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Sample records for isosulfan blue dye

  1. Study on enhanced lymphatic tracing of isosulfan blue injection by influence of osmotic pressure on lymphatic exposure.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tiantian; He, Rui; Wu, Yue; Shang, Lei; Wang, Shujun

    2018-04-01

    Isosulfan blue (IB) is being used as a lymphatic tracer has been approved by the FDA in 1981. This study aimed at improving lymphatic exposure of IB injection by osmotic pressure regulation to achieve step-by step lymphatic tracing. First, IB injection with appropriate osmotic pressure, stability, and suitable pH was prepared. Next, the lymphatic tracing ability of different osmotic pressure was studied to determine the blue-stained state of IB in three-level lymph nodes after subcutaneous administration. Furthermore, pharmacokinetics of lymphatic drainage, lymph node uptake, and plasma concentration was investigate to explore the improving law of the lymphatic tracing by osmotic pressure, and combined with tissue irritation to determine the optimal osmotic pressure. At last, the tissue distribution in mice of IB injection which had the property of optimal osmotic pressure was investigated. The results showed that increasing osmotic pressure could significantly reduce injection site retention and increase IB concentration of lymph node. The lymph nodes could be obviously blue-stained by IB injection which had 938 mmol/kg osmotic pressure and would not cause inflammatory reaction and blood exposure. The tissue distribution study suggested that IB injection which had 938 mmol/kg osmotic pressure was mainly distributed into gallbladder and duodenum that verified the reports that 90% IB was excreted through the feces through biliary excretion. In conclusion, this study provides the basic study to improve lymphatic exposure of IB injection by regulate the osmotic pressure and have the potential to be the helpful guidance for the elective lymph node dissection.

  2. Intradermal radioisotope is superior to peritumoral blue dye or radioisotope in identifying breast cancer sentinel nodes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kevin M; Patel, Tarak H; Ray, Adrian; Ota, Matthew; Jacobs, Lisa; Kuvshinoff, Boris; Chung, Mathew; Watson, Michael; Ota, David M

    2004-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and biopsy have emerged as the technique of choice for axillary staging of breast cancer. Several methods have been developed to identify SLNs, including peritumoral or intradermal injection of isosulfan blue dye or technetium sulfur colloid (TSC). We hypothesize that intradermal TSC is the optimal mapping technique and can be used alone to identify SLNs. From March 1997 through January 2001, 180 women with T1 and T2 invasive breast cancer and clinically negative axilla underwent SLN mapping and biopsy. Peritumoral TSC was injected in 74 patients, 62 of whom also received peritumoral blue dye. Intradermal TSC (above tumor) was performed in 94 patients, 76 of whom also received peritumoral blue dye. Technetium-rich nodes were identified intraoperatively using a hand-held gamma probe and blue nodes were identified visually. Hematoxylin- and eosin-stained SLN sections were examined by light microscopy for breast cancer metastases. Overall, the SLN mapping procedures were successful in 91% of patients. Peritumoral and intradermal TSC were successful in identifying SLNs in 78% and 97% of patients, respectively. Peritumorally injected isosulfan blue was successful in identifying 83% of SLNs. Intradermal TSC was found to be superior to peritumoral TSC and peritumoral blue dye in identifying SLNs (p = 0.00094, chi-squared, and p = 0.020, ANOVA). SLN mapping by intradermal TSC has a significantly higher success rate than peritumoral TSC or blue dye. There was minimal benefit in identifying additional SLNs with addition of peritumoral blue dye to intradermal TSC. So, SLN mapping and biopsy using intradermal-injected TSC can be used alone to effectively stage the axilla for breast cancer.

  3. MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND BLEACHING BUILDINGS. PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1905 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. From the collection of Mr. George Durette, Photographer, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  4. Spectral and nonlinear studies of night blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindhu Sukumaran, V.; Ramalingam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this Letter the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye night blue are studied. The spectral characteristics of night blue dye doped poly(methylmethacrylate) modified with additive n-butyl acetate (nBA) are studied by recording its absorption and fluorescence spectra and the results are compared with the corresponding liquid mixture. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in nBA and dye doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique [S.-B., Mansoor, A.A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26 (1990) 760], by exciting with He Ne laser. The results obtained are intercompared. Both the samples of dye night blue show a negative nonlinear refractive index. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed due to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.

  5. Bioremediation of coractive blue dye by using Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the textile dye wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunar, N. M.; Mon, Z. K.; Rahim, N. A.; Leman, A. M.; Airish, N. A. M.; Khalid, A.; Ali, R.; Zaidi, E.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater released from the textile industry contains variety substances, mainly dyes that contains a high concentration of color and organic. In this study the potential for bacterial decolorization of coractive blue dye was examined that isolated from textile wastewater. The optimum conditions were determined for pH, temperature and initial concentration of the dye. The bacteria isolated was Pseudomonas spp. The selected bacterium shows high decolorization in static condition at an optimum of pH 7.0. The Pseudomonas spp. could decolorize coractive blue dye by 70% within 24 h under static condition, with the optimum of pH 7.0. Decolorization was confirmed by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. This present study suggests the potential of Pseudomonas spp. as an approach in sustainable bioremediation that provide an efficient method for decolorizing coractive blue dye.

  6. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 8. Methylene blue, azure and violet.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2017-01-01

    Methylene blue was synthesized in 1877 and soon found application in medicine, staining for microscopy and as an industrial dye and pigment. An enormous literature has accumulated since its introduction. Early on, it was known that methylene blue could be degraded easily by demethylation; consequently, the purity of commercial samples often was low. Therefore, demethylation products, such as azures and methylene violet, also are considered here. The names and identity of the components, their varying modes of manufacture, analytical methods and their contribution to biological staining are discussed.

  7. Kinetics and Mechanism of Dyeing Processes: The Dyeing of Cotton Fabrics with a Procion Blue Dichlorotriazinyl Reactive Dye

    PubMed

    Tam; Smith; Booth; Compton; Brennan; Atherton

    1997-02-15

    The kinetics of the dyeing of a dichlorotriazinyl-reactive dye, Procion Blue MX-R, with knitted cotton fabrics have been studied using a versatile technique based on a spectrochemical channel flow cell. A mechanism is derived where the simultaneous hydrolysis of the dye molecules, the physical binding of the hydrolyzed form, and the chemical fixation of the active form onto the fabric are taken into account. It is shown that the dye fixation to the fabric is controlled by a solid-liquid interfacial process that is first order with respect to the surface concentration of dye; however, the rate of this reaction is governed by the availability of sites for the adsorption of dye molecules on the fabric surface. Dyeing experiments are performed over a wide range of initial dye concentrations; supporting electrolyte concentrations and the kinetic parameters are reported. Atomic force microscopic studies indicate that mercerization pretreatment provides a disordered fiber surface which may offer additional sites for dye adsorption.

  8. Dyeing behaviours of amino heterocyclic compounds as blue oxidative hair dye precursors applied to keratin fibres.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Huang, Y; Su, J

    2011-04-01

    Several novel heterocyclic compounds based on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 2,3-dihydroindole have been investigated for their application of colour keratin fibres as blue oxidative dye precursors, especially to human hair. The colourants we studied contained anyone of these dyes (concentration range from 0.005% to 6%), and some common oxidative hair dyes, such as p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine sulphate. Experiments were carried out on the method of mixing hair colourants with H(2)O(2) gel at the ratio of 1 : 1, accompanied by pH = 8∼11. It is demonstrated that 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives could be considered as an excellent candidate for blue dyes, and N-methyl-7-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is the most outstanding one among this kind of compounds. They own significant advantages of colour purity, stability and fastness. On the other hand, 2,3-dihydroindoles show the similar colours but not stable and brilliant enough. © 2010 The Authors. ICS © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of Alcian-blue Dye Adsorption of Natural Biofilm Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Sukandar; Guntur

    2018-01-01

    In this study, natural biofilm matrices formed on stones have been used for the adsorption of Alcian blue dye. Alcian blue is a member of polyvalent basic dyes that largely used from laboratory until industrial dying purposes. The adsorption of the dye onto the biofilm matrix has been carried out at different experimental conditions such as adsorption isotherm and kinetic of adsorption. The electric charge properties of biofilm matrix and its changes related to the adsorption of Alcian blue have been also investigated. Moreover, the results of Alcian blue adsorption to the biofilm were compared to those onto the acidic and neutral resin. The kinetics of adsorption result showed that the adsorption of the Alcian blue dye reached to a maximum adsorption amount within 60 minutes. The adsorption amount of Alcian blue to biofilm increased monotonously, and the maximum adsorption amount was greater compared to the resins. On the contrary, Alcian blue did not attach to the neutral resin having no electric charge. It seems that Alcian blue attached to the acidic resins due to electrostatic attractive force, and the same seems to be the case for adsorption of Alcian blue to biofilm. The adsorption of Alcian blue to the biofilm and acidic resins fitted to Langmuir type indicates that the binding of Alcian blue to the biofilm and acidic resins occurred in a monolayer like form. The maximum adsorption amount of Alcian blue on the biofilm (0.24 mmol/dry-g) was greater than those of acidic resin (0.025 mmol/dry-g). This indicates that the biofilm has many more sites for Alcian blue attachment than acidic resins. According to the result of this study, the biofilm matrix can be a good adsorbent for dye such as Alcian blue or other dyes that causing hazards in nature.

  11. Photoacoustic microscopy using Evans Blue dye as a contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-02-01

    Complete and continuous imaging of microvascular networks is crucial for a wide variety of biomedical applications. Photoacoustic tomography can provide high resolution microvascular imaging using hemoglobin within red blood cells (RBC) as an endogenous contrast agent. However, intermittent RBC flow in capillaries results in discontinuous and fragmentary capillary images. To overcome this problem, we used Evans Blue (EB) dye as a contrast agent for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. EB has strong optical absorption at 610 nm and distributes uniformly in the blood stream by chemically binding to albumin. By intravenous injection of EB (6%, 200 μL), complete and continuous microvascular networks-especially capillaries-of the ears of nude mice were imaged. The diffusion of EB (3%, 100 μL) leaving the blood stream was monitored for 2 hours. At lower administration dose of EB (3%, 50 μL), the clearance of the EB-albumin complex was imaged for 10 days and quantitatively investigated using a two-compartment model.

  12. ON THE NATURE OF THE DYE PENETRATING THE VACUOLE OF VALONIA FROM SOLUTIONS OF METHYLENE BLUE

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Marian

    1927-01-01

    When uninjured cells of Valonia are placed in methylene blue dissolved in sea water it is found, after 1 to 3 hours, that at pH 5.5 practically no dye penetrates, while at pH 9.5 more enters the vacuole. As the cells become injured more dye enters at pH 5.5, as well as at pH 9.5. No dye in reduced form is found in the sap of uninjured cells exposed from 1 to 3 hours to methylene blue in sea water at both pH values. When uninjured cells are placed in azure B solution, the rate of penetration of dye into the vacuole is found to increase with the rise in the pH value of the external dye solution. The partition coefficient of the dye between chloroform and sea water is higher at pH 9.5 than at pH 5.5 with both methylene blue and azure B. The color of the dye in chloroform absorbed from methylene blue or from azure B in sea water at pH 5.5 is blue, while it is reddish purple when absorbed from methylene blue and azure B at pH 9.5. Dry salt of methylene blue and azure B dissolved in chloroform appears blue. It is shown that chiefly azure B in form of free base is absorbed by chloroform from methylene blue or azure B dissolved in sea water at pH 9.5, but possibly a mixture of methylene blue and azure B in form of salt is absorbed from methylene blue at pH 5.5, and azure B in form of salt is absorbed from azure B in sea water at pH 5.5. Spectrophotometric analysis of the dye shows the following facts. 1. The dye which is absorbed by the cell wall from methylene blue solution is found to be chiefly methylene blue. 2. The dye which has penetrated from methylene blue solution into the vacuole of uninjured cells is found to be azure B or trimethyl thionine, a small amount of which may be present in a solution of methylene blue especially at a high pH value. 3. The dye which has penetrated from methylene blue solution into the vacuole of injured cells is either methylene blue or a mixture of methylene blue and azure B. 4. The dye which is absorbed by chloroform from methylene

  13. Effective biotransformation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 by using aerobic bacterial granules.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ashvini U; Paul, Dhiraj; Dhotre, Dhiraj; Kodam, Kisan M

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of textile wastewater containing anthraquinone dye is quite a huge challenge due to its complex aromatic structure and toxicity. Present study deals with the degradation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 using aerobic bacterial granules. Bacterial granules effectively decolorized reactive blue 4 at wide range of pH (4.0-11.0) and temperature (20-55 °C) as well as decolorized and tolerated high concentration of reactive blue 4 dye upto 1000 mg l -1 with V max 6.16 ± 0.82 mg l -1 h -1 and K m 227 ± 41 mg l -1 . Metagenomics study evaluates important role of Clostridia, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacterial members in biotransformation and tolerance of high concentrations of reactive blue 4 dye. Up-regulation of xenobiotic degradation and environmental information processing pathways during dye exposure signifies their noteworthy role in dye degradation. Biotransformation of dye was confirmed by significant decrease in the values of total suspended solids, biological and chemical oxygen demand. The metabolites formed after biotransformation was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The reactive blue 4 dye was found to be phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic whereas its biotransformed product were non-toxic. This study comprehensively illustrates that, bacterial aerobic granules can be used for eco-friendly remediation and detoxification of wastewater containing high organic load of anthraquinone dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential of roselle and blue pea in the dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayang, S.; Irwanto, M.; Gomesh, N.; Ismail, B.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discovers the use of natural dyes from Roselle flower and Blue Pea flower which act as a sensitizer in DSSC and in addition has a potential in absorbing visible light spectrum. The dyes were extracted using distilled water (DI) and ethanol (E) extract solvent in an ultrasonic cleaner for 30 minutes with a frequency of 37 Hz by using `degas' mode at the temperature of 30°C. Absorption spectra of roselle dye and blue pea dye with different extract solvent were tested using Evolution 201 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. It was found that Roselle dye absorbs at a range of 400 nm - 620 nm and Blue Pea absorbs at the range of wavelength 500 nm - 680 nm. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to identify the functional active group in extract dye. The concept of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) similar to photosynthesis process has attracted much attention since it demonstrates a great potential due to the use of low-cost materials and environmentally friendly sources of technology.

  15. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ayla; Akkaya, Gönül; Turabik, Meral

    2006-07-31

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 degrees C and 3.0, 25 degrees C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature.

  16. [Micro and nondestructive analysis of blue dyes from silk fabrics and decorative painting of historic building].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Wei, Xi-Ning; Lei, Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Dye analysis is important to the understanding of fabric color degradation and technical development of ancient printing and dyeing. In the present study, thin layer chromatography and Raman spectroscopy were used for the analysis of blue dyes from 6 silk fabric of Tang dynasty and decorative painting of Jian Fu Gong, Forbidden City. The applicability of these two methods in the cultural heritages was also studied. The results indicate that all these blue substances are indigo; indigo was not only used as dye in ancient fabrics, but also as pigment in decorative painting of historic building, so it is used widely. Both analytic methods have advantages and disadvantages; Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive analysis; thin layer chromatography needs small amount of sample, but could give more information.

  17. 'Blue' voltage-sensitive dyes for studying spatiotemporal dynamics in the brain: visualizing cortical waves.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xinling; Wu, Jian-Young

    2017-07-01

    Among many distinct contributions made by Amiram Grinvald's group, the "Blue dyes" is a special gift for visualizing cortical population neuronal activity. The excitation wavelength of blue dyes has minimal overlap with the absorption of hemoglobin, and hence has minimal pulsation artifacts. This advantage leads to high signal-to-noise ratio optical recordings of cortical activity, with sensitivity as good as that of local field potential recordings. High sensitivity imaging allows for recording of spontaneous and evoked activity in single trials without spatial or temporal averaging, and has benefitted many scientists in their research projects. Single trial recording is particularly important for studying the cortex, because spontaneous and ongoing activities interact with sensory evoked events, creating rich dynamics in the wave patterns. Signal averaging in space and time would diminish the dynamic components in the patterns. Here, we discuss how the blue dyes help to achieve high-sensitivity voltage-sensitive dye imaging of spontaneous and evoked cortical activities. Spontaneous cortical activity has a constantly changing spatial pattern and temporal frequency, making it impossible to average in space and time. Amiran Grinvald's invention of blue dyes made it possible to examine the spatiotemporal patterns of cortical dynamics, about 15 years before the first useful genetically coded voltage proteins became available.

  18. Adsorption of Two Dyes by Mg(OH)2: Procion Blue HB and Remazol Brilliant Blue R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouberka, Zohra; Bentaleb, Kahina; Benabbou, Khalil A.; Maschke, Ulrich

    The use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. Mg(OH)2 sludge was produced from precipitation of magnesium ions (Mg2+) with NaOH in pH = 10 and investigated as a low-cost adsorbent. This paper deals with the removal of textile dyes from aqueous solutions by Mg(OH)2. Reactive Procion blue HB (PR) and Acid Remazol brilliant blue R (RB) were used as model compounds. The adsorption capacity was found as 43.47 and 26.89 mg/g at initial pH 6.5.

  19. Removal of an anionic dye (Acid Blue 92) by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan.

    PubMed

    Szyguła, Agata; Guibal, Eric; Ariño Palacín, María; Ruiz, Montserrat; Sastre, Ana Maria

    2009-07-01

    Chitosan (a biopolymer) is an aminopolysaccharide that can be used for the treatment of colored solutions by coagulation-flocculation (as an alternative to more conventional processes such as sorption). Acid Blue 92 (a sulfonic dye) was selected as a model dye for verifying chitosan's ability to treat textile wastewater. A preliminary experiment demonstrated that chitosan was more efficient at color removal in tap water than in demineralized water, and that a substantially lower concentration of chitosan could be used with tap water. Dye removal reached up to 99% under optimum concentration; i.e., in terms of the acidic solutions and the stoichiometric ratio between the amine groups of the biopolymer and the sulfonic groups in the dye. The flocs were recovered and the dye was efficiently removed using alkaline solutions (0.001-1 M NaOH solutions) and the biopolymer, re-dissolved in acetic acid solution, was reused in a further treatment cycle.

  20. Decolorization pathways of anthraquinone dye Disperse Blue 2BLN by Aspergillus sp. XJ-2 CGMCC12963.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huiran; Xu, Xiaolin; Wen, Zhu; Kang, Yanshun; Wang, Xinhao; Ren, Youshan; Huang, Danqi

    2017-09-03

    Anthraquinone dye represents an important group of recalcitrant pollutants in dye wastewater. Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 showed broad-spectrum decolorization ability, which could efficiently decolorize and degrade various anthraquinone dyes (50 mg L -1 ) under microaerophilic condition. And the decolorization rate of 93.3% was achieved at 120 h with Disperse Blue 2BLN (the target dye). Intermediates of degradation were detected by FTIR and GC-MS, which revealed the cleavage of anthraquinone chromophoric group and partial mineralization of target dye. In addition, extracellular manganese peroxidase showed the most closely related to the increasing of decolorization rate and biomass among intracellular and extracellular ligninolytic enzymes. Given these results, 2 possible degraded pathways of target dye by Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 were proposed first in this work. The degradation of Disperse Blue 2BLN and broad spectrum decolorization ability provided the potential for Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 in the treatment of wastewater containing anthraquinone dyes.

  1. Retroperitoneal lymph node mapping with intratesticular injected patent blue dye in rats.

    PubMed

    Basal, Seref; Irkilata, Hasan Cem; Yildirim, Ibrahim; Sadir, Serdar; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Zor, Murat; Aydur, Emin; Peker, Ahmet Fuat

    2008-01-01

    Endolymphatic injection of several dyes have been previously studied to identify retroperitoneal lymphatic structure in animals and humans with malignant diseases. However, there have been no studies, to our knowledge, that demonstrate the utility of injecting patent blue dye into the testicular parenchyma to detect retroperitoneal lymphoid structure. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate whether intratesticular patent blue dye injection is feasible and is an accurate method for retroperitoneal lymph node mapping in rats. Twenty male albino Wistar rats were included in the study and divided over two equal groups. The first group underwent patent blue violet (PBV) injection into the spermatic funiculus, while the second group underwent PBV injection into the testicular parenchyma. After the injection, the color changes in the retroperitoneal lymphatic structures and the urinary bladder were anticipated. The time interval between the injection and the staining of lymphatic structures and urinary bladder was measured for each intervention. Blue stained retroperitoneal nodal tissues were dissected and removed. These nodal tissues were examined histologically. After PBV injection, intense staining of the ipsilateral spermatic cord lymphatics was seen and anticipated color changes in the retroperitoneal lymphatic structures and urinary bladder were evaluated visually. Both application routes of dye resulted in the same distribution of retroperitoneal lymph nodes in the same time frame. All retroperitoneal nodular tissues removed were noted histologically to be lymph nodes and were found to be consistent with the ipsilateral lumbar lymph and the ipsilateral suprarenal lymph nodes according to the staining order in both groups. No toxic effects were observed histologically. There were no statistically significant differences in the time intervals between the two groups. We demonstrated that both funicular and intratesticular injections of patent blue dye

  2. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  3. Dimethylformamide interferes with Coomassie dye staining of proteins on blue native gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, V; Oommen, Anna; Ramachandran, Anup

    2014-06-15

    Blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) is used extensively for characterization of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and uses the binding of Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 to visualize proteins. Oxidative modification of sulfhydryl groups of such proteins can be evaluated by labeling with iodoacetamide conjugated to biotin (BIAM) and detected with streptavidin peroxidase on Western blots following BN-PAGE. However, dissolving BIAM in dimethylformamide, a recommended solvent, reduces Coomassie blue G staining to proteins during BN-PAGE. This interference is prevented by dissolving BIAM in dimethyl sulfoxide. Precautions in the use of the dye for protein staining subsequent to BIAM labeling are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Laparoscopic visualization and dissection of retroperitoneal lymph nodes after patent blue dye injection: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Irkilata, Hasan Cem; Basal, Seref; Yildirim, Ibrahim; Kurt, Bulent; Aydur, Emin; Zor, Murat; Goktas, Serdar

    2008-05-01

    Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for testicular cancer is an important treatment modality for patients with stage I or IIA disease. Several urologists have previously reported the feasibility and usefulness of laparoscopic RPLND for such patients. The aim of this experimental pilot-feasibility study was to investigate whether visualization of retroperitoneal lymph nodes with patent blue violet (PBV) dye application is a feasible and an effective method during laparoscopic RPLND in a pig model. Four 12-month-old white male pigs were included in the study. After PBV dye injection into the spermatic funicular and intratesticular parenchyma, the color changes in the retroperitoneal region were examined during transperitoneal laparoscopic visualization of the retroperitoneum. The time interval between the injection and the staining of lymphatic structures was measured for each intervention. Blue-stained retroperitoneal nodal tissues were dissected and removed by the laparoscopic approach and histologic examination was performed. After PBV dye injection, intense staining of the ipsilateral retroperitoneal lymphatic vessels and nodes was seen. Distribution of the PBV and the color changes of the retroperitoneal lymphatic structures were examined under laparoscopic vision in all pigs. All blue-stained retroperitoneal nodular tissues were removed laparoscopically and examined histologically. Histopathologic examination noted all specimens as lymph nodes with no toxic effects of PBV dye. We demonstrated that spermatic funicular injection of PVB dye is an effective and accurate method for retroperitoneal lymph node visualization in pigs. The use of this technique in combination with a laparoscopic approach makes RPLND easier and more effective.

  5. Microwave atmospheric pressure plasma jets for wastewater treatment: Degradation of methylene blue as a model dye.

    PubMed

    García, María C; Mora, Manuel; Esquivel, Dolores; Foster, John E; Rodero, Antonio; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Romero-Salguero, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution as a model dye using a non thermal microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. Argon has been used as feed gas and aqueous solutions with different concentrations of the dye were treated using the effluent from plasma jet in a remote exposure. The removal efficiency increased as the dye concentration decreased from 250 to 5 ppm. Methylene blue degrades after different treatment times, depending on the experimental plasma conditions. Thus, kinetic constants up to 0.177 min -1 were obtained. The higher the Ar flow, the faster the degradation rate. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to gather information about the species present in the gas phase, specifically excited argon atoms. Argon excited species and hydrogen peroxide play an important role in the degradation of the dye. In fact, the conversion of methylene blue was directly related to the density of argon excited species in the gas phase and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous liquid phase. Values of energy yield at 50% dye conversion of 0.296 g/kWh were achieved. Also, the use of two plasma applicators in parallel has been proven to improve energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Due to Oral Use of Blue Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Osman; Kose, Ösman; Safali, Mukerrem

    2011-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe pustular cutaneous adverse reaction characterized by a rapid clinical course with typical histological findings. It is accompanied by fever and acute eruption of non-follicular pustules overlying erythrodermic skin. The causative agents are most frequently antibacterial drugs. We present a patient with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by methylene blue and indigotin dyes. PMID:22016599

  7. New holographic recording material: bromothymol blue dye with rosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, J. C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.

    2002-08-01

    The characterisation of a solution made up of bromothymol blue (BTB) combined with rosin and diluted in isopropyl alcohol, as a holographic recording material was carried out. This process was based on the recording of diffraction grating, under a range of recording parameters such as: BTB concentration, rosin concentration, a range of interference angles for grating generation, as well as a range of illumination wavelengths, and finally a study of the development process using a range of development times. The holographic gratings produced using this material show a high sensitivity to blue and blueish green illumination ( λ=457, 476 and 488 nm), i.e. using an Argon Ion laser as well as a high-spatial resolution of the order of 1100 l/mm, thus demonstrating that it is feasible to obtain other HOEs using the proposed material.

  8. Counterion-dye staining for DNA in electrophoresed gels using indoine blue and methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun-Young; Jin, Li-Tai; Yoo, Gyurng-Soo; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2006-05-01

    In this study, we describe a sensitive staining method for DNA in agarose and polyacrylamide gels using organic visible dyes, indoine blue (IB) and methyl orange (MO). The counterion-dye staining method uses two oppositely charged dyes to form a hydrophobic ion pair complex in the staining solution. A decrease in the number of free forms of dyes in staining solution can enhance the selectivity of binding between the dye and DNA, and can reduce nonspecific background staining. As a result, the sensitivity of counterion-dye staining was significantly improved compared with other dye-based staining. This method uses a staining solution consisting of 0.008% IB, 0.002% MO, 10% ethanol and 0.2 M sodium acetate at pH 4.7, and can detect 5 ng of lambda DNA/HindIII within 60 min in agarose gels and 10 ng of PhiX174 DNA/HaeIII within 20 min in polyacrylamide gels.

  9. Improved coomassie blue dye-based fast staining protocol for proteins separated by SDS-PAGE.

    PubMed

    Májek, Pavel; Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Pecánková, Klára; Dyr, Jan E

    2013-01-01

    The time required to visualize proteins using Coomassie Blue dye has been significantly reduced with the introduction of fast staining protocols based on staining with a Coomassie Blue dye solution at boiling temperatures. However, fast stainings suffer from high gel backgrounds, reducing the signal-to-noise ratio and limiting the number of detectable spots in the case of 2D SDS-PAGE. The aim of this work was to eliminate the high gel background, and thus improve fast staining protocols based on Coomassie Blue dye. We show that merely replacing water with a 4 mM EDTA washing solution at boiling temperatures, results in a transparent gel background within 50 to 60 minutes of destaining. Moreover, when a combination of imidazole-zinc reverse staining and Coomassie Blue-based fast staining is used the sensitivity is improved significantly; nanogram amounts of proteins can be detected using 1D SDS-PAGE, and about 30% to 60% more spots can be detected with 2D SDS-PAGE in plasma, platelet, and rat brain tissue samples. This work represents an optimized fast staining protocol with improved sensitivity, requiring between 60 to 75 minutes to complete protein visualization.

  10. Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution by sugar extracted spent rice biomass.

    PubMed

    Ur Rehman, Muhammad Saif; Kim, Ilgook; Han, Jong-In

    2012-10-15

    This study was aimed at using sugar extracted spent rice biomass (SRB) as a potential adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. The SRB was used without any modification. A three factor full factorial experimental design (2(3)) was employed to investigate the effect of factors (adsorbent dose, dye concentration, temperature) and their interaction on the adsorption capacity and color removal. Two levels for each factor were used; adsorbent dose (0.25-0.5g/100mL), dye concentration (25-50mg/L), and temperature (25-45°C). Initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage were found as significant factors for the adsorption of MB dye. Langmuir isotherm (R(2)>0.998) best explained the equilibrium of MB adsorption on SRB with monolayer adsorption capacity of 8.13mg/g. The pseudo-second order model (R(2)>0.999) was best fitted to explain the adsorption kinetics. Thermodynamic investigation revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic, and was feasible to treat dyeing wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of blue dye for sentinel lymph node detection in early endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Restaino, Stefano; Ronsini, Carlo; Finelli, Angelo; Perrone, Emanuele; Scambia, Giovanni; Fanfani, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Sentinel Lymphonode analysis has become a barely new and innovative way to treat early stages of endometrial cancer (Ballester et al., Lancet Oncol 469-476, 2011; Buda et al., Ann Surg Oncol 2975-81, 2016). Indocyanine green cervical injection is considered gold standard for mapping nodes' drainage. Blue dye is used as a valid alternative in many centers, due to the lower cost of execution. The objective of this video is to prove that methylene blue dye's cervical injection is a valid and "low-cost" method to obtain mapping of lymphatic drainage in patient with early endometrial cancer. Fifty-four-year old women, with a recent diagnosis of endometrial cancer IA G2, we performed a radical Hysterectomy type A. We diluted in equal proportions the blue dye and saline and injected 1 cl in depth and 1 cl on the surface of the cervix, at 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock. After 20 min, it was shown with precision the lymphatic drainage until the first lymph node station from both sides. One external iliac lymph node and one obturator were resected on the left side and one external iliac on the right side. On histological analysis, none of the lymph nodes had any location of metastasis, neither micro-metastasis. Myometrial infiltration was 8/19 mm. Blue dye cervical injection is a "low-cost", safe, and satisfactory procedure to point out Sentinel Lymph Node of uterus drainage. Other tracers, such as indocyanine green, are widely used in gynecological oncology, but with a higher cost of the product and the needing of a dedicated optical filter to be shown on human view.

  12. Experimental and theoretical spectroscopic studies of dye modification in synthetic Maya Blue pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Layra; Manciu, Felicia; Ramirez, Alejandra; Chianelli, Russell

    2009-03-01

    Maya pigments are hybrid organic/inorganic materials with multiple technology applications that possess unprecedented stability with respect to harsh environment conditions. In this investigation, we address the question of how the organic indigo dye modifies as it binds to the inorganic palygorskite clay to form a pigment similar to Maya Blue after a heating treatment is applied. Both infrared and Raman spectroscopic data demonstrate the disappearance of nitrogen-hydrogen (N-H) bonding, as the indigo molecule incorporates into the inorganic palygorskite material. This effect suggests a transformation of the dye from indigo to dehydroindigo. Furthermore, the Raman and infrared absorption results demonstrate partial elimination of the selection rules for the centrosymmetric indigo, which provides further evidence for this conversion. Theoretical spectroscopic studies are also addressed in this investigation to confirm the transformation of the dye into dehydroindigo.

  13. Degradation of acid blue 40 dye solution and dye house wastewater from textile industry by photo-assisted electrochemical process.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Peterson B; Pelegrino, Rosangela R L; Bertazzoli, Rodnei

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, electrochemical and photo-assisted electrochemical processes are used for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation of one of the most abundant and strongly colored industrial wastewaters, which results from the dyeing of fibers and fabrics in the textile industry. The experiments were carried out in an 18 L pilot-scale tubular flow reactor with 70%TiO(2)/30%RuO(2) DSA. A synthetic acid blue 40 solution and real dye house wastewater, containing the same dye, were used for the experiments. By using current density of 80 mA cm(-2) electrochemical process has the capability to remove 80% of color, 46% of TOC and 69% of COD. When used the photochemical process with 4.6 mW cm(-2) of 254 nm UV-C radiation to assist the electrolysis, has been obtained 90% of color, 64% of TOC and 60% of COD removal in 90 minutes of processing; furthermore, 70% of initial color was degraded within the first 15 minutes. Experimental runs using dye house wastewater resulted in 78% of color, 26% of TOC and 49% of COD in electrolysis at 80 mA cm(-2) and 90 min; additionally, when photo-assisted, electrolysis resulted in removals of 85% of color, 42% of TOC and 58% of COD. For the operational conditions used in this study, color, TOC and COD showed pseudo-first-order decaying profiles. Apparent rate constants for degradation of TOC and COD were improved by one order of magnitude when the photo-electrochemical process was used.

  14. Flexible graphene composites for removal of methylene blue dye-contaminant from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, J.; Martinez, A. I.; Oliva, A. I.; Garcia, C. R.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Garcia-Lobato, M.; Ochoa-Valiente, R.; Berlanga, A.

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the use of flexible graphene composites (FGCs) fabricated by a casting method for the removal of Methylene blue (MB) dye from water. Those FGCs with elastic modulus of 15 MPa had enough mechanical resistance to support the Al2O3:Eu3+ and SrAl2O4:Bi3+ photocatalytic powders. After the incorporation of those powders in the FGCs, their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of MB dye under solar irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrate that the surface of FGCs with catalysts powders presents pores with sizes in the range of 15-40 μm, which favored the sunlight absorption by scattering effects. Moreover, X-Ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the composites by displacements of their diffraction peaks. The MB dye was completely removed (by photocatalysis and by physical adsorption) from the water after 180 min and 270 min by using the FGCs with Al2O3:Eu3+ and SrAl2O4:Bi3+ catalysts respectively. Hence, the results of photocatalytic activity suggest that our FGCs could be used as an effective support of catalyst powders for the easy removal of dye contaminants in wastewater treatment plants.

  15. Blue-Coloured Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Implementing the Diketopyrrolopyrrole Chromophore

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Holcombe, Thomas W.; Kim, Yongjoo; Rakstys, Kasparas; Moehl, Thomas; Teuscher, Joel; Delcamp, Jared H.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammed K.; Grätzel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) – towards donor- π bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) dyes – increases the performances of DSCs and challenges established design principles. Framed by this shifting landscape, a series of four diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based sensitizers utilizing the donor-chromophore-anchor (D-C-A) motif were investigated computationally, spectroscopically, and fabricated by systematic evaluation of finished photovoltaic cells. In all cases, the [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ redox-shuttle afforded superior performance compared to I3−/I−. Aesthetically, careful molecular engineering of the DPP chromophore yielded the first example of a high-performance blue DSC – a challenge unmet since the inception of this photovoltaic technology: DPP17 yields over 10% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ electrolyte at full AM 1.5 G simulated sun light. PMID:23945746

  16. Dyeing and antibacterial activation with methylene blue of a cyclodextrin modified polyester vascular graft.

    PubMed

    Kacem, I; Laurent, T; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Chai, F; Haulon, S; Hildebrand, H F; Martel, B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an antiseptic and blue dyed polyester (PET) vascular graft in order to reach two distinct properties: (i) the prevention of postoperative infections, (ii) the improvement of the graft compatibility with the coelioscopy surgical technique. This work consisted of dyeing a vascular prosthesis with methylene blue (MB) which is known as a cationic dye with antiseptic properties. Therefore, the functionalization of the PET fibers of the prosthesis with a cyclodextrin-citric acid polymer (PolyCD) was achieved in order to improve its sorption capacity. The NMR experiments demonstrated that a 1:2 complex occurred between hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HP-βCD) and MB. Kinetic and sorption isotherm studies showed that an impregnation of the polyCD modified prosthesis (PET-CD) in a 1 g L(-1) of MB solution for 150 min was sufficient to reach the saturation of the device. Results proved that the adsorption mechanism followed the Langmuir model and a maximum of 20 mg g(-1) of MB on the graft. A sustained release of MB in batch tests was observed in PBS and in vitro microbiological assays displayed a prolongation of the bactericidal effect of PET-CD whose extent varied with the amount of MB preliminarily adsorbed onto the PET-CD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye Reactive Blue 4 in Pyrite Ash Catalyzed Fenton Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Becelic-Tomin, Milena; Dalmacija, Bozo; Rajic, Ljiljana; Tomasevic, Dragana; Kerkez, Djurdja; Watson, Malcolm; Prica, Miljana

    2014-01-01

    Pyrite ash (PA) is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4) degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH = 2.5; [PA]0 = 0.2 g L−1; [H2O2]0 = 5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L−1. The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu) content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes. PMID:24526885

  18. Phytoremediation potential of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. (Moss-Rose) in degrading a sulfonated diazo reactive dye Navy Blue HE2R (Reactive Blue 172).

    PubMed

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Kurade, Mayur B; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-06-01

    Wild and tissue cultured plants of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. have shown to be able to decolorize a sulfonated diazo dye Navy Blue HE2R (NBHE2R) up to 98% in 40 h. A significant induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and DCIP reductase was observed in the roots during dye decolorization. The wild plants and tissue cultures could independently decolorize and degrade NBHE2R into metabolites viz. N-benzylacetamide and 6-diazenyl-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid. A dye mixture and a textile effluent were also decolorized efficiently by P. grandiflora. The phytotoxicity study revealed reduction in the toxicity due to metabolites formed after dye degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extractional spectrophotometric analysis of metronidazole, tinidazole, ornidazole and secnidazole bases through acid-dye complexation using bromothymol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Khaled M; Salama, Ismail; Mostafa, Samia; El-Sadek, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    An easy, precise and valid extractional-spectrophotometric technique is described for the assessment of metronidazole (MNZ), tinidazole (TNZ), ornidazole (ONZ) and secnidazole (SNZ) in pure state and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The technique includes first the reduction of above cited drugs using HCl and zinc powder, then the formation of intense yellow colored ion-association complex species (1:3 drug/dye) using bromothymol blue (BTB) in a buffered aqueous acidic medium at pH 3-3.50. The colored products are extracted into dichloromethane and quantitatively determined at 416-420 nm. The experimental operating factors influencing the ion-pairs development were studied and optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. The Beer plots are obeyed in the concentration ranges 2.50-22.50, 2.50-30, 7.50-35 and 5-30 μgml-1 for MNZ, TNZ, ONZ and SNZ, respectively, with correlation coefficients not less than 0.9995. The proposed technique is recommended for the routine quality control analysis of the investigated drugs in commercial tablets with no observed interference from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. Results of such analysis were statistically validated and through recovery studies, showing excellent agreement with those achieved by the reported techniques.

  20. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  1. Interaction of Cibacron blue with polymers: implications for polymer-shielded dye-affinity chromatography of phosphofructokinase from baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Galaev YuI; Garg, N; Mattiasson, B

    1994-10-28

    Interactions between Cibacron Blue F3GA and water-soluble non-ionic polymers were investigated by monitoring the spectral shift that accompanies the binding phenomena. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(vinyl alcohol) were the only polymers among those tested found to interact effectively with the dye. The difference spectra for the PVP-dye complex was typical of "electrostatic interaction spectra" at low ionic strength and typical of "hydrophobic interaction spectra" in the presence of 1.5 M KCl. The binding constant and the number of binding sites per polymer molecule were calculated using the simplest model of independent binding sites. One dye molecule was bound by a PVP segment with a molecular mass of 1000-1300. Regardless of the size of the polymer molecules, the binding constants were in the micromolar range. Poly(vinyl alcohol) bound less efficiently to Cibacron Blue than PVP. One dye molecule was bound by a polymer segment with a molecular mass of about 10,000. The data on PVP complexing with Cibacron Blue were used to develop the concept of polymer-shielded dye-affinity chromatography. This concept was successfully applied to the chromatography of phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) from baker's yeast. Specific elution of the bound enzyme from PVP-shielded column resulted in an efficient process with 27-fold purification.

  2. Biodegradation of Methylene Blue Dye by Sequential Treatment Using Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor and Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooqi, Izharul H.; Basheer, Farrukh; Tiwari, Pradeepika

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to access the feasibility of sequential anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for the biodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye. Anaerobic studies were performed using anaerobic hybrid reactor (consisting of UASB and Anaerobic filter) whereas submerged aerobic fixed film reactor was used as aerobic reactor. Degradation of MB dye was attempted using neutralized acetic acid (1000 mg/L) as co-substrate. MB dye concentration was stepwise increased from 10 to 70 mg/L after reaching steady state in each dye concentration. Such a gradual increase in the dye concentration helps in the proper acclimatization of the sludge to dyes thereby avoiding the possible inhibitory effects to biological activities at high dye concentrations. The overall treatment efficiency of MB through sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactor operation was 90% at maximum attempted dye concentration of 70 mg/L. The effluent from anaerobic reactor was analysed for intermediate biodegradation products through HPLC. It was observed that catechol, quinone, amino pyrine, 1,4 diamino benzene were present. However they were absent in final effluent.

  3. Synthesis of surfactant-coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for adsorptive removal of acid blue 45 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waheed Mushtaq, Muhammad; Kanwal, Farah; Imran, Muhammad; Ameen, Naila; Batool, Madeeha; Batool, Aisha; Bashir, Shahid; Mustansar Abbas, Syed; Rehman, Ata ur; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Ullah, Zaka

    2018-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized by wet chemical coprecipitation method using metal chlorides as precursors and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a precipitant. The tergitol-1x (T-1x) and didecyldimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) are used as capping agents and their effect is investigated on particle size, size distribution and morphology of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CFNPs). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the synthesis of CFNPs and formation of metal-oxygen (M-O) bond. The spinel phase structure, morphology, polydispersity and magnetic properties of ferrite nanoparticles are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometry analyses, respectively. The addition of capping agents effects the secondary growth of CFNPs and reduces their particle size, as is investigated by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. The results evidence that the DDAB is more promising surfactant to control the particle size (∼13 nm), polydispersity and aggregation of CFNPs. The synthesized CFNPs, CFNPs/T-1x and CFNPs/DDAB are used to study their adsorption potential for removal of acid blue 45 dye, and a maximum adsorptive removal of 92.25% is recorded by 0.1 g of CFNPs/DDAB at pH 2.5 and temperature 20 ± 1 °C. The results show that the dye is physically adsorbed by magnetic NPs and follows the Langmuir isotherm model.

  4. Preparation, Characterization and Methylene Blue Dye Adsorption Ability of Acid Activated-Natural Zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, O. A.; Prameswari, M. D.; Kinanti, V. T. D.; Mayasari, O. D.; Sutarni, Y. D.; Apriany, K.; Lestari, W. W.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare an acid-activated natural zeolite (Ac-Zeo) as a low-cost adsorbent material and to investigate their ability on methylene blue dye removal in aqueous solution. The natural zeolite was activated using hydrochloric acid and the final product was characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption process was carried out using the batch method. Some parameters like pH condition, contact time and varied dye initial concentration were studied to determine the adsorption ability of Ac-Zeo. In this study, kinetic adsorption was evaluated using pseudo-second order model approach and found that the kinetic adsorption rate constanta (k) and adsorption capacity at equilibrium are 0.1872 mg.g-1.min-1 and 14.94 mg.g-1, respectively. Moreover, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich isotherm adsorption models as well as sorption mechanism were studied in this research.

  5. Studies on decolorization of reactive blue 19 textile dye by Coprinus plicatilis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies were carried on the decolorization of the textile dye reactive blue 19 (RB 19) by a novel isolate of Coprinus plicatilis (C. plicatilis) fungi. We describe an in vitro optimization process for decolorization and its behavior under different conditions of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature and substrate concentration. Results The optimal conditions for decolorization were obtained in media containing intermediate concentrations of ammonium oxalate and glucose (10 g/L) as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, at 26°C and pH = 5.5. Maximum decolorization efficiency against RB 19 achieved in this study was around 99%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric analyses, before and after decolorization, suggest that decolorization was due to biodegradation. Conclusions This effect was associated with laccase enzyme displaying good tolerance to a wide range of pH values, salt concentrations and temperatures, suggesting a potential role for this organism in the remediation of real dye containing effluents. In conclusion, laccase activity in C. plicatilis was firstly described in this study. PMID:24565535

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light over Cr doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Inamur Rahman; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Hassan, Mallick Shamshi; Yang, O-Bong

    2010-05-01

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) and chromium doped SrTiO3 (Cr/SrTiO3) were prepared by modified sol-gel method with the citric acid as a chelating agent in the ethylene glycol solution for the effective photodegradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation. The synthesized doped and un-doped SrTiO3 nanoparticles were structurally characterized and their photoresponse performances for the efficient degradation of methylene blue dye have been demonstrated. After introducing the Cr on SrTiO3, UV-Vis absorption was appeared the red-shift at 566 nm from 392 nm as compare with bare SrTiO3. The photocatalytic degradation activity of Cr/SrTiO3 was significantly improved to 60% degradation of methylene blue in 3 h under visible light, which is approximately 5 times higher than that of the bare SrTiO3.

  7. Study of the sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye over slurry titanium dioxide and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    González, Antonia Sandoval; Martínez, Susana Silva

    2008-09-01

    The sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye has been studied in the presence of ultrasound (20 kHz) over a TiO(2) slurry employing an UV lamp (15 W, 352 nm). It was observed that the color removal efficiency was influenced by the pH of the solution, initial dye concentration and TiO(2) amount. It was found that the dye degradation followed apparent first order kinetics. The rate constant increased by decreasing dye concentration and was affected by the pH of the solution with the highest degradation obtained at pH 7. The first order rate constants obtained with sonophotocatalysis were twofold and tenfold than those obtained under photocatalysis and sonolysis, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand was abated over 80%.

  8. Adsorption of a textile dye "Indanthrene Blue RS (C.I. Vat Blue 4)" from aqueous solutions onto smectite-rich clayey rock.

    PubMed

    Chaari, Islem; Feki, Mongi; Medhioub, Mounir; Bouzid, Jalel; Fakhfakh, Emna; Jamoussi, Fakher

    2009-12-30

    The adsorption of a textile dye, namely, Indanthrene Blue RS (C.I. Vat Blue 4) onto smectite-rich clayey rock (AYD) and its sulphuric acid-activated products (AYDS) in aqueous solution was studied in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH, and temperature. The adsorbents employed were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area, cation exchange capacity and point of zero charge were also estimated. The effect of contact time on dye adsorption showed that the equilibrium was reached after a contact time of 40 min for the both adsorbents. The optimum pH for dye retention was found 6.0 for AYDS and 7.3 for AYD. The equilibrium adsorption data were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacities (Q(m)) for AYD and AYDS were found 13.92 mg/g and 17.85 mg/g, respectively. The effect of temperature on the adsorption was also investigated; adsorption of Indanthrene Blue RS is an endothermic process. This study demonstrates that all the considered adsorbents can be used as an alternative emerging technology for water treatment.

  9. Spectroscopic studies on the binding interaction of phenothiazinium dyes toluidine blue O, azure A and azure B to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Puja; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2013-04-01

    In this study a detailed characterization of the binding aspects of three phenothiazinium dyes, toluidine blue O (TBO), azure A and azure B with herring testes DNA is presented employing spectroscopic techniques. The absorbance and fluorescence properties of these dyes have been remarkably modified upon binding with DNA and the interaction is manifested through noncooperative binding as revealed form non-linear Scatchard plots with negative slopes at all binding ratios. The binding clearly revealed the high preference of TBO to DNA followed by the other two dyes azure A and azure B. The affinity of TBO was higher by about two times than that of the azures. From the series of studies using absorption, steady-state emission, the effect of ferrocyanide ion-induced steady-state fluorescence quenching, fluorescence polarization anisotropy, circular dichroism, the mode of binding of these dyes to the DNA double helix has been substantiated to be principally intercalative in nature. The stoichiometry of the association of these dyes to DNA was determined by the continuous variation analysis of Job from fluorescence data. The conformational aspects of the interaction was delineated from circular dichroism studies wherein higher perturbation was observed with TBO. Hydrodynamic study using viscosity measurements of linear rod like DNA confirmed that the binding was intercalative and strongest for TBO and weaker for azure A and azure B. The utility of the present work lies in exploring the potential binding applicability of these dyes to DNA for their development as effective therapeutic agents.

  10. Decolorization of Reactive Blue 19 Dye from Textile Wastewater by the UV/H2O2 Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Abbas; Taghi Ghaneian, Mohammad; Jamalodin Hashemian, Sayed; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Khavanin, Ali; Ghanizadeh, Ghader

    Photo-oxidation of dyes is a new concern among researchers since it offers an attractive method for decoloration of dyes and breaks them into simple mineral forms. An advanced oxidation process, UV/H2O2, was investigated in a laboratory scale photoreactor for decolorization of the Reactive blue 19 (RB19) dye from synthetic textile wastewater. The effects of operating parameters such as hydrogen peroxide dosage, pH, initial dye concentration and UV dosage, on decolorization have been evaluated. The RB19 solution was completely decolorized under optimal hydrogen peroxide dosage of 2.5 mmol L-1 and low-pressure mercury UV-C lamps (55 w) in less than 30 min. The decolorization rate followed pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the dye concentration. The rate increased linearly with volumetric UV dosage and nonlinearly with increasing initial hydrogen peroxide concentration. It has been found that the degradation rate increased until an optimum of hydrogen peroxide dosage, beyond which the reagent exerted an inhibitory effect. From the experimental results, the UV/H2O2 process was an effective technology for RB19 dye treatment in wastewater.

  11. Development of Paper, Chemical Agent Detector, 3-Way Liquid Containing Non-Mutagenic Dyes. 2. Replacement of the Blue Indicator Dye Ethyl-bis-(2,4- Dinitrophenyl Acetate (EDA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    a particular family of agents. Thus, with this paper liquid mustard produces a deep red colour with a purple cast, G-type nerve agents produce a...yellow colour with a tinge of orange, and V-type nerve agents produce a dark green colour . The dyes presently used are the red dye E (1 ), the yellow dye...A2 (2) and the blue indicator dye EDA (3). The liquid agents dissolve or interact with more than one dye hence the colours produced are different from

  12. Column performance of carbon nanotube packed bed for methylene blue and orange red dye removal from waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, G. K.; Mubarak, N. M.; Nizamuddin, S.; Al-Salim, H. S.; Sahu, J. N.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental issues have always been a major issue among human kind for the past decades. As the time passes by, the technology field has grown and has helped a lot in order to reduce these environmental issues. Industries such as metal plating facilities, mining operations and batteries production are a few examples that involves in the environmental issues. Carbon nanotube is proven to possess excellent adsorption capacity for the removal of methylene blue and orange red dyes. The effect of process parameters such as pH and contact time was investigated The results revealed that optimized conditions for the highest removal for methylene blue (MB) (97%) and orange red (94%) are at pH 10, CNTs dosage of 1 grams, and 15 minutes for each dyes removal respectively. The equilibrium adsorption data obtained was best fit to Freundlich model, while kinetic data can be characterized by the pseudo second-order rate kinetics.

  13. Bacteria encapsulated electrospun nanofibrous webs for remediation of methylene blue dye in water.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, Omer Faruk; Keskin, Nalan Oya San; Celebioglu, Asli; Tekinay, Turgay; Uyar, Tamer

    2017-04-01

    In this study, preparation and application of novel biocomposite materials that were produced by encapsulation of bacterial cells within electrospun nanofibrous webs are described. A commercial strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which has methylene blue (MB) dye remediation capability was selected for encapsulation, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) were selected as the polymer matrices for the electrospinning of bacteria encapsulated nanofibrous webs. Encapsulation of bacterial cells was monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy, and the viability of encapsulated bacteria was checked by live/dead staining and viable cell counting assay. Both bacteria/PVA and bacteria/PEO webs have shown a great potential for remediation of MB, yet bacteria/PEO web has shown higher removal performances than bacteria/PVA web, which was probably due to the differences in the initial viable bacterial cells for those two samples. The bacteria encapsulated electrospun nanofibrous webs were stored at 4°C for three months and they were found as potentially storable for keeping encapsulated bacterial cells alive. Overall, the results suggest that electrospun nanofibrous webs are suitable platforms for preservation of living bacterial cells and they can be used directly as a starting inoculum for bioremediation of water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The photocatalytic investigation of methylene blue dye with Cr doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Rajeev; Kumar, Ashavani, E-mail: ashavani@yahoo.com

    2015-08-28

    The present work reports eco-friendly and cost effective sol-gel technique for synthesis of Chromium doped ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. In this process Zinc nitrate, Chromium nitrate were used as precursor. Structural as well as optical properties of Cr induced ZnO samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), SEM, PL and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) respectively. XRD analysis shows that the samples have hexagonal (wurtzite) structure with no additional peak which suggests that Cr ions fit into the regular Zn sites of ZnO crystal structure. By using Scherrer’s formula for pure and Cr doped ZnO samples the average grain sizemore » was found to be 32 nm. Further band gap of pure and doped ZnO samples have been calculated by using UV-Vis spectra. The photo-catalytic degradation of methyl blue dye under UV irradiation was examined for synthesized samples. The results show that the concentration plays an important role in photo-catalytic activity.« less

  15. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    This is the study which assessed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of the '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'. Patients (302) were performed SNB using the combined radioisotope (RI)/indigo carmine dye method. Excised SLNs were confirmed whether they were stained and numbered in order of RI count and the percentage of radioactivity as compared to the hottest node was calculated. The relationship between histological diagnosis, dyeing and RI count was assessed. All the patients were detected SLN. Positive nodes were identified in 84 (27.8%) patients and were identified up to the third degree of hottest. All the hottest positive nodes were stained by indigo carmine. From the results, removing the three most radioactive SLNs identified all cases of nodal metastasis without complications. These stopping rules were valid and useful under indigo carmine use too. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the interaction of phenothiazinium dyes methylene blue, new methylene blue, azure A and azure B with tRNAPhe: spectroscopic, thermodynamic, voltammetric and molecular modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Paul, Puja; Mati, Soumya Sundar; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on the understanding of the interaction of phenothiazinium dyes methylene blue (MB), new methylene blue (NMB), azure A (AZA) and azure B (AZB) with tRNA Phe with particular emphasis on deciphering the mode and energetics of the binding. Strong intercalative binding to tRNA Phe was observed for MB, NMB and AZB, bound by a partial intercalative mode. AZA has shown groove binding characteristics. From spectroscopic studies binding affinity values of the order of 10 5 M -1 were deduced for these dyes; the trend varied as MB > NMB > AZB > AZA. The binding was characterized by an increase of thermal melting temperatures and perturbation in the circular dichroism spectrum of tRNA. All the dyes acquired optical activity upon binding to tRNA. The binding was predominantly entropy driven with a favorable enthalpy term that increased with temperature in all the cases. Dissection of the Gibbs energy to polyelectrolytic and non-polyelectrolytic terms revealed a major role of the non-electrostatic forces in the binding. The small but significant heat capacity changes and the observed enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon confirmed the involvement of multiple weak non-covalent forces driving the interaction. The mode of binding was confirmed from quenching, viscosity and cyclic voltammetric results. Using density functional theory, ground state optimized structures of the dyes were calculated to provide insight into theoretical docking studies to correlate the experimental approaches. The modeling results verified the binding location as well as the binding energy of complexation. The results may provide new insights into the structure-activity relationship useful in the design of effective RNA targeted therapeutic agents.

  17. Degradation of textile dyes Remazol Brilliant Blue using plasma electrolysis method with the addition of microbubble and Fe2+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainah, Saksono, Nelson

    2017-11-01

    Dye waste is a liquid waste that mostly generated from the textile industry and is very dangerous for the environment. Plasma electrolysis method is an effective method in degrading dye waste because of its ability to produce radical OH in large quantities. This study aims to test the ability of plasma electrolysis method to degrade one of the textile dyes, Remazol Brilliant Blue, with the addition of Fe2+ ion and microbubble. The dye waste degredation reached 99.74% for 180 minutes with the addition of 40 mg/L of Fe2+ ion as a result of fenton reaction. The addition of microbubble will also increase OH radical production by up to 4.8% and be able to reduce energy consumption by 11.3%. The COD value decreased until 20.56 mg/L and has fulfilled the Government standard of 50 mg/L. In addition, the dye waste concentration decreased significantly from 150 mg/L to 0.388 mg/L. Maximum conditions are obtained by using 0.02 M Na2SO4, 700 Volt operating voltage, and 1 cm anode depth.

  18. Colorimetric assay for lysozyme using Micrococcus luteus labeled with a blue dye, Remazol brilliant blue R, as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Yamada, H; Imoto, T

    1992-06-01

    Micrococcus luteus (M. lysodeikticus) labeled with Remazol brilliant blue R (blue ML) was prepared as a novel substrate for the colorimetric assay of lysozyme. The treatment of the labeled substrate with lysozyme resulted in the release of soluble blue products which can be easily measured spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. The blue color was most efficiently released at pH 7 and ionic strength of 0.2 on incubation with hen lysozyme at 40 degrees C. A new colorimetric method for the assay of lysozyme using this substrate was developed. The assay system gave a linear dose-response curve, and as little as 0.1 microgram of human lysozyme (1 microgram/ml, 100 microliters) can be detected. The present method is more convenient and reproducible than the conventional lysozyme assay with bacterial cells. Application of the system to the determination of lysozyme in human serum is described.

  19. The food dye FD&C Blue No. 1 is a selective inhibitor of the ATP release channel Panx1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Jackson, David George; Dahl, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    The food dye FD&C Blue No. 1 (Brilliant Blue FCF [BB FCF]) is structurally similar to the purinergic receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG), which is a well-known inhibitor of the ionotropic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). The P2X7R functionally interacts with the membrane channel protein pannexin 1 (Panx1) in inflammasome signaling. Intriguingly, ligands to the P2X7R, regardless of whether they are acting as agonists or antagonists at the receptor, inhibit Panx1 channels. Thus, because both P2X7R and Panx1 are inhibited by BBG, the diagnostic value of the drug is limited. Here, we show that the food dye BB FCF is a selective inhibitor of Panx1 channels, with an IC50 of 0.27 µM. No significant effect was observed with concentrations as high as 100 µM of BB FCF on P2X7R. Differing by just one hydroxyl group from BB FCF, the food dye FD&C Green No. 3 exhibited similar selective inhibition of Panx1 channels. A reverse selectivity was observed for the P2X7R antagonist, oxidized ATP, which in contrast to other P2X7R antagonists had no significant inhibitory effect on Panx1 channels. Based on its selective action, BB FCF can be added to the repertoire of drugs to study the physiology of Panx1 channels. Furthermore, because Panx1 channels appear to be involved directly or indirectly through P2X7Rs in several disorders, BB FCF and derivatives of this "safe" food dye should be given serious consideration for pharmacological intervention of conditions such as acute Crohn's disease, stroke, and injuries to the central nervous system.

  20. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  1. Dry-reagent nucleic acid biosensor based on blue dye doped latex beads and lateral flow strip.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xun; Wang, Wei; Du, Ting E

    2013-09-30

    In the manuscript, a quantitative lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor (Lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor, LFNB) based on blue dye doped latex beads was proposed and its feasibility for detecting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in plasma was investigated. A 60-mer DNA sequence (T1) was selected as model to demonstrate the protocol. Blue dyes doped latex bead bearing DNA probe would be captured on the corresponding test line in the presence of target DNA, to form an evident blue band. Although qualitative tests are realized by observing the color change of the test zone, quantitative data are obtained by recording the optical responses of the test zone with a portable "Strip Reader" instrument conveniently. The strip has been applied for the detection of synthesized DNA sample in human plasma sample with a detection limit of 3.75 fmol. Interference was not evident even the target DNA was spiked with 50 μL plasma which indicated the well shielding of the latex bead reporters and quantified chromatographic separations of unwanted materials of the strip comparing with traditional gold nanoparticle based LFNB platforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectroscopic studies on the binding interaction of phenothiazinium dyes toluidine blue O, azure A and azure B to DNA.

    PubMed

    Paul, Puja; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2013-04-15

    In this study a detailed characterization of the binding aspects of three phenothiazinium dyes, toluidine blue O (TBO), azure A and azure B with herring testes DNA is presented employing spectroscopic techniques. The absorbance and fluorescence properties of these dyes have been remarkably modified upon binding with DNA and the interaction is manifested through noncooperative binding as revealed form non-linear Scatchard plots with negative slopes at all binding ratios. The binding clearly revealed the high preference of TBO to DNA followed by the other two dyes azure A and azure B. The affinity of TBO was higher by about two times than that of the azures. From the series of studies using absorption, steady-state emission, the effect of ferrocyanide ion-induced steady-state fluorescence quenching, fluorescence polarization anisotropy, circular dichroism, the mode of binding of these dyes to the DNA double helix has been substantiated to be principally intercalative in nature. The stoichiometry of the association of these dyes to DNA was determined by the continuous variation analysis of Job from fluorescence data. The conformational aspects of the interaction was delineated from circular dichroism studies wherein higher perturbation was observed with TBO. Hydrodynamic study using viscosity measurements of linear rod like DNA confirmed that the binding was intercalative and strongest for TBO and weaker for azure A and azure B. The utility of the present work lies in exploring the potential binding applicability of these dyes to DNA for their development as effective therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Versatile ruthenium(II) dye towards blue-light emitter and dye-sensitizer for solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Kassio P S; Amaral, Ronaldo C; Murakami Iha, Neyde Y; Abreu, Felipe D; de Carvalho, Idalina M M

    2018-03-10

    A versatile Ru(II) complex bearing an anthracene moiety was synthesized in our search for suitable compounds towards efficient molecular devices. The new engineered dye, cis‑[Ru(dcbH 2 )(NCS) 2 (mbpy‑anth)] (dcbH 2 =2,2'‑bipyridyl‑4,4'‑dicarboxylic acid, mbpy‑anth=4‑[N‑(2‑anthryl)carbamoyl]‑4'‑methyl‑2,2'‑bipyridine), exhibits a blueish emission in a vibronically structured spectrum ascribed to the fluorescence of a 1 LC Anth (ligand centered) excited state in the anthracene and has a potential to be exploited in the fields of smart lighting and displays. This complex was also employed in dye-sensitized solar cells with fairly efficient solar energy conversion with the use of self-assembled TiO 2 compact layers beneath the TiO 2 mesoporous film to prevent meso‑TiO 2 /dye back reactions. Further photoelectrochemical investigations through incident photon-to-current efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the all-nano-TiO 2 compact layer acts as contact layers that increase the electron harvesting in the external circuit, enhancing efficiencies up to 50%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High catalytic activity of monometallic Ag, Cu nanostructures in the degradation of acid blue 113 dye: an electron relay effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayabhaskar, R.; Mangalaraja, R. V.; Pandiyarajan, T.; Karthikeyan, B.; Mansilla, Héctor D.

    2017-09-01

    This report discusses the observed faster decoloration of an azo dye with an enhanced degradation rate constant achieved using metal nanostructures as a catalyst. Silver and copper nanostructures were synthesized by reducing the corresponding nitrate salts using hydrazine and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The influence of HMTA was clearly evident from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images; with increasing concentration it caused agglomeration and the formation of net-like nanostructures. An x-ray diffraction study confirmed the formation of monometallic Ag and Cu nanostructures. The prepared nanostructures exhibited dipole and multipole surface plasmon resonance-related optical absorption bands which were size and shape dependent. The degradation of the azo dye acid blue 113 (AB113) in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was taken as model system for studying the catalytic activity of the metal nanostructures. From the optical absorption spectral studies of dye degradation it was observed that the rate constant (k) was of the order of k Cu   >  k Ag   >  k no catalyst. From the dye degradation studies a high catalytic activity was observed for Cu nanostructures with a rate constant of 20.93  ×  10-4 s-1.

  5. Removal of vertigo blue dyes from Batik textile wastewater by adsorption onto activated carbon and coal bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmiyati, L., Puspita Adi; Deni, V.; Robi Indra, S.; Islamica, Dlia; Fuadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of vertigo blue dye from batik textile wastewater was studied by adsorptionprocess onto activated carbon (AC) and coal bottom ash (CBA).The influence of experimental conditions (pH solution, dye concentration, and contact time) were studied on the both adsorbents. At equilibrium conditions, the data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model for carbon active was 6.29mg/g at pH that found to be considerably higher than that obtained for coal bottom ash 3.72mg/g pH 9. From Freundlich model, the maximum adsorption capacity is less for coal bottom ash (pH 9) than that for carbon active (pH4).

  6. Sensitizing of TiO2 with a merocyanine dye in the photocatalytic reduction of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobasa, I. M.; Kondratyeva, I. V.; Kropelnytska, Yu. V.

    Three merocyanine dyes (D) with various polymethine chain lengths were checked for their applicability as sensitizers for TiO2. Based on the absorption data and cyclic voltammetric redox potentials, the lower unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy was calculated. The LUMO energy was higher than the conductance band edge energy of the anatase-type TiO2 for all the dyes, meaning that they all can act as efficient sensitizers for various functional materials to be used in the wide-zone visible light solar cells, toxic wastes decontamination technologies and other similar applications. Merocyanines applicability as effective sensitizing agents was approved by construction of the heterostructures (HS) D/TiO2 consisting of the merocyanines and acting as photocatalysts in the test reaction of methylene blue (MB) reduction by formaldehyde.

  7. Evans blue dye-enhanced imaging of the brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ram; Joo, Kyung-Il; Choi, Eun Sook; Jahng, Junghoon; Kim, Hyunmin

    2017-01-01

    We performed dye-enhanced imaging of mouse brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SF-CARS) microscopy. The resonant signals from C-H stretching in forward CARS usually show high background intensity in tissues, which makes CARS imaging of microvessels difficult. In this study, epi-detection of back-scattered SF-CARS signals showed a negligible background, but the overall intensity of resonant CARS signals was too low to observe the network of brain microvessels. Therefore, Evans blue (EB) dye was used as contrasting agent to enhance the back-scattered SF-CARS signals. Breakdown of brain microvessels by inducing hemorrhage in a mouse was clearly visualized using backward SF-CARS signals, following intravenous injection of EB. The improved visualization of brain microvessels with EB enhanced the sensitivity of SF-CARS, detecting not only the blood vessels themselves but their integrity as well in the brain vasculature. PMID:29049299

  8. DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Iam Choon

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of enhanced nonlinear optical responses of methyl-red-doped blue-phase liquid crystals by application of a DC field. We have observed strong multi-order nonlinear grating diffractions characterized by a nonlinear index coefficient n(2)∼0.5  cm(2)/W using unfocused CW laser power of ∼1  mW and a DC field of a few V/μm. The underlying mechanisms are crystalline lattice and director axis reorientations by torques exerted by the DC field and photo-excited dye molecules.

  9. Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution Using a Newly Synthesized TiO2-SiO2 Photocatalyst in the Presence of Active Chlorine Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, C. G.; Elilarasi, L.

    2017-06-01

    Industrialization and urbanization demand high amount of water consumption, which contributes to their polluted condition. Thus, there is a need to develop a sustainable wastewater remediation technique in order to provide sustainable use of clean water for future generations without ramifications to the economic sectors. The newly synthesized TiO2-SiO2 photocatalyst was used to remediate Methylene Blue contaminated aqueous solution in the presence of active chlorine species. The doping of SiO2 into TiO2 enhanced the removal rate of Methylene Blue dye from the solution by increasing the surface area, thermal stability and surface acidity of the TiO2. The active chlorine species further enhanced the removal rate of Methylene Blue dye from the solution by contributing more reactive species, chlorine radicals, which broke down the dye molecules. The experiments were conducted via Taguchi analysis. The findings show that combining TiO2, SiO2 and active chlorine species enhanced the removal percentage of Methylene Blue dye compared to using TiO2 alone by 70%. About 70% of 50ppm Methylene Blue was degraded by 1 g of TiO2-SiO2 in the presence of 0.3 ppm Ca(OCl)2 under 9 Watts solar irradiation within 3 hours. The enhanced dye removal method brings photocatalysis a step closer to sustainable wastewater remediation methods.

  10. Hyperthermia of magnetic nanoparticles allows passage of sodium fluorescein and Evans blue dye across the blood-retinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Nasrollah; Tabatabaei, Maryam Sadat; Girouard, Hélène; Martel, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    The blood-retina barrier (BRB) is a biological barrier consisting of tightly interconnected endothelial cells inside the retinal vascular network that protects the neural tissue from harmful pathogens and neurotoxic molecules circulating in the bloodstream. Unfortunately, with regard to retinoblastoma, this barrier also prevents systemically administered therapeutics reaching the retinal tissue. In this study we introduce a novel technique to locally and transiently increase BRB permeability for drug delivery using hyperthermia of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). An alternating current (AC) magnetic field was used to induce hyperthermia of locally injected MNPs in the left ophthalmic artery of a rat model. To improve adherence on the surface of the endothelium, commercially available MNPs coated with human transferrin glycoproteins were used. After hyperthermia we assessed the extravasation of systemically injected sodium fluorescein (NaF) as well as Evans blue dye (EBD) into the retinal tissue. Spectrofluorometry and fluorescent microscopy image analysis show a significant increase of dye penetration in the retina where hyperthermia of MNPs was applied. Our proposed new technique can allow both small and large dye molecules to cross the BRB. While the results are preliminary and thorough evaluation of the retinal tissue following hyperthermia is necessary, this technique has the potential to be an effective mean for the treatment of various diseases such as retinoblastoma.

  11. Fabrication of the novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dongzhuo; Zhu, Baodong; Cao, Bo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-11-01

    The novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk was synthetized by aqueous solution polymerization technique with functional monomers in the presence of organic montmorillonite (OMMT) under ultrasonic. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to research the effect of initial dye concentration, the dosage of hydrogel, stirring speed, contact time and temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye. The adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which confirmed that it should be a chemical process. Furthermore, we ascertained the rate controlling step by establishing the intraparticle diffusion model and the liquid film diffusion model. The adsorption and synthesis mechanisms were vividly depicted in our work as well. Structural and morphological characterizations by virtue of FTIR, FESEM, and Biomicroscope supported the relationship between the adsorption performance and material's microstructure. This research is a valuable contribution for the environmental protection, which not only converts waste corn stalks into functional materials, but improves the removal of organic dye from sewage water.

  12. Methylene blue dye for identification of processus vaginalis during hydrocele repair: experience in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Arena, Salvatore; Russo, Tiziana; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Antonuccio, Pietro; Perrone, Patrizia; Romeo, Carmelo

    2017-02-07

    To investigate the use of methylene blue in perioperative identification of the patent processus vaginalis in a group of boys presenting with congenital or recurrent hydrocele where surgery was performed by junior surgeons in training. We retrospectively reviewed the notes of 22 boys with hydrocele, of which two recurrences, who were operated on via a standard inguinal approach, by trainees. Methylene blue 0.3-0.5 ml was injected into the hydrocele fluid through the scrotal wall. A processus vaginalis was identified as a blue line. Methylene blue injection clearly identified a patent processus vaginalis in 91% of patients. In 9% (2 cases), of which one recurrence, methylene blue injection demonstrated a hydrocele with an obliterated processus vaginalis. There were no intraoperative complications. No testicular atrophy was recorded. Injection of methylene blue into the hydrocele sac may be considered a useful aid for a clearer identification of a difficult patent processus vaginalis. In the present series, there were no complications, and thus we believe that this technique might be suitable and especially helpful, in cases of recurrent hydrocele, and for junior surgeons in training.

  13. Blue Dye and Red Light, a Dynamic Combination for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cutaneous Candida albicans Infections in Mice ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Bil de Arce, Vida J.; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate photodynamic therapy (PDT), using blue dye and red light, for prophylaxis and treatment of cutaneous Candida albicans infections in mice. A mouse model of skin abrasion infected with C. albicans was developed by inoculating wounds measuring 1.2 cm by 1.2 cm with 106 or 107 CFU. The use of a luciferase-expressing strain of C. albicans allowed real-time monitoring of the extent of infection in mice noninvasively through bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts toluidine blue O (TBO), methylene blue (MB), and new methylene blue (NMB) were compared as photosensitizers (PS) for the photodynamic inactivation of C. albicans in vitro. PDT in vivo was initiated either at 30 min or at 24 h after fungal inoculation to investigate the efficacies of PDT for both prophylaxis and treatment of infections. Light at 635 ± 15 nm or 660 ± 15 nm was delivered with a light dose of 78 J/cm2 (for PDT at 30 min postinfection) or 120 J/cm2 (for PDT at 24 h postinfection) in multiple exposures with bioluminescence imaging taking place after each exposure of light. In vitro studies showed that NMB was superior to TBO and MB as the PS in the photodynamic inactivation of C. albicans. The efficacy of PDT was related to the ratio of PS concentration to fungal cell density. PDT in vivo initiated either at 30 min or at 24 h postinfection significantly reduced C. albicans burden in the infected mouse skin abrasion wounds. These data suggest that PDT is a viable approach for prophylaxis and treatment of cutaneous C. albicans infections. PMID:21930868

  14. Bifunctional core-shell nanocomposite Mn-doped ZnO/Fe3O4 for photodegradation of reactive blue 198 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van Cuong

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of manganese doped ZnO have been prepared by co-precipitation method. Photocatalytic activity results show that 9% of Mn in Mn-doped ZnO exhibited the highest photodegradation efficiency of reactive blue 198 dye. Additionally, excellent photocatalytic activity was observed when the molar ratio of Mn-doped ZnO/Fe3O4 was 1:1. The photodegradation of reactive blue 198 (RB198) dye was carried out with different illumination times, initial concentrations of dye, amounts of photocatalyst and pH of medium. The results reveal that the degradation efficiency of reactive blue 198 were 99% at the concentration of 30 ppm for 25 min when the amount of catalyst was 5 g L-1. The photodegradation of dye increased with increasing catalyst load. Furthermore, the prepared magnetic nanoparticles could also serve as convenient recyclable photocatalysts because of their magnetic properties. As a result, the removal of dye was still 90% after three times recycling.

  15. Scavenging remazol brilliant blue R dye using microwave-assisted activated carbon from acacia sawdust: Equilibrium and kinetics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusop, M. F. M.; Aziz, H. A.; Ahmad, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    This work explores the feasibility of microwave-assisted acacia wood based activated carbon (AWAC) for remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) dye removal from synthetic wastewater. Acacia wood (AW) was impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and heated using microwave, resulting tremendously high fixed carbon content, surface area, total pore volume and adsorption capacity of 81.14%, 1045.56m2/g, 0.535cm3/g and 263.16mg/g respectively. Batch study conducted divulged an increasing trend in RBBR uptake when initial RBBR concentration and contact time were increased. pH study revealed that RBBR adsorption was best at acidic condition. Langmuir isotherm model fitted well the adsorption equilibrium data while the adsorption kinetic was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  16. Equilibrium, kinetic and sorber design studies on the adsorption of Aniline blue dye by sodium tetraborate-modified Kaolinite clay adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Unuabonah, Emmanuel I; Adebowale, Kayode O; Dawodu, Folasegun A

    2008-09-15

    Raw Kaolinite clay obtained Ubulu-Ukwu, Delta State of Nigeria and its sodium tetraborate (NTB)-modified analogue was used to adsorb Aniline blue dye. Fourier transformed infrared spectra of NTB-modified Kaolinite suggests that modification was effective on the surface of the Kaolinite clay with the strong presence of inner -OH functional group. The modification of Kaolinite clay raised its adsorption capacity from 1666 to 2000 mg/kg. Modeling adsorption data obtained from both unmodified and NTB-modified Kaolinite clay reveals that the adsorption of Aniline blue dye on unmodified Kaolinite clay is on heterogeneous adsorption sites because it followed strongly the Freundlich isotherm equation model while adsorption data from NTB-modified Kaolinite clay followed strongly the Langmuir isotherm equation model which suggest that Aniline blue dye was adsorb homogeneous adsorption sites on the NTB-modified adsorbent surface. There was an observed increase in the amount of Aniline blue adsorbed as initial dye concentration was increased from 10 to 30 mg/L. It was observed that kinetic data obtained generally gave better robust fit to the second-order kinetic model (SOM). The initial sorption rate was found to increased with increasing initial dye concentration (from 10 to 20 mg/L) for data obtained from 909 to 1111 mg kg(-1)min(-1) for unmodified and 3325-5000 mg kg(-1) min(-1) for NTB-modified adsorbents. Thereafter there was a decrease in initial sorption rate with further increase in dye concentration. The linearity of the plots of the pseudo-second-order model with very high-correlation coefficients indicates that chemisorption is involved in the adsorption process. From the design of a single-batch adsorber it is predicted that the NTB-modified Kaolinite clay adsorbent will require 50% less of the adsorbent to treat certain volumes of wastewater containing 30 mg/L of Aniline blue dye when it is compared with the unmodified adsorbent. This will be cost effective in

  17. BRILLIANT BLUE FCF IS A NON-TOXIC DYE FOR SAPHENOUS VEIN GRAFT MARKING THAT ABROGATES RESPONSE TO INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Kyle M.; Luo, Weifeng; Li, Fan Dong; Komalavilas, Padmini; Brophy, Colleen; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Injury to saphenous vein grafts during surgical preparation may contribute to the subsequent development of intimal hyperplasia, the primary cause of graft failure. Surgical skin markers currently used for vascular marking contain gentian violet and isopropanol that damage tissue and impair physiologic functions. Brilliant blue FCF (FCF) is a nontoxic dye alternative that may also ameliorate preparation-induced injury. METHODS Porcine saphenous vein (PSV) was used to evaluate the effect of FCF on physiologic responses in a muscle bath. Cytotoxicity of FCF was measured using human umbilical venous smooth muscle cells (HUVSMC). Effect of FCF on the development of intimal hyperplasia was evaluated in organ culture using PSV. Intracellular calcium fluxes and contractile responses were measured in response to agonist and inhibitors in rat aorta and human saphenous vein (HSV). RESULTS Marking with FCF did not impair smooth muscle contractile responses and restored stretch injury-induced loss in smooth muscle contractility of PSV. Gentian violet has cytotoxic effects on HUVSMC while FCF is nontoxic. FCF inhibited intimal thickening in PSV in organ culture. 2′(3′)-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5′-triphosphate-induced contraction and intracellular calcium flux were inhibited by FCF, oxidized ATP, KN62, and brilliant blue G, suggesting that FCF may inhibit the purinergic receptor P2X7. CONCLUSIONS Our studies indicated that FCF is a non-toxic marking dye for vein grafts that ameliorates vein graft injury and prevents intimal thickening, possibly due to P2X7 receptor inhibition. FCF represents a non-toxic alternative for vein graft marking and a potentially therapeutic approach to enhance outcome in autologous transplantation of HSV into the coronary and peripheral arterial circulation. PMID:25704409

  18. One-step Preparation of graphene oxide/polypyrrole magnetic nanocomposite and its application in the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzali Nezhad, Ali; Alimoradi, Mohammad; Ramezani, Majid

    2018-02-01

    Herein, we report a novel one-step strategy to construct magnetic nanocomposite (polypyrrole/GO@Fe3O4) via a simple and effective chemical method. First, the GO nanosheets were fabricated through modified Hummers method, and then, the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and polypyrrole were decorated on surface of the GO nanosheets by coprecipitation of ferrous salts and pyrrole monomer in GO suspension. The ferric chloride could act both as oxidizing agent and also for preparation of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The prepared nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and TGA measurements. The prepared magnetic nanocomposite had a much higher thermal stability than pure graphene oxide. The magnetic nanocomposite has been employed as adsorbent for the magnetic separation of Methylene Blue dye from water. The adsorption test of Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrates that it only takes few minutes for MB to attain equilibrium. The effect of experimental conditions such as contact time and pH as well as kinetic and isotherm of adsorption of MB dye was also studied. The highest adsorption capacity for MB was 323.2 mg g-1. The pH optimization experiments showed that pH = 8 is optimum pH for investigation of MB dye adsorption. It is also must be mentioned that most of adsorption of MB dye achieved within first 10 min of exposure to MB dye which indicated the strong interaction between dye molecules and adsorbent and high rate of adsorption of dye on magnetic nanocomposite. Adsorption procedure of dye were fitted well by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models. The cycling reusability of magnetic nanocomposite showed comparable values to other studies. Results showed that the prepared new magnetic nanocomposite has great potential application for removal of organic dyes from polluted water.

  19. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of acidic blue 25 dye onto cucurbit[8]uril: A spectral and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hanhan; Huang, Xiangyu; Luo, Yuhan; Li, Zhuang; Li, Lan; Gao, Chao; Xiong, Jinyan; Li, Wei

    2018-03-01

    The acidic blue 25 (AB25) dye was efficiently adsorbed by CB [8]; the saturated adsorption capacity (qexp) reached 434.8 mg/g and was far higher than those of previous reported adsorbents. The Langmuir and Freundich isotherms were used to fit the equilibrium data, and the results showed that the Freundlich isotherm seemed to agree better with the AB25 adsorption. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. Calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of AB25 onto CB [8] was a spontaneous and enthalpy-driven process. The adsorption mechanism was explored by N2 adsorption-desorption, TG, FT-IR, UV-vis as well as MD simulation and DFT calculations. TG analysis revealed that a new inclusion complex was produced, and FT-IR,UV-vis spectrum and DFT calculations verify its structure. In this inclusion complex, the AB25 dye molecule inserted into cavities of CB [8] from portal, and the sulfonate and phenyl groups stayed in the hydrophobic cavity. TDDFT calculations indicated that all excitation arisen from π → π* transition.

  20. Removal of methyl orange and methylene blue dyes from aqueous solution using lala clam (Orbicularia orbiculata) shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eljiedi, Arwa Alseddig Ahmed; Kamari, Azlan

    2017-05-01

    Textile effluents are considered as potential sources of water pollution because they contain toxic dyes. In the present study, lala clam shell was used as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of two harmful dyes, namely methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption studies were carried out by varying experimental parameters such as solution pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pH values for MO and MB removal were pH 2.0 and pH 8.0, respectively. At an initial MO and MB concentration of 20 mg/L, the maximum removal percentage of MO and MB were 18.9 % and 81.3 %, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium data were correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The biomass adsorbent was characterised using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). Results from this study suggest that lala clam shell, a fishery waste, can be beneficial for water treatment.

  1. Decolorization of anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 19 by the combination of persulfate and zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Le, Chen; Wu, Jin-Hua; Li, Ping; Wang, Xiangde; Zhu, Neng-Wu; Wu, Ping-Xiao; Yang, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Decolorization of anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) with sulfate radicals generated in situ from persulfate and zero-valent iron (ZVI) was investigated. The effects of initial solution pH, initial concentration of RB19, ZVI and persulfate, reaction temperature and common dissolved anions were studied. 100% color removal efficiency and 54% TOC removal efficiency were achieved in 45 min with an initial RB19 concentration of 0.1 mM under typical conditions (pH 7.0, 0.8 g L(-1) ZVI, 10 mM persulfate and 30 C). The decolorization efficiency of RB19 increased with higher iron dosage, higher initial persulfate concentration, and higher reaction temperature. It is also an acid driven process. The decolorization process followed pseudo-first order kinetics and the activation energy was 98.1 kJ mol-1. RB19 decolorization was inhibited by common dissolved anions such as CL-, NO3-, H2PO4- and HCO3- since they reacted with sulfate radicals that retarded the oxidation process. The experiment demonstrated that the combination of persulfate and ZVI was a promising technology for the decolorization of dye wastewater.

  2. Bichromatic coherent random lasing from dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals controlled by pump light polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Meng; Yang, Mingchao; Shi, Li-Jie; Deng, Luogen; Yang, Huai

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bichromatic coherent random lasing actions from the dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals. Two groups of lasing peaks, of which the full widith at half maximum is about 0.3 nm, are clearly observed. The shorter- and longer-wavelength modes are associated with the excitation of the single laser dye (DCM) monomers and dimers respectively. The experimental results show that the competition between the two groups of the lasing peaks can be controlled by varying the polarization of the pump light. When the polarization of the pump light is rotated from 0° to 90°, the intensity of the shorter-wavelength lasing peak group reduces while the intensity of the longer-wavelength lasing peak group increases. In addition, a red shift of the longer-wavelength modes is also observed and the physical mechanisms behind the red-shift phenomenon are discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474021 and 51333001), the Key Program for International S&T Cooperation Projects of China (Grant No. 2013DFB50340), the Issues of Priority Development Areas of the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120001130005), and the Key (Key Grant) Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 313002).

  3. A Novel of Buton Asphalt and Methylene Blue as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell using TiO2/Ti Nanotubes Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhidayani; Muzakkar, M. Z.; Maulidiyah; Wibowo, D.; Nurdin, M.

    2017-11-01

    A study of TiO2/Ti nanotubes arrays (NTAs) based on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) used Asphalt Buton (Asbuton) extract and methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer dye has been conducted. The aim of this research is that the Asbuton extract and Methylene Blue (MB) performance as a dye on DSSC solar cells is able to obtain the voltage-currents produced by visible light irradiation. Electrode TiO2/Ti NTAs have been successfully synthesized by anodizing methods, then characterized by using XRD showed that the anatase crystals formed. Subsequently, the morphology showed that the nanotubes formed which has coated by Asbuton extract. The DSSC system was formed by a sandwich structure and tested by using Multimeter Digital with Potentiostat instrument. The characteristics of current (I) and potential (V) versus time indicated that the Asbuton was obtained in a high-performance in 30s of 14,000µV 0.844µA, meanwhile MB dyes were 8,000µV0.573µA. Based on this research, the Asbuton extract from Buton Island-Southeast Sulawesi-Indonesia was potential for natural dyes in DSSC system.

  4. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  5. Performance of zeolite ceramic membrane synthesized by wet mixing method as methylene blue dye wastewater filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masturi; Widodo, R. D.; Edie, S. S.; Amri, U.; Sidiq, A. L.; Alighiri, D.; Wulandari, N. A.; Susilawati; Amanah, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    Problem of pollution in water continues in Indonesia, with its manufacturing sector as biggest contributor to economic growth. One out of many technological solutions is post-treating industrial wastewater by membrane filtering technology. We presented a result of our fabrication of ceramic membrane made from zeolite with simple mixing and he. At 5% of (poring agent):(total weight), its permeability stays around 2.8 mD (10‑14m2) with slight variance around it, attributed to the mixture being in far below percolating threshold. All our membranes achieve remarkable above 90% rejection rate of methylene blue as solute waste in water solvent.

  6. Kinetics and Thermodynamics Interaction Between Bentonite Inserted Organometallic Compounds [Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3](NO3) With Methylene Blue Dye In Aqueous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadi, Risfidian; Nardo Purba, Radja; Rohendi, Dedi; Lesbani, Aldes

    2018-01-01

    Bentonite insertion was conducted with organometallic compound [Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3](NO3)) and then tested its stability at various pH, then its interaction between bentonite inserted by organometallic compound [Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3] with methylene blue dye. The interaction between organometallic compound [Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3] with methylene blue showed an adsorption rate of 15.49 min-1 at the concentration of methylene blue 25 mg/L. The adsorption capacity and adsorption energy (ΔE) were 2.74 mol/g and 5.58 kJ/mol, respectively, at temperature 70 °C where visible trends of enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) values decrease with increasing concentration of methylene blue.

  7. Efficacy of SnO2 nanoparticles toward photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-02-01

    Maximum pollutants in the industrial and domestic waste water effluents from any sources include pathogens and organic chemicals, which can be removed before discharging into the water bodies. Methylene blue has been considered as one of the major water contaminated pollutants. Such pollutant is dominant in surface water and groundwater. It will cause irreversible hazards to human and aquatic life. Nanotechnology plays a major role in degrading such type of pollutant. In order to fulfill today's requirement, we have decided to handle the green synthesis of nanoparticles and its application by merging important fields like chemistry, environmental science, and biotechnology. Here our work emphasizes on the biological synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) using the methanolic extract of Cyphomandra betacea (C.betacea), and it was confirmed by various characterization techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, particle size analyzer, zeta potential, and TEM. The obtained results stated that the synthesized SnO2 NPs were in rod shape with an average size of 21nm, which resulted in a product of nanobiotechnology. Further, we have utilized the environmental-friendly synthesized SnO2 NPs photocatalytic degradation of environmental concern methylene blue with first-order kinetics. In this paper, we have attempted to prove that secondary metabolite-entrapped SnO2 NPs are non-toxic to the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R 2) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution. PMID:25705714

  9. Adsorption of a cationic dye (methylene blue) onto spent activated clay.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chih-Huang; Pan, Yi-Fong

    2007-06-01

    The adsorption characteristics of methylene blue (MB) onto spent activated clay (SAC), a waste produced from an edible oil manufacturer was investigated. Results showed that the adsorption increased with increasing MB concentration, temperature, and pH. The adsorption equilibrium data was well fitted by multilayer adsorption isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacities for MB ranged from 0.94x10(-4) to 3.41x10(-4)mol/g between 5 and 45 degrees C. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic. We proposed a modified double exponential equation accounting both with chemical and mathematical point of view to describe the adsorption kinetic data. The increases of mass transfer and adsorption capacity were mainly attributed to the interlayer of the SAC expanding at higher temperature. An activation energy of 13.5 kcal/Kmol was determined suggesting that the adsorption involved a chemical reaction mechanism.

  10. The effect of the biological variability of samples on Coomassie blue dye based fast staining for SDS-PAGE in nonfixed gels.

    PubMed

    Májek, Pavel; Pecankova, Klara; Dyr, Jan E

    2014-10-01

    Fast-staining protocols based on the use of Coomassie blue dye for SDS-PAGE separated proteins, represent a quick and simple solution for protein visualization. It has been shown however, that in some cases a phenomenon of missing spots or spot discoloration may be observed in the proteome pattern when the standard fast-staining protocol is used. In this work, it is demonstrated that this occurrence is affected by the biological variability of samples, and therefore, cannot be observed in all samples. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the phenomenon is manifested exclusively in nonfixed gels, and that including a fixation step into the fast-staining protocol prevented this phenomenon. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that standard Coomassie blue dye based fast staining for SDS-PAGE resolved proteins is affected by the biological variability of samples in nonfixed gels. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Use of agricultural waste sugar beet pulp for the removal of Gemazol turquoise blue-G reactive dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Zümriye; Isoglu, I Alper

    2006-09-01

    The potential use of dried sugar beet pulp, an agricultural solid waste by-product, as an biosorbent for Gemazol turquoise blue-G, a copper-pthalocyanine reactive dye commonly used in dyeing of cotton, was investigated in the present study. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, temperature and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that adsorption was strongly pH-dependent and slightly temperature-dependent. At 800 mg l(-1) initial Gemazol turquoise blue-G concentration, dried sugar beet pulp exhibited the highest Gemazol turquoise blue-G uptake capacity of 234.8 mg g(-1) at 25 degrees C and at an initial pH value of 2.0. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich, the two and three parameters adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm constants were evaluated depending on temperature. Both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models were applicable for describing the dye biosorption by dried sugar beet pulp in the concentration (100-800 mg l(-1)) and temperature (25-45 degrees C) ranges studied. Simple mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of biosorption and potential rate controlling steps such as external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion and biosorption process. The sorption process was found to be controlled by both surface and pore diffusion with surface diffusion at the earlier stages followed by pore diffusion at the later stages. Pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and saturation type kinetic models described the biosorption kinetics accurately at all concentrations and temperatures studied. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the sorption process was exothermic and the biosorption of dye on dried sugar beet pulp might be physical in nature.

  12. The energy transfer mechanism of a photoexcited and electroluminescent organic hybrid thin film of blue, green, and red laser dyes.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiling; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Yanqiong; Chen, Guo; Cai, Miao; Wei, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Though optically pumped lasing has been realized for years, electrically pumped lasing has not yet been achieved in organic semiconductor devices. In order to make a better understanding of the laser mechanisms of the organic materials, we prepared organic thin films consisting of three efficient laser dyes of a blue emitter, 4″,4″'-N,N-diphenylamine-4,4'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl (BN), a green emitter, 1,4-bis[2-[4-[N,N-di(p-tolyl)amino] phenyl]vinyl]benzene (DSB), and a red emitter, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidy-l-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) with different doping concentrations for the first time to investigate the cascade energy transfer process. The energy transfer schemes in the co-doped thin films in photoluminescence and electroluminescence have been investigated. The results indicated that the DSB molecules acted as a bridge to deliver energy more effectively from the host (BN) to the guest (DCJTB). Meanwhile, the maximum current efficiency (C E) and power efficiency (P E) of the organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with the emitting layer of lower doping concentration were 13.5 cd/A and 14.1 lm/W, respectively.

  13. Enhanced photoluminescence properties of methylene blue dye encapsulated in nanosized hydroxyapatite/silica particles with core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xiaolu; Li, Chengfeng; Fan, Chengyu; Feng, Xiaoxing; Cao, Bingqiang

    2013-11-01

    Organic dye of methylene blue (MB) was encapsulated in core-shell structured hydroxyapatite/silica particles (HAp/silica-MB) through a modified Stöber method with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone molecules. It was found that MB molecules were released from HAp/silica-MB at a slower rate than those from silica-MB in deionized water. In phosphate buffered saline (pH: 7.2-7.4) and acidic solutions (pH: 1.5-1.6), the penetration of ions in the interface influenced the interaction between HAp and MB molecules, which resulted in the rapid release of MB molecules from HAp/silica-MB. From the UV-Vis absorbance spectra, one could see that MB molecules in HAp/silica-MB were weakly aggregated in comparison with those in silica-MB. For HAp/silica-MB, enhanced luminescence properties were observed in the photoluminescence spectra and dual luminescence with two emission peaks were caused by the presence of monomers and dimers. Contrarily, no photoluminescence emission was detected for samples of free MB and silica-MB under the same excitation condition because of the self-quenching effect. It was the adsorption of MB molecules on HAp that had resulted in the enlargement of intramolecular distance and the reduction of self-quenching effect. These hybrid particles with enhanced luminescent properties might find wide applications in the field of bioanalysis, bioseparation, and biomedical imaging.

  14. Facile synthesis of MgO and Ni-MgO nanostructures with enhanced adsorption of methyl blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M.; Shawky, Ahmed; Mkhalid, I. A.

    2017-02-01

    Nanostructured Magnesium oxide (MgO) was prepared by a simple method using a non-ionic block copolymer as surfactant. Ni was introduced to MgO to improve surface properties. The effect of Ni loading on the MgO crystalline structure, surface morphology and magnetic properties was observed by powder X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and a vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. Textural properties of produced samples were investigated by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The as-prepared samples were employed as an adsorbent for the removal of Methyl blue (MeB) dye. The adsorption isotherms were studied using the Langmuir model. The results show a high adsorptive behavior for relatively high concentrated MeB with a maximum adsorption capacity of 367 mg g-1 indicating the enhanced adsorption performance of our produced structures. A mechanism for adsorption of MeB molecules on the prepared MgO is proposed.

  15. Optimization of microwave-assisted durian seed based activated carbon preparation conditions for methylene blue dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mohd Azmier; Hamid, Siti Ruqayyah Ab.; Yusop, Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Due to easy access and relatively high fixed carbon content of 26.13% in its raw form, durian seed based activated carbon (DSAC) was produced via microwave heating. For activation stage, physiochemical approach consist of carbon dioxide (CO2) gasification and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as chemical activator were employed. Three most influential preparation variables on adsorption performance and yield of activated carbon (AC), which is radiation power, radiation time and KOH impregnation ratio (IR) were optimized with the help of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimization result revealed that 440W, 4.0 minutes and 0.55 of radiation power, radiation time and IR respectively, were needed to remove 80.23% of methylene blue (MB) dye and to obtain 25.77% of DSAC's yield. High Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area, total pore volume and average pore size of 852.30m2/g, 0.465cm3/g and 3.74nm respectively, were obtained on optimized DSAC.

  16. Electrical and photoelectrical characteristic investigation of a new generation photodiode based on bromothymol blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencer Imer, A.; Tombak, A.; Korkut, A.

    2016-04-01

    Bromothymol blue (BTB) with the molecular formula of C27H28Br2O5S was grown onto p-Si substrate to fabricate heterojunction by spin coating technique. The current voltage (I-V) measurements of diode were carried out in dark and under different illumination intensity at room temperature. The photoelectrical properties of heterojunction based on BTB were investigated using the illumination intensity dependent I-V data. The results showed that photo current of diode increases with the increase in light intensity. Also, the electrical parameters of device were determined via I-V, and capacitance- voltage (C-V), conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements at different frequencies. It is observed that the excess capacitance is created at low frequencies due to the contribution of interface states charge which can follow the alternative current signal to capacitance. It is stated that, both the electrical & photoelectrical parameters of diode can be changed, and also the performance of the device could be affected by the organic thin film interlayer.

  17. Behavioral, Physiological and Biochemical Hormetic Responses to the Autoxidizable Dye Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this review were to identify methylene blue (MB) as a compound that follows hormetic behavior for a wide range of effects and to address the question of what is unique about MB that could account for its wide applicability and hormetic behavior as a drug. The MB hormetic dose-response relationship is exemplified by an increase in various behavioral, physiological and biochemical responses with increasing dose, followed by a decrease in the same responses with an even higher dose, until the responses are equal to control responses. With MB doses increasing beyond the hormetic zone, the responses decrease even further, until they are below the control responses. At doses spanning its hormetic zone, MB can increase select responses until they are 130–160% of control. For example, low doses of MB produce maximum behavioral and biochemical responses with averages of approximately 140% of control. As MB dose is raised outside the hormetic zone the response decreases below the control response, as exemplified by MB’s ability to increase cytochrome oxidase activity at intermediate doses, while decreasing cytochrome oxidase activity at higher doses. It is proposed that MB’s autoxidizable chemical property may be responsible for its unique biological action as both a metabolic energy enhancer and antioxidant that is frequently characterized by hormetic dose-response relationships. PMID:20463863

  18. Behavioral, Physiological and Biochemical Hormetic Responses to the Autoxidizable Dye Methylene Blue.

    PubMed

    Bruchey, Aleksandra K; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2008-01-01

    The goals of this review were to identify methylene blue (MB) as a compound that follows hormetic behavior for a wide range of effects and to address the question of what is unique about MB that could account for its wide applicability and hormetic behavior as a drug. The MB hormetic dose-response relationship is exemplified by an increase in various behavioral, physiological and biochemical responses with increasing dose, followed by a decrease in the same responses with an even higher dose, until the responses are equal to control responses. With MB doses increasing beyond the hormetic zone, the responses decrease even further, until they are below the control responses. At doses spanning its hormetic zone, MB can increase select responses until they are 130-160% of control. For example, low doses of MB produce maximum behavioral and biochemical responses with averages of approximately 140% of control. As MB dose is raised outside the hormetic zone the response decreases below the control response, as exemplified by MB's ability to increase cytochrome oxidase activity at intermediate doses, while decreasing cytochrome oxidase activity at higher doses. It is proposed that MB's autoxidizable chemical property may be responsible for its unique biological action as both a metabolic energy enhancer and antioxidant that is frequently characterized by hormetic dose-response relationships.

  19. AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41 visible light photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourahmad, A.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Kashefian, E.

    2010-12-01

    A novel photocatalytic material was synthesized by dispersion of AgBr in nanoAlMCM-41 material. The AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41 sample shows strong absorption in the visible region because of the plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles in AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41. The catalysts were characterized using XRD (X-ray diffraction), UV-visible diffused reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity and stability of the synthesized catalysts were evaluated for methylene blue (MB) degradation in aqueous solution in the presence of 200 W tungsten filament Philips lamp. Several parameters were examined, catalyst amount, pH and initial concentration of MB, AgBr loading. The effect of dosage of photocatalyst was studied in the range 0.05-1.00 g/L. It was seen that 0.1 g/L of photocatalyst is an optimum value for the dosage of photocatalyst. The support size was obtained about 9-100 nm. In the same way, the average size of AgBr nanoparticles was about 10 nm before visible radiation. After visible radiation the average size of AgBr nanoparticles was about 25 nm.

  20. AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41 visible light photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Pourahmad, A; Sohrabnezhad, Sh; Kashefian, E

    2010-12-01

    A novel photocatalytic material was synthesized by dispersion of AgBr in nanoAlMCM-41 material. The AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41 sample shows strong absorption in the visible region because of the plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles in AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41. The catalysts were characterized using XRD (X-ray diffraction), UV-visible diffused reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity and stability of the synthesized catalysts were evaluated for methylene blue (MB) degradation in aqueous solution in the presence of 200 W tungsten filament Philips lamp. Several parameters were examined, catalyst amount, pH and initial concentration of MB, AgBr loading. The effect of dosage of photocatalyst was studied in the range 0.05-1.00 g/L. It was seen that 0.1 g/L of photocatalyst is an optimum value for the dosage of photocatalyst. The support size was obtained about 9-100 nm. In the same way, the average size of AgBr nanoparticles was about 10nm before visible radiation. After visible radiation the average size of AgBr nanoparticles was about 25 nm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mesoporous WO3-graphene photocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation of Methylene Blue dye under visible light illumination.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A; Faisal, M; Al-Haddad, Adel

    2018-04-01

    Advanced oxidation technologies are a friendly environmental approach for the remediation of industrial wastewaters. Here, one pot synthesis of mesoporous WO 3 and WO 3 -graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites has been performed through the sol-gel method. Then, platinum (Pt) nanoparticles were deposited onto the WO 3 and WO 3 -GO nanocomposite through photochemical reduction to produce mesoporous Pt/WO 3 and Pt/WO 3 -GO nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) findings exhibit a formation of monoclinic and triclinic WO 3 phases. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images of Pt/WO 3 -GO nanocomposites exhibited that WO 3 nanoparticles are obviously agglomerated and the particle sizes of Pt and WO 3 are ~10nm and 20-50nm, respectively. The mesoporous Pt/WO 3 and Pt/WO 3 -GO nanocomposites were assessed for photocatalytic degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) as a probe molecule under visible light illumination. The findings showed that mesoporous Pt/WO 3 , WO 3 -GO and Pt/WO 3 -GO nanocomposites exhibited much higher photocatalytic efficiencies than the pure WO 3 . The photodegradation rates by mesoporous Pt/WO 3 -GO nanocomposites are 3, 2 and 1.15 times greater than those by mesoporous WO 3 , WO 3 -GO, and Pt/WO 3 , respectively. The key factors of the enhanced photocatalytic performance of Pt/WO 3 -GO nanocomposites could be explained by the highly freedom electron transfer through the synergetic effect between WO 3 and GO sheets, in addition to the Pt nanoparticles that act as active sites for O 2 reduction, which suppresses the electron hole pair recombination in the Pt/WO 3 -GO nanocomposites. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Marking non-palpable breast masses with injected methylene blue dye, an easy, safe and low cost method for developing countries and resource-limited areas.

    PubMed

    Nasrinossadat, Alavi; Ladan, Fonooni; Fereshte, Ensani; Asieh, Olfatbakhsh; Reza, Chaman; Akramossadat, Sadjadian; Golshan, Mehra

    2011-01-01

    The widespread use of improved mammographic techniques has led to increased detection of nonpalpable breast masses. Preoperative localization is important for reducing false negative results and decreasing the size of tissue resection needed and the resulting breast deformity. We used ultrasound guided methylen blue injection in the mass for localization of breast masses that were clinically nonpalpable but detectable by ultrasound. 57 masses from 51 patients were marked 20 to 180 minutes before surgery with 0.4-0.7 cc methylene blue and resection was done in operating room under local or general anesthesia . success of radiologist for localization and success of surgeon for complete resection and pathology results were reviwed and fallow up ultrasound was done 3-5 month after surgery for patients whom pathology report was non specific (such as FCC) to confirm complete resection. 57 masses were excised successfully by the surgeon , localization was successful in all patients but injection in the mass was not feasible in 4 patients and dye was injected on the surface of the mass and led to successful excision .Only one mass was not found at surgery because dye washed out before surgery, and the mass was resected by use of intra operative ultrasound. 5.3% patients reported the procedure was painful and 28% reported tolerable pain during injection and 66.7 % of patients said that the injection was painless or with minimal discomfort. Allergic reaction was not seen in any patient and no interference was reported by the pathologist in slide preparation or diagnoses and IHC study. Marking with blue dye injection is a safe and low cost method for localization of non palpable breast lesions that are detectable by Ultrasound. In one patient failure to find the mass was because of location of the mass that was in axillary tail of breast and time of surgery that was 100 minutes after injection that led to absorption of blue dye before surgery and it is advised to do surgery

  3. Comparison between the indocyanine green fluorescence and blue dye methods for sentinel lymph node biopsy using novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in different types of hospitals.

    PubMed

    He, Kunshan; Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Huang, Wenhe; Wu, Jundong; Wang, Yabing; He, Lifang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard of care to detect axillary lymph metastasis in early-stage breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. Current SLNB detection modalities comprising a blue dye, a radioactive tracer, or a combination of both have advantages as well as disadvantages. Thus, near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been regarded as a novel method that has generated interest for SLNB around the world. However, the lack of appropriate fluorescence imaging systems has hindered further research and wide application of this method. Therefore, we developed novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment (FIRE) to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Moreover, to compare the ICG fluorescence imaging method with the blue dye method and to explore the universal feasibility of the former, a different type of hospital study was conducted. Ninety-nine eligible patients participated in the study at 3 different types of hospitals. After subcutaneous ICG allergy testing, all the patients were subcutaneously injected with methylene blue and ICG into the subareolar area. Consequently, 276 SLNs (range 1-7) were identified in 98 subjects (detection rate: 99%) by using the ICG fluorescence imaging method. In contrast, the blue dye method only identified 202 SLNs (range 1-7) in 91 subjects (detection rate: 91.92%). Besides, the results of the fluorescence imaging method were similar in the 3 hospitals. Our findings indicate the universal feasibility of the ICG fluorescence imaging method for SLNB using the fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in early breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient degradation of Methylene Blue dye over highly reactive Cu doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles photocatalyst under visible light.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi Inamur; Ahmad, Musheer; Misra, Sunil Kumar; Lohani, Minaxi

    2012-09-01

    Visible light induced photocatalysts of Cu doped SrTiO3 (Cu/SrTiO3) nanoparticles with the size -60-75 nm were prepared via facile sol-gel method. The morphological, optical, crystalline properties and compositions of synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). A significant red shift in the UV-diffused reflectance spectrum was observed and the absorption edge shifted to visible region by the Cu doping. Surprisingly, the band gap of SrTiO3 was changed from 3.2 eV drop to 2.96 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles was demonstrated for the degradation of Methylene Blue dye under visible light irradiation. The formation of new acceptor region in Cu/SrTiO3 was responsible for high photocatalytic activity of Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. The results showed that the Methylene Blue dye was degraded by -66% within time span of 2 h over the Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. This dye degradation reaction followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and also exhibited first order reaction rate. The calculated rate constant for the degradation reaction following first order kinetics was k = 0.0016 min(-1).

  5. Synthesis of Mesoporous Titania-Silica Monolith Composites — A Comprehensive Study on their Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 113 Dye Under UV Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejaswini, Thurlapathi Vl; Prabhakaran, Deivasigamani

    2016-10-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of bi-continuous macro and mesoporous crack-free titania-silica monoliths, with well-defined structural dimensions and high surface area. The work also highlights their potential photocatalytic environmental applications. The highly ordered titania-silica monoliths are synthesized through direct surface template method using organic precursors of silica and titania in the presence of surface directing agents such as pluronic P123 and PEG, under acetic acid medium. The monoliths are synthesized with different Ti/Si ratios to obtain monolithic designs that exhibit better photocatalytic activity for dye degradation. The titania-silica monoliths are characterized using XRD, SEM, EDAX, FT-IR, TG-DTA and BET analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized monoliths is tested on the photodegradation of a textile dye (acid blue 113). It is observed that the monolith with 7:3 ratio of Ti/Si showed significant photocatalysis behavior in the presence of UV light. The influence of various physico-chemical properties such as, solution pH, photocatalyst dosage, light intensity, dye concentration, effect of oxidants, etc. are analyzed and optimized using a customized photoreactor set-up. Under optimized conditions, the monoliths exhibited superior degradation kinetics, with the dye dissipation complete within 10min of photolysis. The mesoporous catalysts are recoverable and reusable up to four cycles of repeated usage.

  6. Synchronous fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopic studies of interactions between the tetracycline antibiotic, aluminium ions and DNA with the aid of the Methylene Blue dye probe.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yongnian; Lin, Daiqin; Kokot, Serge

    2008-01-07

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) was applied for the investigation of interactions of the antibiotic, tetracycline (TC), with DNA in the presence of aluminium ions Al3+. The study was facilitated by the use of the Methylene Blue (MB) dye probe, and the interpretation of the spectral data with the aid of the chemometrics method, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Three-way synchronous fluorescence analysis extracted the important optimum constant wavelength differences, deltalambda, and showed that for the TC-Al3+-DNA, TC-Al3+ and MB dye systems, the associated deltalambda values were different (deltalambda=80, 75 and 30 nm, respectively). Subsequent PARAFAC analysis demonstrated the extraction of the equilibrium concentration profiles for the TC-Al3+, TC-Al3+-DNA and MB probe systems. This information is unobtainable by conventional means of data interpretation. The results indicated that the MB dye interacted with the TC-Al3+-DNA surface complex, presumably via a reaction intermediate, TC-Al3+-DNA-MB, leading to the displacement of the TC-Al3+ by the incoming MB dye probe.

  7. Activated carbons from waste of oil-palm kernel shells, sawdust and tannery leather scraps and application to chromium(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Suarez, Sergio; Colpas-Castillo, Fredy; Meza-Fuentes, Edgardo; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Johana; Fernandez-Maestre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Phenol, chromium, and dyes are continuously dumped into water bodies; the adsorption of these contaminants on activated carbon is a low-cost alternative for water remediation. We synthesized activated carbons from industrial waste of palm oil seed husks (kernel shells), sawdust, and tannery leather scraps. These materials were heated for 24 h at 600, 700 or 800°C, activated at 900°C with CO2 and characterized by proximate analysis and measurement of specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir), and microporosity (t-plot). Isotherms showed micropores and mesopores in activated carbons. Palm seed activated carbon showed the highest fixed carbon content (96%), and Langmuir specific surface areas up to 1,268 m2/g, higher than those from sawdust (581 m2/g) and leather scraps (400 m2/g). The carbons were applied to adsorption of Cr(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions. Phenol adsorption on activated carbons was 78-82 mg/g; on palm seed activated carbons, Cr(VI) adsorption at pH 7 was 0.35-0.37 mg/g, and methylene blue adsorption was 40-110 mg/g, higher than those from sawdust and leather scraps. Activated carbons from palm seed are promising materials to remove contaminants from the environment and represent an alternative application for vegetal wastes instead of dumping into landfills.

  8. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-01-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500–650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm·W−1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

  9. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-02-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500-650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm.W-1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs.

  10. Anaerobic degradation of azo dye Drimaren blue HFRL in UASB reactor in the presence of yeast extract a source of carbon and redox mediator.

    PubMed

    Baêta, B E L; Aquino, S F; Silva, S Q; Rabelo, C A

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents results on anaerobic degradation of the azo dye blue HFRL in a bench scale Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. The results show that the addition of yeast extract (500 mg/L) increased color removal (P < 0.05) from 62 to 93% despite the low chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (~35%) which happened due to volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation. There were no differences in color removal (~91%) when yeast extract (500 mg/L) was used in the presence or absence of glucose, suggesting that yeast extract acted as source of redox mediator (riboflavin) and carbon. The specific rate of dye removal increased along the operational phases and depended on the presence of yeast extract, suggesting progressive biomass acclimatization. Analysis of bacterial diversity by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method showed there was biomass selection along the bioreactor operation and no evidence of azo dye degrading bacteria predominance. This strengthens the hypothesis that color removal happens extracellularly by the reduction of azo bond by reduced redox mediators, such as riboflavin, which is present in high amount in the yeast extract.

  11. Influence of substituent of direct dye having bisphenylenebis(azo) skeletal structure on structure of nascent cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum [I]: different influence of direct red 28, blue 1 and 15 on nascent structure.

    PubMed

    Kai, A; Mondal, I H

    1997-06-01

    The difference of influence of a certain kind of direct dye on the structure of nascent microbial cellulose was examined, with Direct Red 28 have a biphenylenebis(azo) skeletal structure; Direct Blue 1 having two hydroxyl, two methoxy and two sulfonate groups more than Direct Red 28; and Direct Blue 15 whose sulfonate groups position are different compared to Direct Blue 1. It became clear that the product in the presence of a direct dye (in particular, Direct Red 28) has the structure in which the dye molecule is included between the monolayer in the cellulose sheets corresponding to the (110) plane of microbial cellulose. On the other hand, the structure of the product in the presence of Direct Blue 1 and 15 contains conceived cellulose II structure which occurred due to be removal of dye during the rinsing process as a result of larger hydrophilicity than its affinity toward cellulose. Solid state 13C NMR and deuteration-IR measurements showed that the product in the presence of direct dye is in a noncrystalline state, although X-ray measurements indicated that they are in a crystalline state. These results support the inclusion of a dye between the (110) planes. Solid state 13C NMR and deuteration-IR reveal that the crystal structure of cellulose regenerated from the product in the presence of Direct Red 28 is similar to cellulose IVI, while that from each Direct Blue 1 and 15 product is cellulose II. The difference of the influence of the former and the latter on the nascent cellulose seemed to be caused mainly by the number of sulfonate groups, although the influence of hydroxyl and methoxy groups is not clear at present.

  12. Effect of clay in controlling the non-fluorescence H-dimeric states of a cationic dye Nile Blue Chloride (NBC) in hybrid Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Chandan; Shil, Ashis; Hussain, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2018-01-01

    Present communication reports the effect of amphiphilic matrices and nano-clay platelets on the aggregation properties of a water soluble cationic fluorescent dye Nile Blue Chloride (NBC) in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. In-situ Brewster Angle Microscopic (BAM) studies showed distinct domain structures of complex and hybrid Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface. UV-vis absorption spectra showed non-fluorescent H-dimeric band in concentrated aqueous solution of NBC and in complex LB film of NBC with stearic acid. By changing various parameters, a great control over H-dimeric states has been achieved in clay incorporated hybrid LB films. These films can act as efficient fluorescence probe.

  13. Nano Cu metal doped on TiO2-SiO2 nanoparticle catalysts in photocatalytic degradation of direct blue dye.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, R M; Mkhalid, I A; Al-Thabaiti, S A; Mokhtar, Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    The photo-assisted deposition (PAD) and impregnation (Img) synthesis of nano-sized Cu metal on TiO2-SiO2 are reported. The prepared catalysts were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, EXAFS, TEM and nitrogen adsorption analysis. Photocatalytic reactivity using Cu-TiO2-SiO2 catalysts under visible-light condition on the oxidation of direct blue dye with O2 reaction was evaluated. The results have shown notable photocatalytic activity of PAD-Cu/TiO2-SiO2 which was 1.6 and 10 times higher than that of Img-Cu/TiO2-SiO2 and TiO2-SiO2, respectively.

  14. Comparative study of eco- and cytotoxicity during biotransformation of anthraquinone dye Alizarin Blue Black B in optimized cultures of microscopic fungi.

    PubMed

    Rybczyńska-Tkaczyk, Kamila; Święciło, Agata; Szychowski, Konrad A; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select optimal conditions (C and N sources, initial pH and temperature) for biodecolorization of 0.03% anthraquinone dye Alizarin Blue Black B (ABBB) by microscopic fungi: Haematonectria haematococca BwIII43, K37 and Trichoderma harzianum BsIII33. The phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity (Lepidium sativum L.), biotoxicity (Microtox), cytotoxicity and yeast viability assay were performed to determine the extent of ABBB detoxification. Biodecolorization and detoxification of 0.03% ABBB in H. haematococca BwIII43 and T. harzianum BsIII33 cultures was correlated with extracellular oxidoreductases activity. In turn, secondary products, toxic to human fibroblasts and respiring sod1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, were formed in H. haematococca K37 strain cultures, despite efficient decolorization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on hydrothermal synthesis of photolumniscent rare earth (Eu3+ & Tb3+) doped NG@FeMoO4 for enhanced visible light photodegradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Kumar, M.; Khajuria, H.; Sharma, S.; Sheikh, H. Nawaz

    2018-02-01

    FeMoO4 nanorods and their rare earth (Eu3+ and Tb3+) doped composites with nitrogen doped graphene (NG) were synthesized by facile hydrothermal method in aqueous medium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the as-synthesized samples was done to study the phase purity and crystalline nature. FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy have been studied for investigating the bonding in nanostructures. The surface morphology of the samples was investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photolumniscent nature of the samples was investigated by the using the fluorescence spectrophotometer. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the prepared pure FeMoO4 and its rare earth doped composites with nitrogen doped graphene was evaluated as function of visible light irradiation versus concentration of methylene blue (MB dye). The prepared nanocomposites show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency as compared to the bare FeMoO4 nanorods.

  16. Visual detection of human enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 and Coxsackievirus A16 by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Nie, Kai; Zhang, Yong; Luo, Le; Yang, Meng-Jie; Hu, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Miao; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Han, Feng; Xu, Wen-Bo; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2011-08-01

    A sensitive reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for rapid visual detection of human enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 (EV71-C4) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) infection, respectively. The reaction was performed in one step in a single tube at 65°C for 60 min with the addition of the hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) dye prior to amplification. The detection limits of the RT-LAMP assay were 0.33 and 1.58 of a 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) per reaction based on 10-fold dilutions of a titrated EV71 or CVA16 strain, respectively. No cross-reaction was observed with Coxsackievirus A (CVA) viruses (CVA2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 14, and 24), Coxsackievirus B (CVB) viruses (CVB1,2,3,4, and 5) or ECHO viruses (ECHO3, 6, 11, and 19). The assay was further evaluated with 47 clinical stool specimens diagnosed previously with EV71, CVA16 or other human enterovirus infections. Virus isolates from stool samples were confirmed by virus neutralization testing and sequencing. RT-LAMP with HNB dye was demonstrated to be a sensitive and cost-effective assay for rapid visual detection of human EV71-C4 and CVA16. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient and rapid adsorption characteristics of templating modified guar gum and silica nanocomposite toward removal of toxic reactive blue and Congo red dyes.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sagar; Patra, Abhay Shankar; Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Mahato, Vivekananda; Sarkar, Supriyo; Singh, R P

    2015-09-01

    The present study highlights the potentiality of sol-gel synthesized guar gum-graft-poly (acrylamide)/silica (g-GG/SiO2) hybrid nanocomposite toward the rapid removal of toxic reactive blue 4 (RB) and Congo red (CR) dyes from aqueous solution. Various physicochemical characterizations support the feasibility of the functionalized guar gum matrix as efficient template for the formation of homogeneous nanoscale silica particles. The composite demonstrates rapid and superior adsorption efficiency of RB (Qmax: 579.01 mg g(-1) within 40 min) and CR (Qmax: 233.24 mg g(-1) within 30 min) dyes from aqueous environment. Here, the pH driven adsorption process depends strongly on the ionic strength of the salt solution. The adsorption kinetics data predicts that pseudo second-order (surface adsorption) and intraparticle diffusion take place simultaneously. The adsorption equilibrium is in good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm, while the thermodynamics study confirms spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. Desorption study predicts the excellent regenerative efficacy of nanocomposite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In-situ generation of gold nanoparticles on MnO2nanosheets for the enhanced oxidative degradation of basic dye (Methylene Blue).

    PubMed

    Bao, Xueqin; Qin, Zhen; Zhou, Tianshu; Deng, Jingjing

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were in-situ generated on the surface of MnO 2 nanosheets to form MnO 2 /Au-NPs nanocomposite in a simple and cost-effective way. Multiple experiments were carried out to optimize the oxidation of basic dye (Methylene Blue (MB)), including the molar ratio of MnO 2 to chloroauric acid (HAuCl 4 ), the pH of the solution and the effect of initial material. Under the optimal condition, the highest degradation efficiency for MB achieved to 98.9% within 60 min, which was obviously better than commercial MnO 2 powders (4.3%) and MnO 2 nanosheets (74.2%). The enhanced oxidative degradation might attribute to the in-situ generation of ultra-small and highly-dispersed Au-NPs which enlarged the synergistic effect and/or interfacial effect between MnO 2 nanosheets and Au-NPs and facilitated the uptake of electrons by MnO 2 from MB during the oxidation, thus validating the application of MnO 2 /Au-NPs nanocomposite for direct removal of organic dyes from wastewater in a simple and convenient fashion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Competitive effects of humic acid and wastewater on adsorption of Methylene Blue dye by activated carbon and non-imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Murray, Audrey; Örmeci, Banu

    2018-04-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM), present in natural waters and wastewater, decreases adsorption of micropollutants, increasing treatment costs. This research investigated mechanisms of competition for non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) and activated carbon with humic acid and wastewater. Three different types of activated carbons (Norit PAC 200, Darco KB-M, and Darco S-51) were used for comparison with the NIP. The lower surface area and micropore to mesopore ratio of the NIP led to decreased adsorption capacity in comparison to the activated carbons. In addition, experiments were conducted for single-solute adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) dye, simultaneous adsorption with humic acid and wastewater, and pre-loading with humic acid and wastewater followed by adsorption of MB dye using NIP and Norit PAC 200. Both the NIP and PAC 200 showed significant decreases of 27% for NIP (p=0.087) and 29% for PAC 200 (p=0.096) during simultaneous exposure to humic acid and MB dye. There was no corresponding decrease for NIP or PAC 200 pre-loaded with humic acid and then exposed to MB. In fact, for PAC 200, the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon increased when it was pre-loaded with humic acid by 39% (p=0.0005). For wastewater, the NIP showed no significant increase or decrease in adsorption capacity during either simultaneous exposure or pre-loading. The adsorption capacity of PAC 200 increased by 40% (p=0.001) for simultaneous exposure to wastewater and MB. Pre-loading with wastewater had no effect on MB adsorption by PAC 200. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Treatability study of the effluent containing reactive blue 21 dye by ozonation and the mass transfer study of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velpula, Priyadarshini; Ghuge, Santosh; Saroha, Anil K.

    2018-04-01

    Ozonation is a chemical treatment process in which ozone reacts with the pollutants present in the effluent by infusion of ozone into the effluent. This study includes the effect of various parameters such as inlet ozone dose, pH of solution and initial concentration of dye on decolorization of dye in terms CRE. The maximum CRE of 98.62% with the reaction rate constant of 0.26 min-1 is achieved in 18 minutes of reaction time at inlet ozone dose of 11.5 g/m3, solution pH of 11 and 30 mg/L of initial concentration of dye. The presence of radical scavenger (Tertiary Butyl Alcohol) suppressed the CRE from 98.62% to 95.4% at high pH values indicates that the indirect mechanism dominates due to the presence of hydroxyl radicals which are formed by the decomposition of ozone. The diffusive and convective mass transfer coefficients of ozone are calculated as 1.78 × 10-5 cm2/sec and 0.075 min-1. It is observed that the fraction of resistance offered by liquid is very much high compared to gas phase indicates that the ozonation is a liquid phase mass transfer controlled operation.

  1. Selective adsorption of organic dye methylene blue by Cs4H2PMo11FeO40·6H2O in presence of methyl orange and Rhodamine-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, Mahboubeh; Seghatoleslami, Zhaleh Sadr; Rahimi, Rahmatollah

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a heterometallic polyoxometalate Cs4H2PMo11FeO40·6H2O with Keggin structure was prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The as-prepared polyoxometalate has been utilized as the adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. The effective factors on the adsorption of this pollutant dye such as amount of adsorbent and adsorption time were examined. The adsorption efficiency and amount of adsorption (qe) were up to 97.4% and 140.84 mgg-1, respectively at the optimum conditions (0.4 gL-1 of adsorbent, 20 mgL-1 concentration of methylene blue and 2 min adsorption time). Furthermore, selective adsorption of methylene blue in the presence of methyl orange and rhodamine-B was demonstrated.

  2. Oral Triphenylmethane Food Dye Analog, Brilliant Blue G, Prevents 
Neuronal Loss in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Jacob A.; Erisir, Alev; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-01-01

    Reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation is a promising strategy for developing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) therapeutics. We recently reported that a triphenylmethane food dye analog, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), is a dose-dependent modulator of in vitro amyloid-β aggregation and cytotoxicity in cell-based assays. Following up on this recent work, we sought to further evaluate this novel modulator in a therapeutically-relevant AD transgenic mouse model. BBG was orally administered to APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice for three months in order to assess its biocompatibility, its permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and its efficacy at rescuing AD pathology. The results showed that BBG was well-tolerated, caused no significant weight change/unusual behavior, and was able to significantly cross the AD blood-brain barrier in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analysis of the brain sections revealed that BBG was able to significantly prevent neuronal loss and reduce intracellular APP/Aβ in hippocampal neurons. This is the first report of 1) the effect of Brilliant Blue G on neuronal loss in a transgenic animal model of AD, 2) oral administration of BBG to affect a protein conformation/aggregation disease, and 3) electron microscopic ultrastructural analysis of AD pathology in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. PMID:26852943

  3. Photodegradation of indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution by SiC-TiO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Solís, Christian; Juárez-Ramírez, Isaías; Moctezuma, Edgar; Torres-Martínez, Leticia M

    2012-05-30

    Indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution were photodegraded using SiC-TiO(2) catalysts prepared by sol-gel method. After thermal treatment at 450°C, SiC-TiO(2) catalysts prepared in this work showed the presence of SiC and TiO(2) anatase phase. Those compounds showed specific surface area values around 22-25 m(2)g(-1), and energy band gap values close to 3.05 eV. In comparison with TiO(2) (P25), SiC-TiO(2) catalysts showed the highest activity for indigo carmine and methylene blue degradation, but this activity cannot be attributed to the properties above mentioned. Therefore, photocatalytic performance is due to the synergy effect between SiC and TiO(2) particles caused by the sol-gel method used to prepare the SiC-TiO(2) catalysts. TiO(2) nanoparticles are well dispersed onto SiC surface allowing the transfer of electronic charges between SiC and TiO(2) semiconductors, which avoid the fast recombination of the electron-hole pair during the photocatalytic process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-10-01

    This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

  5. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-06-01

    This study used novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecules, namely BPVPDA, an organic fluorescence color thin film using BPVPDA exhibit deep blue fluorine with CIE coordinates of (0.13,0.16). The developed original Organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness, in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses organic dye dopent in limpid photo resist. With this technology , the following characteristics can be obtained: (1) high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and (2) improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescence thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD and OLED.

  6. Nanoflower-like Yttrium-doped ZnO Photocatalyst for the Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye.

    PubMed

    Parangusan, Hemalatha; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali; Marimuthu, Alagar

    2018-03-01

    Pure ZnO and Yttrium-doped (Y-doped) ZnO at various mol% with flower-like nanostructures are synthesized by a microwave-assisted sol-gel method, followed by investigating the morphologies, crystal structures, optical properties and photocatalytic performances. While the phase formations are detected by X-ray diffraction technique, both scanning and transmission electron microscopy images clearly depict the flower-like morphology of ZnO and Y-doped ZnO samples. Formation of flower petals is from the nanoparticles that grew and connected by orientation attachment process. The flower-like architecture is addressed in terms of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The UV-Vis absorption studies show enhanced absorption for the Y-doped ZnO, whereas the photoluminescence spectra confirm the significance of sample defects in the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. Effects of various experimental parameters such as the amount of photocatalysts, dye concentration and dopant concentration on the dye degradation are also optimized. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  7. A simple way to prepare Au@polypyrrole/Fe3O4 hollow capsules with high stability and their application in catalytic reduction of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Tongjie; Cui, Tieyu; Wang, Hao; Xu, Linxu; Cui, Fang; Wu, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Metal nanoparticles are promising catalysts for dye degradation in treating wastewater despite the challenges of recycling and stability. In this study, we have introduced a simple way to prepare Au@polypyrrole (PPy)/Fe3O4 catalysts with Au nanoparticles embedded in a PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell. The PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell used as a support was constructed in one-step, which not only dramatically simplified the preparation process, but also easily controlled the magnetic properties of the catalysts through adjusting the dosage of FeCl2.4H2O. The component Au nanoparticles could catalyze the reduction of methylene blue dye with NaBH4 as a reducing agent and the reaction rate constant was calculated through the pseudo-first-order reaction equation. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles permitted quick recycling of the catalysts with a magnet due to their room-temperature superparamagnetic properties; therefore, the catalysts exhibited good reusability. In addition to catalytic activity and reusability, stability is also an important property for catalysts. Because both Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were wrapped in the PPy shell, compared with precursor polystyrene/Au composites and bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the stability of Au@PPy/Fe3O4 hollow capsules was greatly enhanced. Since the current method is simple and flexible to create recyclable catalysts with high stability, it would promote the practicability of metal nanoparticle catalysts in industrial polluted water treatment.Metal nanoparticles are promising catalysts for dye degradation in treating wastewater despite the challenges of recycling and stability. In this study, we have introduced a simple way to prepare Au@polypyrrole (PPy)/Fe3O4 catalysts with Au nanoparticles embedded in a PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell. The PPy/Fe3O4 capsule shell used as a support was constructed in one-step, which not only dramatically simplified the preparation process, but also easily controlled the magnetic properties of the catalysts through adjusting

  8. Time dependent diffraction ring patterns in bromothymol blue dye doped PMMA film under irradiation with continuous wave green laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saymari, F. A.; Badran, H. A.; Al-Ahmad, A. Y.; Emshary, C. A.

    2013-11-01

    Diffraction ring patterns are generated in bromothymol blue (BTB) doped poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) film with the aid of visible light from a solid state laser of Gaussian distribution. Temporal evolution of patterns i.e. the number of rings increases as time elapse is observed. Based on the experimental findings, change in refractive index ( ∆n) effective nonlinear refractive index ( n 2) and variation of refractive index with temperature ( dn/ dT) have been obtained as 0.0025, 1.45 × 10-6 cm2 W-1, 1.69 × 10-5 K-1 respectively. Obtained results suggest the possibility of using BTB doped PMMA in data storage, recording and holography.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and bromophenol blue dyes in water using sol-gel synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanalakshmi, J.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2017-09-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel method using titanium tetra isopropoxide as a precursor. The structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), a high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman analysis, Photoluminescence (PL) and impedance spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman spectra revealed that the synthesized samples are in pure anatase phase with an average crystallite size of 18 nm. Photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated for the degradation of 10 ppm methyl orange (MO) and bromophenol blue (BPB) dye using 10 mg of catalyst. Anatase TiO2 exhibited the removal of 67.12% and 85.51% of MO and BPB, respectively, within 240 min. The photocatalytic degradation process is explained using pseudo second order kinetics and fits well with the higher correlation coefficient.

  10. Effect of Precursors on the Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles Under Microwave for Photocatalytic Activity Towards Methylene Blue and Rhodamine B Dyes.

    PubMed

    Sanjini, N S; Winston, B; Velmathi, S

    2017-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by microwave assisted precipitation method. Different precursors like copper chloride, copper nitrate and copper sulphate were used for synthesis of CuO nanoparticles with different shape, size and catalytic activity. Sodium hydroxide acts as a capping agent and ethanol as solvent for the synthesis. The XRD study was conducted to confirm the single phase monoclinic structure of as-synthesized and annealed CuO nano particles. The morphology of the as-synthesized and annealed CuO samples was analyzed by high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was done for all the synthesized CuO nanoparticles for functional group characterization. The wide band gap and photocatalytic activity were studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) dyes in aqueous solution were investigated under UV light (254 nm). In all the cases annealed samples showed good catalytic activity compared to as-synthesized CuO nanoparticles. The CuO nanoparticles from CuCl2 precursor act as excellent photocatalyst for both MB and RhB compared to CuNO₃ and CuSO₄.

  11. Assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull Blue dye for relative output factor measurements of the Leksell Gamma Knife® PerfexionTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozubikova, P.; Solc, J.; Novotny, J., Jr.; Pilarova, K.; Pipek, J.; Koncekova, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull blue dye formed by irradiation (TB gel dosimeter) for measurement of ROFs for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators for the Leksell Gamma Knife PerfexionTM. All measurements have been carried out using home-made spherical Perspex glass phantom of diameter 160 mm. TB gel dosimeters were scanned using homemade optical CT scanner. The results are compared with vendor recommended Monte Carlo calculated ROFs values of 0.814 and 0.900 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The comparisons between the gel measurements and the treatment planning system (TPS) calculation are presented in the form of 2D isodoses for the central slices and 1D profile. Measured ROF 0.746 and 0.874 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators respectively are in a reasonable agreement with vendor recommended values and measured relative dose distribution in a central slice and measured profiles of all shots show excellent correspondence with TPS.

  12. Sulphated polyanions in cytoplasm and nuclei of epithelial cells of Branchiostoma demonstrated by the cationic dye Cupromeronic Blue.

    PubMed

    Welsch, U; Kaps, A

    1997-03-01

    The intracellular occurrence and distribution of sulphated polyanions, interpreted to represent mucins, were studied in secretory epithelial cells in the primitive chordates Branchiostoma lanceolatum and B. floridae at the electron microscopical level by using Cupromeronic Blue (CMB). CMB-precipitates were mainly found within two potential types of mucin vesicles (apical and basal) and Golgi cisterns. The mucin vesicles form a distinct population of secretory granules different from another nonmucin granule population. Within the epidermal cells the staining intensity of the Golgi cisterns with CMB increased from the cis to the trans compartment. The pharyngeal mucous cells showed staining only in the trans Golgi compartment. These findings indicate, that CMB can be used for intracellular localization of mucins and that sulphation of the mucins in the investigated cells may occur within different compartments of the Golgi complex. Apparently the mucin is secreted apically but only in the epidermis it forms a dense layer covering the apical microvilli. In the Branchiostoma epidermal cells a layer of specialized basal vesicles occurred, containing unusually large and branched CMB-precipitates which possibly serve mechanical functions. In the nuclei CMB-precipitates were regularly demonstrated in the euchromatin of the cell types studied.

  13. Rapid detection and subtyping of human papillomaviruses in condyloma acuminatum using loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Q; Li, K; Chen, D; Wang, H; Lin, Q; Liu, W

    2018-03-14

    Objective Condyloma acuminatum (CA) is a common, viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping has important clinical implications for the treatment of CA. We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the detection of HPV. Methods We collected 294 cervical scrape samples, including 30 HPV-6-positive, 30 HPV-11-positive, 22 HPV-16-positive, 20 HPV-42-positve, 30 HPV-43-positive, 20 HPV-44-positive and 142 HPV-negative samples. Tissues from 40 patients with a pathological diagnosis of CA were paraffin-embedded and analyzed by LAMP and Luminex. Hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) and electrophoresis were used to detect the results of LAMP. Results LAMP and Luminex systems were compared in detecting six subtypes of HPV. LAMP reactions were specific for each subtype. The sensitivity of LAMP for HPV-6, as determined by the HNB indicator assay, was 1000 copies/tube. The kappa value between the two methods was 0.98 (HPV-6), 0.94 (HPV-11), 0.89 (HPV-43), 0.87 (HPV-42) 0.79 (HPV-16) and 0.68 (HPV-44). Among the 142 HPV-negative samples determined by the Luminex assay, HPV-6 was detected in eight and HPV-11 in one by LAMP. Among the 40 CA samples, the results of LAMP and Luminex were in agreement in 38 (95%). Conclusion The results of this study indicated that the LAMP assay with HNB is superior to the Luminex method in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The specificity of LAMP was 100% and the sensitivity of LAMP was 1000 copies/tube using HNB. LAMP is therefore a useful, quick and accurate method for the clinical diagnosis of HPV subtypes.

  14. Photosensitive and all-optically fast-controllable photonic bandgap device and laser in a dye-doped blue phase with a low-concentration azobenzene liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-De; Lin, Yu-Meng; Mo, Ting-Shan; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2014-04-21

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel photosensitive and all-optically fast-controllable photonic bandgap (PBG) device based on a dye-doped blue phase (DDBP), embedded with a low-concentration azobenzene liquid crystal (azo-LC). PBG of the DDBP can be reversibly fast-tuned off and on with the successive illumination of a weak UV and green beams. UV irradiation can transform the trans azo-LCs into bend cis isomers, which can easily disturb LCs at the boundary between the double twisting cylinders (DTCs) and the disclinations, and, then, quickly destabilize BPI to become a BPIII-like texture with randomly-oriented DTCs. Doing so may quickly destroy the BP PBG structure. However, with the successive illumination of a green beam, the BPI PBG device can be fast-turned on, owing to the fast disappearance of the disturbance of the azo-LCs on the boundary LCs via the green-beam-induced cis → trans back isomerization. The response time and irradiated energy density for turning off (on) the BP PBG device under the UV (green) beam irradiation are only 120 ms (120 ms) and 0.764 mJ/cm(2) (2.12 mJ/cm(2)), respectively, which are a thousand-fold reduction in photoswitching a traditional cholesteric LC (CLC) PBG device based on similar experimental conditions (i.e., materials used, azo-LC concentration (1 wt%), spectral position of PBG peak, sample thickness, and temperature difference for a working temperature lower than the clearing one). The BP PBG device can significantly contribute to efforts to develop a photosensitive and all-optically fast-controlling LC laser.

  15. Accuracy and Significance of Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Sentinel Node Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Carolina University). Dyes Used: The most commonly used dye is isosulfan blue, however, other agents including fluorescein, indigo carmine 14󈧓... dye and technetium sulfur colloid to locate the sentinel node in breast cancer patients. These data support the first hypothesis of our research...technique of Tc99 and blue dye for SLN localization; 2) the application to larger tumors and patients with prior open biopsy or lumpectomy; 3) that

  16. Mixed titanium, silicon, and aluminum oxide nanostructures as novel adsorbent for removal of rhodamine 6G and methylene blue as cationic dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pal, Umapada; Sandoval, Alberto; Madrid, Sergio Isaac Uribe; Corro, Grisel; Sharma, Vivek; Mohanty, Paritosh

    2016-11-01

    Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing Ti, Si, and Al of 8-15 nm size range were synthesized using a combined sol-gel - hydrothermal method. Effects of composition on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of the nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), microRaman spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Dye removal abilities of the nanoparticles from aqueous solutions were tested for different cationic dyes. While all the mixed oxide nanoparticles revealed high and fast adsorption of cationic dyes, the particles containing Ti and Si turned out to be the best. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption behavior of the adsorbate - adsorbent systems could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Estimated thermodynamic parameters revealed the adsorption process is spontaneous, driven mainly by the electrostatic force between the cationic dye molecules and negative charge at nanoparticle surface. Highest dye adsorption capacity (162.96 mg MB/g) of the mixed oxide nanostructures containing Ti and Si is associated to their high specific surface area, and the presence of surface Si-O(δ-) groups, in addition to the hydroxyl groups of amorphous titania. Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing 75% Ti and 25% Si seen to be the most efficient adsorbents for removing cationic dye molecules from wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Blue patent lymphography prevents hydrocele after laparoscopic varicocelectomy: 10 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Salvatore Fabio; Giurin, Ida; Costa, Lorenzo; Alicchio, Francesca; Carabaich, Alessandro; De Pascale, Teresa; Settimi, Alessandro; Esposito, Ciro

    2012-11-01

    Laparoscopic varicocelectomy according to the Palomo technique is the most common procedure adopted in children with testicular varicocele. This procedure involves the ligation of the internal spermatic cord and is associated with a 3%-5% incidence of recurrence and up to 30% incidence of hydroceles. We sought to determine the impact of lymphatic preservation on hydrocele formation and the success of varicocelectomy. We retrospectively evaluated 396 patients with a mean age of 13.2 years who underwent laparoscopic varicocelectomy. Patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent a lymphatic-sparing (LS) procedure using isosulfan blue scrotal intra-dartoic injection and those who underwent a non-LS (NLS) technique. The incidences of recurrence/persistence and postoperative hydrocele formation requiring surgery or aspiration were analyzed statistically using the chi-squared test. Of 396 patients, 244 received a laparoscopic LS procedure, and 152 received an NLS operation. The LS patients in whom the lymphatic vessels were not identified (26/244 [10.6%]) were considered NLS repairs. The follow-up was at least 12 months. LS surgery (218 patients) was associated with a decreased incidence of postoperative hydrocele (0/218 [0%] versus 18/178 [10.1%]; chi-squared test=25.84, difference statistically significant). There was no significant difference in incidence of persistent or recurrent varicocele requiring reoperation following the initial procedure (5/218 [2.2%] versus 5/178 [2.8%]; chi-squared test=0.41, difference statistically not significant). Laparoscopic LS varicocelectomy using isosulfan blue is preferable to laparoscopic Palomo repair that does not preserve the lymphatics. It has a significantly lower incidence of postoperative hydroceles and still maintains a low incidence of persistence/recurrence.

  18. γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles: An easily recoverable effective photo-catalyst for the degradation of rose bengal and methylene blue dyes in the waste-water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Adhikary, Bibhutosh, E-mail: bibhutoshadhikary@yahoo.in

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs from a single-source precursor and characterized by XRD, TEM, UV–vis spectra. • The NPs were tested as effective photocatalyst toward degradation of RB and MB dyes. • The possible pathway of the photocatalytic decomposition process has been discussed. • The active species, OH·, was detected by TA photoluminescence probing techniques. - Abstract: γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from a single-source precursor complex [Fe{sub 3}O(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COO){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]NO{sub 3} by a simple thermal decomposition process and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)more » and UV–vis spectroscopic techniques. The NPs were highly pure and well crystallized having hexagonal morphology with an average particle size of 35 nm. The prepared γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite) NPs show effective photo-catalytic activity toward the degradation of rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) dyes under visible light irradiation and can easily be recoverable in the presence of magnetic field for successive re-uses. The possible photo-catalytic decomposition mechanism is discussed through the detection of hydroxyl radical (OH·) by terephthalic acid photo-luminescence probing technique.« less

  19. Fast microwave-assisted green synthesis of xanthan gum grafted acrylic acid for enhanced methylene blue dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Makhado, Edwin; Pandey, Sadanand; Nomngongo, Philiswa N; Ramontja, James

    2017-11-15

    In the present project, graft polymerization was employed to synthesis a novel adsorbent using acrylic acid (AA) and xanthan gum (XG) for cationic methylene dye (MB + ) removal from aqueous solution. The XG was rapidly grafted with acrylic acid (CH 2 =CHCOOH) under microwave heating. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were used to verify the adsorbent formed under optimized reaction conditions. Optimum reaction conditions [AA (0.4M), APS (0.05M), XG (2gL -1 ), MW power (100%), MW time (80s)] offer maximum %G and %GE of 484 and 78.3, respectively. The removal ratio of adsorbent to MB + reached to 92.8% at 100mgL -1 . Equilibrium and kinetic adsorptions of dyes were better explained by the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic model respectively. The results demonstrate xanthan gum grafted polyacrylic acid (mw XG-g-PAA) absorbent had the universality for removal of dyes through the chemical adsorption mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility.

  1. Quantitative comparison of long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes to Cy dyes: fluorescence of the dyes and their bioconjugates.

    PubMed

    Berlier, Judith E; Rothe, Anca; Buller, Gayle; Bradford, Jolene; Gray, Diane R; Filanoski, Brian J; Telford, William G; Yue, Stephen; Liu, Jixiang; Cheung, Ching-Ying; Chang, Wesley; Hirsch, James D; Beechem, Joseph M; Haugland, Rosaria P; Haugland, Richard P

    2003-12-01

    Amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters of Alexa Fluor fluorescent dyes with principal absorption maxima at about 555 nm, 633 nm, 647 nm, 660 nm, 680 nm, 700 nm, and 750 nm were conjugated to antibodies and other selected proteins. These conjugates were compared with spectrally similar protein conjugates of the Cy3, Cy5, Cy5.5, Cy7, DY-630, DY-635, DY-680, and Atto 565 dyes. As N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester dyes, the Alexa Fluor 555 dye was similar to the Cy3 dye, and the Alexa Fluor 647 dye was similar to the Cy5 dye with respect to absorption maxima, emission maxima, Stokes shifts, and extinction coefficients. However, both Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more resistant to photobleaching than were their Cy dye counterparts. Absorption spectra of protein conjugates prepared from these dyes showed prominent blue-shifted shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Cy dyes but only minor shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Alexa Fluor dyes. The anomalous peaks, previously observed for protein conjugates of the Cy5 dye, are presumably due to the formation of dye aggregates. Absorption of light by the dye aggregates does not result in fluorescence, thereby diminishing the fluorescence of the conjugates. The Alexa Fluor 555 and the Alexa Fluor 647 dyes in protein conjugates exhibited significantly less of this self-quenching, and therefore the protein conjugates of Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more fluorescent than those of the Cy dyes, especially at high degrees of labeling. The results from our flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrate that protein-conjugated, long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes have advantages compared to the Cy dyes and other long-wavelength dyes in typical fluorescence-based cell labeling applications.

  2. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  3. Dye-Sensitized Downconversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zijun; Meijerink, Andries

    2018-04-05

    Splitting one high-energy photon into two lower energy photons through downconversion has been demonstrated for a variety of combinations of rare earth (RE) ions. However, the low absorption cross section of RE 3+ 4f-4f transitions hampers practical application. Therefore, enhancing the absorption by sensitization is crucial. We demonstrate efficient dye-sensitized downconversion using a strong blue/UV absorbing Coumarin dye to sensitize downconversion of the Pr 3+ -Yb 3+ couple in NaYF 4 nanocrystals (NCs). Luminescence spectra and lifetime measurements reveal Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) from Coumarin to Pr 3+ in NaYF 4 :Pr 3+ Yb 3+ NCs, followed by downconversion, resulting in Yb 3+ IR emission with ∼30 times enhancement. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of dye-sensitized downconversion as a promising strategy to engineer strongly absorbing downconversion NCs to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic cells.

  4. Hydrotalcite-TiO2 magnetic iron oxide intercalated with the anionic surfactant dodecylsulfate in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Liany D L; Bellato, Carlos R; Milagres, Jaderson L; Moura, Luciano G; Mounteer, Ann H; de Almeida, Marciano F

    2015-06-01

    The new magnetic photocatalysts HT/TiO2/Fe and HT-DS/TiO2/Fe, modified with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (DS) were successfully synthesized in this work. Titanium dioxide (anatase) followed by iron oxide were deposited on the hydrotalcite support. Several catalyst samples were prepared with different amounts of titanium and iron. The photocatalysts were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy. Photocatalytic performance was analyzed by UV-visible radiation (filter cutoff, λ > 300 nm) of an aqueous solution (24 mg/L) of methylene blue (MB). The most efficient catalyst was obtained at an iron oxide:TiO2 molar ratio of 2:3. This catalyst showed high photocatalytic activity, removing 96% of the color and 61% of total organic carbon from the MB solution after 120 min. It was easily removed from solution after use because of its magnetic properties. The reuse of the HT-DS/TiO2/Fe23 catalyst was viable and the catalyst was structurally stable for at least four consecutive photocatalytic cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two new Ni(II) supramolecular complexes based on ethyl isonicotinate and ethyl nicotinate for removal of acid blue 92 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Marie, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    Two new luminescent supramolecular complexes (SC); [Ni(EIN)4(NCS)2] SC1 and [Ni2(EN)8(NCS)4] SC2, (EIN = ethyl isonicotinate, EN = ethyl nicotinate), have been synthesized by self-assembly method and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra, PXRD, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Both SC1 and SC2 are monoclinic crystals however, they have different asymmetric units. Ni(II) atoms in both SC are isostructural and have similar hexa-coordinate environment. The structures of SC1 and SC2 consist of parallel polymeric 1D-chains, extended in two and three dimensional supramolecular frameworks by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. SC1 and SC2 are luminescent materials which can be used in applications as molecular sensing systems. SC1 and SC2 were used as heterogeneous catalysts for degradation of acid blue 92 (AB-92) under sun light irradiation. The fluorescence measurements of terephthalic acid technique as a probe molecule were used to determine the •OH radicals. Also the radicals trapping experiments using isopropanol alcohol (IPA) as radical scavenger were discussed. In addition a mechanism of degradation was proposed and discussed.

  6. Diode pumped tunable dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukova, O.; Gorbunkov, M.; Petukhov, V.; Semenov, M.

    2017-03-01

    A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by blue laser diodes (λ =445 nm) in a 200 ns pulsed mode has been developed. We used a 3-mirror cavity with transverse excitation and total internal reflection of laser beam in the active element. Tuning curves for 8 dyes in benzyl alcohol were measured in the range of 506-700 nm. Four dyes have their tuning range more than 60 nm, which is comparable to the tuning ranges of other dye lasers pumped by more expensive sources. The output energy obtained at the generation maximum of both DCM and coumarin 540A dyes was approximately 130 nJ while the pump energy was 2400 nJ.

  7. Preparation of microscale zero-valent iron-fly ash-bentonite composite and evaluation of its adsorption performance of crystal violet and methylene blue dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongmei; López-Valdivieso, Alejandro; Zhang, Teng; Mwamulima, Teza; Zhang, Xiaolin; Song, Shaoxian; Peng, Changsheng

    2017-08-01

    New microscale zero-valent iron adsorbent on fly ash and bentonite matrix for removal of crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB) was synthesized through direct reduction of iron oxide using coke and palm kernel shell. The adsorbent was prepared as cylindrical shaped pellets to remove the CV and MB from the aqueous solution. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the adsorbent is highly porous, and the iron particles are finely dispersed on the supporting material surfaces. FTIR and UV studies indicated that the C=C bonds in CV and C=N + (CH 3 ) 2 bonds in MB were affected in the adsorption process. MB switched to the reduced MBH 2 species while CV was reduced to two small-size molecular compounds, explaining the higher CV adsorption in comparison to that of MB. The reduction of these compounds was coupled to the oxidation of Fe 0 to Fe 2 O 3 as revealed by XRD characterization of the adsorbent after adsorption. CV and MB adsorption isotherms fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption model. Different adsorption and reduction kinetic models were examined for the MB and CV removal processes. A better fit of the experimental data with the pseudo-second-order model was observed. CV and MB adsorption increased with temperature in the 30-50 °C range. At 50 °C, adsorption capacities of CV and MB reached to 89.9 and 42.8 mg/g, respectively. This new adsorbent showed a superior adsorption capacity for CV and MB when compared to other adsorbents.

  8. Effectiveness of photosensitive dye during uptake and redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Yan; Jacques, Steven L.; Gofstein, Gary

    1992-06-01

    The location of photosensitive dye within a cell will affect the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). This report demonstrates that during the first 3 hours of dye (Photofrin porfimer) uptake from a liquid medium, the dye is diffusely distributed within the cell. After 24 hours of dye uptake, the dye is localized in specific sites within the cell. Fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that the 3-hour dye's emission peak near 635 nm was slightly blue shifted for the localized 24-hour dye. This paper demonstrates that the diffuse dye (at 3 hours) is more effective for PDT than the localized dye (at 24 hours). The amount of diffuse dye within the cell that is required to achieve an LD50 (50% lethal dose) is 1.5-fold to 4.5- fold less than the amount of localized dye required, using the same light exposure. The range of 1.5 - 4.5-fold refers to the results for four cell lines.

  9. Prussian Blue

    MedlinePlus

    ... Groups Resources for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & ... Prussian blue work? Who can take Prussian blue? How is Prussian blue given? What are the side effects of Prussian blue? Where can I get Prussian ...

  10. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of some novel Schiff bases and their Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes: A new route for Co3O4 and NiO nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Aly, Hisham M.; Abdelrahman, Ehab A.; Moustafa, Moustafa E.

    2017-09-01

    Six novel Co(II) and Ni(II)-triazole Schiff base complexes have been successfully synthesized by refluxing the prepared triazole Schiff bases with CoCl2·6H2O or NiCl2·6H2O. The Schiff base ligands were prepared through condensation of 3-R-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazole with dibenzoylmethane [Rdbnd H, CH3, and CH2CH3; namely, L1, L2, and L3, respectively]. The prepared Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have been identified using elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment, conductivity, and thermal analysis. On the basis of the conductance results, it was concluded that all the prepared complexes are nonelectrolytes. Interestingly, the prepared Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes were employed as precursors for producing of Co3O4 and NiO nanoparticles, respectively. The produced nanostructures have been identified by XRD, HR-TEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra. The produced nanoparticles revealed good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under UV illumination in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The percent of degradation was estimated to be 55.71% in 420.0 min and 90.43% in 360.0 min for Co3O4 and NiO, respectively. Moreover, the synthesized complexes, nano-sized Co3O4, and NiO products have been examined, employing modified Bauer- Kirby method, for antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus) and antibacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) activities.

  12. Disquisition on the interaction of ibuprofen-Zn(II) complex with calf thymus DNA by spectroscopic techniques and the use of Hoechst 33258 and Methylene blue dyes as spectral probes.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Shiri, Farshad; Norouzibazaz, Mohammadsaleh; Falah, Aliyar

    2018-02-20

    The interaction between ibuprofen-Zn(II) complex and calf thymus DNA in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was studied with the use of Hoechst 33258 and methylene blue dyes as spectral probes by multi-spectroscopic techniques, and viscosity measurements. It was found that ibuprofen-Zn(II) complex molecules could bind with DNA via groove binding mode as evidenced by: i- DNA binding constant (K b = (1.00 ± 0.2) × 10 4 M -1 ) from Spectrophotometric studies of the interaction of ibuprofen-Zn(II) complex with DNA is comparable to groove binding drugs. ii- Absorption Spectra of Competitive interaction of ibuprofen-Zn(II) complex and Hoechst 33258 with DNA exhibited the reverse process, The results suggested that interaction of the ibuprofen-Zn(II) complex with calf thymus DNA, is similar to Hoechst 33258 interaction with calf thymus DNA (This was verified by the following fluorescence study). iii- Competitive fluorimetric studies with Hoechst 33258 have shown that ibuprofen-Zn(II) complex exhibit the ability of this complex to displace with DNA-bounded Hoechst 33258, indicating that it binds to DNA in strong competition with Hoechst 33258 for the groove binding. iv- There is no significantly change in the fluorescence intensity of the MB-DNA system upon adding the ibuprofen-Zn(II) complex, indicate that MB molecules are not released from the DNA helix after addition of the ibuprofen-Zn(II) complex and are indicative of a non-intercalative mode of binding. v- Small changes in DNA viscosity in the presence of ibuprofen-Zn(II) complex, indicating weak link to DNA, which is consistent with DNA groove binding. As well as, induced CD spectral changes, and the docking results revealed that groove mechanism is followed by ibuprofen-Zn(II) complex to bind with DNA.

  13. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  14. Azacoumarin dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

  15. Excited state electric dipole moment of nile blue and brilliant cresyl blue: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Hosseini, S. E.; Moghadam, M.; Alizadeh, E.

    2012-04-01

    A solvatochromic study on the photophysical properties of two cationic oxazine dyes (brilliant cresyl blue and nile blue) was carried out. The electronic absorption and emission spectra of the dyes were recorded in various organic solvents with different polarity. The ground and the excited state dipole moments of the dyes were estimated from solvatochromic shift method. The solvent dependent spectral shifts in absorption and fluorescence spectra were analyzed by the Katritzky and Kamlet-Taft multi-parameter scales. This work is characterized by detailed quantitative studies on the nature and extent of solvent-solute interactions.

  16. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  17. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation.

  18. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2017-12-09

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  19. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  20. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  1. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  2. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

  3. Indicator characteristics of bromothymol blue derivatives.

    PubMed

    Puschett, J B; Rao, B S; Karandikar, B M; Matyjaszewski, K

    1991-03-01

    Some Bromothymol Blue derivatives with a nitro, amino, isothiocyanato or sulfonamide group substituted on the sulfonated ring of the dibromothymolsulfonephthalein have been studied spectrometrically. All the dyes have two characteristic absorption peaks which can be used to measure pH in the physiological range. The molar absorptivities, wavelengths of maximum absorption and pK(a) values have been determined from the absorbances, and are similar for all four dyes.

  4. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Suxiang; Cai, Lejuan; Li, Dapeng; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In2S3 nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  5. What Is Happening when the Blue Bottle Bleaches: An Investigation of the Methylene Blue-Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laurens; Wittkopp, Stacy M.; Painter, Christopher J.; Liegel, Jessica J.; Schreiner, Rodney; Bell, Jerry A.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the Blue Bottle Experiment, a well-known lecture demonstration reaction involving the dye-catalyzed air oxidation of a reducing sugar in alkaline solution, has delineated the sequence of reactions leading to the bleaching of the dye, the regeneration of color, and so forth. Enolization of the sugar is proposed as a key step in…

  6. Spectral studies of pH dye films for detection of toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Wieslaw; Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Golubkov, Sergei P.; Borsuk, Pavel S.

    1993-09-01

    The molecular absorption spectra of pH dyes, employed for ammonia sensing are investigated. Differences of absorption spectra of Bromothymol Blue and Bromocresol Purple dyes, dissolved in water and entrapped in Polymethylphenylsiloxane film are discussed. Correspondence of dye-films absorption bands shape to the Gauss distribution shape in the spectral region of light source emission band was determined.

  7. Properties of nucleic acid staining dyes used in gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Tobe, Shanan S; Kobus, Hilton J; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid staining dyes are used for detecting nucleic acids in electrophoresis gels. Historically, the most common dye used for gel staining is ethidium bromide, however due to its toxicity and mutagenicity other dyes that are safer to the user and the environment are preferred. This Short Communication details the properties of dyes now available and their sensitivity for detection of DNA and their ability to permeate the cell membrane. It was found that GelRed™ was the most sensitive and safest dye to use with UV light excitation, and both GelGreen™ and Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye were sensitive and the safer dyes using blue light excitation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  9. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

  10. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  11. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  12. Transforming Benzophenoxazine Laser Dyes into Chromophores for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Molecular Engineering Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Schröder, Florian A. Y. N.; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Waddell, Paul G.

    2015-02-03

    The re-functionalization of a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, is explored with the prospect of molecularly engineering new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Such engineering is important since a lack of suitable dyes is stifling the progress of DSC technology. The conceptual idea involves making laser dyes DSC-active by chemical modification, while maintaining their key property attributes that are attractive to DSC applications. This molecular engineering follows a step-wise approach. Firstly, molecular structures and optical absorption properties are determined for the parent laser dyes: Cresyl Violet (1); Oxazine 170 (2); Nile Blue Amore » (3), Oxazine 750 (4). These reveal structure-property relationships which define the prerequisites for computational molecular design of DSC dyes; the nature of their molecular architecture (D-π-A) and intramolecular charge transfer. Secondly, new DSC dyes are computationally designed by the in silico addition of a carboxylic acid anchor at various chemical substitution points in the parent laser dyes. A comparison of the resulting frontier molecular orbital energy levels with the conduction band edge of a TiO2 DSC photoanode and the redox potential of two electrolyte options I-/I3- and Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl) suggests promise for these computationally designed dyes as co-sensitizers for DSC applications.« less

  13. Horseradish peroxidase catalyzed degradation of industrially important dyes.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, A; Durani, S; Wangikar, P P

    2001-03-05

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is known to degrade certain recalcitrant organic compounds such as phenol and substituted phenols. Here, for the first time we have shown HRP to be effective in degrading and precipitating industrially important azo dyes. For Remazol blue, the enzyme activity was found to be far better at pH 2.5 than at neutral pH. In addition, Remazol blue acts as a strong competitive inhibitor of HRP at neutral pH. Horseradish peroxidase shows broad substrate specificity toward a variety of azo dyes. Kinetic constants (K(m)(app) and V(max)(app)) for two different dyes have been determined. In addition to providing a systematic analysis of the potential of HRP in degradation of dyes, this study opens up a new area on exploration of commercial dyes as inhibitors of enzymes. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Decolorisation of disperse dark blue 148 with ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eren, S.; Yetisir, I.; Eren, H. A.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is decolorisation of CI Disperse Dark Blue 148 dye by ozone treatment which is one of the most attractive alternatives for solving the problem of color in textile dyeing effluents. A venturi injection system added dyeing chamber for getting ozone from the ozone generator. And additive (acetic acid and dispersing agent) put in the dyeing. After the coloration, the experimental color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, temperature (°C) and conductivity (μS/cm) were measured. The results encourage the use of the system for decolorisation trials as well as dyebath effluent recycling.

  15. Removal of an anionic dye by adsorption/precipitation processes using alkaline white mud.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Lee, Li; Wang, Hai-Hua; Wang, Zheng

    2007-11-19

    Alkaline white mud (AWM) has been investigated as a low-cost material for removal of an anionic dye, acid blue 80. The effects of contact time, initial pH of dye solution, AWM dosage, and the presence of inorganic anion sulphate or phosphate ion on removal of the dye were evaluated. The results show that AWM could be used as an effective material for removal of acid blue 80 in a pre or main process, particularly at high dye concentration (>300 mgL(-1)), reaching maximum removal efficiency of 95%. At low dye concentration, surface adsorption is mainly responsible for the dye removal, while chemical precipitation of the dye anions with soluble Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) may play a dominant role for the dye removal at high concentration, producing much less sludge than conventional adsorption method. Solution pH has only a limited effect on the dye removal due to high alkalinity and large pH buffer capacity of AWM suspension and thereby pH is not a limiting factor in pursuing high dye removal. The presence of SO(4)(2-) could reduce the dye removal by AWM only when SO(4)(2-) concentration is beyond 0.7 mmolL(-1). The dye removal may be significantly suppressed by the presence of phosphate with increasing concentration, and the reduction in the dye removal is much larger at high dye concentrations than at low ones.

  16. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-10-01

    An intense and efficient excitation source for blue-green lasers useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and a newly designed dense-plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense UV photons (200 to 300 nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400 nm). During the current project period, the successful enhancement of blue-green laser output of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 dye through the spectral conversion of the HCP pumping light has been achieved with a converter dye BBQ. The factor of enhancement in the blue-green laser output energy of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 is almost 73%. This enhancement will definitely be helpful in achieving the direct high power blue-green laser (> 1 MW) with the existing blue green dye laser. On the other hand the dense-plasma focus (DPF) with new optical coupling has been designed and constructed. For the optimization of the DPF device as the UV pumping light source, the velocity of current sheath and the formation of plasma focus have been measured as function of argon or argon-deuterium fill gas pressure. Finally, the blue-green dye laser (LD490) has been pumped with the DPF device for preliminary tests. Experimental results with the DPF device show that the velocity of the current sheath follows the inverse relation of sq st. of pressure as expected. The blue-green dye (LD490) laser output exceeded 3.1 m at the best cavity tuning of laser system. This corresponds to 3J/1 cu cm laser energy extraction.

  17. A comparative spectroscopic study of thiourea effect on the photophysical and molecular association behavior of various phenothiazine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Dezhampanah, H.; Poormohammadi-Ahandani, Z.

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes the role of a structure breaking additive (thiourea) on the photophysical and molecular association of a series of phenothiazine dyes in aqueous media using the absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods for the first time. The studied dyes were thionine, azure A, azure B, toluidine blue, and methylene blue. The spectral data were analyzed using DECOM program. Relevant spectral parameters in the dye solutions were estimated and discussed based on the chemical structure of the additive and excitonic treatment. The observation of spectral changes in the spectral data of the (water-additive-dye) system indicates the possible structure formation between the dye and additive molecules. However, it is found that in the high concentrations of thiourea the dimer geometries (H- and J-type dimers) are influenced by the dye-additive interactions. As a result, a competition between the dye-additive and dye-dye interactions was also observed.

  18. Albumin binds self-assembling dyes as specific polymolecular ligands.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Barbara; Rybarska, Janina; Drozd, Anna; Konieczny, Leszek; Król, Marcin; Lisowski, Marek; Piekarska, Barbara; Roterman, Irena; Spólnik, Paweł; Zemanek, Grzegorz

    2006-12-15

    Self-assembling dyes with a structure related to Congo red (e.g. Evans blue) form polymolecular complexes with albumin. The dyes, which are lacking a self-assembling property (Trypan blue, ANS) bind as single molecules. The supramolecular character of dye ligands bound to albumin was demonstrated by indicating the complexation of dye molecules outnumbering the binding sites in albumin and by measuring the hydrodynamic radius of albumin which is growing upon complexation of self-assembling dye in contrast to dyes lacking this property. The self-assembled character of Congo red was also proved using it as a carrier introducing to albumin the intercalated nonbonding foreign compounds. Supramolecular, ordered character of the dye in the complex with albumin was also revealed by finding that self-assembling dyes become chiral upon complexation. Congo red complexation makes albumin less resistant to low pH as concluded from the facilitated N-F transition, observed in studies based on the measurement of hydrodynamic radius. This particular interference with protein stability and the specific changes in digestion resulted from binding of Congo red suggest that the self-assembled dye penetrates the central crevice of albumin.

  19. Optical properties of cyanine dyes in nanotubes of chrysotile asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starovoytov, Anton A.; Vartanyan, Tigran A.; Belotitskii, Vladimir I.; Kumzerov, Yuri A.; Sysoeva, Anna A.

    2017-08-01

    Optical properties of cyanine dye molecules incorporated in nanotubes of natural chrysotile asbestos are studied. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of dye in asbestos have the similar shapes as in the ethanol solution, apart from small blue shift of the maxima. The Stokes shift in asbestos is smaller than in the ethanol solution. The fluorescence decay times of the dyes in asbestos nanotubes are found to be larger than that in the case of thin films of the same dyes formed on the transparent dielectric supports. This observation is rationalized in terms of the stereoisomerization hindrance in the excited electronic state of dye molecules. At the same time linear dichroism and fluorescence anisotropy observed in the experiment indicate that the embedded dye molecules are well-isolated monomer oriented predominantly along asbestos nanotubes.

  20. Amine-Reactive Dyes for Dead Cell Discrimination in Fixed Samples

    PubMed Central

    Perfetto, Stephen P.; Chattopadhyay, Pratip K.; Lamoreaux, Laurie; Nguyen, Richard; Ambrozak, David; Koup, Richard A.; Roederer, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Amine-reactive dyes, also known as LIVE/DEAD® fixable dead cell stains, are a class of viability dyes suitable for identifying dead cells in samples that will be fixed. These dyes cross the cell membranes of dead cells, and react with free amines in the cytoplasm. Live cells exclude these dyes because their cell membranes are intact, and free dye is washed away after staining. Notably, the reaction is irreversible; therefore, when cells are fixed and permeabilized (as with intracellular staining procedures), the bound dye remains associated with the dead cells (unlike other viability dyes). Since amine-reactive dyes are fluorescent when excited by lasers, dead cells can be identified by flow cytometry. This unit describes procedures, troubleshooting, and outcomes for using the two most commonly used amine-reactive dyes, ViViD and Aqua Blue. PMID:20578108

  1. Preparation of highly selective solid-phase extractants for Cibacron reactive dyes using molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Al-Degs, Yahya S; Abu-Surrah, Adnan S; Ibrahim, Khalid A

    2009-02-01

    Selective polymeric extractants were prepared for preconcentration of Cibacron reactive red dye, a dye that is often applied with Cibacron reactive blue and Cibacron reactive yellow for dyeing of fabrics. The best extractant was fabricated (in chloroform) using methacrylic acid (as monomer), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (as crosslinker), AIBN (as initiator for polymerization), and red dye as template molecule, with a molar stoichiometric ratio of 8.0:40.0:2.5:0.63, respectively. The structure of the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was robust, and resisted dissolution up to 260 degrees C. Compared with the un-imprinted polymer, the imprinted product has a large specific surface area which improved its adsorption capacity. The effect of imprinting was obvious from the adsorption capacity measured at pH 4 for red dye (the imprinted molecule), which was increased from 24.0 to 79.3 mg g(-1) after imprinting. Equilibrium adsorption studies revealed that the dye-imprinted-polymer enables efficient extraction of red dye even in the presence of blue and yellow dyes which have similar chemical natures to the red dye. The selectivity coefficients S (red dye/dye), were 13.9 and 17.1 relative to the yellow and blue dyes, respectively. The MIP was found to be effective for red dye preconcentration, with a preconcentration factor of 100, from tap water and treated textile wastewater. The factors affecting extraction of red dye by the MIP were studied and optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, red dye was selectively quantified in the presence of other competing dyes at a concentration of 20 microg L(-1) from different water systems with satisfactory recoveries (91-95%) and RSD values (approximately 5.0%).

  2. Blue Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-19

    Bands and spots in Saturn's atmosphere, including a dark band south of the equator with a scalloped border, are visible in this image from the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft. The narrow angle camera took the image in blue light on Feb. 29, 2004. The distance to Saturn was 59.9 million kilometers (37.2 million miles). The image scale is 359 kilometers (223 miles) per pixel. Three of Saturn's moons are seen in the image: Enceladus (499 kilometers, or 310 miles across) at left; Mimas (398 kilometers, or 247 miles across) left of Saturn's south pole; and Rhea (1,528 kilometers, or 949 miles across) at lower right. The imaging team enhanced the brightness of the moons to aid visibility. The BL1 broadband spectral filter (centered at 451 nanometers) allows Cassini to "see" light in a part of the spectrum visible as the color blue to human eyes. Scientist can combine images made with this filter with those taken with red and green filters to create full-color composites. Scientists can also assess cloud heights by combining images from the blue filter with images taken in other spectral regions. For example, the bright clouds that form the equatorial zone are the highest in altitude and have pressures at their tops of about one quarter of Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level. The cloud tops at middle latitudes are lower in altitude and have higher pressures of about half that found at sea level. Analysis of Saturn images like this one will be extremely useful to researchers assessing cloud altitudes during the Cassini-Huygens mission. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05383

  3. [Optimization on decoloration conditions of anthraquinone dyes by laccase from Amillariella mellea].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xian-Feng; Qin, Ren-Bing; Yu, Chen-Chen; Fan, Shu-Jun

    2012-02-01

    Laccase extracted from the Amillariella mellea fermentation catalytic decolored on two common anthraquinone dyes: Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R and Reactive Brilliant Blue X-BR which is broadly used in the printing and dyeing industry and obtained the optimal catalytic decolorizing conditions. The results showed that optimum temperature of Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R decolorization was 30 degrees C, the optimum dye concentrations was 80 mg x L(-1), the optimum enzyme dosage was 0.25 U x mL(-1), and the optimum pH was 5. Under this optimal conditions, the maximum decolorization rate of Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R was over 90%. The optimum temperature Reactive Brilliant Blue X-BR decolorization was 30 degrees C, the optimum dye concentrations was 50 mg x L(-1), the optimum enzyme dosage was 0.5 U x mL(-1), and the optimum was pH 4. Under the optimal conditions, the maximum decolorization rate of Reactive Brilliant Blue X-BR was over 70%. The decolorization on the two common industrial dyes by crude enzyme from Amillariella mellea fermentation obtained a good results. The results indicated that the decoloration on anthraquinone dyes by laccase from Amillariella mellea has a potential value in the printing and dyeing industry.

  4. A comparative study on the aggregate formation of two oxazine dyes in aqueous and aqueous urea solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, A. Ghanadzadeh; Moghadam, M.; Hosseini, S. E.; Zakerhamidi, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The visible absorption spectra of two oxazine dyes, brilliant cresyl blue and nile blue, in aqueous and aqueous urea solutions (0.01-1 M) were studied as a function of the dye concentration. Due to structural similarity of the investigated dyes, their spectral features were compared. The dimerization behavior of the dyes in water with or without urea was analyzed in terms of monomer-dimer equilibrium. The nature and structure of the interacting pairs for these dyes were discussed using the exciton theory. The dimerization constant values of the dyes in aqueous and aqueous urea solutions were calculated. For both the dyes in aqueous urea solutions, a reduction in dimer formation was observed. The excitonic parameters were compared with those of oxazine-1, which is structurally similar to the investigated dyes.

  5. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Balla, Wafaa; Essadki, A H; Gourich, B; Dassaa, A; Chenik, H; Azzi, M

    2010-12-15

    This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm(-2) and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E(dye)) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg(dye) was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg(dye) for disperse and 50 kWh/kg(dye) for the mixture. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of different dyes used in leakage studies.

    PubMed

    Mente, Johannes; Ferk, Stephan; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Deckert, Andreas; Legner, Milos; Staehle, Hans Joerg

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this in vitro study was to identify the most suitable dye for endodontic dye leakage studies, which could be a further step towards standardisation. The root canals of 70 extracted, single-rooted human adult teeth were enlarged to apical size 50 using hand instruments. The teeth were divided into seven groups (n = 10 each), and all root canals were completely filled by injection with one of the following dyes: methylene blue 0.5% and 5%, blue ink, black ink, eosin 5%, basic fuchsin 0.5% and drawing ink. Transverse root sections from the coronal, middle and apical part of the roots were examined, and the percentage of the dentine penetrated by dye was evaluated by software-supported light microscopy. In addition, the range of particle size of drawing ink particles was evaluated. There were conspicuous differences in the relative dye penetration into the root dentine and the penetration behaviour in the different root sections (two-way ANOVA, both p < 0.0001). One dye (drawing ink) penetrated less into the root dentine compared with all the others (p <0.0001). The particle size of this agent (0.1-2 microm) corresponds best with the size range of a representative selection of 21 species of pathogenic endodontic bacteria. Compared to the other dyes tested, drawing ink appears to be superior for use in endodontic dye leakage studies. The penetration behaviour into the root dentine of all the other dyes tested might be one factor that limits the applicability of these dyes in dye leakage studies.

  7. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1986-10-01

    An intense and efficient source for blue green laser useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, the hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and the dense plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense uv photons (200 to 400nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400nm). As a result of optimization of the DPF light at 355nm, the blue green dye (LD490) laser output exceeding 4mJ was obtained at the best cavity tunning of the laser system. With the HCP pumped system a significant enhancement of the blue green laser outputs with dye LD490 and coumarin 503 has been achieved through the spectrum conversion of the pumping light by mixing a converter dye BBQ. The maximum increase of laser output with the dye mixture of LD490+BBQ and coumarin 503+BBQ was greater than 80%. In addition, the untunned near UV lasers were also obtained. The near UV laser output energy of P-terphenyl dye was 0.5mJ at lambda sub C=337nm with the bandwidth of 3n m for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2microsec.

  8. STUDIES ON PENETRATION OF DYES WITH GLASS ELECTRODE

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Marian

    1930-01-01

    Glass electrode measurements of the pH value of the sap of cells of Nitella show that azure B in the form of free base penetrates the vacuoles and raises the pH value of the sap to about the same degree as the free base of the dye added to the sap in vitro, but the dye salt dissolved in the sap does not alter the pH value of the sap. It is concluded that the dye penetrates the vacuoles chiefly in the form of free base and not as salt. The dye from methylene blue solution containing azure B free base as impurity penetrates and accumulates in the vacuole. This dye must be azure B in the form of free base, since it raises the pH value of the sap to about the same extent as the free base of azure B dissolved in the sap in vitro. The dye absorbed by the chloroform from methylene blue solution behaves like the dye penetrating the vacuole. These results confirm those of spectrophotometric analysis previously published. Crystal violet exists only in one form between pH 5 and pH 9.2, and does not alter the pH value of the sap at the concentrations used. It does not penetrate readily unless cells are injured. A theory of "multiple partition coefficients" is described which explains the mechanism of the behavior of living cells to these dyes. When the protoplasm is squeezed into the sap, the pH value of the mixture is higher than that of the pure sap. The behavior of such a mixture to the dye is very much like that of the sap except that with azure B and methylene blue the rise in the pH value of such a mixture is not so pronounced as with sap when the dye penetrates into the vacuoles. Spectrophotometric measurements show that the dye which penetrates from methylene blue solution has a primary absorption maximum at 653 to 655 mµ (i.e., is a mixture of azure B and methylene blue, with preponderance of azure B) whether we take the sap alone or the sap plus protoplasm. These results confirm those previously obtained with spectrophotometric measurements. PMID:19872572

  9. The Blue Bottle Experiment--Simple Demonstration of Self-Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamcikova, L'ubica; Sevcik, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explains a way of observing pattern formation in the Blue Bottle chemistry demonstration by pouring a solution containing sodium hydroxide, glucose, and dye into a Petri dish and placing the dish on an overhead projector. (WRM)

  10. Phytoremediation in education: textile dye teaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Ibbini, Jwan H; Davis, Lawrence C; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-07-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up contaminated soil and water, has a wide range of applications and advantages, and can be extended to scientific education. Phytoremediation of textile dyes can be used as a scientific experiment or demonstration in teaching laboratories of middle school, high school and college students. In the experiments that we developed, students were involved in a hands-on activity where they were able to learn about phytoremediation concepts. Experiments were set up with 20-40 mg L(-1) dye solutions of different colors. Students can be involved in the set up process and may be involved in the experimental design. In its simplest forms, they use two-week-old sunflower seedlings and place them into a test tube of known volume of dye solution. Color change and/or dye disappearance can be monitored by visual comparison or with a spectrophotometer. Intensity and extent of the lab work depends on student's educational level, and time constraints. Among the many dyes tested, Evan's Blue proved to be the most readily decolorized azo dye. Results could be observed within 1-2 hours. From our experience, dye phytoremediation experiments are suitable and easy to understand by both college and middle school students. These experiments help visual learners, as students compare the color of the dye solution before and after the plant application. In general, simple phytoremediation experiments of this kind can be introduced in many classes including biology, biochemistry and ecological engineering. This paper presents success stories of teaching phytoremediation to middle school and college students.

  11. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  12. Biodegradable hollow zein nanoparticles for removal of reactive dyes from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Helan; Zhang, Yue; Jiang, Qiuran; Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2013-08-15

    In this study, biodegradable hollow zein nanoparticles with diameters less than 100 nm were developed to remove reactive dyes from simulated post-dyeing wastewater with remarkably high efficiency. Reactive dyes are widely used to color cellulosic materials, such as cotton and rayon. Wastewater from reactive dyeing process contains up to 50% dye and electrolytes with concentrations up to 100 g L(-1). Current methods to remove reactive dyes from wastewater are suffering from low adsorption capacities or low biodegradability of the sorbents. In this research, biodegradable zein nanoparticles showed high adsorption capacities for dyes. Hollow zein nanoparticles showed higher adsorption for Reactive Blue 19 than solid structures, and the adsorption amount increased as temperature decreased, pH decreased or initial dye concentration increased. At pH 6.5 and pH 9.0, increasing electrolyte concentration could improve dye adsorption significantly. Under simulated post-dyeing condition with 50.0 g L(-1) salt and pH 9.0, maximum adsorption of 1016.0 mg dye per gram zein nanoparticles could be obtained. The adsorption capacity was much higher than that of various biodegradable adsorbents developed to remove reactive dye. It is suggested that the hollow zein nanoparticles are good candidates to remove reactive dye immediately after dyeing process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Fe3O4@MnO2 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles as an adsorbent for decolorization of methylene blue dye in contaminated water: Synthesis and characterization, kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayesteh, Hadi; Ashrafi, Amir; Rahbar-Kelishami, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    In this study, Fe3O4@MnO2 core-shell nanoparticles were synthesis by a simple one-pot method. These nanoparticles were applied for removal of methylene blue (MB) ions from aqueous solution by a batch technique and characterized by TEM, XRD, EDS, FTI), FE-SE, VSM and BET surface area measurement. The influence of different adsorption parameters, such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of MB ions, pH value of solution and temperature have been investigated. Three isotherm equations, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin, have been tested in order to describe the equilibrium characteristics of adsorption. The equilibrium data for adsorption of MB were fitted well by Freundlich isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of Langmuir was 434.78 mg/g at 298 K approximately. The experimental results were fitted better with pseudo-second-order model compared to the other two models. In addition, thermodynamic calculations revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous, exothermic and feasible. The result of experimental shows that Fe3O4@MnO2 nanoparticles is suitable adsorbent for removal of MB from aqueous solutions.

  14. Effect of adsorbed/intercalated anionic dyes into the mechanical properties of PVA: layered zinc hydroxide nitrate nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Rafael; Mikowski, Alexandre; Wypych, Fernando

    2010-11-15

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) was adsorbed with anions of blue dyes (Chicago sky blue, CSB; Evans blue, EB; and Niagara blue, NB) and intercalated with anions of orange dyes (Orange G, OG; Orange II, OII; methyl orange, MO). Transparent, homogeneous and colored nanocomposite films were obtained by casting after dispersing the pigments (dye-intercalated/adsorbed into LHSs) into commercial poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The films were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. The mechanical properties of the PVA compounded with the dye-intercalated/adsorbed ZHN were evaluated, and reasonable increases in Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength were observed, depending on the amount and choice of layered filler. These results demonstrate the possibility of using a new class of layered hydroxide salts intercalated and adsorbed with anionic dyes to prepare multifunctional polymer nanocomposite materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Jupiter Blues

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-30

    See Jovian clouds in striking shades of blue in this new view taken by NASA's Juno spacecraft. The Juno spacecraft captured this image when the spacecraft was only 11,747 miles (18,906 kilometers) from the tops of Jupiter's clouds -- that's roughly as far as the distance between New York City and Perth, Australia. The color-enhanced image, which captures a cloud system in Jupiter's northern hemisphere, was taken on Oct. 24, 2017 at 10:24 a.m. PDT (1:24 p.m. EDT) when Juno was at a latitude of 57.57 degrees (nearly three-fifths of the way from Jupiter's equator to its north pole) and performing its ninth close flyby of the gas giant planet. The spatial scale in this image is 7.75 miles/pixel (12.5 kilometers/pixel). Because of the Juno-Jupiter-Sun angle when the spacecraft captured this image, the higher-altitude clouds can be seen casting shadows on their surroundings. The behavior is most easily observable in the whitest regions in the image, but also in a few isolated spots in both the bottom and right areas of the image. Citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Seán Doran processed this image using data from the JunoCam imager. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21972

  16. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  17. Removal of textile dyes from aqueous solutions by adsorption on biodegradable wastes.

    PubMed

    Elizalde-González, M P; Peláez-Cid, A A

    2003-07-01

    The adsorption of the textile dyes Basic Blue 41, Aniline Blue, Reactive Black 5 and Mariposa Blue was studied from model solutions prepared in distilled water in the concentration range up to 2000 mg l(-1). Biodegradable wastes were used and are proposed here as adsorbents due to their abundance and inexpensiveness in the authors' country. The influence of the particle size, pH, presence of an electrolyte in the dye solution, adsorbent activation and competition in ternary dyes mixtures was determined in this study. Adsorption capacity of the adsorbents designated as HOMAP and POMAP with particle diameter less than 3 mm for the Basic Blue 41 dye was found to be 164 and 77 mg g(-1), respectively. The efficiency of the prepared adsorbents for removing basic, acid and reactive dyes with a concentration of 400 mg l(-1) was examined. A comparison of the adsorption capacity and desorption feasibility of the adsorbents was made. The basic dye was adsorbed with efficiencies varying from 87-98%, the reactive dye was removed in the range 60-98% and the add dye, 60-70% by three of the four adsorbents tested in this study. The determination of adsorption equilibrium concentrations was followed by HPLC with diode array detection.

  18. The study of synthetic food dyes by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    By method of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), substances are food dyes were studied: E-102 (Tartrazine), E-124 (Ponso 4R), E 132 (Indigo carmine), E-133 (Brilliant Blue), E-151 (Black Shiny). They are examined for the presence of carcinogenic properties. The difference between dyes having explicit carcinogenic properties and mutagenic properties (non-explicit carcinogens) is established.

  19. Potentiation of photoinactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria mediated by six phenothiazinium dyes by addition of azide ion.

    PubMed

    Kasimova, Kamola R; Sadasivam, Magesh; Landi, Giacomo; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) using phenothiazinium dyes is mediated by reactive oxygen species consisting of a combination of singlet oxygen (quenched by azide), hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species. We recently showed that addition of sodium azide paradoxically potentiated APDI of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using methylene blue as the photosensitizer, and this was due to electron transfer to the dye triplet state from azide anion, producing azidyl radical. Here we compare this effect using six different homologous phenothiazinium dyes: methylene blue, toluidine blue O, new methylene blue, dimethylmethylene blue, azure A, and azure B. We found both significant potentiation (up to 2 logs) and also significant inhibition (>3 logs) of killing by adding 10 mM azide depending on Gram classification, washing the dye from the cells, and dye structure. Killing of E. coli was potentiated with all 6 dyes after a wash, while S. aureus killing was only potentiated by MB and TBO with a wash and DMMB with no wash. More lipophilic dyes (higher log P value, such as DMMB) were more likely to show potentiation. We conclude that the Type I photochemical mechanism (potentiation with azide) likely depends on the microenvironment, i.e. higher binding of dye to bacteria. Bacterial dye-binding is thought to be higher with Gram-negative compared to Gram-positive bacteria, when unbound dye has been washed away, and with more lipophilic dyes.

  20. Evaluation of the toxicity and teratogenity of six commercial textile dyes using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Birhanli, Ayse; Ozmen, Murat

    2005-01-01

    Potential developmental toxicities of six different textile dyes were evaluated using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to astrazon red FBL, astrazon blue FGRL, remazol red RR, remazol turquoise blue G-A, cibacron red FN-3G, and cibacron blue FN-R from stage 8 to 11 for a 96-h exposure period in static renewal test conditions. A minimum of 17 concentration-response tests were performed with tested dyes, excluding a control group for each dye. Median lethal concentration (LC50), malformation (EC50), non observed adverse effect concentration (NOAEC), and lowest observed adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) were calculated. Also, teratogenic index (TI), minimum concentration to inhibit growth (MCIG), and MCIG/LC50 values were determined for each of the tested dyes. Characteristic abnormalities induced by a given test material were determined by the relationship between concentration and dye in the study. Results from these studies suggested that each tested dye is teratogenic for X. laevis embryos. The lowest LC50 was determined for astrazon red exposure corresponding to a value of 4.73 mg/L. The LC50 value was similar for this dye and astrazon blue; the highest TI was calculated for astrazon blue exposure. Tests with X. laevis indicated that each of the tested compounds possessed teratogenic potential with varying degrees of potency: astrazon blue FGRL > remazol turquoise blue G-A > astrazon red FBL > cibacron blue FN-R > cibacron red FN-3G > remazol red RR. Different types of malformations occurred in the embryos, depending on concentration and dye. From these results, we can suggest that astrazon blue is the most toxic compound, but that the others are also highly toxic and teratogenic substances for X. laevis embryos. Results of the study confirmed that the FETAX assay can be useful in an integrated biological hazard assesment for the preliminary screening of textile dye stuff.

  1. Application of a sequential batch reactor system for textile dyes degradation: comparison between azo and phthalocyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Harrelkas, F; Pons, M N; Zahraa, O; Yaacoubi, A; Lakhal, E K

    2007-01-01

    Photocatalysis on supported TiO2 was combined with aerobic biological treatment in a sequential batch reactor to compare the degradation of two textile dyes: a blue azo dye (DR KBL CDG) and a green phthalocyanine dye (DR K4GN). Three reactors were run in parallel. SBR1 was used as a reference and was fed with urban wastewater only. SBR2 and SBR3 were fed with the same urban wastewater combined with pretreated (for SBR2) and non-pretreated (for SBR3) dye solution. For an azo dye concentration of 12 mg/L decolouration yields of 78 and 27% were achieved, respectively, in SBR2 and SBR3. For the phthalocyanine dye, the decolouration yields decreased to 24 and 15%, respectively. Concerning COD removal it decreases for both dyes with and without pretreatment, when the dye concentration increases. Although a detrimental effect on biomass could be observed, bacteria were able to cope with the inhibitory effect of the dyes.

  2. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  3. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration = 65 mg/L, feed temperature = 39°C and pressure = 8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl) in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising. PMID:23369335

  4. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Association constants and heats of formation of heteroassociates of anions of sulphophthaleine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, S. A.

    2010-11-01

    The tendency of anions of sulphophthaleine dyes to heteroassociation was studied in aqueous solutions of phenol red, bromophenol blue, bromocresol green, bromocresol purple, and bromothymol blue. It was spectrophotometrically determined that single-(Han-) and double-charged anions (An2-) of sul-phophthaleines can form stable heteroassociates of composition Ct+ · HAn- and (Ct+)2 · An2- with cations (Ct+) of polymethine dyes, pinacyanol, and quinaldine red. The values of enthalpy formation of ions of dyes and heteroassociates were calculated using semi-empirical methods, then correlated with experimentally determined values of equilibrium association constants.

  6. An evaluation of novel vital dyes for intraocular surgery.

    PubMed

    Haritoglou, Christos; Yu, Alice; Freyer, Wolfgang; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Alge, Claudia; Eibl, Kirsten; May, Christian A; Welge-Luessen, Ulrich; Kampik, Anselm

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate systematically the staining characteristics and safety of potential new dyes for intraocular surgery. Six dyes were included in the investigation: light green SF (LGSF) yellowish, E68, bromophenol blue (BPB), Chicago blue (CB), rhodamine 6G, rhodulinblau-basic 3 (RDB-B3). All dyes were dissolved and diluted in a balanced saline saline solution. The light-absorbing properties of each dye were measured at a concentration of 0.05% between 200 and 1000 nm. Staining characteristics were examined by staining lens capsule tissue and epiretinal membranes (ERMs), removed intraoperatively, with dye concentrations of 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.05%. Enucleated porcine eyes (postmortem time, 9 hours) were also stained. Dye-related toxicity was evaluated by a colorimetric test (MTT) measuring the inhibition of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell proliferation (ARPE-19 and primary human RPE cells, passages 3-6). Cell viability was also quantified based on a two-color fluorescence cell-viability assay. Dyes were investigated in concentrations of 0.2% and 0.02%. All dyes investigated in this study stained human lens capsules, removed intraoperatively; ERMs, peeled during macular pucker surgery; and enucleated porcine eyes, depending on the concentration applied. The long-wavelength absorption maximum of the dyes was within the range of 527 to 655 nm at concentrations of 0.05%. Rhodamine G6 and RDB-B3 showed adverse effects on ARPE-19 cell proliferation at a concentration of 0.2% and were excluded from further investigation in primary RPE cells. The remaining four dyes showed no toxic effect on ARPE-19 and primary RPE cell proliferation at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.02%. Cell viability was affected by LGSF yellowish (0.2%) and CB (0.2% and 0.02%). Two dyes (E68 and BPB) showed no relevant toxicity in vitro. The systematic evaluation of dyes for intraocular use seems mandatory. In this study four dyes were identified with effective staining characteristics, with two of

  7. Mechanistic study of a diazo dye degradation by Soybean Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enzyme based remediation of wastewater is emerging as a novel, efficient and environmentally-friendlier approach. However, studies showing detailed mechanisms of enzyme mediated degradation of organic pollutants are not widely published. Results The present report describes a detailed study on the use of Soybean Peroxidase to efficiently degrade Trypan Blue, a diazo dye. In addition to examining various parameters that can affect the dye degradation ability of the enzyme, such as enzyme and H2O2 concentration, reaction pH and temperature, we carried out a detailed mechanistic study of Trypan Blue degradation. HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS studies were carried out to confirm dye degradation and analyze the intermediate metabolites and develop a detailed mechanistic dye degradation pathway. Conclusion We report that Soybean peroxidase causes Trypan Blue degradation via symmetrical azo bond cleavage and subsequent radical-initiated ring opening of the metabolites. Interestingly, our results also show that no high molecular weight polymers were produced during the peroxidase-H2O2 mediated degradation of the phenolic Trypan Blue. PMID:23711110

  8. Gamma irradiation and steam pretreatment of jute stick powder for the enhancement of dye adsorption efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvin, Fahmida; Sultana, Nargis; Habib, S. M. Ahsan; Bhoumik, Nikhil Chandra

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the facile and effective pretreatment technique to enhance the capacity of jute stick powder (JSP) in adsorbing dye from raw textile effluent. Hence, different pretreatment techniques, i.e., radiation treatment, alkali treatment, ammonia treatment, steam treatment and CaCl2 treatment were applied to JSP and the adsorbing performance were examined for synthetic dye solutions (Blue FCL and Red RL dye). Different gamma radiation doses were applied on JSP and optimum dye removal efficiency was found at 500 krad in removing these two dyes (50 ppm) from solutions. Among the different pretreatment techniques, gamma irradiated JSP (500 Krad) exhibits highest dye uptake capacity for RED RL dye, whereas steam-treated JSP shows highest performance in adsorbing blue FCL dye. Subsequently, we applied the gamma irradiated and steam-treated JSP on real textile effluent (RTE) and these two techniques shows potentiality in adsorbing dye from raw textile effluent and in reducing BOD5, COD load and TOC to some extent as well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis also proved that dye has been adsorbed on pretreated JSP.

  9. [Determination of the writing age of blue ballpoint ink by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Yao, Lijuan; Zhao, Pengcheng; Wang, Jinghan; Wang, Yanji

    2005-03-01

    A method of identifying the writing age of blue ballpoint ink has been established for imperative demand of forensic laboratory. The content of the volatile component in blue ballpoint ink was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The absorbance of the dye in the blue ballpoint ink was measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV-Vis). A writing age curve of the blue ballpoint ink has been established by the ratio of the content of the volatile components and the dye, based on the identification of 74 kinds of blue ballpoint inks, from both domestic and international origins. The change of benzyl alcohol or phenoxyethyl alcohol was tested with the writing age. Blue ballpoint inks of different kinds were detected and the repeatability of the experiment was investigated. The results indicated that the method is reliable and systematic, and especially suitable for practical cases.

  10. Copper-ligand complex for the decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pradeep; Baldrian, Petr; Gabriel, Jirí; Trnka, Tomás; Nerud, Frantisek

    2004-12-01

    The reaction system containing Cu(II), hydrogen peroxide and D-arabinono-1,4-lactone was found to be effective in the decolorization and reduction of toxicity of azo, thiazine-, triphenylmethane- and anthraquinone-based synthetic dyes. More than 85% decolorization was obtained with 100ppm Acridine Orange, Azure B, Chicago Sky Blue 6B, Crystal Violet, Evans Blue, Poly B-411, Reactive Blue 2, Reactive Blue 5, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R incubated for 24h in the presence of 10mM CuSO(4), 20mM D-arabinono-1,4-lactone and 80 mM H(2)O(2). The rate of decolorization was not affected by pH in the range of 3-9. The rapid decolorization was accompanied by a fast decomposition of H(2)O(2) in the reaction mixture and by a fast production of hydroxyl radicals.

  11. The contribution of azo dyes to the mutagenic activity of the Cristais River.

    PubMed

    de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Freeman, Harold S; Warren, Sarah H; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Terao, Yoshiyasu; Watanabe, Tetsushi; Claxton, Larry D

    2005-06-01

    To verify whether dyes emitted within the discharge of a dye processing plant were contributing to the mutagenicity repeatedly found in the Cristais River, Sao Paulo, Brazil, we chemically characterized the following mutagenic samples: the treated industrial effluent, raw and treated water, and the sludge produced by a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) located approximately 6 km from the industrial discharge. Considering that 20% of the dyes used for coloring activities might be lost to wastewaters and knowing that several dyes have mutagenic activity, we decided to analyze the samples for the presence of dyes. Thin layer chromatographic analysis indicated the presence of three prevalent dyes in all samples, except for the drinking water. This combination of dyes corresponded to a commercial product used by the industry, and it tested positive in the Salmonella assay. The structures of the dye components were determined using proton magnetic resonance and mass spectrometric (MS) methods, and the dyes were tested for mutagenicity. The blue component was identified as the C.I. Disperse Blue 373, the violet as C.I. Disperse Violet 93, and the orange as C.I. Disperse Orange 37. The dyes showed mutagenic responses of 6300, 4600, and 280 revertants/microg for YG1041 with S9 respectively. A bioassay-directed fractionation/chemical analysis showed that the C.I. Disperse Blue 373 contributed 55% of the mutagenic activity of the DWTP sludge. We showed that these dyes contributed to the mutagenic activity found in the Cristais River environmental samples analyzed and are indirectly affecting the quality of the related drinking water. Therefore, we believe that this type of discharge should be more thoroughly characterized chemically and toxicologically. Additionally, human and ecological risks associated with the release of dye processing plant effluents should be more fully investigated, especially where the resultant water is taken for human consumption.

  12. Ion-exchange properties of Cibacron Blue 3G-A Sepharose (Blue Sepharose) and the interaction of proteins with Cibacron Blue 3G-A.

    PubMed

    Lascu, I; Porumb, H; Porumb, T; Abrudan, I; Tarmure, C; Petrescu, I; Presecan, E; Proinov, I; Telia, M

    1984-01-20

    The affinity for Blue Sepharose of several proteins of known structure showed a pH dependence governed by their isoelectric points; Blue Sepharose behaved like a strong cationic ion exchanger because of the negative charges of its dye ligand, Cibacron Blue. A study of the protein-Cibacron Blue interactions by phase partition and equilibrium dialysis revealed the presence of high-affinity binding sites both in the case of the (di)nucleotide-dependent enzymes that possess the structural domain known as "dinucleotide fold", and in the case of other proteins consisting almost entirely of alpha-helix (human haemoglobin, cytochrome c) or beta-sheet (human immunoglobulin G). The presence of additional sites of low affinity, probably situated at the protein surface, was also inferred from the equilibrium dialysis data. In some instances, in contrast with the Sepharose-immobilized dye, the interaction of free Cibacron Blue with proteins was not pH dependent. Steric factors could be responsible for such a differential behaviour. It is suggested that certain nucleotide-dependent enzymes might also bind to Blue Sepharose by ion exchange. Preparative applications of these findings are illustrated and discussed in terms of the optimization of affinity chromatography experiments.

  13. Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.S.; Roy, W.R.; Cole, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

  14. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C.; Dillehay, Tom D.; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans). PMID:27652337

  15. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru.

    PubMed

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C; Dillehay, Tom D; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans).

  16. Lignin-Derived Compounds as Efficient Laccase Mediators for Decolorization of Different Types of Recalcitrant Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Camarero, Susana; Ibarra, David; Martínez, María Jesús; Martínez, Ángel T.

    2005-01-01

    Ten phenols were selected as natural laccase mediators after screening 44 different compounds with a recalcitrant dye (Reactive Black 5) as a substrate. Their performances were evaluated at different mediator/dye ratios and incubation times (up to 6 h) by the use of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and Trametes villosa laccases and were compared with those of eight known synthetic mediators (including -NOH- compounds). Among the six types of dyes assayed, only Reactive Blue 38 (phthalocyanine) was resistant to laccase-mediator treatment under the conditions used. Acid Blue 74 (indigoid dye), Reactive Blue 19 (anthraquinoid dye), and Aniline Blue (triarylmethane-type dye) were partially decolorized by the laccases alone, although decolorization was much more efficient and rapid with mediators, whereas Reactive Black 5 (diazo dye) and Azure B (heterocyclic dye) could be decolorized only in the presence of mediators. The efficiency of each natural mediator depended on the type of dye to be treated but, with the only exception being Azure B (<50% decolorization), nearly complete decolorization (80 to 100%) was attained in all cases. Similar rates were attained with the best synthetic mediators, but the reactions were significantly slower. Phenolic aldehydes, ketones, acids, and esters related to the three lignin units were among the best mediators, including p-coumaric acid, vanillin, acetovanillone, methyl vanillate, and above all, syringaldehyde and acetosyringone. The last two compounds are especially promising as ecofriendly (and potentially cheap) mediators for industrial applications since they provided the highest decolorization rates in only 5 to 30 min, depending on the type of dye to be treated. PMID:15812000

  17. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine the type or to treat methemoglobinemia , a blood disorder. ... Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... Normally, methylene blue quickly lowers the level of ... Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. ...

  18. Blue-Green Algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with hepatitis C or hepatitis B. HIV/AIDS. Research on the effects of blue-green algae in people with HIV/AIDS has been inconsistent. Some early research shows that taking 5 grams of blue-green ...

  19. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  20. Mutagenicity testing of some commonly used dyes.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Andrews, A W

    1981-01-01

    Seventeen commonly used dyes and 16 of their metabolites or derivatives were tested in the Salmonella-mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutagens active with and without added Aroclor-induced rat liver microsome preparations (S9) were 3-aminopyrene, lithol red, methylene blue (USP), methyl yellow, neutral red, and phenol red. Those mutagenic only with S9 activation were 4-aminopyrazolone, 2,4-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, methyl red, and 4-phenyl-azo-1-naphthylamine. Orange II was mutagenic only without added S9. Nonmutagenic azo dyes were allura red, amaranth, ponceau R, ponceau SX, sunset yellow, and tartrazine. Miscellaneous dyes not mutagenic were methyl green, methyl violet 2B, and nigrosin. Metabolites of the azo dyes that were not mutagenic were 1-amino-2-naphthol hydrochloride, aniline, anthranilic acid, cresidine salt, pyrazolone T,R-amino salt (1-amino-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic disodium salt), R-salt, Schaeffer's salt (2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid, sodium salt), sodium naphthionate, sulfanilamide, and sulfanilic acid. 4-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium salt was also not mutagenic. Fusobacterium sp. 2 could reductively cleave methyl yellow to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine which was then activated to a mutagen. PMID:7039509

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of Chicago Sky Blue 6B and Benzopurpurin 4B using titanium dioxide thin film.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abdul K; McKenzie, Katrina T

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of azo dyes undergo degradation to form harmless intermediates and colorless products following irradiation by visible light in the presence of titanium dioxide thin films. The dyes that were studied in this work are: Chicago Sky Blue 6B and Benzopurpurin 4B. Results obtained indicated that complete mineralization of the dyes took place under the experimental conditions. There was an increase in conductivity after the complete mineralization experiments possibly indicating the formation of ions such as NO3- and SO4(2-). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements show a decrease in organic matter for both dyes following complete degradation. The effect of how changing experimental conditions such as pH, temperature and starting concentrations of dyes affected the rate of dye degradation was measured. There was an increase in the rate of disappearance of the dye color at lower pH. High concentrations of dye solutions required long degradation time.

  2. Blue Origin testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-20

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden (r) discusses the upcoming testing of Blue Origin's BE-3 engine thrust chamber assembly with Steve Knowles, Blue Origin project manager, at the E-1 Test Stand during an April 20, 2012, visit to Stennis Space Center. Blue Origin is one of NASA's partners developing innovative systems to reach low-Earth orbit.

  3. Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as...a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo ZL-30) were microencapsulated and tested on

  4. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  5. Indigo Dye Derived from Indigofera Tinctoria as Natural Food Colorant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Wardani, D. K.; Aini, F. N.; Sari, P. L.; Tamtama, B. P. N.; Kristiawan, Y. R.

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the uses of dyes are increasingly widespread especially in foods and beverages as food colors to attract the consumers. The dye that currently attracts is indigo. Indigo is a group of carbonyl compounds, one of the oldest known dyes in terms of natural blue dye derived from the Indigofera tinctoria plant. The use of indigo as a natural food dye intended to reduce the use of synthetic dyes are carcinogenic impact. The method used in this study includes the analysis of indigo using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and FTIR analysis. Based on the UV-Vis Spectrophotometer analysis results with the various concentrations of 0.002 mg/mL; 0.004 mg/mL; 0.006 mg/mL and 0.008 mg/mL were obtained maximum absorption peak at wavelength of 550-700 nm. The indigo dyes in various concentrations produce a stable pH at an average pH 9, therefore it can make the colors not easily fade (strong staining). Based on infrared spectrophotometer measurement were obtained absorption spectrum at 3100-3500 cm-1 as primary N-H and secondary amine, 1600 cm-1 as aromatic C=C, 1000-1350 cm-1 as aromatic C-N, 690-900 cm-1 as aromatic C-H.

  6. Textile dyes induce toxicity on zebrafish early life stages.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Teixidó, Elisabet; Porredón, Constança; Borràs, Miquel; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2016-02-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the most polluting industrial sectors because of the release of potentially toxic compounds, such as synthetic dyes, into the environment. Depending on the class of the dyes, their loss in wastewaters can range from 2% to 50% of the original dye concentration. Consequently, uncontrolled use of such dyes can negatively affect human health and the ecological balance. The present study assessed the toxicity of the textile dyes Direct Black 38 (DB38), Reactive Blue 15 (RB15), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Vat Green 3 (VG3) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for 144 h postfertilization (hpf). At the tested conditions, none of the dyes caused significant mortality. The highest RO16 dose significantly delayed or inhibited the ability of zebrafish embryos to hatch from the chorion after 96 hpf. From 120 hpf to 144 hpf, all the dyes impaired the gas bladder inflation of zebrafish larvae, DB38 also induced curved tail, and VG3 led to yolk sac edema in zebrafish larvae. Based on these data, DB38, RB15, RO16, and VG3 can induce malformations during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Therefore, it is essential to remove these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging textile industry effluents into the aquatic environment. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  8. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  9. Enhanced performance of dye co-sensitized solar cells by panchromatic light harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Rock; Yang, Hyun Sik; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jae Hong; Han, Yoon Soo

    2014-03-01

    The Photovoltaic properties of dye co-sensitized solar cells fabricated by using a one-bath mixed dye solution were compared with those of mono-sensitized devices. Co-sensitized TiO2 photo-electrodes were prepared from a mixed dye solution of M-Red [2-cyano-3(10-hexthyl-phenothiazin)acrylic acid] or D-Red [3,3'-hexyl-bis(phenothiazine-2-cyanoacrylic acid)] and S-Blue [(5-carboxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-nonyl-indolium)methylene-2-(E)-(5-carboxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-octylindolin-2-ylidene)-3-oxocyclobut-1-enolate)] to improve the short-circuit current (J sc ) of dyesensitized solar cells (DSSCs). When the photo-electrode was co-sensitized from the mixed solution of M-Red (75%) and S-Blue (25%), the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the resulting DSSCs exhibited an 11.2% increase, compared to that of M-Red dye (100%). Use of the mixed dye solution of M-red and S-Blue is thought to have ability to reduce the aggregation of S-Blue dye adsorbed on TiO2 surface, leading to an enhancement in J sc of the co-sensitized solar cells. In the case of D-Red dye, the co-sensitized device prepared from the mixed solution of D-Red (50%) and S-Blue (50%) dye showed a 31.7% enhancement in the PCE, compared to that of the solar cell with a mono (D-Red)-sensitized photo-electrode. Unlike the co-sensitization system using the mixed solution of M-Red and S-Blue, the optimum photovoltaic performance was found from the mixed solution with a 1:1 ratio (D-Red:S-Blue). This could be attributed to the adsorption rate of D-Red (dimeric red) being faster than that of M-Red (monomeric red) dye, there inducing similar adsorption rates for the D-Red and the S-blue dye in the one-bath adsorption process for co-sensitization.

  10. MUTAGENICITY EVALUATION OF THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCT CI DISPERSE BLUE 291 USING DIFFERENT PROTOCOLS OF THE SALMONELLA ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Textile dyes can enter the water ecosystem through wastewater discharges potentially exposing humans through the consumption of water and food. The commercial disperse dye product C.I. Disperse Blue 291 containing the aminoazobenzene 2-[(2-bromo-4,6-dinitrophenyl)azo]-5(diethylam...

  11. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of two hair dyes used in the formulation of black color.

    PubMed

    Tafurt-Cardona, Yaliana; Suares-Rocha, Paula; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-12-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), some hair dyes are considered mutagenic and carcinogenic in in vitro assays and exposed human populations. Epidemiological studies indicate that hairdressers occupationally exposed to hair dyes have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer. In Brazil, 26% of the adults use hair dye. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of two hair dyes, Basic Red 51 (BR51) and Basic Brown 17 (BB17), which are temporary dyes of the azo group (R-N=N-R'), used in the composition of the black hair dye. To this end, MTT and trypan blue assays (cytotoxicity), comet and micronucleus assay (genotoxicity) were applied, with HepG2 cells. For cytotoxic assessment, dyes were tested in serial dilutions, being the highest concentrations those used in the commercial formula for hair dyes. For genotoxic assessment concentrations were selected according to cell viability. Results showed that both dyes induced significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the cells, in concentrations much lower than those used in the commercial formula. Genotoxic effects could be related to the azo structure present in the composition of the dyes, which is known as mutagenic and carcinogenic. These results point to the hazard of the hair dye exposure to human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Daizong; Zhang, Hao; He, Rubao; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    An anaerobic sludge (AS), capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid) were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes. PMID:27801853

  13. Dye adsorption of cotton fabric grafted with PPI dendrimers: Isotherm and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Salimpour Abkenar, Samera; Malek, Reza Mohammad Ali; Mazaheri, Firouzmehr

    2015-11-01

    In this research, the cotton fabrics grafted with two generations of the poly(propylene imine) dendrimers were applied to adsorb textile dyes from aqueous solutions. Direct Red 80 (anionic dye), Disperse Yellow 42 (nonionic dye) and Basic Blue 9 (cationic dye) were selected as model dyes. The effect of various experimental parameters such as initial concentration of dyes, charge of dyes molecule, salt and pH was investigated on the adsorption process. Furthermore, kinetics and equilibrium of the adsorption process on the grafted samples were studied. It was found that maximum adsorption of anionic and disperse dyes took place at around pH 3, while cationic dye could be adsorbed at around pH 11. The Langmuir equation was able to describe the mechanism of dyes adsorption. In addition, the second-order equation was found to be fit with the kinetics data. Interestingly, it seems that the dye adsorption of the grafted fabrics is strongly pH dependent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge.

    PubMed

    Cui, Daizong; Zhang, Hao; He, Rubao; Zhao, Min

    2016-10-28

    An anaerobic sludge (AS), capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N , N -dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N , N -dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid) were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.

  15. Methylene Blue Enteric Mapping for Intraoperative Localization in Obscure Small Bowel Hemorrhage: Report of a New Technique and Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-12

    catheter system for superselective mesenteric angiog- raphy (SSMA) and MB injection.17 Other dyes to include fluorescein, indigo carmine, and patent blue V...reported. When an arteriographic abnormality is found, the use of vital dye enteric mapping is one of the most effective localization techniques. Case Report...review of methods of intraoperative localization with a focus on vital dye staining-guided enterectomy. Introduction Obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding

  16. Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuhua; Lai, Hong; Shi, Zhongliang

    2012-12-05

    Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment.

  17. Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment. PMID:23369295

  18. Plasma surface functionalization and dyeing kinetics of Pan-Pmma copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labay, C.; Canal, C.; Rodríguez, C.; Caballero, G.; Canal, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Fiber surface modification with air corona plasma has been studied through dyeing kinetics under isothermal conditions at 30 °C on an acrylic-fiber fabric with a cationic dye (CI Basic Blue 3) analyzing the absorption, desorption and fixing on the surface of molecules having defined cationic character. The initial dyeing rate in the first 60 s indicates an increase of 58.3% in the dyeing rate due to the effect of corona plasma on the acrylic fiber surface. At the end of the dyeing process, the plasma-treated fabrics absorb 24.7% more dye, and the K/S value of the acrylic fabric increases by 8.8%. With selected dyestuff molecules, new techniques can be designed to amplify the knowledge about plasma-treated surface modifications of macromolecules.

  19. Degradation of azo dyes by oxidative processes--laccase and ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Michael M; Gübitz, Georg M; Rehorek, Astrid

    2008-07-01

    Azo dyes are of synthetic origin and their environmental fate is not well understood. They are resistant to direct aerobic bacterial degradation and form potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines by reduction of the azo group. This study shows that applying the oxidative processes of enzymatic treatment with laccase and ultrasound treatment, both alone and in combination, leads to dye degradation. Laccase treatment degraded both Acid Orange and Direct Blue dyes within 1-5 h but failed in the case of Reactive dyes, whereas ultrasound degraded all the dyes investigated (3-15 h). When applied as multi-stage combinations the treatments showed synergistic effects for dye degradation compared with individual treatments. Bulk light absorption (UV-Vis) and ion pairing HPLC were used for process monitoring. Additionally, mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the structures of intermediates arising from ultrasound treatment.

  20. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  1. Direct thermal dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  2. Removal of direct blue-86 from aqueous solution by new activated carbon developed from orange peel.

    PubMed

    Nemr, Ahmed El; Abdelwahab, Ola; El-Sikaily, Amany; Khaled, Azza

    2009-01-15

    The use of low-cost, easy obtained, high efficiency and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from orange peel for the removal of direct blue-86 (DB-86) (Direct Fast Turquoise Blue GL) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was determined as approximately 2.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 30min after the beginning for every experiment. The adsorption of direct blue-86 followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit well Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations better than Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson equations. The maximum removal of direct blue-86 was obtained at pH 2 as 92% for adsorbent dose of 6gL(-1) and 100mgL(-1) initial dye concentration at room temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir equation was 33.78mgg(-1). Furthermore, adsorption kinetics of DB-86 was studied and the rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good correlation (R2>0.99) with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Activated carbon developed from orange peel can be attractive options for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater show better removal percentage of DB-86.

  3. Dyes as fungal inhibitors: effect on colony diameter.

    PubMed Central

    Bragulat, M R; Abarca, M L; Bruguera, M T; Cabañes, F J

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a wide range of concentrations of 13 dyes on the colony diameters of nine fungal strains (including members of the Deuteromycetes and Zygomycetes) were evaluated. Auramine at a concentration of 50 ppm (50 micrograms/ml), methylene blue at a concentration of 500 ppm, gentian violet at a concentration of 5 ppm, and phenol red at a concentration of 50 ppm performed as well as the commonly used dyes dichloran at a concentration of 2 ppm and rose bengal at a concentration of 50 ppm in that they allowed adequate colony development of the Deuteromycetes strains tested and controlled rapidly spreading fungi. PMID:1768153

  4. Dye-ligand affinity chromatography of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Skripal, I G; Weeks, J R; Greenleaf, A L

    1986-01-01

    The binding of wheat germ RNA polymerase II to five different dye-ligand chromatography gels (Matrex gels, Amicon Corp.) was tested. A quantitative binding of the enzyme to four of the gels, namely Dyematrex gels Blue A, Blue B, Red A and Green A was observed. Only the Orange A gel column failed to bind the enzyme strongly. Nearly 100% of the activity could be recovered from the Green A column by elution with high salt concentration and high pH. Under these conditions only a part of the activity was eluted from the other three columns since the enzyme bound tightly. Enzyme activity could be removed from the columns by elution with nucleotide substrates, but the yield from the Blue A, Blue B and Red A columns was still low (7 to 42%). The Green A Matrex gel appeared to be useful for the purification and analysis of RNA polymerase.

  5. Cloth dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous incredient in cloth dye is corrosive alkali. Today it is rare to find this poisonous ... for recovery. If the poisoning involved a corrosive alkali, extensive damage may occur to the: Esophagus Kidneys ...

  6. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Application of Functionalized Pillared Porous Phosphate Heterostructures for the Removal of Textile Dyes from Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Jiménez, José; Guimarães, Vanessa; Bobos, Iuliu; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    A synthesized functionalized pillared porous phosphate heterostructure (PPH), surface functionalized phenyl group, has been used to remove the dye Acid Blue 113 from wastewater. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study its structure. The specific surface area of this was 498 m2/g. The adsorption capacities of PPH and phenyl surface functionalized (Φ-PPH) were 0.0400 and 0.0967 mmol/g, respectively, with a dye concentration of 10−5 M when well fitted with SIPS and Langmuir isotherms respectively (pH 6.5, 25 °C). The incorporation of the dye to the adsorbent material was monitored by the S content of the dye. It is suggested as an alternative for Acid Blue 113 remediation. PMID:28934136

  8. Spectrophotometric Determination of Tris(2-Chloroethyl)Amine Using Acid Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozsypal, T.; Halámek, E.; Kobliha, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Methods of extraction-spectrophotometric determination of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine using nine acid dyes from the groups of sulfonephthaleins, sulfonated anthraquinones, and azo dyes have been developed. These procedures are based on the formation of the ion associates of the reactants and their extraction into chloroform. The conditions of the determination were optimized to determine the optimal pH for extraction from the water phase, the optimal excess of the dye, and the time needed for the extraction. The limits of detection and determination, the molar absorptivities of ion associates, extraction efficiency, distribution ratio, and conditional extraction constants for the separate procedures of determination were calculated. Of the studied acid dyes, the most suitable agents for determining the analyte were bromothymol blue and Acid Blue 129. These procedures are relatively undemanding in terms of time and instruments required and can be applied in field analysis of nitrogen mustards.

  9. Comparative studies of Remazol Brillant Blue removal by immobilized organisms; investigation of metabolites by GC/MS and FTIR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akdogan, Hatice Ardag; Topuz, Merve Canpolat

    2015-01-01

    Reactive dyes are important chemical pollutants from textile industries. Treatment of effluents from dye-based industries poses a major problem, and biotreatment with white rot fungi seems to be a viable option. The biological treatment of synthetic dyes at a low cost and in the shortest possible time is used especially in dye and textile industries and leads to pollution in the wastewater dumped into the environment by these industries. For this study, decolorization of the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R by immobilized Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus plicatilis was investigated. This dye was removed 100% (dye concentration: 10.0 mg/L) by both immobilized organisms. Extracellular ligninolytic enzyme activities were also measured during the decolorization. There was an attempt to identify metabolites with FTIR spectrometry and GC/MS at the end of the decolorization. These results indicated that the samples did not include any detectable metabolite.

  10. Biosorption and biodegradation of a sulfur dye in high-strength dyeing wastewater by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thai Anh; Fu, Chun-Chieh; Juang, Ruey-Shin

    2016-11-01

    The ability of the bacterial strain Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans to remove sulfur blue 15 (SB15) dye from water samples was examined. This bacterium could not only oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid but also promote the attachment of the cells to the surface of sulfidic particles, therefore serving as an efficient biosorbent. The biosorption isotherms were better described by the Langmuir equation than by the Freundlich or Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Also, the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. At pH 8.3 and SB15 concentrations up to 2000 mg L(-1) in the biomass/mineral salt solution, the dye removal and decolorization were 87.5% and 91.4%, respectively, following the biosorption process. Biodegradation was proposed as a subsequent process for the remaining dye (250-350 mg L(-1)). A central composite design was used to analyze independent variables in the response surface methodology study. Under the optimal conditions (i.e., initial dye concentration of 300 mg L(-1), initial biomass concentration of 1.0 g L(-1), initial pH of 11.7, and yeast extract dose of 60 mg L(-1)), up to 50% of SB15 was removed after 4 days of biodegradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dyes for caries detection: influence on composite and compomer microleakage.

    PubMed

    Piva, Evandro; Meinhardt, Luciene; Demarco, Flávio F; Powers, John M

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of caries-detecting dyes on the microleakage of adhesive materials. Sixty cubic class V cavities were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces of 30 human third molars. Coronal margins were located in enamel and gingival margins in cementum. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups of ten restorations each. Cavities were restored with an adhesive system (Single Bond, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn., USA), a compomer (F2000, 3M ESPE), or a composite resin (Z100, 3M ESPE) according to the manufacturer's directions. Acid red dye (Seek, Ultradent, South Jordan, Ut., USA) and basic fuchsin dye (Vide Cárie, Inodon, Porto Alegre, Brazil) were tested. Control groups were prepared without the use of dyes. After 7 days of storage in distilled water, the restorations were polished and the teeth were subjected to thermal cycling followed by immersion in 2% methylene blue. The teeth were sectioned, and microleakage scores were evaluated under magnification (40x). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. A statistically significant difference ( P<0.05) in microleakage was found between the materials in cementum (Z100>F2000) but not in enamel. Control and experimental groups using dyes showed similar results. It was concluded that dyes for caries detection did not increase microleakage of the adhesive materials tested.

  12. Biological decolorization of xanthene dyes by anaerobic granular biomass.

    PubMed

    Apostol, Laura Carmen; Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Raquel; Gavrilescu, Maria; Alves, Maria Madalena

    2012-09-01

    Biodegradation of a xanthene dyes was investigated for the first time using anaerobic granular sludge. On a first screening, biomass was able to decolorize, at different extents, six azo dye solutions: acid orange 7, direct black 19, direct blue 71, mordant yellow 10, reactive red 2 and reactive red 120 and two xanthene dyes--Erythrosine B and Eosin Y. Biomass concentration, type of electron donor, induction of biomass with dye and mediation with activated carbon (AC) were variables studied for Erythrosine B (Ery) as model dye. Maximum color removal efficiency was achieved with 4.71 g VSS L⁻¹, while the process rates were independent of the biomass concentration above 1.89 g VSS L⁻¹. No considerable effects were observed when different substrates were used as electron donors (VFA, glucose or lactose). Addition of Ery in the incubation period of biomass led to a fivefold increase of the decolorization rate. The rate of Ery decolorization almost duplicated in the presence of commercial AC (0.1 g L⁻¹ AC₀). Using different modified AC samples (from the treatment of AC₀), a threefold higher rate was obtained with the most basic one, AC(H₂), as compared with non-mediated reaction. Higher rates were obtained at pH 6.0. Chemical reduction using Na₂S confirmed the recalcitrant nature of this dye. The results attest that decolorization of Ery is essentially due to enzymatic and adsorption phenomena.

  13. Waste metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent for a reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Vílar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-05-30

    An industrial waste sludge mainly composed by metal hydroxides was used as a low-cost adsorbent for removing a reactive textile dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue) in solution. Characterization of this waste material included chemical composition, pH(ZPC) determination, particle size distribution, physical textural properties and metals mobility under different pH conditions. Dye adsorption equilibrium isotherms were determined at 25 and 35 degrees C and pH of 4, 7 and 10 revealing reasonably fits to Langmuir and Freundlich models. At 25 degrees C and pH 7, Langmuir fit indicates a maximum adsorption capacity of 91.0mg/g. An adsorptive ion-exchange mechanism was identified from desorption studies. Batch kinetic experiments were also conducted at different initial dye concentration, temperature, adsorbent dosage and pH. A pseudo-second-order model showed good agreement with experimental data. LDF approximation model was used to estimate homogeneous solid diffusion coefficients and the effective pore diffusivities. Additionally, a simulated real effluent containing the selected dye, salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals, was also used in equilibrium and kinetic experiments and the adsorption performance was compared with aqueous dye solutions.

  14. Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

    It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

  15. Raphael Meldola, his blue and his times.

    PubMed

    Travis, A S

    2012-05-01

    Raphael Meldola (1849-1915), English industrial and academic chemist, spectroscopist, naturalist, educator and lobbyist for science, is today almost a forgotten scientist whose life is celebrated only with a medal awarded by the Royal Society of Chemistry that honors achievement by younger chemists. In the 1870-80s, however, he invented a number of important synthetic dyestuffs including the cotton dyes isamine blue and Meldola's blue, and also naphthol green B, all of which have had application in biology and medicine. I describe here the early emergence of the synthetic dye industry, the first science-based industry, Meldola's role in its development, and his own inventions. Meldola's wide ranging achievements in science led to appointments as president of important professional scientific and manufacturers' societies. He was a fervent disciple of natural selection, a correspondent of Charles Darwin, and a prominent 19(th)-century neo-Darwinian. In 1886, drawing on analogies with evolutionary theory, he warned the British that neglect of science, particularly chemistry, would lead to industrial decline and even extinction, though his message generally was ignored, at least until 1914.

  16. Evaluation and applications of a new dye affinity adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Koji; Suzuki, Takao; Kamichika, Toshito; Hasegawa, Masazumi; Kato, Yoshio; Sasaki, Hiroo; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2002-09-27

    The basic properties of a new dye affinity adsorbent Toyopearl AF-Blue HC-650M and its applications to the purification of proteins were studied. The binding capacity for human serum albumin (HSA) was greater than 18 mg per ml gel. The dye leakage from Toyopearl AF-Blue HC-650M in 0.5 M NaOH and 0.5 M HCI was less compared with an agarose adsorbent. Caustic stability study also demonstrated this material withstood exposure to 0.1 M NaOH for 1 month with no significant loss of binding capacity for HSA. We purified human albumin from human serum and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle extract in a single step. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicates that human albumin and LDH were highly purified.

  17. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  18. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  19. Oxidative degradation of dyes in water using Co2+/H2O2 and Co2+/peroxymonosulfate.

    PubMed

    Ling, Sie King; Wang, Shaobin; Peng, Yuelian

    2010-06-15

    Dye degradation using advanced oxidation processes with Co(2+)/H(2)O(2) and Co(2+)/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) systems has been investigated. Two types of dyes, basic blue 9 and acid red 183, were employed. Several parameters affecting dye degradation such as Co(2+), PMS, H(2)O(2), and dye concentrations were investigated. The optimal ratio of oxidant (PMS, H(2)O(2))/Co(2+) for the degradation of two dyes was determined. It is found that dye decomposition is much faster in Co(2+)/PMS system than in Co(2+)/H(2)O(2). For Co(2+)/H(2)O(2), an optimal ratio of H(2)O(2) to Co(2+) at 6 is required for the maximum decomposition of the dyes. For Co(2+)/PMS, higher concentrations of Co(2+) and PMS will increase dye degradation rate with an optimal ratio of 3, achieving 95% decolourisation. For basic blue 9, a complete decolourisation can be achieved in 5 min at 0.13 mM Co(2+), 0.40 mM PMS and 7 mg/l basic blue 9 while the complete degradation of acid red 183 will be achieved at 30 min at 0.13 mM Co(2+), 0.40 mM PMS and 160 mg/l of acid red 183. The degradation of acid red 183 follows the second-order kinetics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Binding affinities of cationic dyes in the presence of activated charcoal and anionic surfactant in the premicellar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Farman; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Fawad; Bibi, Iram; Shah, Syed W. H.

    2018-03-01

    Binding preferences of cationic dyes malachite green and methylene blue in a mixed charcoal-sodium dodecyl sulfate system have been investigated using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The dye adsorption shows surfactant-dependent patterns, indicating diverse modes of interactions. At low surfactant concentration, a direct binding to charcoal is preferred. Comparatively greater quantities of surfactant lead to attachment of dye-surfactant complex to charcoal through hydrophobic interactions. A simple model was employed for determination of equilibrium constant K eq and concentration of dye-surfactant ion pair N DS for both dyes. The values of binding parameters revealed that malachite green was directly adsorbed onto charcoal, whereas methylene blue was bound through surfactant monomers. The model is valid for low surfactant concentrations in the premicellar region. These findings have significance for material and environmental sciences.

  1. Anthrax surrogate spores are destroyed by PDT mediated by phenothiazinium dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    Some Gram-positive bacteria (including the causative agent of anthrax - Bacillus anthracis) survive conditions of stress and starvation by producing dormant stage spores. The spore"s multilayered capsule consists of inner and outer membranes, cortex, proteinaceous spore coat, and in some species an exosporium. These outer layers enclose dehydrated and condensed DNA, saturated with small, acid-soluble proteins. These protective structures make spores highly resistant to damage by heat, radiation, and commonly employed anti-bacterial agents. Previously Bacillus spores have been shown to be resistant to photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using dyes and light that easily destroy the corresponding vegetative bacteria, but recently we have discovered that they are susceptible to PDI. Photoinactivation, however, is only possible if phenothiazinium dyes are used. Dimethylmethylene blue, methylene blue, new methylene blue and toluidine blue O are all effective photosensitizers. Alternative photosensitizers such as Rose Bengal, polylysine chlorin(e6) conjugate, a tricationic porphyrin and benzoporphyrin derivative are ineffective against spores even though they can easily kill vegetative cells. Spores of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are most susceptible, B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus are also killed, while B. megaterium is resistant. Photoinactivation is most effective when excess dye is washed from the spores showing that the dye binds to the spores and that excess dye in solution can quench light delivery. The relatively mild conditions needed for spore killing could have applications for treating wounds contaminated by anthrax spores and for which conventional sporicides would have unacceptable tissue toxicity.

  2. Breathing Monitor Using Dye-Doped Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Shinzo; Fukasawa, Akihiko; Ogawa, Takayuki; Morisawa, Masayuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    1990-08-01

    A new monitoring system of human breathing using umbelliferon dye-doped plastic fiber has been studied. Under UV light pumping, the fiber which was used as a sensor head generates blue fluorescence depending on human expiration. By converting the light signal to electronic pulses, the counting of breathing and real-time monitoring of abnormal breathing such as a heavy cough or a cloggy sputum have easily been obtained.

  3. Lasing in optically manipulated, dye-doped emulsion microdroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aas, M.; Jonáš, A.; Kiraz, A.

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a portable, all-liquid microlaser based on optically pumped dye-doped emulsion microdroplets held in a single beam optical trap. We show high stability of the laser emission spectra during prolonged optical manipulation of the droplets within an immiscible host liquid. We investigate the effects of droplet size and dye concentration on the spectral position of lasing wavelength and show how these parameters can be used for the emission wavelength tuning. We also study shifting of the average lasing wavelength to the blue side of the spectrum due to dye photobleaching. The presented optically manipulated fluidic microlasers are disposable and can be easily combined with microfluidic chip technology. This makes them especially attractive for on-chip applications in chemical and biological analysis and sensing.

  4. Adsorption performance of mixed dyes on alkalization loofah fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongli; Liu, Jinyan; Li, Xingxing

    2018-02-01

    When the polyporous structures of loofah fiber is adequately exposed after alkali treatment,lignin, hemicellulose and pectin are removed. Specific surface area is increased to maximum, which means the efficiency of absorptivity is highest. In this paper, by using alkalization loofah (AL) as adsorbent, the effect of loofah fiber on waste water treatment is studied under the efficiency of loofah fiber which contain acridine yellow, methylene blue, mixed solution of the two dyes. The optimum treatment conditions of loofah fiber were studied from five aspects which include dosage, temperature, mixing time, pH and concentration. The results showed that the optimal conditions are 30°C, pH 8.0, 20mg dosage of loofah fiber in 40ml solution and mixing time 25min. The optimal treatment conditions of mixed dyes were studied from the aspects of mixing time, the dosage of AL and the molar ratio of the two components in the mixed dyes.

  5. Thiazine dyes: Evaluation of monomeric and aggregate forms.

    PubMed

    Vara, Jimena; Ortiz, Cristina S

    2016-09-05

    The aggregation phenomenon of Azure B, monobrominated Azure B, Thionine and Methylene Blue was studied by UV-Visible spectrophotometry in different media as a function of dye concentration and temperature variations. The tests carried out in organic solvents allowed the identification of monomeric species of these compounds, which have not been reported in literature and have been wrongly assigned for years. The results obtained in water allowed demonstrating that different kinds of aggregates are present in this medium. In addition, the aggregation tendency of these dyes in organic solvent and aqueous media was established. Several parameters such as lipophilicity, effect of bulky substituents and interactions with media were considered to interpret the aggregation behavior of thiazine dyes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thiazine dyes: Evaluation of monomeric and aggregate forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vara, Jimena; Ortiz, Cristina S.

    2016-09-01

    The aggregation phenomenon of Azure B, monobrominated Azure B, Thionine and Methylene Blue was studied by UV-Visible spectrophotometry in different media as a function of dye concentration and temperature variations. The tests carried out in organic solvents allowed the identification of monomeric species of these compounds, which have not been reported in literature and have been wrongly assigned for years. The results obtained in water allowed demonstrating that different kinds of aggregates are present in this medium. In addition, the aggregation tendency of these dyes in organic solvent and aqueous media was established. Several parameters such as lipophilicity, effect of bulky substituents and interactions with media were considered to interpret the aggregation behavior of thiazine dyes.

  7. Determination of dyes in foodstuffs by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Urquiza, M; Beltrán, J L

    2000-11-17

    A rapid method based on capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with photodiode-array detection has been developed to determine the dyes Tartrazine E-102, Sunset Yellow FCF E110, Amaranth E-123, New Coccine E-124, Patent Blue V calcium salt E-131 and Allura Red AC E-129 in foodstuffs. Separation was done by using a Bare CElect-FS75 CE column, using a 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 11.0. Hydrodynamic injections at 0.5 p.s.i. for 4 s (21 nl of sample) and 20 kV separation voltage were used. The quantitation limits for the six dyes ranged from 3 to 6 microg/ml. A linear relationship between 3 to 95 microg/ml, with correlation coefficient better than 0.995 was obtained. This method has been applied to the determination of the studied dyes in beverages, jellies and syrups.

  8. Mg-based amorphous alloys for decolorization of azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Changqin; Zhu, Zhengwang; Zhang, Haifeng

    The authors recently found that Mg-based amorphous ribbons had a prominent effect on the decolorization of azo dyes. Direct Blue 2B and Acid Orange II solutions of 100 mg/L could be decolorized nearly completely by the ribbons within 30 min. Decolorization mechanism was discussed briefly, and kinetic analysis based on the experimental data indicated that physical adsorption and reductive degradation for the azo dye solutions mediated by Mg63Cu16.8Ag11.2Er9 amorphous ribbons could proceed in an elegant and rapid manner. This new finding seems attractive, valuable and promising for the raw effluent generated by textile dye manufacturing company in the future.

  9. On the nature of Romanowsky dyes and the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, D

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of Romanowsky staining and the relationship between Romanowsky dyes and the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect (RGE). On blood and bone marrow smears the RGE is characterized by a purple colouration of nuclei and neutrophil granules. The nuclear purple contrasts strongly with the blue cytoplasmic staining of cells rich in RNA. Requirement for the occurrence of RGE are: I A cationic dye: The best dye is azure B and, though azure A gives the nuclear purple colour, the cytoplasmic blue is inferior. No other cationic dye such as methylene blue is suitable. 2 An anionic dye: Most commonly eosin Y is used, but it can be replaced by the erythrosins. Full halogenation of the fluorescein (four atoms of bromine or iodine) is not necessary. Phloxine and rose bengal are unsuitable. 3 An appropriate substrate: These are proteins with acidic side groups or proteins bound to a polyanion. For the interaction with the dyes substrates must provide a suitable three-dimensional network which is why the RGE is not obtained in solutions. A tentative theory of RGE is advanced and briefly discussed.

  10. Interactions of immobilized and free triazine dyes with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from yeast.

    PubMed

    Reuter, R; Naumann, M; Güttel, K; Hofmann, E

    1986-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) prepared from baker's yeast binds to immobilized Cibacron Blue F3G-A and Procion Red HE-3B. In this paper the two dyes are compared with respect to their use in the purification of this enzyme. Cibacron Blue chromatography was found useful at an early stage of purification for the removal of contaminating hexokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase and phosphoglucomutase. With Procion Red HE-3B Sepharose the NADP dependent enzymes phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase are separable from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Unlike Cibacron Blue gel chromatography, the enzyme can be specifically eluted from Procion Red HE-3B Sepharose by a NADP gradient. Other monochlorotriazine dyes like Xirone Brillant Red BHD, 4BHD, 6BHD and GHD and the dichlorotriazine dye Procion Brown MX-5BR immobilized to Sepharose have only little binding affinity to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The binding behaviour of different immobilized triazine dyes for pre-purified and purified glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is compared. In addition, the influence of the free dyes on the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is studied. It is demonstrated that the results of kinetic and binding studies with the purified enzyme are not uncritically applicable for the selection of a dye as ligand for affinity chromatography during enzyme preparation.

  11. Patch testing to a textile dye mix by the international contact dermatitis research group.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E; Diepgen, Thomas; Goh, Chee-Leok; Goossens R, An; Jerajani, Hemangi; Maibach, Howard I; Sasseville, Denis; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers not included in the majority of commercially available baseline series. To investigate the outcome of patch testing to a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes. Two thousand four hundred ninety-three consecutive dermatitis patients in 9 dermatology clinics were patch tested with a TDM 6.6%, consisting of Disperse (D) Blue 35, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3, D Red 1 and 17, all 1.0% each, and D Blue 106 and D Blue 124, each 0.3%. 90 reacted positively to the TDM. About 92.2% of the patients allergic to the TDM were also tested with the 8 separate dyes. Contact allergy to TDM was found in 3.6% (1.3-18.2) Simultaneous reactivity to p-phenylenediamine was found in 61.1% of the TDM-positive patients. Contact allergy to TDM and not to other p-amino-substituted sensitizers was diagnosed in 1.2%. The most frequent dye allergen in the TDM-positive patients was D Orange 3. Over 30% of the TDM allergic patients had been missed if only the international baseline series was tested. Contact allergy to TDM could explain or contribute to dermatitis in over 20% of the patients. Textile dye mix should be considered for inclusion into the international baseline series.

  12. Pre-columbian nanotechnology: reconciling the mysteries of the maya blue pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, G.; Giustetto, R.; Druzik, J.; Doehne, E.; Ricchiardi, G.

    2008-01-01

    The ancient Maya combined skills in organic chemistry and mineralogy to create an important technology the first permanent organic pigment. The unique color and stability of Maya Blue can be explained by a new model where indigo dye fills the grooves present at the surface of palygorskite clay, forming a hydrogen bonded organic/inorganic complex. Existing theory assumes the dye is dispersed inside the channels of an opaque mineral. Based on data from thermal analysis, synchrotron and neutron diffraction, ESEM and chemical modelling calculations, our new concept of Maya Blue structure resolves this contradiction and suggests some novel possibilities for more durable, environmentally benign pigments.

  13. A case of severe methemoglobinemia caused by hair dye poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, S M; Sohn, C H; Oh, B J; Kim, W Y; Lim, K S

    2014-01-01

    Hair dyes are widely used and very popular xenobiotics. Most of these products contain paraphenylenediamine (PPD) that can cause methemoglobinemia. We here report a case of severe methemoglobinemia that we treated using large amounts of methylene blue. A 30-year-old man visited a regional hospital with cyanosis. He was congenitally blind and had autism. For several weeks, he had mistaken hair dye for toothpaste. When he arrived at a regional hospital, he was drowsy with cyanosis and his initial serum methemoglobin (MetHb) level was 59.5%. After being treated with 2 mg/kg methylene blue (1 mg/kg × 2 administrations), he was transferred to a tertiary university hospital. Upon presentation at the Emergency Department in the tertiary hospital, his MetHb level was found to be 49.4% and his oxygen saturation was 80%. He was then admitted to the intensive care unit. After treatment with 4 mg/kg methylene blue (1 mg/kg × 4 administrations), he successfully recovered. Because PPD can result in serious methemoglobinemia, clinicians should test it in cyanotic patients who have been exposed to hair dye for an extended period.

  14. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  15. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  16. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  17. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Employing a biochemical protecting group for a sustainable indigo dyeing strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tammy M; Welner, Ditte H; Russ, Zachary N; Cervantes, Bernardo; Prathuri, Ramya L; Adams, Paul D; Dueber, John E

    2018-01-01

    Indigo is an ancient dye uniquely capable of producing the signature tones in blue denim; however, the dyeing process requires chemical steps that are environmentally damaging. We describe a sustainable dyeing strategy that not only circumvents the use of toxic reagents for indigo chemical synthesis but also removes the need for a reducing agent for dye solubilization. This strategy utilizes a glucose moiety as a biochemical protecting group to stabilize the reactive indigo precursor indoxyl to form indican, preventing spontaneous oxidation to crystalline indigo during microbial fermentation. Application of a β-glucosidase removes the protecting group from indican, resulting in indigo crystal formation in the cotton fibers. We identified the gene coding for the glucosyltransferase PtUGT1 from the indigo plant Polygonum tinctorium and solved the structure of PtUGT1. Heterologous expression of PtUGT1 in Escherichia coli supported high indican conversion, and biosynthesized indican was used to dye cotton swatches and a garment. PMID:29309053

  19. Use of cellulose-based wastes for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Annadurai, Gurusamy; Juang, Ruey-Shin; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2002-06-10

    Low-cost banana and orange peels were prepared as adsorbents for the adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions. Dye concentration and pH were varied. The adsorption capacities for both peels decreased in the order methyl orange (MO) > methylene blue (MB) > Rhodamine B (RB) > Congo red (CR) > methyl violet (MV) > amido black 10B (AB). The isotherm data could be well described by the Freundlich and Langmuir equations in the concentration range of 10-120 mg/l. An alkaline pH was favorable for the adsorption of dyes. Based on the adsorption capacity, it was shown that banana peel was more effective than orange peel. Kinetic parameters of adsorption such as the Langergren rate constant and the intraparticle diffusion rate constant were determined. For the present adsorption process intraparticle diffusion of dyes within the particle was identified to be rate limiting. Both peel wastes were shown to be promising materials for adsorption removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.

  20. Usage of FTIR-ATR as Non-Destructive Analysis of Selected Toxic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Michalíková, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The degradation of the environment which is due to the discharge of polluting wastewater from industrial sources poses a real problem in several countries. Textile industries use large volumes of water in their operations, discharging thus large volume of wastewater into the environment, most of which is untreated. The wastewater contains a variety of chemicals from various stages of process operations, including desizing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce Infrared Spectrometry with Fourier transformation as a non-destructive method for study, identifation and rapid determination of selected representatives of cationic (Methylene Blue), azo (Congo Red, Eriochrome Black T) and nitroso (Naphthol Green B) dyes. In conjunction with the ATR technique, FTIR offers a reliable detection method of dyes without extraction by other dangerous substances. Spectral interpretation of dye spectra revealed valuable information about the identification and characterization of each group of dyes.

  1. Degradation and toxicity depletion of RB19 anthraquinone dye in water by ozone-based technologies.

    PubMed

    Lovato, María E; Fiasconaro, María L; Martín, Carlos A

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated the discoloration and mineralization of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) anthraquinone dye by single ozonation, single UV radiation and ozonation jointed with UV radiation (O 3 /UV). The problem was approached from two points of view: with the objective of color removal or the mineralization of solution. In each case, the optimum operating conditions were different. Ozonation was the most effective treatment for color removal, while the combined O 3 /UV treatment was for mineralization. Major intermediates of the dye degradation were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a degradation pathway was proposed. In addition, a clear decrease of the toxicity of the dye was achieved at the end of the experiments. The effect of initial dye concentration, pH, ozone dose, and UV radiation on the degradation of the dye and decrease of total organic carbon was investigated, in order to establish the optimal operating conditions to achieve discoloration, mineralization or a combination of both.

  2. Thermodynamically stable blue phases.

    PubMed

    Castles, F; Morris, S M; Terentjev, E M; Coles, H J

    2010-04-16

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric "bimesogenic" and "bent-core" materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  3. Bromothymol blue as a probe for structural changes of model membranes induced by hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, G P

    1998-03-06

    The effect of methemoglobin on the structure of model membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and diphosphatidylglycerol (18 : 1, mol : mol) was studied with the help of pH-indicator dye bromothymol blue. The partition coefficients characterizing the dye binding to methemoglobin or model membranes were derived from the pKaalpha dependences on the protein or phospholipid concentration. The observed character of the dye partitioning in the lipid or lipid-protein systems is interpreted in terms of the traditional electrostatic approach and some modern theories of membrane electrostatics. It is assumed that methemoglobin affects the structural and physicochemical parameters of lipid-water interface. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Effects of dissolved oxygen on dye removal by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wei, Ming-Chi; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Li, Heng-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hua; Fang, Yung-Tai; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2010-10-15

    Effects of dissolved oxygen concentrations on dye removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated. The Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was employed to evaluate toxicity of decolorized solution. Three dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7, monoazo), Reactive Red 120 (RR120, diazo), and Acid Blue 9 (AB9, triphenylmethane), were selected as model dyes. The dye concentration and Fe(0) dose used were 100 mg L(-1) and 30 g L(-1), respectively. Under anoxic condition, the order for dye decolorization was AO7>RR120>AB9. An increase in the dissolved oxygen concentrations enhanced decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of the three dyes. An increase in gas flow rates also improved dye and COD removals by Fe(0). At dissolved oxygen of 6 mg L(-1), more than 99% of each dye was decolorized within 12 min and high COD removals were obtained (97% for AO7, 87% for RR120, and 93% for AB9). The toxicity of decolorized dye solutions was low (I(5)<40%). An increase in DO concentrations obviously reduced the toxicity. When DO above 2 mg L(-1) was applied, low iron ion concentration (13.6 mg L(-1)) was obtained in the decolorized AO7 solution. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sorption of basic and acid dyes from aqueous solutions onto oxihumolite.

    PubMed

    Janos, Pavel; Sedivý, Pavel; Rýznarová, Milena; Grötschelová, Sylvie

    2005-05-01

    Naturally occurring kind of weathered and oxidised young brown coal called oxihumolite was used for an adsorptive removal of basic (Methylene Blue, Malachite Green) as well as acid (Egacid Orange, Midlon Black) dyes from waters. It was shown that both kinds of dyes can be sorbed onto oxihumolite. The maximum sorption capacities determined from the parameters of Langmuir isotherms ranged from 0.070 mmol g-1 (for Midlon Black) to 0.278 mmol g-1 (for Malachite Green) and did not differ significantly for basic and acid dyes. The dye sorption (except of Midlon Black) increased in the presence of inorganic salt. Non-ionic surfactants, and surfactants bearing the same charge as the dye exhibited only a minor effect on the dye sorption, whereas oppositely charged surfactants enhanced the dye sorption to a certain extent. The pH value of the aqueous phase exhibited rather pronounced effect on the sorption of acid dyes causing a suppression of the sorption with increasing pH. The sorption of basic dyes, on the other hand, remained almost unchanged in the examined pH range. Oxihumolite is recommended for the treatment of acid wastewaters because of its limited stability in alkaline aqueous solutions.

  6. Liquid-crystalline membrane permeation ability for selected nitro hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Bialas, Iwona; Arct, Jacek; Mojski, Miroslaw; Krus, Stanislaw

    2012-11-01

    A comparison of permeation ability of selected semi-permanent hair dyes and an attempt to estimate the influence of fundamental physicochemical parameters on dyes' epidermal penetration rate. Dyes' permeation ability through liposome membrane (as a model of stratum corneum) with side-by-side cells was assessed. It has been shown that the chosen dyes are capable of permeating the membrane. High penetration coefficients (Kp) were obtained for a simple nitrophenylenediamines and nitroaminophenols. Their N-, O-hydroxyalkyl substitution significantly limits penetration. H-bonding capability has a major impact on the investigated dyes' permeation ability. Substituents with H-bonding properties can significantly limit dyes' penetration, even in the case of lipophilic structures. Special attention should be placed into compounds with strong intramolecular H-bonding properties, which improve transmembrane transport. Substitution patterns have an influence on selected nitro dyes' permeation through a model stratum corneum. Permeation is limited by dyes diffusive properties (mostly by its H-bonding properties). Hydroxyalkylation results in hindered dyes permeation: purple, violet and blue nitrophenylenediamine or nitroaminophenol derivatives are less permeable than its not substituted analogues. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Simultaneous identification of synthetic and natural dyes in different food samples by UPLC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Badal Kumar; Mathiyalagan, Siva; Dalavai, Ramesh; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2017-11-01

    Fast foods and variety food items are populating among the food lovers. To improve the appearance of the food product in surviving gigantic competitive environment synthetic or natural food dyes are added to food items and beverages. Although regulatory bodies permit addition of natural colorants due to its safe and nontoxic nature in food, synthetic dyes are stringently controlled in all food products due to their toxicity by regulatory bodies. Artificial colors are need certification from the regulatory bodies for human consumption. To analyze food dyes in different food samples many analytical techniques are available like high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), spectroscopic and gas chromatographic methods. However all these reported methods analyzed only synthetic dyes or natural dyes. Not a single method has analyzed both synthetic and natural dyes in a single run. In this study a robust ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous identification of 6 synthetic dyes (Tartrazine, Indigo carmine, Briliant blue, Fast green, malachite green, sunset yellow) and one natural dye (Na-Cu-Chlorophyllin) was developed using acquitic UPLC system equipped with Mass detector and acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm, 100Å). All the dyes were separated and their masses were determined through fragments’ masses analyses.

  8. Sorption of hydrophilic dyes on anodic aluminium oxide films and application to pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Silina, Yuliya E; Kuchmenko, Tatyana A; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2015-02-07

    The sorption of selected hydrophilic pH-sensitive dyes (bromophenol blue, bromothymol blue, bromocresol purple, alizarin red, methyl orange, congo red, rhodamine 6G) on films of anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) was investigated in this study. Depth and pore structure of the AAO channels were adjusted by changing electrolysis time and current density during treatment of aluminium foil in oxalic acid, sulfosalycilic acid and sulfuric acid at concentration levels between 0.2 and 0.6 M. The dyes were immobilized on the AAO surface by direct saturation of the films in dye solutions. It was shown by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral analysis that the dyes penetrated into the AAO channels by more than 1.5 μm, even at static saturation conditions. The anionic dyes linked to the porous AAO surface exhibited differential shifts of the UV absorption bands in their acidic/basic forms. By combining several dyes, the films have an application range between pH = 0.5-9 in aqueous media. The dye-modified AAO film was a simple, portable, inexpensive and reusable pH sensor with very fast response time and clear colour transitions.

  9. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Extracts from Four Cassia Flowers as Natural Sensitizers: Studies on Dye Ingredient Effect on Photovoltaic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Ishwar Chandra; Singh, Shalini; Neetu; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2018-01-01

    Natural dyes extracted from four different flowers, namely, Cassia surattensis, Cassia tora, Cassia alata and Cassia occidentalis were used as sensitizers for TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The dye extracts from flowers were obtained by a simple extraction technique and used without any further purification. Optical characteristics of dye extracts were studied. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were used to identify the constituents of extracted dyes. The photovoltaic performance of DSSC employing dye-capped TiO2 photoanodes was measured. The sensitization performance related to anchoring groups present and interaction between dyes with TiO2 surface is demonstrated. An attempt has been made to rationalize the observations by light absorption of the dye extracts and their adsorption on TiO2. The short-circuit current density ( I SC) values ranged from 0.06 mA/cm2 to 0.20 mA/cm2; open circuit voltage ( V OC) from 0.292 V to 0.833 V; fill factor (FF) from 0.7 to 0.9; efficiencies ( η) from 0.013% to 0.15% and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency from 13% to 20%, were obtained for DSSC using these natural dye extracts. Cassia occidentalis showed the highest current density of 0.20 mA/cm2 and power conversion efficiency of 0.15%, which was due to better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl group of the anthocyanin molecule of C. occidentalis and surface of TiO2 film. The red and blue shift of absorption wavelength of C. surattensis and the blue shift of absorption wavelength of the C. tora, C. alata and C. occidentalis extract in ethanol solution compared to that on TiO2 film has been used for the interpretation of obtained results.

  10. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  11. Cationic Triarylmethane Photosensitizers For Selective Photochemotherapy: Victoria Blue-Bo, Victoria Blue-R And Malachite Green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadwa, K.; Smith, S.; Oseroff, A. R.

    1989-03-01

    We have investigated the malignant cell selective phototoxicity of some triarylmethane dyes including Victoria Blue BO (VB-BO), Victoria Blue R (VB-R), and Malachite Green (MG). Phototoxicity was studied in human squamous (FaDu) and colon (CX-1) carcinoma, and in human and murine melanoma (NEL, B-16) cell lines, as well as in non-malignant monkey kidney cells (CV-1). Cultured cells were exposed to varying concentrations of the dyes for 60 min, washed with PBS, irradiated after an efflux time of 90 min in culture media, and placed in a colony forming assay. VB-BO was the most effective photosensitizer, giving 90% killing of malignant cells such as B-16 when treated with 5x10-8 M dye and 13 J/cm2 light. CV-1 cells were unaffected under these conditions. VB-R was about 10 fold less effective, while MG had minimal phototoxicity in this assay. VB-BO was studied in vivo, using subcutaneous FaDu tumors in nude mice. At a dose of 3 mg/kg followed 4 hrs later by dye laser irradiation under conditions which did not produce hyperthermia, there was an 80% complete remission rate without significant phototoxicity to overlying or adjacent normal skin. The triarylmethanes are a novel class of photosensitizers which may have promise in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Chemical stabilization of laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Tad H.

    1990-04-01

    Irradiation of ethanol solutions of coumarin laser dye lasers produces products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. A major photoprocess which produces material which absorbs at the lasing wavelength is dye sensitized solvent oxidative oligomerization, producing aldehydic and ketonic products. A dye laser stabilization technique is removal of these carbonyl compounds as they are formed by reduction with a polymer bound borohydride reducing agent.

  13. Adsorption of a Textile Dye on Commercial Activated Carbon: A Simple Experiment to Explore the Role of Surface Chemistry and Ionic Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Angela; Nunes, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an adsorption experiment is proposed using commercial activated carbon as adsorbent and a textile azo dye, Mordant Blue-9, as adsorbate. The surface chemistry of the activated carbon is changed through a simple oxidation treatment and the ionic strength of the dye solution is also modified, simulating distinct conditions of water…

  14. Chronic toxicity of azo and anthracenedione dyes to embryo-larval fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Joanne L; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Balakrishnan, Vimal K

    2016-03-01

    The toxicity of selected azo and anthracenedione dyes was studied using chronic exposures of embryo-larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Newly fertilized fathead minnow embryos were exposed through the egg stage, past hatching, through the larval stage (until 14 days post-hatch), with dye solutions renewed daily. The anthracenedione dyes Acid Blue 80 (AB80) and Acid Blue 129 (AB129) caused no effects in larval fish at the highest measured concentrations tested of 7700 and 6700 μg/L, respectively. Both azo dyes Disperse Yellow 7 (DY7) and Sudan Red G (SRG) decreased survival of larval fish, with LC50s (based on measured concentrations of dyes in fish exposure water) of 25.4 μg/L for DY7 and 16.7 μg/L for SRG. Exposure to both azo dyes caused a delayed response, with larval fish succumbing 4-10 days after hatch. If the exposures were ended at the embryo stage or just after hatch, the potency of these two dyes would be greatly underestimated. Concentrations of dyes that we measured entering the Canadian environment were much lower than those that affected larval fish survival in the current tests. In a total of 162 samples of different municipal wastewater effluents from across Canada assessed for these dyes, all were below detection limits. The similarities of the structures and larval fish responses for the two azo and two anthracenedione dyes in this study support the use of read-across data for risk assessment of these classes of compounds. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pale Blue Orb

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-19

    NASA Cassini casts powerful eyes on our home planet, and captures Earth, a pale blue orb, and a faint suggestion of our moon, among the glories of the Saturn system in this image taken Sept. 15, 2006.

  16. Village Blue Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Village Blue research project provides real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay.

  17. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  18. Effects of incorporated straw on dye tracer infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasteel, R.; Garnier, P.; Vachier, P.; Coquet, Y.

    2003-04-01

    Crop residue incorporation by conventional tillage increases the heterogeneity in the soil surface layer due to the soil tillage itself and to the presence of a zone with a high density of vegetal residues. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of incorporated straw on the transport behaviour of the dye Brilliant Blue. We used an image analysis technique to calculate the Brilliant Blue concentration from the spectral signature (i.e. RGB values) using a calibration relationship. This method was already successfully applied in soils without organic matter and in this study we want to extend it to soils that contain fresh organic matter. The experiment took place in a loamy bare soil in the north of France at Mons-en-Chaussée in May, 2002. The soil was ploughed under dry conditions to 30 cm depth and straw was incorporated at the content of 10 Tonnes of C/ha. The infiltration experiment was carried out using an infiltrometer of 25 cm diameter at the head potential of -1 cm of water. First, water was infiltrated followed by the dye solution. The day after the infiltration, the soil was cut in horizontal sections of 50 times 50 cm. In total, 15 cross-section were photographed which were separated by a vertical distance of about 2 or 3 cm. Samples of soil and small pieces of straw were taken from the soil surface in order to measure the Brilliant Blue concentration for the calibration procedure. The volumetric water content and bulk density were measured with small cylindrical samples. After geometrical and illumination corrections of the images, we separated the soil from the straw and established a separate second-order polynomial calibration function for both relating the Brilliant Blue content to the spectral signature in each pixel. In this way we obtained spatially highly resolved concentration patterns of the dye tracer. The dye concentration distribution was found to be very heterogeneous in the soil at the local scale. In the plough layer, dye

  19. The removal of dyes from textile wastewater: a study of the physical characteristics and adsorption mechanisms of diatomaceous earth.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghouti, M A; Khraisheh, M A M; Allen, S J; Ahmad, M N

    2003-11-01

    The feasibility of using diatomite for the removal of the problematic reactive dyes as well as basic dyes from textile wastewater was investigated. Methylene blue, Cibacron reactive black and reactive yellow dyes were considered. Physical characteristics of diatomite such as pHsolution, pHZPC, surface area, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy were investigated. The surface area of diatomite was found to be 27.80 m2g(-1) and the pHZPC occurred around pH of 5.4. The results indicated that the surface charge of diatomite decreased as the pH of the solution increased with the maximum methylene blue removal from aqueous solution occurring at basic pH of around (10-11). Adsorption isotherms of diatomite with methylene blue, hydrolysed reactive black and yellow dyes were constructed at different pH values, initial dye concentrations and particle sizes. The experimental results were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Henry models. The study indicated that electrostatic interactions play an important role in the adsorption of dyes onto diatomite. A model of the adsorption mechanism of methylene blue onto diatomite is proposed.

  20. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  1. Enhancing the light utilization efficiency of microalgae using organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Lee, Yonghee; Jeon, Duk Young; Han, Jong-In

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation is composed of wide light spectrum including the range which cannot be utilized for microalgae. To enhance the light utilization efficiency, organic dye solutions of rhodamine101 and 9,10-diphenylanthracene were used as wavelength converters. Each dye affected cell growth and lipid accumulation differently, based on the response of each to different light spectrum. Under a light intensity of 50 W/m(2), maximum cell growth (1.5 g/L) was obtained with the red organic dye rhodamine101, whereas best lipid content (30%) with the blue type 9,10-diphenylanthracene. These two separate and complementary traits could be combined by simple mixing, and in so doing optimal growth (1.5 g/L) as well as lipid accumulation (30%) was achieved: lipid productivity was 2.3 times greater than without the organic dye. This study proved that certain organic dye solutions could convert useless wavelengths to be useful for algae cultivation, thereby increasing the productivity of biomass and lipids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An overview of nanomaterials applied for removing dyes from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhengqing; Sun, Youmin; Liu, Wen; Pan, Fei; Sun, Peizhe; Fu, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Organic dyes are one of the most commonly discharged pollutants in wastewaters; however, many conventional treatment methods cannot treat them effectively. Over the past few decades, we have witnessed rapid development of nanotechnologies, which offered new opportunities for developing innovative methods to treat dye-contaminated wastewater with low price and high efficiency. The large surface area, modified surface properties, unique electron conduction properties, etc. offer nanomaterials with excellent performances in dye-contaminated wastewater treatment. For examples, the agar-modified monometallic/bimetallic nanoparticles have the maximum methylene blue adsorption capacity of 875.0 mg/g, which are several times higher than conventional adsorbents. Among various nanomaterials, the carbonaceous nanomaterials, nano-sized TiO 2 , and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) are considered as the most promising nanomaterials for removing dyes from water phase. However, some challenges, such as high cost and poor separation performance, still limit their engineering application. This article reviewed the recent advances in the nanomaterials used for dye removal via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, and biological treatment. The modification methods for improving the effectiveness of nanomaterials are highlighted. Finally, the current knowledge gaps of developing nanomaterials on the environmental application were discussed, and the possible further research direction is proposed.

  3. Influence of synthetic and natural food dyes on activities of CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Nayumi; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2005-08-27

    Synthetic or natural food dyes are typical xenobiotics, as are drugs and pollutants. After ingestion, part of these dyes may be absorbed and metabolized by phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes and excreted by transporters of phase III enzymes. However, there is little information regarding the metabolism of these dyes. It was investigated whether these dyes are substrates for CYP2A6 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). The in vitro inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by these dyes was also examined. The synthetic food dyes studied were amaranth (food red no. 2), erythrosine B (food red no. 3), allura red (food red no. 40), new coccine (food red no. 102), acid red (food red no. 106), tartrazine (food Yellow no. 4), sunset yellow FCF (food yellow no. 5), brilliant blue FCF (food blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (food blue no. 2). The natural additive dyes studied were extracts from purple sweet potato, purple corn, cochineal, monascus, grape skin, elderberry, red beet, gardenia, and curthamus. Data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. Only indigo carmine inhibited CYP2A6 in a noncompetitive manner, while erythrosine B inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). In the natural additive dyes just listed, only monascus inhibited UGT1A6 and UGT2B7.

  4. High efficiency deep-blue and white phosphorescent OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jiangeng; Eom, Sang-Hyun; Zheng, Ying; Wrzesniewski, Edward; Chopra, Neetu; Lee, Jaewon; So, Franky

    2009-08-01

    We report studies on blue and white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on the deep-blue electrophosphorescent dye iridium(III) bis(4',6'-difluorophenylpyridinato)tetrakis(1-pyrazolyl)borate (FIr6). Using high triplet energy charge transport layers and a dual-emissive-layer structure as well as the p-i-n device structure, we have achieved external quantum efficiencies of 20% and maximum power efficiency of 36 lm/W in these deep-blue OLEDs. White OLEDs with a CRI of 79 and a maximum power efficiency of 40 lm/W were also demonstrated by incorporating red and green phosphorescent dopants together with FIr6.

  5. THE DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE OF BLUE ANTIGENIC AZOPROTEINS IN THE TISSUES OF MICE

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Heinz; McMaster, Philip D.

    1949-01-01

    Intensely blue dye-azoproteins have been prepared by diazotization and coupling of the highly indiffusible blue dye T-1824, Evans blue, with various serum proteins and egg albumin. The products, whether purified by precipitation with alcohol or by chromatography, have a constant dye-to-protein ratio and tests have shown them to be essentially free from unlinked dye. An extremely diffusible dye, echt-säure-blau, has also been coupled to bovine γ-globulin. These materials are adapted to physiological experimentation. They seem to behave in the bodies of mice like other proteins; they fail to appear in either the bile or urine of normal animals, and they are strongly antigenic. When these soluble antigenic azoproteins are injected into the blood stream of mice for the first time they enter reticulo-endothelial cells in almost every organ of the body; the final distribution is like that of intravenously injected, finely divided particulate matter. The azoproteins appear in the cells which classical immunological studies have shown to be active in removing particulate antigenic materials or bacteria from the blood or body fluids. The Kupffer cells of the liver and sinus and reticular cells in lymph nodes, especially the great mesenteric node, are particularly active in the removal of the blue antigens from the blood, but many other R-E cells are active to a lesser degree. The storage of the antigenic material is in the cytoplasm only; it has not been seen within nuclei, nor has it been seen within cells of the brain. Serological methods disclose that the blue material seen within Kupffer cells of the liver after as long a period as 2 days is still antigenic in its reactions. The blue azoproteins, therefore, serve excellently as tracer antigens, especially since they can be seen directly in fresh and fixed tissue preparations and in the body fluids. PMID:18143587

  6. International, prospective haemovigilance study on methylene blue-treated plasma.

    PubMed

    Noens, L; Vilariño, Ma D; Megalou, A; Qureshi, H

    2017-05-01

    Methylene blue is a phenothiazine dye, which in combination with visible light has virucidal and bactericidal properties, disrupting the replication of a broad range of enveloped viruses and some non-enveloped viruses. The study objective was to collect data on adverse reactions occurring with methylene blue plasma administered in a routine clinical practice environment and document their characteristics and severity. This was an open label, multicentre, non-controlled, non-randomized, non-interventional study. Patients who receive a methylene blue plasma transfusion were observed for any signs and symptoms (adverse reactions) within 24 h safter the start of the transfusion, in different hospitals for a study duration of at least 1 year. A total of 19 315 methylene blue plasma units were transfused. There were eight patients with adverse reactions recorded during the study, one of them serious. Two had more than one reaction (two and four, respectively). Three patients had previous transfusions with methylene blue plasma only. Methylene blue plasma has a very acceptable safety profile with a rate of serious adverse reactions of 0·5/10 000 units. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Adsorption Properties of p -Methyl Red Monomeric-to-Pentameric Dye Aggregates on Anatase (101) Titania Surfaces: First-Principles Calculations of Dye/TiO 2 Photoanode Interfaces for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M.

    2014-08-29

    The optical and electronic properties of dye aggregates of p-methyl red on a TiO2 anatase (101) surface were modeled as a function of aggregation order (monomer to pentameric dye) via first principles calculations. A progressive red-shifting and intensity increase toward the visible region in UV/vis absorption spectra is observed from monomeric-to-tetrameric dyes, with each molecule in a given aggregate binding to one of the four possible TiO2 (101) adsorption sites. The pentamer exhibits a blue-shifted peak wave- length in the UV/vis absorption spectra and less absorption intensity in the visible region in comparison; a corresponding manifestation of H-aggregation occurs sincemore » one of these five molecules cannot occupy an adsorption site. This finding is consistent with experiment. Calculated density of states (DOS) and partial DOS spectra reveal similar dye…TiO2 nanocomposite conduction band characteristics but different valence band features. Associated molecular orbital distributions reveal dye-to-TiO2 interfacial charge transfer in all five differing aggregate orders; meanwhile, the level of intramolecular charge transfer in the dye becomes progressively localized around its azo- and electron-donating groups, up to the tetrameric dye/TiO2 species. Dye adsorption energies and dye coverage levels are calculated and compared with experiment. Overall, the findings of this case study serve to aid the molecular design of azo dyes towards better performing DSSC devices wherein they are incorporated. In addition, they provide a helpful example reference for understanding the effects of dye aggregation on the adsorbate…TiO2 interfacial optical and electronic properties.« less

  8. Effect of nitrogen source concentration on decolouration rates of laboratory dyes by immobilized cells of two bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Akpor, Oghenerobor Benjamin

    2017-12-29

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sodium nitrate concentration on the decolouration of laboratory dyes (bromothymol blue, crystal violet, eosin blue, eosin yellow and methylene blue), by alginate immobilized cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. The sodium nitrate concentrations used in the study were 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/L. A control setup that contained no sodium nitrate was also studied. During incubation, aliquot samples were withdrawn from each flask every 24 for 144 h duration for the estimation of decolouration rate of the dyes, using standard procedures. The results revealed remarkable decolouration of the bromothymol blue and crystal violet in presence of the P. aeruginosa occurring at sodium nitrate concentrations of 10 and 15 g/L, respectively. In the case of media that was inoculated with the B. subtilis cells, although no remarkable decolouration of the bromothymol blue and crystal violet was observed throughout the period of incubation, highest decolouration were observed at sodium nitrate concentration of 5 and 10 g/L, respectively. For the eosin blue and methylene dyes, no remarkable decolouration were observed in presence of the test bacterial species at the respective sodium nitrate concentrations. Highest decolouration of the eosin yellow was however observed in media with sodium nitrate concentration of 5 g/L. The results of this study could be applied in scale up studies and continuous process, for implementation in biological decolouration of dye effluents.

  9. Effect of vital dyes on retinal pigmented epithelial cell viability and apoptosis: implications for chromovitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Penha, Fernando M; Pons, Marianne; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Rodrigues, Eduardo B.; Maia, Mauricio; Marin-Castaño, Maria E; Farah, Michel Eid

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate in vitro effect of vital dyes on toxicity and apoptosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line. Methods ARPE-19 cells were exposed to brilliant blue-BriB, evans blue-EB, bromophenol blue-BroB, indocyanine green-ICG, infracyanine green-IfCG, light green-LG, fast green-FG, indigo carmine-IC and congo red-CR. BSS was used as the control. Five different concentrations and two times were tested. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay and apoptosis by Bax expression on western blot. Results All dyes significantly reduced cell viability after 3 minutes of exposure at all concentrations (p<0.01), except for BriB that was safe at concentrations up to 0.25mg/mL and CR up to 0.05mg/mL, while LG was safe in all concentrations. Toxicity was higher after 30 minutes of exposure. Expression of Bax was upregulated after all dyes exposure, except BriB; ICG had the highest Bax expression (p<0.01). Conclusions Overall the safest dye was BriB followed by LG, IfCG, FG, CR, IC, BroB, RB and ICG. ICG was toxic at all concentrations and exposure times tested. Moreover, BriB was the only dye that did not induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. PMID:24022718

  10. [Adsorption and desorption of dyes by waste-polymer-derived activated carbons].

    PubMed

    Lian, Fei; Liu, Chang; Li, Guo-Guang; Liu, Yi-Fu; Li, Yong; Zhu, Ling-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons with high surface area were prepared from three waste polymers, i. e., tire rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), by KOH activation. The adsorption/desorption characteristics of dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) on the carbons were studied. The effects of pH, ionic strength and surface surfactants in the solution on the dye adsorption were also investigated. The results indicated that the carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited high surface area of 2 666 and 2 831 m2 x g(-1). Their mesopore volume were as high as 1.06 and 1.30 cm3 g(-1), respectively. 98.5% and 97.0% of methylene blue and methyl orange were removed in 15 min by PVC carbon, and that of 99.5% and 95.0% for PET carbon. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity to these dyes was more than 2 mmol x g(-1), much higher than that of commercial activated carbon F400. Compared with Freundlich model, the adsorption data was fitted better by Langmiur model, indicating monolayer coverage on the carbons. The adsorption was highly dependent on solution pH, ionic strength and concentration of surface surfactants. The activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption to methylene blue than that of methyl orange, and it was very hard for both of the dyes to be desorbed. The observation in this study demonstrated that activated carbons derived from polymer waste could be effective adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater with dyes.

  11. Decolorization of a variety of dyes by Aspergillus flavus A5p1.

    PubMed

    Ning, Cheng; Qingyun, Li; Aixing, Tang; Wei, Su; Youyan, Liu

    2018-04-01

    Aspergillus flavus: fungal strain A5p1 is reported here to decolorize a variety of dyes under broad environmental conditions. For the 15 dyes tested, the decolorization efficiencies ranged from 61.7 to 100.0% at an initial concentration of 100 mg/L. Direct Blue 71 (DB71), Direct Blue 86 (DB86), and Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) were selected as models for comparing decolorization performance. The results show that biosorption and biodegradation work together in the strain to remove the pigments; the effect of biosorption was stronger for DB71 and DB86, whereas the effect of biodegradation was stronger for RB19. For DB71 and DB86, the decolorization rate surpassed 90% with inactivated biomass under acidic conditions and with living biomass under alkaline conditions. DB19 achieved the highest removal rate of 90% under neutral conditions. The strain could effectively decolorize high concentrations of dyes up to 1000 mg/L, which was achieved mainly via biosorption at concentrations below 500 mg/L and via biodegradation at concentrations above 500 mg/L. The findings suggest that A5p1 has a strong adaptability to different dye types and environmental conditions and can, therefore, be potentially used in biological processes for the treatment of dye-containing wastewater.

  12. Purification of diphtheria toxin by chromatography on Cibacron Blue-Sepharose.

    PubMed

    Antoni, G; Bigio, M; Borri, G; Casagli, M C; Neri, P

    1983-08-15

    Diphtheria toxin binds to Cibacron Blue-Agarose and may be eluted by increasing the ionic strength of the elution buffer. Experiments using difference spectroscopy showed that the interaction between toxin and dye is ionic rather than hydrophobic, and therefore it is of a different nature with respect to that usually found in nucleotide-requiring enzymes.

  13. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF C.I. DISPERSE BLUE 79 - VOLUME II, APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the fate of C.I. Disperse Blue 79, one of the largest production volume dyes, and select biodegradation products in a conventionally operated activated sludge process and an anaerobic sludge digestion system. To achieve this objective, a pilo...

  14. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF C.I. DISPERSE BLUE 79 - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the fate of C.I. Disperse Blue 79, one of the largest production volume dyes, and select biodegradation products in a conventionally operated activated sludge process and an anaerobic sludge digestion system. To achieve this objective, a pilo...

  15. The feasibility of using methylene blue sensitized polyvinylalcohol film as a linear polarizer

    SciTech Connect

    Jyothilakshmi, K.; Anju, K. S.; Arathy, K.

    2014-01-28

    Linear light polarizing films selectively transmit radiations vibrating along an electromagnetic radiation vector and selectively absorb radiations vibrating along a second electromagnetic radiation vector. It happens according to the anisotropy of the film . In the present study the polarization effects of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol is investigated. The polarization effects on the dye concentration, heating and stretching of film also are evaluated.

  16. Graphene oxide supported copper oxide nanoneedles: An efficient hybrid material for removal of toxic azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Rajendiran; Iyer, Sahithya S.; Ezhilan, Jayabal; Kumar, S. Senthil; Venkatesan, Rengarajan

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we report a simple, one step synthesis of hybrid copper oxide nanoneedles on graphene oxide sheets (GO-CuONNs) through sonochemical method. The present method affords a facile mean for controlling effective concentration of the active CuO nanoneedles on the graphene oxide sheets, and also offers the necessary stability to the resulting GO-CuONNs structure for adsorption transformations.Furthermore, this hybrid GO-CuONNs is successfully employed in the removal of a series of hazardous ionic organic dyes namely coomassie brilliant blue, methylene blue, congo red and amidoblack 10B. Through careful investigation of the material, we found that the synergetic effect between CuONNs and GO play a significant role in the adsorption of all the dyes studied. The prepared hybrid material contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic environment which is expected to enhance the electrostatic interaction between the adsorbent and the dye molecules, consequently favouring the adsorption process.

  17. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) by addition of synthetic dye into natural dye (anthocyanin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2017-02-01

    This article reported combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) applications. This study aims was to improve the performance of DSSC by addition of synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye. Anthocyanin dye was extracted from red cabbage and synthetic dye was obtained from N719. We prepared anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at 2 different volume, anthocyanin dye at volume of 10 ml and combination dyes with anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at volume of 8 mL : 2 mL. The DSSCs were designed into sandwich structure on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using TiO2 electrode, carbon electrode, anthocyanin and synthetic dyes, and redox electrolyte. The absorption wavelength of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 nm - 580 nm, the combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes can increase the absorbance peak only. The IPCE characteristic with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage and combination dyes resulted quantum efficiency of 0.081% and 0.092% at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. The DSSC by anthocyanin dye of red cabbage achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.024%, while the DSSC by combination dyes achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.054%, combination dyes by addition synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye enhanced the conversion efficiency up to 125%.

  18. Dye removal from textile dye wastewater using recycled alum sludge.

    PubMed

    Chu, W

    2001-09-01

    The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh alum dosage, of which one third of the fresh alum can be saved. The back-diffusion of residued dye from the recycling sludge is detected but is easily controlled as long as a small amount of fresh alum is added to the system. The use of RAS is not recommended for the removal of hydrophilic dyes, since the high solubility characteristics of such dyes can cause deterioration in the water quality during recycling.

  19. Natural adsorbents of dyes from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Meryem; El Hajjaji, souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; El M'Rabet, Mohammadine

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of natural waters is a current environmental problem and lot of work has been done to find methods for its, prevention and remediation such as ionic exchange, adsorption on active carbon, filtration, electrolysis, biodegradation …etc. Adsorption is one of the most applied methods according to its effectiveness and easy management. Some adsorbents with good properties such as active alumina, zeolites, crop residues … etc, are suitable to substitute usual active carbon. This study aimed at the removal of dyes using oil shale as natural support, and its optimization by factorial experiment. Three factors were considered namly:pollutant concentration, pH and weight of the adsorbent. Tests have been performed with cationic and anionic dyes. Experimental results show that pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data for the adsorption by the oil shale. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were tested to fit experimental data, the adsorption equilibrium was well described by Freundlich isotherm for methylorange and Temkin for methyl blue. Analysis were completed by oil shale characterization educing XRD, IR, XRF techniques, and cationic exchange capacity.

  20. Kinetic study of electro-Fenton oxidation of azo dyes on boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Almomani, Fares; Baranova, Elena A

    2013-01-01

    The present work compares electrochemical degradation of red and blue azo textile dyes in single- and two-compartment electrochemical cells in the presence of Fenton reagent (Fe2+) and using a boron-doped diamond anode. Degradation of both dyes was related to the concentration of dye, applied current density and the concentration of FeSO4 catalyst. Complete colour removal and approximately 91% of organic matter oxidation was achieved in a two-compartment electrochemical cell at an applied current density of 20 mA x cm(-2), pH of 3 and Fe(2+) ion concentration of 0.02 mM. Higher current density and reaction time were required to achieve the same removals in a one-compartment electrochemical cell. Dye degradation kinetics as well as chemical oxygen demand removal rate were successfully modelled to pseudo first-order kinetics. The apparent first-order rate constants (k(o)) for degradation of red dye with an initial concentration of 20, 40 and 60 ppm were found to be 2.67 +/- 0.16, 2.19 +/- 0.09 and 1.5 +/- 0.03 min(-1), and for blue dye at the same initial concentrations were 1.99 +/- 0.2, 0.95 +/- 0.02 and 0.71 +/- 0.030 min(-1), respectively.

  1. Binding of dyes to hydroxyapatite treated with cetylpyridinium chloride or cetrimonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J E

    1978-03-01

    The effect of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) on the adsorption of some acidic food dyes to hydroxyapatite was studied. The dyes investigated were brilliant blue (FD&C Blue No. 1), tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5), sunset yellow (FD&C Yellow No. 6) and amaranth (FD&C Red No. 2). The apatite had adsorbed 9.2 mumol CPC per g dry weight. The adsorbed CPC was in equilibrium with a free concentration of 20 microgram/ml (58 micrometer). The adsorption of CPC and CTAB to the apatite was followed by an increased ability of the crystals to bind the dyes. The dyes were very firmly adsorbed and were not released during a series of washings. Untreated apatite showed only a minor affinity for the dyes. The adsorbed dyes were easily washed out. CPC and CTAB showed the smae specific ability to increase the binding capacity of the apatite. The results are discussed and related to the formation of stains on the teeth in persons using quaternary ammonium compounds for mouthrinsing. A mechanism explaining the production of stains is proposed.

  2. The analysis and comparison of blue wool fibre populations found at random on clothing.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, K; Drummond, P

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-eight garments were taped and searched for mid to dark blue wool fibres. These were then removed from the tapings, mounted on slides and examined using a high-power microscope (400x). A total of 2,740 blue wool fibres were identified and visible range microspectrophotometry (MSP) was performed on them. Three hundred independent blue wool populations were identified on 56 of the 58 garments searched. The lack of control fibres meant the spectral range of each population was unknown. The number of populations may have been underestimated by grouping together the fibres that had broad single peaks and a lack of distinguishing features in the spectra. Although blue wool is considered to be a common fibre type, 300 unique spectral shapes were identified by the use of microspectrophotometry alone. This demonstrates that the dyes used in the dyeing of blue wool are variable. Showing that many different populations of blue wool occur on a range of garments should ensure that the forensic scientist does not underestimate or understate the strength of evidence in cases where blue wool is found. Hopefully this work will enlighten scientists and enable them to also assess the true value of their findings when other commonly occurring fibres are encountered.

  3. Brazil nut shells as a new biosorbent to remove methylene blue and indigo carmine from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Brito, Suzana Modesto; Andrade, Heloysa Martins Carvalho; Soares, Luciana Frota; de Azevedo, Rafael Pires

    2010-02-15

    The adsorption of methylene blue and indigo carmine, respectively a basic and an acid dye, was studied on raw Brazil nut shells. The dye removal from solution by BNS was governed by: (i) polarization effects between the colored ions and the surface sites, leading to physisorbed species due to weak electrostatic forces and (ii) diffusion limitations affecting the kinetic parameters. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of methylene blue and of indigo carmine was spontaneous and exothermic occurring with entropy decrease. H(0) values confirmed the physical nature of the adsorption processes. The adsorption followed the Langmuir model and pseudo-second order kinetics over the entire range of tested concentrations but the process was controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The maximal uptakes were 7.81 mg g(-1), for methylene blue, and 1.09 mg g(-1) for indigo carmine, at room temperature. These results indicate that Brazil nut shells may be useful as adsorbent either for basic or acid dyes.

  4. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks: An Efficient Adsorbent for Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Deb, Madhurima; Tiwari, Shreya; Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2018-04-01

    Extraordinary properties of graphene and its derivatives have found application in varied areas such as energy, electronics, optical devices and sensors, to name a few. Large surface area along with specialized functional groups make these materials attractive for removal of dye molecules in solution via adsorption. Industrial effluents contain large amounts of toxic chemicals resulting in pollution of water bodies, which pose environmental hazards in general. Here we report application of 3D oxidized graphene frameworks in the efficient removal of cationic dye molecules such as methylene blue via adsorption. Systematic parametric studies investigating the effect of the initial dye concentration, pH and contact time have been performed. Spectroscopic analysis of the filtrate suggests that tortuous paths in 3D oxidized graphene frameworks result in efficient removal of dye molecules due to enhanced interaction. The hydroxyl groups retained in these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks facilitate adsorption of the dye molecules while passing through the adsorbent. pH studies suggest that maximum removal efficiency for methylene blue was achieved at pH value of 9. The results suggest that these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks can be used for purification of large volumes of contaminated water from cationic dyes in waste water treatment plants.

  5. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks: An Efficient Adsorbent for Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Deb, Madhurima; Tiwari, Shreya; Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2018-02-01

    Extraordinary properties of graphene and its derivatives have found application in varied areas such as energy, electronics, optical devices and sensors, to name a few. Large surface area along with specialized functional groups make these materials attractive for removal of dye molecules in solution via adsorption. Industrial effluents contain large amounts of toxic chemicals resulting in pollution of water bodies, which pose environmental hazards in general. Here we report application of 3D oxidized graphene frameworks in the efficient removal of cationic dye molecules such as methylene blue via adsorption. Systematic parametric studies investigating the effect of the initial dye concentration, pH and contact time have been performed. Spectroscopic analysis of the filtrate suggests that tortuous paths in 3D oxidized graphene frameworks result in efficient removal of dye molecules due to enhanced interaction. The hydroxyl groups retained in these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks facilitate adsorption of the dye molecules while passing through the adsorbent. pH studies suggest that maximum removal efficiency for methylene blue was achieved at pH value of 9. The results suggest that these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks can be used for purification of large volumes of contaminated water from cationic dyes in waste water treatment plants.

  6. Trypan blue exclusion assay by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Avelar-Freitas, B A; Almeida, V G; Pinto, M C X; Mourão, F A G; Massensini, A R; Martins-Filho, O A; Rocha-Vieira, E; Brito-Melo, G E A

    2014-04-01

    Dye exclusion tests are used to determine the number of live and dead cells. These assays are based on the principle that intact plasma membranes in live cells exclude specific dyes, whereas dead cells do not. Although widely used, the trypan blue (TB) exclusion assay has limitations. The dye can be incorporated by live cells after a short exposure time, and personal reliability, related to the expertise of the analyst, can affect the results. We propose an alternative assay for evaluating cell viability that combines the TB exclusion test and the high sensitivity of the flow cytometry technique. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of TB to emit fluorescence when complexed with proteins. According to our results, TB/bovine serum albumin and TB/cytoplasmic protein complexes emit fluorescence at 660 nm, which is detectable by flow cytometry using a 650-nm low-pass band filter. TB at 0.002% (w/v) was defined as the optimum concentration for distinguishing unstained living cells from fluorescent dead cells, and fluorescence emission was stable for 30 min after cell treatment. Although previous studies have shown that TB promotes green fluorescence quenching, TB at 0.002% did not interfere with green fluorescence in human live T-cells stained with anti-CD3/fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) monoclonal antibody. We observed a high correlation between the percentage of propidium iodide+CD3/FITC+ and TB+CD3/FITC+ cells, as well as similar double-stained cell profiles in flow cytometry dot-plot graphs. Taken together, the results indicate that a TB exclusion assay by flow cytometry can be employed as an alternative tool for quick and reliable cell viability analysis.

  7. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Processes for high efficiency of blue organic light-emitting diodes with dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Wu; Chen, Guan-Ting; Kuo, Wen-Fa

    2002-09-01

    A blue organic light-emitting diode has been made by anthracene derivative. The structure of the blue device is ITO/m-MTDATA/NPB/doped anthracene/Alq3/Mg:Aag, where m-MTDATA, NPB and undoped Alq3 were used for hole injection layer, hole transporting layer, and electron transporting layer, and electron tranporting layer, respectively. Three different of blue fluorescent dyes, inclduign BCzVBi, perylene, and TBPe, were introduced into anthracene as dopants for obtaining a highly luminescent blue emission. Evidence shows that the BCzVBi-doped device behaves the superior L-J and J-V characteristics due to the higher fluorescence and the formation of conducting path for carrrier transport. The emission mechanism was strongly suggestd to be due to energy transfer process from anthracene host to BCzVBi dopant and achieving a highly luminescent blue-light.

  9. Spectrophotometric investigation of the hetero-association of Caffeine and thiazine dye in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, P. A.; Baranovsky, S. F.; Evstigneev, M. P.

    2006-06-01

    The self-association of thiazine dye, Methylene Blue (MB), and its hetero-association with Caffeine (CAF), were studied in aqueous solution by means of spectrophotometry in the visible range of spectrum. Concentration and temperature dependences of molar absorption of the interacting molecules were used to analyse dynamic equilibrium in solution in terms of two-component model of molecular hetero-association. The magnitudes of equilibrium dimerization and hetero-association constants as well as thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy and entropy, were determined. The calculation of the fraction of different types of associates in the mixed solution, containing Methylene Blue and Caffeine, was done. It was concluded that the hetero-association of Methylene Blue and Caffeine molecules results in lower effective concentration of the dye in solution, which may account for the alteration of its biological activity.

  10. [Cholesterol ester storage disease and sea-blue histiocytes].

    PubMed

    Künnert, B; Pöhlandt, K; Ruschke, I; Keller, E

    1987-01-01

    A case of cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) was found by liver biopsy in a 5-year-old boy. Hepatosplenomegaly, varying elevations of serum transaminases and hyperlipoproteinemia, type IIb, were detected clinically. The liver tissue was yellow. The cytoplasm of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells was foamy. In frozen sections these cells stained with dyes and histochemical methods for neutral lipids, unsaturated lipids, and cholesterol, but not with dyes for phospholipids and glycosaminoglycans. Under polarized light a large quantity of birefringent storage material was visible. We determined the lipid composition histochromatographically and found a very substantial increase in cholesteryl ester content and a moderate increase in triglycerides compared to control liver tissue. These findings are in agreement with our former case of CESD (1979). But in contrast to the liver tissue of the first patient there was more pronounced hepatic periportal and intralobular fibrosis in the second case. Remarkable amounts of ceroid storing histiocytes, so called "sea-blue histiocytes" were visible within the fibrous tissue. The granules of these cells stained with dyes for neutral lipids, phospholipids, glycosaminoglycans, and sea-blue with Giemsa in both frozen sections and paraffin-embedded liver tissue. They showed a yellow autofluorescence and were partly birefringent. Ceroid is believed to be the product of lipid peroxidation, binding to protein and polymerization. Therefore we suggest an additional deficiency of tissue antioxidants at the storage sites in such cases of CESD and this may potentiate liver fibrosis.

  11. Efficient Solution-Processed Blue Electrophosphorescent Devices Based on a Novel Small-Molecule Host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Liu-Dong; Li, Wei; Duan, Lian; Qiu, Yong

    2008-04-01

    Efficient blue small molecular phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with a blue phosphorescent dye bis(3,5- difluoro-2-(2-pyridyl)-phenyl-(2-carboxypride) iridium (III) (FIrpic) doped into a novel small-molecule host 9,9- bis[4-(3,6-di-tert-butylcarbazol-9-yl)phenyl] fluorene (TBCPF) as the light-emitting layer have been fabricated by spin-coating. The host TBCPF can form homogeneous amorphous films by spin-coating and has triplet energy higher than that of the blue phosphorescent dye FIrpic. All the devices with different FIrpic concentration in the emitting layer give emission from FIrpic indicating complete energy transfer from TBCPF to FIrpic. The device shows the best performance with a peak brightness of 8050 cd/m2 at 10.2 V and the maximum current efficiency up to 3.52 cd/A, when the FIrpic doped concentration is as high as 16%.

  12. Decolorization of acid, disperse and reactive dyes by Trametes versicolor CBR43.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Ok; Sodaneath, Hong; Lee, Jung-In; Jung, Hyekyeng; Choi, Jin-Hee; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-07-29

    The mycoremediation has been considered as a promising method for decolorizing dye wastewater. To explore new bioresource for mycoremediation, a new white-rot fungus that could decolorize various dyes commonly used in textile industries was isolated, and its ligninolytic enzyme activity and decolorization capacity were characterized. The isolated CBR43 was identified as Trametes versicolor based on the morphological properties of its fruit body and spores, as well as through partial 18S rDNA gene sequences. Isolated CBR43 displayed high activities of laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase, whereas its lignin peroxidase activity was relatively low. These ligninolytic enzyme activities in potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium were enhanced by the addition of yeast extract (1-10 g L -1 ). In particular, lignin peroxidase activity was increased more than 5 times in the PDB medium amended with 10 g L -1 of yeast extract. The CBR43 decolorized more than 90% of 200 mg L -1 acid dyes (red 114, blue 62 and black 172) and reactive dyes (red 120, blue 4, orange 16 and black 5) within 6 days in the PDB medium. CBR43 decolorized 67% of 200 mg L -1 acid orange 7 within 9 days. The decolorization efficiencies for disperse dyes (red 1, orange 3 and black 1) were 51-80% within 9 days. The CBR43 could effectively decolorize high concentrations of acid blue 62 and acid black 172 (500-700 mg L -1 ). The maximum dye decolorization rate was obtained at 28°C, pH 5, and 150 rpm in the PDB medium. T. versicolor CBR43 had high laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase activities, and could decolorize a wide variety of dyes such as acid, disperse and reactive textile dyes. This fungus had decolorizing activities of azo-type dyes as well as anthraquinone-type dyes. T. versicolor CBR43 is one of promising bioresources for the decolorization of textile wastewater including various dyes.

  13. Posterior Hyaloid Dissection: Let's Make It Easy with Blue.

    PubMed

    Sararols, Laura; Bañon, Karim; Londoño, Gabriel; Castilla, Miguel; Guarro, Mercé

    2018-02-13

    Our aim is to present in this online supplementa ry video (see www.karger.com/doi/10.1159/000486348) an easy new surgical technique using blue dye to dissect the posterior hyaloid when performing pars plana vitrectomy. Dual-Blue stain is injected in vitreous cavity just after central vitrectomy is performed. The distribution of the blue stain will allow us to know if there is a posterior vitreous detachment or not ("blue lake fashion" or "blue jelly fashion," respectively) and as an excellent visualization of the vitreous fibers is accomplished, dissection of the posterior hyaloid can be performed without difficulty. This procedure allows a much more simple, fast, and safe dissection of posterior hyaloid even for an inexperienced vitreoretinal surgeon. The cleavage plane between the retina and the posterior hyaloid is easily differentiated. A more controlled and easy dissection of posterior hyaloid during vitrectomy is accomplished with this simple technique without adding any extra cost. Message of the paper: An easy technique that allows a much easier dissection of the posterior hyaloid during vitrectomy improving visualization and decreasing risks. No extra cost, nor time is needed. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Village Blue Frequently Asked Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Village Blue project to increase public awareness about local water quality in the Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. This document answers frequently asked questions about Village Blue.

  15. SPE/TLC/Densitometric Quantification of Selected Synthetic Food Dyes in Liquid Foodstuffs and Pharmaceutical Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Pyzowski, Jarosław; Brzezińska, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Selected synthetic food dyes (tartrazine, Ponceau 4R, Brilliant Blue, orange yellow, and azorubine) were isolated from liquid preparations (mouthwashes and beverages) by Solid Phase Extraction on aminopropyl-bonded silica with diluted aqueous sodium hydroxide as an eluent. The extraction step was followed by thin layer chromatography on silica gel 60 with chloroform-isopropanol-25% aq. ammonia 1 : 3 : 1 (v/v/v) as mobile phase and the densitometric quantification of dyes was achieved using quadratic calibration plots (R2 > 0.997; LOQ = 0.04–0.09 μgspot−1). The overall recoveries for all studied dyes were at the average level of over 90% and the repeatability of the proposed procedure (CV ≤ 4.1%) was sufficient to recommend it for the routine quantification of the aforementioned dyes in liquid matrices. PMID:28798884

  16. New physicochemical interpretations for the adsorption of food dyes on chitosan films using statistical physics treatment.

    PubMed

    Dotto, G L; Pinto, L A A; Hachicha, M A; Knani, S

    2015-03-15

    In this work, statistical physics treatment was employed to study the adsorption of food dyes onto chitosan films, in order to obtain new physicochemical interpretations at molecular level. Experimental equilibrium curves were obtained for the adsorption of four dyes (FD&C red 2, FD&C yellow 5, FD&C blue 2, Acid Red 51) at different temperatures (298, 313 and 328 K). A statistical physics formula was used to interpret these curves, and the parameters such as, number of adsorbed dye molecules per site (n), anchorage number (n'), receptor sites density (NM), adsorbed quantity at saturation (N asat), steric hindrance (τ), concentration at half saturation (c1/2) and molar adsorption energy (ΔE(a)) were estimated. The relation of the above mentioned parameters with the chemical structure of the dyes and temperature was evaluated and interpreted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A New Organic Dye-Based Staining for The Detection of Plant DNA in Agarose Gels.

    PubMed

    Sönmezoğlu, Özlem Ateş; Özkay, Kerime

    2015-01-01

    Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. We investigated N-719, which is a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye, and five fluorescent alternatives for staining plant DNA. For prestaining and poststaining, N-719, GelRed, and SYBR Safe stained both DNA and PCR product bands as clearly as EtBr. SYBR Green I, methylene blue, and crystal violet were effective for poststaining only. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. Consequently, organic dyes can be used as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies.

  18. Photoassisted Electrochemical Treatment of Azo and Phtalocyanine Reactive Dyes in the Presence of Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Mireia; López-Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemical treatment (EC) was applied at different intensities to degrade the chromophoric groups of dyes C.I. Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and C.I. Reactive Blue 7 (Rb7) until uncolored species were obtained. Decolorization rate constants of the azo dye RB5 were higher than the phtalocyanine Rb7 ones. In addition, the EC treatment was more efficient at higher intensities, but these conditions significantly increased the generation of undesirable by-products such as chloroform. The combination of EC with UV irradiation (UVEC) drastically minimized the generation of chloroform. The photo-assisted electrochemical treatment was also able to achieve decolorization values of 99%. Finally, mixtures of dyes and surfactants were treated by EC and UVEC. In the presence of surfactants, the decolorization kinetic of dyes was slowed due to the competitive reactions of surfactants degradation. Both methods achieved total decolorization and in both cases, the generation of haloforms was negligible. PMID:28773335

  19. Fluorescent J-aggregates of cyanine dyes: basic research and applications review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricks, Julia L.; Slominskii, Yuri L.; Panas, Ihor D.; Demchenko, Alexander P.

    2018-01-01

    J-aggregates are fascinating fluorescent nanomaterials formed by highly ordered assembly of organic dyes with the spectroscopic properties dramatically different from that of single or disorderly assembled dye molecules. They demonstrate very narrow red-shifted absorption and emission bands, strongly increased absorbance together with the decrease of radiative lifetime, highly polarized emission and other valuable features. The mechanisms of their electronic transitions are understood by formation of delocalized excitons already on the level of several coupled monomers. Cyanine dyes are unique in forming J-aggregates over the broad spectral range, from blue to near-IR. With the aim to inspire further developments, this review is focused on the optical characteristics of J-aggregates in connection with the dye structures and on their diverse already realized and emerging applications.

  20. Blue/white organic light-emitting diodes and passive matrix display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Lin; Jiang, Xue-Yin; Zhu, Wen-Qing; Xu, Shao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The blue organic light emitting diodes (OLED) based on anthracene derivatives (ADN) doped with distryrylarylene derivatives (BCzVB and DSA-ph) were presented. The device of ADN doped with BCzVb shows high color purity (x=0.146, y=0.162) with maximum luminance 11600 cd/m2 (15V), current efficiency 2.8 cd/A, while the device of ADN doped with DSA-ph exhibits a sky blue with as high as efficiency 8.29 cd/A, both have a flat efficiency vs current density responses. A typical blue device of ADN doped with TBPe is used for comparison, which gives greenish blue and a stronger current-induced flyorescence quenching. Three kinds of White organic light emitting devices (WOLED) with different dopants and doping sites were constructed. The cell with a single-doped red dye in the light emitting layer (EML)(single-doped) and the cell with both red and blue dyes doped in a single EML (double-doped as well as the cell with red and blue dyes doped in EML and a green dye in another layer (triple-doped). The triple-doped cell shows much higher performance than other two cells: maximum luminance 21200cd/m2, 1026 cd/m2 at driving current 20mA/cm2, efficiency 6cd/A and a half lifetime over 22245h were reached. A passive display features 102x64 pixels with pixel size of 0.25x0.25mm2 pixel pitch 0.08mm, luminance 100 cd/m2 at driving duty 1/64, and power consumption of 0.6W was constructed.

  1. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  2. [Blue light and eye health].

    PubMed

    Zou, Leilei; Dai, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Blue light, with the wavelength between 400 nm and 500 nm, has caused public concern because of the injury to the retinal cells. Meanwhile, it is important in circadian rhythm regulation, scotopic vision and ocular growth. Is the blue light safe? Should it be eliminated from the daily life? Here we review the effect and safety of the blue light.

  3. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  4. Dyeing and characterization of regenerated cellulose nanofibers with vat dyes.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Shaikh, Irfan; Phan, Duy-Nam; Khan, Qamar; Khatri, Zeeshan; Lee, Hoik; Kim, Ick Soo

    2017-10-15

    Recent advancement in dyeing of nanofibers has been accelerated to improve their aesthetic properties, however, achieving good color fastness remains a challenge. Therefore, we attempt to improve the color fastness properties nanofibers. Vat dyes are known for better color fastness and their application on nanofibers has not been investigated to date. Herein, we report dyeing of regenerated cellulose nanofibers (RCNF) that were produced from precursor of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation process. The resultant RCNF was dyed with two different vat dyes and the color attributes were examined under spectrophotometer which showed outstanding color build-up. Morphological of CA before and after deacetylation and before and after vat dyeing was investigated under TEM, FE-SEM and SEM respectively. The vat dyed RCNF were further characterized by FTIR and WAXD. Excellent color fastness results demonstrate that vat dyed RCNF can potentially be considered for advanced apparel applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž.; Prlainović, Nevena Ž.; Stefanović, Andrea B.; Žuža, Milena G.; Čičkarić, Dragana Z.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D.

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  6. Optimization of Evans blue quantitation in limited rat tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hwai-Lee; Lai, Ted Weita

    2014-10-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) is an inert tracer that measures plasma volume in human subjects and vascular permeability in animal models. Quantitation of EBD can be difficult when dye concentration in the sample is limited, such as when extravasated dye is measured in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) intact brain. The procedure described here used a very small volume (30 µl) per sample replicate, which enabled high-throughput measurements of the EBD concentration based on a standard 96-well plate reader. First, ethanol ensured a consistent optic path length in each well and substantially enhanced the sensitivity of EBD fluorescence spectroscopy. Second, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) removed false-positive EBD measurements as a result of biological solutes and partially extracted EBD into the supernatant. Moreover, a 1:2 volume ratio of 50% TCA ([TCA final] = 33.3%) optimally extracted EBD from the rat plasma protein-EBD complex in vitro and in vivo, and 1:2 and 1:3 weight-volume ratios of 50% TCA optimally extracted extravasated EBD from the rat brain and liver, respectively, in vivo. This procedure is particularly useful in the detection of EBD extravasation into the BBB-intact brain, but it can also be applied to detect dye extravasation into tissues where vascular permeability is less limiting.

  7. Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by fly ash: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Dizge, N; Aydiner, C; Demirbas, E; Kobya, M; Kara, S

    2008-02-11

    Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies of three reactive dyes namely, Remazol Brillant Blue (RB), Remazol Red 133 (RR) and Rifacion Yellow HED (RY) from aqueous solutions at various initial dye concentration (100-500 mg/l), pH (2-8), particle size (45-112.5 microm) and temperature (293-323 K) on fly ash (FA) were studied in a batch mode operation. The adsorbent was characterized with using several methods such as SEM, XRD and FTIR. Adsorption of RB reactive dye was found to be pH dependent but both RR and RY reactive dyes were not. The result showed that the amount adsorbed of the reactive dyes increased with increasing initial dye concentration and contact time. Batch kinetic data from experimental investigations on the removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using FA have been well described by external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion had rate limiting affects on the removal process. This was attributed to the relatively simple macropore structure of FA particles. The adsorption data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum conditions for removal of the reactive dyes were 100mg/l initial dye concentration, 0.6g/100ml adsorbent dose, temperature of 293 K, 45 microm particle size, pH 6 and agitation speed of 250 rpm, respectively. The values of Langmuir and Freundlich constants were found to increase with increasing temperature in the range 135-180 and 15-34 mg/g for RB, 47-86 and 1.9-3.7 mg/g for RR and 37-61 and 3.0-3.6 mg/g for RY reactive dyes, respectively. Different thermodynamic parameters viz., changes in standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy were evaluated and it was found that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  8. Raman and infrared studies of synthetic Maya Blue pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Layra; Manciu, Felicia; Ramirez, Alejandra; Chianelli, Russell

    2008-10-01

    A fascinating aspect of Maya pigments is that despite the environmentally harsh humidity and high temperatures they resist fading and they have unprecedented stability. In this investigation, we address the question of how organic dye binds to inorganic palygorskite to form a pigment similar to Maya Blue. We also address how such binding might be affected by varying the proportion of dye relative to that of the mineral, and by varying the length of heating time used in preparation of the pigment. Our analysis by Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopies proves the partial elimination of the selection rules for the centrosymmetric indigo, and shows the disappearance of the indigo N-H bonding, as the organic molecules incorporate into palygorskite material. Infrared data confirm the loss of zeolitic water and a partial removal of structural water after the heating process. Evidence of bonding between palygorskite and indigo through oxygen is revealed by both spectroscopic measurements.

  9. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  10. Pluto Blue Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-08

    Pluto's haze layer shows its blue color in this picture taken by the New Horizons Ralph/Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC). The high-altitude haze is thought to be similar in nature to that seen at Saturn's moon Titan. The source of both hazes likely involves sunlight-initiated chemical reactions of nitrogen and methane, leading to relatively small, soot-like particles (called tholins) that grow as they settle toward the surface. This image was generated by software that combines information from blue, red and near-infrared images to replicate the color a human eye would perceive as closely as possible. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19964

  11. Decolorisation of Basic Textile Dye from Aqueous Solutions using a Biosorbent derived from Thespesia populnea used Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunturu, Bhargavi; Rao Palukuri, Nageswara; Sahadevan, Renganathan

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, the efficiency of a biosorbent derived from seeds of Thespesia populnea was investigated towards the removal of basic textile dye Methylene Blue from an aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were carried out in batch system. Influence of experimental parameters such as adsorbent dosage (0.1g/L-0.3g/L), PH (2-10) and initial dye concentration (50-130mg/L) on adsorption of dye onto biosorbent was investigated. Maximum uptake of dye was observed with 0.1g/L adsorbent dosage at PH 8.0. Equilibrium uptake of methylene blue dye by the adsorbent was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The data fitted best with Freundlich model, suggesting that adsorption of the dye was by multilayer model on the surface of the adsorbent. Experimental results obtained support that the biosorbent used in the present study can be a suitable low cost alternate for the removal of basic textile dyes.

  12. Free and Ca-Alginate Beads Immobilized Horseradish Peroxidase for the Removal of Reactive Dyes: an Experimental and Modeling Study.

    PubMed

    Farias, Simone; Mayer, Diego A; de Oliveira, Débora; de Souza, Selene M A Guelli U; de Souza, Antônio Augusto Ulson

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work was to remove the dyes Reactive Blue 221 (RB 221) and Reactive Blue 198 (RB 198) of synthetic effluent using the immobilized enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in Ca-alginate beads. Experimental parameters affecting the dye removal process such as the effect of pH, temperature, hydrogen peroxide concentration, mass capsules, and reuse were evaluated, and a numerical model of mass transfer was developed. A maximum removal of 93 and 75%, respectively, for the dyes RB 221 and RB 198, at pH 5.5 and temperature of 30 °C, concentration of hydrogen peroxide of 43.75 μM for dye RB 221 and 37.5 μM for the dye of RB 198 was obtained. A removal reaction of 180 min for RB 221 and 240 min for RB 198 was observed. Three reuse cycles of use of immobilized enzyme were achieved for both dyes. The numerical model proposed led to a good fit compared to experimental data. The HRP enzyme immobilized in Ca-alginate capsules showed a great potential for biotechnological applications, especially for the removal of reactive dyes.

  13. Effects of trypan blue on the action of adrenergic agonists in the guinea-pig isolated atrium.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian, M; Ziai, S A

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that trypan blue, a diazo dye with polyamphipathic structure, can inhibit the coupling of receptors to G-proteins. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of trypan blue on the actions of adrenoceptor agonists in the guinea-pig atrium. Trypan blue (10 and 100 microM) antagonized the positive inotropic effects of isoprenaline and dobutamine by shifting their concentration-response curves to the right. With the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, salbutamol, there was a reduction of response in the presence of trypan blue. Therefore, we concluded that trypan blue diminish the response to beta-adrenoceptor agonists possibly via decoupling receptors from Gs. Trypan blue and similar agents, due to their unique mode of action, can be used as tools for the investigation of the mechanism of receptor-G protein coupling in the whole tissue preparation.

  14. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  15. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James E.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, Frederick A.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  16. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  17. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  18. Diagnostic efficiency of toluidine blue with Lugol's iodine in oral premalignant and malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, Kamarthi; Prasad, Shiva; Ashok, L

    2010-01-01

    In vivo stains are prompt resources, which have emerged, in the recent years, to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early premalignant and malignant lesions. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic efficiency of toluidine blue with Lugol's iodine in oral premalignancies and malignancies and to evaluate the reliability of in vivo staining with toluidine blue and Lugol's iodine in the lesions at risk of malignancy. The study group comprised 30 subjects with clinically suspicious premalignant lesions and 30 subjects with clinically suspicious malignant lesions. All the lesions were stained consecutively with toluidine blue and Lugol's iodine and the dye retention were recorded with photographs. Depending on the retention of the dyes, the biopsy site was determined. The biopsy specimens were sent for histological confirmation and results were statistically analyzed. The overall diagnostic accuracy of Lugol's iodine when used consecutively with toluidine blue stain in distinguishing premalignant lesions and malignant lesions was 90%. As the degree of differentiation of malignant lesions progressed toward more severity, they failed to show the retention of Lugol's iodine and the result was highly significant statistically, with a P value < 0.001. Lugol's iodine when used with toluidine blue helped in delineating the inflammatory lesions and was the mean source in determining clinically the degrees of differentiation of malignant lesions as the poorly differentiated malignant lesions without glycogen content failed to show Lugol's iodine retention. Toluidine blue with Lugol's iodine can be used as a pretherapeutic assessment of the biologic aggressiveness of the disease.

  19. Development of a Direct Spectrophotometric and Chemometric Method for Determining Food Dye Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Arroz, Erin; Jordan, Michael; Dumancas, Gerard G

    2017-07-01

    An ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometric and partial least squares (PLS) chemometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of erythrosine B (red), Brilliant Blue, and tartrazine (yellow) dyes. A training set (n = 64) was generated using a full factorial design and its accuracy was tested in a test set (n = 13) using a Box-Behnken design. The test set garnered a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.79 × 10 -7 for blue, 4.59 × 10 -7 for red, and 1.13 × 10 -6 for yellow dyes. The relatively small RMSE suggests only a small difference between predicted versus measured concentrations, demonstrating the accuracy of our model. The relative error of prediction (REP) for the test set were 11.73%, 19.52%, 19.38%, for blue, red, and yellow dyes, respectively. A comparable overlay between the actual candy samples and their replicated synthetic spectra were also obtained indicating the model as a potentially accurate method for determining concentrations of dyes in food samples.

  20. High-value zeolitic material from bagasse fly ash: utilization for dye elimination.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavna A; Shah, Ajay V; Patel, Harendra D; Mistry, Chirag B

    2013-06-01

    Bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, was used to prepare zeolitic material (ZFA) by means of alkaline hydrothermal treatment. ZFA showed improved morphology as a result of this treatment. The adsorption of the reactive dyes turquoise blue (TB) and brilliant magenta (BM), on both BFA and ZFA, was investigated in a batch contact system. A series of batch experiments revealed that optimal dye removal occurs at a 200 mg/L to 300 mg/L solute concentration, 60 minutes of agitation time, 5 g/L to 10 g/L adsorbent dose, a pH level of 2 to 4, and a temperature of 298 K. ZFA showed enhanced adsorption capacity as compared to BFA. According to the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacity was 12.66 mg/g and 45.45 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on BFA; and 21.74 mg/g and 100.00 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on ZFA. Kinetic studies showed that the correlation coefficients best fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, confirming that the adsorption rate was controlled by a hemisorptions process.

  1. Fluorescence dye tagging scheme for mercury quantification and speciation

    DOEpatents

    Jiao, Hong; Catterall, Hannah

    2015-09-22

    A fluorescent dye or fluorophore capable of forming complexes with mercury comprises 6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxylate amide, wherein the amide is formed by reacting the succinimidyl ester (Pacific Blue.TM.) with an amino acid containing a thiol group, such as cysteine or glutathione. Mercury complexes of the fluorophore fluoresce when excited by a UV or violet laser diode, and the detected intensity can be calibrated to quantify the concentration of mercury in a sample reacted with the fluorophore.

  2. Novel methylene-blue-sensitized photopolymers for holographic recording: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushamani, Mythili; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, Rani

    2004-06-01

    Polymer matrices like PVC and a blend of PVA/PAA is introduced as new holographic media that cause red sensitivity with methylene blue. Unlike methylene blue sensitized polymers like PVA, PMMA, gelatin etc, the change of state occurring for methylene blue on laser irradiation on PVC matrix was found to be permanent. No recovery of dye on the irradiated spot was observed on storage. The outstanding properties of this material are its excellent optical clarity, insensitive to humidity, economical, ease of fabrication, absence of dark room storage etc. The recovery of dye in conventional MBPVA matrix can be delayed by blending PVA with PAA. Optimization of the ratio of PVA/PAA, the sensitizer concentration, pH, energy, diffraction efficiency measurements etc are done. pH is found to have a great influence on the recovery of the dye in this matrix. The effect of monomers in improving the diffraction efficiency on these dye doped polymer system is also evaluated. A comparative study is done on these polymer matrices and holographic gratings were recorded on these films from a He- Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm.

  3. Ethnobotany of dye plants in Dong communities of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyes derived from plants have an extensive history of use for coloring food and clothing in Dong communities and other indigenous areas in the uplands of China. In addition to use as coloring agents, Dong communities have historically utilized dye plants for their value for enhancing the nutritive, medicinal and preservative properties of foods. However, the persistence of plant-derived dyes and associated cultural practices and traditional knowledge is threatened with rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to document the ethnobotany of dye plants in indigenous communities towards their conservation and potential commercialization as a sustainable means of supporting local development initiatives. Methods Semi-structured surveys on plants used for coloring agents and associated traditional knowledge were conducted in fifteen Dong villages of Tongdao County in Hunan Province of South Central China during 2011–2012. Transect walks were carried out with key informants identified from semi-structured surveys to collect samples and voucher specimens for each documented plant species for taxonomic identification. Results Dong households at the study sites utilize the flowers, bark, stems, tubers and roots of 13 plant species from 9 families as dyes to color their customary clothing and food. Out of the documented plants, a total of 7 are used for coloring food, 3 for coloring clothing and 3 for both food and clothing. Documented plants consist of 3 species that yield black pigments, 3 for brownish red/russet pigments, 3 for red pigments, 2 for dark blue pigments and 2 for yellow pigments. In addition to dyes, the plants have multiple uses including medicinal, ornamental, sacrificial, edible, and for timber. Conclusions The use of dyes derived from plants persists at the study sites for their important role in expressing Dong cultural identity through customary clothing and food. Further research is needed to evaluate the safety of dye

  4. Ethnobotany of dye plants in Dong communities of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujing; Ahmed, Selena; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhiyong; Huang, Weijuan; Wu, Xianjin; Li, Shenghua; Zhou, Jiangju; Lei, Qiyi; Long, Chunlin

    2014-02-19

    Dyes derived from plants have an extensive history of use for coloring food and clothing in Dong communities and other indigenous areas in the uplands of China. In addition to use as coloring agents, Dong communities have historically utilized dye plants for their value for enhancing the nutritive, medicinal and preservative properties of foods. However, the persistence of plant-derived dyes and associated cultural practices and traditional knowledge is threatened with rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to document the ethnobotany of dye plants in indigenous communities towards their conservation and potential commercialization as a sustainable means of supporting local development initiatives. Semi-structured surveys on plants used for coloring agents and associated traditional knowledge were conducted in fifteen Dong villages of Tongdao County in Hunan Province of South Central China during 2011-2012. Transect walks were carried out with key informants identified from semi-structured surveys to collect samples and voucher specimens for each documented plant species for taxonomic identification. Dong households at the study sites utilize the flowers, bark, stems, tubers and roots of 13 plant species from 9 families as dyes to color their customary clothing and food. Out of the documented plants, a total of 7 are used for coloring food, 3 for coloring clothing and 3 for both food and clothing. Documented plants consist of 3 species that yield black pigments, 3 for brownish red/russet pigments, 3 for red pigments, 2 for dark blue pigments and 2 for yellow pigments. In addition to dyes, the plants have multiple uses including medicinal, ornamental, sacrificial, edible, and for timber. The use of dyes derived from plants persists at the study sites for their important role in expressing Dong cultural identity through customary clothing and food. Further research is needed to evaluate the safety of dye plants, their efficacy in enhancing food

  5. Emulsion liquid membrane for textile dye removal: Stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumastuti, Adhi; Syamwil, Rodia; Anis, Samsudin

    2017-03-01

    Although textile dyes is basically available in very low concentration; it should be removed due to the toxicity to human body and environment. Among the existing methods, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) is a promising method by providing high interfacial area and the ability to remove a very low concentration of the solute. The optimal emulsions were produced using commercially supplied homogeniser. The drop size was measured by the aid of microscope and image J software. Initially, methylene blue in simulated wastewater was extracted using a stirrer. Methylene blue concentration was determined using spectrophotometer. The research obtained optimal emulsion at surfactant concentration of 4 wt. %, kerosene as diluent, emulsification time of 30 min, emulsification speed of 2000 rpm. The lowest membrane breakage and the longest stability time were about 0.11% and 150 min, respectively.

  6. Triphenylmethane dyes, an alternative for mediated electronic transfer systems in glucose oxidase biofuel cells.

    PubMed

    La Rotta H, Camilo E; Ciniciato, Gustavo P M K; González, Ernesto R

    2011-05-06

    The bioelectrochemical behavior of three triphenylmethane (TPM) dyes commonly used as pH indicators, and their application in mediated electron transfer systems for glucose oxidase bioanodes in biofuel cells was investigated. Bromophenol Blue, Bromothymol Blue, Bromocresol Green were compared bioelectrochemically against two widely used mediators, benzoquinone and ferrocene carboxy aldehyde. Biochemical studies were performed in terms of enzymatic oxidation, enzyme affinity, catalytic efficiency and co-factor regeneration. The different features of the TPM dyes as mediators are determined by the characteristics in the oxidation/reduction processes studied electrochemically. The reversibility of the oxidation/reduction processes was also established through the dependence of the voltammetric peaks with the sweep rates. All three dyes showed good performances compared to the FA and BQ when evaluated in a half enzymatic fuel cell. Potentiodynamic and power response experiments showed maxima power densities of 32.8 μW cm(-2) for ferrocene carboxy aldehyde followed by similar values obtained for TPM dyes around 30 μW cm(-2) using glucose and mediator concentrations of 10 mmol L(-1) and 1.0 mmol L(-1), respectively. Since no mediator consumption was observed during the bioelectrochemical process, and also good redox re-cycled processes were achieved, the use of triphenylmethane dyes is considered to be promising compared to other mediated systems used with glucose oxidase bioanodes and/or biofuel cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of cellulose modified nano zero-valent iron for dye discoloration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Pei; Ma, Jun; Liu, Huiling; Ning, Ping

    2015-08-01

    Nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) was innovatively and successfully modified by using hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) as dispersants. The systematic characterization observations (including XRD, SEM and TEM) illustrate that, compared with bare nano zero-valent iron particles (BNZVI), the particle sizes of hydroxyethyl cellulose modified (ENZVI) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose modified (PNZVI) were decreased, while the dispersity and antioxidizability of ENZVI and PNZVI particles were increased. The discoloration efficiencies of ENZVI, PNZVI, and BNZVI were compared by using dyes (including orange II, methyl orange, methyl blue, and methylene blue) as target pollutant. The results show that both the discoloration efficiency and reaction rate of ENZVI and PNZVI are higher than that of BNZVI. In addition, effects of dispersant content, dye type, pH value, initial dye concentration, iron dosage, and reaction temperature on discoloration efficiencies were studied. The results show that discoloration efficiency was decreased by increasing initial pH value and dye concentration, and it was increased with the increase the iron dosage and reaction temperature. Under optimized NZVI addition of 0.7 g L-1, the discoloration efficiencies of ENZVI and PNZVI were increased to 96.33% and 98.62%, respectively. And the possible discoloration pathway and dispersant modification mechanism of NZVI were discussed. This study suggests hydroxyethyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose dispersed NZVI can be utilized as a promising modified nano-material for degradation of dye wastewater.

  8. Identification of resected root-end dentinal cracks: a comparative study of transillumination and dyes.

    PubMed

    Wright, Henry M; Loushine, Robert J; Weller, R Norman; Kimbrough, W Frank; Waller, Jennifer; Pashley, David H

    2004-10-01

    The dilemma of diagnosing and possibly treating dentinal cracks continues to present a challenge in endodontics. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the effectiveness of transillumination and dyes in identifying root-end dentinal cracks. Fifty maxillary central incisors were decoronated, and the canals were instrumented to an ISO size 50 at the working length. The apical 3 mm of the roots was resected, and cracks were artificially created in the apical dentin. Four independent examiners evaluated the root ends at x8 magnification with a surgical operating microscope using transillumination (group 1), sodium fluorescein dye (group 2), caries detect dye (group 3), methylene blue dye (group 4), and methylene blue plus transillumination (group 5). The examiners' ability to identify root ends correctly with and without cracks was analyzed by comparing the data with the predetermined standard (cracked and noncracked) using logistic regression analysis. All techniques used were shown to be more effective than random chance at diagnosing cracks. The areas under the curve of the different techniques were as follows: transillumination, 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-0.93); sodium fluorescein, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58-0.86); caries detector, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89); methylene blue, 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55-0.84); and methylene blue plus transillumination, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.94). Thus, the crack assessment techniques that gave the best discrimination between cracked and noncracked specimens, regardless of rater, was methylene blue plus transillumination. This study emphasizes the usefulness of transillumination along with magnification in detecting dentinal cracks.

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  11. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity.

  12. White light emission with red-green-blue lasing action in a disordered system of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujing; Zhao, Xiaoye; Wang, Yanrong; Shi, Jinwei; Liu, Dahe

    2012-09-01

    White light emission from a disordered system with intensity feedback is investigated. The gain material is an ethanol solution with three laser dyes (Coumarin 440, Coumarin 6, Oxazine), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to provide feedback. A single pulsed laser beam at 355 nm with 8 ns pulse duration is used to pump the dyes. Coumarin 440 and Coumarin 6 are excited first by the pump beam, and part of the Coumarin 6 peak pumps Oxazine. Bright white light emission is obtained by combining blue, green, and red beams with a threshold effect. The working properties and system emission characteristics are discussed.

  13. Biosynthesis of indigo dye by newly isolated naphthalene-degrading strain Pseudomonas sp. HOB1 and its application in dyeing cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Hilor; Madamwar, Datta

    2010-03-01

    Indigo is one of the oldest dyes manufactured chemically and is mostly used in textile, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, owing to the environmental hazards posed by the chemical production, the present scenario in the field stipulates a biosynthesis alternative for indigo production. The present study describes an indigenously isolated naphthalene-degrading strain Pseudomonas sp. HOB1 producing a blue pigment when indole was added in the growth medium. This blue pigment was analyzed by high-pressure thin-layer chromatography and other spectroscopic techniques which revealed it to be the indigo dye. Pseudomonas sp. HOB1 showed ability to produce 246 mg indigo liter(-1) of the medium. The K (m) for the enzyme naphthalene dioxygenase which is involved in indigo formation is 0.3 mM, and V (max) was as high as 50 nmol min(-1) mg dry biomass(-1). The bacterial indigo dye was further successfully applied for dyeing cotton fabrics. The high indigo productivity of Pseudomonas sp. HOB1 using naphthalene as growth substrate and its applicability on cotton fabrics, therefore, stems the probability of using this culture for commercial indigo production.

  14. [Adsorption of a dye by sludges and the roles of extracellular polymeric substances].

    PubMed

    Kong, Wang-sheng; Liu, Yan

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigated the adsorption of a dye, acid turquoise blue A, by four kinds of sludges including activated sludge, anaerobic sludge, dried activated sludge, and dried anaerobic sludge, respectively. The roles of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) including the soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) for the biosorption of activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were further studied. Results show that the relation between four kinds of sludge adsorption amount and remained concentration of the dye fitted well both Freundlich model (R2: 0.921-0.995) and Langmuir model (R2: 0.958-0.993), but not quite fitted BET model (R2: 0.07-0.863). The adsorption capability of dried anaerobic sludge ranked the highest, and dried activated sludge was the lowest. According to Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption amount of dried anaerobic, anaerobic, activated, and dried activated sludge was 104 mg/g, 86 mg/g, 65 mg/g, 20 mg/g, respectively. The amount of the dye found in EPS for both activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were over 50%, illustrating that EPS adsorption was predominant in adsorption of the dye by sludge. The amount of adsorbed dye by BEPS was greater than that by SEPS for anaerobic sludge, but for activated sludge the result was quite opposite. The amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was much higher than the corresponding values of BEPS for both sludges. The average amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was 52 times of the corresponding value of BEPS for activated sludge, and 10 times for anaerobic sludge. The relation between adsorption amount of dye by BEPS from anaerobic sludge and remained concentration of the dye in mixed liquor was best fitted to Langmuir model (R2: 0.9986).

  15. Those conversion blues.

    PubMed

    Forgione, D A

    1999-01-01

    With the ever-increasing market penetration of capitated payment systems throughout health care markets, average payment rates for health services have dropped correspondingly. At the same time, the added competitive pressures from managed care organizations have served to increase the demand for new capital investment in information systems, lower cost facilities, and innovative modes for delivering all types of health care services. As a result, many nonprofit health care organizations have converted, or have attempted to convert, to for-profit status in an effort to gain access to the public equity capital markets. As hospitals, Blue Cross and Blue Shield organizations, and other nonprofit health care organizations across the U.S. seek to convert to for-profit status, they are finding the path is not easy. Access to capital, operating efficiencies, and the need to accelerate movement into new markets are offset by public benefit obligations, potential private inurement, and significant political cost issues. The bottom line is whether the conversion will be structured to both protect the public interest and allow the health care organization the flexibility and access to capital it needs in order to continue as a viable, competitive organization into the next millennium.

  16. Faint Blue Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Richard S.

    The physical properties of the faint blue galaxy population are reviewed in the context of observational progress made via deep spectroscopic surveys and Hubble Space Telescope imaging of field galaxies at various limits and theoretical models for the integrated star formation history of the universe. Notwithstanding uncertainties in the properties of the local population of galaxies, convincing evidence has emerged from several independent studies for a rapid decline in the volume-averaged star-formation rate of field galaxies since a redshift z {approximately equal to} 1. Together with the small angular sizes and modest mean redshift of the faintest detectable sources, these results can be understood in hierarchical models where the bulk of the star formation occurred at redshifts between z {approximately equal to} 1 - 2. The physical processes responsible for the subsequent demise of the faint blue galaxy population remain unclear. Considerable progress will be possible when the evolutionary trends can be in the context of independent physical parameters such as the underlying galactic mass.

  17. Hubble's Blue Bubble

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    A large blue bubble with a bright star in the center on a black background filled with stars Sparkling at the center of this beautiful NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is a Wolf–Rayet star known as WR 31a, located about 30,000 light-years away in the constellation of Carina (The Keel). The distinctive blue bubble appearing to encircle WR 31a is a Wolf–Rayet nebula — an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other gases. Created when speedy stellar winds interact with the outer layers of hydrogen ejected by Wolf–Rayet stars, these nebulae are frequently ring-shaped or spherical. The bubble — estimated to have formed around 20,000 years ago — is expanding at a rate of around 220,000 kilometers (136,700 miles) per hour! Unfortunately, the lifecycle of a Wolf–Rayet star is only a few hundred thousand years — the blink of an eye in cosmic terms. Despite beginning life with a mass at least 20 times that of the sun, Wolf–Rayet stars typically lose half their mass in less than 100,000 years. And WR 31a is no exception to this case. It will, therefore, eventually end its life as a spectacular supernova, and the stellar material expelled from its explosion will later nourish a new generation of stars and planets. Image credi: ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt

  18. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  19. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... and cancer, a pooled (combined) analysis of four case-control studies was carried out ( 8 ). All four studies had ... leukemia have had conflicting results. For example, one case-control study examined hair dye use among 769 patients with ...

  20. Additive-induced aggregate changes of two structurally similar dyes in aqueous solutions: A comparative photophysical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Poormohammadi-Ahandani, Z.; Kian, R.

    2018-01-01

    Absorption and emission spectral characteristics of the two structurally similar phenothiazine dyes, azure B and toluidine blue, in aqueous solutions of the two sets of molecular additives (ureas and monosaccharides) were studied as a function of the dye and additive concentrations. The absorption spectra of the dyes were also studied in pure tetramethylurea with an aprotic nature. The spectral data were analyzed using DECOM Program. The dimer structure of the interacting molecules in these dyes was discussed using the exciton model. The urea class of additives was found to act as water structure-breakers over the range of studied concentration. The carbohydrate additives were found to act as water structure-breakers at low concentrations. However, the water structure breaking process may be disfavored by the additive-additive interactions at higher concentrations. It can be concluded that at low additive concentrations, the main driving force for breaking the dye association is water-additive interaction, which disrupts the water hydrogen bonds induced by the additives. However, at the high additive concentrations, the different phenomena including additive-additive and additive-dye interactions can change the structure, strength, and aggregative properties of the dyes. Finally, the urea in water induces noticeably fluorescence quenching in emission spectra of both the dyes.

  1. Development of an image processing support system based on fluorescent dye to prevent elderly people with dementia from wandering.

    PubMed

    Nishigaki, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kentaro; Kim, Juhyon; Nakajima, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    The wandering of elderly people with dementia is a significant behavioral problem and is a heavy burden on caregivers in residential and nursing homes. Thus, warning systems have been developed to prevent elderly people with dementia from leaving the premises. Some of these systems use radio waves. However, systems based on radio waves present several practical problems. For instance, the transmitter must be carried and may become lost; in addition, the battery of the transmitter must be changed. To solve these problems, we developed a support system that prevents elderly people with dementia from wandering. The system employs image processing technology based on fluorescent dye. The composition of the support system can be described as follows: fluorescent dye is painted in a simple shape on the clothes of an elderly person. The fluorescent color becomes visible by irradiation with a long wavelength of ultraviolet light. In the present paper, the relationship between the color of the dye and the cloth was investigated. A 3D video camera was used to acquire a 3D image and detect the simple shape. As a preliminary experiment, 3 colors (red, green and blue) of fluorescent dye were applied to cloths of 9 different colors. All fluorescent colors were detected on 6 of the cloths, but red and blue dye could not be detected on the other 3 cloths. In contrast, green dye was detectable on all 9 of the cloths. Additionally, we determined whether green dye could be detected in an actual environment. A rectangular shaped patch of green fluorescent dye was painted on the shoulder area of a subject, from the scapula to the clavicle. As a result, the green dye was detected on all 9 different colored cloths.

  2. Aggregation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine with methylene blue in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskii, S. F.; Bolotin, P. A.; Evstigneev, M. P.

    2006-03-01

    We have studied self-association of aromatic molecules of the thiazine dye methylene blue in aqueous solution, using a dimer model. We have determined the dimerization equilibrium constant for the dye molecules KD = 3900 ± 800 M-1 at T = 293 K. We have decomposed the experimental spectrum into dimer and monomer components. Using the ratio of the molar absorption coefficients for two absorption bands of the dimer spectrum, we obtained the “average” value of the angle between the electronic transition moments of the molecules in the dimers, α = 48°. We have studied heteroassociation of methylene blue (MB) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) molecules in aqueous solution. We have calculated the heteroassociation constant as 200 ± 34 M-1. We conclude that heteroassociation of methylene blue and caffeine molecules leads to a lower effective dye concentration in solution, which hypothetically may affect its biological activity. We have determined the values of the Gibbs free energy, the enthalpy, and the entropy for dimerization of methylene blue molecules: ΔG293 = -(20 ± 3) kJ/mol, ΔH = -(25 ± 9) kJ/mol, Δ S293 = -(17 ± 6) J/mol·K; and for methylene blue-caffeine heteroassociation: ΔG293 = -(13 ± 3) kJ/mol, ΔH = -(14 ± 10) kJ/mol, ΔS293 = -(2.4 ± 0.2) J/mol·K, respectively. We have shown that the methylene blue aggregates and the heteroassociates with caffeine are predominantly stabilized by dispersion interactions between the chromophore molecules in the associates.

  3. Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry

  4. Redox-mediated decolorization of Direct Red 23 and Direct Blue 80 catalyzed by bioaffinity-based immobilized tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Matto, Mahreen; Husain, Qayyum

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of concanavalin A (Con A)-cellulose-bound tomato peroxidase for the decolorization of direct dyes. Cellulose was used as an inexpensive material for the preparation of bioaffinity support. Con A-cellulose-bound tomato peroxidase exhibited higher efficiency in terms of dye decolorization as compared to soluble enzyme under various experimental conditions. Both Direct Red 23 and Direct Blue 80 dyes were recalcitrant to the action of enzyme without a redox mediator. Six compounds were investigated for redox-mediating property. Immobilized peroxidase decolorized both dyes to different extent in the presence of all the used redox mediators. However, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole emerged as a potential redox mediator for tomato peroxidase catalyzed decolorization of direct dyes. These dyes were maximally decolorized at pH 6.0 and 40 degrees C by soluble and immobilized peroxidase. The absorption spectra of the untreated and treated dyes exhibited a marked difference in the absorption at various wavelengths. Immobilized tomato peroxidase showed a lower Michaelis constant than the free enzyme for both dyes. Soluble and immobilized tomato peroxidase exhibited significantly higher affinity for Direct Red 23 compared to Direct Blue 80.

  5. The role of sulphur, sulphide and reducible dyes in the enzymic oxidation of cysteamine to hypotaurine

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, D.; Scandurra, R.; De Marco, C.

    1965-01-01

    1. Cysteamine is oxidized to hypotaurine by an enzyme extracted from horse kidney, with sulphur or sulphide acting as a cofactor. It has been now found that, when the enzyme is omitted, sulphur and sulphide are able to catalyse the oxidation of cysteamine to cystamine by molecular oxygen. 2. Methylene blue may be used in catalytic amounts as a cofactor in the enzymic oxidation of cysteamine to hypotaurine in the place of sulphur or sulphide. The effect of methylene blue is not light-dependent and is not abolished by catalase. Other redox dyes with E′0 higher than that of methylene blue are also used as cofactors. 3. A property common to all the cofactors is that they are necessary for the enzymic process in catalytic amounts, though they depress the final amount of hypotaurine produced when added over a critical concentration. All the cofactors share also the property of being catalysts for the non-enzymic oxidation of cysteamine to cystamine. 4. Methylene blue is reduced by cysteamine under anaerobic conditions, and is reoxidized in the presence of air. The rate of the reduction is not accelerated by the enzyme, indicating that the dye does not act in this reaction as a hydrogen carrier from the enzyme to oxygen. The possible mechanism of action of methylene blue and of the other cofactors is discussed. PMID:5862416

  6. The role of sulphur, sulphide and reducible dyes in the enzymic oxidation of cysteamine to hypotaurine.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, D; Scandurra, R; De Marco, C

    1965-09-01

    1. Cysteamine is oxidized to hypotaurine by an enzyme extracted from horse kidney, with sulphur or sulphide acting as a cofactor. It has been now found that, when the enzyme is omitted, sulphur and sulphide are able to catalyse the oxidation of cysteamine to cystamine by molecular oxygen. 2. Methylene blue may be used in catalytic amounts as a cofactor in the enzymic oxidation of cysteamine to hypotaurine in the place of sulphur or sulphide. The effect of methylene blue is not light-dependent and is not abolished by catalase. Other redox dyes with E'(0) higher than that of methylene blue are also used as cofactors. 3. A property common to all the cofactors is that they are necessary for the enzymic process in catalytic amounts, though they depress the final amount of hypotaurine produced when added over a critical concentration. All the cofactors share also the property of being catalysts for the non-enzymic oxidation of cysteamine to cystamine. 4. Methylene blue is reduced by cysteamine under anaerobic conditions, and is reoxidized in the presence of air. The rate of the reduction is not accelerated by the enzyme, indicating that the dye does not act in this reaction as a hydrogen carrier from the enzyme to oxygen. The possible mechanism of action of methylene blue and of the other cofactors is discussed.

  7. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy of oxazine dyes.

    PubMed

    Nieckarz, Robert J; Oomens, Jos; Berden, Giel; Sagulenko, Pavel; Zenobi, Renato

    2013-04-14

    The structure and energetic properties of four common oxazine dyes, Nile red, Nile blue A, Cresyl violet, and Brilliant cresyl blue, have been probed using a combination of infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. IRMPD spectra of the protonated dyes, as generated from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source, were collected in the range of 900-1800 cm(-1). Vibrational band assignments related to carbonyl and substituted-amine stretches were established from a comparison of the experimental spectra of these related systems as well as from a comparison with spectra generated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For Nile red, the thermochemical landscape for protonation at different basic sites was probed using DFT; comparison of IRMPD and calculated IR spectra reveals the site of protonation to be at the carbonyl oxygen. The structural information obtained here in the gas phase pertaining to these important fluorophores is anticipated to provide further insight into their associated intrinsic fluorescent properties in solution.

  8. Enzymatic biotransformation of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Couto, S

    2009-11-01

    Environmental pollution by discharge of dye-containing effluents represents a serious ecological concern in many countries. Public demands for colour-free discharges to receiving waters have made decolouration of a variety of industrial wastewater a top priority. The current existing techniques for dye removal have several drawbacks such as high cost, low efficiency, use of large amounts of chemicals and formation of toxic sub-products. This has impelled the search for alternative methods such as those based on oxidative enzymes. This approach is believed to be a promising technology since it is cost-effective, environmentally friendly and does not produce sludge. Enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes can be described as the conversion of dye molecules by enzymes into simpler and generally colourless molecules. Detailed characterisation of the metabolites produced during enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes as well as ecotoxicity studies is of great importance to assess the effectiveness of the biodegradation process. However, most reports on the biotreatment of dyes mainly deal with decolouration and there are few reports on the reduction in toxicity or on the identification of the biodegradation products. This implies a limitation to assess their true technical potential.

  9. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

  10. Biogenic sulphide plays a major role on the riboflavin-mediated decolourisation of azo dyes under sulphate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Francisco J; Enríquez, Javier E; Galindo-Petatán, Eden; Arvayo, Héctor; Razo-Flores, Elías; Field, Jim A

    2007-06-01

    The effect of high concentrations of sulphate on the reductive decolourisation of different azo dyes by anaerobic sludge was studied in batch cultures. Sludge cultures were pre-incubated under sulphate-reducing conditions prior addition of dyes. Little or no effects of sulphate (5-10 g sulphate l(-1)) on the rate of decolourisation of Reactive Orange 14 (RO14), Direct Blue 53 (DB53) and Direct Blue 71 (DB71) were observed when no external redox mediator was provided. However, an increase in sulphate concentration, in the presence of riboflavin (20 microM), enhanced the decolourisation of all dyes. The first-rate constant of decolourisation (k) was increased up to 2-, 3.6- and 2-fold for RO14, DB53 and DB71, respectively, by supplying high sulphate concentrations, compared to the controls lacking sulphate, in the presence of the redox mediator. Sulphate reduction did not take place during the course of azo reductions, but was only evident before dye addition and after complete decolourisation, suggesting azo dyes reduction out-competed sulphate reduction for the available reducing equivalents. The experimental data suggest that reduction of azo dyes by riboflavin, which had been reduced by biogenic sulphide, was the major mechanism implicated during decolourisations, which was corroborated by abiotic incubations. Riboflavin greatly accelerated the abiotic reduction of RO14, so that the k value was increased up to 44-fold compared to the control lacking riboflavin.

  11. Study of azo dye decolorization and determination of cathode microorganism profile in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Mert; Eren, Hilal; Catal, Tunc; Bermek, Hakan; Akarsubaşi, Alper Tunga

    2012-09-01

    Five textile azo dyes, as part of an artificial mixture, were treated in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells while simultaneously utilizing acetate for electricity production. Remazol Black, Remazol Brilliant Blue, Remazol Turquoise Blue, Reactive Yellow and Reactive Red at concentrations of 40 or 80 mg L(-1) were decolorized to a similar extent, at averages of 78, 95, 53, 93 and 74%, respectively, in 24 hours. During the process of decolorization, electricity generation from acetate oxidation continued. Power densities obtained in the presence of textile dyes ranged from 347 to 521 mW m(-2) at the current density range of 0.071 - 0.086 mA cm(-2). Microbial community analyses of cathode biofilm exhibited dynamic changes in abundant species following dye decolorization. Upon the addition of the first dye, a major change (63%) in microbial diversity was observed; however, subsequent addition of other dyes did not affect the community profile significantly. Actinobacteria, Aquamicrobium, Mesorhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Thauera, Paracoccus, Achromobacter and Chelatacoccus affiliated phylotypes were the major phylotypes detected. Our results demonstrate that microbial fuel cells could be a promising alternative for treatment of textile wastewaters and an active bacterial community can rapidly be established for simultaneous azo dye decolorization and sustainable electricity generation.

  12. A method for concentrating organic dyes: colorimetric measurements of nitric oxides and sialic acids.

    PubMed

    Lalezari, Parviz; Lekhraj, Rukmani; Casper, Diana

    2011-09-01

    A new method for extraction and concentration of organic dyes that uses a reagent composed of a nonionic detergent mixed with an alcohol is described. We have observed that water-soluble organic dyes are also soluble in nonionic detergents and can be extracted by adding salt, which separates the dye-detergent component from the aqueous phase. We have also found that mixing nonionic detergents with alcohols markedly reduces their viscosity and produces stable, free-flowing, and effective reagents for color extraction. On the basis of these observations, we used a mixture of Triton X-100 and 1-butanol and observed that water-soluble natural and synthetic chromophores, as well as dyes generated in biochemical reactions, can be extracted, concentrated, and analyzed spectrophotometrically. Trypan blue and phenol red are used as examples of synthetic dyes, and red wine is used as an example of phenolic plant pigments. Applications for quantification of nitric oxides and sialic acids are described in more detail and show that as little as 0.15 nmol of nitric oxide and 0.20 nmol of sialic acid can be detected. A major advantage of this method is its ability to concentrate chromophores from dye-containing solutions that otherwise cannot be measured because of their low concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adsorption properties of crosslinking carboxymethyl cellulose grafting dimethyldiallylammonium chloride for cationic and anionic dyes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingwen; Gao, Mengfan; Chang, Jiali; Ma, Hongzhu

    2016-10-20

    Novel and efficient microspheres adsorbent (MCA-E0.7/CMC-g- PDMDAAC), based on monochloroacetic acid (MCA) modified epichlorohydrin (ECH) cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), then grafting by dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC), was synthesized and its adsorption properties on cationic and anionic dyes were investigated. The results demonstrated that such MCA-E0.7/CMC-g-PDMDAAC microspheres showed pH-sensitive and could effectively adsorb cationic dye methylene blue (MB) or anionic dye orange II (OR II), at near neutral (pH>4) or acidic (pH<3) condition, respectively. Moreover, it could selectively adsorb the cationic dye MB from the cationic/anionic dye mixture at neutral pH condition. The desorption experiments were mainly performed under acidic (pH 3) or basic (pH 11) condition, over 98.54% of MB and 83.07% of OR II can be desorbed within 20min, respectively. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm provide better correlation with the experimental data for the adsorption of dyes onto MCA-E0.7/CMC-g-PDMDAAC microspheres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated oxygen-doping and dye sensitization of graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced visible light photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shizhen; Sun, Hongqi; Ang, H M; Tade, Moses O; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-08-15

    Graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) is a promising metal-free photocatalyst while suffering from low charge mobility induced inefficient photocatalysis. In this work, oxygen doping was employed to enhance the photodegradation of organic pollutants in water on graphitic carbon nitride (GCNO) under visible light. For further absorption extension, four organic dyes (Eosin-Y, Perylene, Nile-red and Coumarin) were adopted to dye-sensitize the GCNO photocatalyst. It was found that O-doping can promote dye sensitization, which was dependent on the type of dyes and influenced the photodegradation efficiencies of methylene blue (MB) and phenol. Nile-red sensitized GCNO presented the best activity in MB degradation under λ>480nm irradiations while Eosin-Y showed the best sensitization performance for phenol degradation under λ>420nm light source. However, dye sensitization was not effective for enhanced pollutant degradation on GCN without O-doping. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and photocurrent analyses were applied to investigate the mechanism of carriers' transfer, which indicated that dye molecules could inject extra electrons into GCNO energy band and the energy dislocation could suppress electron/hole recombination, enhancing photocatalytic performances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The implication of Dichomitus squalens laccase isoenzymes in dye decolorization by immobilized fungal cultures.

    PubMed

    Susla, Martin; Novotný, Cenek; Svobodová, Katerina

    2007-08-01

    The study focuses on the production of ligninolytic enzymes and dye degradation capacity of Dichomitus squalens immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF) or pine wood (PW) in a fixed bed reactor at a laboratory scale (working volume of 0.6l). Immobilization of fungal cultures on pine wood improved eminently laccase production in comparison to the liquid cultures. Immobilized D. squalens was able to decolorize an anthraquinone dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R and an azo dye Reactive Orange 16, however, only a limited decolorization of Copper(II)phthalocyanine dye was observed in both types of reactor cultures. The involvement of a laccase activity in dye decolorization was suggested. Further, two different chromatographical forms of laccases, Lc1 and Lc2, were isolated from PW cultures of D. squalens using a fast, two step FPLC method. Enzymes revealed identical molecular masses of 68 kDa (estimated by SDS-PAGE) and similar pI's, however, they differed in their catalytic properties such as pH dependence of the activity and ABTS oxidation rates. In this study, we demonstrated different dye decolorization capacities of Lc1 and Lc2 as well.

  16. Decolorization and degradation of synthetic dyes by Irpex lacteus KUC8958.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Long, Yan; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the dye decolorizing and detoxifying abilities of Irpex lacteus. The decolorization abilities of 14 strains of I. lacteus were investigated in agar-plates containing 3 synthetic dyes: Congo Red (CR), Orange II (OII), and Reactive Blue 4 (RB4). In an agar plate test, I. lacteus KUC8958 showed the highest dye decolorizing rate with all 3 dyes. Subsequently, we investigated the decolorizing and detoxifying abilities of I. lacteus KUC8958 on synthetic dyes in liquid media under both shaking and static conditions. I. lacteus KUC8958 showed high decolorization rates for CR and BR4 (more than 95%) under shaking conditions, but only moderate decolorization of OII (up to 53%). The dye decolorizing rates of I. lacteus KUC8958 were approximately 20% to 60% higher under shaking conditions than under static conditions. In a detoxification assay, the toxicities of CR and OII solutions increased, whereas the toxicity of RB4 decreased after decolorization by I. lacteus KUC8958. Subsequently, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis detected 2 compounds in CR and 1 compound in OII that were newly formed during the decolorizing process, and which might be involved in the increased toxicities. Further studies are required to identify these newly formed compounds.

  17. Adsorption of Methylene blue and Rhodamine B by using biochar derived from Pongamia glabra seed cover.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, Neonjyoti; Dey, Manash Deep; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Kataki, Rupam

    2018-02-01

    Biochar obtained through the pyrolysis of Pongamia glabra seed cover (PGSC) at 550 °C with a heating rate of 40 °C/min was characterized and its ability to adsorb the dyes Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effect of pH, temperature and initial concentration of the dyes on adsorption behavior were investigated. The equilibrium sorption data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Equilibrium data were well fitted for D-R isotherm in case of MB and Langmuir isotherm in case of RB dyes. The kinetics of dye adsorption on PGSC biochar was well described by applying pseudo-second-order rate equations. The surface of adsorbent before and after the removal of dyes was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The study suggested that PGSC biochar could be used as a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of synthetic dyes.

  18. Green synthesis, structure and fluorescence spectra of new azacyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enchev, Venelin; Gadjev, Nikolai; Angelov, Ivan; Minkovska, Stela; Kurutos, Atanas; Markova, Nadezhda; Deligeorgiev, Todor

    2017-11-01

    A series of symmetric and unsymmetric monomethine azacyanine dyes (monomethine azacyanine and merocyanine sulfobetaines) were synthesized with moderate to high yields via a novel method using microwave irradiation. The compounds are derived from a condensation reaction between 2-thiomethylbenzotiazolium salts and 2-imino-3-methylbenzothiazolines proceeded under microwave irradiation. The synthetic approach involves the use of green solvent and absence of basic reagent. TD-DFT calculations were performed to simulate absorption and fluorescent spectra of synthesized dyes. Absorption maxima, λmax, of the studied dyes were found in the range 364-394 nm. Molar absorbtivities were evaluated in between 40300 and 59200 mol-1 dm3 cm-1. Fluorescence maxima, λfl, were registered around 418-448 nm upon excitation at 350 nm. A slight displacements of theoretically estimated absorption maxima according to experimental ones is observed. The differences are most probably due to the fact that the DFT calculations were carried out without taking into account the solvent effect. In addition, the merocyanine sulfobetaines also fluorescence in blue optical range (420-480 nm) at excitation in red range (630-650 nm).

  19. Laser sclerostomy by pulsed-dye laser and goniolens

    SciTech Connect

    Latina, M.A.; Dobrogowski, M.; March, W.F.

    1990-12-01

    We describe an ab-interno laser sclerostomy procedure using the method termed dye-enhanced ablation with a slit-lamp delivery system and special goniolens such that only the laser light beam penetrates the anterior chamber. The procedure uses a microsecond-pulsed-dye laser emitting at 666 nm and iontophoresis of methylene blue dye (absorption of 668 nm) into the sclera at the limbus to enhance the absorption of the laser light. We compared the number of pulses needed to perforate excised human sclera at pulse durations of 1.5, 20, and 300 microseconds. Pulse durations of 1.5 and 20 microseconds required 20 pulses or fewer tomore » perforate excised human sclera with pulse energies of 75 to 100 mJ. The ab-interno laser sclerostomy procedure was performed in 54 eyes of Dutch-belted rabbits with pulse durations of 1.5 or 20 microseconds and a 100- or 200-microns incident spot diameter delivered using a CGF goniolens. Full-thickness fistulas were successfully created at both pulse durations in approximately 80% of eyes treated. A range of three to 25 pulses was required to perforate sclera with slightly fewer pulses and lower pulse energies at 1.5 microseconds compared with 20 microseconds. There were no significant complications from the procedure. This technique could permit filtration surgery to be performed on an outpatient basis.« less

  20. Fabrication and characterization of nanowalls CdS/dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulelah, Haider; Ali, Basil; Mahdi, M. A.; Hassan, J. J.; Al-Taay, H. F.; Jennings, P.

    2017-06-01

    A microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MA-CBD) was adopted to fabricate nanowalls CdS nanocrystalline thin film. Nanomaterials (such as nanowalls structure) have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating properties and unique applications, especially in optoelectronic nanodevices. Here we describe the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based nanowalls cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanocrystalline thin films. The surface morphology, crystalline structure, and optical properties of the prepared nanocrystalline thin films are investigated. Rhodamine B, Malachite green, Eosin methylene blue, and Cresyl violet perchlorate dyes are used to fabricate the DSSCS devices. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics show that the nanowall CdS/Eosin methylene blue device is the highest conversion efficiency of 0.89% under 100 mW/cm2. However, heat treatment of the fabricated solar cells causes significant enhancement in the output of all devices.

  1. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

  2. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

  3. Blue Origin Facility - Construction Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-21

    Construction is progressing on Blue Origin's 750,000-square-foot facility being built at Exploration Park on NASA Kennedy Space Center property in Florida. Blue Origin will use the factory to manufacture its two-stage super-heavy-lift New Glenn launch vehicle and launch the vehicles from Space Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  4. A microdestructive capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper.

    PubMed

    Calcerrada, Matías; González-Herráez, Miguel; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-26

    This manuscript describes the development of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the detection of acid and basic dyes and its application to real samples, blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper. First, a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation of basic and acid dyes, by studying the separation medium (buffer nature, pH and relative amount of additive) and instrumental parameters (temperature, voltage and capillary dimensions). The method performance was evaluated in terms of selectivity, resolution (above 5 and 2 for acid dyes and basic dyes, respectively, except for two basic dye standards), LOD (lower than 0.4 mg/L) and precision as intraday and interday RSD values of peak migration times (lower than 0.6%). The developed method was then applied to 34 blue pens from different technologies (rollerball, ballpoint, markers) and with different ink composition (gel, water-based, oil-based). A microdestructive sample treatment using a scalpel to scratch 0.3mg of ink stroke was performed. The entire electropherogram profile allowed the visual discrimination between different types of ink and brands, being not necessary a statistical treatment. A 100% of discrimination was achieved between pen technologies, brands, and models, although non-reproducible zones in the electropherograms were found for blue gel pen samples. The two different batches of blue oil-based pens were also differentiated. Thus, this method provides a simple, microdestructive, and rapid analysis of different blue pen technologies which may complement the current analysis of questioned documents performed by forensic laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparative study on the properties, mechanisms and process designs for the adsorption of non-ionic or anionic dyes onto cationic-polymer/bentonite.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Yue, Qin-Yan; Sun, Hong-Jian; Su, Yuan; Gao, Bao-Yu

    2010-07-01

    The adsorption properties and mechanisms of a cationic-polymer/bentonite complex (EPI-DMA/bentonite), prepared from polyepicholorohydrin-dimethylamine and bentonite, for non-ionic dyes (Disperse Blue SBL and Vat Scarlet R) and anionic dyes (Reactive Violet K-3R and Acid Dark Blue 2G) were investigated in this study. The solution pH, presence of salt and surfactant can significantly affect the dye removal efficiency. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model is the most suitable to describe non-ionic dye adsorption, but for anionic dyes the Freundlich model is best. The kinetic data for the adsorption of different dyes were analyzed using pseudo first- and second-order equations, and the experimental data conformed to the pseudo second-order kinetic model better. The possibility of intraparticle diffusion was also examined by using the intraparticle diffusion equation. The single-stage batch adsorber design for the adsorption of both types of dyes onto EPI-DMA/bentonite was studied based on the Langmuir isotherm model for non-ionic dyes and the Freundlich isotherm model for anionic dyes. The results showed that the required amount of EPI-DMA/bentonite for 95% dye removal in 5 L dye solution with a concentration of 50 mg/L is 378.0 g for DB SBL, 126.5 g for VS R, 9.7 g for RV K-3R and 15.5 g for ADB 2G. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nematic and blue phase liquid crystals for temperature stabilization and active optical tuning of silicon photonic devices (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptasinski, Joanna N.; Khoo, Iam Choon; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2015-10-01

    We describe the underlying theories and experimental demonstrations of passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonic devices clad in nematic liquid crystal mixtures, and active optical tuning of silicon photonic resonant structures combined with dye-doped nematic and blue phase liquid crystals. We show how modifications to the resonator device geometry allow for not only enhanced tuning of the resonator response, but also aid in achieving complete athermal operations of silicon photonic circuits. [Ref.: I.C. Khoo, "DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 40, 60-63 (2015); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Enhanced optical tuning of modified-geometry resonators clad in blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 39, 5435-5438 (2014); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Passive Temperature Stabilization of Silicon Photonic Devices Using Liquid Crystals," Materials 7(3), 2229-2241 (2014)].

  7. Effect of initial treatment in the preparation of natural indigo dye from Indigofera tinctoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnama, Herry; Hidayati, Nur; Safitri, Dyah S.; Rahmawati, Sofia

    2017-06-01

    The current tinting industries return to the use of natural dyes because of their characteristics including safe and environmentally friendly. Indonesia can widely promote the potential of natural colours due to the availability of abundant natural dye plants. One of the potential plants that generates blue colour is Indigofera tinctoria. This research was conducted to improve the quality and quantity of natural indigo dye for batik production that supports the environment sustainability. The indigo dark blue paste was produced by initial treatment of soaking in cold water for 48 hours. The 48 hours fermentation anaerobic conditions reached optimum temperature, due to time and pH were also met by nutrients. Aeration was done in ten minutes using an aquarium air pump to increase mixing in water immersion with solution of calcium oxide. Indoxyl in the fermented leaves of Indigofera tinctoria is easily oxidized by air in alkali solution that will form pigment indigo. In that condition, lime (CaO) can be used in the manufacture of indigo paste. In this study, the higher concentrated of blue colour was achieved by lesser amount of lime. The soaking treatment in cold water produced high amount of dyes rather than the initial treatment by both hot water and grounding the indigo leaves. Analysis were done by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry which showed the value of absorbance. The sample that was soaked in 5 liters of water added by a kilogram of Indigofera tinctoria leaves and 15 grams of lime for 48 hours, obtained the highest absorbance or concentration level. The application of the indigo dyes with or without mordanting agent was also tested for colour fastness.

  8. Effect of dye concentrations in blended-layer white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, C.; Cadd, D. H.; Petty, M. C.; Hua, Y. L.

    2009-09-01

    The electronic and optoelectronic behavior of white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on blue (FIrpic) and red [Ir(piq)2(acac)] phosphorescent dyes doped into the same layer of a polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) host are reported. The conductivity of all the OLEDs studied appeared to be dominated by space-charge injection effects, exhibiting a current I versus voltage V dependence of the form I ∝Vn, with n ≈7 at applied voltages at which electroluminescence was observed. Systematic studies of the current versus voltage and light-emitting behavior of the OLEDs have identified different excitation processes for the two dyes. It is suggested that electroluminescence from the FIrpic molecules originates by direct transfer of the exciton energy from the PVK to the dye molecules, while the process of light emission from the Ir(piq)2(acac) molecules involves carrier trapping. The efficiency of the devices can be tuned, to some extent, by varying the thickness of the organic film. Luminous efficiencies and luminous power efficiencies of 8 cd A-1 and 3 lm W-1 were measured for these blended-layer OLEDs, with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of 0.35, 0.35.

  9. Green Nanochemistry Approach to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle, Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    of flavonoids, is commonly found in tissues of many different fruits and plants. In cell vacuoles, anthocyanins absorb light in the blue -green...of Photochemistry and Photobiology A Chemistry 2011, 219, 188–194. 4. Fuleki, T.; Francis, F. J. Quantitative Methods for Anthocyanins...yields an abundance of surface area and allows light -harvesting dyes to be easily absorbed. When light is shined on the transparent electrode of the

  10. Discovery of black dye crystal structure polymorphs: Implications for dye conformational variation in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Jacqueline M.; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-11-24

    Here, we present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world’s leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black Dye···TiO 2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiplemore » conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dye···TiO 2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dye···TiO 2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes.« less

  11. Ability of a montmorillonitic clay to interact with cationic and anionic dyes in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleşa Chicinaş, R.; Bedelean, H.; Stefan, R.; Măicăneanu, A.

    2018-02-01

    A montmorillonitic clay in raw and treated forms (size-fractionated, organoclay, Al pillared) was evaluated as adsorbent for cationic (toluidine blue - TB and malachite green - MG) and anionic (Congo red - CR) dyes. A thorough characterization using XRD, SEM-EDS, N2 adsorption, and FTIR of the considered samples was realized, all highlighting the structural changes after various treatments. UV-VIS analysis demonstrated the interaction between dyes and the adsorbent surface. The investigation of the effects of various experimental parameters using a batch adsorption technique showed that ON has a high adsorption potential for cationic dyes (33 and 39 mg/g in case of TB and MG, respectively). The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model, while Freundlich isotherm showed a favorable adsorption. The calculated values of Gibbs free energy suggested also that the adsorption is spontaneous and is more favorable at higher temperatures.

  12. Diode-pumped distributed-feedback dye laser with an organic inorganic microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, H.; Yamashita, K.; Takeuchi, H.; Tomiki, M.

    2008-08-01

    We present a diode-pumped microcavity dye laser composed of a top organic reflector and a bottom inorganic reflector. The top organic reflector consists of alternate thin films of cellulose acetate and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) doped with coumarin 540A to construct a distributed-feedback (DFB) resonator. Pumped directly by an InGaN-based blue laser diode (LD) with a pulse duration of 4 ns, the microcavity dye laser exhibited a single-mode oscillation at 563 nm with a threshold pump LD power of 290 mW/pulse. The emission of the microcavity dye laser was measured through an optical fiber, resulting in a peak power of 2.5 mW for a pump LD power of 320 mW.

  13. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  14. Multifunctional walnut shell layer used for oil/water mixtures separation and dyes adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tang, Xiaohua; Feng, Hua; Qi, Wei; Wang, Qiong

    2017-10-01

    Functional materials with superwetting property have been extensively used for wastewater treatment. Here, walnut shell powders (WSPs) were accumulated into a layer to separate oil/water mixtures and adsorb organic dyes, avoiding the complex process involved in the fabrication of traditional superhydrophobic or underwater superoleophobic filtering membranes. By making use of the underwater superoleophobicity and low adhesion to oils, the pre-wetted WSPs layer can be used for gravity driven oil/water separation with ultrahigh separation efficiency. Furthermore, the WSPs exhibited excellent adsorption property to the organic dyes including methylene blue, rhodamine B and crystal violet. Finally, the WSPs are agricultural residue to environment, and using it for water remediation not only is a good way to treat water pollution, but also can reduce the pressure to the environment. We believe that such multifunctional material will be an effective approach for separating oil/water separation and adsorbing organic dyes pollution in practical applications.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes using composite nanofibers under UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Ahmed; Mohamed, Alaa; Aboamera, Nada M.; Osman, T. A.; Khattab, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and indigo carmine (IC) have been studied by composite nanofibers systems containing cellulose acetate (CA), multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) and TiO2 nanoparticles under UV light. The amino factionalized TiO2-NH2 NPs cross-linked to the CA/CNT composite nanofibers works as a semiconductor catalyst. The morphology and crystallinity were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was also seen that many factors affected the photodegradation rate, mainly the pH of the solution and the dye concentration, temperature, etc. The study demonstrated that IC degrades at a higher rate than MB. The maximum photodegradation rate of both organic dyes was achieved at a pH 2. In comparison to other studies, this work achieved high photodegradation rate in lower time and using less power intensity.

  16. Elimination of textile dyes using activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Cid, Alejandra-Alicia; Herrera-González, Ana-María; Salazar-Villanueva, Martín; Bautista-Hernández, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    In this study, three mesoporous activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues were used to remove acid, basic, and direct dyes from aqueous solutions, and reactive and vat dyes from textile wastewater. Granular carbons obtained by chemical activation at 673 K with phosphoric acid from prickly pear peels (CarTunaQ), broccoli stems (CarBrocQ), and white sapote seeds (CarZapQ) were highly efficient for the removal of dyes. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out in batch systems and treated with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherms ranged between 131.6 and 312.5 mg/g for acid dyes, and between 277.8 and 500.0 mg/g for basic dyes at 303 K. Our objective in this paper was to show that vegetable wastes can serve as precursors for activated carbons that can be used for the adsorption of dyes. Specifically CarBrocQ was the best carbon produced for the removal of textile dyes. The color removal of dyes present in textile wastewaters was compared with that of a commercial powdered carbon, and it was found that the carbons produced using waste material reached similar efficiency levels. Carbon samples were characterized by bulk density, point of zero charge, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, methylene blue adsorption isotherms at 303 K, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (SBET). The results show that the activated carbons possess a large specific surface area (1025-1177 m(2)/g) and high total pore volume (1.06-2.16 cm(3)/g) with average pore size diameters between 4.1 and 8.4 nm. Desorption and regeneration tests were made to test the viability of reusing the activated carbons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of artificial wastewater containing two azo textile dyes by vertical-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Amjad; Scholz, Miklas

    2018-03-01

    The release of untreated dye textile wastewater into receiving streams is unacceptable not only for aesthetic reasons and its negative impacts on aquatic life but also because numerous dyes are toxic and carcinogenic to humans. Strategies, as of now, used for treating textile wastewaters have technical and economical restrictions. The greater part of the physico-chemical methods, which are used to treat this kind of wastewater, are costly, produce large amounts of sludge and are wasteful concerning some soluble dyes. In contrast, biological treatments such as constructed wetlands are cheaper than the traditional methods, environmental friendly and do not produce large amounts of sludge. Synthetic wastewater containing Acid Blue 113 (AB113) and Basic Red 46 (BR46) has been added to laboratory-scale vertical-flow construction wetland systems, which have been planted with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed). The concentrations 7 and 208 mg/l were applied for each dye at the hydraulic contact times of 48 and 96 h. Concerning the low concentrations of BR46 and AB113, the unplanted wetlands are associated with significant (ρ < 0.05) reduction performances, if compared with planted wetlands concerning the removal of dyes. For the high concentrations of AB113, BR46 and a mixture of both of them, wetlands with long contact times were significantly (ρ < 0.05) better than wetlands that had short contact times in terms of dye, colour and chemical oxygen demand reductions. Regarding nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N), the reduction percentage rates of AB113, BR46 and a mixture dye of both of them were between 85 and 100%. For low and high inflow dye concentrations, best removals were generally recorded for spring and summer, respectively.

  18. Quantum mechanical model for Maya Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, María E.; Peña, Brisa; Contreras, César; Montero, Ana L.; Chianelli, Russell; Alvarado, Manuel; Olivas, Ramón; Rodríguez, Luz M.; Camacho, Héctor; Montero-Cabrera, Luis A.

    This work is about Maya Blue (MB), a pigment developed by Mesoamerican civilizations between the 5th and 16th centuries from an aluminosilicate mineral (palygorskite) and an organic dye (indigo). Two different supramolecular quantum-mechanical models afford explanations for the unusual stability of MB based on the oxidation of the indigo molecule during the heating process and its interaction with palygorskite. A model considering indigo derivatives attached to several aluminates shows the principal features of the experimental visible spectrum of MB within the TD-DFT methodology. Another model of an indigo oxidized species confined within an inorganic supramolecular cavity system, that involves about 170 atoms, was calculated after a large configuration interaction of single excited determinants within the NDOL approximation (Montero-Cabrera et al., J Chem Phys, 2007, 127, 145102). It allows a correct reproduction and interpretation of the corresponding spectrum. This second methodology provides the most satisfactory results, being able to manage very big molecular systems at a QM level. Structural explanation for the unusual stability of MB is also provided.

  19. Dye-sensitized solar cell with natural gel polymer electrolytes and f-MWCNT as counter-electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-05-01

    Samples of DSSCs were made with gel polymer electrolytes using agar, gelatin and DNA as the polymer hosts. Anthocyanine dye from Hildegardia barteri flower is used to sensitize the TiO2 electrode, and the spectrum of the dye indicates strong absorptions in the blue region of the solar spectrum. The XRD pattern of the TiO2 shows that the adsorption of the dye did not affect the crystallinity of the electrode. The f-MWCNT indicates graphite structure of the MWCNTs were acid oxidized without significant damage. Efficiencies of 3.38 and 0.1% were obtained using gelatin and DNA gel polymer electrolytes, respectively, for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells.

  20. Intravital molecular tagging velocimetry of cerebral blood flow using Evans Blue.

    PubMed

    Namykin, Anton A; Shushunova, Natalia A; Ulanova, Maria V; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V; Tuchin, Valery V; Fedosov, Ivan V

    2018-03-30

    The effects of light-driven enhancement of Evans Blue dye complexes with blood plasma proteins were observed for the first time, both in vitro and in vivo. The possible background of the effect concerns the photochemical cis-trans isomerization of the azo dye molecules. The effect was induced in the solution with a red laser with a wavelength of 638 nm, which corresponds to the peak of the dye absorption. The lifetime of the enhanced fluorescence is approximately 1 s and enables its use as an optically tagged molecular flow tracer for blood flow velocity measurements. Utilizing the effect we performed for the first time the intravital molecular tagging velocimetry of the blood velocity in blood vessels in a living animal. The results of the measurements of the blood flow velocities in the cerebral veins of a group of healthy mice are presented. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of Fluidized bed Fenton process in Degrading Acid Blue 113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, M. M.; Raman, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    The performance of a fluidized bed Fenton process in degrading Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) was investigated. Fluidized bed Fenton process is a modification of conventional Fenton oxidation, aimed at reducing sludge generation and improving process performance. Response surface methodology was used to study the effects of operational parameter on the color removal from the dye. Dimensionless factors, Dye/Fe2+, H2O2/Fe2+ and pH were used as the independent variables in Box-Behnken Design (BDD). Reduced quadratic model was developed to predict the color removal. The process could remove up to 99 % of the initial color. The most significant factor for color removal was found to be Dye/Fe2+, followed by H2O2/Fe2+. Unlike conventional Fenton, the initial pH of the solution does not have a significant effect on the color removal.

  2. The brilliant blue FCF ion-molecular forms in solutions according to the spectrophotometry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebotarev, A. N.; Bevziuk, K. V.; Snigur, D. V.; Bazel, Ya. R.

    2017-10-01

    The brilliant blue FCF acid-base properties in aqueous solutions have been studied and its ionization constants have been defined by tristimulus colorimetry and spectrophotometry methods. The scheme of the acid-base dye equilibrium has been proposed and a diagram of the distribution of its ionic-molecular forms has been built. It has been established that the dominant form of the dye was the electroneutral form, which molar absorptivity (ɛ625 = 0.97 × 105) increases with the increase of the dielectric permittivity of the solvent. It has been shown that the replacement of polar solvents by less polar ones is causing a bathochromic shift of the maximum absorption band of the dye, the value of which is correlated with the value of the Hansen parameter. Tautomerization constants have been defined in a number of solvents and associated with the value of the Dimroth-Reichardt parameter.

  3. Biodegradation of Direct Blue 15 by free and immobilized Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara; Akkaya, Alper; Akdogan, Hatice Ardag; Gungor, Burcin

    2010-07-01

    To investigate biodegradability by Trametes versicolor, five structurally different direct azo-dyes--Direct Black 38, Direct Blue 15 (DB 15), Direct Orange 26, Direct Green 6, and Direct Yellow 12--were studied. The DB 15 was determined as the best biodegradable dye by this white-rot fungus. Laccase and manganese peroxidase activities were monitored with the biodegradation process; it was observed that laccase played an important role in the dye degradation, while manganese peroxidase activity could not be detected. Possible degradation products also were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but no metabolite was detected after the degradation and/or decolorization process. To enhance performance of the fungi during the degradation, Trametes versicolor cells were immobilized in alginate beads. Then, DB 15 decolorization by immobilized Trametes versicolor was studied in a small-scale packed-bed reactor. The color removal efficiency in repeated batches was found to be 98 and 93% for 50 mg/L DB 15.

  4. Stimulation of reactive dye removal by cyanobacteria in media containing triacontanol hormone.

    PubMed

    Karacakaya, Pinar; Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Duygu, Ergin; Dönmez, Gönül

    2009-12-30

    In this study, Reactive Red, Remazol Blue, and Reactive Black B removal capacities of Synechocystis sp. and Phormidium sp. were investigated. The microorganisms were cultivated in 100ml BG 11 medium and incubated at 30 degrees C under continuous illumination (12.5 wm(-2) (2400 lx)) for 20 days in plant growth chamber. Trials were carried out at pH 9.5 for Reactive Red, pH 8.5 for Remazol Blue and Reactive Black B removal in media without and with triacontanol (TRIA). Removal capacities of Synechocystis sp. and Phormidium sp. were found higher in media containing TRIA. So that, Synechocystis sp. and Phormidium sp. removed Reactive Red with 25.7% and 35.4%, Remazol Blue with 37.5% and 25.5%, and Reactive Black B with 29.2% and 28.3% yield at 25 mg l(-1) dye concentrations, respectively. There is no report investigating dye removal by Synechocystis sp. and removal of pollutants in media including TRIA hormone. Our data indicated the cyanobacteria tested in this study were suitable for effective treatment processes of such wastewaters including reactive dyes, and their removal capacity could be increased by TRIA, through stimulation of the biomass production.

  5. Facile synthesis of surface-functionalized magnetic nanocomposites for effectively selective adsorption of cationic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yani; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Qinqin; Cui, Chang; Wang, Chuan

    2018-04-01

    A new magnetic nano-adsorbent, polycatechol modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4/PCC MNPs) were prepared by a facile chemical coprecipitation method using iron salts and catechol solution as precursors. Fe3O4/PCC MNPs owned negatively charged surface with oxygen-containing groups and showed a strong adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rates for the removal of cationic dyes in water. The adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB), cationic turquoise blue GB (GB), malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV) and cationic pink FG (FG) were 60.06 mg g- 1, 70.97 mg g- 1, 66.84 mg g- 1, 66.01 mg g- 1 and 50.27 mg g- 1, respectively. The adsorption mechanism was proposed by the analyses of the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics of cationic dyes on Fe3O4/PCC MNPs. Moreover, the cationic dyes adsorbed on the MNPs as a function of contact time, pH value, temperature, coexisting cationic ions and ion strength were also investigated. These results suggested that the Fe3O4/PCC MNPs is promising to be used as a magnetic adsorbent for selective adsorption of cationic dyes in wastewater treatment.

  6. Cellulose based cationic adsorbent fabricated via radiation grafting process for treatment of dyes waste water.

    PubMed

    Goel, Narender Kumar; Kumar, Virendra; Misra, Nilanjal; Varshney, Lalit

    2015-11-05

    A cationized adsorbent was prepared from cellulosic cotton fabric waste via a single step-green-radiation grafting process using gamma radiation source, wherein poly[2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (PMAETC) was covalently attached to cotton cellulose substrate. Radiation grafted (PMAETC-g-cellulose) adsorbent was investigated for removal of acid dyes from aqueous solutions using two model dyes: Acid Blue 25 (AB25) and Acid Blue 74 (AB74). The equilibrium adsorption data was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, whereas kinetic data was analyzed by pseudo first order, pseudo second order, intra particle diffusion and Boyd's models. The PMAETC-g-cellulose adsorbent with 25% grafting yield exhibited equilibrium adsorption capacities of ∼ 540.0mg/g and ∼ 340.0mg/g for AB25 and AB74, respectively. Linear and nonlinear fitting of adsorption data suggested that the equilibrium adsorption process followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, whereas, the kinetic adsorption process followed pseudo-second order model. The multi-linearities observed in the intra-particle kinetic plots suggested that the intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling process in the adsorption of acid dyes on the adsorbent, which was further supported by Boyd's model. The adsorbent could be regenerated by eluting the adsorbed dye from the adsorbent and could be repeatedly used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles for the efficient removal (degradation) of dye from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-12-01

    The present work reports the utilization of a common household waste material (fish scales of Labeo rohita) for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. The method so developed was found to be green, environment-friendly, and economic. The fish scale extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates, and solvents. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of nanoparticles have also been presented. The synthesized copper nanoparticles formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of nanoparticles in the range of 25-37 nm. The copper nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc which was supported by both selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction pattern and showed surface plasmon resonance at 580 nm. Moreover, the energy dispersive spectroscopy pattern also revealed the presence of only elemental copper in the copper nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were used for the remediation of a carcinogenic and noxious textile dye, Methylene blue, from aqueous solution. Approximately, 96 % degradation of Methylene blue dye was observed within 135 min using copper nanoparticles. The probable mechanism for the degradation of the dye has been presented, and the degraded intermediates have been identified using the liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The high efficiency of nanoparticles as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dye from industrial effluents contributing indirectly to environmental cleanup process.

  8. Acid dye adsorption onto cationized polyamide fibres. Modeling and consequent interpretations of model parameter behaviours.

    PubMed

    Khalfaoui, M; Baouab, M H V; Gauthier, R; Ben Lamine, A

    2006-04-15

    Experimental adsorption isotherms of four acid dyes named Acid Blue 25, Acid Yellow 99, Reactive Yellow 23, and Acid Blue 74 from aqueous solution onto cationized nylon-6,6 have been analyzed using a double layer adsorption model. The parameters involved in the analytical expression of this model such as the number or fraction of adsorbed dye molecule per site, n, the number of receptor sites per gram of adsorbent, N(M), and the concentration at half-saturation, c1/2, are determined from adsorption isotherms at four temperatures between 293 and 353 K. The evolution of these parameters with temperature is discussed in relation with adsorption process and the behaviours of the different dyes taking into account their particular structure. The results are compared with those already published dealing with the adsorption of these same dyes onto cationized cotton. The configurational entropy at various temperatures has been studied. This parameter allowed to deduce some results related to the evolution of the disorder during the adsorption process.

  9. Role of the surface chemistry of activated carbons in dye removal from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua-lei; Zhen, Wen-juan; Zhu, Qian; Wu, Xiao-bin; Chang, Zhi-dong; Li, Wen-jun

    2015-07-01

    Commercial activated carbons were modified by a series of chemical or physical treatments using H2O2, NH3, and heating under N2 flow without notably changing their pore structures. The resultant carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption and Bohem titration and then used to remove Ponceau 4R, methyl orange and brilliant blue from aqueous solutions. Surface chemistry was found to play a significantly different role in removing these three compounds. The removal of anionic Ponceau 4R increases with increasing carbon surface basicity due to the predominant dispersive interaction mechanism. In contrast, surface chemistry has little effect on the removal of anionic methyl orange, which can be explained by two parallel mechanisms involving electrostatic and dispersive interactions due to the basic amine group in a dye molecule. The influence of surface chemistry on the removal of amphoteric brilliant blue dye can also be ignored due to a weak interaction between the carbons and dye molecules, which is resulted from strong cohesive energy from electrostatic forces inside amphoteric dye molecules.

  10. A simple method to prepare magnetic modified beer yeast and its application for cationic dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to use a simple method to prepare magnetic modified biomass with good adsorption performances for cationic ions. The magnetic modified biomass was prepared by two steps: (1) preparation of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified biomass in N, N-dimethylacetamide solution and (2) preparation of magnetic PMDA modified biomass by a situ co-precipitation method under the assistance of ultrasound irradiation in ammonia water. The adsorption potential of the as-prepared magnetic modified biomass was analyzed by using cationic dyes: methylene blue and basic magenta as model dyes. Optical micrograph and x-ray diffraction analyses showed that Fe(3)O(4) particles were precipitated on the modified biomass surface. The as-prepared biosorbent could be recycled easily by using an applied magnetic field. Titration analysis showed that the total concentration of the functional groups on the magnetic PMDA modified biomass was calculated to be 0.75 mmol g(-1) by using the first derivative method. The adsorption capacities (q(m)) of the magnetic PMDA modified biomass for methylene blue and basic magenta were 609.0 and 520.9 mg g(-1), respectively, according to the Langmuir equation. Kinetics experiment showed that adsorption could be completed within 150 min for both dyes. The desorption experiment showed that the magnetic sorbent could be used repeatedly after regeneration. The as-prepared magnetic modified sorbent had a potential in the dyeing industry wastewater treatment.

  11. Adsorption of Dyes in Studying the Surface Chemistry of Ultradispersed Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, T. D.; Yunusova, G. R.; Lanin, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    The effect the surface chemistry of ultradispersed diamond (UDD) has on the adsorption of watersoluble dyes is considered. A comparison is made to adsorption on graphitized thermal carbon black (GTCB), which has a homogeneous and nonporous surface. The adsorption isotherms of dyes and the dependence of the adsorption on the pH of solutions are measured. It is found that UDD adsorbs acid (anionic) dyes—acid orange (AO) and acid anthraquinone blue (AAB)—but barely adsorbs a basic (cationic) dye, methylene blue (MB), because of the predominance of positively charged basic groups on the surface of UDD. The maximum adsorption of AO is much lower on UDD than on GTCB, while the maximum adsorption of AAB is similar for both surfaces. The adsorption of AO on UDD depends strongly on the pH of the solution, while the adsorption of AAB is independent of this parameter. It is suggested that the adsorption of AAB is determined not only by ionic and hydrophobic interactions but also by coordination interactions with impurity metal ions on a UDD surface. It is concluded that the adsorption of dyes characterizes the chemistry of a UDD surface with high sensitivity.

  12. Biochemical estimation of the basic dye-binding capacity of RNA from rat hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Lepage, R; de Lamirande, G; Daoust, R

    1975-01-01

    Areas of hyperplastic livers that acquire hyperbasophilic properties at advanced stages of carcinogenesis apparently represent the sites of neoplastic trasnformation, and hyperstaining of cytoplasmic RNA with basic dyes also characterizes the cancer cells. Estimations of the RNA content of cell fractions from normal rat liver and solid Novikoff hepatoma provided no evidence that the intense staining of cancer cells could be explained on the basis of an increase in cytoplasmic RNA content. The possibility that cytoplasmic fractions of Novikoff hepatoma show greater affinity for basic dyes than corresponding normal fractions has been examined by means of a test-tube toluidine blue-binding assay. The results revealed that the dye-binding capacity of total cytoplasmic fractions from tumors is 75% higher than normal after Carnoy fixation which retains mostly ribosomal RNA. Assays on fresh ribosomes indicated that tumor ribosomes bind 71% more toluidine blue per mg of RNA than the ribosomal preparation from normal liver. This study thus demonstrates a greater affinity of tumor RNA for basic dyes, and a comparison of biochemical and cytophotometric analyses suggests that an increase in basophilia by a factor OF ABOUT 2 WOULD BE DUE TO A qualitative alteration in robosomal RNA molecules and/or ribosome structure in cnacer cells.

  13. Comparison of Remazol Brillant Blue Removal from Wastewater by Two Different Organisms and Analysis of Metabolites by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Akdogan, Hatice Ardag; Canpolat, Merve

    2014-01-01

    White rot fungus participates in biological degradation of many organic environmental pollutants. Also, white rot fungus contains a variety of extracellular enzymes, and these enzymes are used for biological degradation of organic matter. We investigated the biological treatment of synthetic dyes, at a low cost and in the shortest possible time, that are used especially in the dye and textile industries and are important polluting agents in the wastewater discharged into the environment by these industries. For this purpose, removal of Remazol Brillant Blue by Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus plicatilis was studied. This dye was removed 100% (dye concentration, 10.0 mg/L) by both organisms. Laccase and manganese peroxidase enzyme activities were also monitored. There was an attempt to identify metabolites via GC/MS at the end of the decolorization. No detectable metabolite was found.

  14. Fruit based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ung, M. C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Liow, K. S.; Kulip, J.; Mansa, R. F.

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) was first discovered in 1991 by O’regan and Gratzel. This new type of solar cell was reported to have lower production cost with efficiency as high as 12% which is comparable to conventional silicon solar cell. Initially, it uses ruthenium dye as light sensitizer for the operation. However, DSSC with ruthenium dyes are facing environment friendly issues due to the toxic chemicals and costly purification in processing ruthenium dye. Regardless of the poor performance in DSSC, natural dyes which are easy to prepare, cheap and environmental friendly still appear to be an alternative as dye sensitizer. In this study, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using anthocyanin source dyes extracted from several local fruits. All the extracts absorb a wide range of the visible light and ultraviolet spectrum. Therefore, all of the natural dyes show light absorption properties which is important for a dye sensitizer. A DSSC is comprised of conductive substrate, nanoporous semiconductor TiO2 layer, dye sensitizer, electrolyte with redox couple and a counter electrode with catalyst. In this study, the effect of different light source and different counter electrode are been investigated. However, it is vital to know that further research need to do more on the locally Borneo sourced dyes to evaluate and enhance their performance in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

  15. Sea dye marker provides visibility for 20 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Laat, F.

    1966-01-01

    Sea dye marker block releases a visible slick which lasts at least twelve hours. The dye marker uses a fluorescent dye in a heat cured binder which, when immersed in seawater, releases the dye at a controlled rate.

  16. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  17. Oxidation induced by phthalocyanine dyes causes rapid calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles.

    PubMed

    Abramson, J J; Cronin, J R; Salama, G

    1988-06-01

    The copper containing phthalocyanine dyes, alcian blue, copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid, and Luxol fast blue MBSN are found to induce rapid calcium efflux from actively loaded sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles. Alcian blue (5 microM), with 1 mM free Mg2+ triggered Ca2+ efflux at rates greater than 20 nmol/mg of SR/s. As in the case of Ca2+ efflux induced by calcium, heavy metals, or SH oxidation with Cu2+/cysteine, efflux induced by phthalocyanines is also stimulated by adenine containing nucleotides and inhibited by millimolar Mg2+ and submicromolar ruthenium red (RR). In addition, analogs of RR, such as hexamminecobalt(III) chloride or hexammineruthenium(III) chloride also inhibit Ca2+ efflux but are effective at somewhat higher concentrations (approximately 50 microM). Calcium release stimulated by phthalocyanines is specific for SR derived from the terminal cisternae region rather than longitudinal SR. Preincubation of alcian blue with the reducing agents, sodium dithionite, dithiothreitol, or cysteine causes complete loss of Ca2+ release activity from SR vesicles. Reoxidation of the alcian blue leads to return of the Ca2+ release activity of the phthalocyanine dye. The copper containing phthalocyanine dyes appear to cause rapid Ca2+ release from SR vesicles by oxidizing sulfhydryl groups associated with the calcium release channel. Moreover, phthalocyanines appear to act by oxidizing a pair of neighboring sulfhydryls to a disulfide because subsequent additions of the reducing agent dithiothreitol promote the closure of the Ca2+ channel and calcium re-uptake.

  18. Dye-loaded porous nanocapsules immobilized in a permeable polyvinyl alcohol matrix: a versatile optical sensor platform.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mariya D; Dergunov, Sergey A; Lindner, Ernö; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2012-03-20

    In this work we report on a versatile sensor platform based on encapsulated indicator dyes. Dyes are entrapped in hollow nanocapsules with nanometer-thin walls of controlled porosity. The porous nanocapsules retain molecules larger than the pore size but provide ultrafast access to their interior for molecules and ions smaller than the pore size. Dye-loaded nanocapsules are immobilized in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix with high solvent permeability and rapid analyte diffusion. This approach provides robust sensing films with fast response and extended lifetime. To demonstrate the performance characteristics of such films, pH-sensitive indicator dyes were entrapped in vesicle-templated nanocapsules prepared by copolymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. As pH sensitive dyes, Nile blue A, bromophenol blue, and acid fuchsin were tested. Time-resolved absorbance measurements showed that the rate of the color change is controlled by the rate of diffusion of protons in the hydrogel. The pH-induced color change in a ~400 μm thick film is complete within 40 and 60 s. The porous nanocapsule loaded films showed excellent stability and reproducibility in long-term monitoring experiments. Compartmentalization of the indicator dyes within the nanocapsules increased their stability. The matrix caused a shift in the position of the color change of the dye compared to that in an aqueous buffer solution. The encapsulation/immobilization protocol described in this account is expected to be broadly applicable to a variety of indicator dyes in optical sensor applications.

  19. Intraoperative contrast-enhanced sonographic portography combined with indigo carmine dye injection for anatomic liver resection in hepatocellular carcinoma: a new technique.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Park, Pyoung-Jae; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min

    2014-07-01

    We present a method of intraoperative contrast-enhanced sonographic portography combined with indigo carmine dye injection for anatomic liver resection in hepatocellular carcinoma. During surgery, before dye infusion into the feeding portal vein, the targeted portal vein branch was directly punctured, and a microbubble contrast agent was administered under sonographic guidance. Simultaneous enhancement of the resected hepatic parenchyma with a microbubble contrast agent and blue dye improved estimation of the segmental border in the cutting plane and the tumor resection margin during liver surgery. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Dataset of the absorption, emission and excitation spectra and fluorescence intensity graphs of fluorescent cyanine dyes for the quantification of low amounts of dsDNA.

    PubMed

    Bruijns, Brigitte; Tiggelaar, Roald; Gardeniers, Han

    2017-02-01

    This article describes data related to a research article entitled "Fluorescent cyanine dyes for the quantification of low amounts of dsDNA" (B. Bruijns, R. Tiggelaar, J. Gardeniers, 2016) [1]. Six cyanine dsDNA dyes - EvaGreen, SYBR Green, PicoGreen, AccuClear, AccuBlue NextGen and YOYO-1 - are investigated and in this article the absorption spectra, as well as excitation and emission spectra, for all six researched cyanine dyes are given, all recorded under exactly identical experimental conditions. The intensity graphs, with the relative fluorescence in the presence of low amounts of dsDNA, are also provided.

  1. Faint blue galaxies revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Henry C.

    If dwarf-elliptical galaxies formed their stars very rapdily (on timescales of less than 1 Gyr), they may in principle be detectable out to high redshift. Prior to the discovery of cosmic acceleration, it appeared that rapid and late formation dwarf elliptical galaxies might be required to explain the number counts of faint galaxies. A plausible hypothesis emerged: that photoionization by the UV background prevents gas cooling in low-mass halos until z ≲ 1.5. The discovery of cosmic acceleration eased the tension between predicted galaxy number counts and galaxy-evolution models. Nevertheless, there is some evidence for relatively late star formation in nearby dE's, and the photoionization delay mechanism still appears to have some merit. It is thus of interest to look back in time to see if we can find starbursting dwarf galaxies at moderate redshift. We review the connection between faint-blue galaxies and bursting-dwarf galaxies and discuss some attempts to identify progenitors to dE galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) observations. We find roughly 85 galaxies in the HUDF with redshifts 0.6 that appear to have formed most of their stars at z. Of these, 70% have half-light radii less than 1.5 kpc. These are thus "smoking gun" candidates for dwarf galaxies that are either collapsing for the first time at moderate redshifts or have otherwise been unable to form stars for more than 1/3 of a Hubble time.

  2. Blue bubble in Carina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-22

    Sparkling at the centre of this beautiful NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is a Wolf–Rayet star known as WR 31a, located about 30 000 light-years away in the constellation of Carina (The Keel). The distinctive blue bubble appearing to encircle WR 31a, and its uncatalogued stellar sidekick, is a Wolf–Rayet nebula — an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other gases. Created when speedy stellar winds interact with the outer layers of hydrogen ejected by Wolf–Rayet stars, these nebulae are frequently ring-shaped or spherical. The bubble — estimated to have formed around 20 000 years ago — is expanding at a rate of around 220 000 kilometres per hour! Unfortunately, the lifecycle of a Wolf–Rayet star is only a few hundred thousand years — the blink of an eye in cosmic terms. Despite beginning life with a mass at least 20 times that of the Sun, Wolf–Rayet stars typically lose half their mass in less than 100 000 years. And WR 31a is no exception to this case. It will, therefore, eventually end its life as a spectacular supernova, and the stellar material expelled from its explosion will later nourish a new generation of stars and planets.

  3. Removal of reactive blue 19 from aqueous solution by pomegranate residual-based activated carbon: optimization by response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this research, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize Reactive Blue 19 removal by activated carbon from pomegranate residual. A 24 full factorial central composite design (CCD) was applied to evaluate the effects of initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and contact time on the dye removal efficiency. Methodology The activated carbon prepared by 50 wt.% phosphoric acid activation under air condition at 500°C. The range of pH and initial dye concentration were selected in a way that considered a wide range of those variables. Furthermore, the range of contact time and adsorbent dose were determined based on initial tests. Levels of selected variables and 31 experiments were determined. MiniTab (version 16.1) was used for the regression and graphical analyses of the data obtained. Results It was found that the decrease of initial dye concentration and the increase of initial pH, adsorbent dose, and contact time are beneficial for improving the dye removal efficiency. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results presented high R2 value of 99.17% for Reactive Blue 19 dye removal, which indicates the accuracy of the polynomial model is acceptable. Conclusions Initial pH of 11, adsorbent dose of 1.025 g/L, initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L, and contact time of 6.8 minutes found to be the optimum conditions. Dye removal efficiency of 98.7% was observed experimentally at optimum point which confirmed close to model predicted (98.1%) result. PMID:24678702

  4. A novel porous anionic metal–organic framework with pillared double-layer structure for selective adsorption of dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shu-Nan; Han, Yi; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-15

    A novel porous anionic metal–organic framework, (Me{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}[Zn{sub 2}L{sub 1.5}bpy]·2DMF (BUT-201; H{sub 4}L=4,8-disulfonaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; bpy=4,4-bipyridine; DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), with pillared double-layer structure has been synthesized through the reaction of a sulfonated carboxylic acid ligand and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O with 4,4-bipyridine as a co-ligand. It is found that BUT-201 can rapidly adsorb cationic dyes with a smaller size such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Acriflavine Hydrochloride (AH) by substitution of guest (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NH{sub 2}{sup +}, but has no adsorption towards the cationic dyes with a lager size such as Methylene Violet (MV), the anionic dyes like C. I. Acidmore » Yellow 1 (AY1) and neutral dyes like C. I. Solvent Yellow 7 (SY7), respectively. The results show that the adsorption behavior of BUT-201 relates not only to the charge but also to the size/shape of dyes. Furthermore, the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: A porous anionic metal–organic framework (BUT-201) can selectively adsorb the cationic dyes by cationic guest molecule substitution, and the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • An anionic metal-organic framework (BUT-201) has been synthesized and characterized. • BUT-201 has a three-dimensional (3D) pillared double-layer structure. • BUT-201 can selectively and rapidly adsorb cationic dyes. • The adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}.« less

  5. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

  6. Methylene blue doped polymers: efficient media for optical recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, R.

    2004-05-01

    Polymer materials find application in optical storage technology, namely in the development of high information density and fast access type memories. A new polymer blend of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) in methanol is prepared and characterized and its comparison with methylene blue sensitized PVA in methanol and complexed methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride (CMBPVC) is presented. The optical absorption spectra of the thin films of these polymers showed a strong and broad absorption region at 670-650 nm, matching the wavelength of the laser used. A very slow recovery of the dye on irradiation was observed when a 7:3 blend of polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid at a pH of 3.8 and a sensitizer concentration of 4.67 · 10-5 g/ml were used. A diffraction efficiency of up to 20% was observed for the MBPVA/alcohol system and an energetic sensitivity of 2000 mJ/cm2 was obtained in the photosensitive films with a spatial frequency of 588 lines/mm.

  7. Methylene blue vital staining for Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes and epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudio S; Bezerra, Rita C; Pinheiro, Ariadne A

    2006-01-01

    The morphological identification of Trypanosoma cruzi is currently considered to have a high specificity, but its sensitivity, which depends on the volume of the sample examined, is rather low. Trypanosome developmental stages suspended in blood, reduviid feces, and culture media are routinely searched for by means of fresh film examination (about 2 microL). High speed centrifugation of blood samples separates the buffy coat, where most trypomastigotes concentrate. As the parasites are transparent and colorless, their detection is mostly dependent on their motility. The fluorescent vital stain acridine orange has been used to enhance image contrast, as exemplified by the QBC (Quantitative Buffy Coat) technique. Staining blood, buffy coat, reduviid feces, and culture media samples with methylene blue (also a vital dye) is a means of producing sharp, well contrasted images of motile or non-motile T. cruzi developmental stages, only standard laboratory microscopes being required. Slides previously coated with a thin layer of methylene blue are used to stain fresh blood films. Photomicrographs exemplify the results of methylene blue staining applied to living and fixed parasites.

  8. Size and molecular configuration of dye aggregates in mixed Langmuir-Blodgett films based on merocyanine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiaki; Okada, Takuya M.; Miura, Yasuhiro F.; Sugi, Michio; Ishii, Toshio

    2000-11-01

    We have studied the blue-shifted and the red-shifted bands formed in mixed Langmuir-Blodgett films of the merocyanine dye (MS)-arachidic acid (C20)-n-octadecane (AL18) ternary system with the molar mixing ratio [MS]:[C20]:[AL18]=1:2:x(0.5≦x≦5.0). The formation of the blue-shifted and the red-shifted bands depends on the AL18 content, and shows that the aggregation state can be modulated by changing the AL18 content. The observed overlapping spectra of the blue-shifted and the red-shifted bands are deconvoluted into two original bands. The extended dipole model has been applied to examine the aggregation state of MS referring to the deconvoluted spectra. Thus the estimated minimum aggregation number Nmin and the slip angle α between the long axis of the aggregate and the transition dipole moment are Nmin=40 and α=30° and Nmin=40 and α=50° for fully-developed J- and H-aggregates, respectively, seen for x≦1.5, and Nmin tends to decrease with increasing x.

  9. Efficient removal of lead (II) ions and methylene blue from aqueous solution using chitosan/Fe-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite beads.

    PubMed

    Saber-Samandari, Samaneh; Saber-Samandari, Saeed; Nezafati, Nader; Yahya, Kovan

    2014-12-15

    Chitosan is a well-known sorbent and effective in the uptake of anionic or reactive dyes, but it has deficiency in adsorption of basic dyes. In this work, chitosan/Fe-substituted hydroxyapatite composite beads were prepared in a different ratio via embedding of hydroxyapatite into chitosan solution for removal of basic dye and heavy metal from aqueous solution. The composite beads were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy in order to reveal their composition and surface morphology. In this particular study, methylene blue (MB) and lead (Pb (II)) ions were selected as representatives of dye and a heavy metal, respectively. The various experimental conditions affecting dye adsorption were explored to achieve maximum adsorption capacity. Moreover, the kinetic, thermodynamic and adsorption isotherm models were employed for the description of the heavy metal and dye adsorption processes. The results indicated that the prepared hydrogel is an efficient adsorbent for the aforementioned dye and metal concomitant with the ability of regeneration without losing the original activity and stability for water treatment applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells using food dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Rouhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using various food dyes. Food dyes are economically superior to organometallic dyes since they are nontoxic and inexpensive. The spectrophotometric evaluation of chosen food dyes in solution and on a TiO2 substrate show that the dyes form J-aggregation on the photoelectrode substrate. Oxidation of potential measurements for used food dyes ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favorable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of a photo-electric conversion. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on food dyes was studied. The results illustrate that the dye containing carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid as the acceptor group gave the maximum conversion efficiency 4.20%.

  11. Characteristics of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells using food dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Rouhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using various food dyes. Food dyes are economically superior to organometallic dyes since they are nontoxic and inexpensive. The spectrophotometric evaluation of chosen food dyes in solution and on a TO2 substrate show that the dyes form J-aggregation on the photoelectrode substrate. Oxidation of potential measurements for used food dyes ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favorable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of a photo-electric conversion. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on food dyes was studied. The results illustrate that the dye containing carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid as the acceptor group gave the maximum conversion efficiency 4.20%.

  12. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

  13. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

  14. Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis with red light emitting diode absorbance detection for the analysis of basic dyes.

    PubMed

    Fakhari, Ali Reza; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Miroslav; Haddad, Paul R

    2006-11-24

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis was evaluated for the separation of five hydrophobic basic blue dyes for application in forensic dye analysis. The use of a red light emitting diode as a high intensity, low-noise light source provided sensitive detection of the blue dyes while also allowing the evaluation of solvents that absorb strongly in the UV region. Excellent peak shapes and separation selectivity were obtained in methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide, however water, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylformamide and acetone were unsuitable as solvents due to poor peak shapes and a lack of sensitivity, most likely due to adsorption onto the capillary wall. Due to the known compatibility of methanol with capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, this solvent was examined further with the relative acidity/basicity of the electrolyte being optimised with an artificial neural network. The optimised method was examined for the separation of ink samples from 6 fibre tip and 2 ball point blue or black pens and showed that a unique migration time for the main dye component in seven of the eight pens could be obtained.

  15. The influence of cationic thiazine dyes on eosin Y-uptake of red blood cells in Romanowsky-Giemsa type stains.

    PubMed

    Schulte, E; Wittekind, D; Kretschmer, V

    1989-01-01

    In the present study we have investigated the uptake of cationic thiazine dyes and of the anionic Eosin Y by red blood cells (RBCs). Blood smears were stained with Azure B-Eosin Y, Methylene Blue-Eosin Y, Thionin-Eosin Y and with the cationic and anionic dyes alone at varying concentrations. Dye content of erythrocytes was measured with a Vickers M 85a microdensitometer. Nuclear chromatin features of white blood cells were investigated with the IBAS 2000 image analyser. Azure B favoured Eosin Y uptake of RBCs remarkably, and vice versa. There was no clear indication of that type of molecular interaction which characterizes the generation of the colour purple on polyanions. Methylene Blue and Thionin left Eosin Y uptake unaffected, but contamination of the standard Azure B-Eosin Y stain with Methylene Blue obviously affected Azure B-Eosin Y uptake, probably by competition of Methylene Blue and Azure B binding in RBCs. Furthermore, Methylene Blue contamination of the standard stain increased the rate of error in image analysis of white blood cell nuclei due to variations of staining intensity. For cytophotometry and image analysis of blood smears the standard Azure B-Eosin Y stain is by far superior to the commercial stain which normally is contaminated with Methylene Blue and some of the lower azures.

  16. Dawn Blue Glow Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-02

    This artist concept shows NASA Dawn spacecraft arriving at the dwarf planet Ceres. Dawn travels through space using a technology called ion propulsion, with ions glowing with blue light are accelerated out of an engine, giving the spacecraft thrust.

  17. Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

  18. Tubular sclerosis rather than the smear layer impedes dye penetration into the dentine of endodontically instrumented root canals.

    PubMed

    Paqué, F; Luder, H U; Sener, B; Zehnder, M

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of different root canal irrigating regimes on dentine penetration of Patent Blue dye. Eighty extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth with narrow root canals were prepared using ProFile instruments. After each instrument, canals were irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite. Subsequently, teeth were randomly assigned to receive a 10 mL rinse of aqueous 17% (w/v) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or tap water for 2 or 10 min, followed by a final rinse with a 2% Patent Blue dye solution for 2 or 10 min (eight groups, n = 10 teeth per group). Teeth were then horizontally sectioned 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex. Sections were digitally photographed and dye penetration was calculated as percentage of total dentine area using NIH Image J. Values were compared using one-way anova and Bonferroni correction with the alpha-type error set at <0.05. Representative tooth sections from all groups were further analysed using scanning electron microscopy. No significant impact of irrigating protocols on dye penetration was found. Dye penetration was significantly (P < 0.001) greater in the coronal than middle, and in middle than in apical root thirds. When observed microscopically, irrigant penetration was independent of the presence of a smear layer, but was rather a function of tubular sclerosis. Tubular sclerosis, a physiological phenomenon that starts in the third decade of life in the apical root region and advances coronally with age, was the main factor influencing penetrability of root dentine.

  19. Tuning Solvatochromism of Azo Dyes with Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Solution and on Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Liu, Xiaogang

    2013-11-25

    “Smart tuning” of optical properties in three azo dyes containing intramolecular hydrogen bonding is realized by the judicious control of solvents, when the dyes are in solution or adsorbed onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles. In solution, certain solvents destabilizing intramolecular hydrogen bonding induce a distinctive ≈70 nm “blue-shifted” absorption peak, compared with other solvents. In parallel, the optical properties of azo dye/TiO2 nanocomposites can be tuned using solvents with different hydrogen-bond accepting/donating abilities, giving insights into smart materials and dye-sensitized solar cell device design. It is proposed that intramolecular hydrogen bonding alone plays the leading role in such phenomena, which ismore » fundamentally different to other mechanisms, such as tautomerism and cis–trans isomerization, that explain the optical control of azo dyes. Hybrid density functional theory (DFT) is employed in order to trace the origin of this optical control, and these calculations support the mechanism involving intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Two complementary studies are also reported: 1H NMR spectroscopy is conducted in order to further understand the solvent effects on intramolecular hydrogen bonding; crystal structure analysis from associated research indicates the importance of intramolecular hydrogen bonding on intramolecular charge transfer.« less

  20. Use of jute processing wastes for treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Souvik; Dastidar, M G

    2005-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential of jute processing waste (JPW) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics generated from various activities associated with jute cultivation and fibre production. Adsorption studies in batch mode have been conducted using dye solution as an adsorbate and JPW as an adsorbent. A comparative adsorption study was made with standard adsorbents such as powdered and granular activated carbon (PAC and GAC, respectively). A maximum removal of 81.7% was obtained with methylene blue dye using JPW as compared to 61% using PAC and 40% using GAC under similar conditions. The adsorption potential of JPW was observed to be dependent on various parameters such as type of dye, initial dye concentration, pH and dosage of adsorbent. The batch sorption data conformed well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. However, lower BOD (33.3%) and COD (13.8%) removal from retting effluent was observed using JPW as compared to 75.6% BOD removal and 71.1% COD removal obtained with GAC.

  1. Degradation of reactive dyes by ozonation and oxalic acid-assimilating bacteria isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kurosumi, Akihiro; Kaneko, Erika; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2008-07-01

    Ozonation and treatment of wastewaters with oxalic acid-assimilating bacterium was attempted for the complete degradation of reactive dyes. Oxalic acid-assimilating bacterium, Pandoraea sp. strain EBR-01, was newly isolated from soil under bamboo grove and was identified to be a member of the genus Pandoraea by physicochemical and biochemical tests including 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The bacterium was grown optimally at pH 7 and temperature of 30 degrees C under the laboratory conditions. Reactive Red 120 (RR120), Reactive Green 19 (RG19), Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) were used in degradation experiments. At the initial reactive dye concentrations of 500 mg/l and the ozonation time of 80 min, it was confirmed that 75-90 mg/l oxalic acid was generated from reactive dyes by ozonation. Microbial treatment using EBR-01 greatly decreased the amount of oxalic acid in the mixture after 48 h, but it was not removed completely. TOC/TOC(0) of reactive dye solutions was also decreased to 80-90% and 20-40% by ozonation and microbial treatment using EBR-01, respectively. The study confirmed that consecutive treatments by ozone and microorganisms are efficient methods to mineralize reactive dyes.

  2. Optical coherence tomography using images of hair structure and dyes penetrating into the hair.

    PubMed

    Tsugita, Tetsuya; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Hair dyes are commonly evaluated by the appearance of the hair after dyeing. However, this approach cannot simultaneously assess how deep the dye has penetrated into hair. For simultaneous assessment of the appearance and the interior of hair, we developed a visible-range red, green, and blue (RGB) (three primary colors)-optical coherence tomography (OCT) using an RGB LED light source. We then evaluated a phantom model based on the assumption that the sample's absorbability in the vertical direction affects the tomographic imaging. Consistent with theory, our device showed higher resolution than conventional OCT with far-red light. In the experiment on the phantom model, we confirmed that the tomographic imaging is affected by absorbability unique to the sample. Furthermore, we verified that permeability can be estimated from this tomographic image. We also identified for the first time the relationship between penetration of the dye into hair and characteristics of wavelength by tomographic imaging of dyed hair. We successfully simultaneously assessed the appearance of dyed hair and inward penetration of the dye without preparing hair sections. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Reactive dye house wastewater treatment. Use of hybrid technology: Membrane, sonication followed by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V.

    1999-05-01

    To address problems associated with treatment of an aqueous waste stream from a reactive dye house, a model dye, turquoise blue CI25, was studied. A hybrid technology, membrane separation followed by sonication and wet oxidation, has been demonstrated to treat the wastewater for reuse and discharge. Experiments were first performed with the reactive dye solution in water. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) was found to be suitable to concentrate the dye. The concentrate was then treated with a wet oxidation process. Kinetics studies were performed with and without catalyst, in the temperature range of 170--215 C. The color destruction achievedmore » was > 99%. After process parameters were fixed, studies were conducted with the actual dye waste stream. The actual waste stream was found to be refractory for wet oxidation under the above conditions. Sonication of the concentrate obtained after membrane filtration, in the presence of CuSO{sub 4}, made the waste stream amenable to wet oxidation. Sonication followed by wet oxidation was found to be more effective at near neutral conditions as compared to basic conditions.« less

  4. Degradation of dyes by active species injected from a gas phase surface discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Tiecheng; Lu, Na; Zhang, Dandan; Wu, Yan; Wang, Tianwei; Sato, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    A reactor, based on the traditional gas phase surface discharge (GPSD), is designed for degradation of dye wastewater in this study. The reactor is characterized by using the dye wastewater as a ground electrode. A spiral discharge electrode of stainless steel wire attached on the inside wall of a cylindrical insulating medium and the wastewater surrounding the insulating medium for simultaneous cooling of the discharge electrode constitute the reactor. The active chemical radicals generated by the discharge of the spiral electrode are injected into the water with the carrier gas. The removal of three organic dyes (including methyl red (MR), reactive brilliant blue (RBB) and cationic red (CR)) in aqueous solution is investigated. The effects of electrode configuration, discharge voltage and solution pH value on the decoloration efficiency of MR are discussed. The experimental results show that over 95% of decoloration efficiencies for all the dyes are obtained after several minutes of plasma treatment. 40% of chemical oxygen demand removal of MR is obtained after 8 min of discharge treatment. Furthermore, it is found that ozone mainly affects the removal of dyes and several aliphatic compounds are identified as the oxidation products of MR. The possible degradation pathways of MR by GPSD are proposed.

  5. Dye-modified ZnO nanohybrids: optical properties of the potential solar cell nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayinde, Wasiu B.; Dare, Enock O.; Bada, Damilola A.; Alayande, Samson O.; Oladoyinbo, Fatai O.; Idowu, Mopelola A.; Bolaji, Bukola. O.; Ezeh, Miriam I.; Osuji, Rose U.

    2017-06-01

    We report the hybridization of ZnO with natural dyes [Laali, Zobo] or synthetic dye [methyl red] forming ZnO-laali, ZnO-zobo and ZnO-methyl red nanocomposites in bright colours. The structural, optical and dye photosensitization influence of the hybrid nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The surface plasmon absorption band of ZnO-laali and ZnO-zobo shifts towards red and blue, respectively, with significantly enhanced absorption intensities, indicating the interaction and optical influence of the respective dyes in photosensitization. Optical and absorption character of ZnO methyl red and bare ZnO are similar indicating the insignificant effect of methyl red on photosensitization. PL spectra of ZnO-laali and ZnO-zobo display enhanced UV light emission due not only to the surface electron transfer from their respective inherent isoplumbagin and anthocyanin to ZnO but also to the extension of the Fermi energy level to the ZnO. Dyes adopted influence the optical band gaps of the evolved hybrid nanocomposites.

  6. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Lo, Bo-Chang; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-07-23

    The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5%) for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black) than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazine (Y4). The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption.

  7. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Lo, Bo-Chang; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5%) for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black) than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazine (Y4). The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption. PMID:26213948

  8. Crude bacterial extracts of two new Streptomyces sp. isolates as bio-colorants for textile dyeing.

    PubMed

    Kramar, Ana; Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Petkovic, Milos; Radulović, Niko; Kostic, Mirjana; Jocic, Dragan; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2014-08-01

    Renewed demand for incorporation of natural dyes (bio-colorants) in textile industry could be met through biotechnological production of bacterial pigments. Two new Streptomyces strains (NP2 and NP4) were isolated for the remarkable ability to produce diffusible deep blue and deep red pigment into fermentation medium. Crude mycelial extracts of both strains were used as bio-colorants in conventional textile dyeing procedures avoiding downstream purification procedures. The yields of bio-colorants obtained in this way were 62 and 84 mg per g of mycelia for Streptomyces sp. NP2 and Streptomyces sp. NP4, respectively. Through nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of crude extracts before and after dyeing procedures, it was shown that both extracts contained prodigiosin-like family of compounds that exhibited different dyeing capabilities towards different textile fibers. Polyamide and acrylic fibers were colored to the deepest shade, polyester and triacetate fibers to a noticeable, but much lower shade depth, while cotton and cellulosic fibers stained weakly. These results confirmed that crude bacterial extracts had the characteristics similar to those of ionic and disperse dyes, which was consistent with the identified polypyrrolic prodigiosin-like structures.

  9. Electroplating sludge derived zinc-ferrite catalyst for the efficient photo-Fenton degradation of dye.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhenbang; Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Jizhi; Ruan, Xiuxiu; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jianyong; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2017-05-15

    A zinc-dominant ferrite catalyst for efficient degradation of organic dye was prepared by the calcination of electroplating sludge (ES). Characterizations indicated that zinc ferrite (ZnFe 2 O 4 ) coexisted with Fe 2 O 3 structure was the predominant phase in the calcined electroplating sludge (CES). CES displayed a high decolorization ratio (88.3%) of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H 2 O 2 combined with UV irradiation. The high efficiency could be ascribed to the photocatalytic process induced by ZnFe 2 O 4 and the photo-Fenton dye degradation by ferrous content, and a small amount of Al and Mg in the sludge might also contribute to the catalysis. Moreover, the degradation capability of dye by CES was supported by the synthetic ZnFe 2 O 4 with different Zn to Fe molar ratio (n(Zn): n(Fe)), as 84.81%-86.83% of dye was removed with n(Zn): n(Fe) ranged from 1:0.5 to 1:3. All synthetic ferrite samples in the simulation achieved adjacent equilibrium decolorization ratio, the flexible proportioning of divalent metal ions (M 2+ ) to trivalent metal ions (M 3+ ) applied in the synthesis indicated that the catalyst has a high availability. Therefore, an efficacious catalyst for the degradation of dye can potentially be derived from heavy metal-containing ES, it's a novel approach for the reutilization of ES. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Single and binary adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions onto clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Sismanoglu, Tuba; Kismir, Yasemin; Karakus, Selcan

    2010-12-15

    The adsorption of Reactive Blue 21 (RB21) and Reactive Red 195 (RR195) onto clinoptilolite type natural zeolite (ZEC) has been investigated at 298.15K. The uptake of single and binary reactive dyes from aqueous solutions has been determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. Two mono-component (RB21 and RR195) and binary component (RB21 with RR195, and RR195 with RB21), isotherms were determined. The mono-component Langmuir isotherm model was applied to experimental data and the isotherm constants were calculated for RB21 and RR195 dyes. The monolayer coverage capacities of clinoptilolite for RB21 and RR195 dyes in single solution system were found as 9.652 and 3.186 mg/g, respectively. Equilibrium adsorption for binary systems was analyzed by using the extended Langmuir models. The rate of kinetic processes of single and binary dye systems onto clinoptilolite was described by using two kinetics adsorption models. The pseudo-second-order model was the best choice among the kinetic models to describe the adsorption behaviour of single and binary dyes onto clinoptilolite. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution using green macroalgaePosidonia oceanica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, F.-N.; Yassaa, N.

    2018-03-01

    The use of inexpensive biological materials, such as marine algae for removing dyes from contaminated industrial effluents appears as a potential alternative method. The aim of this study is to investigate the aptitude of marine macroalgae Posidonia Oceanica local biomass abundant on the coasts of Algeria for selective sorption of methylene blue (MB) from an aqueous solution in batch experiments at 20 °C. A maximum percentage removal of Posidonia oceanica occurs at pH 5. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption equilibrium of methylene blue was best describe by Langmuir model than the Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacity was 357 mgg-1at pH 5. The sorption data were very well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Keywords: Posidonia oceanica, Methylene blue (MB), Biosorption, Isotherm Equilibrium, Kinetics; Modelling.

  12. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and...

  13. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and...

  14. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and...

  15. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and...

  16. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and...

  17. Hydrophilic region of lecithin membranes studied by bromothymol blue and effects of an inhalation anesthetic, enflurane

    PubMed Central

    Mashimo, Takashi; Ueda, Issaku; Shieh, Donald D.; Kamaya, Hiroshi; Eyring, Henry

    1979-01-01

    A pH-indicator dye, bromothymol blue, was used to probe the hydrophilic surface of dimyristoyl-, dipalmitoyl-, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles. The apparent pK of the surface-adsorbed dye was larger than the bulk pK value. The contribution of the choline positive charge on the dissociation constant of the dye adsorbed on the vesicle surface was estimated by screening the charge interaction with 2 M KCl. The effective surface potentials interacting with the dye were thus estimated to be 33.2, 45.6, and 46.8 mV, respectively, for the dimyristoyl-, dipalmitoyl-, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles. From the differences between the obtained effective potentials and the calculated surface potentials of the charge-determining plane of the choline head, the distances between the prototropic part of the dye and the choline charge-determining plane were estimated to be 10.5, 8.0, and 7.8 Å, respectively. These values were obtained at 25°C; the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membrane was in the liquid-crystalline phase and the other two were in the solid gel phase. Addition of an inhalation anesthetic, enflurane, decreased the distance in the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles and increased the distance in the dipalmitoyl- and distearoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles. The increase of precessional motion of choline head by the inhalation anesthetic is apparently responsible for the changes. PMID:41238

  18. Hydrophilic region of lecithin membranes studied by bromothymol blue and effects of an inhalation anesthetic, enflurane.

    PubMed

    Mashimo, T; Ueda, I; Shieh, D D; Kamaya, H; Eyring, H

    1979-10-01

    A pH-indicator dye, bromothymol blue, was used to probe the hydrophilic surface of dimyristoyl-, dipalmitoyl-, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles. The apparent pK of the surface-adsorbed dye was larger than the bulk pK value. The contribution of the choline positive charge on the dissociation constant of the dye adsorbed on the vesicle surface was estimated by screening the charge interaction with 2 M KCl. The effective surface potentials interacting with the dye were thus estimated to be 33.2, 45.6, and 46.8 mV, respectively, for the dimyristoyl-, dipalmitoyl-, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles. From the differences between the obtained effective potentials and the calculated surface potentials of the charge-determining plane of the choline head, the distances between the prototropic part of the dye and the choline charge-determining plane were estimated to be 10.5, 8.0, and 7.8 A, respectively. These values were obtained at 25 degrees C; the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membrane was in the liquid-crystalline phase and the other two were in the solid gel phase. Addition of an inhalation anesthetic, enflurane, decreased the distance in the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles and increased the distance in the dipalmitoyl- and distearoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles. The increase of precessional motion of choline head by the inhalation anesthetic is apparently responsible for the changes.

  19. Removal of disperse dyes from textile wastewater using bio-sludge.

    PubMed

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Srisornsak, Parawee

    2007-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) did not show any significant adsorption ability on the disperse dyes, while resting (living) bio-sludge of a domestic wastewater treatment plant showed high adsorption abilities on both disperse dyes and organic matter. The dye adsorption ability of bio-sludge increased by approximately 30% through acclimatization with disperse dyes, and it decreased by autoclaving. The deteriorated bio-sludge could be reused after being washed with 0.1N NaOH solution. Disperse Red 60 was more easily adsorbed onto the bio-sludge than Disperse Blue 60. The Disperse Red 60, COD, and BOD5 adsorption capacities of acclimatized, resting bio-sludge were 40.0+/-0.1, 450+/-12, and 300+/-10mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively. The GAC-SBR system could be applied to treat textile wastewater (TWW) containing disperse dyes with high dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of 93.0+/-1.1%, 88.0+/-3.1%, 92.2+/-2.7% and 51.5+/-7.0%, respectively without any excess bio-sludge production under an organic loading of 0.18 kg BOD5/m3-d. Furthermore, the removal efficiencies increased with the addition of glucose into the system. The dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of the GAC-SBR system with TWW containing 0.89 g/L glucose were 94.6+/-0.7%, 94.4+/-0.6%, 94.4+/-0.8% and 59.3+/-8.5%, respectively, under an SRT of 67+/-0.4 days.

  20. Romanowsky dyes and Romanowsky-Giemsa effect. 5. Structural investigations of the purple DNA-AB-EY dye complexes of Romanowsky-Giemsa staining.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, K; Seiffert, W; Zimmermann, H W

    1990-01-01

    A reproducible Romanowsky-Giemsa staining (RGS) can be carried out with standardized staining solutions containing the two dyes azure B (AB) and eosin Y (EY). After staining, cell nuclei have a purple coloration generated by DNA-AB-EY complexes. The microspectra of cell nuclei have a sharp and intense absorption band at 18,100 cm-1 (552 nm), the so called Romanowsky band (RB), which is due to the EY chromophore of the dye complexes. Other absorption bands can be assigned to the DNA-bound AB cations. Artificial DNA-AB-EY complexes can be prepared outside the cell by subsequent staining of DNA with AB and EY. In the first step of our staining experiments we prepared thin films of blue DNA-AB complexes on microslides with 1:1 composition: each anionic phosphodiester residue of the nucleic acid was occupied by one AB cation. Microspectrophotometric investigations of the dye preparations demonstrated that, besides monomers and dimers, mainly higher AB aggregates are bound to DNA by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These DNA-AB complexes are insoluble in water. Therefore it was possible to stain the DNA-AB films with aqueous EY solutions and also to prepare insoluble DNA-AB-EY films in the second step of the staining experiments. After the reaction with EY, thin sites within the dye preparations were purple. The microspectra of the purple spots show a strong Romanowsky band at 18,100 cm-1. Using a special technique it was possible to estimate the composition of the purple dye complexes. The ratio of the two dyes was approximately EY:AB approximately 1:3. The EY anions are mainly bound by hydrophobic interaction to the AB framework of the electrical neutral DNA-AB complexes. The EY absorption is red shifted by the interaction of EY with the AB framework of DNA-AB-EY. We suppose that this red shift is caused by a dielectric polarization of the bound EY dianions. The DNA chains in the DNA-AB complexes can mechanically be aligned in a preferred direction k. Highly

  1. Textile Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution using Modified Graphite Waste/Lanthanum/Chitosan Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusrini, E.; Wicaksono, B.; Yulizar, Y.; Prasetyanto, EA; Gunawan, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated various pre-treatment processes of graphite waste using thermal, mechanical and chemical methods. The aim of this work is to study the performance of modified graphite waste/lanthanum/chitosan composite (MG) as adsorbent for textile dye removal from aqueous solution. Effect of graphite waste resources, adsorbent size and lanthanum concentration on the dye removal were studied in batch experiments. Selectivity of MG was also investigated. Pre-heated graphite waste (NMG) was conducted at 80°C for 1 h, followed by mechanical crushing of the resultant graphite to 75 μm particle size, giving adsorption performance of ˜58%, ˜67%, ˜93% and ˜98% of the model dye rhodamine B (concentration determined by UV-vis spectroscopy at 554 nm), methyl orange (464 nm), methylene blue (664 nm) and methyl violet (580 nm), respectively from aqueous solution. For this process, the system required less than ˜5 min for adsorbent material to be completely saturated with the adsorbate. Further chemical modification of the pre-treated graphite waste (MG) with lanthanum (0.01 – V 0.03 M) and chitosan (0.5% w/w) did not improve the performance of dye adsorption. Under comparable experimental conditions, as those of the ‘thermal-mechanical-pre-treated-only’ (NMG), modification of graphite waste (MG) with 0.03 M lanthanum and 0.5% w/w chitosan resulted in ˜14%, ˜47%, ˜72% and ˜85% adsorption of rhodamine B, methyl orange, methylene blue and methyl violet, respectively. Selective adsorption of methylene blue at most to ˜79%, followed by methyl orange, methyl violet and rhodamine B with adsorption efficiency ˜67, ˜38, and ˜9% sequentially using MG with 0.03 M lanthanum and 0.5% w/w chitosan.

  2. Immobilization of laccase on a novel ZnO/SiO2 nano-composited support for dye decolorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Xun; Sun, Huai-Yan; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2015-07-01

    ZnO nanowires were introduced into macroporous SiO2 by means of in situ hydrothermal growth. The obtained nano-composite was then used to immobilize laccase (secured from Trametes versicolor) through the process of static adsorption. The average loading amount was as high as 193.4 μmol-g-1. The immobilized laccase was proven to be an effective biocatalyst in the decolorization of two dyes: Remazol Brilliant Blue B, and Acid Blue 25. The decolorization percentage of Remazol Brilliant Blue B and Acid Blue 25 reached 93% and 82% respectively. The immobilized laccase exhibited enhanced thermal stability and pH adaptability compared to free laccase. After ten recycles, the immobilized laccase retained 42% decolorization catalytic activity.

  3. Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

  4. DCM-based organic dyes with electron donating groups for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Young; Yoon, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Sik

    2014-07-01

    Herein, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-4H-pyran (DCM)-based dyes with electron donating groups were designed and their electronic and optical properties were investigated theoretically for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Among the dyes, the D1 and D2 dyes were composed of single electron donating group and the D3 and D4 dyes composed of dual donating group. We performed DFT/TDDFT calculations to get insight into the factors responsible for photovoltaic properties as dye sensitizers. It showed that all the dyes in this work are available as dye sensitizers from the energy consideration compared to TiO2 electrode and iodide electrolyte. It also showed that the D3 and D4 dyes produced additional absorption bands by the introduction of dual donor in absorption spectra and the absorption band of the D4 dye is more red-shifted than that of the D3 dye. It is attributed to the fact that the M2 (a coumarin derivative) moiety with stronger electron withdrawing ability stabilized its LUMO level. In terms of molar extinction coefficient and panchromatic feature, we suggest that the D4 dye would show better performance than other dyes in the present study as a dye sensitizer for DSSCs.

  5. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue, colorant food additives, on human blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kus, Esra; Eroglu, Halil Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic dyes over fifty are used in many areas including the food industry around the world. Sunset Yellow FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF are used as colorant food additives in many food products. The present study investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of the food additives were evaluated in lymphocyte cell cultures using mitotic index, replication index and micronucleus assay. Mitotic index frequencies and replication index values were decreased and micronucleus frequency was increased with increasing concentrations of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. The changes in mitotic index and micronucleus are statistically significant (p<0.05). The results show that the Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue can have cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. It care must be taken when using these materials as a food additive.

  6. Enhancing intersystem crossing in phenotiazinium dyes by intercalation into DNA.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Juan J; Oppel, Markus; González, Leticia

    2015-03-27

    Phenothiazinium dyes are used as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. Their mode of action is related to the generation of triplet excited states by intersystem crossing. Therefore, rationalizing the factors that influence intersystem crossing is crucial to improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy. Here we employ quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations to investigate the effect of aqueous and nucleic acid environments on the intersystem crossing mechanism in methylene blue. We find that the mechanism by which the triplet states are generated depends strongly on the environment. While intersystem crossing in water is mediated exclusively by vibronic spin-orbit coupling, it is enhanced in DNA due to a second pathway driven by electronic spin-orbit coupling. Competing charge-transfer processes, which are also possible in the presence of DNA, can therefore be suppressed by a suitable structural functionalization, thereby increasing the efficacy of photodynamic therapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Photodynamic dye adsorption and release performance of natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-03-01

    Clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) is a promising material for biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to its non-toxicity, thermal stability, expanded surface area, and exceptional ability to adsorb various atoms and organic molecules into micropores. Using multiphoton microscopy, we demonstrated that individual CZ particles produce two-photon excited luminescence and second harmonic generation signal at femtosecond laser excitation, and adsorb photo-dynamically active dyes such as hypericin and methylene blue. Furthermore, the release of hypericin from CZ pores in the presence of biomolecules is shown, and CZ can be considered as an effective material for drug delivery and controlled release in biological systems. The results may open new perspectives in application of CZ in biomedical imaging, and introducing of the optical approaches into the clinical environment.

  8. Photodynamic dye adsorption and release performance of natural zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) is a promising material for biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to its non-toxicity, thermal stability, expanded surface area, and exceptional ability to adsorb various atoms and organic molecules into micropores. Using multiphoton microscopy, we demonstrated that individual CZ particles produce two-photon excited luminescence and second harmonic generation signal at femtosecond laser excitation, and adsorb photo-dynamically active dyes such as hypericin and methylene blue. Furthermore, the release of hypericin from CZ pores in the presence of biomolecules is shown, and CZ can be considered as an effective material for drug delivery and controlled release in biological systems. The results may open new perspectives in application of CZ in biomedical imaging, and introducing of the optical approaches into the clinical environment. PMID:28361968

  9. Purification and characterization of extracellular laccase produced by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes.

    PubMed

    Chmelová, Daniela; Ondrejovič, Miroslav

    2016-11-01

    Laccases of white-rot fungi provide a promising future as a tool to be used in the field of biodegradation of synthetic dyes with different chemical structures. The aim of this study was production, characterization, and application of laccases from the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora ATCC 90467 for decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes that could remain persistent in wastewater. Laccase was purified from a C. subvermispora culture by a four-step method resulting high specific activity of 2,571 U g -1 , 88-fold higher than crude laccase. Purified laccase (molecular weight 45 kDa) had the optimum activity at pH 2.0 and the optimum temperature 50 °C using ABTS as chromogenic substrate. Laccases efficiently decolorized triphenylmethane dyes such as Malachite Green (87.8%), Bromocresol Purple (71.6%), and Methyl Violet (68.1%) without redox mediator. However, decolorization percentage of hardly degradable triphenylmethane dyes such as Phenol Red, Bromophenol Blue, and Brilliant Blue R-250 was increased the presence of some low-molecular weight compounds (natural or synthetic redox mediators). Purified laccases were resistant to Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Ba 2+ , Mn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Sn 2+ (10 mmol L -1 ). These findings suggest that laccases from C. subvermispora are able to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes without the negative influence of metal ions that can be found in wastewater. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-07

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

  11. Toxicity of Xanthene Food Dyes by Inhibition of Human Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in a Noncompetitive Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC50 values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC50 values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of 1O2 originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by 1O2 quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin. PMID:20041016

  12. Toxicity of xanthene food dyes by inhibition of human drug-metabolizing enzymes in a noncompetitive manner.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic food dyes studied were rose bengal (RB), phroxine (PL), amaranth, erythrosine B (ET), allura red, new coccine, acid red (AR), tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, brilliant blue FCF, and indigo carmine. First, data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. ET inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). We showed the inhibitory effect of xanthene dye on human UGT1A6 activity. Basic ET, PL, and RB in those food dyes strongly inhibited UGT1A6 activity, with IC(50) values = 0.05, 0.04, and 0.015 mM, respectively. Meanwhile, AR of an acidic xanthene food dye showed no inhibition. Next, we studied the inhibition of CYP3A4 of a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme and P-glycoprotein of a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were also inhibited by basic xanthene food dyes. The IC(50) values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the inhibition level of UGT1A6 by three halogenated xanthene food dyes (ET, PL, and RB) described above, except AR, like the results with UGT1A6 and UGT2B7. We also confirmed the noninhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp by other synthetic food dyes. Part of this inhibition depended upon the reaction of (1)O(2) originating on xanthene dyes by light irradiation, because inhibition was prevented by (1)O(2) quenchers. We studied the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on this inhibition by dyes and we found prevention of inhibition by superoxide dismutase but not catalase. This result suggests that superoxide anions, originating on dyes by light irradiation, must attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins on skin under lighting and may lead to rough skin.

  13. Selection of Ovine Oocytes by Brilliant Cresyl Blue Staining

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqin; Lin, Jiapeng; Huang, Juncheng; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yuncheng; Chen, Tong

    2012-01-01

    Sheep oocytes derived from the ovaries collected from the slaughterhouse are often used for research on in vitro embryo production, animal cloning, transgenesis, embryonic stem cells, and other embryo biotechnology aspects. Improving the in vitro culture efficiency of oocytes can provide more materials for similar studies. Generally, determination of oocyte quality is mostly based on the layers of cumulus cells and cytoplasm or cytoplasm uniformity and colors. This requires considerable experience to better identify oocyte quality because of the intense subjectivity involved (Gordon (2003), Madison et al. (1992) and De Loos et al. (1992)). BCB staining is a function of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, an enzyme synthesized in developing oocytes, which decreases in activity with maturation. Therefore, unstained oocytes (BCB−) are high in G6PD activity, while the less mature oocytes stains are deep blue (BCB+) due to insuffcient G6PD activity to decolorize the BCB dye. PMID:22675245

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Modified BiOCl and Their Application in Adsorption of Low-Concentration Dyes from Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qihang; Xing, Yongxing; Liu, Zhiliang; Ouyang, Jing; Du, Chunfang

    2018-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of BiOCl and Fe3+-grafted BiOCl (Fe/BiOCl) is reported that are developed as efficient adsorbents for the removal of cationic dyes rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) as well as anionic dyes methyl orange (MO) and acid orange (AO) from aqueous solutions with low concentration of 0.01 0.04 mmol/L. Characterizations by various techniques indicate that Fe3+ grafting induced more open porous structure and higher specific surface area. Both BiOCl and Fe/BiOCl with negatively charged surfaces showed excellent adsorption efficiency toward cationic dyes, which could sharply reach 99.6 and nearly 100% within 3 min on BiOCl and 97.0 and 98.0% within 10 min on Fe/BiOCl for removing RhB and MB, respectively. However, Fe/BiOCl showed higher adsorption capacity than BiOCl toward ionic dyes. The influence of initial dye concentration, temperature, and pH value on the adsorption capacity is comprehensively studied. The adsorption process of RhB conforms to Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic feature. The excellent adsorption capacities of as-prepared adsorbents toward cationic dyes are rationalized on the basis of electrostatic attraction as well as open porous structure and high specific surface area. In comparison with Fe/BiOCl, BiOCl displays higher selective efficiency toward cationic dyes in mixed dye solutions.

  15. Photophysics and aggregation effects of a triphenylamine-based dye sensitizer on metal-oxide nanoparticles suspended in an ion trap.

    PubMed

    Dryza, Viktoras; Nguyen, Jessica L; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Wong, Wallace W H; Holmes, Andrew B; Bieske, Evan J

    2013-12-14

    The photophysical behaviour of a triphenylamine-based organic dye sensitizer (Carbz-PAHTDTT) attached to alumina and titania nanoparticles (labelled Carbz-Al and Carbz-Ti, respectively) is examined in the absence and presence of the chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) coadsorber. The experiments are conducted in vacuo by suspending the target dye-sensitized nanoparticles within a quadrupole ion trap, where they are probed with laser radiation to obtain emission spectra and time-resolved excited state decay curves. For Carbz-Al, the dye's emission band is blue-shifted and the excited state lifetime is increased upon the coabsorption of CDCA, effects attributed to reduced dye aggregation. Compared to Carbz-Al, the Carbz-Ti excited state lifetimes are significantly shorter due to excited dye molecules injecting electrons into the titania conduction band. For Carbz-Ti, the electron injection quantum yields for the surfaces with CDCA (CDCA : dye = 25 : 1) and without CDCA are estimated to be 0.87 and 0.71, respectively. The gas-phase results demonstrate that Carbz-PAHTDTT dye aggregates are detrimental to the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell.

  16. Super Blue Moon Lunar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-31

    NASA TV provided coverage of Super Blue Moon Lunar Eclipse on Jan. 31. The full moon was the third in a series of “supermoons,” when the Moon is closer to Earth in its orbit -- known as perigee -- and about 14 percent brighter than usual. It was also the second full moon of the month, commonly known as a “blue moon.” As the super blue moon passed through Earth’s shadow, viewers in some locations experienced a total lunar eclipse. While in Earth’s shadow, the moon also took on a reddish tint – which is sometimes referred to as a “blood moon.”

  17. The inhibition by bromothymol blue of anion translocation across the mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, Z; Sweirczyński, J

    1975-02-28

    1. In rat liver mitochondria bromothymol blue inhibited the exchange of [14C]succinate for succinate, malonate, L-malate and inorganic phosphate; the [14C]citrate/citrate and [14C]citrate/malate exchange reactions and the phosphate/hydroxyl exchange were also inhibited by this dye. The inhibition of the rate of succinate, citrate and phosphate uptake by bromothymol blue is found to be competitive. 2. The degree of inhibition by bromothymol blue of the ]14C]succinate/malonate exchange reaction was pH dependent. It has been shown that the inhibition increased linearly while the pH was increased from 6.0 to 8.2. However, the binding rate of bromothymol blue to the mitochondria decreased with the rising pH of the medium. It is concluded that the binding of acidic bromothymol blue was not essential for the inhibitory effect. 3. Other sulfonephthalein derivatives also inhibited [14C]succinate/malonate exchange reaction. At pH 7.2 the relative order of the strength of the inhibitory action of the sulfonephthalein compounds tested was: thymol blue greater than bronocresol green greater than bromothymol blue greater than phenol red greater than bromocresol purple. The results do not indicate any correlation between the pK values of pH values of pH indicators and their extents of inhibition. 4. It is suggested that the negatively charged bromothymol blue interacts with the positively charged centers of the anion carrier systems causing inhibition of membrane permeability for anions.

  18. Process Improvement of Reactive Dye Synthesis Using Six Sigma Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwanich, Thanapat; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    This research focuses on the problem occurred in the reactive dye synthesis process of a global manufacturer in Thailand which producing various chemicals for reactive dye products to supply global industries such as chemicals, textiles and garments. The product named “Reactive Blue Base” is selected in this study because it has highest demand and the current chemical yield shows a high variation, i.e. yield variation of 90.4% - 99.1% (S.D. = 2.405 and Cpk = -0.08) and average yield is 94.5% (lower than the 95% standard set by the company). The Six Sigma concept is applied aiming at increasing yield and reducing variation of this process. This approach is suitable since it provides a systematic guideline with five improvement phases (DMAIC) to effectively tackle the problem and find the appropriate parameter settings of the process. Under the new parameter settings, the process yield variation is reduced to range between 96.5% - 98.5% (S.D. = 0.525 and Cpk = 1.83) and the average yield is increased to 97.5% (higher than the 95% standard set by the company).

  19. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  20. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.