O2 and proflavine are formed when 1O2 is located above the central ring, while the most stable complex between 1O2 and methylene blue is formed when 1O2 is located above the molecular plane, but not above any of the rings, near the sulfur atom. 1O2 can make a stable complex with acridine orange, as it is located above the outer ring of the dye. The binding energies of the complexes of 1O2 with all three dyes are enhanced considerably in going from gas phase to aqueous media. The complexes of 3O2 with the dyes will be unstable in all cases, while those of 1O2 with the same will be quite stable and will not be dissociated due to thermal fluctuations at room temperature. In the complexes of 1O2 and 3O2 with the dyes, charge transfer occurs from the dyes to the O2 moiety, the amount of charge transfer being much more to 1O2 than to 3O2 in each case.

  13. A comparative analysis of toluidine blue with frozen section in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical excision of the primary tumor with safe margins remains the mainstay of treatment for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The standard of care for assessment of intraoperative margins is frozen section histopathology. Unfortunately the facility is not available at most centers in limited resource countries. Toluidine blue, a metachromatic dye, has been well described in clinical identification of malignant and premalignant lesion in the oral cavity. Considering this we decided to explore intraoperative use of toluidine blue staining, in comparison with frozen sections, for the assessment of tumor-free margins. Methods After obtaining clearance from the in-house ethical review committee, a prospective study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from August 15, 2009 to March 14, 2010. A sample of 56 consenting patients with biopsy-proven OSCC were included in the study, giving us 280 tumor margins. Margins were analyzed using toluidine blue staining and frozen section histopathology. A receiver operator curve (ROC) was then applied to compare assessment of margin status by toluidine blue and frozen section. Results Of the 280 examined margins 11 stained positive with toluidine blue, three were positive on frozen section biopsy, and three were positive on final histopathology. Toluidine blue staining had sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 97%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of toluidine blue was found to be 97.1% with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 27.2% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. Conclusions Toluidine blue can be used as an effective screening modality for the assessment of intraoperative margins in resource limited environments and reducing the number of frozen section biopsies performed. Further by providing real-time clinical information within minutes it can reduce indirect costs such as operating room time. It may also be used as an ad hoc for frozen section biopsies where frozen

  14. A model for the salt effect on adsorption equilibrium of basic protein to dye-ligand affinity adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songping; Sun, Yan

    2004-01-01

    A model describing the salt effect on adsorption equilibrium of a basic protein, lysozyme, to Cibacron Blue 3GA-modified Sepharose CL-6B (CB-Sepharose) has been developed. In this model, it is assumed that the presence of salt causes a fraction of dye-ligand molecules to lodge to the surface of the agarose gel, resulting from the induced strong hydrophobic interaction between dye ligand and agarose matrix. The salt effect on the lodging of dye-ligand is expressed by the equilibrium between salt and dye-ligand. For the interactions between protein and vacant binding sites, stoichiometric equations based either on cation exchanges or on hydrophobic interactions are proposed since the CB dye can be regarded as a cation exchanger contributed by the sulfonate groups on it. Combining with the basic concept of steric mass-action theory for ion exchange, which considers both the multipoint nature and the macromolecular steric shielding of protein adsorption, an explicit isotherm for protein adsorption equilibrium on the dye-ligand adsorbent is formulated, involving salt concentration as a variable. Analysis of the model parameters has yielded better understanding of the mechanism of salt effects on adsorption of the basic protein. Moreover, the model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of salt and ligand concentrations, indicating the predictive nature of the model.

  15. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  16. Tailor-made biocatalysts based on scarcely studied acidic horseradish peroxidase for biodegradation of reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Janović, Barbara S; Mićić Vićovac, Milica Lj; Vujčić, Zoran M; Vujčić, Miroslava T

    2017-02-01

    Peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) have enormous biotechnological applications. Usage of more abundant, basic isoforms of peroxidases in diagnostic kits and/or in immunochemistry has led to under exploitation and disregard of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) acidic isoforms. Therefore, acidic horseradish peroxidase (HRP-A) isoenzyme was used for the preparation of a biocatalyst with improved ability in dye decolorization. Ten biocatalysts were prepared by covalent binding of enzyme to chitosan and alginate, adsorption followed by cross-linking on inorganic support (aluminum oxide), and encapsulation in spherical calcium alginate beads via polyethylene glycol. Model dyes of 50 to 175 mg l -1 were removed by the biocatalysts. Among the tested biocatalysts, the three with the highest specific activity and biodegradation rate were further studied (Chitosan-HRP, Al-Gel-HRP and Al-HRP-Gel). The impact of hydrogen peroxide concentration on dye decolorization was examined on the Chitosan-HRP biocatalyst, since the HRP is susceptible to inhibition/inactivation by high H 2 O 2 . On the other hand, H 2 O 2 is needed as a co-substrate for the HRP, and the H 2 O 2 /dye ratio can greatly influence decolorization efficiency. Concentrations of H 2 O 2 ranging from 0.22 to 4.4 mM showed no difference in terms of impact on the biocatalyst decolorization efficiency. The high decolorization efficiency of the biocatalysts was validated by the removal of 25 and 100 mg l -1 anthraquinone (Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR)), triphenylmethane (Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)), acridine (Acridine Orange (AO)), and formazan metal complex dye (Reactive Blue 52 (RB52)). After the seven consecutive decolorization cycles, the decolorization was still 53, 78, and 67% of the initial dye for the Al-HRP-Gel, Al-Gel-HRP, and Chitosan-HRP immobilizate, respectively. The results obtained showed potential of otherwise neglected acidic HRP isoforms as a cost-effective biocatalyst with significant potential in

  17. Efficient removal of dyes from aqueous solutions using a novel hemoglobin/iron oxide composite.

    PubMed

    Essandoh, Matthew; Garcia, Rafael A

    2018-05-10

    Magnetic particles entrapped in different matrices that display high thermal stability, low toxicity, interactive functions at the surface, and high saturation magnetization are of great interest. The objective of this work was to synthesize a novel hemoglobin/iron oxide composite (Hb/Fe 3 O 4 ) for the removal of different dyes (indigo carmine, naphthol blue black, tartrazine, erythrosine, eriochrome black T and bromophenol blue) from aqueous solutions. The Hb/Fe 3 O 4 composite was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser diffraction particle size analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, isoelectric point determination and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The Hb/Fe 3 O 4 composite showed high removal efficiency toward all the different classes of dyes studied and the mechanism of adsorption was dominated by electrostatic interaction. Adsorption was found to follow pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacities for all the dyes range from 80 to 178 mg/g. The Hb/Fe 3 O 4 composite possesses extra advantage of being easily isolated from aqueous suspension using an external magnet. The stability of the prepared Hb/Fe 3 O 4 composite was also demonstrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced Azo-Dyes Degradation Performance of Fe-Si-B-P Nanoporous Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Nan; Wang, Feng; Qin, Fengxiang; Tang, Wanying; Dan, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous structures were fabricated from Fe76Si9B10P5 amorphous alloy annealed at 773 K by dealloying in 0.05 M H2SO4 solution, as a result of preferential dissolution of α-Fe grains in form of the micro-coupling cells between α-Fe and cathodic residual phases. Nanoporous Fe-Si-B-P powders exhibit much better degradation performance to methyl orange and direct blue azo dyes compared with gas-atomized Fe76Si9B10P5 amorphous powders and commercial Fe powders. The degradation reaction rate constants of nanoporous powders are almost one order higher than those of the amorphous counterpart powders and Fe powders, accompanying with lower activation energies of 19.5 and 26.8 kJ mol−1 for the degradation reactions of methyl orange and direct blue azo dyes, respectively. The large surface area of the nanoporous structure, and the existence of metalloids as well as residual amorphous phase with high catalytic activity are responsible for the enhanced azo-dyes degradation performance of the nanoporous Fe-Si-B-P powders. PMID:28846622

  19. Development of dye-sensitized solar cells based on naturally extracted dye from the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyrer, Julio; Hunter, Renato; Rubilar, Monica; Pavez, Boris; Morales, Eduardo; Torres, Simonet

    2016-10-01

    The mini modules of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated for their conversion efficiency using anthocyanin-enriched extracts from maqui berry, which to date has never been tested in a DSSC. Anthocyanins are a group of red, purple, violet and blue water-soluble polyphenolic pigments widely found in berry fruits. Maqui berries are a particularly rich source. The aqueous extract concentrations of maqui fruit were tested at 750 and 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L. The immersion time to produce sensitized TiO2 film was 8 h. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSC prepared with 750 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.14%, with an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.43 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 0.38 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.450. The conversion efficiency attained with 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.19%, with (VOC) of 0.45 V, (JSC) of 0.44 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.55. Therefore, a higher concentration brought about a higher photosensitized performance. The maqui extracts were successfully dye sensitized over a layer of TiO2 nanoparticles, providing useful information for further studies related to the use of natural pigments as sensitizers for solar cells.

  20. Photodegradation and Photophysics of Laser Dyes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    research. "The Photophysics and Photochem istry of’ Orgainic Laser Dyecs uander Conditions oit Binding to Polymethacrylic Acid in Water** thcsis...c 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 wotrds) 6 The solubilization of laser dyes in water with the aid of the polyelectrolyte, poly(methacr,-- lic acid ) (PMAA...moderately acidic pH. Polymer-bound dyes in water display markedly enhanced emission yield, lifetime, and polarization. Dye materials are also less