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Sample records for isotope dual-labelling approach

  1. Dual Label Stable Isotope Incubations Followed By Single Cell Nanosims Analyses To Investigate Microscale Phototroph-Heterotroph Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayali, X.; Samo, T. J.; Nilson, D.; Arandia Gorostidi, N.; alonso Saez, L.; Moran, X. A.; Weber, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    In natural ecosystems such as lakes and oceans as well as human-engineered systems for sunlight-regulated biomass production (such as algal biofuel ponds), the interaction between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes are critical to determine whether such systems are net autotrophic or heterotrophic. Traditional methods to quantify autotrophy and heterotrophy include primary productivity and bacterial production measurements using radiolabeled substrates that quantify these processes on the bulk scale. To examine the microscale interactions between individual autotrophic and heterotrophic cells, we incubate mixed microbial assemblages with 13C-bicarbonate and 15N-leucine to label individual autotrophs and heterotrophs, respectively. We use nano imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (with a Cameca NanoSIMS 50) to quantify the incorporation of the rare isotopes by single cells. We will present results from experiments examining the impact of warming on the exchange of C and N between algal and bacterial cells from the coastal Atlantic Ocean, which suggest that increased temperature may strengthen physical interactions and exchange. We will also present data from experiments examining the influence of attached bacteria on the cell-specific inorganic carbon fixation rates of biofuel-producing algal cultures which suggest that certain algal-attached bacterial groups grow faster than when free-living and influence algal growth. We conclude that the examination of individual cells uncover interactions that would be difficult, if not impossible, to investigate with bulk methods.

  2. Legomedicine-A Versatile Chemo-Enzymatic Approach for the Preparation of Targeted Dual-Labeled Llama Antibody-Nanoparticle Conjugates.

    PubMed

    van Lith, Sanne A M; van Duijnhoven, Sander M J; Navis, Anna C; Leenders, William P J; Dolk, Edward; Wennink, Jos W H; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; van Hest, Jan C M

    2017-02-15

    Conjugation of llama single domain antibody fragments (Variable Heavy chain domains of Heavy chain antibodies, VHHs) to diagnostic or therapeutic nanoparticles, peptides, proteins, or drugs offers many opportunities for optimized targeted cancer treatment. Currently, mostly nonspecific conjugation strategies or genetic fusions are used that may compromise VHH functionality. In this paper we present a versatile modular approach for bioorthogonal VHH modification and conjugation. First, sortase A mediated transPEGylation is used for introduction of a chemical click moiety. The resulting clickable VHHs are then used for conjugation to other groups employing the Cu(+)-independent strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloadition (SPAAC) reaction. Using this approach, tail-to-tail bispecific VHHs and VHH-targeted nanoparticles are generated without affecting VHH functionality. Furthermore, this approach allows the bioconjugation of multiple moieties to VHHs for simple and convenient production of VHH-based theranostics.

  3. Legomedicine—A Versatile Chemo-Enzymatic Approach for the Preparation of Targeted Dual-Labeled Llama Antibody–Nanoparticle Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Conjugation of llama single domain antibody fragments (Variable Heavy chain domains of Heavy chain antibodies, VHHs) to diagnostic or therapeutic nanoparticles, peptides, proteins, or drugs offers many opportunities for optimized targeted cancer treatment. Currently, mostly nonspecific conjugation strategies or genetic fusions are used that may compromise VHH functionality. In this paper we present a versatile modular approach for bioorthogonal VHH modification and conjugation. First, sortase A mediated transPEGylation is used for introduction of a chemical click moiety. The resulting clickable VHHs are then used for conjugation to other groups employing the Cu+-independent strain-promoted alkyne–azide cycloadition (SPAAC) reaction. Using this approach, tail-to-tail bispecific VHHs and VHH-targeted nanoparticles are generated without affecting VHH functionality. Furthermore, this approach allows the bioconjugation of multiple moieties to VHHs for simple and convenient production of VHH-based theranostics. PMID:28045502

  4. Sourcing explosives: a multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Widory, David; Minet, Jean-Jacques; Barbe-Leborgne, Martine

    2009-06-01

    Although explosives are easily identified with current instrumental techniques, it is generally impossible to distinguish between sources of the same substance. To alleviate this difficulty, we present a multi-stable isotope (delta13C, delta15N, delta18O, deltaD) approach for appraising the possibility of discriminating explosives. The results from 30 distinct PETN, TNT and ANFO samples show that the different families of explosives are clearly differentiated by both their specific isotope signatures and their combination with corresponding element concentrations. Coupling two or more of the studied isotope systematics yields an even more precise differentiation on the basis of their raw-material origin and/or manufacturing process.

  5. A Generic Isotope Identification Approach for nuclear instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Corre, G.; Boudergui, K.; Sannie, G.; Kondrasovs, V.

    2015-07-01

    Isotope identification is generally done from spectra from high intrinsic resolution such as germanium. A lot of approaches are proposed in the literature. Most of them are not efficient with poor energy resolution detectors such as non-loaded scintillators. The proposed approach is a new isotope identification principle to deal with the overall range of nuclear detectors. The proposed method allows the identification of isotopes using detectors with poor intrinsic resolution and lower counting than the existing techniques. (authors)

  6. Dietary absorption of sediment-bound fluoranthene by a deposit-feeding gastropod using the {sup 14}C:{sup 51}Cr dual-labeling method

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, V.E.; Forbes, T.L.

    1997-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) constitute a broad class of toxic, environmentally persistent, particle-reactive organic compounds that are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This study was designed to measure ingestion and dietary absorption of the PAH, fluoranthene, by two genotypes of a deposit-feeding gastropod using the {sup 14}C:{sup 51}Cr dual-labeling method. Sediment processing rate, fluoranthene ingestion rate, selective ingestion of fluoranthene-containing particles, and fluoranthene absorption rate varied as a function of snail body size and genotype. Absorption efficiency of sediment-bound fluoranthene did not vary as a function of body size but differed between genotypes, averaging 42 to 46% for Clone A and 22 to 36% for Clone B. The authors could detect no significant metabolism of ingested fluoranthene to dissolved organic carbon or CO{sub 2} during 24 h following its ingestion. The {sup 14}C:{sup 51}Cr dual-labeling method provides a powerful approach for investigating the dietary absorption of sediment-bound contaminants by (1) allowing the calculation of ingestion selectivity, sediment processing rate, contaminant ingestion rate, and absorption efficiency in individual, small invertebrates; (2) permitting estimation of the fraction of ingested/absorbed contaminant that is metabolized and released via different routes following its ingestion; and (3) facilitating evaluation of the relative importance of porewater versus ingested sediment as routes of contaminant uptake by animals.

  7. Specific detection of Mycobacterium sp. genomic DNA using dual labeled gold nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Thiruppathiraja, Chinnasamy; Kamatchiammal, Senthilkumar; Adaikkappan, Periyakaruppan; Santhosh, Devakirubakaran Jayakar; Alagar, Muthukaruppan

    2011-10-01

    The present study was aimed at the development and evaluation of a DNA electrochemical biosensor for Mycobacterium sp. genomic DNA detection in a clinical specimen using a signal amplifier as dual-labeled AuNPs. The DNA electrochemical biosensors were fabricated using a sandwich detection strategy involving two kinds of DNA probes specific to Mycobacterium sp. genomic DNA. The probes of enzyme ALP and the detector probe both conjugated on the AuNPs and subsequently hybridized with target DNA immobilized in a SAM/ITO electrode followed by characterization with CV, EIS, and DPV analysis using the electroactive species para-nitrophenol generated by ALP through hydrolysis of para-nitrophenol phosphate. The effect of enhanced sensitivity was obtained due to the AuNPs carrying numerous ALPs per hybridization and a detection limit of 1.25 ng/ml genomic DNA was determined under optimized conditions. The dual-labeled AuNP-facilitated electrochemical sensor was also evaluated by clinical sputum samples, showing a higher sensitivity and specificity and the outcome was in agreement with the PCR analysis. In conclusion, the developed electrochemical sensor demonstrated unique sensitivity and specificity for both genomic DNA and sputum samples and can be employed as a regular diagnostics tool for Mycobacterium sp. monitoring in clinical samples.

  8. Simultaneous detection of imidacloprid and parathion by the dual-labeled time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haiyan; Sheng, Enze; Feng, Lu; Zhou, Liangliang; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua

    2015-10-01

    A highly sensitive direct dual-labeled time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) to detect parathion and imidacloprid simultaneously in food and environmental matrices was developed. Europium (Eu(3+)) and samarium (Sm(3+)) were used as fluorescent labels by coupling separately with L1-Ab and A1P1-Ab. Under optimal assay conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) and limit of detection (LOD, IC10) were 10.87 and 0.025 μg/L for parathion and 7.08 and 0.028 μg/L for imidacloprid, respectively. The cross-reactivities (CR) were negligible except for methyl-parathion (42.4 %) and imidaclothiz (103.4 %). The average recoveries of imidacloprid ranged from 78.9 to 104.2 % in water, soil, rice, tomato, and Chinese cabbage with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.4 to 11.6 %, and those of parathion were from 81.5 to 110.9 % with the RSD of 3.2 to 10.5 %. The results of TRFIA for the authentic samples were validated by comparison with gas chromatography (GC) analyses, and satisfactory correlations (parathion: R (2) = 0.9918; imidacloprid: R (2) = 0.9908) were obtained. The results indicate that the dual-labeled TRFIA is convenient and reliable to detect parathion and imidacloprid simultaneously in food and environmental matrices.

  9. Enzyme-antibody dual labeled gold nanoparticles probe for ultrasensitive detection of κ-casein in bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Zhou, Y; Meng, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Liu, J Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, N N; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S

    2014-11-15

    A dual labeled probe was synthesized by coating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with anti-κ-CN monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme on their surface. The McAb was used as detector and HRP was used as label for signal amplification catalytically oxidize the substrate. AuNPs were used as bridges between the McAb and HRP. Based on the probe, an immunoassay was developed for ultrasensitive detection of κ-CN in bovine milk samples. The assay has a linear response range within 4.2-560 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.2 ng mL(-1) which was 10 times lower than that of traditional McAb-HRP based ELISA. The recoveries of κ-CN from three brand bovine milk samples were from 95.8% to 111.0% that had a good correlation (R(2)=0.998) with those obtained by official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity and as simple as the traditional ELISA, the developed immunoassay could provide an alternative approach for ultrasensitive detection of κ-CN in bovine milk sample.

  10. New approaches to the Moon's isotopic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Melosh, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent comparisons of the isotopic compositions of the Earth and the Moon show that, unlike nearly every other body known in the Solar System, our satellite's isotopic ratios are nearly identical to the Earth's for nearly every isotopic system. The Moon's chemical make-up, however, differs from the Earth's in its low volatile content and perhaps in the elevated abundance of oxidized iron. This surprising situation is not readily explained by current impact models of the Moon's origin and offers a major clue to the Moon's formation, if we only could understand it properly. Current ideas to explain this similarity range from assuming an impactor with the same isotopic composition as the Earth to postulating a pure ice impactor that completely vaporized upon impact. Several recent proposals follow from the suggestion that the Earth–Moon system may have lost a great deal of angular momentum during early resonant interactions. The isotopic constraint may be the most stringent test yet for theories of the Moon's origin. PMID:25114301

  11. Dual labeling of lipopolysaccharides for SPECT-CT imaging and fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duheron, Vincent; Moreau, Mathieu; Collin, Bertrand; Sali, Wahib; Bernhard, Claire; Goze, Christine; Gautier, Thomas; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Deckert, Valérie; Brunotte, François; Lagrost, Laurent; Denat, Franck

    2014-03-21

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or endotoxins are amphipathic, pro-inflammatory components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In the host, LPS can trigger a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. To bring insight into in vivo tissue distribution and cellular uptake of LPS, dual labeling was performed with a bimodal molecular probe designed for fluorescence and nuclear imaging. LPS were labeled with DOTA-Bodipy-NCS, and pro-inflammatory properties were controlled after each labeling step. LPS were then radiolabeled with (111)In and subsequently injected intravenously into wild-type, C57B16 mice, and their in vivo behavior was followed by single photon emission computed tomography coupled with X-ray computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and fluorescence microscopy. Time course of liver uptake of radiolabeled LPS ((111)In-DOTA-Bodipy-LPS) was visualized over a 24-h period in the whole animal by SPECT-CT. In complementary histological analyses with fluorescent microscopy, the bulk of injected (111)In-DOTA-Bodipy-LPS was found to localize early within the liver. Serum kinetics of unlabeled and DOTA-Bodipy-labeled LPS in mouse plasma were similar as ascertained by direct quantitation of β-hydroxymyristate, and DOTA-Bodipy-LPS was found to retain the potent, pro-inflammatory property of the unlabeled molecule as assessed by serum cytokine assays. It is concluded that the dual labeling process, involving the formation of covalent bonds between a DOTA-Bodipy-NCS probe and LPS molecules is relevant for imaging and kinetic analysis of LPS biodistribution, both in vivo and ex vivo. Data of the present study come in direct and visual support of a lipopolysaccharide transport through which pro-inflammatory LPS can be transported from the periphery to the liver for detoxification. The (111)In-DOTA-Bodipy-LPS probe arises here as a relevant tool to identify key components of LPS detoxification in vivo.

  12. Dual Labeling Biotin Switch Assay to Reduce Bias Derived from Different Cysteine Subpopulations: A Method to Maximize S-Nitrosylation Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Heaseung Sophia; Murray, Christopher I.; Venkatraman, Vidya; Crowgey, Erin L.; Rainer, Peter P.; Cole, Robert N.; Bomgarden, Ryan D.; Rogers, John C.; Balkan, Wayne; Hare, Joshua M.; Kass, David A.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale S-nitrosylation (SNO), an oxidative post-translational modification of cysteine residues, responds to changes in the cardiac redox-environment. Classic biotin switch assay and its derivatives are the most common methods used for detecting SNO. In this approach, the labile SNO group is selectively replaced with a single stable tag. To date, a variety of thiol-reactive tags have been introduced. However, these methods have not produced a consistent dataset which suggests an incomplete capture by a single tag and potentially the presence of different cysteine subpopulations. Objective To investigate potential labeling bias in the existing methods with a single tag to detect SNO, explore if there are distinct cysteine subpopulations, and then, develop a strategy to maximize the coverage of SNO proteome. Methods and Results We obtained SNO-modified cysteine datasets for wild-type and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) knock-out mouse hearts (GSNOR is a negative regulator of GSNO production) and NO-induced human embryonic kidney cell using two labeling reagents; the cysteine-reactive pyridyldithiol and iodoacetyl based tandem mass tags. Comparison revealed that <30% of the SNO-modified residues were detected by both tags, while the remaining SNO sites were only labeled by one reagent. Characterization of the two distinct subpopulations of SNO residues indicated that pyridyldithiol reagent preferentially labels cysteine residues that are more basic and hydrophobic. Based on this observation, we proposed a parallel dual labeling strategy followed by an optimized proteomics workflow. This enabled the profiling of 493 SNO-sites in GSNOR knock-out hearts. Conclusions Using a protocol comprising two tags for dual labeling maximizes overall detection of SNO by reducing the previously unrecognized labeling bias derived from different cysteine subpopulations. PMID:26338901

  13. ImmunoPET and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer with a Dual-Labeled Bispecific Antibody Fragment.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haiming; England, Christopher G; Goel, Shreya; Graves, Stephen A; Ai, Fanrong; Liu, Bai; Theuer, Charles P; Wong, Hing C; Nickles, Robert J; Cai, Weibo

    2017-03-24

    Dual-targeted imaging agents have shown improved targeting efficiencies in comparison to single-targeted entities. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the tumor accumulation of a dual-labeled heterobifunctional imaging agent, targeting two overexpressed biomarkers in pancreatic cancer, using positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging modalities. A bispecific immunoconjugate (heterodimer) of CD105 and tissue factor (TF) Fab' antibody fragments was developed using click chemistry. The heterodimer was dual-labeled with a radionuclide ((64)Cu) and fluorescent dye. PET/NIRF imaging and biodistribution studies were performed in four-to-five week old nude athymic mice bearing BxPC-3 (CD105/TF(+/+)) or PANC-1 (CD105/TF(-/-)) tumor xenografts. A blocking study was conducted to investigate the specificity of the tracer. Ex vivo tissue staining was performed to compare TF/CD105 expression in tissues with PET tracer uptake to validate in vivo results. PET imaging of (64)Cu-NOTA-heterodimer-ZW800 in BxPC-3 tumor xenografts revealed enhanced tumor uptake (21.0 ± 3.4%ID/g; n = 4) compared to the homodimer of TRC-105 (9.6 ± 2.0%ID/g; n = 4; p < 0.01) and ALT-836 (7.6 ± 3.7%ID/g; n = 4; p < 0.01) at 24 h postinjection. Blocking studies revealed that tracer uptake in BxPC-3 tumors could be decreased by 4-fold with TF blocking and 2-fold with CD105 blocking. In the negative model (PANC-1), heterodimer uptake was significantly lower than that found in the BxPC-3 model (3.5 ± 1.1%ID/g; n = 4; p < 0.01). The specificity was confirmed by the successful blocking of CD105 or TF, which demonstrated that the dual targeting with (64)Cu-NOTA-heterodimer-ZW800 provided an improvement in overall tumor accumulation. Also, fluorescence imaging validated the PET imaging, allowing for clear delineation of the xenograft tumors. Dual-labeled heterodimeric imaging agents, like (64)Cu-NOTA-heterodimer-ZW800, may increase the overall tumor

  14. An isotopic approach to measuring nitrogen balance in caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustine, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Adams, L.G.; Farnell, R.G.; Parker, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional restrictions in winter may reduce the availability of protein for reproduction and survival in northern ungulates. We refined a technique that uses recently voided excreta on snow to assess protein status in wild caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in late winter. Our study was the first application of this non-invasive, isotopic approach to assess protein status of wild caribou by determining dietary and endogenous contributions of nitrogen (N) to urinary urea. We used isotopic ratios of N (??15N) in urine and fecal samples to estimate the proportion of urea N derived from body N (p-UN) in pregnant, adult females of the Chisana Herd, a small population that ranged across the Alaska-Yukon border. We took advantage of a predator-exclosure project to examine N status of penned caribou in April 2006. Lichens were the primary forage (>40%) consumed by caribou in the pen and ?? 15N of fiber tracked the major forages in their diets. The ??15N of urinary urea for females in the pen was depleted relative (-1.3 ?? 1.0 parts per thousand [??], x?? ?? SD) to the ??15N of body N (2.7 ?? 0.7??). A similar proportion of animals in the exclosure lost core body mass (excluding estimates of fetal and uterine tissues; 55%) and body protein (estimated by isotope ratios; 54%). This non-invasive technique could be applied at various spatial and temporal scales to assess trends in protein status of free-ranging populations of northern ungulates. Intra- and inter-annual estimates of protein status could help managers monitor effects of foraging conditions on nutritional constraints in ungulates, increase the efficiency and efficacy of management actions, and help prepare stakeholders for potential changes in population trends. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Influence of chelator and near-infrared dye labeling on biocharacteristics of dual-labeled trastuzumab-based imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Melissa B; Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Nina; Xie, Qing; Liu, Chen; Sevick-Muraca, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of fluorescent dye labeling on the targeting capabilities of 111In- (DTPA)n-trastuzumab-(IRDye 800)m. Methods Trastuzumab-based conjugates were synthesized and conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) at molar ratios of 1, 2, 3 and 5 and with a fluorescent dye (IRDye 800CW) at molar ratios of 1, 3 and 5. Immunoreactivity and internalization were assessed on SKBR-3 cells, overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. The stability in human serum and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was evaluated. The biodistribution of dual-labeled conjugates was compared with that of 111In-(DTPA)2-trastuzumab in a SKBR-3 xenograft model to evaluate the effect of dye-to-protein ratio. Results All trastuzumab-based conjugates exhibited a high level of chemical and optical purity. Flow cytometry results showed that increasing dye-to-protein ratios were associated with decreased immunoreactivity. Stability studies revealed that the conjugate was stable in PBS, while in human serum, increased degradation and protein precipitation were observed with increasing dye-to-protein ratios. At 4 h, the percentages of internalization of dual-labeled conjugates normalized by dye-to-protein ratio (m) were 24.88%±2.10%, 19.99%±0.59%, and 17.47%±1.26% for "m" equal to 1, 3, and 5, respectively. A biodistribution study revealed a progressive decrease in tumor uptake with an increase in the dye-to-protein ratios. The liver, spleen and kidney showed a marked uptake with increased dye-to-protein ratios, particularly in the latter. Conclusions With non-specific-site conjugation of the fluorescent dye with a protein based on imaging agent, the increase in dye-to-protein ratios negatively impacted the immunoreactivity and stability, indicating a reduced tumor uptake. PMID:27478322

  16. Description of C isotopes within RMF+BCS approach

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, G.; Singh, D.; Kaushik, M.

    2013-06-03

    In the present investigations we have employed relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF + BCS) approach to carry out a systematic study for the ground state properties of even-even C Isotopes. One of the prime reason of this study has been to look into the role of low lying states in neutron rich reason near neutron drip line. It is found that irrespective of whether any resonant state exists or not, the occupancy of weakly bound neutron single particle states having low orbital angular momentum, (l = 0 or 1), with a well spread wave function due to the absence or very small strength of centrifugal barrier, helps to cause the occurrence of nuclei with widely extended neutron density. Such nuclei are found to have characteristically very small two-neutron separation energy and large neutron rms radius akin to that observed in weakly bound systems.

  17. Mechanistic approach to multi-element isotope modeling of organic contaminant degradation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We propose a multi-element isotope modeling approach to simultaneously predict the evolution of different isotopes during the transformation of organic contaminants. The isotopic trends of different elements are explicitly simulated by tracking position-specific isotopologues that contain the isotopes located at fractionating positions. Our approach is self-consistent and provides a mechanistic description of different degradation pathways that accounts for the influence of both primary and secondary isotope effects during contaminant degradation. The method is particularly suited to quantitatively describe the isotopic evolution of relatively large organic contaminant molecules. For such compounds, an integrated approach, simultaneously considering all possible isotopologues, would be impractical due to the large number of isotopologues. We apply the proposed modeling approach to the degradation of toluene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and nitrobenzene observed in previous experimental studies. Our model successfully predicts the multi-element isotope data (both 2D and 3D), and accurately captures the distinct trends observed for different reaction pathways. The proposed approach provides an improved and mechanistic methodology to interpret multi-element isotope data and to predict the extent of multi-element isotope fractionation that goes beyond commonly applied modeling descriptions and simplified methods based on the ratio between bulk enrichment factors or on linear regression in dual-isotope plots.

  18. Biomarker and molecular isotope approaches to deconvolve the terrestrial carbon isotope record: modern and Eocene calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.; Wing, S.; Currano, E. D.

    2010-12-01

    Climate, biome, and plant community are important predictors of carbon isotope patterns recorded in leaves and leaf waxes. However, signatures recorded by terrestrial organic carbon and lipids that have mixed floral sources (e.g., n-alkanes) potentially reflect both plant community changes and climate. More taxonomically specific proxies for plants (i.e., di- and tri-terpenoids for conifers and angiosperms, respectively), can help to resolve the relative influences of changing community and climate, provided differences in biomarker production and lipid biosynthetic fractionation among plants can be better constrained. We present biomarker abundance and carbon isotope values for lipids from leaves, branches and bark of 44 tree species, representing 21 families including deciduous and evergreen conifers and angiosperms. n-alkane production differs greatly between conifer and angiosperm leaves. Both deciduous and evergreen angiosperms make significantly more n-alkanes than conifers, with n-alkanes not detected in over half of the conifers in our study. Terpenoid abundances scale strongly with leaf habit: evergreen species have significantly higher abundances. We combine these relative differences in lipid production with published estimates of fluxes for leaf litter from conifer and angiosperm trees to develop a new proxy approach for estimating paleo plant community inputs to ancient soils and sediments. To test our modern calibration results, we have evaluated n-alkanes and terpenoids from laterally extensive (~18 km) carbonaceous shales and mudstones in Eocene sediments (52.6 Ma) at Fifteenmile Creek in the Bighorn Basin (WY, USA). Our terpenoid-based proxy predicts on average a 40% conifer community, which is remarkably close in agreement with a fossil-based estimate of 36%. n-alkane carbon isotope fractionation (leaf-lipid) differs among plant types, with conifer n-alkanes about 2-3‰ 13C enriched relative to those in angiosperms. Since conifer leaves are

  19. Detecting changes in the thiol redox state of proteins following a decrease in oxygen concentration using a dual labeling technique.

    PubMed

    Lui, James K C; Lipscombe, Richard; Arthur, Peter G

    2010-01-01

    Cells are routinely exposed to hyperoxic conditions when cultured in the presence of 95% air and 5% carbon dioxide. Hyperoxic conditions can increase the generation of reactive oxygen species and cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been proposed to cause cells in culture to behave differently from cells in vivo. One route by which oxidative stress could affect cellular function is through alterations in protein function caused by the oxidation of thiol groups (-SH) of redox-sensitive cysteine residues. To test whether changes in oxygen concentration were sufficient to cause changes in the thiol redox state of proteins, we developed a sensitive method involving the labeling of reduced and oxidized cysteine residues with fluorescent tags. Using this dual labeling method, we found 62 of 411 protein spots that were significantly more reduced following a 30 min decrease in oxygen concentration. We conclude that the elevated oxygen concentration characteristic of typical cell culture conditions has the potential to affect cellular behavior through changes in the thiol redox state of proteins.

  20. Nitrogen isotopes in Tree-Rings - An approach combining soil biogeochemistry and isotopic long series with statistical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Martine M.; Bégin, Christian; Paré, David; Marion, Joëlle; Laganière, Jérôme; Séguin, Armand; Stefani, Franck; Smirnoff, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial centers in North America generally started less than 25 years ago. To compensate for the lack of monitoring, previous investigations have interpreted tree-ring N changes using the known chronology of human activities, without facing the challenge of separating climatic effects from potential anthropogenic impacts. Here we document such an attempt conducted in the oil sands (OS) mining region of Northeastern Alberta, Canada. The reactive nitrogen (Nr)-emitting oil extraction operations began in 1967, but air quality measurements were only initiated in 1997. To investigate if the beginning and intensification of OS operations induced changes in the forest N-cycle, we sampled white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) stands located at various distances from the main mining area, and receiving low, but different N deposition. Our approach combines soil biogeochemical and metagenomic characterization with long, well dated, tree-ring isotopic series. To objectively delineate the natural N isotopic behaviour in trees, we have characterized tree-ring N isotope (15N/14N) ratios between 1880 and 2009, used statistical analyses of the isotopic values and local climatic parameters of the pre-mining period to calibrate response functions and project the isotopic responses to climate during the extraction period. During that period, the measured series depart negatively from the projected natural trends. In addition, these long-term negative isotopic trends are better reproduced by multiple-regression models combining climatic parameters with the proxy for regional mining Nr emissions. These negative isotopic trends point towards changes in the forest soil biogeochemical N cycle. The biogeochemical data and ultimate soil mechanisms responsible for such changes will be discussed during the presentation.

  1. Detection and tracking of dual-labeled HIV particles using wide-field live cell imaging to follow viral core integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mamede, Joao I.; Hope, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Live cell imaging is a valuable technique that allows the characterization of the dynamic processes of the HIV-1 life-cycle. Here, we present a method of production and imaging of dual-labeled HIV viral particles that allows the visualization of two events. Varying release of the intravirion fluid phase marker reveals virion fusion and the loss of the integrity of HIV viral cores with the use of live wide-field fluorescent microscopy. PMID:26714704

  2. Isotope approach to assess hydrologic connections during Marcellus Shale drilling.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shikha; Mulder, Michon L; Sack, Andrea; Schroeder, Karl; Hammack, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Water and gas samples were collected from (1) nine shallow groundwater aquifers overlying Marcellus Shale in north-central West Virginia before active shale gas drilling, (2) wells producing gas from Upper Devonian sands and Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in southwestern Pennsylvania, (3) coal-mine water discharges in southwestern Pennsylvania, and (4) streams in southwestern Pennsylvania and north-central West Virginia. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water, carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon, and carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions of methane in Upper Devonian sands and Marcellus Shale are very different compared with shallow groundwater aquifers, coal-mine waters, and stream waters of the region. Therefore, spatiotemporal stable isotope monitoring of the different sources of water before, during, and after hydraulic fracturing can be used to identify migrations of fluids and gas from deep formations that are coincident with shale gas drilling.

  3. Heavy element stable isotope ratios: analytical approaches and applications.

    PubMed

    Tanimizu, Masaharu; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2013-03-01

    Continuous developments in inorganic mass spectrometry techniques, including a combination of an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a magnetic sector-based mass spectrometer equipped with a multiple-collector array, have revolutionized the precision of isotope ratio measurements, and applications of inorganic mass spectrometry for biochemistry, geochemistry, and marine chemistry are beginning to appear on the horizon. Series of pioneering studies have revealed that natural stable isotope fractionations of many elements heavier than S (e.g., Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ce, Nd, Mo, Cd, W, Tl, and U) are common on Earth, and it had been widely recognized that most physicochemical reactions or biochemical processes induce mass-dependent isotope fractionation. The variations in isotope ratios of the heavy elements can provide new insights into past and present biochemical and geochemical processes. To achieve this, the analytical community is actively solving problems such as spectral interference, mass discrimination drift, chemical separation and purification, and reduction of the contamination of analytes. This article describes data calibration and standardization protocols to allow interlaboratory comparisons or to maintain traceability of data, and basic principles of isotope fractionation in nature, together with high-selectivity and high-yield chemical separation and purification techniques for stable isotope studies.

  4. Capture antibody targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (CAT-FISH): dual labeling allows for increased specificity in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Stroot, Joyce M; Leach, Kelly M; Stroot, Peter G; Lim, Daniel V

    2012-02-01

    Pathogen detection using biosensors is commonly limited due to the need for sensitivity and specificity in detecting targets within mixed populations. These issues were addressed through development of a dual labeling method that allows for both liquid-phase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and capture antibody targeted detection (CAT-FISH). CAT-FISH was developed using Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus as representative bacteria, and processing techniques were evaluated with regard to FISH intensities and antibody recognition. The alternative fixative solution, methacarn, proved to be superior to standard solid-phase paraformaldehyde fixation procedures, allowing both FISH labeling and antibody recognition. CAT-FISH treated cells were successfully labeled with FISH probes, captured by immunomagnetic separation using fluorescent cytometric array beads, and detected using a cytometric array biosensor. CAT-FISH treated cells were detectable with LODs comparable to the standard antibody-based technique, (~10(3)cells/ml in PBS), and the technique was also successfully applied to two complex matrices. Although immunomagnetic capture and detection using cytometric arrays were demonstrated, CAT-FISH is readily applicable to any antibody-based fluorescence detection platform, and further optimization for sensitivity is possible via inclusion of fluorescently tagged antibodies. Since the confidence level needed for positive identification of a detected target is often paramount, CAT-FISH was developed to allow two separate levels of specificity, namely nucleic acid and protein signatures. With proper selection of FISH probes and capture antibodies, CAT-FISH may be used to provide rapid detection of target pathogens from within complex matrices with high levels of confidence.

  5. Tracing Cadmium in the Environment: an Evolving Stable Isotope Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullen, T. D.; Bouse, R. M.; Brown, C. L.; Croteau, M.; Luoma, S. N.; Topping, B. R.

    2005-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a trace constituent in rocks and waters, and like many transition metals is an essential dietary nutrient at low levels but highly toxic in elevated doses. In many respects, cadmium behaves chemically like calcium (Ca) and thus substitutes for Ca in liquid-solid partitioning reactions and generally follows Ca through biogeochemical cycles and metabolic processes. Cd is comprised of 8 stable isotopes, and given the isotopic systematics of environmental Ca it is likely that variations in the stable isotope composition of Cd in natural materials will result from both inorganic and biologic processes. In order to assess the potential of Cd isotope variations to reveal information about sources, metabolic and biogeochemical pathways and fates of environmental Cd, we have initiated a broad study of the stable isotope composition of Cd in a variety of natural and anthropogenically-influenced systems. As an example, here we report the results of the first systematic study of the stable isotope composition of Cd in biologic materials. We focused on the isotopic variability of Cd in tissues of two species of clam collected from the San Francisco Bay estuary, Potamocorbula amurensis which resides in brackish water and Corbicula fluminea which resides in fresh and slightly brackish water. Both clam species concentrate Cd in their soft and hard tissues. During both low-flow conditions in August and high-flow conditions in April, δ116Cd of soft tissues of Potamocorbula was consistently negative and increased down-estuary with increasing salinity (δ116Cd is defined as the per mil difference of the 116Cd/110Cd ratio between a sample and our standard, igneous rock BIR-1). Samples collected in August were systematically displaced to higher δ116Cd than those collected in April. Soft tissues of Corbicula collected in both August and April from upstream, fully fresh-water sampling sites had identical δ116Cd, while soft tissues of Corbicula collected from our site at

  6. Formation of nonextractable soil residues: A stable isotope approach

    SciTech Connect

    Richnow, H.H.; Eschenback, A.; Mahro, B.; Kaestner, M.; Annweiler, E.; Seifert, R.; Michaelis, W.

    1999-11-01

    Stable carbon isotopic measurements were employed to characterize the transformation of a {sup 13}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), anthracene, in a closed soil bioreactor system. The {sup 13}C-label was used to calculate a carbon mass balance including mineralization and the formation of nonextractable soil-bound residues. Similar results were obtained from {sup 13}C-labeled carbon and {sup 14}C-labeled carbon mass balance calculations for separate batch experiments with labeled anthracene. In concentration ranges typical for real PAH-contaminated sites, the sensitivity of the {sup 13}C tracer method meets the requirements of classical radiotracer experiments. Therefore, the authors balancing method based on stable isotope-labeled chemicals may supplement or substitute radiotracer experiments under many circumstances. One major advantage of using stable isotope-labeled tracers is the possible application in transformation studies where the use of radioactive substances is of environmental concern. The transformation of {sup 13}C-labeled PAH into nonextractable residues clearly depends on the metabolic activity of the soil microflora and occurs during an early phase of biodegradation. Successive contamination of the soil by anthracene leads to a progressive adaptation of the microflora to a complete mineralization of anthracene in the soil. The extent of residue formation is controlled by the capability of the microflora to degrade the contaminant. Results of long-term experiments indicate that nonextractable residues are relatively stable over time.

  7. CD146-targeted immunoPET and NIRF Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with a Dual-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Reinier; Sun, Haiyan; England, Christopher G.; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Ehlerding, Emily B.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Yang, Yunan; Cai, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of CD146 has been correlated with aggressiveness, recurrence rate, and poor overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In this study, we set out to develop a CD146-targeting probe for high-contrast noninvasive in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging of HCCs. YY146, an anti-CD146 monoclonal antibody, was employed as a targeting molecule to which we conjugated the zwitterionic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye ZW800-1 and the chelator deferoxamine (Df). This enabled labeling of Df-YY146-ZW800 with 89Zr and its subsequent detection using PET and NIRF imaging, all without compromising antibody binding properties. Two HCC cell lines expressing high (HepG2) and low (Huh7) levels of CD146 were employed to generate subcutaneous (s.c.) and orthotopic xenografts in athymic nude mice. Sequential PET and NIRF imaging performed after intravenous injection of 89Zr-Df-YY146-ZW800 into tumor-bearing mice unveiled prominent and persistent uptake of the tracer in HepG2 tumors that peaked at 31.65 ± 7.15 percentage of injected dose per gram (%ID/g; n=4) 72 h post-injection. Owing to such marked accumulation, tumor delineation was successful by both PET and NIRF, which facilitated the fluorescence image-guided resection of orthotopic HepG2 tumors, despite the relatively high liver background. CD146-negative Huh7 and CD146-blocked HepG2 tumors exhibited significantly lower 89Zr-Df-YY146-ZW800 accretion (6.1 ± 0.5 and 8.1 ± 1.0 %ID/g at 72 h p.i., respectively; n=4), demonstrating the CD146-specificity of the tracer in vivo. Ex vivo biodistribution and immunofluorescent staining corroborated the accuracy of the imaging data and correlated tracer uptake with in situ CD146 expression. Overall, 89Zr-Df-YY146-ZW800 showed excellent properties as a PET/NIRF imaging agent, including high in vivo affinity and specificity for CD146-expressing HCC. CD146-targeted molecular imaging using dual-labeled YY146

  8. Prediction of Impending Type 1 Diabetes through Automated Dual-Label Measurement of Proinsulin:C-Peptide Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Balti, Eric V.; Keymeulen, Bart; Gillard, Pieter; Lapauw, Bruno; De Block, Christophe; Abrams, Pascale; Weber, Eric; Vermeulen, Ilse; De Pauw, Pieter; Pipeleers, Daniël; Weets, Ilse; Gorus, Frans K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The hyperglycemic clamp test, the gold standard of beta cell function, predicts impending type 1 diabetes in islet autoantibody-positive individuals, but the latter may benefit from less invasive function tests such as the proinsulin:C-peptide ratio (PI:C). The present study aims to optimize precision of PI:C measurements by automating a dual-label trefoil-type time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TT-TRFIA), and to compare its diagnostic performance for predicting type 1 diabetes with that of clamp-derived C-peptide release. Methods Between-day imprecision (n = 20) and split-sample analysis (n = 95) were used to compare TT-TRFIA (AutoDelfia, Perkin-Elmer) with separate methods for proinsulin (in-house TRFIA) and C-peptide (Elecsys, Roche). High-risk multiple autoantibody-positive first-degree relatives (n = 49; age 5–39) were tested for fasting PI:C, HOMA2-IR and hyperglycemic clamp and followed for 20–57 months (interquartile range). Results TT-TRFIA values for proinsulin, C-peptide and PI:C correlated significantly (r2 = 0.96–0.99; P<0.001) with results obtained with separate methods. TT-TRFIA achieved better between-day %CV for PI:C at three different levels (4.5–7.1 vs 6.7–9.5 for separate methods). In high-risk relatives fasting PI:C was significantly and inversely correlated (rs = -0.596; P<0.001) with first-phase C-peptide release during clamp (also with second phase release, only available for age 12–39 years; n = 31), but only after normalization for HOMA2-IR. In ROC- and Cox regression analysis, HOMA2-IR-corrected PI:C predicted 2-year progression to diabetes equally well as clamp-derived C-peptide release. Conclusions The reproducibility of PI:C benefits from the automated simultaneous determination of both hormones. HOMA2-IR-corrected PI:C may serve as a minimally invasive alternative to the more tedious hyperglycemic clamp test. PMID:27907006

  9. Holocene precipitation seasonality captured by a dual hydrogen and oxygen isotope approach at Steel Lake, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Anna K.; Nelson, David M.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Huang, Yongsong; Shuman, Bryan N.; Williams, John W.

    2010-12-01

    oxygen isotope approach for distinguishing changes in evaporation and precipitation seasonality in the paleolimnological record.

  10. Quantification of in Situ Biodegradation Rate Constants Using a Novel Combined Isotope Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, P.; Sültenfuß, J.; Martus, P.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown the enormous potential of the compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) for studying the biodegradation of organic compounds such as monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated solvents and other organic contaminants and environmental transformation mechanisms in groundwater. In addition, two-dimensional isotope analysis such as carbon and hydrogen have been successfully studied indicating the potential to also investigate site-specific reaction mechanisms. The main objective of the current study however is to quantify real effective in situ biodegradation rate constants in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer by combining compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and tracer-based (3H-3He) ground-water dating (TGD). Hence, groundwater samples are used to determine groundwater residence times, and carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes are analyzed for selected BTEX and PAH. The results of the hydrogen stable isotopes surprisingly indicate no isotope fractionation and therefore no biodegradation. In contrast, for stable carbon isotopes of selected BTEX such as o-xylene and toluene, isotope shifts are detected indicating active biodegradation under sulfate-reducing conditions. These and previous results of stable carbon isotopes show that only for o-xylene a clear evidence for biodegradation is possible for the studied site. Nevertheless, in combining these results with the groundwater residence times, which range between 1 year for the shallow wells (20 m below surface) and 41 years for the deeper wells (40 m below surface), it is feasible to effectively determine in situ biodegradation rate constants for o-xylene. Conversely, the outcome also evidently demonstrate the major limitations of the novel combined isotope approach for a successful implementation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) at such field sites.

  11. Where does streamwater come from in low-relief forested watersheds? A dual-isotope approach

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus, J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Jackson, C. R.; Du, E.; Griffiths, N. A.

    2015-01-08

    The time and geographic sources of streamwater in low-relief watersheds are poorly understood. This is partly due to the difficult combination of low runoff coefficients and often damped streamwater isotopic signals precluding traditional hydrograph separation and convolution integral approaches. Here we present a dual-isotope approach involving 18O and 2H of water in a low-angle forested watershed to determine streamwater source components and then build a conceptual model of streamflow generation. We focus on three headwater lowland sub-catchments draining the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, USA. Our results for a 3-year sampling period show that the slopes of the meteoric water lines/evaporation water lines (MWLs/EWLs) of the catchment water sources can be used to extract information on runoff sources in ways not considered before. Our dual-isotope approach was able to identify unique hillslope, riparian and deep groundwater, and streamflow compositions. Thus, the streams showed strong evaporative enrichment compared to the local meteoric water line (δ2H = 7.15 · δ18O +9.28‰) with slopes of 2.52, 2.84, and 2.86. Based on the unique and unambiguous slopes of the EWLs of the different water cycle components and the isotopic time series of the individual components, we were able to show how the riparian zone controls baseflow in this system and how the riparian zone "resets" the stable isotope composition of the observed streams in our low-angle, forested watersheds. Although this approach is limited in terms of quantifying mixing percentages between different end-members, our dual-isotope approach enabled the extraction of hydrologically useful information in a region with little change in individual isotope time series.

  12. Where does streamwater come from in low-relief forested watersheds? A dual-isotope approach

    DOE PAGES

    Klaus, J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Jackson, C. R.; ...

    2015-01-08

    The time and geographic sources of streamwater in low-relief watersheds are poorly understood. This is partly due to the difficult combination of low runoff coefficients and often damped streamwater isotopic signals precluding traditional hydrograph separation and convolution integral approaches. Here we present a dual-isotope approach involving 18O and 2H of water in a low-angle forested watershed to determine streamwater source components and then build a conceptual model of streamflow generation. We focus on three headwater lowland sub-catchments draining the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, USA. Our results for a 3-year sampling period show that the slopes of the meteoricmore » water lines/evaporation water lines (MWLs/EWLs) of the catchment water sources can be used to extract information on runoff sources in ways not considered before. Our dual-isotope approach was able to identify unique hillslope, riparian and deep groundwater, and streamflow compositions. Thus, the streams showed strong evaporative enrichment compared to the local meteoric water line (δ2H = 7.15 · δ18O +9.28‰) with slopes of 2.52, 2.84, and 2.86. Based on the unique and unambiguous slopes of the EWLs of the different water cycle components and the isotopic time series of the individual components, we were able to show how the riparian zone controls baseflow in this system and how the riparian zone "resets" the stable isotope composition of the observed streams in our low-angle, forested watersheds. Although this approach is limited in terms of quantifying mixing percentages between different end-members, our dual-isotope approach enabled the extraction of hydrologically useful information in a region with little change in individual isotope time series.« less

  13. Image segmentation for uranium isotopic analysis by SIMS: Combined adaptive thresholding and marker controlled watershed approach

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, David G.; Naes, Benjamin E.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Zimmer, Mindy M.; Barrett, Christopher A.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2016-05-31

    A novel approach to particle identification and particle isotope ratio determination has been developed for nuclear safeguard applications. This particle search approach combines an adaptive thresholding algorithm and marker-controlled watershed segmentation (MCWS) transform, which improves the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) isotopic analysis of uranium containing particle populations for nuclear safeguards applications. The Niblack assisted MCWS approach (a.k.a. SEEKER) developed for this work has improved the identification of isotopically unique uranium particles under conditions that have historically presented significant challenges for SIMS image data processing techniques. Particles obtained from five NIST uranium certified reference materials (CRM U129A, U015, U150, U500 and U850) were successfully identified in regions of SIMS image data 1) where a high variability in image intensity existed, 2) where particles were touching or were in close proximity to one another and/or 3) where the magnitude of ion signal for a given region was count limited. Analysis of the isotopic distributions of uranium containing particles identified by SEEKER showed four distinct, accurately identified 235U enrichment distributions, corresponding to the NIST certified 235U/238U isotope ratios for CRM U129A/U015 (not statistically differentiated), U150, U500 and U850. Additionally, comparison of the minor uranium isotope (234U, 235U and 236U) atom percent values verified that, even in the absence of high precision isotope ratio measurements, SEEKER could be used to segment isotopically unique uranium particles from SIMS image data. Although demonstrated specifically for SIMS analysis of uranium containing particles for nuclear safeguards, SEEKER has application in addressing a broad set of image processing challenges.

  14. Coupled sulfur isotopic and chemical mass transfer modeling: Approach and application to dynamic hydrothermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Janecky, D.R.

    1988-09-21

    A computational modeling code (EQPSreverse arrowS) has been developed to examine sulfur isotopic distribution pathways coupled with calculations of chemical mass transfer pathways. A post processor approach to EQ6 calculations was chosen so that a variety of isotopic pathways could be examined for each reaction pathway. Two types of major bounding conditions were implemented: (1) equilibrium isotopic exchange between sulfate and sulfide species or exchange only accompanying chemical reduction and oxidation events, and (2) existence or lack of isotopic exchange between solution species and precipitated minerals, parallel to the open and closed chemical system formulations of chemical mass transfer modeling codes. All of the chemical data necessary to explicitly calculate isotopic distribution pathways is generated by most mass transfer modeling codes and can be input to the EQPS code. Routines are built in to directly handle EQ6 tabular files. Chemical reaction models of seafloor hydrothermal vent processes and accompanying sulfur isotopic distribution pathways illustrate the capabilities of coupling EQPSreverse arrowS with EQ6 calculations, including the extent of differences that can exist due to the isotopic bounding condition assumptions described above. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Investigation of a dual-isotope approach to trace nitrate sources in groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukada, T.; Hiscock, K. M.; Dennis, P. F.

    2002-12-01

    Nitrate contamination in groundwater has long been an issue in Europe, with reported high nitrate concentrations in drinking water of greater than 10 mg/L NO3-N, as defined by the World Health Organisation, posing various health risks. Identifying the sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater is part of the solution to nitrate contamination. Several methods have been reported for identifying nitrogen sources, such as the single isotope method using the nitrogen isotopes of nitrate, but the methods present difficulties, such as ambiguity of interpretation. In this study, and by adopting a dual-isotope approach, with measurements of oxygen as well as nitrogen isotopes of nitrate, we have been able to identify the sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater with greater confidence. To investigate the approach, we collected groundwater samples from a Pleistocene alluvial aquifer at a bank filtration site in Germany, the Cretaceous Chalk aquifer in rural eastern England, the Triassic sandstone aquifer in the urban English Midlands and also from controlled laboratory columns treated with pig manure. The values of nitrogen isotopes in groundwater nitrate sources were in the range of -0.13 to +5.64 % for inorganic fertiliser, +9.26 to +11.44 % for urban sewerage and +8.99 to +13.61 % for pig manure. Values of the oxygen isotopes in groundwater nitrate sources were in the range of +3.46 to +16.00 % for inorganic fertiliser, +8.21to +10.77 % for sewerage and +10.73 to +12.07 % for pig manure. We also observed that those sites experiencing denitrification produced a linear relationship indicating an enrichment of the heavier nitrogen isotope relative to the heavier oxygen isotope by a factor of 1.3 and 1.9.

  16. A dual-isotope approach to allow conclusive partitioning between three sources

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Thea; Lehmann, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotopes have proved to be a transformative tool; their application to distinguish between two sources in a mixture has been a cornerstone of biogeochemical research. However, quantitatively partitioning systems using two stable isotopes (for example, 13C and 12C) has been largely limited to only two sources, and systems of interest often have more than two components, with interactive effects. Here we introduce a dual-isotope approach to allow conclusive partitioning between three sources, using only two stable isotopes. We demonstrate this approach by partitioning soil CO2 emissions derived from microbial mineralization of soil organic carbon (SOC), added pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) and root respiration. We find that SOC mineralization in the presence of roots is 23% higher (P<0.05) when PyOM is also present. Being able to discern three sources with two isotopes will be of great value not only in biogeochemical research, but may also expand hitherto untapped methodologies in diverse fields. PMID:26530521

  17. A Triple-Isotope Approach to Predict the Breeding Origins of European Bats

    PubMed Central

    Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G.; Sörgel, Karin; Luckner, Anja; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Ibáñez, Carlos; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Ciechanowski, Mateusz; Görföl, Tamás; Niermann, Ivo; Beuneux, Grégory; Mysłajek, Robert W.; Juste, Javier; Fonderflick, Jocelyn; Kelm, Detlev H.; Voigt, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a commitment by the European Union to protect its migratory bat populations, conservation efforts are hindered by a poor understanding of bat migratory strategies and connectivity between breeding and wintering grounds. Traditional methods like mark-recapture are ineffective to study broad-scale bat migratory patterns. Stable hydrogen isotopes (δD) have been proven useful in establishing spatial migratory connectivity of animal populations. Before applying this tool, the method was calibrated using bat samples of known origin. Here we established the potential of δD as a robust geographical tracer of breeding origins of European bats by measuring δD in hair of five sedentary bat species from 45 locations throughout Europe. The δD of bat hair strongly correlated with well-established spatial isotopic patterns in mean annual precipitation in Europe, and therefore was highly correlated with latitude. We calculated a linear mixed-effects model, with species as random effect, linking δD of bat hair to precipitation δD of the areas of hair growth. This model can be used to predict breeding origins of European migrating bats. We used δ13C and δ15N to discriminate among potential origins of bats, and found that these isotopes can be used as variables to further refine origin predictions. A triple-isotope approach could thereby pinpoint populations or subpopulations that have distinct origins. Our results further corroborated stable isotope analysis as a powerful method to delineate animal migrations in Europe. PMID:22291947

  18. A new approach to quantifying internal diffusion resistances and CO2 isotope exchange in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Jason; Ogée, Jérôme; Burlett, Régis; Gimeno, Teresa; Genty, Bernard; Jones, Samuel; Wohl, Steven; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of atmospheric CO2 can constrain the global CO2 budget at a range of scales, offering the potential to partition net CO2 exchanges into their component gross fluxes and provide insights to linkages between C and water cycles. However, there are significant limitations to utilizing the δ18O of CO2 to constrain C budgets because of uncertainties associated with the isotopic exchange of CO2 with terrestrial water pools. Leaf water in particular represents a critical pool with ongoing debates about its enrichment in heavy isotopes during transpiration and the hydration of CO2 and its oxygen isotope exchange with this pool. Isotopic heterogeneity of the leaf water, the spatial distribution and activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) within leaves, and resistance to diffusion of CO2 from the substomatal cavity to chloroplasts are all key components with important uncertainties. Better constraints on these would significantly improve our ability to understand and model the global C budget as well as yield insights to fundamental aspects of leaf physiology. We report results using a new measurement system that permits the simultaneous measurement of the 13C and 18O composition of CO2 and the 18O isotopic composition of leaf transpiration. As this new approach permits rapid alteration of the isotopic composition of gases interacting with the leaf, key model parameters can be derived directly and simultaneously. Hence, our approach dos not rely on separate measurements shifted in time from the gas exchange measurements or that may not quantify the relevant scale of heterogeneity (e.g., CA enzyme assays or bulk leaf water extraction and analysis). In particular, this new method explicitly distinguishes the leaf mesophyll resistance to CO2 transport relevant for photosynthesis from the resistance required for interpreting the δ18O of CO2 and allows us to derive other relevant parameters directly. This new measurement system and modeling

  19. Fingerprints of environmental stressors in three selected Slovenian gravel-bed rivers: geochemical and isotopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Kocman, David; Debeljak, Barbara; Mori, Nataša

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are severely impacted by a range of simultaneous processes including water pollution, flow and channel alteration, over-fishing, invasive species and climate change. Systematic studies of river water geochemistry provide important information on chemical weathering of bedrock/soil and natural anthropogenic processes that may control the dissolved chemical loads, while the isotopic studies of biological components of river systems (macrophytes, periphyton, heterotrophic biofilm, invertebrates, fish) contribute to the understanding how the system response to human impacts by means of functional response. In this contribution, insights in the fingerprints of various environmental stressors in three gravel-bed rivers (River Kamni\\vska Bistrica, River Idrijca and River Sava) in Slovenia, using geochemical and stable isotope approach are discussed. Gravel bed of all three rivers investigated is composed of carbonates and clastic rocks. The Sava and Kamni\\vska Bistrica Rivers have alpine high mountain snow-rain regime. The Idrijca River is a boundary river between the Adriatic and Black Sea catchments and has rain-snow discharge regime with torrential character. Geochemical methods (ICP-OES, IC, total alkalinity after Gran) and isotope mass - spectrometric methods (isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon, particulate organic carbon and isotopic composition of carbon in carbonates) were used to evaluate biogeochemical processes in rivers. Isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen of the moss Fontinalis antipyretica (the whole vegetative shoot) and isotopic composition of carbon of heterotrophic biofilm was also analyzed in order to better understand the fluxes and fractionation of carbon and nitrogen across trophic levels. Geochemical composition of all investigated rivers is HCO3--Ca2+-Mg2+ with different Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios as follows: around 0.33 for Kamni\\vska Bistrica and River Sava in Slovenia and above 0.75 for River Idrijca. In the Kamni

  20. Dual labeling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine for estimation of cell migration rate in the small intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Asano, Mami; Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishimura, Naomichi; Sonoyama, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Small intestinal epithelium is a self-renewing system in which the entire sequence of cell proliferation, differentiation, and removal is coupled to cell migration along the crypt-villus axis. We examined whether dual labeling with different thymidine analogues, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), can be used to estimate cell migration rates on the villi of small intestines in rats. Rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of BrdU and EdU within a time interval, and signals in tissue sections were examined by immunohistochemistry and the "click" reaction, respectively. We successfully observed BrdU- and EdU-positive cells on the epithelium with no cross-reaction. In addition, we observed an almost complete overlapping of BrdU- and EdU-positive cells in rats administered simultaneously with BrdU and EdU. By calculating the cell migration rate by dividing the distance between the median cell positions of the distribution of BrdU- and EdU-positive cells by the time between the injection of BrdU and EdU, we estimated approximately 9 and 5 μm/h for the cell migration rates on the villi in the jejunum and ileum, respectively. We propose that dual labeling with BrdU and EdU within a time interval, followed by detecting with immunohistochemistry and the click reaction, respectively, is useful to estimate accurately the cell migration rate in the intestinal epithelium in a single animal.

  1. Nitrogen sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay estuary: A nitrate dual isotopic composition approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wankel, Scott D.; Kendall, C.; Francis, C.A.; Paytan, A.

    2006-01-01

    We used the dual isotopic composition of nitrate (??15N and ??18O) within the estuarine system of San Francisco (SF) Bay, California, to explore the utility of this approach for tracing sources and cycling of nitrate (NO3-). Surface water samples from 49 sites within the estuary were sampled during July-August 2004. Spatial variability in the isotopic composition suggests that there are multiple sources of nitrate to the bay ecosystem including seawater, several rivers and creeks, and sewage effluent. The spatial distribution of nitrate from these sources is heavily modulated by the hydrodynamics of the estuary. Mixing along the estuarine salinity gradient is the main control on the spatial variations in isotopic composition of nitrate within the northern arm of SF Bay. However, the nitrate isotopic composition in the southern arm of SF Bay exhibited a combination of source mixing and phytoplankton drawdown due mostly to the long residence time during the summer study period. Very low ?? 18ONO3 values (as low as -5.0???) at the Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta region give rise to a wide range of ??18ONO3 values in the SF Bay system. The range in ??18ONO3 values is more than twice that of (??15NNO3, suggesting that ??18O NO3 is an even more sensitive tool for tracing nitrate sources and cycling than ??15NNO3. ?? 2006, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  2. A triple-isotope approach for discriminating the geographic origin of Asian sesame oils.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeonjin; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Oh, Jae-Ho; Kwon, Kisung; Kim, Byung Hee

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the geographic location and climatic characteristics of the sesame-producing sites on the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope ratios of Korean sesame oil. In addition, the study aimed to differentiate Korean sesame oil from Chinese and Indian sesame oils using isotopic data in combination with canonical discriminant analysis. The isotopic data were obtained from 84 roasted oil samples that were prepared from 51 Korean, 19 Chinese, and 14 Indian sesame seeds harvested during 2010-2011 and distributed in Korea during the same period. The δ(13)C, δD, and δ(18)O values of Korean sesame oil were negatively correlated with latitude, distance from the sea, and precipitation (May-September), respectively. By applying two canonical discriminant functions, 89.3% of the sesame oil samples were correctly classified by their geographic origin, indicating that the triple-isotope approach is a useful tool for the traceability of the oils.

  3. Application of Normal Distribution Model to Estimate Root Water Uptake Profile by an Isotopic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Matsuo, D.; Hirota, M.

    2008-12-01

    To confirm usefulness of a diagnostic model for estimating root water uptake profile by an isotopic approach, isotopic measurements of plant xylem water, soil water and groundwater were conducted at seven Japanese red pine forest sites and then the model was applied to the measured results. The model assumes that depth profile of relative uptake rate can be approximated by the normal distribution function, and xylem water isotopic composition is computed from interpolated depth profile of isotopic composition of subsurface waters. The peak depth and distribution range of water uptake zone for a given species at a given site are inversely determined by direct search method (assuming depth interval of 5 cm up to 2 m) so as to minimize root mean square error throughout observation period. Estimated water uptake profiles showed that in six sites the uptake zone of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) ranged from 5 to 60 cm depth, while it was changed to deeper depths in the other site where Quercus myrsinaefolia and Pleioblastus chino coexist. On the other hand, Populus sieboldi and Malus sieboldii take up water from depths deeper than those for Pinus densiflora within a community, although the two species are usually considered as shallow rooted plants. These results indicate water source partitioning under inter-species competition, and we conclude that the present model is capable of making clear the plant water use strategy. Estimated water uptake zone also provides useful information for improving/calibrating prognostic, physical models of root water uptake.

  4. Progress in quantifying rates and product ratios of microbial denitrification using stable isotope approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Well, Reinhard; Buchen, Caroline; Giesemann, Anette; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Rohe, Lena; Flessa, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Although it is known since long that microbial denitrification plays a central role in N cycling in soils due to loss of nutrient N, emissions of N2O and lowering of N leaching, few data at the field scale are available due to the difficulty in measurement. In recent years, stable isotope signatures of N2O such as δ18O, average δ15N (δ15Nbulk) and 15N site preference (SP = difference in δ15N between the central and peripheral N positions of the asymmetric N2O molecule) have been used to constrain the atmospheric N2O budget and to characterize N2O turnover processes including N2O production and reduction by microbial denitrification. However, the use of this approach to study N2O dynamics in soils requires knowledge of isotope fractionation factors for the various partial processes involved, e.g. N2O production by nitrification or fungal/bacterial denitrification, and N2O reduction by bacterial denitrification. Here we present recent progress on the principles of isotope fractionation modeling to estimate N2O reduction and on the role of microbial groups and their specific impact on isotope values. Moreover, we report and discuss approaches to determine isotope values of produced N2O prior to its reduction as well as enrichment factors of N2O reduction. Finally, a variety of results from lab and field studies will be shown were N2O reduction estimates by isotope fractionation modeling are validated by independent measurements using 15N tracing or He/O2 incubations. Methodical improvements to increase sensitivity of the 15N tracing approach will be briefly addressed. We conclude that up to now SP of soil-emitted N2O proved to be suitable to constrain the product ratio of denitrification if N2O fluxes are dominated by bacterial denitrification. Although this approach is not yet precise enough for robust quantification of N2 fluxes, improved precision can be obtained in future, if further progress in understanding the control of fractionation factors of production

  5. A simplified methodology to approach the complexity of foraminiferal calcite oxygen-isotope data - model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Didier; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Since the pioneering work of Epstein (Epstein et al., 1953), numerous calcite isotopic records from the ocean have been used to attempt reconstructing paleoclimatic information. Additional to the well known complexity brought by the fact that foraminiferal calcite records both temperature and isotopic composition of the surrounding oceanic waters, an additional effect for surface - dwelling foraminifers is the fact that two different species do not have the same habitat and may thus record different signals. This is obvious when comparing paleoclimatic records where different species have been measured for the isotopic composition of the calcite. The difference in habitat produces a three dimensional spatial complexity (a foraminifera living in preferred climatic conditions at a specific location, but also at a specific depth, sometimes far from the surface) but also a temporal uncertainty (foraminifers generally live for only a few weeks and their growth season may be evolving through time with climate change). While the different species habitats potentially contain a wealth of information that could be used to better understand the sequences of climate change, this has seldom been used in modeling studies, most models deriving calcite isotopic signal from surface and annual mean conditions (e.g. Roche et al., 2014). In the present work, we propose a reduced complexity approach to compute the calcite for several planktonic foraminifers from climate model simulations under pre-industrial conditions. We base our approach on simple functions describing the temperature dependence of the different species growth rates (Lombard et al., 2009) and on probability of presence based on the physical variables computed in the climate model. We present a comparison to available sediment traps and core tops data as a validation of the methodology, focusing on the possibility for future applicability towards inversion of the signal measured in oceanic sediment cores. References

  6. Investigating human geographic origins using dual-isotope (87Sr/86Sr, δ18O) assignment approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Till F.; Shafie, Termeh; Hofman, Corinne L.; Brandes, Ulrik; Davies, Gareth R.

    2017-01-01

    Substantial progress in the application of multiple isotope analyses has greatly improved the ability to identify nonlocal individuals amongst archaeological populations over the past decades. More recently the development of large scale models of spatial isotopic variation (isoscapes) has contributed to improved geographic assignments of human and animal origins. Persistent challenges remain, however, in the accurate identification of individual geographic origins from skeletal isotope data in studies of human (and animal) migration and provenance. In an attempt to develop and test more standardized and quantitative approaches to geographic assignment of individual origins using isotopic data two methods, combining 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O isoscapes, are examined for the Circum-Caribbean region: 1) an Interval approach using a defined range of fixed isotopic variation per location; and 2) a Likelihood assignment approach using univariate and bivariate probability density functions. These two methods are tested with enamel isotope data from a modern sample of known origin from Caracas, Venezuela and further explored with two archaeological samples of unknown origin recovered from Cuba and Trinidad. The results emphasize both the potential and limitation of the different approaches. Validation tests on the known origin sample exclude most areas of the Circum-Caribbean region and correctly highlight Caracas as a possible place of origin with both approaches. The positive validation results clearly demonstrate the overall efficacy of a dual-isotope approach to geoprovenance. The accuracy and precision of geographic assignments may be further improved by better understanding of the relationships between environmental and biological isotope variation; continued development and refinement of relevant isoscapes; and the eventual incorporation of a broader array of isotope proxy data. PMID:28222163

  7. A Multiproxy Approach to Calibrating Speleothem Paleoclimate Reconstructions using Modern Isotopic and Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, J.; Hall, V.; Ouellette, G., Jr.; Durkee, J.; Fan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical island nations, such as Barbados, are particularly vulnerable to extreme event impacts as changes in interannual storm frequency and intensity could influence groundwater supplies and their climatic resilience. Creating high resolution paleoclimate records for these areas aids in determining the intensity and cyclicity of possible future climate extremes. This study presents a high-resolution, isotopic hydroclimatological analysis of Barbados' rainfall and groundwater in relation to atmospheric influences during storms. Through this calibration of interannual precipitation variability under a modern climatic regime, we can better understand the climatic influences driving our interpretation of paleoclimate reconstructions from speleothems. Weekly samples of dripwater, rainfall, groundwater, and 10-minute precipitation amounts were collected from July, 2012 to October, 2013 at Harrison's Cave in Barbados. These samples underwent isotopic analysis for oxygen and deuterium isotopes. Weekly to monthly rainfall totals were compiled from Harrison's Cave and several island wide stations. In addition, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data were used to compare against oxygen isotope values to provide a multiproxy approach at reconstructing rainfall variability used in the calibration model. At a weekly resolution, the amount effect is not represented at the study site; however, using weather station and remotely sensed data, at an island wide scale the amount effect signal is strongest at monthly timescales. TRMM data accurately reflect the influence of the amount effect at this resolution, thus providing the possibility of a new proxy for rainfall amount when calibrating speleothem paleoclimate records. The amount-weighted precipitation and groundwater values indicate homogenization of the aquifer indicate speleothem record changes in interannual variability. When compared to data from previous studies, the average annual dripwater oxygen

  8. RABA (Reductive Alkylation By Acetone): A novel stable isotope labeling approach for quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Jianjun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Zhenyu; Zhu, Haining

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics is challenging and various stable isotope based approaches have been developed to meet the challenge.. Hereby we describe a simple, efficient, reliable and inexpensive method named RABA (reductive alkylation by acetone) to introduce stable isotopes to peptides for quantitative analysis. The RABA method leads to alkylation of N-terminal and lysine amino groups with isopropyl moiety. Using unlabeled (d0) and deuterium labeled (d6) acetone, a 6 Da mass split is introduced to each isopropyl modification between the light and heavy isotope labeled peptides, which is ideally suited for quantitative analysis. The reaction specificity, stoichoimetry, labeling efficiency and linear range of the RABA method has been thoroughly evaluated in this study using standard peptides, tryptic digest of proteins as well as human cell lysate. Reliable quantitative results have been consistently obtained in all experiments. We also applied the RABA method to quantitative analysis of proteins in spinal cords of transgenic mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Highly homologous proteins (transgenic human SOD1 and endogenous mouse SOD1) were distinguished and quantified using the method developed in this study. In addition, the quantitative results using the RABA approach were independently validated by Western blot. PMID:19419886

  9. Linking in-situ Hf isotopes in zircon with in-situ Pb isotopes in plagioclase: a microanalytical approach to characterize Archean anorthosite petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souders, K.; Sylvester, P.; Myers, J.

    2011-12-01

    Multiple isotope systems are often used to distinguish petrogenetic processes and determine the age and source of magmatic systems. Advances in laser ablation multi-collector ICPMS instrumentation have allowed Earth scientists to determine accurate and precise isotope ratios of minerals in-situ. Most studies have focused on measuring isotopes that are abundant within a mineral (e.g. Hf in zircon) but the integration of multiple ion counters into the collector configuration of MC-ICPMS instruments has provided the ability to measure isotope ratios of minor elements (e.g. Pb in plagioclase) in-situ. These abilities allow for an alternative approach to igneous petrogenesis. Instead of isotopic analysis of bulk samples, in-situ methods can be utilized to target specific domains preserved in individual minerals. Analysis of co-magmatic minerals in igneous rocks using multiple isotopic systems can be linked to solve a range of petrologic problems. As an example, we present in-situ analyses by LA-MC-ICPMS for Pb isotope compositions of preserved igneous plagioclase megacrysts and Hf isotope compositions of zircon grains from the 2936 Ma Fiskenæsset and 2914 Ma Nunataarsuk anorthosite complexes, southwestern Greenland, two of the best-preserved Archean anorthosites in the world. For both Fiskenæsset and Nunataarsuk, the initial Pb isotope compositions of plagioclase megacrysts and the initial ɛHf compositions of zircon grains extend beyond analytical uncertainty suggesting multiple sources contributed to the parent magma for both anorthosite complexes. Initial ɛHf of zircon grains from both anorthosite complexes fall between depleted mantle and a less radiogenic crustal source with a total range up to 5 ɛHf units. Plagioclase Pb isotope compositions from both anorthosite complexes share a depleted mantle end member yet diverge from this point: Fiskenæsset toward a high-μ, more radiogenic Pb crustal composition and Nunataarsuk toward a low-μ, less radiogenic Pb

  10. The suitability of the dual isotope approach (δ13C and δ18O) in tree ring studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegwolf, Rolf; Saurer, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The use of stable isotopes, complementary to tree ring width data in tree ring research has proven to be a powerful tool in studying the impact of environmental parameters on tree physiology and growth. These three proxies are thus instrumental for climate reconstruction and improve the understanding of underlying causes of growth changes. In various cases, however, their use suggests non-plausible interpretations. Often the use of one isotope alone does not allow the detection of such "erroneous isotope responses". A careful analysis of these deviating results shows that either the validity of the carbon isotope discrimination concept is no longer true (Farquhar et al. 1982) or the assumptions for the leaf water enrichment model (Cernusak et al., 2003) are violated and thus both fractionation models are not applicable. In this presentation we discuss such cases when the known fractionation concepts fail and do not allow a correct interpretation of the isotope data. With the help of the dual isotope approach (Scheidegger et al.; 2000) it is demonstrated, how to detect and uncover the causes for such anomalous isotope data. The fractionation concepts and their combinations before the background of CO2 and H2O gas exchange are briefly explained and the specific use of the dual isotope approach for tree ring data analyses and interpretations are demonstrated. References: Cernusak, L. A., Arthur, D. J., Pate, J. S. and Farquhar, G. D.: Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globules, Plant Physiol., 131, 1544-1554, 2003. Farquhar, G. D., O'Leary, M. H. and Berry, J. A.: On the relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration in leaves, Aust. J. Plant Physiol., 9, 121-137, 1982. Scheidegger, Y., Saurer, M., Bahn, M. and Siegwolf, R.: Linking stable oxygen and carbon isotopes with stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity: A conceptual model

  11. Stable isotope approaches for tracking C cycling and function in microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pett-Ridge, J.

    2008-12-01

    Identifying the microorganisms responsible for specific processes in C cycling remains a major challenge in environmental microbiology, one that requires integration of multiple techniques. Stable isotope probing, or SIP, has come to represent a variety of powerful approaches that allow simultaneous identification of identity and function in microbial communities. Bulk methods such as DNA/RNA-SIP and PLFA-SIP are well developed and allow tracking of a multitude of C substrates (acetate, cellulose, CH4, CO2, and plant litter) into specific microbial consumers. However, to understand the spatio-temporal context of may key C transformations and microbial interactions, new imaging technologies are needed to analyze processes and properties of macromolecule complexes, microbes, plant root cells, soil (micro)aggregates, phytoplankton and marine snow as they undergoes formation and decomposition. New and sensitive in situ approaches include NanoSIMS single cell analysis, isotope arrays, and combinations of immuno- or FISH labeling with high resolution isotope imaging. Recent work illustrates how these powerful new techniques use targeted stable isotope probing to measure biological, physical and chemical processes and can be used in soil systems to study microbial mats or rhizosphere interactions. In both terrestrial and aquatic systems, they allow us to directly link C and other nutrient metabolism at the organismal level. Lastly, these new aproaches may be of great use in the study of trophic cascades and metabolic networks. While cross-feeding is often thought of as a confounding effect in SIP-type studies, with fine scale temporal sampling and FISH-SIMS analysis, we have the opportunity trace C flows through microbial foodwebs and to their eventual fate in stabilized organic-mineral complexes.

  12. Does Miscanthus cultivation on organic soils compensate for carbon loss from peat oxidation? A dual label study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Cédric; Leifeld, Jens; Müller, Moritz; Schulin, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural use of organic soils requires drainage and thereby changes conditions in these soils from anoxic to oxic. As a consequence, organic carbon that had been accumulated over millennia is rapidly mineralized, so that these soils are converted from a CO2 sink to a source. The peat mineralization rate depends mainly on drainage depth, but also on crop type. Various studies show that Miscanthus, a C4 bioenergy plant, shows potential for carbon sequestration in mineral soils because of its high productivity, its dense root system, absence of tillage and high preharvest litterfall. If Miscanthus cropping would have a similar effect in organic soils, peat consumption and thus CO2 emissions might be reduced. For our study we compared two adjacent fields, on which organic soil is cultivated with Miscanthus (since 20 years) and perennial grass (since 6 years). Both sites are located in the Bernese Seeland, the largest former peatland area of Switzerland. To determine wether Miscanthus-derived carbon accumulated in the organic soil, we compared the stable carbon isotopic signatures of the experimental soil with those of an organic soil without any C4-plant cultivation history. To analyze the effect of C4-C accumulation on peat degradability we compared the CO2 emissions by incubating 90 soil samples of the two fields for more than one year. Additionally, we analysed the isotopic CO2 composition (13C, 14C) during the first 25 days of incubation after trapping the emitted CO2 in NaOH and precipitating it as BaCO3. The ∂13C values of the soil imply, that the highest share of C4-C of around 30% is situated at a depth of 10-20 cm. Corn that used to be cultivated on the grassland field before 2009 still accounts for 8% of SOC. O/C and H/C ratios of the peat samples indicate a stronger microbial imprint of organic matter under Miscanthus cultivation. The amount of CO2 emitted was not affected by the cultivation type. On average 57% of the CO2 was C4 derived in the

  13. Isotopic tracing of clear water sources in an urban sewer: A combined water and dissolved sulfate stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Houhou, J; Lartiges, B S; France-Lanord, C; Guilmette, C; Poix, S; Mustin, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of stable isotopes of both water (deltaD and deltaOH(2)O18) and dissolved sulfate (delta(34)S and deltaOSO(4)18) for determining the origin and the amount of clear waters entering an urban sewer. The dynamics of various hydrological processes that commonly occur within the sewer system such as groundwater infiltration, rainwater percolation, or stormwater release from retention basins, can be readily described using water isotope ratios. In particular, stable water isotopes indicate that the relative volumes of infiltrated groundwater and sewage remain approximately constant and independent of wastewater flow rate during the day, thus demonstrating that the usual quantification of parasitic discharge from minimal nocturnal flow measurements can lead to completely erroneous results. The isotopic signature of dissolved sulfate can also provide valuable information about the nature of water inputs to the sewage flow, but could not be used in our case to quantify the infiltrating water. Indeed, even though the microbial activity had a limited effect on the isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate at the sampling sites investigated, the dissolved sulfate concentration in sewage was regulated by the formation of barite and calcium-phosphate mineral species. Sulfate originating from urine was also detected as a source using the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate, which suggests that deltaOSO(4)18 might find use as a urine tracer.

  14. Mechanisms of ammonium assimilation by Chlorella vulgaris F1068: Isotope fractionation and proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Li, Feng; Ge, Fei; Tao, Nengguo; Zhou, Qiongzhi; Wong, Minghung

    2015-08-01

    Removal of ammonium (NH4(+)-N) by microalgae has evoked interest in wastewater treatment, however, the detailed mechanisms of ammonium assimilation remain mysterious. This study investigated the effects of NH4(+)-N concentration on the removal and biotransformation efficiency by Chlorella vulgaris F1068, and explored the mechanisms by (15)N isotope fractionation and proteome approaches. The results showed NH4(+)-N was efficiently removed (84.8%) by F1068 at 10mgL(-1) of NH4(+)-N. The isotope enrichment factor (ε=-2.37±0.08‰) of (15)N isotope fractionation revealed 47.6% biotransformation at above condition, while 7.0% biotransformation at 4mgL(-1) of NH4(+)-N (ε=-1.63±0.06‰). This was due to the different expression of glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme in ammonium assimilation, which was up-regulated 6.4-fold at proteome level and 18.0-fold at transcription level. The results will provide a better mechanistic understanding of ammonium assimilation by microalgae and this green technology is expected to reduce the burden of NH4(+)-N removal for municipal sewage treatment plants.

  15. Dietary plasticity of generalist and specialist ungulates in the Namibian Desert: a stable isotopes approach.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, David; Mfune, John Kazgeba Elijah; Gewers, Erick; Cloete, Johann; Brain, Conrad; Voigt, Christian Claus

    2013-01-01

    Desert ungulates live in adverse ecosystems that are particularly sensitive to degradation and global climate change. Here, we asked how two ungulate species with contrasting feeding habits, grazing gemsbok (Oryx g. gazella) and browsing springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), respond to an increase in food availability during a pronounced rain period. We used a stable isotope approach to delineate the feeding habits of these two ungulates in the arid Kunene Region of Namibia. Our nineteen months field investigation included two time periods of drought when food availability for ungulates was lowest and an intermediate period with extreme, unusual rainfalls. We documented thirteen isotopically distinct food sources in the isotopic space of the study area. Our results indicated a relatively high dietary plasticity of gemsbok, which fed on a mixture of plants, including more than 30% of C3 plants during drought periods, but almost exclusively on C4 and CAM plant types when food was plentiful. During drought periods, the inferred gemsbok diets also consisted of up to 25% of Euphorbia damarana; an endemic CAM plant that is rich in toxic secondary plant compounds. In contrast, springbok were generalists, feeding on a higher proportion of C3 than C4/CAM plants, irrespective of environmental conditions. Our results illustrate two dietary strategies in gemsbok and springbok which enable them to survive and coexist in the hostile Kunene arid ecosystem.

  16. Dietary Plasticity of Generalist and Specialist Ungulates in the Namibian Desert: A Stable Isotopes Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, David; Mfune, John Kazgeba Elijah; Gewers, Erick; Cloete, Johann; Brain, Conrad; Voigt, Christian Claus

    2013-01-01

    Desert ungulates live in adverse ecosystems that are particularly sensitive to degradation and global climate change. Here, we asked how two ungulate species with contrasting feeding habits, grazing gemsbok (Oryx g. gazella) and browsing springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), respond to an increase in food availability during a pronounced rain period. We used a stable isotope approach to delineate the feeding habits of these two ungulates in the arid Kunene Region of Namibia. Our nineteen months field investigation included two time periods of drought when food availability for ungulates was lowest and an intermediate period with extreme, unusual rainfalls. We documented thirteen isotopically distinct food sources in the isotopic space of the study area. Our results indicated a relatively high dietary plasticity of gemsbok, which fed on a mixture of plants, including more than 30% of C3 plants during drought periods, but almost exclusively on C4 and CAM plant types when food was plentiful. During drought periods, the inferred gemsbok diets also consisted of up to 25% of Euphorbia damarana; an endemic CAM plant that is rich in toxic secondary plant compounds. In contrast, springbok were generalists, feeding on a higher proportion of C3 than C4/CAM plants, irrespective of environmental conditions. Our results illustrate two dietary strategies in gemsbok and springbok which enable them to survive and coexist in the hostile Kunene arid ecosystem. PMID:23977249

  17. Figuring out the process of denitrification by stable isotope approaches - Prospects and limitations -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stange, C. F.; Spott, O.

    2009-04-01

    Improvement in the analysis of stable isotopes, higher measurement capacity and faster and more complex analysis methods allow a more detailed insight into the complexity of N cycling in soils or sediments, in particular in the formation and emission of N2 gas. The knowledge about the site-specific N2 to N2O ratio of denitrification and perhaps other processes is important to develop sustainable land use strategies for reduction of GHG emissions. Adapted stable isotope approaches are an irreplaceable tool for process identification, process quantification and processes separation. In the last years a few of new processes were found (e.g. anammox, codenitrification) and new stable isotope approaches for quantification and processes separation were published (Wrage et al.). Source partitioning of N gas production in soils is inherently challenging, but is vital to better understand controls on the different processes, with a view to develope appropriate management practices for mitigation of harmful N gases (e.g.N2O) (Baggs, 2008). Recently dual-isotope labelling approaches (Wrage et al., 2005) and triplet 15N tracer experiments (TTE) with 15N labelling of different pools (e.g. Müller et al., 2006, Russow et al 2009) have been developed to differentiate between more than two processes. The high number of simultaneously occurring processes during soil N cycling (Hayatsu et al. 2008) limits an easy applicability of isotope approaches (Spott and Stange 2007 ;Wrage et al. 2005; Phillips and Gregg, 2003), and therefore partitioning and process quantification is often afflicted with high uncertainties (Ambus et al., 2006). Especially the heterogeneity of environmental conditions in soils caused by the soil structure is difficult to handle (e.g. homogeneously labelling a soil). Hence, spatially separated processes in combination with high turnover rates (gross production and consumption) can produce different pools of one substrate in the soil (Russow et al. 2009) and

  18. A Multi-isotope Tracer Approach Linking Land Use With Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in the San Joaquin River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. B.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Stringfellow, W. T.

    2008-12-01

    The San Joaquin River (SJR) is a large hypereutrophic river located in the Central Valley, California, a major agricultural region. Nutrient subsidies, algae, and other organic material from the San Joaquin River contribute to periods of low dissolved oxygen in the Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel, inhibiting salmon migration. We used a multi-isotope approach to link nitrate and particulate organic matter (POM) to different sources and related land uses. The isotope data was also used to better understand the physical and biological processes controlling the distribution of nitrate and POM throughout the river system. Samples collected from the mainstem SJR and tributaries twice-monthly to monthly between March 2005 and December 2007 were analyzed for nitrate, POM, and water isotopes. There are many land uses surrounding the SJR and its tributaries, including multiple types of agriculture, dairies, wetlands, and urban areas. Samples from SJR tributaries containing both major and minor contributions of wetland discharge generally had distinct nitrate and POM isotope signatures compared to other tributaries. Unique nitrate and POM isotope signatures associated with wetland discharges may reflect anaerobic biological processes occurring in flooded soils. For the mainstem SJR, we applied an isotope mass balance approach using nitrate and water isotopes to calculate the expected downstream isotope values based upon measured inputs from known water sources such as drains and tributaries. Differences between the calculated downstream isotope values and the measured values indicate locations and time periods when either biological processes such as algal uptake, or physical process such as the input of unidentified water sources, significantly altered the isotope signatures of water, POM, or nitrate within the SJR. This research will provide a better understanding of how different land uses affect the delivery of carbon and nitrogen to the SJR, and will provide a better

  19. Quantitative approaches to the analysis of stable isotope food web data.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stephanie N; Olden, Julian D; Solomon, Christopher T; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2007-11-01

    Ecologists use stable isotopes (delta13C, delta15N) to better understand food webs and explore trophic interactions in ecosystems. Traditionally, delta13C vs. delta15N bi-plots have been used to describe food web structure for a single time period or ecosystem. Comparisons of food webs across time and space are increasing, but development of statistical approaches for testing hypotheses regarding food web change has lagged behind. Here we present statistical methodologies for quantitatively comparing stable isotope food web data. We demonstrate the utility of circular statistics and hypothesis tests for quantifying directional food web differences using two case studies: an arthropod salt marsh community across a habitat gradient and a freshwater fish community from Lake Tahoe, USA, over a 120-year time period. We calculated magnitude and mean angle of change (theta) for each species in food web space using mean delta13C and delta15N of each species as the x, y coordinates. In the coastal salt marsh, arthropod consumers exhibited a significant shift toward dependence on Spartina, progressing from a habitat invaded by Phragmites to a restored Spartina habitat. In Lake Tahoe, we found that all species from the freshwater fish community shifted in the same direction in food web space toward more pelagic-based production with the introduction of nonnative Mysis relicta and onset of cultural eutrophication. Using circular statistics to quantitatively analyze stable isotope food web data, we were able to gain significant insight into patterns and changes in food web structure that were not evident from qualitative comparisons. As more ecologists incorporate a food web perspective into ecosystem analysis, these statistical tools can provide a basis for quantifying directional food web differences from standard isotope data.

  20. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Humez, P; Mayer, B; Ing, J; Nightingale, M; Becker, V; Kingston, A; Akbilgic, O; Taylor, S

    2016-01-15

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged -69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n=63) in free gas and -65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n=26) in dissolved gas. δ(13)C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ(13)C values in concert with average δ(2)HCH4 values of -289 ± 44‰ (n=45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically >500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100-250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed.

  1. Synthesis and application of a N-1' fluorescent biotinyl derivative inducing the specific carboxy-terminal dual labeling of a novel RhoB-selective scFv.

    PubMed

    Chaisemartin, L; Chinestra, P; Favre, G; Blonski, C; Faye, J C

    2009-05-20

    The fluorescent site-specific labeling of protein would provide a new, easy-to-use alternative to biochemical and immunochemical methods. We used an intein-mediated strategy for covalent labeling of the carboxy-terminal amino acid of a RhoB-selective scFv previously isolated from a phage display library (a human synthetic V(H) + V(L) scFv phage library). The scFv fused to the Mxe intein was produced in E. coli and purified and was then labeled with a newly synthesized fluorescent biotinyl cysteine derivative capable of inducing scFv-Mxe intein splicing. In this study, we investigated the splicing and labeling properties of various amino acids in the hinge domain between scFv and Mxe under thiol activation. In this dual labeling system, the fluorescein is used for antibody detection and biotin is used for purification, resulting in a high specific activity for fluorescence. We then checked that the purified biotinylated fluorescent scFv retained its selectivity for RhoB without modification of its affinity.

  2. Two-Pronged Approach to Overcome Spectroscopically Interfering Organic Compounds with Isotopic Water Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Nabil; Hsiao, Gregor; Chapellet-Volpini, London; Vu, Danthu

    2013-04-01

    The ability to measure the stable isotopes of hydrogen (dD) and oxygen (d18O) has become much more accessible with the advent of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) laser optical devices. These small and inexpensive analyzers have led to a significant increase in the acquisition of data from a variety of studies in the fields of groundwater, watershed, and other water source applications. However for some samples, such as those linked to fracking, mining, and other activities where higher than normal concentrations of organic materials are to be found, optical spectroscopy may require an adaptation from current methodologies in order to ensure data confidence. That is because CRDS is able to measure all the components within a spectral region - which will include the spectral characteristics of the isotopologues of water as well as the available features from interfering organic molecules. Although, at the first level, the information from the organic material provides spectral overlaps that can perturb the isotopic ratios, a more thorough review shows that these features are a source of information that will be inherently useful. This presentation will examine the approaches developed within the past year to allow for more accurate analyses of such samples by optical methods. The first approach uses an advanced spectroscopic model to flag the presence of organic material in the sample. Signals from known interfering compounds (i.e., alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, short-chain hydrocarbons, etc.) are incorporated into the overall fit of the measured spectra used to calculate the concentration of the individual isotopes. The second approach uses physical treatment of the sample to break down the organic molecules into non-interfering species. The vaporized liquid or solid sample travels through a cartridge packed with an oxidation catalyst. The interfering organic molecules will undergo high temperature oxidation using O2 present in the air carrier gas stream prior

  3. A Learner-Centered Spiral Knowledge Approach to Teaching Isotope Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Aided by the insights I gained by participation in the Arizona Board of Regents Tri-University Collaboration on Learner-Centered Practice, I made major changes to a graduate course in isotope geology (GLG617), including: 1) implementation of a spiral knowledge approach (e.g., Bruner, 1990; Dyar et al., 2004); 2) incorporation of more learner-centered in-class activities; and 3) more explicit emphasis on skills that I regarded as important for success in geochemistry. In the geosciences, the field of isotope geology is now an essential area of inquiry with implications for geologic timescales, climate information, tracing geochemical processes, and biological evolution, to name a few. The traditional approach to teaching isotope geology suffers from the fact that learning tends to be compartmentalized by technique/approach and one subfield (e.g., stable or radiogenic isotopes) is usually favored by appearing earlier in semester. To make learning more integrated, I employed a simplified spiral learning approach so that common principles could be revisited several times over the course of the semester and, in so doing, students' grasp of the fundamental principles could be scaffolded into greater understanding. Other learner-centered changes to the course included more explicit emphasis on helping students become comfortable with interpreting data displayed graphically and explicit emphasis on helping students give and evaluate oral presentations that rely on isotope data. I also developed a detailed grading rubric for the final paper and allowed students to have a draft of their final papers evaluated and graded (guided by Huba and Freed, 2000) A number of cooperative learning activities developed specifically for this course (19 in all) enabled me to gain a better appreciation for students' learning. Activities included pair share, round-robin, small group explorations of techniques and case studies (sometimes as introduction to, sometimes as review of material

  4. Estimating ground-water inflow to lakes in central Florida using the isotope mass-balance approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The isotope mass-balance approach was used to estimate ground-water inflow to 81 lakes in the central highlands and coastal lowlands of central Florida. The study area is characterized by a subtropical climate and numerous lakes in a mantled karst terrain. Ground-water inflow was computed using both steady-state and transient formulations of the isotope mass-balance equation. More detailed data were collected from two study lakes, including climatic, hydrologic, and isotopic (hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratio) data. For one of these lakes (Lake Starr), ground-water inflow was independently computed from a water-budget study. Climatic and isotopic data collected from the two lakes were similar even though they were in different physiographic settings about 60 miles apart. Isotopic data from all of the study lakes plotted on an evaporation trend line, which had a very similar slope to the theoretical slope computed for Lake Starr. These similarities suggest that data collected from the detailed study lakes can be extrapolated to the rest of the study area. Ground-water inflow computed using the isotope mass-balance approach ranged from 0 to more than 260 inches per year (or 0 to more than 80 percent of total inflows). Steady-state and transient estimates of ground-water inflow were very similar. Computed ground-water inflow was most sensitive to uncertainty in variables used to calculate the isotopic composition of lake evaporate (isotopic compositions of lake water and atmospheric moisture and climatic variables). Transient results were particularly sensitive to changes in the isotopic composition of lake water. Uncertainty in ground-water inflow results is considerably less for lakes with higher ground-water inflow than for lakes with lower ground-water inflow. Because of these uncertainties, the isotope mass-balance approach is better used to distinguish whether ground-water inflow quantities fall within certain ranges of values, rather than for precise

  5. Stable Isotope Probing Approaches to Study Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation and Degraders.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Carsten; Lueders, Tillmann; Richnow, Hans H; Krüger, Martin; von Bergen, Martin; Seifert, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) techniques have become state-of-the-art in microbial ecology over the last 10 years, allowing for the targeted detection and identification of organisms, metabolic pathways and elemental fluxes active in specific processes within complex microbial communities. For studying anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities, four stable isotope techniques have been used so far: DNA/RNA-SIP, PLFA (phospholipid-derived fatty acids)-SIP, protein-SIP, and single-cell-SIP by nanoSIMS (nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry) or confocal Raman microscopy. DNA/RNA-SIP techniques are most frequently applied due to their most meaningful phylogenetic resolution. Especially using 13C-labeled benzene and toluene as model substrates, many new hydrocarbon degraders have been identified by SIP under various electron acceptor conditions. This has extended the current perspective of the true diversity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders relevant in the environment. Syntrophic hydrocarbon degradation was found to be a common mechanism for various electron acceptors. Fundamental concepts and recent advances in SIP are reflected here. A discussion is presented concerning how these techniques generate direct insights into intrinsic hydrocarbon degrader populations in environmental systems and how useful they are for more integrated approaches in the monitoring of contaminated sites and for bioremediation.

  6. Elucidation of nitrate reduction pathways in anaerobic bioreactors using a stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Mazéas, Laurent; Vigneron, Vassilia; Le-Ménach, Karyn; Budzinski, Hélène; Audic, Jean-Marc; Bernet, Nicolas; Bouchez, Théodore

    2008-06-01

    Leachate recirculation allows an increase of moisture content and the enhancement of the anaerobic digestion of wastes in landfill. Since there is no ammonia elimination process in landfill when leachate is recirculated, NH(4) (+) may accumulate. One strategy for NH(4) (+) removal is to treat aerobically the leachate outside the landfill to convert NH(4) (+) into NO(3) (-). When nitrified leachate is recirculated, denitrification should occur in the waste. We have previously shown that wastes have a large capacity to convert nitrate into N(2). Nevertheless, in some cases we observed nitrate reduction without gaseous nitrogen production. Using a stepwise multiple regression models, H(2)S concentration was the unique parameter found to have a negative effect on N(2) production. We then suspected that dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) occurred in the presence of H(2)S. In order to verify this hypothesis, (15)N nitrate injections were performed into microcosms containing different H(2)S concentrations. The ammonium (15)N enrichment was measured using an elemental analyser coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. In the two microcosms containing the highest H(2)S concentrations, the ammonium was (15)N enriched and at the end of the experiment all the added nitrate was converted into ammonium. For the two microcosms containing the lowest H(2)S concentrations, no (15)N enrichment of ammonium was observed. This isotopic approach has allowed us to demonstrate that, in the presence of significant concentrations of H(2)S, denitrification is replaced by DNRA.

  7. The oxygen-18 isotope approach for measuring aquatic metabolism in high-productivity waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tobias, C.R.; Böhlke, J.K.; Harvey, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the utility of ??18O2 measurements in estimating gross primary production (P), community respiration (R), and net metabolism (P:R) through diel cycles in a productive agricultural stream located in the midwestern U.S.A. Large diel swings in O2 (??200 ??mol L-1) were accompanied by large diel variation in ??18O2 (??10???). Simultaneous gas transfer measurements and laboratory-derived isotopic fractionation factors for O2 during respiration (??r) were used in conjunction with the diel monitoring of O2 and ??18O2 to calculate P, R, and P:R using three independent isotope-based methods. These estimates were compared to each other and against the traditional "open-channel diel O2-change" technique that lacked ??18O2. A principal advantage of the ??18O2 measurements was quantification of diel variation in R, which increased by up to 30% during the day, and the diel pattern in R was variable and not necessarily predictable from assumed temperature effects on R. The P, R, and P:R estimates calculated using the isotope-based approaches showed high sensitivity to the assumed system fractionation factor (??r). The optimum modeled ??r values (0.986-0.989) were roughly consistent with the laboratory-derived values, but larger (i.e., less fractionation) than ??r values typically reported for enzyme-limited respiration in open water environments. Because of large diel variation in O2, P:R could not be estimated by directly applying the typical steady-state solution to the O2 and 18O-O2 mass balance equations in the absence of gas transfer data. Instead, our results indicate that a modified steady-state solution (the daily mean value approach) could be used with time-averaged O2 and ??18O2 measurements to calculate P:R independent of gas transfer. This approach was applicable under specifically defined, net heterotrophic conditions. The diel cycle of increasing daytime R and decreasing nighttime R was only partially explained by temperature variation, but could be

  8. A quantitative approach to combine sources in stable isotope mixing models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope mixing models, used to estimate source contributions to a mixture, typically yield highly uncertain estimates when there are many sources and relatively few isotope elements. Previously, ecologists have either accepted the uncertain contribution estimates for indiv...

  9. Estimating phreatic evaporation in irrigated areas using a stable isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthold, F. K.; Umirzakov, G.; Schneider, K.; Stulina, G.; Frede, H.; Breuer, L.

    2011-12-01

    Central Asia is characterized by continental arid climate conditions. Mean annual precipitation is 170 mm with a potential evapotranspiration rate of 1200 mm/a. In addition, many regions are affected by a non-sustainable use of the water resources. 90% of the water resources are used for irrigation purposes to grow e.g. cotton and wheat, especially in Uzbekistan. Large amounts of water are needed for cotton growth. Not only does the plant itself require large amounts of water but a substantial part of the water use is ascribed to the inefficient irrigation system and management. The irrigation infrastructure is old and not maintained well and irrigation management is inadequate. Groundwater level rise has been observed in irrigated areas as a result of the inefficient irrigation practices. Capillary raised groundwater is particularly prone to evaporation as it gets closer to the soil surface. The general objective of this study is to quantify the amount of groundwater (or phreatic) evaporation that is due to groundwater table rise on irrigated fields. In this study, we present an approach where we are using stable isotopes of water to estimate phreatic evaporation on irrigated fields. Our specific objective is to estimate phreatic evaporation (Ep) in relation to the groundwater level and varying soil types (sandy, loamy and clay loamy). We chose a stable water isotopes approach to estimate Ep. For this purpose, soil samples along a depth profile were sampled on sites with different groundwater levels and soil types. Samples were taken in 10 cm increments down to the groundwater level. Soil water was extracted using a cryogenic vacuum distillation and the extracted soil water was analyzed for its composition of stable water isotopes, δD and δ18O, using a Liquid Water Isotope Analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.). Ep was calculated by fitting an exponential function to the experimental isotope soil profile. Our results show that in sandy and loamy soils, enrichment

  10. Ground-state properties of even and odd Magnesium isotopes in a symmetry-conserving approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrajo, Marta; Egido, J. Luis

    2017-01-01

    We present a self-consistent theory for odd nuclei with exact blocking and particle number and angular momentum projection. The demanding treatment of the pairing correlations in a variation-after-projection approach as well as the explicit consideration of the triaxial deformation parameters in a projection after variation method, together with the use of the finite-range density-dependent Gogny force, provides an excellent tool for the description of odd-even and even-even nuclei. We apply the theory to the Magnesium isotopic chain and obtain an outstanding description of the ground-state properties, in particular binding energies, odd-even mass differences, mass radii and electromagnetic moments among others.

  11. Ecophysiological responses of trees to long- term N deposition: a multi isotopes approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battipaglia, G.; Lubritto, C.; Altieri, S.; Marzaioli, F.; Cherubini, P.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen compounds, principally derived from the burning of fossil fuels, have lead to regional changes in atmospheric and precipitation chemistry. The fate and environmental consequences of these changes on ecosystems functions and on forest growth has attracted considerable research. The d15N measurements have been used successfully for detecting changes in N deposition and incorporation of atmospheric N into leaves (Siegwolf et al,2001) and tree rings (Poulson et al.,1995; Saurer et al.,2004, Guerrieri et al.2009). We show main results arising from a study of mature Pinus pinea individuals exposed to large amount of traffic exhaust for 20 years. Specifically, we examined the time-related trend in the growth residuals through dendrochronological analysis and C and N isotopes. A consistent decrease in the ring width starting from 1980 with a slight increase in δ13C value has been found as a consequence of environmental stress event. More over the effect of the fossil source 14C dilution on the atmospheric bomb enriched background has been detected in tree rings over the last decades, as a consequence of the increase in uptaking of traffic exhaust. The great variability in δ15N values of tree rings with time underlines the difficulties we encountered in using N as an environmental tool and open new questions and research avenues. Guerrieri M.R., Siegwolf R.T.W., Saurer M., Jäggi M., Cherubini., Ripullone F., Borghetti M., (2009)"Impact of different nitrogen emission sources on tree physiology as assessed by a triple stable isotope approach" Atmospheric Environment 43:410-418 Pearson J., Wellis D.M., Seller K.J., Bennet A., Soares A., Woodall J., Ingroulle M.J. (2000). Traffic exposure increases natural 15N and heavy metal concentrations in mosses. New Phytologist 147: 317-326. Siegwolf R.T.W., Matyssek R., Saurer M., Maurer S., Günthardt-Georg M.S., Schmutz P. and Bucher J.B. "Stable isotope analysis reveals differential effects of

  12. Identifying diffused nitrate sources in a stream in an agricultural field using a dual isotopic approach.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingtao; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; He, Liansheng; Liu, Hongliang; Dai, Xuanli; Yu, Yijun

    2014-06-15

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) pollution is a severe problem in aquatic systems in Taihu Lake Basin in China. A dual isotope approach (δ(15)NNO3(-) and δ(18)ONO3(-)) was applied to identify diffused NO3(-) inputs in a stream in an agricultural field at the basin in 2013. The site-specific isotopic characteristics of five NO3(-) sources (atmospheric deposition, AD; NO3(-) derived from soil organic matter nitrification, NS; NO3(-) derived from chemical fertilizer nitrification, NF; groundwater, GW; and manure and sewage, M&S) were identified. NO3(-) concentrations in the stream during the rainy season [mean±standard deviation (SD)=2.5±0.4mg/L] were lower than those during the dry season (mean±SD=4.0±0.5mg/L), whereas the δ(18)ONO3(-) values during the rainy season (mean±SD=+12.3±3.6‰) were higher than those during the dry season (mean±SD=+0.9±1.9‰). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that mixing with atmospheric NO3(-) resulted in the high δ(18)O values during the rainy season, whereas NS and M&S were the dominant NO3(-) sources during the dry season. A Bayesian model was used to determine the contribution of each NO3(-) source to total stream NO3(-). Results showed that reduced N nitrification in soil zones (including soil organic matter and fertilizer) was the main NO3(-) source throughout the year. M&S contributed more NO3(-) during the dry season (22.4%) than during the rainy season (17.8%). AD generated substantial amounts of NO3(-) in May (18.4%), June (29.8%), and July (24.5%). With the assessment of temporal variation of diffused NO3(-) sources in agricultural field, improved agricultural management practices can be implemented to protect the water resource and avoid further water quality deterioration in Taihu Lake Basin.

  13. Phosphoprotein Isotope-Coded Solid-Phase Tag Approach for Enrichment and Quantitative Analysis of Phosphopeptides from Complex Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Weijun ); Goshe, Michael B.; Camp, David G. ); Yu, Li-Rong ); Tang, Keqi ); Smith, Richard D. )

    2003-10-15

    Many cellular processes are regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation and the ability to identify and quantify phosphoproteins from proteomes is essential for gaining a better understanding of these dynamic cellular processes. However, a sensitive, efficient and global method capable of addressing the phosphoproteome has yet to be developed. Here we describe an improved stable-isotope labeling method using a Phosphoprotein Isotope-coded Solid-phase Tag (PhIST) for isolating and measuring the relative abundance of phosphorylated peptides from complex peptide mixtures resulting from the enzymatic digestion of extracted proteins. The PhIST approach is an extension of the previously reported Phosphoprotein Isotope-coded Affinity Tag (PhIAT)approach developed by our laboratory1-2, where the O-phosphate moiety on phosphoseryl or phosphothreonyl residues were derivatized by hydroxide ion-medated B-elimination followed by the addition of 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). Instead of using the biotin affinity tag, peptides containing the EDT moiety were captured and labeled in one step using isotope-coded solid-phase reagents containing either light (12C6, 14N) or heavy (13C6, 15N) stable isotopes. The captured peptides labeled with the isotope-coded tags were released from the solid-phase support by UV photocleavage and analyzed by capillary LC-MS/MS. The efficiency and sensitivity of the PhIST labeling approach for identification of phosphopeptides from mixtures was demonstrated using casein phosphoproteins. Its utility for proteomic applications is demonstrated by the labeling of soluble proteins from human breast cancer cell line.

  14. A proteomic approach for quantitation of phosphorylation using stable isotope labeling in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ibarrola, Nieves; Kalume, Dario E; Gronborg, Mads; Iwahori, Akiko; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2003-11-15

    Posttranslational modifications are major mechanisms of regulating protein activity and function in vertebrate cells. It is essential to obtain qualitative information about posttranslational modification patterns of proteins to understand signal transduction mechanisms in greater detail. However, it is equally important to measure the dynamics of posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation to approach signaling networks from a systems biology perspective. Despite a number of advances, methods to quantitate posttranslational modifications remain difficult to implement due to a number of factors including lack of a generic method, elaborate chemical steps, and requirement for large amounts of sample. We have previously shown that stable isotope-containing amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) can be used to differentially label growing cell populations for quantitation of protein levels. In this report, we extend the use of SILAC as a novel proteomic approach for the relative quantitation of posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation. We have used SILAC to quantitate the extent of known phosphorylation sites as well as to identify and quantitate novel phosphorylation sites.

  15. A stable isotope approach and its application for identifying nitrate source and transformation process in water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shiguo; Kang, Pingping; Sun, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of water is a worldwide environmental problem. Recent studies have demonstrated that the nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotopes of nitrate (NO3(-)) can be used to trace nitrogen dynamics including identifying nitrate sources and nitrogen transformation processes. This paper analyzes the current state of identifying nitrate sources and nitrogen transformation processes using N and O isotopes of nitrate. With regard to nitrate sources, δ(15)N-NO3(-) and δ(18)O-NO3(-) values typically vary between sources, allowing the sources to be isotopically fingerprinted. δ(15)N-NO3(-) is often effective at tracing NO(-)3 sources from areas with different land use. δ(18)O-NO3(-) is more useful to identify NO3(-) from atmospheric sources. Isotopic data can be combined with statistical mixing models to quantify the relative contributions of NO3(-) from multiple delineated sources. With regard to N transformation processes, N and O isotopes of nitrate can be used to decipher the degree of nitrogen transformation by such processes as nitrification, assimilation, and denitrification. In some cases, however, isotopic fractionation may alter the isotopic fingerprint associated with the delineated NO3(-) source(s). This problem may be addressed by combining the N and O isotopic data with other types of, including the concentration of selected conservative elements, e.g., chloride (Cl(-)), boron isotope (δ(11)B), and sulfur isotope (δ(35)S) data. Future studies should focus on improving stable isotope mixing models and furthering our understanding of isotopic fractionation by conducting laboratory and field experiments in different environments.

  16. Quantifying groundwater dependence of a sub-polar lake cluster in Finland using an isotope mass balance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isokangas, E.; Rozanski, K.; Rossi, P. M.; Ronkanen, A.-K.; Kløve, B.

    2015-03-01

    A stable isotope study of 67 kettle lakes and ponds situated on an esker aquifer (90 km2) in northern Finland was carried out to determine the role and extent of groundwater inflow in groundwater-dependent lakes. Distinct seasonal fluctuations in the δ18O and δ2H values of lakes are the result of seasonal ice cover prohibiting evaporation during the winter. An iterative isotope mass balance approach was used to calculate the inflow-to-evaporation ratios (ITOT/E) of all 67 lakes during the summer of 2013 when the isotopic compositions of the lakes were approaching a steady-state. The balance calculations were carried out independently for 2H and 18O data. Since evaporation rates were derived independently of any mass balance considerations, it was possible to determine the total inflow (ITOT) and mean turnover time (MTT) of the lakes. Furthermore, the groundwater seepage rates to all studied lakes were calculated. A quantitative measure was introduced for the dependence of a lake on groundwater (G index) that is defined as the percentage contribution of groundwater inflow to the total inflow of water to the given lake. The G index values of the lakes studied ranged from ca. 39 to 98%, revealing generally large groundwater dependency among the studied lakes. This study shows the effectiveness of applying an isotope mass balance approach to quantify the groundwater reliance of lakes situated in a relatively small area with similar climatic conditions.

  17. Value Assignment of Isotopic Reference Materials - Approaches, Pitfalls and Workarounds based on Experiences from the Avogadro Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, R.; Rabb, S.; Mann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Isotope ratio measurements and their application to the natural world have undergone profound changes in the past decade. These changes have arisen due to improvements in measurement precision by modern multi-collector instrumentation and also the maturation of powerful ionization sources, specifically those employing inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torches. The latter development has made the entire periodic table a fertile hunting ground for small but significant natural isotopic variations produced by new and novel processes as well as the older and well studied mechanisms. Unfortunately, Isotopic Reference Material (IRM) production by National Metrology Institutes (NMI) has not kept up this these advances. This has necessitated the production and value assignment of working IRMs by the researchers pioneering these advances. This sort of distribution and characterization system leads to problems with long-term availability to the research community as the pioneers move onto other elements and isotopic systems, losing interest in the "old" when tempted by "new" and therefore fundable research opportunities. Furthermore, most value assignments of such IRMs are based on "best measurements" by the original groups and thus represent mass discrimination dependent models of the materials' isotopic signature, a situation that often leads to a proliferation of different values depending on research group or philosophy, a highly confusing and potentially non-constructive situation! We have been working closely with other NMIs (PTB, NRC and NIM) to produce accurate molar mass determinations of the highly pure 28Si being used in the Avogadro Project (an international effort to replace the original kilogram artifact with a procedure and measurement protocol that any technologically advanced nation can use to realize this fundamental SI unit). The basis for the approach was conceived and developed at the PTB (e.g. [1]). Its applicability to accurate and non

  18. Determination of the origin of groundwater nitrate at an air weapons range using the dual isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Savard, Martine M; Martel, Richard; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2008-06-06

    Nitrate is one of the most common contaminants in shallow groundwater, and many sources may contribute to the nitrate load within an aquifer. Groundwater nitrate plumes have been detected at several ammunition production sites. However, the presence of multiple potential sources and the lack of existing isotopic data concerning explosive degradation-induced nitrate constitute a limitation when it comes to linking both types of contaminants. On military training ranges, high nitrate concentrations in groundwater were reported for the first time as part of the hydrogeological characterization of the Cold Lake Air Weapons Range (CLAWR), Alberta, Canada. Explosives degradation is thought to be the main source of nitrate contamination at CLAWR, as no other major source is present. Isotopic analyses of N and O in nitrate were performed on groundwater samples from the unconfined and confined aquifers; the dual isotopic analysis approach was used in order to increase the chances of identifying the source of nitrate. The isotopic ratios for the groundwater samples with low nitrate concentration suggested a natural origin with a strong contribution of anthropogenic atmospheric NOx. For the samples with nitrate concentration above the expected background level the isotopic ratios did not correspond to any source documented in the literature. Dissolved RDX samples were degraded in the laboratory and results showed that all reproduced degradation processes released nitrate with a strong fractionation. Laboratory isotopic values for RDX-derived NO(3)(-) produced a trend of high delta(18)O-low delta(15)N to low delta(18)O-high delta(15)N, and groundwater samples with nitrate concentrations above the expected background level appeared along this trend. Our results thus point toward a characteristic field of isotopic ratios for nitrate being derived from the degradation of RDX.

  19. The origin of the band at around 730 cm(-1) in the SERS spectra of bacteria: a stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Kubryk, Patrick; Niessner, Reinhard; Ivleva, Natalia P

    2016-05-10

    Raman microspectroscopy is an emerging tool to analyze the molecular and isotopic composition of single microbial cells. It can be used to achieve an in situ understanding of metabolic processes. Due to the low sensitivity of the Raman effect, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is utilized to enhance the Raman signal. The SERS spectra of bacteria are usually characterized by a pronounced band at around 730 cm(-1), which is assigned to glycosidic ring vibrations or to adenine or even to CH2 deformation in different studies. In order to clarify the origin of this band, we employed a stable isotope approach and performed a SERS analysis of Escherichia coli bacteria using in situ prepared Ag nanoparticles. The cells were grown on unlabeled ((12)C, (14)N) and labeled ((13)C, (15)N) carbon and nitrogen sources in different combinations. The SERS band of the stable isotope labeled microorganisms showed a characteristic red-shift in the SERS spectra, which solely depends on the isotopic composition. It was therefore possible to confidently assign this band to adenine-related compounds. Furthermore, by utilizing the fingerprint area of single-cell SERS spectra as the input for the principal component analysis, one can clearly differentiate between E. coli bacteria incorporating different stable isotopes.

  20. Quantifying groundwater dependence of a sub-polar lake cluster in Finland using an isotope mass balance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isokangas, E.; Rozanski, K.; Rossi, P. M.; Ronkanen, A.-K.; Kløve, B.

    2014-08-01

    A stable isotope study of 67 kettle lakes and ponds situated on an esker aquifer (90 km2) in northern Finland was carried out in the summer of 2013 to determine the role of groundwater inflow in groundwater-dependent lakes. Distinct seasonal fluctuations in the δ18O and δ2H values of lakes are the result of seasonal ice cover prohibiting evaporation during the winter. An isotope mass balance approach was used to calculate the inflow-to-evaporation ratios (ITOT/E) of all 67 lakes during the summer of 2013 when the isotopic compositions of the lakes were approaching a steady-state. The normalised relative humidity needed in this approach came from assuming a terminal lake situation for one of the lakes showing the highest isotope enrichment. Since evaporation rates were derived independently of any mass balance considerations, it was possible to determine the total inflow (ITOT) and mean turnover time (MTT) of the lakes. Furthermore, the groundwater seepage rates of those lakes revealing no visible surface inflow were calculated. Here, a quantitative measure was introduced for the dependence of a lake on groundwater (G index) that is defined as the percentage contribution of groundwater inflow to the total inflow of water to the given lake. The G index values of the lakes studied ranged from 27.8-95.0%, revealing large differences in groundwater dependency among the lakes. This study shows the effectiveness of applying an isotope mass balance approach to quantify the groundwater reliance of lakes situated in a relatively small area with similar climatic conditions.

  1. Nitrate source apportionment using a combined dual isotope, chemical and bacterial property, and Bayesian model approach in river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yongqiu; Li, Yuefei; Zhang, Xinyu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) pollution is a serious problem worldwide, particularly in countries with intensive agricultural and population activities. Previous studies have used δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- to determine the NO3- sources in rivers. However, this approach is subject to substantial uncertainties and limitations because of the numerous NO3- sources, the wide isotopic ranges, and the existing isotopic fractionations. In this study, we outline a combined procedure for improving the determination of NO3- sources in a paddy agriculture-urban gradient watershed in eastern China. First, the main sources of NO3- in the Qinhuai River were examined by the dual-isotope biplot approach, in which we narrowed the isotope ranges using site-specific isotopic results. Next, the bacterial groups and chemical properties of the river water were analyzed to verify these sources. Finally, we introduced a Bayesian model to apportion the spatiotemporal variations of the NO3- sources. Denitrification was first incorporated into the Bayesian model because denitrification plays an important role in the nitrogen pathway. The results showed that fertilizer contributed large amounts of NO3- to the surface water in traditional agricultural regions, whereas manure effluents were the dominant NO3- source in intensified agricultural regions, especially during the wet seasons. Sewage effluents were important in all three land uses and exhibited great differences between the dry season and the wet season. This combined analysis quantitatively delineates the proportion of NO3- sources from paddy agriculture to urban river water for both dry and wet seasons and incorporates isotopic fractionation and uncertainties in the source compositions.

  2. Palaeoclimate signal recorded by stable isotopes in cave ice: a modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, A.; Bojar, A.-V.

    2012-04-01

    Ice accumulations in caves preserve a large variety of geochemical information as candidate proxies for both past climate and environmental changes, one of the most significant being the stable isotopic composition of the ice. A series of recent studies have targeted oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in cave ice as proxies for past air temperatures, but the results are far from being as straightforward as they are in high latitude and altitude glaciers and ice caps. The main problems emerging from these studies are related to the mechanisms of cave ice formation (i.e., freezing of water) and post-formation processes (melting and refreezing), which both alter the original isotopic signal in water. Different methods have been put forward to solve these issues and a fair understanding of the present-day link between stable isotopes in precipitation and cave ice exists now. However, the main issues still lays unsolved: 1) is it possible to extend this link to older ice and thus reconstruct past changes in air temperature?; 2) to what extent are ice dynamics processes modifying the original climatic signal and 3) what is the best method to be used in extracting a climatic signal from stable isotopes in cave ice? To respond to these questions, we have conducted a modeling experiment, in which a theoretical cave ice stable isotope record was constructed using present-day observations on stable isotope behavior in cave ice and ice dynamics, and different methods (presently used for both polar and cave glaciers), were used to reconstruct the original, known, isotopic values. Our results show that it is possible to remove the effects of ice melting and refreezing on stable isotope composition of cave ice, and thus reconstruct the original isotopic signal, and further the climatic one.

  3. Nekton migration and feeding location in a coastal area - A stable isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    Stable isotope analysis was used to investigate nekton movements and feeding location in a coastal area adjacent to a major European river, the Tagus, Portugal. Particulate organic matter isotopic signatures presented a gradient from the river towards the sea. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, polychaetes and the crab, Polybius henslowii, provided evidence of the incorporation of terrestrial organic matter into the lower levels of the food web, reflecting local isotopic signatures. Two fish species reflected the coastal isotopic gradient in δ13C, Diplodus vulgaris and Arnoglossus imperialis and the latter also presented isotopic differerences among the sites for δ15N. Alloteuthis subulata, Trisopterus luscus and Callionymus lyra were isotopicaly distinct among sites for δ15N. An increase of δ15N with length was detected for T. luscus and C. lyra, possibly showing ontogenic trophic level changes. Since A. subulata did not present differences in length and still showed isotopic distinction for δ15N, among areas, it was concluded that local biogeochemical factors may also have an influence. Diplodus bellottii and Dicologlossa cuneata did not reflect any isotopic signature reflecting their wide migration and feeding across the coastal area. Central isotopic ranges, defined as the site mean values for δ13C and δ15N ± 1‰ were determined for each species and site and those deviating from these were considered transient individuals. Central isotopic ranges accounted for 87% of A. imperialis, 80% of A. subulata, 77% of T. luscus, 67% of C. lyra and 50% of D. vulgaris. The number of individuals within each central isotopic range was surprisingly high for an open coastal area and comparable to those of more structured environments.

  4. An Approach for Validating Actinide and Fission Product Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses-Isotopic Composition Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    The expanded use of burnup credit in the United States (U.S.) for storage and transport casks, particularly in the acceptance of credit for fission products, has been constrained by the availability of experimental fission product data to support code validation. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has noted that the rationale for restricting the Interim Staff Guidance on burnup credit for storage and transportation casks (ISG-8) to actinide-only is based largely on the lack of clear, definitive experiments that can be used to estimate the bias and uncertainty for computational analyses associated with using burnup credit. To address the issues of burnup credit criticality validation, the NRC initiated a project with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to (1) develop and establish a technically sound validation approach for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) criticality safety evaluations based on best-available data and methods and (2) apply the approach for representative SNF storage and transport configurations/conditions to demonstrate its usage and applicability, as well as to provide reference bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the isotopic composition (depletion) validation approach and resulting observations and recommendations. Validation of the criticality calculations is addressed in a companion paper at this conference. For isotopic composition validation, the approach is to determine burnup-dependent bias and uncertainty in the effective neutron multiplication factor (keff) due to bias and uncertainty in isotopic predictions, via comparisons of isotopic composition predictions (calculated) and measured isotopic compositions from destructive radiochemical assay utilizing as much assay data as is available, and a best-estimate Monte Carlo based method. This paper (1) provides a detailed description of the burnup credit isotopic validation approach and its technical bases, (2) describes the application of the approach for

  5. An isotopic dilution approach for 1,3-butadiene tailpipe emissions and ambient air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Riservato, Manuela; Rolla, Antonio; Davoli, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    An isotopic dilution approach for 1,3-butadiene analysis in gaseous samples is presented. The methodology is based on active sampling on sorbent tubes and subsequent analysis by thermal desorption into a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system. By adding a perdeuterated internal standard onto the sorbent tubes before sampling, and using mass spectrometric detection, the methodology gives high accuracy for this unstable analyte. The method has been used to monitor 1,3-butadiene ambient air concentrations in a residential area in proximity to a heavy-traffic roadway over a one-week period, for comparison with other traffic-related pollutants analysed by standard procedures. It has also been used to determine tailpipe emissions of two vehicles by standard emission testing procedures in a dynamometer. These vehicles were chosen as examples of low- and high-end emission rate vehicles, i.e., an old no-catalytic converter Otto engine and a new direct-injection diesel engine with catalytic converter. Exhaust gas emissions were 0.052 and 35.85 mg/km, reflecting differences in fuel, engine design, age, and presence (or not) of a catalytic abatement system. The ambient air results showed a weekly average concentration of 1,3-butadiene of 0.53 microg/m(3).

  6. Carbon isotope discrimination during branch photosynthesis of Fagus sylvatica: a Bayesian modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Gentsch, Lydia; Hammerle, Albin; Sturm, Patrick; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Siegwolf, Rolf; Plüss, Peter; Baur, Thomas; Buchmann, Nina; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Field measurements of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination ((13)Δ) of Fagus sylvatica, conducted with branch bags and laser spectrometry, revealed a high variability of (13)Δ, both on diurnal and day-to-day timescales. We tested the prediction capability of three versions of a commonly used model for (13)Δ [called here comprehensive ((13)(Δcomp)), simplified ((13) Δsimple) and revised ((13)(Δrevised)) versions]. A Bayesian approach was used to calibrate major model parameters. Constrained estimates were found for the fractionation during CO(2) fixation in (13)(Δcomp), but not in (13)(Δsimple), and partially for the mesophyll conductance for CO(2)(gi). No constrained estimates were found for fractionations during mitochondrial and photorespiration, and for a diurnally variable apparent fractionation between current assimilates and mitochondrial respiration, specific to (13)(Δrevised). A quantification of parameter estimation uncertainties and interdependencies further helped explore model structure and behaviour. We found that (13)(Δcomp) usually outperformed (13)(Δsimple) because of the explicit consideration of gi and the photorespiratory fractionation in (13)(Δcomp) that enabled a better description of the large observed diurnal variation (≈9‰) of (13)Δ. Flux-weighted daily means of (13)Δ were also better predicted with (13)(Δcomp) than with (13)(Δsimple).

  7. Estimating ungauged catchment flows from Lake Tana floodplains, Ethiopia: an isotope hydrological approach.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Seifu; Admasu, Girum; Travi, Yves

    2011-03-01

    The isotope balance approach, which used (18)O content of waters, has been used as an independent tool to estimate inflow to Lake Tana of surface water flows from ungauged catchment of Lake Tana (50% of the total area) and evaporative water loss in the vast plains adjoining the lake. Sensitivity analysis has been conducted to investigate the effects of changes in the input parameters on the estimated flux. Surface water inflow from ungauged catchment is determined to be in the order of 1.698×10(9) m(3)a(-1). Unaccounted water loss from the lake has been estimated at 454×10(6) m(3)a(-1) (equivalent to 5% of the total via surface water). Since the lake is water tight to groundwater outflow, the major error introduced into the water balance computation is related to evaporative water loss in water from the flood plains. If drained, the water which is lost to evaporation can be used as an additional water resource for socio-economic development in the region (tourism, agriculture, hydropower, and navigation). Hydrological processes taking place in the vast flood plains of Lake Tana (origin of salinity, groundwater surface water interaction, origin of flood plain waters) have been investigated using isotopes of water and geochemistry as tracers. The salinity of shallow groundwaters in the flood plains is related to dissolution of salts accumulated in sediments covering former evaporation pools and migration of trace salt during recharge. The waters in the flood plains originate from local rainfall and river overflows and the effect of backwater flow from the lake is excluded. Minimum linkage exists between the surface waters in the flood plains and shallow groundwaters in alluvio lacustrine sediments suggesting the disappearance of flood waters following the rainy season, which is related to complete evaporation or drainage than seepage to the subsurface. There is no groundwater outflow from the lake. Inflow of groundwater cannot be ruled out. Discharge of groundwater

  8. Development of a combined isotopic and mass-balance approach to determine dissolved organic carbon sources in eutrophic reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine; Gruau, Gérard; Jardé, Emilie; Gaury, Nicolas; Brient, Luc; Lengronne, Marion; Crocq, André; Helle, Daniel; Lambert, Thibault

    2011-04-01

    A combined mass-balance and stable isotope approach was set up to identify and quantify dissolved organic carbon (DOC) sources in a DOC-rich (9mgL(-1)) eutrophic reservoir located in Western France and used for drinking water supply (so-called Rophemel reservoir). The mass-balance approach consisted in measuring the flux of allochthonous DOC on a daily basis, and in comparing it with the effective (measured) DOC concentration of the reservoir. The isotopic approach consisted, for its part, in measuring the carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C values) of both allochthonous and autochthonous DOC sources, and comparing these values with the δ(13)C values of the reservoir DOC. Results from both approaches were consistent pointing out for a DOC of 100% allochthonous origin. In particular, the δ(13)C values of the DOC recovered in the reservoir (-28.5±0.2‰; n=22) during the algal bloom season (May-September) showed no trace of an autochthonous contribution (δ(13)C in algae=-30.1±0.3‰; n=2) being indistinguishable from the δ(13)C values of allochthonous DOC from inflowing rivers (-28.6±0.1‰; n=8). These results demonstrate that eutrophication is not responsible for the high DOC concentrations observed in the Rophemel reservoir and that limiting eutrophication of this reservoir will not reduce the potential formation of disinfection by-products during water treatment. The methodology developed in this study based on a complementary isotopic and mass-balance approach provides a powerful tool, suitable to identify and quantify DOC sources in eutrophic, DOC-contaminated reservoirs.

  9. Source apportionment of methane using a triple isotope approach - Method development and application in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, Julia; Holmstrand, Henry; Semiletov, Igor; Shakhova, Natalia; Shcherbakova, Kseniia; Kosmach, Denis; Sapart, Célia J.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-04-01

    We present a method for measurements of the stable and radiocarbon isotope systems of methane in seawater and sediments. The triple isotope characterization of methane is useful in distinguishing different sources and for improving our understanding of biogeochemical processes affecting methane in the water column. D14C-CH4 is an especially powerful addition to stable isotope analyses in distinguishing between thermogenic and biogenic origins of the methane. Such measurements require large sample sizes, due to low natural abundance of the radiocarbon in CH4. Our system for sample collection, methane extraction and purification builds on the approach by Kessler and Reeburgh (Limn. & Ocean. Meth., 2005). An in-field system extracts methane from 30 -120 l water or 1-2 l sediment (depending on the in-situ methane concentration) by purging the samples with Helium to transfer the dissolved methane to the headspace and circulating it through cryogenically cooled absorbent traps where methane is collected. The in-field preparation eliminates the risks of storage and transport of large seawater quantities and subsequent leakage of sample gas as well as ongoing microbial processes and chemical reactions that may alter the sample composition. In the subsequent shore-based treatment, a laboratory system is used to purify and combust the collected CH4 to AMS-amenable CO2. Subsamples from the methane traps are analyzed for stable isotopes and compared to stable isotope measurements directly measured from small water samples taken in parallel, to correct for any potential fractionation occurring during this process. The system has been successfully tested and used on several shorter shipboard expeditions in the Baltic Sea and on a long summer expedition across the Arctic Ocean. Here we present the details of the method and testing, as well as first triple isotope field data from two cruises to the Landsort Deep area in the Central Baltic Sea.

  10. Multi-isotope approach: a tool to better constrain both sources and processes affecting NO3 pollution in watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.

    2006-12-01

    Nitrate is one of the major pollutants of drinking water resources worldwide. Recent European directives reduced inputs from intensive agriculture, but in most places NO3 levels are approaching the potable limit of 50 mg.l-1 in groundwater. Determining the source(s) of contamination in groundwater is an important first step for improving its quality by emission control. It is with this aim that we review here the benefit of using a multi- isotope approach (d15N, d180, d11B and 87Sr/86Sr), in addition to conventional hydrogeological analysis, to both constrain the watersheds hydrology and trace the origin of their NO3 pollution. Watersheds presented here include both fractured bedrock and alluvial (subsurface and deep) hydrogeological contexts. The strontium budget in watersheds is mainly controlled by the water-rock interactions (human inputs usually represents negligible fluxes). With the example of the Allier river (Central France), we show that, even on a very small watershed, the main water flows can usually be determined by the use of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, thus helping understanding the hydrology controlling pollution processes. The characterisation of the different usual nitrate sources of pollution in groundwater (mineral fertilisers, wastewater and animals manure) shows that they can clearly be discriminated using isotopes. The isotopic composition of the dissolved nitrogen species has been used extensively to better constrain the sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater. The possibility of quantifying both origin and secondary processes affecting N concentrations by means of a single tracer appears more limited however. Nitrogen cannot be considered conservative because it is biologically modified through nitrification and denitrification reactions, both during infiltration of the water and in the groundwater body, causing isotopic fractionation that modifies the d15N-n signatures of the dissolved N species. Discriminating multiple NO3 sources by their N

  11. Historical and contemporary stable isotope tracer approaches to studying mammalian protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Daniel James

    2016-05-16

    Over a century ago, Frederick Soddy provided the first evidence for the existence of isotopes; elements that occupy the same position in the periodic table are essentially chemically identical but differ in mass due to a different number of neutrons within the atomic nucleus. Allied to the discovery of isotopes was the development of some of the first forms of mass spectrometers, driven forward by the Nobel laureates JJ Thomson and FW Aston, enabling the accurate separation, identification, and quantification of the relative abundance of these isotopes. As a result, within a few years, the number of known isotopes both stable and radioactive had greatly increased and there are now over 300 stable or radioisotopes presently known. Unknown at the time, however, was the potential utility of these isotopes within biological disciplines, it was soon discovered that these stable isotopes, particularly those of carbon ((13) C), nitrogen ((15) N), oxygen ((18) O), and hydrogen ((2) H) could be chemically introduced into organic compounds, such as fatty acids, amino acids, and sugars, and used to "trace" the metabolic fate of these compounds within biological systems. From this important breakthrough, the age of the isotope tracer was born. Over the following 80 yrs, stable isotopes would become a vital tool in not only the biological sciences, but also areas as diverse as forensics, geology, and art. This progress has been almost exclusively driven through the development of new and innovative mass spectrometry equipment from IRMS to GC-MS to LC-MS, which has allowed for the accurate quantitation of isotopic abundance within samples of complex matrices. This historical review details the development of stable isotope tracers as metabolic tools, with particular reference to their use in monitoring protein metabolism, highlighting the unique array of tools that are now available for the investigation of protein metabolism in vivo at a whole body down to a single protein

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Approaches to Understanding the Anomalous Distribution of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Gerardo; Christensen, Elizabeth; Boyer, Charisa; Park, Manesseh; Benitez, Ezra; Nunn, Morgan; Thiemens, Mark H.; Jackson, Terri

    2016-06-01

    Decades of careful laboratory analysis of primitive meteorites have revealed an intriguing and unexplained pattern in the distribution of oxygen isotopes in the solar system. With the recent analysis of solar wind oxygen by NASA’s Genesis mission, it appears that the Sun has a distinct oxygen isotopic composition from the terrestrial planets, asteroids, and comets. These differences cannot be explained by mass-dependent diffusion and require a physical-chemical mechanism or mechanisms that separate oxygen isotopes in a non-mass dependent manner.Several hypothesis have been proposed to explain the anomalous distribution. Photochemical self-shielding of CO may explain the anomalous distribution, however, this mechanism has key weaknesses including the requirement of a very fine tuned timescale to explain the isotopic differences between the Sun and bulk of the terrestrial planets. Recently, attention has been directed at understanding specific chemical reactions that occur on interstellar dust grains due to their similarities with non-equilibrium photochemical reactions believed to be responsible for the mass-independent isotopic fractionation patterns observed in Earth’s atmosphere. A specific focus has been directed towards understanding the formation of H2O because some of its precursor (HO2, and O3) are well-known to acquire mass-independent isotopic signatures when formed in the gas-phase.In this presentation, I describe a series of laboratory astrophysical experiments whose goal is to understand the distribution of oxygen isotopes in the solar system and perhaps, by extension, the distribution in other planetary systems. Preliminary results for the isotopic composition of O3 formed at 5K will be presented as well as the first, to our knowledge, measurements of the isotopic composition of H2O (18O/16O, 17O/16O, D/H) formed at 32K. We find that H2O formed in the astrophysical conditions we simulated acquired an anomalous isotopic composition with a triple

  13. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek, North Dakota: an isotopic approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek, Nort...

  14. Isotope Beta-Battery Approaches for Long-Lived Sensors: Technology Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    charge storage from isotopes was documented in 1913 (2). In the experiment, Moseley showed that in an evacuated chamber surrounding 20 mCi of radium ...he could develop 100s of kV of voltage potential due to the charge emitted (beta decay) from the radium . Charge collection using isotope emission... Radium . Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 1913, 88, 471. 3. Summerer, L.; Stephenson, K. Nuclear Power Sources: A Key Enabling Technology for Planetary

  15. Dew water effects on leaf water using a stable isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Lee, X.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of dew is a common meteorological phenomenon in field conditions and takes into account for significant portion of hydrologic processes in terrestrial ecosystems. The isotope composition of leaf water plays an important role in the isotopic water and carbon fluxes between terrestrial plants and the atmosphere. However, the consequence of dew formation in the plant-atmosphere relations has been ignored in many studies. The objective of this study is to improve our understanding of environmental and biological controls on the leaf water in equilibrium with dew water through laboratory experiments. Five species of plants (soybean, corn, sorghum, wheat, cotton) were grown hydroponically with water of a known isotopic content in a greenhouse. On the day of the experiment, they were first moved to ambient environment in full sunlight for at least 6 hr and then into a dark container inside the lab for up to 48 hr in which water vapor isotope ratios, temperature, and humidity were controlled. This arrangement created a step change in the forcing on the plant isotopic exchange. Leaves were sampled prior to the transfer to the dark container and 6 more times every 4 - 12 hr over the experiment. Humidity inside the container was saturated to mimic dew events in field conditions. Water from the leaf samples was extracted by a vacuum line and was analyzed for both δD and δ18O. The dataset will allow us to evaluate leaf water isotopic theories by exploring the transitions of the isotopic ratio of leaf water in response to the step change. Specifically, we are interested in whether the stomatal opening is an effective pathway for gaseous exchange in total darkness and how the transitional behaviors of the isotopic ratio of leaf water differ between the C3 and C4 photosynthesis pathways.

  16. Insights on the marine microbial nitrogen cycle from isotopic approaches to nitrification.

    PubMed

    Casciotti, Karen L; Buchwald, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen (N) cycle involves a variety of redox processes that control the availability and speciation of N in the environment and that are involved with the production of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), a climatically important greenhouse gas. Isotopic measurements of ammonium (NH(+) (4)), nitrite (NO(-) (2)), nitrate (NO(-) (3)), and N(2)O can now be used to track the cycling of these compounds and to infer their sources and sinks, which has lead to new and exciting discoveries. For example, dual isotope measurements of NO(-) (3) and NO(-) (2) have shown that there is NO(-) (3) regeneration in the ocean's euphotic zone, as well as in and around oxygen deficient zones (ODZs), indicating that nitrification may play more roles in the ocean's N cycle than generally thought. Likewise, the inverse isotope effect associated with NO(-) (2) oxidation yields unique information about the role of this process in NO(-) (2) cycling in the primary and secondary NO(-) (2) maxima. Finally, isotopic measurements of N(2)O in the ocean are indicative of an important role for nitrification in its production. These interpretations rely on knowledge of the isotope effects for the underlying microbial processes, in particular ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation. Here we review the isotope effects involved with the nitrification process and the insights provided by this information, then provide a prospectus for future work in this area.

  17. Origins and processes of groundwater salinization in the urban coastal aquifers of Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil): A multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Bertrand, Guillaume; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc; Martins, Veridiana; Hirata, Ricardo; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Hélène; Chatton, Eliot; Franzen, Melissa; Aurouet, Axel

    2015-10-15

    In the coastal multilayer aquifer system of a highly urbanized southern city (Recife, Brazil), where groundwaters are affected by salinization, a multi-isotope approach (Sr, B, O, H) was used to investigate the sources and processes of salinization. The high diversity of the geological bodies, built since the Atlantic opening during the Cretaceous, highly constrains the heterogeneity of the groundwater chemistry, e.g. Sr isotope ratios, and needs to be integrated to explain the salinization processes and groundwater pathways. A paleoseawater intrusion, most probably the 120 kyB.P. Pleistocene marine transgression, and cationic exchange are clearly evidenced in the most salinized parts of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. All (87)Sr/(86)Sr values are above the past and present-day seawater signatures, meaning that the Sr isotopic signature is altered due to additional Sr inputs from dilution with different freshwaters, and water-rock interactions. Only the Cabo aquifer presents a well-delimitated area of Na-HCO3 water typical of a freshening process. The two deep aquifers also display a broad range of B concentrations and B isotope ratios with values among the highest known to date (63-68.5‰). This suggests multiple sources and processes affecting B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays and mixing with wastewater. The highly fractionated B isotopic values were explained by infiltration of relatively salty water with B interacting with clays, pointing out the major role played by (palaeo)-channels for the deep Beberibe aquifer recharge. Based on an increase of salinity at the end of the dry season, a present-day seawater intrusion is identified in the surficial Boa Viagem aquifer. Our conceptual model presents a comprehensive understanding of the major groundwater salinization pathways and processes, and should be of benefit for other southern Atlantic coastal aquifers to better address groundwater management issues.

  18. Comparison of deterministic and stochastic approaches for isotopic concentration and decay heat uncertainty quantification on elementary fission pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, S.; Huynh, T. D.; Tsilanizara, A.

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification of interest outputs in nuclear fuel cycle is an important issue for nuclear safety, from nuclear facilities to long term deposits. Most of those outputs are functions of the isotopic vector density which is estimated by fuel cycle codes, such as DARWIN/PEPIN2, MENDEL, ORIGEN or FISPACT. CEA code systems DARWIN/PEPIN2 and MENDEL propagate by two different methods the uncertainty from nuclear data inputs to isotopic concentrations and decay heat. This paper shows comparisons between those two codes on a Uranium-235 thermal fission pulse. Effects of nuclear data evaluation's choice (ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.1 and JENDL-2011) is inspected in this paper. All results show good agreement between both codes and methods, ensuring the reliability of both approaches for a given evaluation.

  19. Dissolved Organic Carbon Cycling in Forested Watersheds: A Carbon Isotope Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, S. L.; Aravena, R.; Trumbore, S. E.; Dillon, P. J.

    1990-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is important in the acid-base chemistry of acid-sensitive freshwater systems; in the complexation, mobility, persistence, and toxicity of metals and other pollutants; and in lake carbon metabolism. Carbon isotopes (13C and 14C) are used to study the origin, transport, and fate of DOC in a softwater catchment in central Ontario. Precipitation, soil percolates, groundwaters, stream, beaver pond, and lake waters, and lake sediment pore water were characterized chemically and isotopically. In addition to total DOC, isotopic measurements were made on the humic and fulvic DOC fractions. The lake is a net sink for DOC. Δ14C results indicate that the turnover time of most of the DOC in streams, lakes, and wetlands is fast, less than 40 years, and on the same time scale as changes in acidic deposition. DOC in groundwaters is composed of older carbon than surface waters, indicating extensive cycling of DOC in the upper soil zone or aquifer.

  20. Multiple taxon multiple locality approach to providing oxygen isotope evidence for warm-blooded theropod dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Rogers, Raymond R.

    2000-09-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of fossil remains of coexisting taxa from several different localities can be used to help investigate dinosaur thermoregulation. Focusing on the Late Cretaceous, oxygen isotope ratios of crocodile tooth enamel from four separate localities exhibit less of a decrease with latitude than do ratios of tooth enamel from coexisting theropod dinosaurs. A shallower latitudinal gradient for crocodiles is consistent with how oxygen isotope ratios should vary for heterothermic animals having body temperatures coupled with their environments (“cold blooded”), while a steeper gradient for theropods is consistent with how these ratios should vary for homeothermic animals having constant body temperatures independent of their environments (“warm blooded”). This inferred homoethermy in theropods is likely due to higher rates of metabolic heat production relative to crocodiles and is not an artifact of body size.

  1. Isotopic ecology of coyotes from scat and road kill carcasses: A complementary approach to feeding experiments

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    Scat is frequently used to study animal diets because it is easy to find and collect, but one concern is that gross fecal analysis (GFA) techniques exaggerate the importance of small-bodied prey to mammalian mesopredator diets. To capitalize on the benefits of scat, we suggest the analysis of scat carbon and nitrogen isotope values (δ13C and δ15N). This technique offers researchers a non-invasive method to gather short-term dietary information. We conducted three interrelated studies to validate the use of isotopic values from coyote scat: 1) we determined tissue-to-tissue apparent C and N isotope enrichment factors (ε13* and ε15*) for coyotes from road kill animals (n = 4); 2) we derived diet-to-scat isotope discrimination factors for coyotes; and 3) we used field collected coyote scats (n = 12) to compare estimates of coyote dietary proportions from stable isotope mixing models with estimates from two GFA techniques. Scat consistently had the lowest δ13C and δ15N values among the tissues sampled. We derived a diet-to-scat Δ13C value of -1.5‰ ± 1.6‰ and Δ15N value of 2.3‰ ± 1.3‰ for coyotes. Coyote scat δ13C and δ15N values adjusted for discrimination consistently plot within the isotopic mixing space created by known dietary items. In comparison with GFA results, we found that mixing model estimates of coyote dietary proportions de-emphasize the importance of small-bodied prey. Coyote scat δ13C and δ15N values therefore offer a relatively quick and non-invasive way to gain accurate dietary information. PMID:28369133

  2. Record of seasonal body fluid composition in Black Clam (Bivalve) using clumped isotope thermometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, H.; Naidu, P. K.; Ghosh, P.

    2012-12-01

    Application of clumped isotope thermometry (Ghosh et al., 2006) is highly debated while resolving the issue of kinetic effect during biogenic carbonate precipitation. Mollusks are particularly attractive target to study the kinetic effect (Eiler, 2011) in the biological system owing to its incremental growth ring patterns. This allows understanding the role of environmental parameters other than temperature driving the distribution of heavier isotopologues. Guo et al., (2010) indicated role of pH in driving the distribution of heavier isotopolgues in the carbonates. We investigated here clumped isotopic composition of Black Calm (bivalve shell) caught live from a location in Southern Indian Estuary. The region experiences large change in seasonal condition. The physical environmental parameters at that location were monitored for last 3 years at monthly interval. The salinity, temperature, pH information are available for all the months when mollusc growth bands are deposited. The bottom water of estuary, where bivalve thrives experience maximum temperature of 32°C during November and December, while temperature during Monsoon months (July, August) drops lows to 26°C. Initial results on clumped isotope thermometry on the growth bands precipitated suggests that during the time in a year when pH level is alkaline i.e. 8.0±0.2 there is large consistency between actual temperature and estimated temperature using clumped isotope based thermometry. While the pH drops towards acidic i.e. 6.8±0.1 lower temperature estimates compared to actual was recorded. The effect of metabolic rate and body temperature variability is not been investigated as suggested in case of land snails based clumped isotope thermometry (Zaarur et al., 2011). Mollusc shell can be used to trace the composition of environmental water while pH variation is minimal. In this presentation analyses of more shell specimen and explore the role of pH and osmo-regulation in mollusc determining the clumped

  3. Dual isotopic approach for determining groundwater origin and water-rock interactions in over exploited watershed in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrel, Philippe; Pauwels, Hélène; Millot, Romain; Roy, Stéphane; Guerrot, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    isotopes in the return flow. In addition, such evaporation is further affected by land use, rice paddies having the strongest evapotranspiration. Lead concentrations span over one or two orders of magnitude up to approximately 20 ?g. L-1. Pb-isotopes, measured in water by MC-ICPMS using an improved new procedure, fluctuate largely as exemplified by the 206Pb/204Pb ratio, reaching values up to 25. Most of the lead in the groundwaters is of geogenic origin, and through the lead isotopic signature in groundwater we have traced and fingerprinted the processes of water-rock interactions considering the granite matrix. Combining a weathering model and field observations, we have defined a two step weathering process that includes a control on the Pb-isotopes ratios by accessory phases and by the main mineral from the granite in a second step of weathering. For future studies, multi-isotope approach will be necessary for the identification of possible flowpaths, in conjunction with the larger exploitation of the groundwater resources. This is also challenging for generalising the use of isotope tools (such as Nd, Sr, Pb and newly developed isotope systematics like Ca, Si...) in many other catchments that may face structural problems of groundwater overdraft.

  4. MONITORING FOOD WEB CHANGES IN TIDE-RESTORED SALT MARSHES: A CARBON STABLE ISOTOPE APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary producer (angiosperms, macroalgae, submerged aquatic vegetation), suspended particulate matter, and Fundulus heteroclitus isotope values (d13C , d15N, d34S) were examined to assess their use as an indicator for changes in food web support functions in tidally-restored sal...

  5. Dynamical approach to isotopic-distribution of fission fragments from actinide nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Chikako; Chiba, Satoshi; Karpov, Alexander V.; Aritomo, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of the isotope distribution of fission fragments, often denoted as the primary fission yield (pre-neutron yield) or independent fission yield (post-neutron yield) are still challenging at low excitation energies, so that it is important to investigate it within a theory. Such quantities are vital for applications as well. In this study, fragment distributions from the fission of U isotopes at low excitation energies are studied using a dynamical model. The potential energy surface is derived from the two center shell model including the shell and pairing corrections. In order to calculate the charge distribution of fission fragments, we introduce a new parameter ηZ as the charge asymmetry, in addition to three parameters describing a nuclear shape, z as the distance between two centers of mass, δ as fragment deformation, and ηA as the mass asymmetry. Using this model, we calculated the isotopic distribution of 236U for the n-induced process 235U + n → 236U at low excitation energies. As a result, we found that the current model can well reproduce isotopic fission-fragment distribution which can be compared favorably with major libraries.

  6. Positional Enrichment by Proton Analysis (PEPA): A One-Dimensional (1) H-NMR Approach for (13) C Stable Isotope Tracer Studies in Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Vinaixa, Maria; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Aivio, Suvi; Capellades, Jordi; Gómez, Josep; Canyellas, Nicolau; Stracker, Travis H; Yanes, Oscar

    2017-03-20

    A novel metabolomics approach for NMR-based stable isotope tracer studies called PEPA is presented, and its performance validated using human cancer cells. PEPA detects the position of carbon label in isotopically enriched metabolites and quantifies fractional enrichment by indirect determination of (13) C-satellite peaks using 1D-(1) H-NMR spectra. In comparison with (13) C-NMR, TOCSY and HSQC, PEPA improves sensitivity, accelerates the elucidation of (13) C positions in labeled metabolites and the quantification of the percentage of stable isotope enrichment. Altogether, PEPA provides a novel framework for extending the high-throughput of (1) H-NMR metabolic profiling to stable isotope tracing in metabolomics, facilitating and complementing the information derived from 2D-NMR experiments and expanding the range of isotopically enriched metabolites detected in cellular extracts.

  7. Positional Enrichment by Proton Analysis (PEPA): A One‐Dimensional 1H‐NMR Approach for 13C Stable Isotope Tracer Studies in Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Aivio, Suvi; Capellades, Jordi; Gómez, Josep; Canyellas, Nicolau; Stracker, Travis H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A novel metabolomics approach for NMR‐based stable isotope tracer studies called PEPA is presented, and its performance validated using human cancer cells. PEPA detects the position of carbon label in isotopically enriched metabolites and quantifies fractional enrichment by indirect determination of 13C‐satellite peaks using 1D‐1H‐NMR spectra. In comparison with 13C‐NMR, TOCSY and HSQC, PEPA improves sensitivity, accelerates the elucidation of 13C positions in labeled metabolites and the quantification of the percentage of stable isotope enrichment. Altogether, PEPA provides a novel framework for extending the high‐throughput of 1H‐NMR metabolic profiling to stable isotope tracing in metabolomics, facilitating and complementing the information derived from 2D‐NMR experiments and expanding the range of isotopically enriched metabolites detected in cellular extracts. PMID:28220994

  8. Sulfur Cycling-Related Biogeochemical Processes of Arsenic Mobilization in the Western Hetao Basin, China: Evidence from Multiple Isotope Approaches.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huaming; Zhou, Yinzhu; Jia, Yongfeng; Tang, Xiaohui; Li, Xiaofeng; Shen, Mengmeng; Lu, Hai; Han, Shuangbao; Wei, Chao; Norra, Stefan; Zhang, Fucun

    2016-12-06

    The role of sulfur cycling in arsenic behavior under reducing conditions is not well-understood in previous investigations. This study provides observations of sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation in sulfate and evaluation of sulfur cycling-related biogeochemical processes controlling dissolved arsenic groundwater concentrations using multiple isotope approaches. As a typical basin hosting high arsenic groundwater, the western Hetao basin was selected as the study area. Results showed that, along the groundwater flow paths, groundwater δ(34)SSO4, δ(18)OSO4, and δ(13)CDOC increased with increases in arsenic, dissolved iron, hydrogen sulfide and ammonium concentrations, while δ(13)CDIC decreased with decreasing Eh and sulfate/chloride. Bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) was responsible for many of these observed changes. The δ(34)SSO4 indicated that dissolved sulfate was mainly sourced from oxidative weathering of sulfides in upgradient alluvial fans. The high oxygen-sulfur isotope fractionation ratio (0.60) may result from both slow sulfate reduction rates and bacterial disproportionation of sulfur intermediates (BDSI). Data indicate that both the sulfide produced by BSR and the overall BDSI reduce arsenic-bearing iron(III) oxyhydroxides, leading to the release of arsenic into groundwater. These results suggest that sulfur-related biogeochemical processes are important in mobilizing arsenic in aquifer systems.

  9. Mapping the Elephants of the 19th Century East African Ivory Trade with a Multi-Isotope Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Thorp, Julia; Collins, Matthew J.; Lane, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    East African elephants have been hunted for their ivory for millennia but the nineteenth century witnessed strongly escalating demand from Europe and North America. It has been suggested that one consequence was that by the 1880s elephant herds along the coast had become scarce, and to meet demand, trade caravans trekked farther into interior regions of East Africa, extending the extraction frontier. The steady decimation of elephant populations coupled with the extension of trade networks have also been claimed to have triggered significant ecological and socio-economic changes that left lasting legacies across the region. To explore the feasibility of using an isotopic approach to uncover a ‘moving frontier’ of elephant extraction, we constructed a baseline isotope data set (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr) for historic East African elephants known to have come from three distinct regions (coastal, Rift Valley, and inland Lakes). Using the isotope results with other climate data and geographical mapping tools, it was possible to characterise elephants from different habitats across the region. This baseline data set was then used to provenance elephant ivory of unknown geographical provenance that was exported from East Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to determine its likely origin. This produced a better understanding of historic elephant geography in the region, and the data have the potential to be used to provenance older archaeological ivories, and to inform contemporary elephant conservation strategies. PMID:27760152

  10. Tracing the source of cooking oils with an integrated approach of using stable carbon isotope and fatty acid abundance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiguo; Yang, Hong; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Jinzhao

    2012-08-15

    We report a new approach to identify swill-cooked oils that are recycled from tainted food and livestock waste from commercial vegetable and animal oils by means of carbon isotope values and relative abundance of fatty acids. We test this method using 40 cooking oil samples of different types with known sources. We found significant differences in both total organic carbon isotope as well as compound-specific isotope values and fatty acid C(14)/C(18) ratios between commercial vegetable oils refined from C(3) plants (from -35.7 to -27.0‰ and from 0 to 0.15) and animal oils (from -28.3 to -14.3‰ and from 0.1 to 0.6). Tested swill-cooked oils, which were generally refined by mixing with animal waste illegally, fall into a narrow δ(13)C/fatty acid ratio distribution: from -25.9 to -24.1‰ and from 0.1 to 0.2. Our data demonstrate that the index of a cross-plotting between fatty acid δ(13)C values and C(14)/C(18) ratios can be used to distinguish clean commercial cooking oils from illegal swill-cooked oils.

  11. Mapping the Elephants of the 19th Century East African Ivory Trade with a Multi-Isotope Approach.

    PubMed

    Coutu, Ashley N; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Collins, Matthew J; Lane, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    East African elephants have been hunted for their ivory for millennia but the nineteenth century witnessed strongly escalating demand from Europe and North America. It has been suggested that one consequence was that by the 1880s elephant herds along the coast had become scarce, and to meet demand, trade caravans trekked farther into interior regions of East Africa, extending the extraction frontier. The steady decimation of elephant populations coupled with the extension of trade networks have also been claimed to have triggered significant ecological and socio-economic changes that left lasting legacies across the region. To explore the feasibility of using an isotopic approach to uncover a 'moving frontier' of elephant extraction, we constructed a baseline isotope data set (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr) for historic East African elephants known to have come from three distinct regions (coastal, Rift Valley, and inland Lakes). Using the isotope results with other climate data and geographical mapping tools, it was possible to characterise elephants from different habitats across the region. This baseline data set was then used to provenance elephant ivory of unknown geographical provenance that was exported from East Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to determine its likely origin. This produced a better understanding of historic elephant geography in the region, and the data have the potential to be used to provenance older archaeological ivories, and to inform contemporary elephant conservation strategies.

  12. A spatially explicit multi-isotope approach to map influence regions of plant-plant interactions after exotic plant invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Christine; Oldeland, Jens; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Exotic plant invasions impose profound alterations to native ecosystems, including changes of water, carbon and nutrient cycles. However, explicitly quantifying these impacts remains a challenge. Stable isotopes, by providing natural tracers of biogeochemical processes, can help to identify and measure such alterations in space and time. Recently, δ15N isoscapes, i.e. spatially continuous representations of isotopic values, derived from native plant foliage, enabled to accurately trace nitrogen introduced by the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia into a native Portuguese dune system. It could be shown that the area of the system which was altered by the invasive species exceeded the area which was covered by the invader by far. But still, definition of clear regions of influence is to some extent ambiguous. Here, we present an approach using multiple isoscapes derived from measured foliar δ13C and δ15N values of a native, non-fixing species, Corema album. By clustering isotopic information, we obtained an objective classification of the study area. Properties and spatial position of clusters could be interpreted to distinguish areas that were or were not influenced by A. longifolia. Spatial clusters at locations where A. longifolia was present had δ15N values that were enriched, i.e. close to the atmospheric signal of 0 o compared to the depleted values of the uninvaded system (ca. -11 o). Furthermore, C. album individuals in these clusters were characterized by higher foliar N content and enriched δ13C. These results indicate that the N2-fixing A. longifolia added nitrogen to the system which originated from the atmosphere and was used by the native C. album, inducing functional changes, i.e. an increase in WUE. Additionally, clusters were identified that were presumably determined by inherent properties of the native system. Thus, combining isotope ecology with geostatistical methods is a promising approach for mapping regions of influence in multi-isotope

  13. Dynamics of Zn in an urban wetland soil-plant system: Coupling isotopic and EXAFS approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucour, Anne-Marie; Bedell, Jean-Philippe; Queyron, Marine; Magnin, Valérie; Testemale, Denis; Sarret, Géraldine

    2015-07-01

    Plants play a key role in the stabilization of metals in contaminated environments. Studies have been performed on Zn uptake and storage mechanisms, mainly for Zn hyperaccumulating plants, though less is known about Zn stabilization in the rhizosphere of non-accumulating plants. This study was focused on the dynamics of Zn in a whole soil-litter-plant system and the processes controlling Zn mobilization and stabilization. The site studied was an infiltration basin receiving urban stormwater, in which Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) developed spontaneously. A combination of chemical extractions (CaCl2, DTPA), EXAFS spectroscopy and Zn stable isotope measurements was applied for the water inlet, soil, plant organs and decaying biomass. Zn speciation changed from the water inlet to the soil. In the soil, Zn was present as Zn-layered double hydroxide (Zn-LDH), tetrahedral and octahedral sorbed Zn species. The formation of Zn-LDH participates in Zn stabilization. Tetrahedral Zn species, which were partly DTPA exchangeable, were enriched in heavy isotopes, whereas octahedral Zn (Zn-LDH and sorbed species) were enriched in light isotopes. Based on a linear model between δ66Zn and Zn speciation, δ66Zn for pure tetrahedral and octahedral end-members were estimated at ca. 0.33‰ and 0.04‰, respectively. In the plant, a mixture of octahedral Zn (attributed to aqueous Zn-organic acid complexes present in the symplasm), and tetrahedral Zn (attributed to apoplasmic Zn-cell wall complexes) was observed in all organs. Large enrichment in light isotopes from the soil to the plant Δ66Zn (of ca. -0.6‰) was observed. The stem was enriched in light isotopes versus roots and, to a lesser extent, versus leaves. The results suggest that Zn was taken up via a low-affinity transport system and that Zn was sequestrated in the stem symplasm after transit through leaves. Finally, intense Zn exchanges were observed between the decaying biomass and the soil, with the sorption of

  14. A Metal Stable Isotope Approach to Understanding Uranium Mobility Across Roll Front Redox Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. T.; Basu, A.; Christensen, J. N.; DePaolo, D. J.; Heikoop, J. M.; Reimus, P. W.; Maher, K.; Weaver, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary roll-front uranium (U) ore deposits are the principal source of U for nuclear fuel in the USA and an important part of the current all-of-the-above energy strategy. Mining of roll-front U ore in the USA is primarily by in situ alkaline oxidative dissolution of U minerals. There are significant environmental benefits to in situ mining including no mine tailings or radioactive dust, however, the long-term immobilization of U in the aquifer after the completion of mining remains uncertain. We have utilized the metal stable isotopes U, Se and Mo in groundwater from roll-front mines in Texas and Wyoming to quantify the aquifer redox conditions and predict the onset of U reduction after post mining aquifer restoration. Supporting information from the geochemistry of groundwater and aquifer sediments are used to understand the transport of U prior to and after in situ mining. Groundwater was collected across 4 mining units at the Rosita mine in the Texas coastal plain and 2 mining units at the Smith Ranch mine in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. In general, the sampled waters are moderately reducing and ore zone wells contain the highest aqueous U concentrations. The lowest U concentrations occur in monitoring wells downgradient of the ore zone. 238U/235U is lowest in downgradient wells and is correlated with aqueous U concentrations. Rayleigh distillation models of the 238U/235U are consistent with U isotope fractionation factors of 1.0004-1.001, similar to lab-based studies. Based on these results we conclude that redox reactions continue to affect U distribution in the ore zone and downgradient regions. We also measured aqueous selenium isotope (δ82Se) and molybdenum isotope (δ98Mo) compositions in the Rosita groundwater. Se(VI) primarily occurs in the upgradient wells and is absent in most ore zone and downgradient wells. Rayleigh distillation models suggest reduction of Se(VI) along the groundwater flow path and when superimposed on the U isotope data

  15. Sr Isotopes and human skeletal remains, improving a methodological approach in migration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis Pichardo, G.; Schaaf, P. E.; Hernandez, T.; Horn, P.; Manzanilla, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    Asserting mobility of ancient humans is a major issue for anthropologists. Sr isotopes are widely used in anthropological sciences to trace human migration histories from ancient burials. Sr in bone approximately reflects the isotopic composition of the geological region where the person lived before death; whereas the Sr isotopic system in tooth enamel is thought to remain as a closed system and thus conserves the isotope ratio acquired during childhood. A comparison of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios found in tooth enamel and in bone is performed to determine if the human skeletal remains belonged to a local or a migrant. Until now, tooth enamel was considered to be less sensitive to secondary Sr contamination due to its higher crystallinity and larger sizes of the biogenic apatites in comparison to that in bone and dentine. In the past, enamel as well as bone material was powdered, dissolved and analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). In this contribution we show, however, that simple dissolution of enamel frequently yields erroneous results. Tooth enamel is often affected by secondary strontium contamination processes such as caries or diagenetic and environmental input, which can change the original isotopic composition. To avoid these problems we introduced a pre-treatment and three-step leaching procedure in enamel samples. Leaching is carried out with acetic acid of different concentrations, yielding two leachates and one residue of each sample. Frequently the 87Sr/86Sr results of the three leachates display different values confirming that secondary contamination did occur. Several examples from Teotihuacan, central Mexico demonstrate that enamel 87Sr/86Sr without leaching can show correct biogenic values, but there is also a considerable probability for these values to represent a mixture of original and secondary Sr without significance for migration reconstructions. Only the residue value is interpreted by us as the representative ratio for

  16. The first investigation of Wilms' tumour atomic structure-nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition as a novel biomarker for the most individual approach in cancer disease

    PubMed Central

    Taran, Katarzyna; Frączek, Tomasz; Sikora-Szubert, Anita; Sitkiewicz, Anna; Młynarski, Wojciech; Kobos, Józef; Paneth, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a novel approach to investigating Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma) biology at the atomic level. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) was used to directly assess the isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon in 84 Wilms' tumour tissue samples from 28 cases representing the histological spectrum of nephroblastoma. Marked differences in nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios were found between nephroblastoma histological types and along the course of cancer disease, with a breakout in isotope ratio of the examined elements in tumour tissue found between stages 2 and 3. Different isotopic compositions with regard to nitrogen and carbon content were observed in blastemal Wilms' tumour, with and without focal anaplasia, and in poorly- and well-differentiated epithelial nephroblastoma. This first assessment of nitrogen and carbon isotope ratio reveals the previously unknown part of Wilms' tumour biology and represents a potential novel biomarker, allowing for a highly individual approach to treating cancer. Furthermore, this method of estimating isotopic composition appears to be the most sensitive tool yet for cancer tissue evaluation, and a valuable complement to established cancer study methods with prospective clinical impact. PMID:27732932

  17. The first investigation of Wilms' tumour atomic structure-nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition as a novel biomarker for the most individual approach in cancer disease.

    PubMed

    Taran, Katarzyna; Frączek, Tomasz; Sikora-Szubert, Anita; Sitkiewicz, Anna; Młynarski, Wojciech; Kobos, Józef; Paneth, Piotr

    2016-11-22

    The paper describes a novel approach to investigating Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma) biology at the atomic level. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) was used to directly assess the isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon in 84 Wilms' tumour tissue samples from 28 cases representing the histological spectrum of nephroblastoma. Marked differences in nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios were found between nephroblastoma histological types and along the course of cancer disease, with a breakout in isotope ratio of the examined elements in tumour tissue found between stages 2 and 3. Different isotopic compositions with regard to nitrogen and carbon content were observed in blastemal Wilms' tumour, with and without focal anaplasia, and in poorly- and well-differentiated epithelial nephroblastoma. This first assessment of nitrogen and carbon isotope ratio reveals the previously unknown part of Wilms' tumour biology and represents a potential novel biomarker, allowing for a highly individual approach to treating cancer. Furthermore, this method of estimating isotopic composition appears to be the most sensitive tool yet for cancer tissue evaluation, and a valuable complement to established cancer study methods with prospective clinical impact.

  18. Does exercise stimulate protein breakdown in humans. Isotopic approaches to the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    Protein metabolism in exercise has been investigated for 100 yr, yet it is still unclear if exercise induces an increased rate of protein breakdown. We have recently addressed this general question in a series of experiments in human subjects using stable isotopic tracers. In this paper, the results of those studies are reviewed. We have found that in light exercise the de-carboxylation of leucine is increased. However, urea production is not increased correspondingly, nor is the rate of incorporation into urea of nitrogen from either leucine or lysine. Further complicating the picture is the fact that lysine de-carboxylation is not markedly elevated in exercise. From these studies, we must conclude that isotopic techniques which have achieved general acceptance in other circumstances cannot reliably be used to answer the question of whether exercise stimulates protein breakdown in humans. However, these methods do provide results which enable a better understanding of the metabolism of the individual amino acids in exercise.

  19. Assessing the authenticity of commercial deep-sea drinking water by chemical and isotopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tsung-Ren; Liang, Wen-Jui; Liu, Tsang-Sen; Lin, Yu-Wen; Zhan, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study combines stable isotopes and chemical elements with statistical principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the authenticity of bottled commercial drinking water desalinized from deep seawater in the Taiwan market. Isotopic results indicate that true bottled deep-sea drinking water (DSDW) exhibits about 0 ‰ for both δ(2)H and δ(18)O values, which are values similar to those of open seawater. By comparison, suspected counterfeit DSDW products display δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of around -51 ‰ and -8 ‰, respectively. These values are representative of terrestrial freshwater. In addition, suspected counterfeit DSDWs have δ and electrical conductivity values similar to a mixed water (MW) product that was manufactured by purifying terrestrial freshwater and adulterating this with small amounts of brine. Furthermore, PCA results indicate the chemical constitution of suspected DSDW products to be similar to the MW product which falls between purified terrestrial freshwater and desalinized open seawater. These similarities imply that suspected counterfeit DSDW products are manufactured in a similar manner to the declared MW product. This study demonstrates how combining knowledge of stable water isotopes and PCA can be used in assessing the authenticity of commercial DSDW products. The method should be of great interest to similar investigations elsewhere.

  20. Potential of calcium isotopes to identify fractionations in vegetation: experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobert, F.; Schmitt, A.; Bourgade, P.; Stille, P.; Chabaux, F. J.; Badot, P.; Jaegler, T.

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to better understand the role of vegetation on the Ca cycle at the level of the critical zone of the Earth, in order to specify the mechanisms controlling the Ca absorption by plants at the rock/plant interface. To do this, we performed experiments using hydroponic plant cultures in a way that we could control the cooccuring geochemical and biological processes and determine the impact of the nutritive solution on the Ca cycle within plants. A dicotyledon and calcicole plant with rapid growth, the French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), has been chosen to have access to one complete growth cycle. Several experiments have been conducted with two Ca concentrations, 5 (L) and 60 (H) ppm and two pH values (4 and 6) in the nutritive solution, for which the Ca concentration was maintained constant, so its Ca content is considered to be infinite. We determined Ca concentrations and isotopic ratios in the nutritive solution and in different organs (main roots, secondary roots, old and young stems, old and young leaves and fruits) at two different growth stages (10 days and 6 weeks). Our results show, in accord with previously published field studies, that the bean organs are all enriched in the light 40Ca isotope compared to the nutritive solution (e.g. Wigand et al., 2005; Page et al., 2008; Cenki-Tok et al., 2009; Holmden and Bélanger, 2010). We identify two fractionation levels. The first occurs during the uptake of the nutrient elements by the lateral roots. This implies that the main mechanisms of light isotope enrichments in the plant are due to electrochemical gradient transport processes taking place at this interface. The second fractionation can be observed within the plant itself and is due to the nature of the considered organ itself. Indeed structural reservoirs (primary roots, stem, reproductive organs) incorporate more the light 40Ca isotope compared to the transfer reservoirs (lateral roots, xylem sap, leaves). This could be linked to ion

  1. Apportioning sources of organic matter in streambed sediments: an integrated molecular and compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard J; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Hiscock, Kevin M; Disdle, Paul; Krueger, Tobias; Rawlins, Barry G

    2015-07-01

    clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of an integrated molecular and stable isotope analysis for quantitatively apportioning, with uncertainty, plant-specific organic matter contributions to streambed sediments via a Bayesian mixing model approach.

  2. Improvement of water and light availability after thinning at a xeric site: which matters more? A dual isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Giuggiola, Arnaud; Ogée, Jérôme; Rigling, Andreas; Gessler, Arthur; Bugmann, Harald; Treydte, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Thinning fosters individual tree growth by increasing the availability of water, light and nutrients. At sites where water rather than light is limiting, thinning also enhances soil evaporation and might not be beneficial. Detailed knowledge of the short- to long-term physiological response underlying the growth responses to thinning is crucial for the management of forests already suffering from recurrent drought-induced dieback. We applied a dual isotope approach together with mechanistic isotope models to study the physiological processes underlying long-term growth enhancement of heavily thinned Pinus sylvestris in a xeric forest in Switzerland. This approach allowed us to identify and disentangle thinning-induced changes in stomatal conductance and assimilation rate. At our xeric study site, the increase in stomatal conductance far outweighed the increase in assimilation, implying that growth release in heavily thinned trees is primarily driven by enhanced water availability rather than increased light availability. We conclude that in forests with relatively isohydric species (drought avoiders) that are growing close to their physiological limits, thinning is recommended to maintain a less negative water balance and thus foster tree growth, and ultimately the survival of forest trees under drought.

  3. Water and light improvement after thinning at a xeric site: Which weights the most? A dual isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuggiola, Arnaud; Ogée, Jérôme; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Bugmann, Harald; Treydte, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    Reductions in stand density foster individual tree growth due to increases of resources such as water, light and nutrients. Detailed knowledge of the short- to long-term physiological response underlying the growth response to thinning is crucial for the management of forests already suffering from recurrent drought-induced dieback. We applied a dual isotope approach together with mechanistic isotope models such as MuSICA to study the physiological processes underlying growth enhancement in a long-term thinning experiment in a xeric Pinus sylvestris forest in Switzerland. This approach allowed for identifying and disentangling changes in stomatal conductance and assimilation rate. Our results indicate that an increase in stomatal conductance outweighs an increase in assimilation, meaning that the observed growth releases in heavy thinned trees at our xeric site are primarily driven by enhanced water availability rather than by the increase in light availability. We conclude that in areas with isohydric species (drought avoiders) that tend to grow close to their physiological limits, thinning is highly recommended to maintain a less negative water balance and thus foster tree growth, and ultimately the survival rate of individual trees and forests.

  4. Food sources of wintering piscivorous waterbirds in coastal waters: A triple stable isotope approach for the southeastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morkūnė, Rasa; Lesutienė, Jūratė; Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Morkūnas, Julius; Gasiūnaitė, Zita R.

    2016-03-01

    This study uses a triple isotope approach (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S) to quantify the main food sources for wintering piscivorous waterbirds in the coastal zone of the southeastern Baltic Sea. Significant differences of δ15N and δ34S values among pelagic fishes, benthic fishes, and benthopelagic European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) were detected, while δ13C was similar among these sources. Using different combinations of δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S values in mixing models, we found that common guillemot (Uria aalge) and red-throated diver (Gavia stellata) mostly foraged on pelagic prey (50-70% and 51-56%, respectively), whereas great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus) consumed benthic prey (48-53%). European smelt comprised a substantial proportion of the diet of studied birds (19-36%). A stable isotope approach can be recommended as a non-lethal method to study avian diets in the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea.

  5. Isotopic Approaches to Allying Productivity and Sulfur Metabolism in Three Symbiotic Hydrothermal Vent Molluscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beinart, R.; Gartman, A.; Sanders, J. G.; Luther, G. W.; Girguis, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Symbioses between animals and chemosynthetic bacteria predominate at hydrothermal vents. In these associations, the endosymbiotic bacteria utilize chemical reductants for the energy to support autotrophy, providing primary nutrition for the host. Despite their ubiquity at vents worldwide, little is known about the rates of productivity of these symbioses under different physico-chemical regimes or how their metabolism effects the local geochemical environment. To address this matter, we used high-pressure flow through incubations and stable isotopic tracers to maintain three genera of symbiotic mollusc - the gastropods Alviniconcha and Ifremeria, and the mussel Bathymodiolus - at vent-like conditions. Via the incorporation of isotopically labeled compounds, we assessed their productivity when using different reduced sulfur species as reductants. Using cyclic voltammetry, mass spectrometry and discrete geochemical analyses, we concurrently measured their effect on sulfur flux from the vessels. We found that the symbionts of all three genera can support autotrophy with hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate, though at different rates. Additionally, by examining the rate of isotopic incorporation into biomass, we revealed intra-generic variability in productivity among the individuals in our experimental assemblages that are likely related to differences in the geochemical regime along the length of reactor. These geochemical gradients are due to the activity of other individuals within the vessel, since those organisms closest to the influent of the vent-like water had the highest measured carbon incorporation. Finally, we measured the uptake and excretion of sulfur species, which illustrate the degree to which these symbioses might impact local sulfur chemistry in situ. These experiments show that A) access to particular sulfur species differentially affects the productivity of vent symbioses, suggesting that competition for these substrates, both within and between host

  6. Isotopic Approach to Soil Carbonate Dynamics and Implications for Paleoclimatic Interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendall, E.G.; Harden, J.W.; Trumbore, S.E.; Chadwick, O.A.

    1994-01-01

    The radiocarbon content and stable isotope composition of soil carbonate are best described by a dynamic system in which isotopic reequilibration occurs as a result of recurrent dissolution and reprecipitation. Depth of water penetration into the soil profile, as well as soil age, determines the degree of carbonate isotope reequilibration. We measured ??13C, ??18O and radiocarbon content of gravel rinds and fine (<2 mm) carbonate in soils of 3 .different ages (1000, 3800, and 6300 14 C yr B.P.) to assess the degree to which they record and preserve a climatic signal. In soils developing in deposits independently dated at 3800 and 6300 radiocarbon yr B.P., carbonate radiocarbon content above 40 cm depth suggests continual dissolution and reprecipitation, presumably due to frequent wetting events. Between 40 and 90 cm depth, fine carbonate is dissolved and precipitated as rinds that are not redissolved subsequently. Below 90 cm depth in these soils, radiocarbon content indicates that inherited, fine carbonate undergoes little dissolution and reprecipitation. In the 3800- and 6300-yr-old soils, ??13C in rind and fine carbonate follows a decreasing trend with depth, apparently in equilibrium with modern soil gas, as predicted by a diffusive model for soil CO2. ??18O also decreases with depth due to greater evaporative enrichment above 50 cm depth. In contrast, carbonate isotopes in a 1000-yr-old deposit do not reflect modern conditions even in surficial horizons; this soil has not undergone significant pedogenesis. There appears to be a lag of at least 1000 but less than 3800 yr before carbonate inherited with parent material is modified by ambient climatic conditions. Although small amounts of carbonate are inherited with the parent material, the rate of pedogenic carbonate accumulation indicates that Ca is derived primarily from eolian and rainfall sources. A model describing carbonate input and radiocarbon decay suggests that fine carbonate below 90 cm is mostly

  7. A Nd Isotopic Composition Modeling Approach of the Oceanic Thermohaline Circulation Change During LGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsouze, T.; Dutay, J.; Lacan, F.; Jeandel, C.; Alkama, R.; Kageyama, M.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-12-01

    The role of thermohaline circulation in climate change has been a matter of debate for a long time. Proxies of past ocean circulation such as δ13C or 231Pa/230Th suggest a relationship between North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) strength and rapid climate change. Neodymium isotopic composition (Nd IC) is a quasi conservative geochemical tracer of water masses in the ocean interior and thus can be used as a proxy for NADW. Seawater Nd IC being recorded in marine sediments, this proxy is used to infer paleo-circulations on various time scales. Recent studies of Nd IC records, in the ferromanganese oxide components of a South Atlantic core, confirm the close relation between thermohaline circulation and North Atlantic climate changes through the last deglaciation (Piotrowski et al., 2004). Our purpose here is to model the Nd IC during the LGM and the Holocene with the Ocean Global Circulation Model NEMO, in the ORCA2 (2°) configuration. The explicit simulation of this proxy in the model allows to investigate and quantify the circulation change that corresponds to the Nd isotopic composition variation recorded in the sediments. We consider that the main source of Nd into the ocean is the interaction between water masses and continental margins (Boundary Exchange process; (Lacan and Jeandel, 2005). Boundary exchange is parameterized using a relaxing term (Arsouze et al., 2006). Simulated Nd IC distributions are evaluated by comparison with available records for the LGM and Holocene. References: Arsouze, T., Dutay, J.-C., Lacan, F. and Jeandel, C., 2006. Modeling the neodymium isotopic composition with a global ocean circulation model Chemical Geology, in press. Lacan, F. and Jeandel, C., 2005. Neodymium isotopes as a new tool for quantifying exchange fluxes at the continent - ocean interface. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 232(3-4): 245-257. Piotrowski, A.M., Goldstein, S.L., Hemming, S.R. and Fairbanks, R.G., 2004. Intensification and variability of ocean

  8. Contribution of recycled moisture to precipitation in oases of arid central Asia: A stable isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Mingjun; Che, Yanjun; Chen, Fenli; Qiang, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial moisture contributed by surface evaporation and transpiration, also known as recycled moisture, plays an important role in hydrological processes especially across arid central Asia. The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes can be used for water budget analysis to calculate the contribution of recycled moisture to precipitation between two locations along the moisture flow. Based on a three-component isotopic mixing model, the moisture recycling in oasis stations of arid central Asia during summer months is assessed. At large oases of Urumqi, the proportional contribution of recycled moisture to local precipitation is approximately 16.2%, and the mean proportions of surface evaporation and transpiration are 5.9% ± 1.5% and 10.3% ± 2.2%, respectively. At small oases like Shihezi and Caijiahu the contribution of recycled moisture is less than 5%, and the proportion of surface evaporation is much less than that of transpiration. The vegetative cover in arid central Asia is generally sparse, but the evapotranspiration contribution to precipitation cannot be ignored at the widely distributed oases. The oasis effect shows great variability depending on locations and water availability for evapotranspiration.

  9. Characterization of surface water and groundwater in the Damascus Ghotta basin: hydrochemical and environmental isotopes approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattan, Zuhair

    2006-11-01

    The hydrochemistry of major ions and environmental isotope compositions (18O, 2H and tritium) of water samples have been used to investigate the characteristics of rainfalls, surface water and groundwater in the Damascus Ghotta basin. The groundwater salinity in the Damascus Ghotta basin gradually increases, as the groundwater moves from western to south-eastern and north-eastern parts of the basin. A strong relationship exists between the Barada river and the surrounded groundwaters, mainly in terms of recharge by infiltration of surface waters. The groundwater quality in the Adra region has clearly become less saline as a result of establishment of the sewage-water-treatment station in this area since 1997. The uncommon depleted stable isotope concentrations in the vicinity of Al-Ateibeh Lake and Adra valley could be interpreted as a result of sub-flow recharge from the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer, mostly prolonged along the Damascus Fault, which forms direct contact between this complex and the Quaternary alluvium aquifers. The extensive exploitation of water from the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer for drinking water supply would shortly be reflected by a gradual decline of the groundwater table in the Damascus Ghotta basin. Amelioration of water quality in the Damascus basin still requires further management strategies and efforts to be taken within the forthcoming years.

  10. Characterizing sources and natural attenuation of nitrate contamination in the Baix Ter aquifer system (NE Spain) using a multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Puig, Roger; Soler, Albert; Widory, David; Mas-Pla, Josep; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus

    2017-02-15

    Nitrate pollution is a widespread issue affecting global water resources with significant economic and health effects. Knowledge of both the corresponding pollution sources and of processes naturally attenuating them is thus of crucial importance in assessing water management policies and the impact of anthropogenic activities. In this study, an approach combining hydrodynamic, hydrochemical and multi-isotope systematics (8 isotopes) is used to characterize the sources of nitrate pollution and potential natural attenuation processes in a polluted basin of NE Spain. δ(2)H and δ(18)O isotopes were used to further characterize the sources of recharge of the aquifers. Results show that NO3(-) is not homogeneously distributed and presents a large range of concentrations, from no NO3(-) to up to 480mgL(-1). δ(15)N and δ(18)O of dissolved NO3(-) identified manure as the main source of nitrate, although sewage and mineral fertilizers can also be isotopically detected using boron isotopes (δ(11)B) and δ(34)S and δ(18)O of dissolved sulphate, respectively. The multi-isotope approach proved that natural denitrification is occurring, especially in near-river environments or in areas hydrologically related to fault zones. δ(34)S and δ(18)O indicated that denitrification is not driven by pyrite oxidation but rather by the oxidation of organic matter. This could not be confirmed by the study of δ(13)CHCO3 that was buffered by the entanglement of other processes and sources.

  11. A stable isotope approach to assessing water loss in fruits and vegetables during storage.

    PubMed

    Greule, Markus; Rossmann, Andreas; Schmidt, Hanns-Ludwig; Mosandl, Armin; Keppler, Frank

    2015-02-25

    Plant tissue water is the source of oxygen and hydrogen in organic biomatter. Recently, we demonstrated that the stable hydrogen isotope value (δ(2)H) of plant methoxyl groups is a very reliable and easily available archive for the δ(2)H value of this tissue water. Here we show in a model experiment that the δ(2)H values of methoxyl groups remain unchanged after water loss during storage of fruits and vegetables under controlled conditions, while δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of tissue water increase. This enhancement is plant-dependent, and the correlation differs from the meteoric water line. The δ(18)O value is better correlated to the weight decrease of the samples. Therefore, we postulate that the δ(2)H value of methoxyl groups and the δ(18)O value of tissue water are suitable parameters for checking postharvest alterations of tissue water, either addition or loss.

  12. Tracing carbon uptake from a natural CO2 spring into tree rings: an isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo; Bonani, Georges; Siegwolf, Rolf

    2003-10-01

    We analyzed 14C, 13C and 18O isotope variations over a 50-year period in tree rings of Quercus ilex L. trees growing at a natural CO2 spring in a Mediterranean ecosystem. We compared trees from two sites, one with high and one with low exposure to CO2 from the spring. The spring CO2 is free of 14C. Thus, this carbon can be traced in the wood, and the amount originating from the spring calculated. The amount decreased over time, from about 40% in 1950 to 15% at present for the site near the spring, indicating a potential difficulty in the use of natural CO2 springs for elevated CO2 research. The reason for the decrease may be decreasing emission from the spring or changes in stand structure, e.g., growth of the canopy into regions with lower concentrations. We used the 14C-calculated CO2 concentration in the canopy to determine the 13C discrimination of the plants growing under elevated CO2 by calculating the effective canopy air 13C/12C isotopic composition. The trees near the spring showed a 2.5 per thousand larger 13C discrimination than the more distant trees at the beginning of the investigated period, i.e., for the young trees, but this difference gradually disappeared. Higher discrimination under elevated CO2 indicated reduced photosynthetic capacity or increased stomatal conductance. The latter assumption is unlikely as inferred from the 18O data, which were insensitive to CO2 concentration. In conclusion, we found evidence for a downward adjustment of photosynthesis under elevated CO2 in Q. ilex in this dry, nutrient-poor environment.

  13. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kelton W; Thorrold, Simon R; Houghton, Leah A; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world's oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ(13)C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization.

  14. Investigation of the Mg isotopes using the shell-model-like approach in relativistic mean field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Li, Xiao-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Ground state properties for Mg isotopes, including binding energies, one- and two-neutron separation energies, pairing energies, nuclear matter radii and quadrupole deformation parameters, are obtained from the self-consistent relativistic mean field (RMF) model with the pairing correlations treated by a shell-mode-like approach (SLAP), in which the particle-number is conserved and the blocking effects are treated exactly. The experimental data, including the binding energies and the one- and two-neutron separation energies, which are sensitive to the treatment of pairing correlations and block effects, are well reproduced by the RMF+SLAP calculations. Supported by NSFC (11465001,11275098, 11275248, 11505058,11165001) and Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia of China (2016BS0102)

  15. Dual-Labeled Near-Infrared/99mTc Imaging Probes Using PAMAM-Coated Silica Nanoparticles for the Imaging of HER2-Expressing Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Haruka; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Hayama, Kazuhide; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Tsubokawa, Norio

    2016-01-01

    We sought to develop dual-modality imaging probes using functionalized silica nanoparticles to target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells and achieve efficient target imaging of HER2-expressing tumors. Polyamidoamine-based functionalized silica nanoparticles (PCSNs) for multimodal imaging were synthesized with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence (indocyanine green (ICG)) and technetium-99m (99mTc) radioactivity. Anti-HER2 antibodies were bound to the labeled PCSNs. These dual-imaging probes were tested to image HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cells. In vivo imaging was also examined in breast tumor xenograft models in mice. SK-BR3 (HER2 positive) cells were imaged with stronger NIR fluorescent signals than that in MDA-MB231 (HER2 negative) cells. The increased radioactivity of the SK-BR3 cells was also confirmed by phosphor imaging. NIR images showed strong fluorescent signals in the SK-BR3 tumor model compared to muscle tissues and the MDA-MB231 tumor model. Automatic well counting results showed increased radioactivity in the SK-BR3 xenograft tumors. We developed functionalized silica nanoparticles loaded with 99mTc and ICG for the targeting and imaging of HER2-expressing cells. The dual-imaging probes efficiently imaged HER2-overexpressing cells. Although further studies are needed to produce efficient isotope labeling, the results suggest that the multifunctional silica nanoparticles are a promising vehicle for imaging specific components of the cell membrane in a dual-modality manner. PMID:27399687

  16. Dual-Labeled Near-Infrared/(99m)Tc Imaging Probes Using PAMAM-Coated Silica Nanoparticles for the Imaging of HER2-Expressing Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Haruka; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Hayama, Kazuhide; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Tsubokawa, Norio

    2016-07-07

    We sought to develop dual-modality imaging probes using functionalized silica nanoparticles to target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells and achieve efficient target imaging of HER2-expressing tumors. Polyamidoamine-based functionalized silica nanoparticles (PCSNs) for multimodal imaging were synthesized with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence (indocyanine green (ICG)) and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radioactivity. Anti-HER2 antibodies were bound to the labeled PCSNs. These dual-imaging probes were tested to image HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cells. In vivo imaging was also examined in breast tumor xenograft models in mice. SK-BR3 (HER2 positive) cells were imaged with stronger NIR fluorescent signals than that in MDA-MB231 (HER2 negative) cells. The increased radioactivity of the SK-BR3 cells was also confirmed by phosphor imaging. NIR images showed strong fluorescent signals in the SK-BR3 tumor model compared to muscle tissues and the MDA-MB231 tumor model. Automatic well counting results showed increased radioactivity in the SK-BR3 xenograft tumors. We developed functionalized silica nanoparticles loaded with (99m)Tc and ICG for the targeting and imaging of HER2-expressing cells. The dual-imaging probes efficiently imaged HER2-overexpressing cells. Although further studies are needed to produce efficient isotope labeling, the results suggest that the multifunctional silica nanoparticles are a promising vehicle for imaging specific components of the cell membrane in a dual-modality manner.

  17. Approaching the Final Frontier in Lateral Resolution for Isotopic and Chemical Analysis with CHILI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Stephan, T.; Pellin, M.; Savina, M.; Yokochi, R.; Trappitsch, R.; Liu, N.; King, A.

    2011-12-01

    The small sizes of samples returned by recent (Stardust, Hayabusa) and future (OSIRIS-REx) sample return missions to comets and asteroids, as well as the small sizes of presolar grains in and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are driving improvements in lateral resolution and sensitivity beyond what is available with current state-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments. SIMS lateral resolution has reached ~50 nm and useful yields are at most a few percent. We are completing construction of CHILI (the CHicago Instrument for Laser Ionization), a resonant ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) nanobeam instrument designed for isotopic and chemical analysis at the few-nm scale with a useful yield of ≥35% [1]. CHILI is equipped with a COBRA-FIB high resolution liquid metal ion gun (LMIG) and an e-CLIPSE Plus field emission electron gun from Orsay Physics, each of which can be focused to <4 nm. The electron gun will be used for secondary electron imaging, as the built-in optical microscope is diffraction-limited to ~0.5 μm. A piezoelectric stage capable of reproducible nm-scale motions and equipped with a sample holder that will accept a wide variety of sample mounts is operational. The flight tube for the time-of-flight mass spectrometer mounted vertically above the sample chamber; this assembly is mounted in the center of an H-shaped laser table equipped with active vibration cancellation devices. The table has been demonstrated to have a vertical vibrational amplitude of less than 0.2 nm. Resonant ionization will be done with six Ti:sapphire tunable solid state lasers pumped with three 40W Nd:YLF lasers, which will allow two to three elements to be analyzed simultaneously. Ion detection in existing RIMS instruments [2,3] is done with a microchannel plate with a single anode. Isotope ratio precision is limited by counting statistics, as no more than one ion of the most abundant isotope of an element can be counted for each pulse. CHILI will

  18. The effect of nitrogen loading on a brackish estuarine faunal community: A stable isotope approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keats, R.A.; Osher, L.J.; Neckles, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems worldwide face increased nutrient enrichment from shoreline and watershed development and atmospheric pollution. We investigated the response of the faunal community of a small microtidal estuary dominated by Ruppia maritima (widgeon grass) in Maine, United States, to increased nitrogen loading using an in situ mesocosm enrichment experiment. Community response was characterized by assessing quantitative shifts in macroin-vertebrate community composition and identifying changes in food web structure using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of producers and consumers. The community was dominated by brackish water invertebrates including midge larvae, oligochaetes, damselfly larvae, amphipods, and ostracods. Experimental nutrient additions resulted in significantly lower densities of herbivorous chironomids and predatory damselflies and greater densities of deposit feeding oligochaetes. Grazing midge larvae (Chironomidae: Dicrotendipes, Cricotopus) consumed epiphytic algae under both natural and enriched conditions. Deposit feeding Chironomus was dependent on allochthonous sources of detritus under natural conditions and exhibited a shift to autochthonous sources of detritus under enriched conditions. Predatory Enallagma primarily consumed grazing chironomids under all but the highest loading conditions. Experimental nutrient loading resulted in an increase in generalist deposit feeders dependent on autochthonous sources of detritus.

  19. Trace metals dynamics under contrasted land uses: contribution of statistical, isotopic, and EXAFS approaches.

    PubMed

    Bonnot, Caroline A; Gélabert, Alexandre; Louvat, Pascale; Morin, Guillaume; Proux, Olivier; Benedetti, Marc F

    2016-05-24

    Three sub-basins of the Seine River (France) under contrasted land uses (i.e., forested, agricultural, and urban) have been investigated in order to assess the origin and seasonal variation of trace metals, and evaluate their geochemical background and dynamics. Our results highlight a high anthropogenic impact on all elements for both the dissolved and particulate fractions. The main source for each element in the dissolved phase was determined and shows that transition and post-transition metals mainly originate from forested areas, while alkali and alkaline earth elements, metalloids, and halogens rather originate from agricultural land use. Conversely, for the particulate phase, most of the elements cannot be associated with a specific land use. Seasonal variation of elements was assessed according to the forested and agricultural land uses, and geochemical backgrounds were determined using average export rates, highlighting that the geochemical background for the forested land use is higher than the agricultural one for most of the elements. Finally, to confirm those results, Zn dynamics in the three characteristic sub-basins and between the different land uses was investigated using a combination of Zn speciation, Zn isotopic ratio, and Zn export rates.

  20. Investigation of the Water Quality of Six Major Rivers in South Korea: Statistical and Isotopic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, W.; Ryu, J.; Lee, K.; Park, Y.; Chung, G.

    2008-12-01

    Seasonal and spatial variation in water quality and contaminant sources were investigated in six major rivers in South Korea that vary widely in drainage area and length. The contents of dissolved loads in the rivers varied seasonally, and some dissolved ions such as Cl- and NO3- showed large spatial differences in all of the rivers. The water type changed from Ca-HCO3 in the upper reaches to Na-HCO3-SO4 in the lower reaches, probably because of anthropogenic contamination. Compared with the Sumjin and Mankyung rivers, which flow mainly through forested areas with limited agricultural activity, the other four rivers, which flow through agricultural and urban areas, registered much higher Cl- and NO3- concentrations. Statistical analyses showed that this seasonal and spatial variation occurs in all of the rivers and that Cl- and NO3- originate from different sources. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of dissolved nitrate indicated that the rivers are significantly affected by manure, sewage, or both.

  1. Microbial Utilization of Estuarine Dissolved Organic Carbon: a Stable Isotope Tracer Approach Tested by Mass Balance

    PubMed Central

    Hullar, M.; Fry, B.; Peterson, B. J.; Wright, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    The natural stable isotope values of different plants have been used to trace the fate of organic carbon that enters estuarine ecosystems. Experiments were designed to determine the magnitude of (delta) (sup13)C changes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from tidal marsh vegetation that occurred during bacterial decomposition. Bacteria were grown on DOC leached from estuarine Spartina alterniflora and Typhus angustifolia plants. In four experiments, 25 to 80% of the initial carbon (2.6 to 9.1 mM organic C) was converted to bacterial biomass and CO(inf2). Mass balance calculations showed good recovery of total C and (sup13)C at the end of these experiments (100% (plusmn) 14% total C; (plusmn) 1(permil) (delta) (sup13)C). The (delta) (sup13)C values of DOC, bacterial biomass, and respired CO(inf2) changed only slightly in the four experiments by average values of -0.6, +1.4, and +0.5(permil), respectively. These changes are small relative to the range of (delta) (sup13)C values represented by different organic carbon sources to estuaries. Thus, microbial (delta) (sup13)C values determined in the field helped to identify the source of the carbon assimilated by bacteria. PMID:16535358

  2. The Relative Importance of Terrestrial Versus Marine Sediment Sources to the Nueces- Corpus Christi Estuary, Texas: An Isotopic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, K. M.; Santschi, P. H.; Schindler, K. J.; Andres, M. J.; Weaver, E. A.

    2006-05-01

    Determining principle sources of sediment to coastal systems is an important and complex problem that figures prominently in a myriad of geological, geomorphological, geochemical and biological processes. Lithogenic (226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th) and fallout (137Cs, 210Pb) isotopes were used in conjunction with sedimentological methods to determine rates of sedimentation in the Nueces Delta and Nueces-Corpus Christi Estuary and to assess the relative importance of marine versus terrestrial sediment sources to the estuary. Sampling focused primarily on the lower Nueces River, Nueces Delta, Nueces Bay, Corpus Christi Bay, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIW) and Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Gain size data show GIW and GOM sediments to be dominantly sands, Corpus Christi Bay sediments to be dominantly clays and sediments from all other sampled areas to be more homogenized in grain size, suggesting that near shore oceanic sediments are sands derived predominantly from long shore transport in the littoral zone. Bed load and suspended sediments sourced from the Nueces River provide sand and fines to the Nueces Delta and Bay, where the coarser size fractions are effectively retained. Similarity of lithogenic isotope ratios in surface sediment types throughout the system precluded a numeric approach to discerning the importance of each of the two large scale sediment source areas (terrestrial and marine). A stepwise, graphical examination of discrete lithogenic isotope activity concentrations shows more promise. Terrestrial, marine and bay sediment means for 226Ra v. 232Th, 226Ra v. 230Th and 228Ra v. 232Th show that terrestrial and marine sediment sources have different signatures, despite having a similar grain size distribution (sands), and that sediment deposited in Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays are indistinguishable from the terrestrial component. Supporting evidence is provided by thorium isotopes, 230Th v. 232Th, 228Th v. 232Th and 228Th v. 230Th. Nueces Delta

  3. Examining the linkages between forest water use, hydrology, and climate using dual-isotope approaches: insights and challenges in headwater catchments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Brooks, J. R.; Pypker, T. G.; McDonnell, J. J.; Bond, B. J.; Williams, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    The amount of biologically available water is arguably the central driver in plant processes. While many studies have examined the hydrological components of biologically available water, the role that vegetation water use plays within the forested ecosystem water balance is poorly understood. Fundamental questions of forests' effect on the hydrologic cycle remain unanswered. Stable isotope observations play an important role in studies that explore the interface between plant physiological function and watershed flowpaths, flow sources, and residence times. We use multiple approaches, including stable isotopes to mechanistically assess the inter-relationships between vegetation water use, hydrology, and climate. We measured deuterium and 18O of xylem water and soil water to track changes in the depth of transpiration source water throughout the summers in a headwater catchment in western Oregon. Additionally, we measured transpiration, soil moisture, and foliar pre-dawn water potential. Forest transpiration and soil evaporation are often not separately measured, and yet respond to environmental drivers in fundamentally different ways. A promising approach for partitioning the evapotranspiration into its component fluxes involves measurement of the stable isotope composition (2H and 18O) of water vapor exchanged between vegetation and atmosphere. We present some preliminary data examining changes in ET partitioning in response to bark beetles outbreaks in the Rocky Mountains. Last, to examine the linkages between vegetation function and micro-climate, we applied a dual isotope (13C and 18O) approach to infer physiological response of trees to changing environmental conditions. We found that stable isotopes of oxygen were directly related to stomatal conductance and inversely related to relative humidity; however, the relationship with relative humidity was more apparent. The correlation of stable isotopes in tree rings with environmental variables can be

  4. New Approaches to Assessing and Predicting the Hydrologic Impacts of Urban Disturbance Using Isotopes and Transit Time Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Geris, J.; Birkel, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is an abrupt hydrological disturbance that affects large parts of the world. For ameliorative management, an understanding of how flow partitioning and storage dynamics are affected is crucial, yet this remains limited. This reflects the lack of integrated monitoring and modelling frameworks for characterizing these hydrological response dynamics to incremental urban development. Here we use a coupled flow-isotope model to assess the impacts of urbanisation (~20%) on stream water age distributions in an 8 km2 catchment. A conceptual runoff model was used with flux tracking to estimate the time-varying age of stream water at the outlet and both urban and non-urban sub-catchments over a 3 year period. Combined objective functions of both flow and isotope metric constrained model structures, improved calibration and aided model evaluation. Specifically, we explored (1) the age distribution of stream water draining urban and non-urban areas, (2) the integrated effect of these different land uses at larger catchment scales, and (3) how the modelling can predict the impacts on the stream water age of future urbanization proposals. The results showed that stream water draining the most urbanized tributary was youngest with a mean transit time (MTT) of < 6 months compared with ~18 months in the non-urban tributary. For the catchment outlet, the MTT was around 9 months. Here, the response of urban areas dominated smaller and moderate events, but rural contributions dominated during the wettest periods, giving a bi-modal distribution of water ages. Predictions for planned developments in the area indicated that just a 5% increase in urban area would give dramatic reductions in MTTs that can propagate to the larger catchment scale. This novel approach offers a framework for understanding the cumulative impacts of disturbances on streams. It can also contribute to the design of more sustainable urban water design in terms of targeted restriction of rapid water

  5. Experimental investigations of water fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system: Stable isotope mass-balance approach to partition evaporation and transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, Jochen; Beza, Desta Tadesse; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of freshwater worldwide and the scale of irrigated agriculture can be so large that it can have dramatic effects on the water cycle and even alter regional climates. Therefore, it is vital to improve the water use efficiency of irrigated lands in order to address the sustainable use of water resources, the growing need for agricultural products, and the health of ecosystems. Environmental isotopes have unique attributes that make them particularly suitable for tracing hydrological pathways and quantifying hydrological fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. The stable isotopic composition of soil water is mainly controlled by precipitation or irrigation inputs and evaporative losses. Because transpiration does not fractionate soil water isotopes, it is possible to estimate the relative proportions of evaporation and transpiration using isotopic mass balance calculations. In this study experimental investigations, combining classical hydrometric measurements, tracer hydrological methods and a soil water model were applied to laboratory lysimeters to study the transpiration processes of Teff ( Eragrostis tea (Zucc.) Trotter). Teff is an annual bunch cereal and an important aliment in Ethiopia and Eritrea and it is also gaining popularity in other countries. To determine the soil water contents, sensors using a capacitance/frequency domain technology were installed at different depths and soil water samples for the isotope analysis were taken using pore water samplers. Water contents in different depths and water fluxes, such as percolation and evaporation were modeled using the HYDRUS-1D software package. By using an isotope mass balance model the total evaporation and the fractions between soil evaporation and transpiration could be determined. The water losses which were estimated using the isotope mass-balance approach are in good agreement with the measured values using classical hydrometric measurements. The

  6. A combined hydrochemical - isotopic approach for assessing the regional pollution of an alluvial aquifer in a urbanized environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesels, Julie; Orban, Philippe; Popescu, Cristina; Knöller, Kay; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-05-01

    The alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River is contaminated at regional scale in the urbanized and industrialized area of Liège in Belgium with different types of contaminants, in particular inorganics such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. The sources of those contaminants are numerous: brownfields, urban waste water, subsurface acid mine drainage from former coal mines, atmospheric deposits related to pollutants emissions in the atmosphere... Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium are both typical pollutants of the aquifer and tracers of the possible pollution sources. According to the European legislation on water, groundwater resources should reach a good quality status before 2015. However, an exemption can be obtained if it may be unfeasible or unreasonably expensive to achieve good status. In this case, groundwater quality objectives and management plans can be adapted to these specific conditions. To obtain such an exemption for the Meuse alluvial aquifer, it is required to demonstrate that the poor qualitative status is caused by acid mine drainage, or by widespread historical atmospheric deposition from industries, and not by recent anthropogenic contamination from the urban and industrial context. In this context, a detailed hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater has been performed, with the aim of determining the origin of the inorganic contaminations and the main processes contributing to poor groundwater quality. A large hydrochemical sampling campaign was performed, based on 71 selected representative sampling locations, to better characterize the different vectors (end-members) of contamination of the alluvial aquifer and their respective contribution to groundwater contamination in the area. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major and minor compounds and metallic trace elements. The analyses also include stable isotopes in water, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, boron and strontium. Different hydrogeochemical approaches are combined to

  7. Assessing sources of nitrate contamination in the Shiraz urban aquifer (Iran) using the δ(15)N and δ(18)O dual-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Haleh; Zare, Mohammad; Widory, David

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate ([Formula: see text]) is one of the major threats to the quality of the drinking water taken from the Shiraz aquifer. This aquifer undergoes high anthropogenic pressures from multiple local urban (including uncontrolled sewage systems), agricultural and industrial activities, resulting in [Formula: see text] concentrations as high as 149 mg L(-1), well above the 50 mg L(-1) guideline defined by the World Health Organisation. We coupled here classical chemical and dual isotope (δ(15)N and δ(18)O of [Formula: see text]) approaches trying to characterize sources and potential processes controlling the budget of this pollutant. Chemical data indicate that nitrate in this aquifer is explained by distinct end-members: while mineral fertilizers isotopically show to have no impact, our isotope approach identifies natural soil nitrification and organic [Formula: see text] (manure and/or septic waste) as the two main contributors. Isotope data suggest that natural denitrification may occur within the aquifer, but this conclusion is not supported by the study of other chemical parameters.

  8. Determining Carbonate Concretion Formation Temperatures and Pore Water δ18O Values Using the Clumped Isotope Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, S. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Tripati, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    The porosity/permeability of siliciclastic strata is affected by post-depositional cementation, but determining at what depth and under what conditions cementation occurs is difficult with standard techniques. The oxygen isotopic composition of solid phase carbonate cements (δ18Ocarb) can be related to temperature (and by extension depth) of formation, and thus has been widely used in diagenetic studies. However, δ18Ocarb paleothermometry requires the prediction or assumption of pore water δ18O (δ18Opw), a parameter that is poorly constrained in past diagenetic environments (for convenience δ18Opw is usually assumed to be 0‰ VSMOW). Here, we use clumped isotope thermometry (CIT)—a fluid δ18O-independent temperature proxy—to avoid the often ambiguous yet necessary δ18Opw assumption applied to δ18Ocarb paleothermometery and reevaluate the temperature of carbonate concretion formation in the Miocene Monterey Formation (dolomite) and the Cretaceous Holz Shale (calcite) of southern California. CIT analysis of Monterey Formation concretions produced slightly increased temperatures of formation versus traditional δ18Ocarb paleothermometry, whereas the Holz Shale concretions produced significantly decreased temperatures. Inputting the CIT-derived temperature into the associated δ18Ocarb-temperature equation allows the calculation of the ancient δ18Opw. Calculated δ18Opw values range from ~ -8 to +2‰ VSMOW, significantly different from coeval seawater. δ18Opw less than 0‰ can be generated by a number of processes including the influx of non-marine fluids and/or hydrate formation, whereas δ18Opw greater than 0‰ can be produced by silicate diagenesis, influx of evaporative brines, or hydrate dissolution. These data demonstrate that pore water modifying diagenetic processes were operating in past environments and emphasize that the formation temperatures of diagenetic carbonates should be calculated using a fluid δ18O-independent approach, such as

  9. UV-laser microdissection system - A novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records (δ13C/δ18O) from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollaen, Karina; Helle, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Intra-annual stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) studies of tree rings at various incremental resolutions have been attempting to extract valuable seasonal climatic and environmental information or assessing plant ecophysiological processes. For preparing high-resolution isotope samples normally wood segments or cores are mechanically divided in radial direction or cut in tangential direction. After mechanical dissection, wood samples are ground to a fine powder and either cellulose is extracted or bulk wood samples are analyzed. Here, we present a novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records from tree rings using an UV-laser microdissection system. Firstly, tree-ring cellulose is directly extracted from wholewood cross-sections largely leaving the wood anatomical structure intact and saving time as compared to the classical procedure. Secondly, micro-samples from cellulose cross-sections are dissected with an UV-Laser dissection microscope. Tissues of interest from cellulose cross-sections are identified and marked precisely with a screen-pen and dissected via an UV-laser beam. Dissected cellulose segments were automatically collected in capsules and are prepared for stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) analysis. The new techniques facilitate inter- and intra-annual isotope analysis on tree-ring and open various possibilities for comparisons with wood anatomy in plant eco-physiological studies. We describe the design and the handling of this novel methodology and discuss advantages and constraints given by the example of intra-annual oxygen isotope analysis on tropical trees.

  10. Predicting equilibrium vapour pressure isotope effects by using artificial neural networks or multi-linear regression - A quantitative structure property relationship approach.

    PubMed

    Parinet, Julien; Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gerald; Höhener, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    We aim at predicting the effect of structure and isotopic substitutions on the equilibrium vapour pressure isotope effect of various organic compounds (alcohols, acids, alkanes, alkenes and aromatics) at intermediate temperatures. We attempt to explore quantitative structure property relationships by using artificial neural networks (ANN); the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and compare the performances of it with multi-linear regression (MLR). These approaches are based on the relationship between the molecular structure (organic chain, polar functions, type of functions, type of isotope involved) of the organic compounds, and their equilibrium vapour pressure. A data set of 130 equilibrium vapour pressure isotope effects was used: 112 were used in the training set and the remaining 18 were used for the test/validation dataset. Two sets of descriptors were tested, a set with all the descriptors: number of(12)C, (13)C, (16)O, (18)O, (1)H, (2)H, OH functions, OD functions, CO functions, Connolly Solvent Accessible Surface Area (CSA) and temperature and a reduced set of descriptors. The dependent variable (the output) is the natural logarithm of the ratios of vapour pressures (ln R), expressed as light/heavy as in classical literature. Since the database is rather small, the leave-one-out procedure was used to validate both models. Considering higher determination coefficients and lower error values, it is concluded that the multi-layer perceptron provided better results compared to multi-linear regression. The stepwise regression procedure is a useful tool to reduce the number of descriptors. To our knowledge, a Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) approach for isotopic studies is novel.

  11. The suitability of a simplified isotope-balance approach to quantify transient groundwater-lake interactions over a decade with climatic extremes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, Laura A.; Lee, Terrie M.; Swancar, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater inflow to a subtropical seepage lake was estimated using a transient isotope-balance approach for a decade (2001–2011) with wet and dry climatic extremes. Lake water δ18O ranged from +0.80 to +3.48 ‰, reflecting the 4 m range in stage. The transient δ18O analysis discerned large differences in semiannual groundwater inflow, and the overall patterns of low and high groundwater inflow were consistent with an independent water budget. Despite simplifying assumptions that the isotopic composition of precipitation (δP), groundwater inflow, and atmospheric moisture (δA) were constant, groundwater inflow was within the water-budget error for 12 of the 19 semiannual calculation periods. The magnitude of inflow was over or under predicted during periods of climatic extreme. During periods of high net precipitation from tropical cyclones and El Niño conditions, δP values were considerably more depleted in 18O than assumed. During an extreme dry period, δA values were likely more enriched in 18O than assumed due to the influence of local lake evaporate. Isotope balance results were most sensitive to uncertainties in relative humidity, evaporation, and δ18O of lake water, which can limit precise quantification of groundwater inflow. Nonetheless, the consistency between isotope-balance and water-budget results indicates that this is a viable approach for lakes in similar settings, allowing the magnitude of groundwater inflow to be estimated over less-than-annual time periods. Because lake-water δ18O is a good indicator of climatic conditions, these data could be useful in ground-truthing paleoclimatic reconstructions using isotopic data from lake cores in similar settings.

  12. Direct and indirect indicators to identify potential leakage of contaminants associated with unconventional oil and gas development based on conceptual geochemical and isotopic monitoring approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Mayer, B.; Negrel, P. J.; Lions, J.; Lagneau, V.; Kloppmann, W.; Ing, J.; Becker, V.; Nightingale, M.

    2014-12-01

    The extraction of tightly bound natural gas and oil raises environmental concerns regarding shallow drinking water resources. These concerns include impacts of migration of contaminants through induced and natural fractures, drilling imperfections, wastewater discharge and accidental spills. Improved understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants through long-term monitoring, and sharing of data between industry, regulators and researchers will help to effectively manage risks for shallow water resources associated with the unconventional gas and oil industry. Based on the North-American experiences related to unconventional oil and gas resources and monitoring approaches developed in the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) context, we suggest conceptual models for monitoring the potential contamination of shallow aquifers overlying production zones. The strength of sensitive geochemical tracers is demonstrated based on conceptual approaches (e.g. diffusion model) and field and tracer studies (e.g. geochemical and isotopic monitoring) with three objectives: 1) characterize subsurface derived contaminants as direct geochemical and isotopic indicators; 2) assess geochemical processes enhanced by the fluid intrusion; 3) understand parameters and processes which could impact or alter the geochemical and isotopic signatures of the contaminants (e.g. microbial oxidation, migration or transport processes etc.) to determine indirect indicators of potential contaminant leakage. This comprehensive geochemical and isotope approach using direct and indirect indicators with the analyses of major and minor ions, trace elements, and δ11B, δ7Li, δ34SSO4, δ18OSO4, 87Sr/86Sr, δ18OH2O, and δ2HH2O values in the CO2FIELDLAB project (Humez et al., 2014) allowed discriminating reactive mechanisms from non-reactive mixing processes associated with gas leakage within a shallow aquifer. These and other results indicate that this conceptual approach is promising for monitoring

  13. A retro-biosynthetic approach to the prediction of biosynthetic pathways from position-specific isotope analysis as shown for tramadol

    PubMed Central

    Romek, Katarzyna M.; Nun, Pierrick; Remaud, Gérald S.; Silvestre, Virginie; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Lecerf-Schmidt, Florine; Boumendjel, Ahcène; De Waard, Michel; Robins, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol, previously only known as a synthetic analgesic, has now been found in the bark and wood of roots of the African medicinal tree Nauclea latifolia. At present, no direct evidence is available as to the biosynthetic pathway of its unusual skeleton. To provide guidance as to possible biosynthetic precursors, we have adopted a novel approach of retro-biosynthesis based on the position-specific distribution of isotopes in the extracted compound. Relatively recent developments in isotope ratio monitoring by 13C NMR spectrometry make possible the measurement of the nonstatistical position-specific natural abundance distribution of 13C (δ13Ci) within the molecule with better than 1‰ precision. Very substantial variation in the 13C positional distribution is found: between δ13Ci = −11 and −53‰. Distribution is not random and it is argued that the pattern observed can substantially be interpreted in relation to known causes of isotope fractionation in natural products. Thus, a plausible biosynthetic scheme based on sound biosynthetic principals of precursor–substrate relationships can be proposed. In addition, data obtained from the 18O/16O ratios in the oxygen atoms of the compound add support to the deductions made from the carbon isotope analysis. This paper shows how the use of 13C NMR at natural abundance can help with proposing a biosynthetic route to compounds newly found in nature or those difficult to tackle by conventional means. PMID:26106160

  14. A retro-biosynthetic approach to the prediction of biosynthetic pathways from position-specific isotope analysis as shown for tramadol.

    PubMed

    Romek, Katarzyna M; Nun, Pierrick; Remaud, Gérald S; Silvestre, Virginie; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Lecerf-Schmidt, Florine; Boumendjel, Ahcène; De Waard, Michel; Robins, Richard J

    2015-07-07

    Tramadol, previously only known as a synthetic analgesic, has now been found in the bark and wood of roots of the African medicinal tree Nauclea latifolia. At present, no direct evidence is available as to the biosynthetic pathway of its unusual skeleton. To provide guidance as to possible biosynthetic precursors, we have adopted a novel approach of retro-biosynthesis based on the position-specific distribution of isotopes in the extracted compound. Relatively recent developments in isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C NMR spectrometry make possible the measurement of the nonstatistical position-specific natural abundance distribution of (13)C (δ(13)Ci) within the molecule with better than 1‰ precision. Very substantial variation in the (13)C positional distribution is found: between δ(13)Ci = -11 and -53‰. Distribution is not random and it is argued that the pattern observed can substantially be interpreted in relation to known causes of isotope fractionation in natural products. Thus, a plausible biosynthetic scheme based on sound biosynthetic principals of precursor-substrate relationships can be proposed. In addition, data obtained from the (18)O/(16)O ratios in the oxygen atoms of the compound add support to the deductions made from the carbon isotope analysis. This paper shows how the use of (13)C NMR at natural abundance can help with proposing a biosynthetic route to compounds newly found in nature or those difficult to tackle by conventional means.

  15. The 13C-excess: a new dual-element stable isotopic approach for detrending the effects of evaporation on lake carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, T. W.; Oze, C.

    2012-12-01

    Stable isotope-based proxy methods enhance our ability to interpret paleohydrology, paleoelevation, climate change, and biogeochemical cycles. In ancient carbonate lakes, these methods often require that the unmodified isotopic composition of meteoric water, or local carbon reservoirs, or both, are recorded by authigenic minerals. Surprisingly, these critical assumptions have not been tested across wide-ranging environmental contexts. Here, we show that globally distributed Quaternary lake carbonate oxygen isotope compositions are not strongly, nor significantly, correlated with local meteoric-derived water compositions due to the modification of in-flow waters following entry into the lake environment. These modifications are largely caused by surface water evaporation, and can result in dubious reconstructions of ancient hydrological conditions and water source effects such as the strength of prevailing air-mass trajectory, >3km errors in paleoelevation estimates, unrealistic shifts in lake water temperature, and misleading interpretations of local carbon cycle conditions if not accounted for. However, our analysis suggests that positive shifts in surface water δ18O are accompanied by similar magnitude shifts in δ13C-DIC during lake residence. This positive co-variation in δ18O and δ13C may be used to detrend lake carbonate compositions for the effects of surface water evaporation using a parameter we define here as the '13C-excess'. This approach uses the isotopic covariant trend between in-flow waters and lake waters, rather than lacustrine covariation alone, to better constrain ancient meteoric-derived water compositions. To demonstrate the potential strength of the 13C-excess approach over single element methods, we compare the paleoelevation estimates derived from lake carbonate compositions using both approaches. When Tibetan lakes are excluded from the dataset, 13C-excess values are significantly correlated with mean up-slope hypsometric altitude with

  16. Isotopic Biogeochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is provided of the biogeochemical research. The funding, productivity, personnel and facilities are reviewed. Some of the technical areas covered are: carbon isotopic records; isotopic studies of banded iron formations; isotope effects in microbial systems; studies of organic compounds in ancient sediments; and development in isotopic geochemistry and analysis.

  17. Identification and characterisation of potential sources of nitrate pollution in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) applying a multi-isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccon, P.; Leis, A.; Marca, A.; Kaiser, J.; Campisi, L.; Böttcher, M. E.; Savarino, J.; Escher, P.; Eisenhauer, A.; Erbland, J.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrate (δ15N, δ18O and Δ17O), boron (δ11B) and water (δ2H and δ18O) were used to identify and characterize of multiple nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and part of its catchment area. The stable isotopes in nitrate measured by the denitrifier method have been adopted to differentiate among nitrate coming from agriculture (synthetic and natural fertilizers), airborne nitrate and nitrate from nitrification processes in soils. Boron isotopes have been used to identify the impact of domestic wastewaters to the aquatic system using the LA-MC-ICP-MS method. The combined use of NO3 and B isotopes has proved to be an effective means in identifying multiple nitrate pollution sources because these isotopes co-migrate in many environmental settings, their isotopes are fractionated by different environmental processes, and because wastewater and fertilizers may have distinct isotopic signatures for N and B. The stable isotopes of water have been used to calculate mixing ratios between sea and fresh water as well as to estimate the mean altitude of the recharge area of surface waters. Additionally, the stable isotopes of sulphate (δ34S and δ18O) have been adopted to trace natural and anthropogenic sources of sulphur in agricultural watersheds as well as in coastal systems. In order to characterize the chemical composition of the different water types the concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, PO43-, total phosphorus and total boron have been analyzed. Moreover, the physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, salinity and temperature have been measured. To identify the origins and fate of nitrate a water monitoring program was implemented in the Marano lagoon and part of its catchment area. The water monitoring program involved the collection of water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater up-welling line, groundwater

  18. Possible Food Sources of Macrozoobenthos in the Manko Mangrove Ecosystem, Okinawa (Japan): A Stable Isotope Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: −22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., −25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, −22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, −24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, −21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., −29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and −24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers. PMID:26019747

  19. Possible food sources of macrozoobenthos in the manko mangrove ecosystem, okinawa (Japan): a stable isotope analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: -22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., -25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, -22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, -24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, -21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., -29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and -24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers.

  20. Identifying nitrogen sources to thermal tide pools in Kapoho, Hawai'i, U.S.A, using a multi-stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Wiegner, Tracy N; Mokiao-Lee, Ambyr U; Johnson, Erik E

    2016-02-15

    Nitrogen (N) enrichment often results in coastal eutrophication, even in remote areas like Hawai'i. Therefore, determining N sources to coastal waters is important for their management. This study identified N sources to tide pools in Kapoho, Hawai'i, and determined their relative importance using three stable isotopes (δ(15)N, δ(18)O, δ(11)B). Surface waters and macroalgal tissues were collected along 100-m onshore-offshore transects in areas of high groundwater input for three months at low tide. Water samples from possible N sources were also collected. Mixing model output, along with macroalgal δ(15)N values, indicated that agriculture soil (34%) was the largest anthropogenic N source followed by sewage (27%). These findings suggest that more effective fertilizer application techniques and upgrading sewage treatment systems can minimize N leaching into groundwater. Overall, our multi-stable isotope approach for identifying N sources was successful and may be useful in other coastal waters.

  1. Isotope geochemistry. Biological signatures in clumped isotopes of O₂.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Laurence Y; Ash, Jeanine L; Young, Edward D

    2015-04-24

    The abundances of molecules containing more than one rare isotope have been applied broadly to determine formation temperatures of natural materials. These applications of "clumped" isotopes rely on the assumption that isotope-exchange equilibrium is reached, or at least approached, during the formation of those materials. In a closed-system terrarium experiment, we demonstrate that biological oxygen (O2) cycling drives the clumped-isotope composition of O2 away from isotopic equilibrium. Our model of the system suggests that unique biological signatures are present in clumped isotopes of O2—and not formation temperatures. Photosynthetic O2 is depleted in (18)O(18)O and (17)O(18)O relative to a stochastic distribution of isotopes, unlike at equilibrium, where heavy-isotope pairs are enriched. Similar signatures may be widespread in nature, offering new tracers of biological and geochemical cycling.

  2. Reconstructing lake evaporation history and the isotopic composition of precipitation by a coupled δ18O-δ2H biomarker approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, Johannes; Tuthorn, Mario; Zech, Roland; Mügler, Ines; Schlütz, Frank; Zech, Wolfgang; Zech, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decades, δ18O and δ2H analyses of lacustrine sediments became an invaluable tool in paleohydrology and paleolimnology for reconstructing the isotopic composition of past lake water and precipitation. However, based on δ18O or δ2H records alone, it can be challenging to distinguish between changes of the precipitation signal and changes caused by evaporation. Here we propose a coupled δ18O-δ2H biomarker approach that provides the possibility to disentangle between these two factors. The isotopic composition of long chain n-alkanes (n-C25, n-C27, n-C29, n-C31) were analyzed in order to establish a 16 ka Late Glacial and Holocene δ2H record for the sediment archive of Lake Panch Pokhari in High Himalaya, Nepal. The δ2Hn-alkane record generally corroborates a previously established δ18Osugar record reporting on high values characterizing the deglaciation and the Older and the Younger Dryas, and low values characterizing the Bølling and the Allerød periods. Since the investigated n-alkane and sugar biomarkers are considered to be primarily of aquatic origin, they were used to reconstruct the isotopic composition of lake water. The reconstructed deuterium excess of lake water ranges from +57‰ to -85‰ and is shown to serve as proxy for the evaporation history of Lake Panch Pokhari. Lake desiccation during the deglaciation, the Older Dryas and the Younger Dryas is affirmed by a multi-proxy approach using the Hydrogen Index (HI) and the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) as additional proxies for lake sediment organic matter mineralization. Furthermore, the coupled δ18O and δ2H approach allows disentangling the lake water isotopic enrichment from variations of the isotopic composition of precipitation. The reconstructed 16 ka δ18Oprecipitation record of Lake Panch Pokhari is well in agreement with the δ18O records of Chinese speleothems and presumably reflects the Indian Summer Monsoon variability.

  3. REFINING THE DUAL ISOTOPE APPROACH TO DETERMINE FIELD ESTIMATES OF LITTER, ROOT, AND SOM COMPONENTS OF SOIL CO2 EFFLUX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes have become an important tool for determining the relative importance of CO2 sources and sinks contributing to the global carbon budget. Of particular importance is the determination of the terrestrial CO2 flux which is difficult to decipher without determining t...

  4. A stable isotope approach for source apportionment of chlorinated ethene plumes at a complex multi-contamination events urban site.

    PubMed

    Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Pellegatti, Eleonora; Paramatti, Enrico; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Gargini, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of chlorinated aliphatic compounds such as chlorinated methanes, ethanes and ethenes was examined as an intrinsic fingerprint for apportionment of sources. A complex field site located in Ferrara (Italy), with more than 50years history of use of chlorinated aliphatic compounds, was investigated in order to assess contamination sources. Several contamination plumes were found in a complex alluvial sandy multi-aquifer system close to the river Po; sources are represented by uncontained former industrial and municipal dump sites as well as by spills at industrial areas. The carbon stable isotope signature allowed distinguishing 2 major sources of contaminants. One source of chlorinated aliphatic contaminants was strongly depleted in ¹³C (<-60‰) suggesting production lines which have used depleted methane for synthesis. The other source had typical carbon isotope compositions of >-40‰ which is commonly observed in recent production of chlorinated solvents. The degradation processes in the plumes could be traced interpreting the isotope enrichment and depletion of parent and daughter compounds, respectively. We demonstrate that, under specific production conditions, namely when highly chlorinated ethenes are produced as by-product during chloromethanes production, ¹³C depleted fingerprinting of contaminants can be obtained and this can be used to track sources and address the responsible party of the pollution in urban areas.

  5. A multi-isotope approach to characterize acid mine drainage in a hardrock alpine mine, Chaffe Co,Colorado.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordalis, D.; Williams, M. W.; Wireman, M.; Michel, R. L.; Manning, A.

    2004-12-01

    Here we present information from an innovative suite of stable, radiogenic, and cosmogenic isotopes to better understand groundwater flowpaths and groundwater-surface water interactions in an applied acid mine drainage system. Stable water isotopes, tritium, helium-tritium, sulfur-35, and uranium 234/238 ratios were analyzed from precipitation, groundwater wells, interior mine drainages, and surface waters at the Mary Murphy Mine in Colorado to determine hydrologic transport mechanisms responsible for contaminated zinc releases. Hydrometric measurements suggested a snowmelt-driven pulse of elevated zinc in adit outflow. However, mixing models using stable water isotopes showed a regional groundwater signal in the adit outflow. Tritium values of 11 to 13 TU showed a slight enrichment of bomb spike water compared to snow values of about 9 TU, suggesting an older water source as well. Helium/tritium ratios on a subset of groundwater wells suggested that average residence times of alluvial wells ranged from 2.5 to 8 years. The combination of stable water isotopes and sulfur-35 (half-life of 87 days), showed that zinc-rich waters within the mine derived from infiltrating snowmelt more than a year old. However, measurement of sulfur-35 using low-level scintillation counts was compromised at times by the presence of uranium. We were able to remove the uranium through wet chemistry procedures, improving the accuracy of S-35 measurements. The U234/U238 ratio shows promise in discriminating between acid mine drainage and acid rock drainage. Acid rock drainage shows an unaltered ratio of 1:1, while acid mine drainage is enriched relative to the 1:1 equilibrium ratio. The combination of cosmogenic and stable isotopes within and near the Mary Murphy Mine may provide a useful tool for studying interactions between groundwater and surfacewater in a fractured rock setting. Remediation techniques can be directed more appropriately, and cost effectively, by the characterization of

  6. Specific pathways for the incorporation of dissolved barium and molybdenum into the bivalve shell: an isotopic tracer approach in the juvenile Great Scallop (Pecten maximus).

    PubMed

    Tabouret, Hélène; Pomerleau, Sébastien; Jolivet, Aurélie; Pécheyran, Christophe; Riso, Ricardo; Thébault, Julien; Chauvaud, Laurent; Amouroux, David

    2012-07-01

    Dissolved barium and molybdenum incorporation in the calcite shell was investigated in the Great Scallop Pecten maximus. Sixty six individuals were exposed for 16 days to two successive dissolved Ba and Mo concentrations accurately differentiated by two different isotopic enrichments (⁹⁷Mo, ⁹⁵Mo; ¹³⁵Ba, ¹³⁷Ba). Soft tissue and shell isotopic composition were determined respectively by quantitative ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) and laser ablation--ICP-MS. Results from Ba enrichment indicate the direct incorporation of dissolved Ba into the shell in proportion to the levels in the water in which they grew with a 6-8 day delay. The low spike contributions and the low partition coefficient (D(Mo) = 0.0049 ± 0.0013), show that neither the soft tissue nor the shell were significantly sensitive to Mo enrichment. These results eliminate direct Mo shell enrichment by the dissolved phase, and favour a trophic uptake that will be investigated using the successive isotopic enrichment approach developed in this study.

  7. Hydrogeochemistry and quality of surface water and groundwater in the vicinity of Lake Monoun, West Cameroon: approach from multivariate statistical analysis and stable isotopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Kamtchueng, Brice T; Fantong, Wilson Y; Wirmvem, Mengnjo J; Tiodjio, Rosine E; Takounjou, Alain F; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules R; Kusakabe, Minoru; Zhang, Jing; Ohba, Takeshi; Tanyileke, Gregory; Hell, Joseph V; Ueda, Akira

    2016-09-01

    With the use of conventional hydrogeochemical techniques, multivariate statistical analysis, and stable isotope approaches, this paper investigates for the first time surface water and groundwater from the surrounding areas of Lake Monoun (LM), West Cameroon. The results reveal that waters are generally slightly acidic to neutral. The relative abundance of major dissolved species are Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+) > K(+) for cations and HCO3 (-) ≫ NO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) for anions. The main water type is Ca-Mg-HCO3. Observed salinity is related to water-rock interaction, ion exchange process, and anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and chloride have been identified as the most common pollutants. These pollutants are attributed to the chlorination of wells and leaching from pit latrines and refuse dumps. The stable isotopic compositions in the investigated water sources suggest evidence of evaporation before recharge. Four major groups of waters were identified by salinity and NO3 concentrations using the Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Consistent with the isotopic results, group 1 represents fresh unpolluted water occurring near the recharge zone in the general flow regime; groups 2 and 3 are mixed water whose composition is controlled by both weathering of rock-forming minerals and anthropogenic activities; group 4 represents water under high vulnerability of anthropogenic pollution. Moreover, the isotopic results and the HCA showed that the CO2-rich bottom water of LM belongs to an isolated hydrological system within the Foumbot plain. Except for some springs, groundwater water in the area is inappropriate for drinking and domestic purposes but good to excellent for irrigation.

  8. Identifying source and formation altitudes of nitrates in drinking water from Réunion Island, France, using a multi-isotopic approach.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; Nicolini, Eric; Gauthier, Virginie

    2012-09-01

    Nitrate concentrations, water isotopes (δ(2)H and δ(18)O(water)) and associated nitrate isotopes (δ(15)N(nitrate) and δ(18)O(nitrate)) from 10 drinking water wells, 5 fresh water springs and the discharge from 3 wastewater treatment stations in Réunion Island, located in the Indian Ocean, were analysed. We used a multi isotopic approach to investigate the extent of nitrate contamination, nitrate formation altitude and source of nitrates in Réunion Island's principal aquifer. Water from these study sites contained between 0.1 and 85.3 mg/L nitrate. δ(15)N(nitrate) values between +6 and +14‰ suggested the main sources of contamination were animal and/or human waste, rather than inorganic (synthetic) fertilisers, infiltrating through the subsurface into the saturated zone, due to rainfall leaching of the unsaturated zone at various altitudes of precipitation. Based on δ(15)N(nitrate) values alone, it was not possible to distinguish between animal and human activities responsible for the contamination of each specific catchment. However, using a multi isotope approach (δ(18)O(water) and δ(15)N(nitrate)), it was possible to relate the average altitude of rainfall infiltration (δ(18)O(water)) associated with the nitrate contamination (δ(18)O(nitrate)). This relationship between land use, rainfall recharge altitude and isotopic composition (δ(15)N(nitrate) and δ(18)O(water)) discriminated between the influences of human waste at lower (below 600 m elevation) or animal derived contamination (at elevations between 600 and 1300 m). By further comparing the theoretical altitude of nitrate formation calculated by the δ(18)O(nitrate), it was possible to determine that only 5 out of 15 fresh water wells and springs followed the conservative nitrate formation mechanism of 2/3δ(18)O(water)+1/3δ(18)O(air), to give nitrate formation altitudes which corresponded to land use activities.

  9. Sources of organic matter for intertidal consumers on Ascophyllum-shores (SW Iceland): a multi-stable isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarà, G.; de Pirro, M.; Romano, C.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.; Mazzola, A.

    2007-12-01

    Stable isotopes were used to examine the origin of organic matter in Icelandic Ascophyllum-based habitats, the role of different organic matters in filling intertidal food webs and the food preferences of the most abundant suspension feeders, grazers and predators. We selected three intertidal sites on the SW coast of Iceland where we sampled in early September 2004, organic matter sources (POM, SOM and most abundant primary producers, A. nodosum and F. vesciculosus) and the most abundant macrofauna species (barnacles, mussels, gastropods, sponge and crabs). Even though the primary production ( Ascophyllum-based) was the same at the three study sites, the isotopic composition of common-among-sites organisms varied due to local differences in the origin of available POM and SOM and in food web structures.

  10. Application of a Stable Isotope Approach to Evaluate Impact of Changes in Manufacturing Parameters for an Immediate-Release Tablet.

    PubMed

    Parr, Alan; Badman, Geoff; Bowen, Chester L; Coffin, Mark; Gupta, Manish; Jones, Lori; Kurtinecz, Milena; Naderer, Odin; Travis, Eric; Zhu, John; Patel, Parul

    2016-07-01

    There is continued emphasis from the various worldwide regulatory agencies to ensure that the pharmaceutical industry fully understands the products they are developing. This emphasis is seen via development of quality-by-design (QbD) publications and guidelines generated by the International Committee on Harmonization. The challenge to meet these expectations is primarily associated with the generation of in vivo data (eg, pharmacokinetic data) that is resource intensive. A technique reducing the resources needed to generate this in vivo data permits a more extensive application of QbD principles. This paper presents the application of stable isotopes in pharmacokinetic studies. The data show that the use of stable isotopes can significantly reduce the number of subjects required for a study. This reduction in subjects thus translates into a significant reduction in resources and time needed to generate the required in vivo data to support QbD.

  11. Food sources for Ruditapes philippinarum in a coastal lagoon determined by mass balance and stable isotope approaches.

    PubMed

    Komorita, Tomohiro; Kajihara, Rumiko; Tsutsumi, Hiroaki; Shibanuma, Seiichiro; Yamada, Toshiro; Montani, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the food demand of a clam population (Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve 1850)) and the isotopic contributions of potential food sources (phytoplankton, benthic diatoms, and organic matter derived from the sediment surface, seagrass, and seaweeds) to the clam diet were investigated. In particular, we investigated the manner in which dense patches of clams with high secondary productivity are sustained in a coastal lagoon ecosystem (Hichirippu Lagoon) in Hokkaido, Japan. Clam feeding behavior should affect material circulation in this lagoon owing to their high secondary productivity (ca. 130 g C m(-2) yr(-1)). Phytoplankton were initially found to constitute 14-77% of the clam diet, although phytoplankton nitrogen content (1.79-4.48 kmol N) and the food demand of the clam (16.2 kmol N d(-1)) suggest that phytoplankton can constitute only up to 28% of clam dietary demands. However, use of isotopic signatures alone may be misleading. For example, the contribution of microphytobenthos (MPB) were estimated to be 0-68% on the basis of isotopic signatures but was subsequently shown to be 35 ± 13% (mean ± S.D.) and 64 ± 4% (mean ± S.D.) on the basis of phytoplankton biomass and clam food demand respectively, suggesting that MPB are the primary food source for clams. Thus, in the present study, the abundant MPB in the subtidal area appear to be a key food source for clams, suggesting that these MPB may sustain the high secondary production of the clam.

  12. Isotope coded protein labeling coupled immunoprecipitation (ICPL-IP): a novel approach for quantitative protein complex analysis from native tissue.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Andreas; Fuerholzner, Bettina; Kinkl, Norbert; Boldt, Karsten; Ueffing, Marius

    2013-05-01

    High confidence definition of protein interactions is an important objective toward the understanding of biological systems. Isotope labeling in combination with affinity-based isolation of protein complexes has increased in accuracy and reproducibility, yet, larger organisms--including humans--are hardly accessible to metabolic labeling and thus, a major limitation has been its restriction to small animals, cell lines, and yeast. As composition as well as the stoichiometry of protein complexes can significantly differ in primary tissues, there is a great demand for methods capable to combine the selectivity of affinity-based isolation as well as the accuracy and reproducibility of isotope-based labeling with its application toward analysis of protein interactions from intact tissue. Toward this goal, we combined isotope coded protein labeling (ICPL)(1) with immunoprecipitation (IP) and quantitative mass spectrometry (MS). ICPL-IP allows sensitive and accurate analysis of protein interactions from primary tissue. We applied ICPL-IP to immuno-isolate protein complexes from bovine retinal tissue. Protein complexes of immunoprecipitated β-tubulin, a highly abundant protein with known interactors as well as the lowly expressed small GTPase RhoA were analyzed. The results of both analyses demonstrate sensitive and selective identification of known as well as new protein interactions by our method.

  13. The 13C-excess: a new dual element stable isotopic approach for de-trending the effects of evaporation on lake carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, T. W.; Oze, C.

    2013-12-01

    Stable isotope based proxy methods enhance our ability to interpret paleohydrology, paleoelevation, climate change, and biogeochemical cycles. In ancient carbonate lakes, these methods often require that the unmodified isotopic composition of meteoric water or local carbon reservoirs, or both, are recorded by authigenic minerals. Surprisingly, these critical assumptions have not been tested across wide-ranging environmental contexts. A review of globally distributed Quaternary records reveals that lake carbonate oxygen isotope compositions are not strongly, nor significantly, correlated with local meteoric-derived water compositions due to the modification of in-flow waters following entry into the lake environment. These modifications are largely caused by surface water evaporation, and can result in dubious reconstructions of ancient environmental conditions if not accounted for. However, our analysis suggests that positive shifts in surface water δ18O are accompanied by similar magnitude shifts in δ13C-DIC during lake residence. This positive co-variation in δ18O and δ13C may be used to de-trend lake carbonate compositions for the effects of surface water evaporation using a parameter we define as the ';13C-excess'. This approach uses the isotopic covariant trend between in-flow waters and lake waters, rather than lacustrine covariation alone, to better constrain ancient meteoric-derived water compositions. In Quaternary lake systems, 13C-excess values are significantly correlated with modern mean up-slope hypsometric altitude with an error of ×500m. Application of the 13C-excess approach to Cenozoic lake carbonate records from the western U.S. Cordillera both challenges and reinforces previous paleoelevational interpretations based on δ18O alone, while application of the 13C-excess approach to Middle Miocene laminated lacustrine carbonates from California and New Zealand provides important insights into the paleohydrologies of these two highly debated

  14. Disentangling the complexity of nitrous oxide cycling in coastal sediments: Results from a novel multi-isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankel, S. D.; Buchwald, C.; Charoenpong, C.; Ziebis, W.

    2014-12-01

    Although marine environments contribute approximately 30% of the global atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) flux, coastal systems appear to comprise a disproportionately large majority of the ocean-atmosphere flux. However, there exists a wide range of estimates and future projections of N2O production and emission are confounded by spatial and temporal variability of biological sources and sinks. As N2O is produced as an intermediate in both oxidative and reductive microbial processes and can also be consumed as an electron acceptor, a mechanistic understanding of the regulation of these pathways remains poorly understood. To improve our understanding of N2O dynamics in coastal sediments, we conducted a series of intact flow-through sediment core incubations (Sylt, Germany), while manipulating both the O2 and NO3- concentrations in the overlying water. Steady-state natural abundance isotope fluxes (δ15N and δ18O) of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and nitrous oxide were monitored throughout the experiments. We also measured both the isotopomer composition (site preference (SP) of the 15N in N2O) as well as the Δ17O composition in experiments conducted with the addition of NO3- with an elevated Δ17O composition (19.5‰), which provide complementary information about the processes producing and consuming N2O. Results indicate positive N2O fluxes (to the water column) across all conditions and sediment types. Decreasing dissolved O2 to 30% saturation resulted in reduced N2O fluxes (5.9 ± 6.5 μmol m2 d-1) compared to controls (17.8 ± 6.5 μmol m-2 d-1), while the addition of 100 μM NO3- yielded higher N2O fluxes (49.0 ± 18.5 μmol m-2 d-1). In all NO3- addition experiments, the Δ17O signal from the NO3- was clearly observed in the N2O efflux implicating denitrification as a large source of N2O. However, Δ17O values were always lower (1.9 to 8.6‰) than the starting NO3- indicating an important role for nitrification-based N2O production and/or O isotope exchange

  15. Novel isotopic N, N-Dimethyl Leucine (iDiLeu) Reagents Enable Absolute Quantification of Peptides and Proteins Using a Standard Curve Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Tyler; Lietz, Christopher B.; Xiang, Feng; Li, Lingjun

    2015-01-01

    Absolute quantification of protein targets using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a key component of candidate biomarker validation. One popular method combines multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a triple quadrupole instrument with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS) for absolute quantification (AQUA). LC-MRM AQUA assays are sensitive and specific, but they are also expensive because of the cost of synthesizing stable isotope peptide standards. While the chemical modification approach using mass differential tags for relative and absolute quantification (mTRAQ) represents a more economical approach when quantifying large numbers of peptides, these reagents are costly and still suffer from lower throughput because only two concentration values per peptide can be obtained in a single LC-MS run. Here, we have developed and applied a set of five novel mass difference reagents, isotopic N, N-dimethyl leucine (iDiLeu). These labels contain an amine reactive group, triazine ester, are cost effective because of their synthetic simplicity, and have increased throughput compared with previous LC-MS quantification methods by allowing construction of a four-point standard curve in one run. iDiLeu-labeled peptides show remarkably similar retention time shifts, slightly lower energy thresholds for higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation, and high quantification accuracy for trypsin-digested protein samples (median errors <15%). By spiking in an iDiLeu-labeled neuropeptide, allatostatin, into mouse urine matrix, two quantification methods are validated. The first uses one labeled peptide as an internal standard to normalize labeled peptide peak areas across runs (<19% error), whereas the second enables standard curve creation and analyte quantification in one run (<8% error).

  16. Feeding strategies of four dominant copepod species in Prydz Bay, Antarctica: Insights from a combined fatty acid biomarker and stable isotopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Guilini, Katja; Peng, Quancai; Wang, Yanqing; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Yongshan

    2016-08-01

    this combined fatty acid and stable isotopic approach suggest that the dominant copepod species in Prydz Bay, Antarctica, have flexible feeding strategies that vary by food source during the late austral summer.

  17. Using Novel Approaches in Process-Based Modeling for Interpreting Inter-Annual Variability in Tree Ring Widths, Wood Density Profiles, and Cellulose Isotopic Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, A. D.; Babst, F.; Belmecheri, S.; Frank, D. C.; Hacket Pain, A. J.; Hayat, A.; Poulter, B.; Rademacher, T. T.; Trouet, V.

    2015-12-01

    Time series annual of tree ring width, density variation, and oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions have the potential to substantially increase our knowledge of forest responses to environmental variation. However, their interpretation is not straightforward due to the simultaneous influences of a number of confounding factors, including carry-over effects from previous years, variable resource allocation with size, age, and canopy position, species-specific physiologies, and complex interactions between forcings such as temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric CO2. Here we attempt to tease these factors apart and so substantially improve the interpretability of tree ring archives through the construction and application of novel approaches within a process-based model of individual tree growth. The model incorporates descriptions of xylem cell division, expansion, and secondary wall thickening, apical and lateral meristem activities with internal controls from internal signals, internal carbon storage, and the dynamics of canopy photosynthesis, stomatal movements, evapotranspiration, canopy temperatures, and soil moisture. Alternative treatments of isotopic fractionation and growth controls are evaluated using measured datasets. We demonstrate how this new model approach can be used to assess the information contained in tree rings concerning the influence of increasing atmospheric CO2 over the past century on growth and water use efficiency at a range of sites.

  18. Water isotopes in desiccating lichens

    PubMed Central

    Cuntz, Matthias; Máguas, Cristina; Lakatos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in non-vascular, poikilohydric organisms such as lichens and bryophytes. To understand basic isotope exchange processes of non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrate with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. A model was developed as a proof of concept that accounts for the specific water relations of these poikilohydric organisms. The approach incorporates first their variable thallus water potential and second a compartmentation of the thallus water into two isotopically distinct but connected water pools. Moreover, the results represent first steps towards the development of poikilohydric organisms as a recorder of ambient vapour isotopic composition. PMID:19888598

  19. High site fidelity and low site connectivity in temperate salt marsh fish populations: a stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Green, Benjamin C; Smith, David J; Grey, Jonathan; Underwood, Graham J C

    2012-01-01

    Adult and juvenile fish utilise salt marshes for food and shelter at high tide, moving into adjacent sublittoral regions during low tide. Understanding whether there are high levels of site fidelity for different species of coastal fish has important implications for habitat conservation and the design of marine protected areas. We hypothesised that common salt marsh fish species would demonstrate a high site fidelity, resulting in minimal inter-marsh connectivity. Carbon ((13)C) and nitrogen ((15)N) stable isotope ratios of larvae and juveniles of five common salt marsh fish (Atherina presbyter, Chelon labrosus, Clupea harengus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Pomatoschistus microps), seven types of primary producer and seven secondary consumer food sources were sampled in five salt marshes within two estuary complexes along the coast of south-east England. Significant differences in (13)C and (15)N signatures between salt marshes indicated distinct sub-populations utilising the area of estuary around each salt marsh, and limited connectivity, even within the same estuary complex. (15)N ratios were responsible for the majority of inter-marsh differences for each species and showed similar site-specific patterns in ratios in primary producers, secondary consumers and fish. Fish diets (derived from isotope mixing models) varied between species but were mostly consistent between marsh sites, indicating that dietary shifts were not the source of variability of the inter-marsh isotopic signatures within species. These results demonstrate that for some common coastal fish species, high levels of site fidelity result in individual salt marshes operating as discrete habitats for fish assemblages.

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of water storage in hydropedological units in northern headwaters: integrating isotopic and hydrometric approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geris, J.; Tetzlaff, D.; McDonnell, J. J.; Soulsby, C.

    2013-12-01

    Soil water storage and release are controlled by the complex interaction of soil properties and vegetation. Here, we present new insights into water storage dynamics in six hydropedological units - encompassing the main ecohydrological assemblages in headwater catchments in the Scottish Highlands - investigated under contrasting hydro-climatological conditions. Soil moisture changes and stable isotope dynamics from multiple depths within soil profiles were examined to determine the relative influence of soil hydraulic properties and vegetation characteristics on storage dynamics. The study was based in the 3.6 km2 Bruntland catchment which is characterised by high annual precipitation (~1000 mm) which is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year and greatly exceeds evapotranspiration (~400 mm). Soils investigated encompassed both freely draining (podsols) and water-logged responsive (histosols and gleysols) soils. For each soil forest and non-forest vegetation were compared. In contrast to the permanently saturated histosols and gleysols, the freely draining podsols exhibited pronounced wetting and drying cycles. These were particularly accentuated at the forested site. Variability of soil water stable isotope signatures reflected variability in precipitation inputs for the podzolic soils, consistent with their freely draining nature and relatively low storage capacity, especially for the upper horizons. In contrast, the signals of soil water in the wet histosols were strongly damped, indicating significant mixing of precipitation inputs with the much greater storage. Evaporative fractionation showed little variation between the different vegetation communities suggesting that greater forest water use largely reflected interception losses. Thus at this site, intrinsic soil hydraulic properties exert a much stronger influence on water storage and transmission than vegetation. This is consistent with the overall energy-limited climate in conjunction with the

  1. Food Sources for Ruditapes philippinarum in a Coastal Lagoon Determined by Mass Balance and Stable Isotope Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Komorita, Tomohiro; Kajihara, Rumiko; Tsutsumi, Hiroaki; Shibanuma, Seiichiro; Yamada, Toshiro; Montani, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the food demand of a clam population (Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve 1850)) and the isotopic contributions of potential food sources (phytoplankton, benthic diatoms, and organic matter derived from the sediment surface, seagrass, and seaweeds) to the clam diet were investigated. In particular, we investigated the manner in which dense patches of clams with high secondary productivity are sustained in a coastal lagoon ecosystem (Hichirippu Lagoon) in Hokkaido, Japan. Clam feeding behavior should affect material circulation in this lagoon owing to their high secondary productivity (ca. 130 g C m−2 yr−1). Phytoplankton were initially found to constitute 14–77% of the clam diet, although phytoplankton nitrogen content (1.79–4.48 kmol N) and the food demand of the clam (16.2 kmol N d–1) suggest that phytoplankton can constitute only up to 28% of clam dietary demands. However, use of isotopic signatures alone may be misleading. For example, the contribution of microphytobenthos (MPB) were estimated to be 0–68% on the basis of isotopic signatures but was subsequently shown to be 35±13% (mean ± S.D.) and 64±4% (mean ± S.D.) on the basis of phytoplankton biomass and clam food demand respectively, suggesting that MPB are the primary food source for clams. Thus, in the present study, the abundant MPB in the subtidal area appear to be a key food source for clams, suggesting that these MPB may sustain the high secondary production of the clam. PMID:24489779

  2. A Spatially Explicit Dual-Isotope Approach to Map Regions of Plant-Plant Interaction after Exotic Plant Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hellmann, Christine; Werner, Christiane; Oldeland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Understanding interactions between native and invasive plant species in field settings and quantifying the impact of invaders in heterogeneous native ecosystems requires resolving the spatial scale on which these processes take place. Therefore, functional tracers are needed that enable resolving the alterations induced by exotic plant invasion in contrast to natural variation in a spatially explicit way. 15N isoscapes, i.e., spatially referenced representations of stable nitrogen isotopic signatures, have recently provided such a tracer. However, different processes, e.g. water, nitrogen or carbon cycles, may be affected at different spatial scales. Thus multi-isotope studies, by using different functional tracers, can potentially return a more integrated picture of invader impact. This is particularly true when isoscapes are submitted to statistical methods suitable to find homogeneous subgroups in multivariate data such as cluster analysis. Here, we used model-based clustering of spatially explicit foliar δ15N and δ13C isoscapes together with N concentration of a native indicator species, Corema album, to map regions of influence in a Portuguese dune ecosystem invaded by the N2-fixing Acacia longifolia. Cluster analysis identified regions with pronounced alterations in N budget and water use efficiency in the native species, with a more than twofold increase in foliar N, and δ13C and δ15N enrichment of up to 2‰ and 8‰ closer to the invader, respectively. Furthermore, clusters of multiple functional tracers indicated a spatial shift from facilitation through N addition in the proximity of the invader to competition for resources other than N in close contact. Finding homogeneous subgroups in multi-isotope data by means of model-based cluster analysis provided an effective tool for detecting spatial structure in processes affecting plant physiology and performance. The proposed method can give an objective measure of the spatial extent of influence of

  3. Magicity of the Ca52 and Ca54 isotopes and tensor contribution within a mean-field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Marcella

    2014-03-01

    I investigate the magicity of the isotopes Ca52 and Ca54, which was recently confirmed by two experimental measurements, and relate it to like-particle and neutron-proton tensor effects within a mean-field description. By analyzing Ca isotopes, it is shown that the like-particle tensor contribution induces shell effects that render these nuclei more magic than would be predicted by neglecting it. In particular, such induced shell effects are stronger in the Ca52 nucleus, and the single-particle gaps are increased in both isotopes due to the tensor force. By studying N =32 and N =34 isotones, neutron-proton tensor effects may be isolated and their role analyzed. It is shown that neutron-proton tensor effects lead to increasing N =32 and N =34 gaps, when going along isotonic chains, from Fe58 to Ca52 and from Fe60 to Ca54, respectively. Mean-field calculations are perfomed by employing one Skyrme parameter set, which was introduced in a previous work by fitting the tensor parameters together with the spin-orbit strength. The signs and values of the tensor strengths are thus checked within this specific application. The obtained results indicate that the employed parameter set, even if generated with a partial adjustment of the parameters of the force, leads to the correct shell behavior and provides, in particular, a description of the magicity of Ca52 and Ca54 within a pure mean-field picture with the effective two-body Skyrme interaction.

  4. Why Methane Increasing in the Atmosphere is Pushing us Towards New Analytical Approaches for Stable Isotope Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. W. C.; Michel, S. E.; Vaughn, B. H.; Miller, J. B.; Masarie, K. A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sherwood, O.; Tans, P. P.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is increasing again in the atmosphere after nearly a decade of stable concentrations. As methane has risen by 2.5 times since the beginning of the industrial era, such a rise in concentrations is not surprising. Carbon isotopes, however, make it clear that the recent rise is not simply a resumption of the dramatic rise in the 1900s, but that other causes are at play, and that multiple fluxes may be interacting to yield the observed rise. At the same time, cautious attention is focused on the Arctic, where vast stores of carbon are poised for release as frozen soils melt, and some of that carbon will be released as methane. These realities make it imperative that we improve our monitoring of methane and methane isotopes in the atmosphere. This talk will address the issues that we face in meeting this challenge in the NOAA Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, including targets for precision and accuracy needed to calculate regional and global fluxes, technological advances in analytical equipment, maintaining standards, ensuring adequate monitoring sites and meeting all of these needs in an era of funding cuts and uncertainty for environmental monitoring.

  5. Fertilizer nitrogen isotope signatures.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D

    2007-09-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the potential application of nitrogen isotope analysis in discriminating between organically and conventionally grown crops. A prerequisite of this approach is that there is a difference in the nitrogen isotope compositions of the fertilizers used in organic and conventional agriculture. We report new measurements of delta15N values for synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and present a compilation of the new data with existing literature nitrogen isotope data. Nitrogen isotope values for fertilizers that may be permitted in organic cultivation systems are also reported (manures, composts, bloodmeal, bonemeal, hoof and horn, fishmeal and seaweed based fertilizers). The delta15N values of the synthetic fertilizers in the compiled dataset fall within a narrow range close to 0 per thousand with 80% of samples lying between-2 and 2 per thousand and 98.5% of the data having delta15N values of less than 4 per thousand (mean=0.2 per thousand n=153). The fertilizers that may be permitted in organic systems have a higher mean delta15N value of 8.5 per thousand and exhibit a broader range in delta15N values from 0.6 to 36.7 per thousand (n=83). The possible application of the nitrogen isotope approach in discriminating between organically and conventionally grown crops is discussed in light of the fertilizer data presented here and with regard to other factors that are also important in determining crop nitrogen isotope values.

  6. Isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  7. A new approach to understand methylmercury (CH3Hg) sources and transformation pathways: Compound-specific carbon stable isotope analysis by GC-C-IRMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baya, P. A.; Point, D.; Amouroux, D. P.; Lebreton, B.; Guillou, G.

    2015-12-01

    Methylmercury (CH3Hg) is a potent neurotoxin which is readily assimilated by organisms and bio-accumulates in aquatic food webs. In humans, consumption of CH3Hg contaminated marine fish is the major route of mercury exposure. However, our understanding of CH3Hg transformation pathways is still incomplete. To close this knowledge gap, we propose to explore the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of the methyl group of CH3Hg for a better understanding of its sources and transformation mechanisms. The method developed for the determination of the δ13C value of CH3Hg in biological samples involves (i) CH3Hg selective extraction, (ii) derivatization, and (iii) separation by gas chromatography (GC) prior to analysis by combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (C-IRMS). We present the figures of merit of this novel method and the first δ13C signatures for certified materials (ERM-CE464, BCR414) and biological samples at different marine trophic levels (i.e., tuna fish, zooplankton). The implications of this new approach to trace the pathways associated with Hg methylation and the mechanisms involved will be discussed.

  8. A novel methodological approach for δ(18)O analysis of sugars using gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zech, Michael; Saurer, Matthias; Tuthorn, Mario; Rinne, Katja; Werner, Roland A; Siegwolf, Rolf; Glaser, Bruno; Juchelka, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Although the instrumental coupling of gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Py-IRMS) for compound-specific δ(18)O analysis has been commercially available for more than a decade, this method has been hardly applied so far. Here we present the first GC-Py-IRMS δ(18)O results for trimethylsilyl-derivatives of plant sap-relevant sugars and a polyalcohol (glucose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose and pinitol). Particularly, we focus on sucrose, which is assimilated in leaves and which is the most important transport sugar in plants and hence of utmost relevance in plant physiology and paleoclimate studies. Replication measurements of sucrose standards and concentration series indicate that the GC-Py-IRMS δ(18)O measurements are not stable over time and that they are amount (area) dependent. We, therefore, suggest running sample batch replication measurements in alternation with standard concentration series of reference material. This allows for carrying out (i) a drift correction, (ii) a calibration against reference material and (iii) an amount (area) correction. Tests with (18)O-enriched water do not provide any evidence for oxygen isotope exchange reactions affecting sucrose and raffinose. We present the first application of GC-Py-IRMS δ(18)O analysis for sucrose from needle extract (soluble carbohydrate) samples. The obtained δ(18)Osucrose/ Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) values are more positive and vary in a wider range (32.1-40.1 ‰) than the δ(18)Obulk/ VSMOW values (24.6-27.2 ‰). Furthermore, they are shown to depend on the climate parameters maximum day temperature, relative air humidity and cloud cover. These findings suggest that δ(18)Osucrose of the investigated needles very sensitively reflects the climatically controlled evaporative (18)O enrichment of leaf water and thus highlights the great potential of GC-Py-IRMS δ(18)Osucrose analysis for plant physiology and paleoclimate studies.

  9. A stable-isotope dilution GC-MS approach for the analysis of DFRC (derivatization followed by reductive cleavage) monomers from low-lignin plant materials.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Judith; Urbat, Felix; Rund, Katharina; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-03-18

    The derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC) method is a well-established tool to characterize the lignin composition of plant materials. However, the application of the original procedure, especially the chromatographic determination of the DFRC monomers, is problematic for low-lignin foods. To overcome these problems a modified sample cleanup and a stable-isotope dilution approach were developed and validated. To quantitate the diacetylated DFRC monomers, their corresponding hexadeuterated analogs were synthesized and used as internal standards. By using the selected-ion monitoring mode, matrix-associated interferences can be minimized resulting in higher selectivity and sensitivity. The modified method was applied to four low-lignin samples. Lignin from carrot fibers was classified as guaiacyl-rich whereas the lignins from radish, pear, and asparagus fibers where classified as balanced lignins (guaiacyl/syringyl ratio=1-2).

  10. Influences of the substrate feeding regime on methanogenic activity in biogas reactors approached by molecular and stable isotope methods.

    PubMed

    Lv, Z; Leite, A F; Harms, H; Richnow, H H; Liebetrau, J; Nikolausz, M

    2014-10-01

    In order to better understand the effects of the substrate feeding regime on methanogenesis during anaerobic digestion in biogas reactors, four continuous stirred tank reactors operated under mesophilic conditions were investigated. In addition to standard physicochemical parameters, the stable isotopic signatures of CH4 and CO2 before and after daily feeding were analyzed. The activity of the methanogens was assessed by methyl coenzyme M reductase alpha-subunit (mcrA/mrtA) gene transcript analysis. Two different feeding regimes i.e. single vs. double consecutive feeding of the otherwise same daily maize silage load were investigated. During the first phase, a single feeding of the whole daily dose increased the biogas production within 70-80 min from around 0.5 to 2.0 L/h. This increase was associated with a transient increase of the acetic acid concentration and a corresponding decrease of the pH. Only moderate increase in biogas yield and VFA concentration (mainly acetate) was observed when the daily substrate was apportioned into two feedings. However, the overall daily gas production was similar in both cases. Regardless of the feeding regime, significantly depleted δ(13)CH4 and minor changes in the CO2 content of biogas were observed after feeding, which were followed by enrichment of δ(13)CH4. This period was associated with detectable changes in activity of methanogenic communities monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the transcripts of mcrA/mrtA genes. Methanoculleus and Methanobacterium spp. were the predominant methanogens in all reactors, while Methanosarcina spp. activity was only significant in two reactors. The activity of Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina spp. increased after the feeding in these reactors, which was followed by a depletion of δ(13)C in the produced gas. In both reactors, the less depleted isotopic values were detected before the second feeding, when Methanobacterium was the most

  11. A common parentage for Deccan Continental Flood Basalt and Central Indian Ocean Ridge Basalt? A geochemical and isotopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D.; Misra, S.; Widdowson, M.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-04-01

    A comparison of geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions for Deccan Continental Flood Basalts (CFBs) and Central Indian Ridge (CIR) Basalts is presented: these data permit assessment of possible parental linkages between the two regions, and comparison of their respective magmatic evolutionary trends in relation to rift-related tectonic events during Gondwana break-up. The present study reveals that Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) from the northern CIR and basalts of Deccan CFB are geochemically dissimilar because of: (1) the Deccan CFB basalts typically show a greater iron-enrichment as compared to the northern CIR MORB, (2) a multi-element spiderdiagram reveals that the Deccan CFBs reveal a more fractionated slope (Ba/YbN > 1), as compared to relatively flat northern CIR MORB (Ba/YbN < 1), (3) there is greater REE fractionation for Deccan CFB than for the northern CIR MORB (i.e., La/YbN ˜ 2.3 and 1 respectively) and (4) substantial variation of compatible-incompatible trace elements and their ratios among the two basalt groups suggests that partial melting is a dominant process for northern CIR MORB, while fractional crystallization was a more important control to the geochemical variation for Deccan CFB. Further, incompatible trace element ratios (Nb/U and Nb/Pb) and radiogenic isotopic data (Sr-Pb-Nd) indicate that the northern CIR MORBs are similar to depleted mantle [and/or normal (N)-MORB], and often lie on a mixing line between depleted mantle and upper continental crust. By contrast, Deccan CFB compositions lie between the lower continental crust and Ocean island basalt. Accordingly, we conclude that the basaltic suites of the northern CIR MORB and Deccan CFB do not share common parentage, and are therefore genetically unrelated to each other. Instead, we infer that the northern CIR MORB were derived from a depleted mantle source contaminated by upper continental crust, probably during the break up of Gondwanaland; the Deccan CFB are more similar to

  12. A new approach for deciphering between single and multiple accumulation events using intra-tooth isotopic variations: Application to the Middle Pleistocene bone bed of Schöningen 13 II-4.

    PubMed

    Julien, Marie-Anne; Rivals, Florent; Serangeli, Jordi; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    It is often difficult to differentiate between archaeological bonebeds formed by one event such as a mass kill of a single herd, and those formed by multiple events that occurred over a longer period of time. The application of high temporal resolution studies such as intra-tooth isotopic profiles on archaeological mammal cohorts offers new possibilities for exploring this issue, allowing investigators to decipher between single and multiple accumulation events. We examined (18)O and (13)C isotopic variations from the enamel carbonate of 23 horse third molars from the Middle Pleistocene archaeological site of Schöningen. We employed a new approach to investigate processes of fossil accumulation that uses both bulk and intra-tooth isotopic variations and takes into account animal behavior, age at death and dental development to test the degree of isotopic affinity of animals from the same fossil assemblage. Oxygen and carbon isotope bulk values indicate that the horses from Schöningen 13 II-4 experienced relatively similar climatic and dietary regimes. Inter-individual differences of the bulk values of the horses sampled in the current study present nevertheless inter-individual variability similar to individuals from multi-layered localities. In addition, the intra-tooth isotopic variation of specimens of the same age at death seems to indicate that the studied cohort corresponds to a mix of individuals that recorded both similar and different isotopic histories. Finally, the conditions recorded in the isotopic signal shortly before death (i.e., for teeth not fully mineralized) varied between sampled individuals, suggesting possible differences in the seasonality of death. Considering those results, we discuss the possibility that the horses from Schöningen 13 II-4 correspond to an accumulation of different death events.

  13. Isotope Cancer Treatment Research at LANL

    ScienceCinema

    Weidner, John; Nortier, Meiring

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced medical isotopes for diagnostic and imaging purposes for more than 30 years. Now LANL researchers have branched out into isotope cancer treatment studies. New results show that an accelerator-based approach can produce clinical trial quantities of actinium-225, an isotope that has promise as a way to kill tumors without damaging surrounding healthy cells.

  14. Isotope Cancer Treatment Research at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, John; Nortier, Meiring

    2012-04-11

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced medical isotopes for diagnostic and imaging purposes for more than 30 years. Now LANL researchers have branched out into isotope cancer treatment studies. New results show that an accelerator-based approach can produce clinical trial quantities of actinium-225, an isotope that has promise as a way to kill tumors without damaging surrounding healthy cells.

  15. An Empirical Approach to Obtaining Accurate Molecular Rotational Constants for Isotopically-Substituted Species from AB Initio Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Brett A.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in microwave spectroscopy, namely the development of broadband, chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectrometers, allow the acquisition of rotational spectra of isotopically-substituted species in natural abundance. The characterization and assignment of these spectra is of particular interest as it applies to astrochemical observations of such species in the interstellar medium. Here, we demonstrate an empirical method for determining rotational constants to aid in the initial assignment of such spectra using a combination of laboratory data and ab initio calculations. The result is an increase in the accuracy of these constants by as much as two orders of magnitude versus those resulting from simple structure optimizations. We have applied this method to a variety of species including diatomic molecules (e.g. HCl), large molecules with internal motion (e.g. CH_3COOH), ions (e.g. HCO^+), clusters (e.g. H_2O\\cdotH_2O), and long carbon chain molecules (e.g. HC_7N). We present the results of these analyses and comment on the applicability of this method to other systems.

  16. Natural and anthropogenic variations in the Po river waters (northern Italy): insights from a multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Marchina, Chiara; Bianchini, Gianluca; Knoeller, Kay; Natali, Claudio; Pennisi, Maddalena; Colombani, Nicolò

    2016-12-01

    Po is the main Italian river and the δ(18)O and δ(2)H of its water reveal a similarity between the current meteoric fingerprint and that of the past represented by groundwater. As concerns the hydrochemisty, the Ca-HCO3 facies remained constant over the last 50 year, and only nitrate significantly increased from less than 1 mg/L to more than 10 mg/L in the 1980s, and then attenuated to a value of 9 mg/L. Coherently, δ(13)CDIC and δ(34)SSO4 are compatible with the weathering of the lithologies outcropping in the basin, while extremely variable δ(15)NNO3 indicates contribution from pollutants released by urban, agricultural and zootechnical activities. This suggests that although the origin of the main constituents of the Po river water is geogenic, anthropogenic contributions are locally significant. Noteworthy, the associated aquifers have the same nitrogen isotopic signature of the Po river, but are characterized by significantly higher NO(-) 3 concentration. This implies that aquifers' pollution is not ascribed to inflow of current river water, and that the attenuation of the nitrogen load recorded in the river is not occurring in the aquifers, due to their longer water residence time and delayed recovery from anthropogenic contamination.

  17. Denitrification and Anammox in Tropical Aquaculture Settlement Ponds: An Isotope Tracer Approach for Evaluating N2 Production

    PubMed Central

    Castine, Sarah A.; Erler, Dirk V.; Trott, Lindsay A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; de Nys, Rocky; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2012-01-01

    Settlement ponds are used to treat aquaculture discharge water by removing nutrients through physical (settling) and biological (microbial transformation) processes. Nutrient removal through settling has been quantified, however, the occurrence of, and potential for microbial nitrogen (N) removal is largely unknown in these systems. Therefore, isotope tracer techniques were used to measure potential rates of denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in the sediment of settlement ponds in tropical aquaculture systems. Dinitrogen gas (N2) was produced in all ponds, although potential rates were low (0–7.07 nmol N cm−3 h−1) relative to other aquatic systems. Denitrification was the main driver of N2 production, with anammox only detected in two of the four ponds. No correlations were detected between the measured sediment variables (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, iron, manganese, sulphur and phosphorous) and denitrification or anammox. Furthermore, denitrification was not carbon limited as the addition of particulate organic matter (paired t-Test; P = 0.350, n = 3) or methanol (paired t-Test; P = 0.744, n = 3) did not stimulate production of N2. A simple mass balance model showed that only 2.5% of added fixed N was removed in the studied settlement ponds through the denitrification and anammox processes. It is recommended that settlement ponds be used in conjunction with additional technologies (i.e. constructed wetlands or biological reactors) to enhance N2 production and N removal from aquaculture wastewater. PMID:22962581

  18. Technical Report: Investigation of Carbon Cycle Processes within a Managed Landscape: An Ecosystem Manipulation and Isotope Tracer Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Griffis, Timothy J; Baker, John M; Billmark, Kaycie

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this research is to provide a better scientific understanding of carbon cycle processes within an agricultural landscape characteristic of the Upper Midwest. This project recognizes the need to study processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales to reduce uncertainty in ecosystem and landscape-scale carbon budgets to provide a sound basis for shaping future policy related to carbon management. Specifically, this project has attempted to answer the following questions: 1. Would the use of cover crops result in a shift from carbon neutral to significant carbon gain in corn-soybean rotation ecosystems of the Upper Midwest? 2. Can stable carbon isotope analyses be used to partition ecosystem respiration into its autotrophic and heterotrophic components? 3. Can this partitioning be used to better understand the fate of crop residues to project changes in the soil carbon reservoir? 4. Are agricultural ecosystems of the Upper Midwest carbon neutral, sinks, or sources? Can the proposed measurement and modeling framework help address landscape-scale carbon budget uncertainties and help guide future carbon management policy?

  19. Teasing Foggy Memories out of Pines on the California Channel Islands Using Tree-Ring Width and Stable Isotope Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. P.; Still, C. J.; Fischer, D. T.; Leavitt, S. W.

    2006-12-01

    The coast of California is home to many rare, endemic conifers and other plants that are not well adapted to the Mediterranean climate that prevails across most of the state. It has long been suggested that coastal pines survived the early-Pleistocene transition to a warmer and drier environment because they benefit from frequent fog and low stratus clouds that provide much needed water inputs and shading during the rainless summer. Here, we report evidence for the importance of this summer cloudiness to Torrey pines (Pinus torreyana) growing on Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Park. We developed a tree-ring width chronology and quantified the relative importance of winter/spring precipitation and summer fog by comparing ring widths to nearby rainfall records and airport cloud-ceiling height data. While winter/spring precipitation explains most of the variation in annual tree-ring width (R2 = 0.592), the frequency of summertime fog correlated significantly and positively with annual ring width for 52 years of available fog data when the effect of winter/spring precipitation was removed (R2 = 0.118). The correlation between fog frequency and ring width decreased sharply when the range of possible cloud-ceiling heights deviated from the habitat range of the Torrey pine stand, emphasizing the importance of direct cloud immersion to these pines. In addition, the relationship between fog frequency and ring width was strongest in the 26 years that had enough winter/spring rainfall to maintain above-average soil moisture throughout the dry summer months (R2 = 0.312). This suggests that Torrey pines have an adaptive growing season length and that summer fog-water inputs are supplemental but not substantial enough to sustain tree growth independently. It may also be suggested that when summer growth does occur, the frequency of summer fog and stratus may govern growing season length. This made a "fog signal" difficult to detect in the stable isotope (carbon and

  20. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of pesticides: a combined monitoring and modeling approach to assess pesticide fate and degradation at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, B. M.; Lutz, S.; Van der Velde, Y.; Elsayed, O. F.; LeFrancq, M.; Payraudeau, S.; Imfeld, G.

    2014-12-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven useful in asessing the fate of groundwater contamination. However, although evidence of diffuse pesticide degradation is crucial, and CSIA methods have been developed for several pesticides, there is a clear lack of field CSIA data of pesticides. This study now presents the first analysis of field CSIA data from a 47-ha agricultural headwater catchment (Alteckendorf, Alsace, France) in the period March to August 2012. Measured stream concentrations of the two investigated chloroacetanilide herbicides (S-metolachlor and acetochlor) were highest (65 μg/L) following an intense rainfall event in the first month after herbicide application. Carbon isotope ratios increased with more than 2 ‰ in 3 months, which indicates the occurrence of herbicide degradation during transport to the stream. Previously, field CSIA data have also been simulated with reactive transport models to evaluate degradation of groundwater contaminants. This study now presents such a model-assisted interpretation of CSIA data for the first time at catchment scale, which aims at exploring the added value of CSIA in monitoring and modelling of pesticide pollution. The conceptual mathematical model succeeded in reproducing the general trend in concentrations and carbon isotope ratios of metolachlor. It also allowed for the quantification of metolachlor degradation (above 70 % during the study period), and yielded a mass export of 1.8 % of the applied pesticide, which is in agreement with the measured pesticide export. The field concentration and CSIA data informed the model building by indicating the importance of overland flow, and slow pesticide degradation in groundwater compared to the upper soil zone. Moreover, incorporation of the field CSIA data into model calibration slightly reduced model uncertainty in the quantification of pesticide degradation. We suggest that a finer temporal CSIA resolution than possible in this study

  1. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  2. (Bio)degradation of glyphosate in water-sediment microcosms - A stable isotope co-labeling approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizong; Seiwert, Bettina; Kästner, Matthias; Miltner, Anja; Schäffer, Andreas; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Yang, Qi; Nowak, Karolina M

    2016-08-01

    Glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) are frequently detected in water and sediments. Up to date, there are no comprehensive studies on the fate of glyphosate in water-sediment microcosms according to OECD 308 guideline. Stable isotope co-labeled (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate was used to determine the turnover mass balance, formation of metabolites, and formation of residues over a period of 80 days. In the water-sediment system, 56% of the initial (13)C3-glyphosate equivalents was ultimately mineralized, whereas the mineralization in the water system (without sediment) was low, reaching only 2% of (13)C-glyphosate equivalents. This finding demonstrates the key role of sediments in its degradation. Glyphosate was detected below detection limit in the water compartment on day 40, but could still be detected in the sediments, ultimately reaching 5% of (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate equivalents. A rapid increase in (13)C(15)N-AMPA was noted after 10 days, and these transformation products ultimately constituted 26% of the (13)C3-glyphosate equivalents and 79% of the (15)N-glyphosate equivalents. In total, 10% of the (13)C label and 12% of the (15)N label were incorporated into amino acids, indicating no risk bearing biogenic residue formation from (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate. Initially, glyphosate was biodegraded via the sarcosine pathway related to microbial growth, as shown by co-labeled (13)C(15)N-glycine and biogenic residue formation. Later, degradation via AMPA dominated under starvation conditions, as shown by the contents of (13)C-glycine. The presented data provide the first evidence of the speciation of the non-extractable residues as well as the utilization of glyphosate as a carbon and nitrogen source in the water-sediment system. This study also highlights the contribution of both the sarcosine and the AMPA degradation pathways under these conditions.

  3. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China’s complex societies. PMID:27384523

  4. Assessment of the intrinsic bioremediation capacity of an eutrophic river sediment polluted by discharging chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons: a compound-specific isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas K; Hamonts, Kelly; Dijk, John A; Kalka, Harald; Stichler, Willibald; Springael, Dirk; Dejonghe, Winnie; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2009-07-15

    At a field site in the industrial area of Vilvoorde, Belgium, we investigated the capacity of the indigenous microbial community of a eutrophic river sediment to biodegrade chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) originating from discharging, polluted groundwater using a compound-specific isotope approach. We specifically targeted the site's major pollutants cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Analysis of Rayleigh correlation plots enabled us to assess the extent to which microbial and abiotic natural attenuation processes contributed to the mitigation of a pollution of the surface water due to discharging CAH-contaminated groundwater. Our results provide evidence for (i) the occurrence of biodegradation of cis-DCE and VC by reductive dechlorination in parts of the aquifer and at several positions in the river sediment (ii) the presence of river sediment zones exhibiting attenuation of chloroethenes by a combination of biodegradation and dilution through unpolluted water, (iii) the existence of zones in the river sediment lacking significant biodegradation, and thus (iv) a pronounced spatial heterogeneity in the occurrence and extent of biodegradation in the aquifer and river sediment. We conclude that at many investigated positions in the river sediment the indigenous microbial community failed to facilitate complete biodegradation of the groundwater-sourced chloroethenes. The overall intrinsic bioremediation capacity of the river sediment was thus not high enough to completely prevent the release of these pollutants into the surface water. These findings and conclusions are thus in agreement with those of our companion paper (1), which investigated the river sediments at the Vilvoorde study site by a combination of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of water and the detection of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) and their dechlorination products.

  5. Kinetics of Hg(II) exchange between organic ligands, goethite, and natural organic matter studied with an enriched stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Jiskra, Martin; Saile, Damian; Wiederhold, Jan G; Bourdon, Bernard; Björn, Erik; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2014-11-18

    The mobility and bioavailability of toxic Hg(II) in the environment strongly depends on its interactions with natural organic matter (NOM) and mineral surfaces. Using an enriched stable isotope approach, we investigated the exchange of Hg(II) between dissolved species (inorganically complexed or cysteine-, EDTA-, or NOM-bound) and solid-bound Hg(II) (carboxyl-/thiol-resin or goethite) over 30 days under constant conditions (pH, Hg and ligand concentrations). The Hg(II)-exchange was initially fast, followed by a slower phase, and depended on the properties of the dissolved ligands and sorbents. The results were described by a kinetic model allowing the simultaneous determination of adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. The time scales required to reach equilibrium with the carboxyl-resin varied greatly from 1.2 days for Hg(OH)2 to 16 days for Hg(II)-cysteine complexes and approximately 250 days for EDTA-bound Hg(II). Other experiments could not be described by an equilibrium model, suggesting that a significant fraction of total-bound Hg was present in a non-exchangeable form (thiol-resin and NOM: 53-58%; goethite: 22-29%). Based on the slow and incomplete exchange of Hg(II) described in this study, we suggest that kinetic effects must be considered to a greater extent in the assessment of the fate of Hg in the environment and the design of experimental studies, for example, for stability constant determination or metal isotope fractionation during sorption.

  6. Synthesizing the Use of Carbon Isotope (14C and 13C) Approaches to Understand Rates and Pathways for Permafrost C Mobilization and Mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estop-Aragones, C.; Olefeldt, D.; Schuur, E.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the permafrost carbon (C) feedback it is important to synthesize our current knowledge, and knowledge gaps, of how permafrost thaw can cause in situ mineralization or downstream mobilization of aged soil organic carbon (SOC) and the rate of this release. This potential loss of old SOC may occur via gaseous flux of CO2 and CH4 exchanged between soil and the atmosphere and via waterborne flux as DOC, POC (and their subsequent decomposition and release to the atmosphere). Carbon isotope (14C and 13C) approaches have been used to estimate both rates and pathways for permafrost C mobilization and mineralization. Radiocarbon (14C) has been used to estimate the contribution of aged C to overall respiration or waterborne C export. We aim to contrast results from radiocarbon studies, in order to assess differences between ecosystems (contrasting wet and dry ecosystems), thaw histories (active layer deepening or thermokarst landforms), greenhouse gas considered (CO2 and CH4) and seasons. We propose to also contrast methodologies used for assessing the contribution of aged C to overall C balance, and include studies using 13C data. Biological fractionation of 13C during both uptake and decomposition has been taken advantage of both in order to aid the interpretation of 14C data and on its own to assess sources and mineralization pathways. For example, 13C data has been used to differentiate between CH4 production pathways, and the relative contribution of anaerobic CO2 production to overall respiration. Overall, carbon isotope research is proving highly valuable for our understanding of permafrost C dynamics following thaw, and there is a current need to synthesize the available literature.

  7. Transuranium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1985-12-01

    The needs of the research community for the production of transuranium isotopes, the quantities required, the continuity of production desired, and what a new steady state neutron source would have to provide to satisfy these needs are discussed. Examples of past frontier research which need these isotopes as well as an outline of the proposed Large Einsteinium Activation Program, LEAP, which requires roughly ten times the current production of /sup 254/Es are given. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Isotopic chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Floss, H.G.

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  9. Automated LC-HRMS(/MS) approach for the annotation of fragment ions derived from stable isotope labeling-assisted untargeted metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Nora K N; Lehner, Sylvia M; Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Sedelmaier, Karoline; Lemmens, Marc; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2014-08-05

    Structure elucidation of biological compounds is still a major bottleneck of untargeted LC-HRMS approaches in metabolomics research. The aim of the present study was to combine stable isotope labeling and tandem mass spectrometry for the automated interpretation of the elemental composition of fragment ions and thereby facilitate the structural characterization of metabolites. The software tool FragExtract was developed and evaluated with LC-HRMS/MS spectra of both native (12)C- and uniformly (13)C (U-(13)C)-labeled analytical standards of 10 fungal substances in pure solvent and spiked into fungal culture filtrate of Fusarium graminearum respectively. Furthermore, the developed approach is exemplified with nine unknown biochemical compounds contained in F. graminearum samples derived from an untargeted metabolomics experiment. The mass difference between the corresponding fragment ions present in the MS/MS spectra of the native and U-(13)C-labeled compound enabled the assignment of the number of carbon atoms to each fragment signal and allowed the generation of meaningful putative molecular formulas for each fragment ion, which in turn also helped determine the elemental composition of the precursor ion. Compared to laborious manual analysis of the MS/MS spectra, the presented algorithm marks an important step toward efficient fragment signal elucidation and structure annotation of metabolites in future untargeted metabolomics studies. Moreover, as demonstrated for a fungal culture sample, FragExtract also assists the characterization of unknown metabolites, which are not contained in databases, and thus exhibits a significant contribution to untargeted metabolomics research.

  10. Evaluation of risks of groundwater quality alteration in Recife urban area (Pernambuco, Brazil) using a multi-isotopic approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Guillaume; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Batista, Jonathan; Bertolo, Reginaldo; Santos, Jeane-Glaucia; Montenegro, Suzanna; Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Pauwels, Hélène; Picot, Géraldine; Braibant, Gilles; Chatton, Eliot; Aquilina, Luc; Labasque, Thierry; Hochreutener, Rebecca; Aurouet, Axel; Franzen, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR) is a heavily urbanized area located in a estuary zone and over a multi-layered sedimentary system on the Brazilian Atlantic coast. In a context of increasing land use pressures, involving aquifer overexploitation and surface water contamination, and repeated droughts, the identification of groundwater quality risks in RMR is a necessary management requirement. In this perspective, this work focused on the two shallow aquifer systems, named Boa Viagem and Barreiras aquifers, located at the interface between the city (the consumers) and the deeper semi-confined Cretaceous Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. The Holocenic Boa Viagem and Tertiary Barreiras formations conform unconfined sedimentary aquifers, with no more than 80 m of thickness. Cabo is the most important groundwater body for Recife private complementary water supply and it has experienced an intense exploitation in the last three decades. In contrast, Boa Viagem and Barreiras aquifers are more restrictively used, but it is important to understand their water quality degradation,because of hydraulic connections with deeper aquifers, mainly in the littoral part of Recife, where hydraulic potentiometric head of the Cabo aquifer is 60 m below sea water level in some places, with conditions for recharge from shallower aquifers. Through a multi-isotopic characterization (87Sr/86Sr, δ11B, δ18O-SO4, δ34S-SO4) of sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters, carried out during two field campaigns with additional geochemical parameters (major ions, noble and major gases, CFC' s and SF6), the spatio-temporal variability of groundwater quality was investigated. The detection of CFC' s, implying a modern recharge component, highlighted the vulnerability of Boa Viagem and Barreiras to surface contaminations. The increasing mineralization and decreasing 87Sr/86Sr from the inland sector wells to the wells located close to the coast or estuary, with higher well and population densities, were

  11. New Approaches for removing the Si-OH Layer of Biogenic Silica before Analysing Oxygen Isotopes - Helium Flow Dehydration (HFD) and Vacuum Bead Melting (VBM) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapligin, B.; Meyer, H.; Hubberten, H. W.

    2009-12-01

    The analysis of oxygen isotopes from diatom silica (δ18OSi) in sediment cores has obtained importance for palaeoclimate reconstruction especially where carbonate proxies are either rare or not available. Compared to the widely accepted relation of oxygen isotopes of carbonate origin to climate-relevant parameters, challenges still occur using biogenic silica. These questions arise at sample preparation as well as for the analysis itself, but are especially related to the removal of loosely bound oxygen of the hydrous layer. It is the common view that diatoms consist of an isotopically homogenous inner Si-O-Si layer and a less dense, hydrous layer forming Si-OH bonds, which has to be removed from the sample prior to analysis. Three methods have been accepted so far to perform this step: Controlled Isotopic Exchange (CIE) followed by fluorination, Stepwise Fluorination (SWF) and inductive High-Temperature carbon reduction (iHTR). The former method of vacuum dehydration (VD) proved to be unable to remove all exchangeable oxygen. Here, a new, remotely-operated laser-fluorination based mass spectrometry unit is used for the analysis. The silica is reacted with a CO2 laser in a BrF5 atmosphere and oxygen is then transferred to and analysed in a mass spectrometer (PDZ Europa 20-20). As CIE is both time-consuming and work-intense and SWF is impractical for this setup mainly due to the high pressure increase during dehydration, a new, efficient and fast method should be developed to remove the hydrous layer using the laser-fluorination process. Two approaches were tested to remove the Si-OH layer and the impact on δ18OSi was assessed by performing tests on internal standard materials of marine and lacustrine biogenic silica and of quartz. For VBM, a minimum of 1.5 mg of pure sample is melted to a bead with a defocused laser to eliminate the hydrous outer layer and to reduce the surface. After the bead has formed it is transferred into the reaction chamber completely

  12. Complementing approaches to demonstrate chlorinated solvent biodegradation in a complex pollution plume: Mass balance, PCR and compound-specific stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbet, Christelle; Rivière, Agnès; Jeannottat, Simon; Rinaldi, Sandro; Hunkeler, Daniel; Bendjoudi, Hocine; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2011-11-01

    , although TCE biodegradation seems to occur only in the upgradient part of the studied zone, DCE and VC dechlorination (originating from the initial TCE dechlorination) occurs along the entire flowpath. TCE reductase was not detected among the Dehalococcoides bacteria identified by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while DCE and VC reductases were present in the majority of the population. Reverse transcriptase PCR assays (rt-PCR) also indicated that bacteria and their DCE and VC reductases were active. Mass balance calculations showed moreover that 1,1-DCE was the predominant DCE isomer produced by TCE dechlorination in the upgradient part of the site. Consequently, coupling rt-PCR assays with isotope measurements removes the uncertainties inherent in a simple mass balance approach, so that when the three methods are used jointly, they allow the identification and quantification of natural biodegradation, even under apparently complex geochemical and hydraulic conditions.

  13. Lipid biomarker and compound-specific isotope analysis of cave sediments: a new approach to investigating past vegetation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, A.; Griffiths, T.; Robson, S.

    2009-12-01

    Caves are vital archives for records of terrestrial palaeoenvironmental change, as they form sheltered sediment traps capable of preserving long environmental sequences. Due to their unique role in the landscape, they are also intimately connected to the archaeology and palaeoecology of the parent region. Chemical proxy records preserved in speleothems (chemically precipitated cave deposits) have long been used as a tool in palaeoclimatic research, but clastic sediments deposited by air, water, and breakdown of the surrounding rock also have much to contribute. However, although well researched in a sedimentary context, the geochemical records contained in these deposits, especially organic parameters, have been less well-studied. Here we present the first in-depth study of the organic geochemistry of cave sediment sequences, using samples from two south-east Asian caves, and focusing on plant-derived lipid biomarkers and their associated compound-specific carbon isotope records. The work aimed to establish: whether routine extraction and analysis of compounds was feasible in this context at acceptable sample sizes; whether there was a significant vegetation-derived contribution to the record; whether the depositional mode of the sediment (colluvium, midden, channel fill etc) affects the organic composition; and whether the records show coherent and interpretable variation through time. Two sites were studied: Niah Cave in Borneo, where the sediments recovered are a mixture of colluvium and channel fill and date back to >40 ka; and Hang Boi in Vietnam, where the principal deposit is a Holocene occupation midden dominated by land-snail shells. To recover the lipid fraction 7 g aliquots of freeze-dried sediment were extracted by sonication in 95:5 dichloromethane:methanol. Excess solvent was then removed via rotary evaporation and the extracts derivatised with BF3-Methanol and BSTFA prior to analysis by GC-MS. The lipid extracts contain a range of compounds including

  14. Correlated optical and isotopic nanoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Sinem K.; Vogts, Angela; Kröhnert, Katharina; Hillion, François; Rizzoli, Silvio O; Wessels, Johannes T.

    2014-01-01

    The isotopic composition of different materials can be imaged by secondary ion mass spectrometry. In biology, this method is mainly used to study cellular metabolism and turnover, by pulsing the cells with marker molecules such as amino acids labelled with stable isotopes (15N, 13C). The incorporation of the markers is then imaged with a lateral resolution that can surpass 100 nm. However, secondary ion mass spectrometry cannot identify specific subcellular structures like organelles, and needs to be correlated with a second technique, such as fluorescence imaging. Here, we present a method based on stimulated emission depletion microscopy that provides correlated optical and isotopic nanoscopy (COIN) images. We use this approach to study the protein turnover in different organelles from cultured hippocampal neurons. Correlated optical and isotopic nanoscopy can be applied to a variety of biological samples, and should therefore enable the investigation of the isotopic composition of many organelles and subcellular structures. PMID:24718107

  15. A retrospective, dual-isotope approach reveals individual predispositions to winter-drought induced tree dieback in the southernmost distribution limit of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Jordi; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Carulla, David; Aguilera, Mònica; Ortiz, Araceli; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-08-01

    Winter-drought induced forest diebacks in the low-latitude margins of species' distribution ranges can provide new insights into the mechanisms (carbon starvation, hydraulic failure) underlying contrasting tree reactions. We analysed a winter-drought induced dieback at the Scots pine's southern edge through a dual-isotope approach (Δ(13) C and δ(18) O in tree-ring cellulose). We hypothesized that a differential long-term performance, mediated by the interaction between CO(2) and climate, determined the fates of individuals during dieback. Declining trees showed a stronger coupling between climate, growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) than non-declining individuals that was noticeable for 25 years prior to dieback. The rising stomatal control of water losses with time in declining trees, indicated by negative Δ(13) C-δ(18) O relationships, was likely associated with their native aptitude to grow more and take up more water (suggested by larger tracheid lumen widths) than non-declining trees and, therefore, to exhibit a greater cavitation risk. Freeze-thaw episodes occurring in winter 2001 unveiled such physiological differences by triggering dieback in those trees more vulnerable to hydraulic failure. Thus, WUEi tightly modulated growth responses to long-term warming in declining trees, indicating that co-occurring individuals were differentially predisposed to winter-drought mortality. These different performances were unconnected to the depletion of stored carbohydrates.

  16. A study of the characteristics of karst groundwater circulation based on multi-isotope approach in the Liulin spring area, North China.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hongfei; Zheng, Xiuqing; Qin, Zuodong; Jia, Zhenxing

    2015-01-01

    Due to the significance of karst groundwater for water supply in arid and semi-arid regions, the characteristics of the karst groundwater flow system in the Liulin spring area, North China, are analysed through isotopic tracing (δ(2)H, δ(18)O, δ(13)C and (3)H) and dating approaches ((14)C). The results show that the primary recharge source of karst groundwater is precipitation. Evaporation during dropping and infiltration of rainfall results in a certain offset in the values of δ(2)H and δ(18)O in groundwater samples from the global meteoric water line (GMWL) and the local meteoric water line (LMWL). The altitudes of the recharge region calculated by δ(18)O range from 1280 to 2020 m above sea level, which is consistent with the altitudes of the recharge area. The Liulin spring groups could be regarded as the mixing of groundwater with long and short flow paths at a ratio of 4:1. In the upgradient of the Liulin spring, the groundwater represents modern groundwater features and its [Formula: see text] is mainly derived from dissolution of soil CO(2), while in the downgradient of the Liulin spring, the (14)C age of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in groundwater shows an apparent increase and [Formula: see text] is mainly derived from the dissolution of carbonate rocks. The mean flow rate calculated by (14)C ages of DIC between IS10 and IS12 is 1.23 m/year.

  17. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  18. Quantification of nitrous oxide (N2O) uptake in boreal forest soils by combining isotopic and microbial approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welti, Nina; Siljanen, Henri; Biasi, Christina; Martikainen, Pertti

    2015-04-01

    The amount of nitrous oxide (N2O) produced during denitrification is highly regulated by the function of the last reductase enzyme (nitrous oxide reductase; nosZ) which is known to be inhibited by oxygen, low pH and low temperature, which are typical characteristics of boreal peatlands and some forest soils. Denitrification can be a sink for N2O, if the last step of the process is very efficient. Generally, the N2O sink potential of soils is poorly constrained; while uptake rates were often observed in field studies, the data was rejected as analytical errors or artifacts. This led to the question: when and by which mechanisms does N2O uptake occur in natural boreal forests? In order to answer this question, we established a 15N2O tracer experiment where the production of 15N2 and consumption of 15N2O were quantified in aerobic and anaerobic conditions followed by abundance analyses of genes and transcripts. The laboratory incubations were complemented with molecular approaches which linked the N2O dynamics with individual microbial species and transcriptomics. The abundance of denitrifying functional genes and gene transcripts reducing nitrous oxide (nosZ) were quantified throughout the experiment with sacrificial sampling in order to solve the role of typical and atypical denitrifying populations on N2O consumption. For this study, a Finnish boreal spruce forest and peatland were selected where previous field measurements have revealed negative N2O fluxes (i.e. N2O uptake). Soil horizons were selected in both the organic layer and uppermost mineral soil layer and in the peat layers 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, where oxygen is limited and N2O uptake occurs at the field scale. 15N-N2O (99 AT %) was added to an initial N2O concentration of 1.7 ppm. All soils were flushed with 100% helium prior to the N2O addition to ensure that the NO3 stocks were reduced, leaving the added N2O as the sole activator of N2O uptake and primary N source. Aerobic N2O uptake was quantified in

  19. Pathways of coupled arsenic and iron cycling in high arsenic groundwater of the Hetao basin, Inner Mongolia, China: an iron isotope approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Huaming; Liu, Chen; Lu, Hai; Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Yinzhu

    2013-01-01

    High As groundwater is widely distributed all over the world, which has posed a significant health impact on millions of people. Iron isotopes have recently been used to characterize Fe cycling in aqueous environments, but there is no information on Fe isotope characteristics in the groundwater. Since groundwater As behavior is closely associated with Fe cycling in the aquifers, Fe isotope signatures may help to characterize geochemical processes controlling As concentrations of shallow groundwaters. This study provides the first observation of Fe isotope fractionation in high As groundwater and evaluation of Fe cycling and As behaviors in shallow aquifers in terms of Fe isotope signatures. Thirty groundwater samples were taken for chemical and isotopic analysis in the Hetao basin, Inner Mongolia. Thirty-two sediments were sampled as well from shallow aquifers for Fe isotope analysis. Results showed that groundwater was normally enriched in isotopically light Fe with δ56Fe values between −3.40‰ and 0.58‰ and median of −1.14‰, while heavier δ56Fe values were observed in the sediments (between −1.10‰ and 0.75‰, median +0.36‰). In reducing conditions, groundwaters generally had higher δ56Fe values, in comparison with oxic conditions. High As groundwaters, generally occurring in reducing conditions, had high δ56Fe values, while low As groundwaters normally had low δ56Fe values. Although sediment δ56Fe values were generally independent of lithological conditions, a large variation in sediment δ56Fe values was observed in the oxidation–reduction transition zone. Three pathways were identified for Fe cycling in shallow groundwater, including dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) oxides, re-adsorption of Fe(II), and precipitation of pyrite and siderite. Dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) oxides resulted in light δ56Fe values (around −1.0‰) and high As concentration (>50 μg/L) in groundwater in anoxic conditions. Re-adsorption of isotopically

  20. Ca, Sr, O and D isotope approach to defining the chemical evolution of hydrothermal fluids: example from Long Valley, CA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Shaun T.; Kennedy, B. Mack; DePaolo, Donald J.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Evans, William C.

    2013-01-01

    We present chemical and isotopic data for fluids, minerals and rocks from the Long Valley meteoric-hydrothermal system. The samples encompass the presumed hydrothermal upwelling zone in the west moat of the caldera, the Casa Diablo geothermal field, and a series of wells defining a nearly linear, ∼16 km long, west-to-east trend along the likely fluid flow path. Fluid samples were analyzed for the isotopes of water, Sr, and Ca, the concentrations of major cations and anions, alkalinity, and total CO2. Water isotope data conform to trends documented in earlier studies, interpreted as indicating a single hydrothermal fluid mixing with local groundwater. Sr isotopes show subtle changes along the flow path, which requires rapid fluid flow and minimal reaction between the channelized fluids and the wallrocks. Sr and O isotopes are used to calculate fracture spacing using a dual porosity model. Calculated fracture spacing and temperature data for hydrothermal fluids indicate the system is (approximately) at steady-state. Correlated variations among total CO2, and the concentration and isotopic composition of Ca suggest progressive fluid degassing (loss of CO2), which drives calcite precipitation as the fluid flows west-to-east and cools. The shifts in Ca isotopes require that calcite precipitated at temperatures of 150–180 °C is fractionated by ca. −0.3‰ to −0.5‰ relative to aqueous species. Our data are the first evidence that Ca isotopes undergo kinetic fractionation at high temperatures (>100 °C) and can be used to trace calcite precipitation along hydrothermal fluid flow paths.

  1. Biological impacts of local vs. regional land use on a small tributary of the Seine River (France): insights from a food web approach based on stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Hette-Tronquart, Nicolas; Oberdorff, Thierry; Tales, Evelyne; Zahm, Amandine; Belliard, Jérôme

    2017-03-23

    As part of the landscape, streams are influenced by land use. Here, we contributed to the understanding of the biological impacts of land use on streams, investigating how landscape effects vary with spatial scales (local vs. regional). We adopted a food web approach integrating both biological structure and functioning, to focus on the overall effect of land use on stream biocœnosis. We selected 17 sites of a small tributary of the Seine River (France) for their contrasted land use, and conducted a natural experiment by sampling three organic matter sources, three macroinvertebrate taxa, and most of the fish community. Using stable isotope analysis, we calculated three food web metrics evaluating two major dimensions of the trophic diversity displayed by the fish community: (i) the diversity of exploited resources and (ii) the trophic level richness. The idea was to examine whether (1) land-use effects varied according to spatial scales, (2) land use affected food webs through an effect on community structure and (3) land use affected food webs through an effect on available resources. Beside an increase in trophic diversity from upstream to downstream, our empirical data showed that food webs were influenced by land use in the riparian corridors (local scale). The effect was complex, and depended on site's position along the upstream-downstream gradient. By contrast, land use in the catchment (regional scale) did not influence stream biocœnosis. At the local scale, community structure was weakly influenced by land use, and thus played a minor role in explaining food web modifications. Our results suggested that the amount of available resources at the base of the food web was partly responsible for food web modifications. In addition, changes in biological functioning (i.e. feeding interactions) can also explain another part of the land-use effect. These results highlight the role played by the riparian corridors as a buffer zone, and advocate that riparian

  2. Isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A rash of new controversy has emerged around the subject of mass-independent isotope fractionation effects, particularly in the case of the oxygen isotopes. To be sure, the controversy has been around for awhile, but it has been given new impetus by the results of a recent study by Mark H. Thiemens and John E. Heidenreich III of the University of California, San Diego (Science, March 4, 1983).Gustav Arrhenius has been trying to convince the planetary science community that chemical effects in isotope fractionation processes could explain observations in meteorites that appear to be outside of the traditionally understood mass-dependent fractionations (G. Arrhenius, J . L. McCrumb, and N. F. Friedman, Astrophys. Space Sci, 65, 297, 1974). Robert Clayton had made the basic observations of oxygen in carbonaceous chondrites that the slope of the δ17 versus δ18 line was 1 instead of the slope of ½ characteristic of terrestrial rocks and lunar samples (Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci., 28, 501, 1978). The mass-independent effects were ascribed to the apparent contribution of an ancient presolar system component of O16.

  3. Calcium isotope analysis by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Boulyga, Sergei F

    2010-01-01

    The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. The present article discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. In Sections 2 and 3, mass spectrometric methods applied to precise stable isotope analysis and to the determination of (41)Ca are described. Section 4 contains a short summary of selected applications, and includes tracer experiments and the potential use

  4. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of herbicides in stream water: a combined monitoring and modeling approach to assess pollutant degradation at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Stefanie; Van der Velde, Ype; Elsayed, Omniea; Imfeld, Gwenael; Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Van Breukelen, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) measures the isotopic composition of a compound, i.e. the relative abundance of light and heavy stable isotopes of an element contained in the compound (e.g. 12C and 13C). As degradation processes may induce a change in isotopic composition (i.e. isotope fractionation), CSIA allows distinguishing degradation from non-destructive processes such as dilution or sorption. CSIA can be combined with model-assisted interpretation to evaluate degradation of contaminants in the environment. Although CSIA methods have also been developed for diffuse pollutants such as pesticides and nitrate, they have not yet been continuously applied in monitoring of diffuse pollution in surface water. Results of a virtual experiment of isotope fractionation at hillslope scale have suggested that CSIA qualifies as a feasible and useful complement to concentration measurements of diffuse pollutants (Lutz et al., 2013). We now present the first continuously measured concentration and carbon CSIA data of herbicides from a 49-ha agricultural catchment (Alsace, France). Stream concentrations of two chloroacetanilide herbicides, i.e. S-metolachlor and acetochlor, were highest (65 μg/L) following an extreme rainfall event in the first month after herbicide application, and subsequently decreased to background concentration level (0.1 μg/L). This decrease was accompanied by an increase of more than 2 ‰ in carbon isotope ratios, which was also observed in surface runoff samples from a plot experiment in the study catchment. The increase of carbon isotope ratios over time indicates the occurrence of herbicide degradation during transport to the stream, and thus demonstrates the advantage of CSIA over pesticide concentration measurements only. Despite providing evidence of herbicide degradation, the field CSIA data do not allow for a comprehensive characterization of herbicide sources, fate and transport in the study catchment. Therefore, we

  5. Identifying the African Wintering Grounds of Hybrid Flycatchers Using a Multi–Isotope (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) Assignment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Van Wilgenburg, Steven L.; Hobson, Keith A.; Folmer, Eelke; Font, Laura; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different sub-Saharan regions have distinct migratory routes on the eastern and western sides of the Sahara desert, respectively. In an earlier paper, we showed that hybrids of the two species did not incur reduced winter survival, which would be expected if their migration strategy had been a mix of the parent species' strategies potentially resulting in an intermediate route crossing the Sahara desert to different wintering grounds. Previously, we compared isotope ratios and found no significant difference in stable-nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) in winter-grown feathers between the parental species and hybrids, but stable-carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in hybrids significantly clustered only with those of pied flycatchers. We followed up on these findings and additionally analyzed the same feathers for stable-hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) and conducted spatially explicit multi-isotope assignment analyses. The assignment results overlapped with presumed wintering ranges of the two species, highlighting the efficacy of the method. In contrast to earlier findings, hybrids clustered with both parental species, though most strongly with pied flycatcher. PMID:24847717

  6. Position-specific and clumped stable isotope studies: comparison of the Urey and path-integral approaches for carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and propane.

    PubMed

    Webb, Michael A; Miller, Thomas F

    2014-01-16

    We combine path-integral Monte Carlo methods with high-quality potential energy surfaces to compute equilibrium isotope effects in a variety of systems relevant to 'clumped' isotope analysis and isotope geochemistry, including CO2, N2O, methane, and propane. Through a systematic study of heavy-atom isotope-exchange reactions, we quantify and analyze errors that arise in the widely used Urey model for predicting equilibrium constants of isotope-exchange reactions using reduced partition function ratios. These results illustrate that the Urey model relies on a nontrivial cancellation of errors that can shift the apparent equilibrium temperature by as much as 35 K for a given distribution of isotopologues. The calculations reported here provide the same level of precision as the best existing analytical instrumentation, resolving the relative enrichment of certain isotopologues to as little as 0.01‰. These findings demonstrate path-integral methods to be a rigorous and viable alternative to more approximate methods for heavy-atom geochemical applications.

  7. The oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. Alex

    The properties of the oxygen isotopes provide diverse examples of progress made in experiments and theory. This chain of isotopes has been studied from beyond the proton drip line in 12O to beyond the neutron drip line in 25,26O. This short survey starts with the microscopic G matrix approach for 18O of Kuo and Brown in the 1960’s and shows how theory has evolved. The nuclear structure around the doubly-magic nucleus 24O is particularly simple in terms of the nuclear shell model. The nuclear structure around the doubly-magic nucleus 16O exhibits the coexistence of single-particle and collective structure.

  8. Nursery fidelity, food web interactions and primary sources of nutrition of the juveniles of Solea solea and S. senegalensis in the Tagus estuary (Portugal): A stable isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Salgado, J.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2008-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to assess site fidelity of Solea solea and Solea senegalensis juveniles, to investigate food web interactions and to determine the dominant nutrient pathways in two nursery areas in the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Samples of water from the main sources and from the nursery areas and respective saltmarsh creeks were collected for isotope analysis, as well as sediment, benthic microalgae, saltmarsh halophytes, S. solea, S. senegalensis and its main prey, Nereis diversicolor, Scrobicularia plana and Corophium spp. While site fidelity was high in 0-group juveniles, it was lower for 1-group juveniles, possibly due to an increase in mobility and energy demands with increasing size. Analysis of the food web revealed a complex net of relations. Particulate organic matter from the freshwater sources, from each nursery's waters and saltmarsh creeks presented similar isotopic composition. Sediment isotopic composition and saltmarsh halophytes also did not differentiate the two areas. All components of the food web from the benthic microalgae upwards were isotopically different between the nursery areas. These components were always more enriched in δ13C and δ15N at the lower nursery area than at the nursery located upstream, appearing as if there were two parallel trophic chains with little trophic interaction between each other. A mixture of carbon and nitrogen sources is probably being incorporated into the food web. The lower nursery area is more dependent upon an isotopically enriched energy pathway, composed of marine particulate organic matter, marine benthic microalgae and detritus of the C 4 saltmarsh halophyte Spartina maritima. The two nursery areas present a different level of dependence upon the freshwater and marine energy pathways, due to hydrological features, which should be taken into account for S. solea and S. senegalensis fisheries and habitat management.

  9. Stable isotopes in tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, Danny; Loader, Neil J.

    2004-04-01

    Stable isotopes in tree rings could provide palaeoclimate reconstructions with perfect annual resolution and statistically defined confidence limits. Recent advances make the approach viable for non-specialist laboratories. The relevant literature is, however, spread across several disciplines, with common problems approached in different ways. Here we provide the first overview of isotope dendroclimatology, explaining the underlying theory and describing the steps taken in building and interpreting isotope chronologies. Stable carbon isotopes record the balance between stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate, dominated at dry sites by relative humidity and soil water status and at moist sites by summer irradiance and temperature. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios record source water, which contains a temperature signal, and leaf transpiration, controlled dominantly by vapour pressure deficit. Variable exchange with xylem (source) water during wood synthesis determines the relative strength of the source water and leaf enrichment signals. Producing long Holocene chronologies will require a change in emphasis towards processing very large numbers of samples efficiently, whilst retaining analytical precision. A variety of sample preparation and data treatment protocols have been used, some of which have a deleterious effect on the palaeoclimate signal. These are reviewed and suggestions made for a more standardised approach.

  10. A coupled stable isotope-size spectrum approach to understanding pelagic food-web dynamics: A case study from the southwest sub-tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Allain, V.; Menkes, C.; Lorrain, A.; Graham, B.; Rodier, M.; Pagano, M.; Carlotti, F.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the food web structure of the oligotrophic picophytoplankton-dominated pelagic ecosystem in the vicinity of New Caledonia, within the Archipelagic Deep Basin (ARCH) province of the southwest sub-tropical Pacific. Nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N) data were collected for mesozooplankton (0.2-2 mm), macrozooplankton (2-20 mm), micronekton (20-200 mm) and nekton (>200 mm) during 2002-2004 and 2011. Using a coupled δ15N size-spectrum approach, we estimated (1) organism trophic level (TL); (2) food chain length (FCL); (3) predator prey mass ratio (PPMR); and (4) transfer efficiency (TE). The role of phytoplankton size structure in determining these parameters was investigated. Applying a trophic enrichment factor (TEF) of 3.4, maximum TL was calculated at ~5. The number of TLs spanned by each length class was 1.97 for mesozooplankton, 2.07 for macrozooplankton, 2.75 for micronekton, and 2.21 for nekton. Estimated PPMR was 10,099:1 for mesozooplankton, 3683:1 for macrozooplankton/micronekton, and 2.44×105:1 for nekton, corresponding to TEs of 6.3%, 8.5% and 2.4%, respectively. PPMR and TE were strongly influenced by the TEF used, and TEF 3.4 likely over and underestimated PPMR and TE, respectively, for mesozooplankton and macrozooplankton/micronekton. Comparatively low PPMR for mesozooplankton and macrozooplankton/micronekton indicated longer food chains and higher connectivity within these groups than for the nekton. Conversely, the high PPMR yet high trophic niche width for the nekton indicated that they prey primarily on macrozooplankton/micronekton, with a relatively high degree of dietary specialisation. Our results are discussed in the context of other marine food webs. The ARCH food chain was found to be 1-1.5 trophic levels longer than the eutrophic micro-/nanophytoplankton-dominated Californian upwelling system, providing empirical support for the role of phytoplankton size in determining FCL. Group specific PPMR estimates demonstrated

  11. Validating soil denitrification models based on laboratory N_{2} and N_{2}O fluxes and underlying processes derived by stable isotope approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Well, Reinhard; Böttcher, Jürgen; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael; Deppe, Marianna; Dittert, Klaus; Dörsch, Peter; Horn, Marcus; Ippisch, Olaf; Mikutta, Robert; Müller, Carsten; Müller, Christoph; Senbayram, Mehmet; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Robust denitrification data suitable to validate soil N2 fluxes in denitrification models are scarce due to methodical limitations and the extreme spatio-temporal heterogeneity of denitrification in soils. Numerical models have become essential tools to predict denitrification at different scales. Model performance could either be tested for total gaseous flux (NO + N2O + N2), individual denitrification products (e.g. N2O and/or NO) or for the effect of denitrification factors (e.g. C-availability, respiration, diffusivity, anaerobic volume, etc.). While there are numerous examples for validating N2O fluxes, there are neither robust field data of N2 fluxes nor sufficiently resolved measurements of control factors used as state variables in the models. To the best of our knowledge there has been only one published validation of modelled soil N2 flux by now, using a laboratory data set to validate an ecosystem model. Hence there is a need for validation data at both, the mesocosm and the field scale including validation of individual denitrification controls. Here we present the concept for collecting model validation data which is be part of the DFG-research unit "Denitrification in Agricultural Soils: Integrated Control and Modelling at Various Scales (DASIM)" starting this year. We will use novel approaches including analysis of stable isotopes, microbial communities, pores structure and organic matter fractions to provide denitrification data sets comprising as much detail on activity and regulation as possible as a basis to validate existing and calibrate new denitrification models that are applied and/or developed by DASIM subprojects. The basic idea is to simulate "field-like" conditions as far as possible in an automated mesocosm system without plants in order to mimic processes in the soil parts not significantly influenced by the rhizosphere (rhizosphere soils are studied by other DASIM projects). Hence, to allow model testing in a wide range of conditions

  12. Amino acid isotopic analysis in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A relatively new approach to stable isotopic analysis—referred to as compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA)—has emerged, centering on the measurement of 15N:14N ratios in amino acids (glutamic acid and phenylalanine). CSIA has recently been used to generate trophic position estimates among anima...

  13. Isotope Program Report June FY2016

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Jr, Benjamin E.; Egle, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Isotope Program Monthly Highlights are briefly described. These include data on isotopes shipped, updates on equipment fabrication and testing, a potential new approach for nondestructive measurement of the amount of Cf-252 deposited on a surface, and efforts to recover and purify uranium-234 obtained from old PuBe sources.

  14. Tracing the history of submarine hydrothermal inputs and the significance of hydrothermal hafnium for the seawater budget - A combined Pb-Hf-Nd isotope approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van de Flierdt, T.; Frank, M.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.; Hattendorf, B.; Gunther, D.; Kubik, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    Secular variations in the Pb isotopic composition of a mixed hydrogenous-hydrothermal ferromanganese crust from the Bauer Basin in the eastern Equatorial Pacific provide clear evidence for changes in hydrothermal contributions during the past 7 Myr. The nearby Galapagos Rise spreading center provided a strong hydrothermal flux prior to 6.5 Ma. After 6.5 Ma, the Pb became stepwise more radiogenic and more similar to Equatorial Pacific seawater, reflecting the westward shift of spreading to the presently active East Pacific Rise (EPR). A second, previously unrecognized enhanced hydrothermal period occurred between 4.4 and 2.9 Ma, which reflects either off-axis hydrothermal activity in the Bauer Basin or a late-stage pulse of hydrothermal Pb from the then active, but waning Galapagos Rise spreading center. Hafnium isotope time-series of the same mixed hydrogenous-hydrothermal crust show invariant values over the past 7 Myr. Hafnium isotope ratios, as well as Nd isotope ratios obtained for this crust, are identical to that of hydrogenous Equatorial Pacific deep water crusts and clearly indicate that hydrothermal Hf, similar to Nd, does not travel far from submarine vents. Therefore, we suggest that hydrothermal Hf fluxes do not contribute significantly to the global marine Hf budget. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trophic ecology of the supralittoral rocky shore (Roscoff, France): A dual stable isotope (δ 13C, δ 15N) and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurand, Sandrine; Riera, Pascal

    2006-07-01

    The present study investigates the trophic transfers on the upper littoral rocky shore (i.e. the supralittoral zone together with the upper midlittoral and adlittoral) of northern Brittany. The population mainly consists of four invertebrate species: the littorinids Littorina saxatilis and Melarhaphe neritoides, the isopod Ligia oceanica and the insect Petrobius maritimus. The utilisation of food sources available to these grazers was examined in a laboratory microcosm feeding experiment and a field study using stable isotopes (δ 13C, δ 15N). The results indicated that although Ligia oceanica preferentially occurs in the supralittoral zone, its trophic subsidies originate mostly from the adlittoral and lower intertidal zones. The stable isotope data also suggested that adlittoral terrestrial organic material may be the major food source of Petrobius maritimus. δ 15N of Littorina saxatilis indicated a highly variable diet consisting of supralittoral lichens, midlittoral macroalgae and other food sources (e.g. microalgae). Both feeding experiments and stable isotope data show that only Melarhaphe neritoides has a clearly identifiable diet based on a mixture of lichens, mostly Verrucaria maura and Caloplaca marina, as estimated by an isotopic mixing model. Hence, the food web of this intertidal zone appears largely based on trophic subsidies from other habitats (i.e. upper and lower intertidal zones).

  16. Spatial distribution of electrical conductivity and stable isotopes in groundwater in large catchments: a geostatistical approach in the Quequén Grande River catchment, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Martínez, Daniel Emilio; Massone, Hector Enrique; Londoño Ciro, Libardo Antonio; Dapeña, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotopes and electrical conductivity in groundwater were used as natural tracers to adjust the hydrogeological conceptual model in one of the largest catchments within the inter-mountainous Pampa plain, Argentina. Geostatistical tools were used to define the model that best fitted the spatial distribution of each tracer, and information was obtained in areas where there was a lack of data. The conventional isotopic analysis allowed the identification of three groundwater groups with different isotopic fingerprints. One group containing 56% of the total groundwater samples suggested a well-mixed system and soil infiltration precipitation as the main recharge source to the aquifer. The other two groups included samples with depleted (25.5%) and enriched (18.5%) isotopic compositions, respectively. The combination of δ(18)O, δ(2)H and electrical conductivities maps suggested ascending regional flows and water transfer from the Quequén Grande River catchment to the Moro creek. The spatial interpretation of these tracers modified the conceptual hydrogeological model of the Quequén Grande River.

  17. Origin of halides (Cl- and Br-) and of their stable isotopes (d37Cl and d81Br) at the Tournemire URL (France) - Experimental and numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachir-Bey, Nassim; Matray, Jean-Michel

    2014-05-01

    This work is part of research conducted by the Institute of Radiological and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) on the geological disposal of High-Level and Intermediate-Level Long-Lived (HL-ILLL) radioactive waste in deep clayrocks. In France, the choice of the potential host rock for the geological storage is focused on the Callovian-Oxfordian (COx) of Meuse/Haute-Marne from its low permeability, capacity for self- sealing, high sorption and ability to radionuclide (RN) transport by diffusion. IRSN, which plays an expert role for ASN has its own underground research laboratory in a clayrock which has strong analogies to the COx. This is the Toarcian/Domerian clayrock located at Tournemire in southern Aveyron in France. The purpose of this study was to assess the transfer of RN in the Tournemire clayrock through the study of halides contents and of their stable isotopes (Cl-, Br-, Cl-/Br-, d37Cl, d81Br). The approach used was multiple and consisted for halides to: 1) Assess their stock in different fractions of the rock by applying several techniques including i) alkaline fusion for their total stock, ii) leaching to access their stock in porewater and to mineral phases sensitive to dissolution iii) cubic diffusion for their stock in porewater, 2) Get their diffusive transport parameters of a selection of samples from the upper Toarcian by cubic diffusion experiments modelled using the Hytec transport code developed by Mines ParisTech and 3) Model their transport after palaeohydrogeological known changes of the Tournemire massif. The experimental approach, conducted at the LAME lab, did not lead to an operational protocol for the alkaline fusion due to an incomplete rock dissolution. Leaching was used to characterize the concentrations of halides in the fractions of pore water and of minerals sensitive to dissolution. The results show levels of halides much higher than those of pore water with very low Cl/Br ratios likely resulting from the dissolution of mineral species. The

  18. A novel methodology to investigate isotopic biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B. Y.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2012-04-01

    An enduring goal of trace metal isotopic studies of Earth History is to find isotopic 'fingerprints' of life or of life's individual physiochemical processes. Generally, such signatures are sought by relating an isotopic effect observed in controlled laboratory conditions or a well-characterized environment to a more complex system or the geological record. However, such an approach is ultimately limited because life exerts numerous isotopic fractionations on any one element so it is hard to dissect the resultant net fractionation into its individual components. Further, different organisms, often with the same apparent cellular function, can express different isotopic fractionation factors. We have used a novel method to investigate the isotopic fractionation associated with a single physiological process-enzyme specific isotopic fractionation. We selected Cd isotopes since only one biological use of Cd is known, CdCA (a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase from the coastal diatom T. Weissflogii). Thus, our investigation can also inform the long standing mystery as to why this generally toxic element appears to have a nutrient-like dissolved isotopic and concentration profile in the oceans. We used the pET-15b plasmid to insert the CdCA gene into the E. coli genome. There is no known biochemical function for Cd in E. coli, making it an ideal vector for studying distinct physiological processes within a single organism. The uptake of Cd and associated isotopic fractionation was determined for both normal cells and those expressing CdCA. It was found that whole cells always exhibited a preference for the light isotopes of Cd, regardless of the expression of CdCA; adsorption of Cd to cell surfaces was not seen to cause isotopic fractionation. However, the cleaning procedure employed exerted a strong control on the observed isotopic composition of cells. Using existing protein purification techniques, we measured the Cd isotopic composition of different subcellular fractions of E

  19. N zooming into the Mediterranean outflow fossil moat during the 1.2-1.8 million years period (Early-Pleistocene) - An approach by radiogenic and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreiro, Susana M.; Antón, Laura; Reguera, M. Isabel; Fernández, Marta; Conde, Estefanía; Barrado, Ana I.; Yllera, Abel

    2015-12-01

    The fossil Alvarez Cabral erosive Moat contains hemipelagite, contourite and turbidite facies where oceanography changes in the Mediterranean outflow are archived over the 1.2-1.8 Myr time period. Here we used Pb and Sr radiogenic isotopes to trace water masses and sediment source changes, for the first time in twenty glacial-interglacial (G-I) cycles of the Early-Pleistocene interval, and the last Glacial Maximum through Holocene cycle (including the Younger Dryas and Heinrich Stadial-1). A mixing line of Pb isotopes gives reliable low radiogenic 208Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/207Pb typical of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in one end-member and the signature of high radiogenic isotopes of Atlantic Waters (AW) towards the second end-member. The 87Sr/86Sr isotopes also display two end-members of the mixing line between eolian transport/dust source (0.71) and fluvial transport/weathering source (0.73) previously proposed in the Gulf of Cadiz. Combination of Pb and Sr radiogenic isotopes with O and C stable isotopes of planktonic and benthic foraminifera, and the response of foraminifera benthos over the Early-Pleistocene interval, reveals a direct link between water masses circulation and shifts in G-I. We found a persistent cyclic pattern of MOW circulation and fluvial deposition during glaciations and AW and aeolian influence during interglaciations. On site U1386B/C, the upper-MOW was less ventilated but productive and with high flux of organic flux matter during glacials, while Atlantic Waters were better ventilated, enriched in O, but less productive during interglacials. We infer that shifts in ocean and atmospheric processes in the Gulf of Cadiz were strongly controlled by Earth's obliquity (41 kyr-cycle) and 35°NH insolation during the Early-Pleistocene. We propose a correlation in changes in phase-relationship between precession and obliquity. In general terms, physical properties of fine sediments (glacials) show lower NGR, low reflectance and

  20. Tracing and quantifying lake water and groundwater fluxes in the area under mining dewatering pressure using coupled O and H stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Jędrysek, Mariusz-Orion

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic compositions of precipitation, lake water and groundwater were used to quantitatively asses the water budget related to water inflow and water loss in natural lakes, and mixing between lake water and aquifer groundwater in a mining area of the Lignite Mine Konin, central Poland. While the isotopic composition of precipitation showed large seasonal variations (δ(2)H from-140 to+13 ‰ and δ(18)O from-19.3 to+7.6 ‰), the lake waters were variously affected by evaporation (δ(2)H from-44 to-21 ‰ and δ(18)O from-5.2 to-1.7 ‰) and the groundwater showed varying contribution from mixing with surface water (δ(2)H from-75 to-39 ‰ and δ(18)O from-10.4 to-4.8 ‰). The lake water budget was estimated using a Craig-Gordon model and isotopic mass balance constraint, which enabled us to identify various water sources and to quantify inflow and outflow for each lake. Moreover, we documented that a variable recharge of lake water into the Tertiary aquifer was dependent on mining drainage intensity. A comparison of coupled δ(2)H-δ(18)O data with hydrogeological results indicated better precision of the δ(2)H-based calculations.

  1. Stable isotope analysis at the molecular level: A new approach for determining the origins of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, M. H.; Macko, S. A.; Qian, Y.; Silfer, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    A combined gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) method has been developed that permits the direct stable carbon isotope analysis of N(O)-trifluoroacetyl-isopropyl esters of individual amino acids and their respective enantiomers at nanomole abundances. Calculation of the original delta C-13 values of the amino acids is accomplished via a correction for the carbon introduced during the derivatization process. Previous GC/IRMS analyses of individual amino acids in the non-hydrolyzed water extract of an interior sample of a Murchison meteorite stone revealed an enrichment in C-13 relative to terrestrial organic matter, in agreement with previous findings for bulk extracts. The range of amino acid delta C-13 values (+5 to +30 per mill, PDB) suggests possible kinetic effects during synthesis. In this study, an apparent kinetic isotope effect was also observed for the amino acid products of a spark discharge experiment. These preliminary resutls are supportive of a similar mechanism for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite.

  2. Method for separating isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-10-21

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether.

  3. Sequential and parallel dual labeling of nanoparticles using click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zong, Hong; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Chang, Huai-Ning; Otis, James B; Baker, James R

    2014-11-01

    Bioorthogonal 'click' reactions have recently emerged as promising tools for chemistry and biological applications. By using a combination of two different 'click' reactions, 'double-click' strategies have been developed to attach multiple labels onto biomacromolecules. These strategies require multi-step modifications of the biomacromolecules that can lead to heterogeneity in the final conjugates. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a set of three trifunctional linkers. The linkers having alkyne and cyclooctyne moieties that are capable of participating in sequential copper(I)-catalyzed and copper-free cycloaddition reactions with azides. We have also prepared a linker comprised of an alkyne and a 1,2,4,5-terazine moiety that allows for simultaneous cycloaddition reactions with azides and trans-cyclooctenes, respectively. These linkers can be attached to synthetic or biological macromolecules to create a platform capable of sequential or parallel 'double-click' labeling in biological systems. We show this potential using a generation 5 (G5) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer in combination with the clickable linkers. The dendrimers were successfully modified with these linkers and we demonstrate both sequential and parallel 'double-click' labeling with fluorescent reporters. We anticipate that these linkers will have a variety of application including molecular imaging and monitoring of macromolecule interactions in biological systems.

  4. Isotope separation by photochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Suslick, K.S.

    1975-10-03

    A photochromatographic method for isotope separation is described. An isotopically mixed molecular species is adsorbed on an adsorptive surface, and the adsorbed molecules are irradiated with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thus separate them from the undesired isotopic species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes. (BLM)

  5. Isotope separation by photochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    1977-01-01

    An isotope separation method which comprises physically adsorbing an isotopically mixed molecular species on an adsorptive surface and irradiating the adsorbed molecules with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite a desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thereby separate them from the unexcited undesired isotopic species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes.

  6. Isotope Fractionation During Microbial Metal Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A.; Wasylenki, L.; Liermann, L.; Mathur, R.; Brantley, S.

    2006-12-01

    The possibility that metal stable isotopes record the influence of microbes on metal geochemical cycling has motivated much recent research on "non-traditional" stable isotopes, particularly Fe. The initial wave of research on biogenic metal isotope effects focused on Fe isotope fractionation during microbially-mediated dissimilatory reduction or oxidation of Fe. Although isotope variations arising from biogenic effects have been reported in laboratory systems it is difficult to ascribe comparable variations in nature to biology because of pervasive and significant abiotic fractionation. As an alternative approach, we are investigating isotope fractionation during microbial assimilation of transition metals. Assimilation occurs because a large number of metals are essential intracellular constituents. Although assimilatory isotope fractionation is not likely to be unique in direction or magnitude compared to other processes, the large number of elements potentially involved greatly broadens the number of elements that can be examined for biogenic isotope effects in materials of interest. This raises the possibility of multi- element isotope "fingerprints" of biological metal processing. In experiments with Azotobacter vinelandii, a nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium that does not use Fe or other metals in dissimilatory respiration, fractionation of both Fe and Mo isotopes are observed. The two systems exhibit opposite sense fractionation: preferential assimilation of heavy isotopes is observed for Fe, while Mo assimilation favors uptake of light isotopes. Rayleigh-type behavior is seen in both cases; α = 1.0011 and 0.9997, respectively. The Fe isotope results are most readily interpreted in terms of an equilibrium fractionation between inorganic Fe complexes and strongly bound Fe-siderophore complexes that are taken into the cell. In contrast, the Mo isotope results may reflect a kinetic isotope effect. However, it is alternatively possible that Mo isotope

  7. Quantitative Microbial Ecology through Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Rebecca L.; Schwartz, Egbert; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Dijkstra, Paul; van Gestel, Natasja; Koch, Benjamin J.; Liu, Cindy M.; McHugh, Theresa A.; Marks, Jane C.; Morrissey, Ember M.; Price, Lance B.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria grow and transform elements at different rates, and as yet, quantifying this variation in the environment is difficult. Determining isotope enrichment with fine taxonomic resolution after exposure to isotope tracers could help, but there are few suitable techniques. We propose a modification to stable isotope probing (SIP) that enables the isotopic composition of DNA from individual bacterial taxa after exposure to isotope tracers to be determined. In our modification, after isopycnic centrifugation, DNA is collected in multiple density fractions, and each fraction is sequenced separately. Taxon-specific density curves are produced for labeled and nonlabeled treatments, from which the shift in density for each individual taxon in response to isotope labeling is calculated. Expressing each taxon's density shift relative to that taxon's density measured without isotope enrichment accounts for the influence of nucleic acid composition on density and isolates the influence of isotope tracer assimilation. The shift in density translates quantitatively to isotopic enrichment. Because this revision to SIP allows quantitative measurements of isotope enrichment, we propose to call it quantitative stable isotope probing (qSIP). We demonstrated qSIP using soil incubations, in which soil bacteria exhibited strong taxonomic variations in 18O and 13C composition after exposure to [18O]water or [13C]glucose. The addition of glucose increased the assimilation of 18O into DNA from [18O]water. However, the increase in 18O assimilation was greater than expected based on utilization of glucose-derived carbon alone, because the addition of glucose indirectly stimulated bacteria to utilize other substrates for growth. This example illustrates the benefit of a quantitative approach to stable isotope probing. PMID:26296731

  8. Tracing Anthropogenic Salinity Inputs to the Semi-arid Rio Grande River: A Multi-isotope Tracer (U, S, B and Sr) Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, S.; Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Szynkiewicz, A.; McIntosh, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    High salinity in the Rio Grande has led to severe reductions in crop productivity and accumulation of salts in soils. These pressing issues exist for other arid rivers worldwide. Salinity contributions to the Rio Grande have not been adequately quantified, especially from agriculture, urban activities, and geological sources. Here, we use major element concentrations and U, S, B, Sr isotopic signatures to fingerprint the salinity sources. Our study area focuses on a 200 km long stretch of the Rio Grande from Elephant Butte Reservoir, NM to El Paso, TX. River samples were collected monthly from 2014 to 2015. Irrigation drains, groundwater wells, city drains and wastewater effluents were sampled as possible anthropogenic salinity end-members. Major element chemistry, U, S and Sr isotope ratios in the Rio Grande waters suggest multiple salinity inputs from geological, agricultural, and urban sources. Natural upwelling of groundwater is significant for the Rio Grande near Elephant Butte, as suggested by high TDS values and high (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S ratios. Agricultural activities (e.g. flood irrigation, groundwater pumping, fertilizer use) are extensive in the Mesilla Valley. Rio Grande waters from this region have characteristic lower (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, and δ34S ratios, with possible agricultural sources from use of fertilizers and gypsum. Agricultural practices during flood irrigation also intensify evaporation of Rio Grande surface water and considerably increase water salinity. Shallow groundwater signatures were also identified at several river locations, possibly due to the artificial pumping of local groundwater for irrigation. Impacts of urban activities to river chemistry (high NO3 and B concentrations) were evident for locations downstream to Las Cruces and El Paso wastewater treatment plants, supporting the use of the B isotope as an urban salinity tracer. This study improves our understanding of human impacts on water quality and elemental

  9. Assessing how seasonal hydrological balance has changed during the warming 20th century in the montane forests of Southeast Asian monsoon region using a stable isotope dendroclimatology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M.; Stott, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical montane forests act as water catchment and host of biodiversity in the Southeast Asian monsoon region, and understanding how their hydrological conditions change with global warming is vitally important. Global climate model simulations project enhanced moisture cycle in the tropics, which would cause stronger summer monsoon precipitations, but on the other hand the adiabatic lapse rate would be shifted towards a moister condition (amplification of warming at high elevation), inhibiting dry season orographic lifting cloud/fog formation (lifting cloud base hypothesis), enhancing evapo-transpiration, and leading to a net moisture loss during winter dry season. In this study, we have attempted to investigate how the seasonal moisture balance in Southeast Asia has evolved in response to these influences through the 20th century using the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of subannual tree cellulose samples extracted from the annual rings of pine trees that grow in Doi Chiang Dao, a limestone mountain in northern Thailand. At this location the δ18O of cellulose exhibits distinctive annual cycles of up to 12‰, which is primarily a reflection of both the so-called ‘isotope amount effect’ that is associated with the strong monsoon precipitation during summer wet season and the moisture availability from different sources during winter dry season. We have demonstrated that tree cellulose δ18O could be used as a proxy for regional monsoon strength by showing that the annual mean cellulose δ18O correlate significantly with All India Rainfall, Webster-Yang monsoon index, as well as with both local and regional monsoon precipitation. ENSO is the dominant influence on interannual rainfall variability and this is well expressed in the interannual cellulose δ18O record. Using a 21-year moving window correlation analysis we find a weakening of ENSO influence after 1980, coinciding with the most rapid atmospheric warming. We expect to analyze older trees to

  10. Measurement of isotope abundance variations in nature by gravimetric spiking isotope dilution analysis (GS-IDA).

    PubMed

    Chew, Gina; Walczyk, Thomas

    2013-04-02

    Subtle variations in the isotopic composition of elements carry unique information about physical and chemical processes in nature and are now exploited widely in diverse areas of research. Reliable measurement of natural isotope abundance variations is among the biggest challenges in inorganic mass spectrometry as they are highly sensitive to methodological bias. For decades, double spiking of the sample with a mix of two stable isotopes has been considered the reference technique for measuring such variations both by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and multicollector-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS). However, this technique can only be applied to elements having at least four stable isotopes. Here we present a novel approach that requires measurement of three isotope signals only and which is more robust than the conventional double spiking technique. This became possible by gravimetric mixing of the sample with an isotopic spike in different proportions and by applying principles of isotope dilution for data analysis (GS-IDA). The potential and principle use of the technique is demonstrated for Mg in human urine using MC-TIMS for isotopic analysis. Mg is an element inaccessible to double spiking methods as it consists of three stable isotopes only and shows great potential for metabolically induced isotope effects waiting to be explored.

  11. Effective Boson Number- A New Approach for Predicting Separation Energies with the IBM1, Applied to Zr, Kr, Sr isotopes near A = 100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Nancy; van Isacker, Pieter; García Ramos, José Enrique; Aprahamian, Ani

    2011-10-01

    This work uses effective boson numbers in the Interacting Boson Model (IBM1) to predict two neutron separation energies for neutron-rich zirconium, strontium, and krypton isotopes., We determine the functional forms of binding energy and excitation energies as a function of boson number for a given choice of IBM parameters that give a good overall description of the experimental spectra of the isotopic chain. The energy of the first excited 2+ level is then used to extract an effective boson number for a given nucleus, that is in turn used to calculate the separation energies. This method accounts for complex interactions among valence nucleons around magic and semi- magic nuclei and successfully predicts the phase transitional signature in separation energies around A=100 for 92-108Zr, 90-104Sr, and 86-96Kr Supported by the NSF under contract PHY0758100, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics grant PHY0822648, University of Notre Dame Nanovic Institute, Glynn Family Honors Program, Center for Undergraduate Scholarly Engagement.

  12. Mobility of Po and U-isotopes under acid mine drainage conditions: an experimental approach with samples from Río Tinto area (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Barbero, L; Gázquez, M J; Bolívar, J P; Casas-Ruiz, M; Hierro, A; Baskaran, M; Ketterer, M E

    2014-12-01

    Under acid mine drainage (AMD) conditions, the solubilities and mobilities of many elements are vastly different from conditions prevailing in most natural waters. Studies are underway in the Río Tinto area (Iberian Pyrite Belt), in order to understand the behavior and mobility of long-lived U-series radionuclides under AMD conditions. A set of leaching experiments utilizing typical country rocks from the Tinto River basin, waste rock pile composite materials, iron-rich riverbed sediments and gossan (weathered naturally rock) were performed towards this purpose. Initial leaching experiments using distilled water kept in contact with solid material for 300, 100, 50 and 1 h resulted in very low concentrations of U with (234)U/(238)U activity ratios close to equilibrium and activity concentrations of (210)Po < 0.03 mBq/g. Leaching experiments performed with sulfuric acid media (0.1 and 0.01 M), and contact times between the solid and solution for 24 h were conducted to quantify the amount of U-isotopes and (210)Po leached, and the radioactive disequilibria generated between the radionuclides in the leachate. These experiments show that Po mobility in acidic conditions (pH around 1-2) is very low, with (210)Po activity in the leachate to be 6% in average for the solid sample. By contrast, mobility of U-isotopes is higher than that of Po, around 1.2%.

  13. Tracing oxygen variations and its biogeochemical expression during the late hauterivian Faraoni Event: A multi tracers approach using paired carbon, nitrogen, sulfur isotopes and trace metallic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomazo, Christophe; Riquier, Laurent; Martinez, Mathieu; Mathieu, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    During the Cretaceous, several occurrences of Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) are described in the sedimentary record. Among them, the late Hauterivian Faraoni Event has been extensively studied in several locations including Italy, Switzerland, France and Spain and interpreted as a short-lived OAE from palaeontological, sedimentological and geochemical observations. However, the biogeochemical response to water column oxygen depletion is poorly documented and mostly stands on carbon carbonates isotopes during the Faraoni event. In order to bring further insights into the biogeochemical cycles modifications during O2 variations across the Faraoni Event, we performed an integrated geochemical study including C, N and S isotopes together with paleo-redox tracers (i.e. trace metallic elements and iron speciation) on about 25 samples from the Río Argos section (S.E. Spain). δ13Ccarb increases from 1.23‰ to 1.61‰ at the base of the studied section before the Faraoni event. Maximum values, ranging between 1.21‰ and 1.73‰, are observed within this event and are followed by a rapid decrease in δ13Ccarb values down to 0.50‰ toward the top of the section. δ13Corg and TOC values show a narrow range of variations around -26.3±0.3‰ and 0.15±0.3 wt.%, respectively. Only one sample records a higher TOC content up to 1.53 wt.% at the very base of the Faraoni Event while no sensible variations can be deduced form organic carbon isotopes. Bulk sediments nitrogen isotopes have a mean value of 2.3±0.2‰ and nitrogen contents vary between 320 and 790 ppm. A noticeable δ15N excursion (i.e. 0.86‰) is observed at the very base of the Faraoni Event and is associated with the highest TOC value. Sulfur contents vary between 100 and 2480 ppm, the highest content being recorded just bellow the base of the Faraoni Event. δ34S show a wide range of variations from -44.8 to -10.1‰ on a short scale without easily recognizable stratigraphic trend. Finally, slight increases of

  14. A Novel Approach to Investigate Soil Organic Matter Development Using Isotopes and Thermal Analysis: C Sourcing from Various Plant Materials and Mineral Influence on Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, J.; Horwath, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    Biomolecular input quality and mineral constituents are important factors that regulate turnover and stabilization of natural organic matter. The complexity and variability of natural soil systems might shadow basic mechanisms occurring between organic and mineral components. Utilizing an in vitro model decomposition system allows for control over inputs and turnover time. We created a model soil system with composted plant litter that was enriched with 13-C in order to investigate C use during the formation of stabilized SOM. The litter was subjected to microbially-mediated, aerobic decomposition before pure clays were added and allowed to incubate further. Isotopically labeled organic inputs allowed us to focus on C derived from known plant sources as a qualitative assessment of SOM formation. Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) has been used successfully to quantify thermochemical properties of SOM reactivity/stability in three regions of exothermic activity corresponding generally to carbohydrates and lipids (Exo 1; 150-350 C), aromatic and condensed polymers (Exo 2; 400-460 C) and refractory/mineral associated C (Exo 3; 500-550 C). Thermal separation of the organics allows for in-line evolved gas analysis via Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to measure 13-C isotopic values of those thermally separated organic compound classes. This coupled analysis is ideal in that it is fast, reproducible, and requires no sample pretreatment other than drying/grinding and it provides stability, mass loss, and isotopic data from a single sample. DSC results show the development of a higher temperature, energetically recalcitrant C pool over the course of decomposition in mineral-free litters and its absence in clay-litter mixtures, implicating the influence of mineral surfaces on soil organic matter energetic stability. Preliminary IRMS results indicate that mineral presence influences C sourcing from particular plant materials in some SOM

  15. High Precision Isotopic Reference Material Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, J. L.; Vocke, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    Recent developments in thermal ionization and inductively coupled plasma multicollector mass spectrometers have lead to "high precision" isotope ratio measurements with uncertainties approaching a few parts in 106. These new measurement capabilities have revolutionized the study of isotopic variations in nature by increasing the number of elements showing natural variations by almost a factor of two, and new research areas are actively opening up in climate change, health, ecology, geology and forensic studies. Because the isotopic applications are impacting very diverse fields, there is at present little effective coordination between research laboratories over reference materials and the values to apply to those materials. NIST had originally developed the techniques for producing accurate isotopic characterizations, culminating in the NIST Isotopic SRM series. The values on existing materials however are insufficiently precise and, in some cases, may be isotopically heterogeneous. A new generation of isotopic standards is urgently needed and will directly affect the quality and scope of emergent applications and ensure that the results being derived from these diverse fields are comparable. A series of new isotopic reference materials similar to the NIST 3100 single element solution series is being designed for this purpose and twelve elements have been selected as having the most pressing need. In conjunction with other expert users and National Metrology Institutes, an isotopic characterization of the respective 12 selected ampoules from the NIST single element solution series is currently underway. In this presentation the preliminary results of this screening will be discussed as well as the suitability of these materials in terms of homogeneity and purity, long term stability and availability, and isotopic relevance. Approaches to value assignment will also be discussed.

  16. Subduction-related High- to Ultrahigh-Potassic Rocks of the Ankara-Erzincan Suture Belt of Turkey: a geochemical and isotopic approach to source and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc, S. Can; Gulmez, Fatma; Karacik, Zekiye; Tuysuz, Okan; Prelevic, Dejan; Roden, Michael F.; Hames, Willis E.; Zeki Billor, M.

    2014-05-01

    A Late Cretaceous Volcano-sedimantary Succession (LCVS) trends parallel to Neo-Tethyan Suture in North Central Anatolia. Volcanic members of the LCVS consist mainy of coeval leucite phonolite/tephrites, trachytes, lamprophyres and andesitic rocks. Obtained Ar-Ar ages reveal that the volcanic activity occurred between 73.6±0.18 and 76.78±0.19 Ma, contemporaneous with the subduction of the Neo-Tethyan ocean beneath the Pontides. The volcanic rocks of LCVS are classified as alkaline, High- to ultrahigh-K, and silica-saturated and silica-unsaturated, geochemically. Rare calc-alkaline andesitic lavas are also occur within the volcanic sucession. Except the calc-alkaline samples, magmatic members of LCVS have similar major and trace element concentrations similar to the plagioleucitites or ultrapotassic rocks of the active orogenic zones (i.e. the Roman Province ultrapotassic series, Peccerillo, 2005). The multi element patterns on N-MORB- and Chondrite-normalized spider diagrams are characterized by significant LILE and LREE enrichments relative to HFSE and HREE, and display apparent Nb and Ta depletions, implying the subduction-related magmas. 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.704493-0.706090) and 143Nd/144Nd(i) (0.512523-0.512680) isotope ratios are close to the mantle array, and are also in between the Aeolian Islands CA-Potassic rocks (Peccerillo, 2005), BSE and the circum-Mediterranean anorogenic Cenozoic igneous province (CiMACI, Lustrino&Wilson, 2007). Variable Mg# (33-60) evidences that these rocks are the products of evolved melts. The lead isotope values display a trend between EMI and DM, suggesting that the crustal involvement is more effective process during the generation of some lamprophyres relative to the other ultrapotassic rocks of LCVS. The results of clinopyroxene thermobarometry calculations reveal significant differences in depth of crystallization for the rock suites. Some trace element abundances and inter elemental ratios together with their co-variations show

  17. Oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrules in Allende and ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Molini-Velsko, C.; Onuma, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Olsen, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The ferromagnesian chondrules in Allende follow a trend in the oxygen three-isotope plot that diverges significantly from the 16-O mixing line defined by light and dark inclusions and the matrix of the meteorite. The trend probably results from isotopic exchange with an external gaseous reservoir during the process of chondrule formation sometime after the establishment of the isotopic compositions of the inclusions and matrix. The Allende chondrules approach, but do not reach, the isotopic compositions of chondrules in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites, implying exchange with a similar ambient gas, but isotopically different solid precursors for the two types of meteorite.

  18. Solute sources in stream water during consecutive fall storms in a northern hardwood forest watershed: A combined hydrological, chemical and isotopic approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, M.J.; Piatek, K.B.; Christopher, S.; Mayer, B.; Kendall, C.; McHale, P.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climate change including precipitation patterns has important implications for evaluating the biogeochemical responses of watersheds. We focused on four storms in late summer and early fall that occurred after an exceptionally dry period in 2002. We analyzed not only the influence of these storms on episodic chemistry and the role of different water sources in affecting surface water chemistry, but also the relative contributions of these storms to annual biogeochemical mass balances. The study site was a well studied 135-ha watershed in the Adirondack Park of New York State (USA). Our analyses integrated measurements on hydrology, solute chemistry and the isotopic composition of NO 3- (??15N and ??18O) and SO 42- (??34S and ??18O) to evaluate how these storms affected surface water chemistry. Precipitation amounts varied among the storms (Storm 1: Sept. 14-18, 18.5 mm; Storm 2: Sept. 21-24, 33 mm; Storm 3: Sept. 27-29, 42.9 mm; Storm 4: Oct. 16-21, 67.6 mm). Among the four storms, there was an increase in water yields from 2 to 14%. These water yields were much less than in studies of storms in previous years at this same watershed when antecedent moisture conditions were higher. In the current study, early storms resulted in relatively small changes in water chemistry. With progressive storms the changes in water chemistry became more marked with particularly major changes in Cb (sum of base cations), Si, NO 3- , and SO 42- , DOC and pH. Analyses of the relationships between Si, DOC, discharge and water table height clearly indicated that there was a decrease in ground water contributions (i.e., lower Si concentrations and higher DOC concentrations) as the watershed wetness increased with storm succession. The marked changes in chemistry were also reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of SO 42- and NO 3- . There was a strong inverse relationship between SO 42- concentrations and ??34S values suggesting the importance of S

  19. Tracking fluvial response to climate change in the Pacific Northwest: a combined provenance approach using Ar and Nd isotopic systems on fine-grained sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanLaningham, Sam; Duncan, Robert A.; Pisias, Nicklas G.; Graham, David W.

    2008-03-01

    Traditional provenance techniques (Nd isotopes and clay mineralogy) are combined with recently developed bulk sediment 40Ar- 39Ar radiometric methods to determine how the terrestrial sources of sediment to the Oregon continental margin have changed over the last 25,000 years. Both Pacific Northwest river-borne detritus, and sediment from piston coring site EW9504-17PC (2671 m water depth) offshore southern Oregon have been analyzed. Nd isotopic analyses of river silts show a range of 10 units in ɛNd. North of the core site, the Columbia River has ɛNd=-7.6, while the Coos River has a value of ɛNd=-10.8. Rivers proximal to the core site have more radiogenic values from north to south, of ɛNd=-5.0 (Umpqua River), ɛNd=-1.3 (Rogue River), ɛNd=-0.6 (Klamath River) and ɛNd=-3.0 (Eel River). Measured ɛNd in core sediments show subtle downcore changes, between ɛNd=-0.9 and -2.5. The bulk sediment 40Ar- 39Ar plateau ages show more notable downcore variation between 25 and 14 ka, ranging from 113.5 to 124.0 Ma, but are still within the range of bulk ages previously measured on river mouth sediments. The Nd isotopic analyses are combined with bulk sediment 40Ar- 39Ar plateau ages into a ternary mixing model to quantitatively assess the sources of terrigenous material. Mixtures are best described by three sources proximal to the core site (the Umpqua, Rogue+Klamath and Eel Rivers) from ˜14 ka to Present. Sediment deposited in the interval from 22 to 25 ka is not adequately described by the present-day rivers and requires an additional source. This additional source is best explained by an enhanced contribution from the interior Cascade volcanic arc, probably due to glaciation in the Cascade Range and the presence of pluvial Lake Modoc in the Upper Klamath Basin at this time. From 22 to 14 ka, the influence of Cascade Range sediment at the core site was overprinted by contemporaneous glaciation and sediment production in the Klamath Mountains, and possibly addition of

  20. A Sequential Leach Method and Pb Isotope Approach to Studying Apatite Weathering in Granitoid Soils at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezat, C. A.; Blum, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Easily dissolved minerals such as calcite and apatite can be important in controlling stream and ground water chemistry even though these minerals are only present in trace amounts in granitoid rocks. Because of its solubility, apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral, may be a significant source of essential nutrients (especially phosphorous) for vegetation, and has been shown to strongly influence stream and soil water composition (e.g, calcium, strontium and rare earth elements). There are additional sources of Ca (e.g., feldspars, hornblende) and P (e.g., organic matter or bound to Fe and Al oxides) in granitoid soils. In order to distinguish the chemical constituents of apatite from other pools in the bulk soil, we selectively dissolved apatite with a dilute acid leach, and measured Pb isotopic ratios of apatite, feldspar, and leachates. We tested the leaching procedure on mineral separates and verified that a dilute nitric solution primarily dissolves apatite. Silicates were dissolved in subsequent steps by successively stronger acids. We then applied this method to bulk soils collected from several soil pits across a small watershed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, to determine the spatial distribution of Ca and P pools, and determine the depth of apatite depletion in the soil. We also measured Pb isotope ratios in the soil leachates to distinguish among the various sources of Pb (e.g., apatite, feldspars and anthropogenic sources). We found that Pb in the dilute nitric leach of the HBEF organic soils is dominated by anthropogenic sources and that Pb from apatite becomes increasingly important with depth.

  1. Tracing the Origins and Processes of Groundwater Salinization in Coastal Aquifers with a Multi-isotopes Approach. Example of Recife, Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Bertrand, G.; Kloppmann, W.; Aquilina, L.; Pauwels, H.; Martins, V.; Hirata, R.; Montenegro, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (PE, Brazil) is a typical "hot spot" illustrating the problems of southern countries on water issues inducing high pressures on water resources both on quantity and quality in the context of global social and environmental changes. By focusing on the groundwater geochemistry in a costal multilayer aquifer, this work aims at investigating the sources and processes of salinization. Two different Precambrian blocks separated by a large lineament area constitute the site basement. The sedimentary fillings of the two basins present different origins that were distinguished by the Sr isotope composition. The northern deep Beberibe aquifer displays very high 87Sr/86Sr with a large range of values (0.7102-0.7233) illustrating the main continental origin of sediments whereas the southern deep Cabo aquifer showed lower values (0.7097-0.7141) indicating the contribution of the marine sedimentation. Although sulfate isotopes, Electrical Conductivity and Cl contents indicate a mixing with seawater for some samples of the deep Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, all 87Sr/86Sr values are above the present-day seawater composition. This can be related to the complex local history of transgression/regression phases that induced alternatively salinisation and freshening with gains and losses of cations and Sr, together with water-rock interactions. δ18O-δ2H clearly evidence the local present day recharge in the surficial aquifer, some samples being affected by in situ evaporation processes and/or recharge with evaporated water from dams used for water supply. The deep aquifers display a high range of B (20-600µg/L) and δ11B (6.7-68.5‰) with some of the highest values known to date. Multiple sources and processes affect the B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays/organic matter and mixing with wastewater. The surficial aquifers are locally salinized possibly due to present seawater intrusion, and highly contaminated with

  2. METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION

    DOEpatents

    Spevack, J.S.

    1957-04-01

    An isotope concentration process is described which consists of exchanging, at two or more different temperature stages, two isotopes of an element between substances that are physically separate from each other and each of which is capable of containing either of the isotopes, and withdrawing from a point between at least two of the temperatare stages one of the substances containing an increased concentration of the desired isotope.

  3. Cosmic ray isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    The isotopic composition of cosmic rays is studied in order to develop the relationship between cosmic rays and stellar processes. Cross section and model calculations are reported on isotopes of H, He, Be, Al and Fe. Satellite instrument measuring techniques separate only the isotopes of the lighter elements.

  4. Isotope reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic reference materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.

  5. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    PubMed Central

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.; Krol, M. C.; Hofmann, M. E. G.

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a molecule, which is the conventional reference. When multiple indistinguishable atoms of the same element are present in a molecule, this reference is calculated from the bulk (≈average) isotopic composition of the involved atoms. We show here that this referencing convention leads to apparent negative clumped isotope anomalies (anti-clumping) when the indistinguishable atoms originate from isotopically different populations. Such statistical clumped isotope anomalies must occur in any system where two or more indistinguishable atoms of the same element, but with different isotopic composition, combine in a molecule. The size of the anti-clumping signal is closely related to the difference of the initial isotope ratios of the indistinguishable atoms that have combined. Therefore, a measured statistical clumped isotope anomaly, relative to an expected (e.g. thermodynamical) clumped isotope composition, may allow assessment of the heterogeneity of the isotopic pools of atoms that are the substrate for formation of molecules. PMID:27535168

  6. A counter-intuitive approach to calculating non-exchangeable 2H isotopic composition of hair: treating the molar exchange fraction fE as a process-related rather than compound-specific variable

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landwehr, J.M.; Meier-Augenstein, W.; Kemp, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Hair is a keratinous tissue that incorporates hydrogen from material that an animal consumes but it is metabolically inert following synthesis. The stable hydrogen isotope composition of hair has been used in ecological studies to track migrations of mammals as well as for forensic and archaeological purposes to determine the provenance of human remains or the recent geographic life trajectory of living people. Measurement of the total hydrogen isotopic composition of a hair sample yields a composite value comprised of both metabolically informative, non-exchangeable hydrogen and exchangeable hydrogen, with the latter reflecting ambient or sample preparation conditions. Neither of these attributes is directly measurable, and the non-exchangeable hydrogen composition is obtained by estimation using a commonly applied mathematical expression incorporating sample measurements obtained from two distinct equilibration procedures. This commonly used approach treats the fraction of exchangeable hydrogen as a mixing ratio, with a minimal procedural fractionation factor assumed to be close or equal to 1. Instead, we propose to use full molar ratios to derive an expression for the non-exchangeable hydrogen composition explicitly as a function of both the procedural fractionation factor α and the molar hydrogen exchange fraction fE. We apply these derivations in a longitudinal study of a hair sample and demonstrate that the molar hydrogen exchange fraction fE should, like the procedural fractionation factor α, be treated as a process-dependent parameter, i.e. a reaction-specific constant. This is a counter-intuitive notion given that maximum theoretical values for the molar hydrogen exchange fraction fE can be calculated that are arguably protein-type specific and, as such, fE could be regarded as a compound-specific constant. We also make some additional suggestions for future approaches to determine the non-exchangeable hydrogen composition of hair and the use of

  7. Generation of Radixenon Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Pitts, W. K.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Reeder, Paul L.; Thomas, Charles W.

    2003-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air and can detect the following radioxenon isotopes, 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. This report details the techniques used to generate the various radioxenon isotopes that are used for the calibration of the detector as well as other isotopes that have the potential to interfere with the fission produced radioxenon isotopes. Fission production is covered first using highly enriched uranium followed by a description and results from an experiment to produce radioxenon isotopes from neutron activation of ambient xenon.

  8. ISOTOPE CONVERSION DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of tbe type utilizing a liquid fuel and designed to convert a non-thermally fissionable isotope to a thermally fissionable isotope by neutron absorption. A tank containing a reactive composition of a thermally fissionable isotope dispersed in a liquid moderator is disposed within an outer tank containing a slurry of a non-thermally fissionable isotope convertible to a thermally fissionable isotope by neutron absorption. A control rod is used to control the chain reaction in the reactive composition and means are provided for circulating and cooling the reactive composition and slurry in separate circuits.

  9. Identification of groundwater contamination sources of nitrate and sulfate in shallow alluvial aquifers using a dual-isotope approach in an agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaown, D.; Koh, D.; Mayer, B.; Hyun, Y.; Bae, G.; Lee, K.

    2007-12-01

    The elevated level of nitrate in groundwater is a serious problem in Korean agricultural areas. Yupori, a small agricultural area in Chuncheon (Korea), shows a rising level of NO3-N and displays multiple NO3-N sources from non-point and point sources in shallow aquifer groundwater. Numerous vegetable fields are located in the western part of the study area and fruit orchards dominate the landscape with only few vegetable fields in the eastern part of the study area. The source identification of groundwater contamination from overburden agricultural area was undertaken by analyzing hydrochemical data and stable isotopic compositions of dissolved nitrate and sulfate (¥ä15N-NO3-, ¥ä18O-NO3-, ¥ä34S-SO42-, and ¥ä18O-SO42-). The measurements of ¥ä15N- NO3- are in the range of 7.1 to 14.4¢¶ and the values of ¥ä18O-NO3- are in the range of -1.8 to 6.5¢¶. High ¥ä15N-NO3- values shown at low concentrations of nitrate in the eastern Yupori are characteristics of manure- derived nitrate and organic soil. The values of ¥ä34S-SO4-2 ranged from 2.9 to 9.9¢¶ and ¥ä18O-SO42- ranged from 2.5 to 4.7¢¶. At high concentrations of SO42- in the western Yupori, the value of ¥ä34S-SO42- are low around 3-4¢¶. The value of ¥ä34S-SO42- increased with decreasing SO42- concentration in the eastern Yupori. Groundwater quality and stable isotopic compositions of dissolved nitrate and sulfate seem to be significantly affected by agricultural land use pattern of the study site.

  10. Tracing the source of sedimentary organic carbon in the Loess Plateau of China: An integrated elemental ratio, stable carbon signatures, and radioactive isotopes approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Dong, Yuting; Li, Zhongwu; Chang, Xiaofeng; Nie, Xiaodong; Liu, Lin; Xiao, Haibing; Bashir, Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Soil erosion, which will induce the redistribution of soil and associated soil organic carbon (SOC) on the Earth's surface, is of critically importance for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). This study used natural abundance levels of the stable isotope signature ((13)C) and radioactive isotopes ((137)Cs and (210)Pbex), along with elements ratio (C/N) based on a two end member mixing model to qualitatively and quantitatively identify the sources of sedimentary OC retained by check dam in the Qiaozigou small watershed in the Loess Plateau, China. Sediment profiles (0-200 cm) captured at natural depositional area of the basin was compared to possible source materials, which included: superficial Loess mineral soils (0-20 cm) from three land use types [i.e., grassland (Medicago sativa), forestland (Robinia pseudoacacia.), shrubland (Prunus sibirica), and gully land (Loess parent material.)]. The results demonstrated that SOC in sediments showed significantly negative correlation with pH (P < 0.01), and positive correlation with soil water content (SWC) (P < 0.05). The sedimentary OC was not derived from grasslands or gullies. Forestland and shrubland were two main sources of eroded organic carbon within the surface sediment (0-60 cm deep), except for that in the 20-40 cm soil layer. Radionuclides analyses also implied that the surface sediments retained by check-dams mainly originated from soils of forestland and shrubland. Results of the two end-member mixing model demonstrated that more than 50% SOC (mean probability estimate (MPE) 50.13% via (13)C and 60.53% via C/N) in surface sediment (0-20 cm deep) derived from forestland, whereas subsurface sedimentary SOC (20-200 cm) mainly resulted from shrubland (MPE > 50%). Although uncertainties on the sources of SOC in deep soils exist, the soil

  11. Tectonic setting of the Jurassic bimodal magmatism in the Sakarya Zone (Central and Western Pontides), Northern Turkey: A geochemical and isotopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genç, Ş. Can; Tüysüz, Okan

    2010-07-01

    The Lower to Middle Jurassic Mudurnu formation of the Sakarya Zone (Northern Turkey) was deposited in an extensional basin. This unit crops out along the southern Pontide range and consists of marine sedimentary rocks including debris flows, lignite-bearing clastic rocks and Ammonitico Rosso horizons alternating with mafic and felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Magmatic rocks of the Mudurnu formation comprise two compositionally different groups; 1) a mafic group including diabase-microgabbro-basaltic lavas and their pyroclastic equivalents, and 2) a felsic group including granite porphyries and felsic pyroclastic rocks. All the magmatic members of the Mudurnu formation are subalkaline and display a calc-alkaline affinity. They are bimodal, with a significant silica gap between the mafic and felsic members with the exception of a few samples. These magmatic rocks display enrichment in LILE and depletion in Nb, Ta, P and Ti, implying a subduction-related magmatic signature. Melting modelling for the mafic rocks indicates that they originated possibly from subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) composed of spinel lherzolite. ɛNd(i) values (+ 1.5 to + 4.3) imply that the mafic volcanic and hypabyssal rocks were possibly derived from a time-integrated LREE-depleted mantle source. The initial Sr and Nd isotope values, and ɛNd(i) of the felsic hypabyssal rocks are comparable to the mafic ones. The isotope data point to a genetic relationship between the felsic and mafic members. Results obtained from the geochemical modelling of incompatible versus compatible trace elements show that the felsic rocks were derived from the mafic melts by fractional crystallization (FC) process. In the light of their regional geological setting and these geochemical characteristics, we propose that the magmatic rocks of the Mudurnu formation formed in an extensional basin situated on an active and/or just ended subduction zone during the Jurassic period. The Mudurnu formation

  12. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient Pt isotopes in the configuration-mixed IBM

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Morales, Irving O.; Frank, Alejandro; Van Isacker, Piet

    2008-05-12

    The matrix-coherent state approach in the IBM with configuration mixing is used to describe the geometry of neutron-deficient Pt isotopes. Employing a parameter set for all isotopes determined previously, it is found that the lowest minimum goes from spherical to oblate and finally acquires a prolate shape when approaching the mid-shell Pt isotopes.

  13. Analytical approach for the determination of steroid profile of humans by gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry aimed at distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous steroids.

    PubMed

    Bulska, Ewa; Gorczyca, Damian; Zalewska, Izabela; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2015-03-15

    The contamination of commonly used supplements by unknown steroids as well as their metabolites (parent compounds) become a challenge for the analytical laboratories. Although the determination of steroids profile is not trivial because of the complex matrix and low concentration of single compound, one of the most difficult current problem is to distinguish, during analytical procedure, endogenous androgens such as testosterone, dehydrotestosterone or dehydroepiandrosterone from their synthetic equivalents. The aim of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of the steroid profile in human urine by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) toward distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous steroids. Beside the optimization of the experimental parameters for gas chromatography separation and mass spectrometry, attention was focused on urine sample preparation. Using an optimized sample preparation protocol it was possible to achieve better chromatographic resolutions and better sensitivity enabling the determination of 5 steroids, androsterone, etiocholanolone, testosterone, 5-androstandiol, 11-hydroxyandrdostane, pregnandiol, with the expanded uncertainty (k=2) below 1‰. This enable to evaluate the significant shift of the δ(13)C/(12)C [‰] values for each of examined steroids (excluding ERC). The analytical protocol described in this work was successfully used for the confirmation of positive founding urine by evaluation T/E ratio after GC/C/IRMS analysis.

  14. Isotope shifts of the three lowest 1S states of the B+ ion calculated with a finite-nuclear-mass approach and with relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections.

    PubMed

    Bubin, Sergiy; Komasa, Jacek; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2010-03-21

    We present very accurate quantum mechanical calculations of the three lowest S-states [1s(2)2s(2)((1)S(0)), 1s(2)2p(2)((1)S(0)), and 1s(2)2s3s((1)S(0))] of the two stable isotopes of the boron ion, (10)B(+) and (11)B(+). At the nonrelativistic level the calculations have been performed with the Hamiltonian that explicitly includes the finite mass of the nucleus as it was obtained by a rigorous separation of the center-of-mass motion from the laboratory frame Hamiltonian. The spatial part of the nonrelativistic wave function for each state was expanded in terms of 10,000 all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions. The nonlinear parameters of the Gaussians were variationally optimized using a procedure involving the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to the nonlinear parameters. The nonrelativistic wave functions of the three states were subsequently used to calculate the leading alpha(2) relativistic corrections (alpha is the fine structure constant; alpha=1/c, where c is the speed of light) and the alpha(3) quantum electrodynamics (QED) correction. We also estimated the alpha(4) QED correction by calculating its dominant component. A comparison of the experimental transition frequencies with the frequencies obtained based on the energies calculated in this work shows an excellent agreement. The discrepancy is smaller than 0.4 cm(-1).

  15. Isotope pattern deconvolution as rising tool for isotope tracer studies in environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgeher, Johanna; Zitek, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade stable isotope tracers have emerged as versatile tool in ecological research. Besides 'intrinsic' isotope tracers caused by the natural variation of isotopes, the intentional introduction of 'extrinsic' enriched stable isotope tracers into biological systems has gained significant interest. Hereby the induced change in the natural isotopic composition of an element allows amongst others for studying the fate and fluxes of metals, trace elements and species in organisms or provides an intrinsic marker or tag of particular biological samples. Due to the shoreless potential of this methodology, the number of publications dealing with applications of isotope (double) spikes as tracers to address research questions in 'real world systems' is constantly increasing. However, some isotope systems like the natural Sr isotopic system, although potentially very powerful for this type of application, are still rarely used, mainly because their adequate measurement/determination poses major analytical challenges; as e.g. Sr is available in significant amounts in natural samples. In addition, biological systems underlie complex processes such as metabolism, adsorption/desorption or oxidation/reduction. As a consequence, classic evaluation approaches such as the isotope dilution mass spectrometry equation are often not applicable because of the unknown amount of tracer finally present in the sample. Isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD), based on multiple linear regression, serves as simplified alternative data processing strategy to double spike isotope dilution calculations. The outstanding advantage of this mathematical tool lies in the possibility of deconvolving the isotope pattern in a spiked sample without knowing the quantities of enriched isotope tracer being incorporated into the natural sample matrix as well as the degree of impurities and species-interconversion (e.g. from sample preparation). Here, the potential of IPD for environmental tracer

  16. Assimilation efficiency for sediment-sorbed benzo(a)pyrene by Diporeia spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lydy, M.J.; Landrum, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods are currently available for determining contaminant assimilation efficiencies (AE) from ingested material in benthic invertebrates. These methods were compared using the Great Lakes amphipod Diporeia spp. and [14C]benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) sorbed to Florissant sediment (< 63 µm). The first approach, the direct measurement method, uses total organic carbon as a tracer and yielded AE values ranging from 45.9~50.4%. The second approach, the dual-labeled method, uses 51Cr as a non-assimilated tracer and did not yield AE values for our data. The inability of the dual-labeled approach to estimate AEs was due, in part, to the selective feeding by Diporeia resulting in a failure of the non-assimilated tracer (51Cr) to track with the assimilated tracer ([14C]BaP). The failure of the dual-labeled approach was not a result of an uneven distribution of the labels among particle size classes, but more likely resulted from differential sorption of the two isotopically labeled materials to particles of differing composition. The [14C]BaP apparently sorbs to organic particles that are selectively ingested, while the 51Cr apparently sorbs to particles which are selectively excluded by Diporeia. The dual-labeled approach would be a viable and easier experimental approach for determining AE values if the characteristics that govern selective feeding can be determined.

  17. Stable carbon isotope analysis of coprocessing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Lancet, M.S.

    1990-05-01

    Consol R D is developing and demonstrating stable carbon isotope analysis as a method quantitatively distinguish coal-derived and petroleum-derived carbon in products from coal/petroleum coprocessing. The approach taken is to develop the method, then demonstrate its application on authentic continuous-unit products. The significance of selective isotopic fractionation is being determined and, if necessary, corrections will be applied to account for it. Activities for this quarter include: method development -- investigation of selective fractionation. Three petroleum atmospheric still bottoms (ASBs) were separated by distillation and solubility fractionation to determine the homogeneity of the carbon isotope ratios of the separated fractions. These same three petroleum ASBs and three geographically distinct coals were pyrolyzed at 800{degree}F for 30 min and hydrogenated over a CoMo catalyst at 750{degree}F for 60 min to determine the effects of these treatments on the isotopic compositions of the produce fractions. Twelve coal liquefaction oils were analyzed for carbon isotope ratios. These oils were derived from subbituminous and bituminous coals from the first- and second-stage reactors in the thermal/catalytic and modes; validation and application, analysis. Carbon isotope analyses of samples from HRI bench unit coprocessing run 238-2 (Taiheiyo coal/Maya VSB) were analyzed. A method to correct for selective isotopic fractionation was developed and applied to the data. Five coprocessing samples were analyzed at the request of SRI International. 12 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in Na-Cl brackish waters of north-western Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

    2013-01-01

    In the Mediterranean area the demand of good quality water is often threatened by salinization, especially in coastal areas. The salinization is the result of concomitant processes due to both marine water intrusion and rock-water interaction, which in some cases are hardly distinguishable. In northwestern Sardinia, in the Nurra area, salinization due to marine water intrusion has been recently evidenced as consequence of bore hole exploitation. However, the geology of the Nurra records a long history from Paleozoic to Quaternary, resulting in relative structural complexity and in a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. To elucidate the origin of the saline component in the Nurra aquifer, may furnish a useful and more general model for the salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activities and recent climatic changes, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, similarly to other Mediterranean islands, surface-water resources can periodically suffer from drastic shortage. With this in mind we report new data, regarding brackish waters of Na-Cl type of the Nurra, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I and Sr) and isotopic data, including δ18O, δD in water, and δ34S and δ18O in dissolved sulphate. To better depict the origin of the salinity we also analyzed a set of Nurra Triassic evaporites for mineralogical and isotopic composition. The brackish waters have Cl contents up to 2025 mg L-1 and the ratios between dissolved ions and chlorine, with the exception of the Br/Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of a simple mixing between rain water and seawater. The δ18O and δD data indicate that most of the waters are within the Regional Meteoric Water Line and the Global Meteoric Water Line supporting the idea that they are meteoric in origin. A relevant consequence of the

  19. Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in the Na-Cl brackish waters of northwestern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the Mediterranean, salinization threatens water quality, especially in coastal areas. This salinization is the result of concomitant processes related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction, which in some cases are virtually indistinguishable. In the Nurra region of northwestern Sardinia, recent salinization related to marine water intrusion has been caused by aquifer exploitation. However, the geology of this region records a long history from the Palaeozoic to the Quaternary, and is structurally complex and comprises a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. Determining the origin of the saline component of the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers in the Nurra region may provide a useful and more general model for salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activity and recent climatic change, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, in common with other Mediterranean islands, surface water resources periodically suffer from severe shortages. With this in mind, we report new data regarding brackish and surface waters (outcrop and lake samples) of the Na-Cl type from the Nurra region, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I, and Sr), in addition to isotopic data including δ18O, δD in water, and δ34S and δ18O in dissolved SO4. To identify the origin of the salinity more precisely, we also analysed the mineralogical and isotopic composition of Triassic evaporites. The brackish waters have Cl contents of up to 2025 mg L-1 , and the ratios between dissolved ions and Cl, with the exception of the Br / Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of simple mixing between rainwater and seawater. The δ18O and δD data indicate that most of the waters fall between the regional meteoric water line and the global meteoric water line, supporting the conclusion that they are

  20. Soil organic carbon dynamics in wheat-maize cropping systems of north China: application of isotope approach to long-term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Xu, M.; Zhang, W.

    2013-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) in agro-ecosystem is largely influencedby agricultural practices such as croppingand fertilization. However, quantifying the contributions of various crops has been lacking. Here, we applied isotopic approachto study SOC dynamics under wheat-maize rotation with variousfertilization treatments atthree long-term experiment sites innorth China. Three treatments were chosen: no fertilizer (control), chemical nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) and NPK plus straw (NPKS).Soil samples were collected from0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100cm after 13 and 20 years of treatment, and SOC and its stable 13C compositions were determined. Generally, SOC content significantly decreased with depths, from 8.2 ×1.4 g kg-1 (in 0-20 cm) to 3.3×1.0 g kg-1 (in 80-100 cm) across all treatments and sites. Soil δ13C values at all depths, treatments and sites ranged from -24.2‰ to -21.6‰, averaged -22.8‰, indicating that ~70% of SOC was derived from wheat and previous C3 plant, and ~30% from maize and previous C4 plant.Both SOC and soil δ13C were significantly affected by fertilization managements, especiallyin 0-40 cm where linear relationship occurred between SOC and estimated C input. Overall, the slop of the linear equation, i.e., conversion efficiency, was four times greater for wheat-derived C relative to that for maize residue C. Our study indicated that maize-derived C contributed less to C sequestration in wheat-maize rotation system of north China. Figure 1. Relationships between SOC stock (0-40 cm) and accumulated C input for wheat (C3), maize (C4) and total. Significance is marked with one (P < 0.05), two (P < 0.01) and three (P < 0.001) asterisks.

  1. An enriched stable-isotope approach to determine the gill-zinc binding properties of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute zinc exposures in hard and soft waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, A.S.; Brinkman, S.; Wolf, R.E.; Lamothe, P.J.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to employ an enriched stable-isotope approach to characterize Zn uptake in the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute Zn exposures in hard water (???140 mg/L as CaCO 3) and soft water (???30 mg/L as CaCO3). Juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated to the test hardnesses and then exposed for up to 72 h in static exposures to a range of Zn concentrations in hard water (0-1,000 ??g/L) and soft water (0-250 ??g/L). To facilitate detection of new gill Zn from endogenous gill Zn, the exposure media was significantly enriched with 67Zn stable isotope (89.60% vs 4.1% natural abundance). Additionally, acute Zn toxicity thresholds (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50]) were determined experimentally through traditional, flow-through toxicity tests in hard water (580 ??g/L) and soft water (110 ??g/L). Following short-term (???3 h) exposures, significant differences in gill accumulation of Zn between hard and soft water treatments were observed at the three common concentrations (75, 150, and 250 ??g/L), with soft water gills accumulating more Zn than hard water gills. Short-term gill Zn accumulation at hard and soft water LC50s (45-min median lethal accumulation) was similar (0.27 and 0.20 ??g/g wet wt, respectively). Finally, comparison of experimental gill Zn accumulation, with accumulation predicted by the biotic ligand model, demonstrated that model output reflected short-term (<1 h) experimental gill Zn accumulation and predicted observed differences in accumulation between hard and soft water rainbow trout gills. Our results indicate that measurable differences exist in short-term gill Zn accumulation following acclimation and exposure in different water hardnesses and that short-term Zn accumulation appears to be predictive of Zn acute toxicity thresholds (96-h LC50s). ?? 2009 SETAC.

  2. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    DOEpatents

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  3. Hybrid isotope separation scheme

    DOEpatents

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus. 2 figures.

  4. Hybrid isotope separation scheme

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A method of yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus.

  5. HYDROGEN ISOTOPE TARGETS

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, R.W.

    1958-08-12

    The design of targets for use in the investigation of nuclear reactions of hydrogen isotopes by bombardment with accelerated particles is described. The target con struction eomprises a backing disc of a metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenunn and tungsten, a eoating of condensed titaniunn on the dise, and a hydrogen isotope selected from the group consisting of deuterium and tritium absorbed in the coatiag. The proeess for preparing these hydrogen isotope targets is described.

  6. Identifying calcium sources at an acid deposition-impacted spruce forest: A strontium isotope, alkaline earth element multi-tracer approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullen, T.D.; Bailey, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Depletion of calcium from forest soils has important implications for forest productivity and health. Ca is available to fine feeder roots from a number of soil organic and mineral sources, but identifying the primary source or changes of sources in response to environmental change is problematic. We used strontium isotope and alkaline earth element concentration ratios of trees and soils to discern the record of Ca sources for red spruce at a base-poor, acid deposition-impacted watershed. We measured 87Sr/86Sr and chemical compositions of cross-sectional stemwood cores of red spruce, other spruce tissues and sequential extracts of co-located soil samples. 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ba ratios together provide a tracer of alkaline earth element sources that distinguishes the plant-available fraction of the shallow organic soils from those of deeper organic and mineral soils. Ca/Sr ratios proved less diagnostic, due to within-tree processes that fractionate these elements from each other. Over the growth period from 1870 to 1960, 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ba ratios of stemwood samples became progressively more variable and on average trended toward values that considered together are characteristic of the uppermost forest floor. In detail the stemwood chemistry revealed an episode of simultaneous enhanced uptake of all alkaline earth elements during the growth period from 1930 to 1960, coincident with reported local and regional increases in atmospheric inputs of inorganic acidity. We attribute the temporal trends in stemwood chemistry to progressive shallowing of the effective depth of alkaline earth element uptake by fine roots over this growth period, due to preferential concentration of fine roots in the upper forest floor coupled with reduced nutrient uptake by roots in the lower organic and upper mineral soils in response to acid-induced aluminum toxicity. Although both increased atmospheric deposition and selective weathering of Ca-rich minerals such as apatite provide possible

  7. Discovery of the krypton isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Heim, M.; Fritsch, A.; Schuh, A.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-07-15

    Thirty-two krypton isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Isotopic Fractionation of Selenium Oxyanions in Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.

    2004-05-01

    As oxic surface waters pass through aquatic macrophytes and over anoxic sediments in wetlands and lakes, the dissolved Se load often decreases; and, Se isotope ratio measurements can provide information about the mechanisms involved. Previous work on microbially induced isotopic fractionation of Se oxyanions under nearly natural conditions using wetland sediments shows consistent Se isotopic shifts during reduction of Se(VI) and Se(IV) to insoluble Se(0). However, previous isotopic studies of total dissolved selenium in wetlands found little to no isotopic shift as dissolved selenium concentrations decreased. This suggests that plant/algal uptake, followed by deposition and degradation, is the primary route of Se transfer into sediments. However, it is possible that the effective isotopic fractionation between Se in the surface water and Se deposited into sediments is somehow much less than the fractionation induced by the reduction reaction, or that cycling of organically bound Se is involved. In this study, we report Se isotope data for Se(VI), Se(IV) and total dissolved Se, Se(T), in surface waters from three wetland/lake sites: Sweitzer Lake, CO; 33-Mile Reservoir, WY; and, a small pond adjacent to Benton Lake, MT. We isolated Se(IV) via hydride generation, and Se(VI) via ion exchange. Se(T), including any organic components, was also analyzed. Isotope analysis was performed on an Isoprobe MC-ICPMS, using a method modified from that of Rouxel et al. (2002). We used the 82Se + 74Se double spike approach, and spiked samples before species separation. Our results for all three locations indicate similar trends in concentration changes and isotopic shifts between the inflow and outflow waters. Se(T) concentrations decrease by 45-70%, and Se(VI) concentrations decrease by 60-90%, whereas Se(IV) concentrations increase by 60-150%. Concomitant 80Se/76Se shifts are +0.5-0.8‰ for Se(T); -0.1-0.5‰ for Se(VI); and +0.4-6.5‰ for Se(IV). These data provide greater

  9. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  10. Incorporation of 13C labelled root-shoot residues in soil in the presence of Lumbricus terrestris: An isotopic and molecular approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Alix; Alexis, Marie; Nguyen Tu, Thanh Tu; Anquetil, Christelle; Vaury, Véronique; Derenne, Sylvie; Quenea, Katell

    2016-04-01

    Litter from plant biomass deposited on soil surface can either be mineralized; releasing CO2 to the atmosphere, or transferred into the soil as organic compounds. Both pathways depend on biotic factors such as litter characteristics and the of soil organism activity. During the last decades, many studies have focused on the origin of organic matter, with a particular attention to the fate of root and shoot litter. It is generally admitted that roots decompose at a slower rate than shoots, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in soil for compounds originating from roots. Earthworms play a central role in litter decomposition and carbon cycling, ingesting both organic and mineral compounds which are mixed, complexed and dejected in the form of casts at the soil surface or along earthworm burrows. The simultaneous impact of earthworms and root-shoot on soil carbon cycling is still poorly understood. This study aimed at (1) defining the rate of incorporation of root and shoot litter with or without earthworms and (2) characterizing the molecular composition of soil organic matter upon litter decomposition, after one year of experimentation. A mesocosm experiment was set up to follow the incorporation of 13C labelled Ryegrass root and shoot litter in the soil, in the presence of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Soil samples were collected at 0-20 and 40-60 cm, as well as surface casts, at the beginning and after 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 54 weeks of experiment. Organic carbon content and δ13C values were determined for all the samples with Elemental Analysis - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. Lipid-free soil and cast samples after 54 weeks of incubation were analyzed with Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Pyrolysis products were grouped into six classes: polysaccharides, lignin derived compounds, phenols, N-compounds, aliphatic compounds and sterols. Each pyrolysis product was quantified thanks to its peak area, relative to the total area of the

  11. Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry of carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bol‧shakov, Alexander A.; Mao, Xianglei; Jain, Jinesh; McIntyre, Dustin L.; Russo, Richard E.

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative determination of carbon isotopes using Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS) is described. Optical emission of diatomic molecules CN and C2 is used in these measurements. Two quantification approaches are presented: empirical calibration of spectra using a set of reference standards and numerical fitting of a simulated spectrum to the experimental one. Formation mechanisms of C2 and CN in laser ablation plasma are briefly reviewed to provide insights for implementation of LAMIS measurements. A simulated spectrum of the 12C2 Swan system was synthesized using four constituents within 473.5-476.5 nm. Simulation included three branches of 12C2 (1-0), branches R(0-0) and R(1-1), and branch P(9-8) of 12C2. Spectral positions of the tail lines in R(0-0) and R(1-1) were experimentally measured, since they were not accurately known before. The Swan band (1-0) of the isotopologue 13C12C was also simulated. Fitting to the experimental spectrum yielded the ratio 13C/12C = 1.08% in a good agreement with measurements by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. LAMIS promises to be useful in coal, oil and shale exploration, carbon sequestration monitoring, and agronomy studies.

  12. Heavy Atom Labeled Nucleotides for Measurement of Kinetic Isotope Effects

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Benjamin P.; Li, Nan-Sheng; York, Darrin; Harris, Michael; Piccirilli, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental analysis of kinetic isotope effects represents an extremely powerful approach for gaining information about the transition state structure of complex reactions not available through other methodologies. Implementation of this approach to the study of nucleic acid chemistry requires the synthesis of nucleobases and nucleotides enriched for heavy isotopes at specific positions. In this review we highlight current approaches to the synthesis of nucleic acids site-specifically enriched for heavy oxygen and nitrogen and their application in heavy atom isotope effect studies. PMID:25828952

  13. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  14. Calculation of individual isotope equilibrium constants for geochemical reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorstenson, D.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    factors. The derivations can be extended to calculation of individual isotope equilibrium constants for ion pairs and equilibrium constants for isotopic species of other chemical elements. The individual isotope approach calculates the same phase isotopic compositions as existing methods, but also provides concentrations of individual species, which are needed in calculations of mass-dependent effects in transport processes. The equilibrium constants derived in this paper are used to calculate the example of gas-water equilibrium for CO2 in an acidic aqueous solution. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Quantification of isotopic turnover in agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, A.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic turnover, which is a proxy for the metabolic rate, is gaining scientific importance. It is quantified for an increasing range of organisms, from microorganisms over plants to animals including agricultural livestock. Additionally, the isotopic turnover is analyzed on different scales, from organs to organisms to ecosystems and even to the biosphere. In particular, the quantification of the isotopic turnover of specific tissues within the same organism, e.g. organs like liver and muscle and products like milk and faeces, has brought new insights to improve understanding of nutrient cycles and fluxes, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of isotopic turnover is important in many areas, including physiology, e.g. milk synthesis, ecology, e.g. soil retention time of water, and medical science, e.g. cancer diagnosis. So far, the isotopic turnover is quantified by applying time, cost and expertise intensive tracer experiments. Usually, this comprises two isotopic equilibration periods. A first equilibration period with a constant isotopic input signal is followed by a second equilibration period with a distinct constant isotopic input signal. This yields a smooth signal change from the first to the second signal in the object under consideration. This approach reveals at least three major problems. (i) The input signals must be controlled isotopically, which is almost impossible in many realistic cases like free ranging animals. (ii) Both equilibration periods may be very long, especially when the turnover rate of the object under consideration is very slow, which aggravates the first problem. (iii) The detection of small or slow pools is improved by large isotopic signal changes, but large isotopic changes also involve a considerable change in the input material; e.g. animal studies are usually carried out as diet-switch experiments, where the diet is switched between C3 and C4 plants, since C3 and C4 plants differ strongly in their isotopic signal. The

  16. An improved stable isotope N-terminal labeling approach with light/heavy TMPP to automate proteogenomics data validation: dN-TOP.

    PubMed

    Bertaccini, Diego; Vaca, Sebastian; Carapito, Christine; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine

    2013-06-07

    In silico gene prediction has proven to be prone to errors, especially regarding precise localization of start codons that spread in subsequent biological studies. Therefore, the high throughput characterization of protein N-termini is becoming an emerging challenge in the proteomics and especially proteogenomics fields. The trimethoxyphenyl phosphonium (TMPP) labeling approach (N-TOP) is an efficient N-terminomic approach that allows the characterization of both N-terminal and internal peptides in a single experiment. Due to its permanent positive charge, TMPP labeling strongly affects MS/MS fragmentation resulting in unadapted scoring of TMPP-derivatized peptide spectra by classical search engines. This behavior has led to difficulties in validating TMPP-derivatized peptide identifications with usual score filtering and thus to low/underestimated numbers of identified N-termini. We present herein a new strategy (dN-TOP) that overwhelmed the previous limitation allowing a confident and automated N-terminal peptide validation thanks to a combined labeling with light and heavy TMPP reagents. We show how this double labeling allows increasing the number of validated N-terminal peptides. This strategy represents a considerable improvement to the well-established N-TOP method with an enhanced and accelerated data processing making it now fully compatible with high-throughput proteogenomics studies.

  17. Laser isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Reed, J.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Boyer, K.; Greiner, N.R.

    1975-11-26

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light is described. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  18. Laser isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Boyer, Keith; Greiner, Norman R.

    1988-01-01

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  19. Photochemical isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Greiner, Norman R.; Boyer, Keith

    1987-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

  20. Stable carbon isotope analysis of coprocessing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M.S.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    Consol R D is developing and demonstrating stable carbon isotope analysis as a method to quantitatively distinguish coal-derived and petroleum-derived carbon in products from coal/petroleum coprocessing. The approach taken is to develop the method, then demonstrate its application an authentic continuous-unit products. The experimental details used for stable carbon isotope analyses by the organization that performs most of those analyses under this contract are described. A method was developed previously under this contract to correct the carbon sourcing calculations performed from stable carbon isotope analyses for selective isotopic fractionation. The method relies on three assumptions. This quarter, a study was completed to define the sensitivity of the carbon sourcing results to errors in the assumptions. Carbon contents and carbon isotope ratios were determined for the available feeds and product fractions from HRI bench-scale coprocessing Run 238-10 (Texas lignite/Hondo vacuum still bottoms (VSB), Texas lignite/Cold Lake VSB and Westerholt coal/Cold Lake VSB). These data were used for carbon sourcing calculations and individual feedstock conversion calculations. A previously devised means for correcting for selective isotope fractionation was applied. 6 refs., 30 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Developing Isotope Tools for Identifying Mercury Mining Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster van Groos, P. G.; Esser, B. K.; Williams, R. W.; Hunt, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Mining operations in California during the past two centuries have resulted in widespread mercury contamination. Source control strategies are difficult and expensive to implement, in part because links between specific mercury sources and exposures are often uncertain. Examination of mercury’s stable isotopes can help resolve this issue. Sources with distinct isotope compositions may be traced through the environment. Mercury mining operations are predicted to have led to waste tailings, mercury metal products, and air emissions with different isotope compositions as a result of inefficient mercury extraction and recovery from ores. The predicted differences in isotope composition, based on estimated kinetic and diffusion isotope effects, are greater than the precision of current analytical methods using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometers (MC-ICP-MS). As such, mercury isotope measurements may help identify mercury originating from different mining operations. To support a mechanistic approach to mercury isotope fractionation, the isotope effects of diffusion through solids and gases are being investigated experimentally. Besides demonstrating the utility of mercury isotope analysis for source identification, this work is providing a mechanistic basis for differences in isotope compositions.

  2. Isotopic heterogeneity in volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Ramos, F. C.; Tollstrup, D. L.

    2003-04-01

    The growing microsample database on volcanic rocks is showing that isotopic disequilibrium between and among phenocryst phases, their melt inclusions, and groundmass is the rule rather than the exception. This applies even in cases of little or no petrographic evidence for disequilibrium. Erupted magmas must therefore be regarded, to some extent, as mechanical mixtures of isotopically distinct components assembled from different sources. The preservation of isotopic disequilibrium requires that the assembly takes place before diffusion can eradicate evidence of disequilibrium. For a wide range of magmas (mafic, intermediate and felsic, silica under- and oversaturated) from different volcano types (flood basalts, monogenetic cones, stratocones, silicic calderas) this timescale ranges from thousands of years down to one year or less, with no consistent pattern of mixing-to-eruption time vs. volcano or magma type. Among many issues arising from these findings, we note that estimation of magmatic temperatures from application of equilibrium thermodynamics to phenocryst assemblages in volcanic rocks should be approached with extreme caution. The isotope ratio variations observed among the components of a single volcanic rock sample, in most cases, indicate interaction between magma and the local wall-rock. This is consistent with the view that the vast majority of magmas undergo modification during transport through and residence within the crust. Three physical origins of heterogeneity have been proposed: melting of wallrock, magmatic recharge, and mixing of components within a magma chamber initially segregated into melt-rich and crystal-rich portions. Time constraints on preservation of disequilibrium imply either a causal link with eruption, or that these processes occur through the lifetime of a chamber.

  3. Combining solvent isotope effects with substrate isotope effects in mechanistic studies of alcohol and amine oxidation by enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2015-11-01

    Oxidation of alcohols and amines is catalyzed by multiple families of flavin- and pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes. Measurement of solvent isotope effects provides a unique mechanistic probe of the timing of the cleavage of the OH and NH bonds, necessary information for a complete description of the catalytic mechanism. The inherent ambiguities in interpretation of solvent isotope effects can be significantly decreased if isotope effects arising from isotopically labeled substrates are measured in combination with solvent isotope effects. The application of combined solvent and substrate (mainly deuterium) isotope effects to multiple enzymes is described here to illustrate the range of mechanistic insights that such an approach can provide. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment.

  4. Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nimz, G. J., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    also be treated as a mostly closed system for mass balance considerations. It is the near closure of the system that permits well- constrained chemical mass balance calculations to be made. These calculations generally focus of lithogenic solutes, and therefore in our discussions of lithogenic nuclides in the paper, the concept of chemical mass balance in a nearly dosed system will play an important role. Examination of the isotopic compositions of solutes provides a better understanding of the variety of processes controlling mass balance. It is with this approach that we examined the variety of processes occurring within the catchment system, such as weathering and soil production, generation of stormflow and streamflow (hydrograph separation), movement of soil pore water, groundwater flow, and the overall processes involved with basinal water balance. In this paper, the term `nuclide` will be used when referring to a nuclear species that contains a particular number of protons and neutrons. The term is not specific to any element. The term `isotope` will be used to distinguish nuclear species of a given element (atoms with the same number of protons). That is to say, there are many nuclides in nature - for example, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 238}U; the element has four naturally-occurring isotopes - {sup 87}Sr, and {sup 88}Sr. This paper will first discuss the general principles that underlie the study of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides in hydrology, and provide references to some of the more important studies applying these principles and nuclides. We then turn in the second section to a discussion of their specific applications in catchment- scale systems. The final section of this paper discusses new directions in the application of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides to catchment hydrology, with some thoughts concerning possible applications that still remain unexplored.

  5. Meteoritic Sulfur Isotopic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiemens, Mark H.

    1996-01-01

    Funds were requested to continue our program in meteoritic sulfur isotopic analysis. We have recently detected a potential nucleosynthetic sulfur isotopic anomaly. We will search for potential carriers. The documentation of bulk systematics and the possible relation to nebular chemistry and oxygen isotopes will be explored. Analytical techniques for delta(sup 33), delta(sup 34)S, delta(sup 36)S isotopic analysis were improved. Analysis of sub milligram samples is now possible. A possible relation between sulfur isotopes and oxygen was detected, with similar group systematics noted, particularly in the case of aubrites, ureilites and entstatite chondrites. A possible nucleosynthetic excess S-33 has been noted in bulk ureilites and an oldhamite separate from Norton County. High energy proton (approximately 1 GeV) bombardments of iron foils were done to experimentally determine S-33, S-36 spallogenic yields for quantitation of isotopic measurements in iron meteorites. Techniques for measurement of mineral separates were perfected and an analysis program initiated. The systematic behavior of bulk sulfur isotopes will continue to be explored.

  6. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  7. ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Kudravetz, M.K.; Greene, H.B.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to control systems for a calutron and, in particular, describes an electro-mechanical system for interrupting the collection of charged particles when the ratio between the two isotopes being receivcd deviates from a predetermined value. One embodiment of the invention includes means responsive to the ratio between two isotopes being received for opening a normally closed shutter over the receiver entrance when the isotope ratio is the desired value. In another form of the invention the collection operation is interrupted by changing the beam accelerating voltage to deflect the ion beam away from the receiver.

  8. Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels: The added value of the isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D CH{sub 4}) approach

    SciTech Connect

    Widory, D.; Proust, E.; Bellenfant, G.; Bour, O.

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of the isotope and mass balance approaches to evaluate the level of methane oxidation within a landfill. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The level of methane oxidation is not homogenous under the landfill cover and is strongly correlated to the methane flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotope tracking of the contribution of the methane oxidation to the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the ambient air. - Abstract: We are presenting here a multi-isotope approach ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D of CH{sub 4}) to assess (i) the level(s) of methane oxidation during waste biodegradation and its migration through a landfill cover in Sonzay (France), and (ii) its contribution to the atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels above the surface. The isotope approach is compared to the more conventional mass balance approach. Results from the two techniques are comparable and show that the CH{sub 4} oxidation under the landfill cover is heterogenous, with low oxidation percentages in samples showing high biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH{sub 4} is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH{sub 4} oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria. {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} samples taken at different heights (from below the cover up to 8 m above the ground level) were also used to identify and assess the relative contributions of its main sources both under the landfill cover and in the surrounding atmosphere.

  9. Perchlorate isotope forensics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; Sturchio, N.C.; Gu, B.; Horita, J.; Brown, G.M.; Jackson, W.A.; Batista, J.; Hatzinger, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate has been detected recently in a variety of soils, waters, plants, and food products at levels that may be detrimental to human health. These discoveries have generated considerable interest in perchlorate source identification. In this study, comprehensive stable isotope analyses ( 37Cl/35Cl and 18O/17O/ 16O) of perchlorate from known synthetic and natural sources reveal systematic differences in isotopic characteristics that are related to the formation mechanisms. In addition, isotopic analyses of perchlorate extracted from groundwater and surface water demonstrate the feasibility of identifying perchlorate sources in contaminated environments on the basis of this technique. Both natural and synthetic sources of perchlorate have been identified in water samples from some perchlorate occurrences in the United States by the isotopic method. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  10. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    2004-11-15

    A review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors is presented. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, can be considered the most important one for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples. Manuel Cardona, the longtime editor-in-chief of Solid State Communications has been and continues to be one of the major contributors to this field of solid state physics and it is a great pleasure to dedicate this review to him.

  11. Stable isotopes in mineralogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Stable isotope fractionations between minerals are functions of the fundamental vibrational frequencies of the minerals and therefore bear on several topics of mineralogical interest. Isotopic compositions of the elements H, C, O, Si, and S can now be determined routinely in almost any mineral. A summary has been made of both published and new results of laboratory investigations, analyses of natural materials, and theoretical considerations which bear on the importance of temperature, pressure, chemical composition and crystal structure to the isotopic properties of minerals. It is shown that stable isotope studies can sometimes provide evidence for elucidating details of crystal structure and can be a powerful tool for use in tracing the reaction paths of mineralogical reactions. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Ultratrace Uranium Fingerprinting with Isotope Selective Laser Ionization Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, Summer L.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2008-08-01

    Uranium isotope ratios can provide source information for tracking uranium contamination in a variety of fields, ranging from occupational bioassay to monitoring aftereffects of nuclear accidents. We describe the development of Isotope Selective Laser Ionization Spectrometry (ISLIS) for ultratrace measurement of the minor isotopes 234U, 235U, and 236U with respect to 238U. Optical isotopic selectivity in three-step excitation with single-mode continuous wave lasers is capable of measuring the minor isotopes at relative abundances below 1 ppm, and is not limited by isobaric interferences such as 235UH+ during measurement of 236U. This relative abundance limit approaches the threshold for measurement of uranium minor isotopes with conventional mass spectrometry, typically 10-7, but without mass spectrometric analysis of the laser-created ions. Uranyl nitrate standards from an international blind comparison were used to test analytical performance for different isotopic compositions and with quantities ranging from 11 ng to 10 µg total uranium. Isotopic ratio determination was demonstrated over a linear dynamic range of 7 orders of magnitude with a few percent relative precision and detection limits below 500 fg for the minor isotopes.

  13. Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry: Strontium and its isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xianglei; Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Choi, Inhee; McKay, Christopher P.; Perry, Dale L.; Sorkhabi, Osman; Russo, Richard E.

    2011-11-01

    The experimental details are reported of Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS) and its application for performing optical isotopic analysis of solid strontium-containing samples in ambient atmospheric air at normal pressure. The LAMIS detection method is described for strontium isotopes from samples of various chemical and isotopic compositions. The results demonstrate spectrally resolved measurements of the three individual 86Sr, 87Sr, and 88Sr isotopes that are quantified using multivariate calibration of spectra. The observed isotopic shifts are consistent with those calculated theoretically. The measured spectra of diatomic oxide and halides of strontium generated in laser ablation plasmas demonstrate the isotopic resolution and capability of LAMIS. In particular, emission spectra of SrO and SrF molecular radicals provided clean and well resolved spectral signatures for the naturally occurring strontium isotopes. A possibility is discussed of using LAMIS of strontium isotopes for radiogenic age determination.

  14. Theoretical calculation of polarizability isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Félix; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Reyes, Andrés

    2017-03-01

    We propose a scheme to estimate hydrogen isotope effects on molecular polarizabilities. This approach combines the any-particle molecular orbital method, in which both electrons and H/D nuclei are described as quantum waves, with the auxiliary density perturbation theory, to calculate analytically the polarizability tensor. We assess the performance of method by calculating the polarizability isotope effect for 20 molecules. A good correlation between theoretical and experimental data is found. Further analysis of the results reveals that the change in the polarizability of a X-H bond upon deuteration decreases as the electronegativity of X increases. Our investigation also reveals that the molecular polarizability isotope effect presents an additive character. Therefore, it can be computed by counting the number of deuterated bonds in the molecule.

  15. Stable carbon isotope analysis of coprocessing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Winschel, R.A.; Lancet, M.S.; Burke, F.P.

    1990-07-01

    Consol R D is developing and demonstrating stable carbon isotope analysis as a method to quantitatively distinguish coal-derived and petroleum-derived carbon in products from coal/petroleum coprocessing. The approach taken is to develop the method, then demonstrate its application on authentic continuous-unit products. The significance of selective isotopic fractionation is being determined and, if necessary, corrections will be applied to account for it. Precision, accuracy and range of applicability are being defined. The value of accessory analytical techniques also is being assessed. The program is designed to address a substantial, demonstrated need of coprocessing research (both exploratory and development) for a technique to quantitatively distinguish the contributions of the individual coprocessing feedstocks to the various products. The carbon isotope technique currently is in routine use for other applications. Progress is discussed. 7 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. The rare isotope accelerator (RIA) facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Leemann

    2000-08-01

    The envisioned Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility would add substantially to research opportunities for nuclear physics and astrophysics by combining increased intensities with a greatly expanded variety of high-quality rare-isotope beams. A flexible superconducting driver linac would provide 100 kW, 400 MeV/nucleon beams of any stable isotope from hydrogen to uranium onto production targets. Combinations of projectile fragmentation, target fragmentation, fission, and spallation would produce the needed broad assortment of short-lived secondary beams. This paper describes the project's background, purpose, and status, the envisioned facility, and the key subsystem, the driver linac. RIA's scientific purposes are to advance current theoretical models, reveal new manifestations of nuclear behavior, and probe the limits of nuclear existence [3]. Figures 1 and 2 show, respectively, examples of RIA research opportunities and the yields projected for pursuing them. Figure 3 outlines a conceptual approach for delivering the needed beams.

  17. Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression

    SciTech Connect

    Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

    2004-09-15

    Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

  18. Isotopic composition of formaldehyde in urban air.

    PubMed

    Rice, Andrew L; Quay, Paul

    2009-12-01

    The isotopic composition of atmospheric formaldehyde was measured in air samples collected in urban Seattle, Washington. A recently developed gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry analytical technique was used to extract formaldehyde directly from whole air, separate it from other volatile organic compounds, and measure its (13)C/(12)C and D/H ratio. Measurements of formaldehyde concentration were also made concomitant with isotope ratio. Results of the analysis of nine discrete air samples for delta(13)C-HCHO have a relatively small range in isotopic composition (-31 to -25 per thousand versus VPDB [+/-1.3 per thousand]) over a considerable concentration range (0.8-4.4 ppb [+/-15%]). In contrast, analyses of 17 air samples for deltaD-HCHO show a large range (-296 to +210 per thousand versus VSMOW [+/-50 per thousand]) over the concentrations measured (0.5-2.9 ppb). Observations of deltaD are weakly anticorrelated with concentration. Isotopic data are interpreted using both source- and sink-based approaches. Results of delta(13)C-HCHO are similar to those observed previously for a number of nonmethane hydrocarbons in urban environments and variability can be reconciled with a simple sink-based model. The large variability observed in deltaD-HCHO favors a source-based interpretation with HCHO depleted in deuterium from primary sources of HCHO (i.e., combustion) and HCHO enriched in deuterium from secondary photochemical sources (i.e., hydrocarbon oxidation).

  19. Zn Isotope Fractionation during Sorption onto Kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Guinoiseau, Damien; Gélabert, Alexandre; Moureau, Julien; Louvat, Pascale; Benedetti, Marc F

    2016-02-16

    In this study, we quantify zinc isotope fractionation during its sorption onto kaolinite, by performing experiments under various pH, ionic strength, and total Zn concentrations. A systematic enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes on the surface of kaolinite was measured, with Δ(66)Znadsorbed-solution ranging from 0.11‰ at low pH and low ionic strength to 0.49‰ at high pH and high ionic strength. Both the measured Zn concentration and its isotopic ratio are correctly described using a thermodynamic sorption model that considers two binding sites: external basal surfaces and edge sites. Based on this modeling approach, two distinct Zn isotopic fractionation factors were calculated: Δ(66)Znadsorbed-solution = 0.18 ± 0.06‰ for ion exchange onto basal sites, and Δ(66)Znadsorbed-solution = 0.49 ± 0.06‰ for specific complexation onto edge sites. These two distinct factors indicate that Zn isotope fractionation is dominantly controlled by the chemical composition of the solution (pH, ionic strength).

  20. Oxygen Isotopes in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. N.

    2003-12-01

    Oxygen isotope abundance variations in meteorites are very useful in elucidating chemical and physical processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system (Clayton, 1993). On Earth, the mean abundances of the three stable isotopes are 16O: 99.76%, 17O: 0.039%, and 18O: 0.202%. It is conventional to express variations in abundances of the isotopes in terms of isotopic ratios, relative to an arbitrary standard, called SMOW (for standard mean ocean water), as follows:The isotopic composition of any sample can then be represented by one point on a "three-isotope plot," a graph of δ17O versus δ18O. It will be seen that such plots are invaluable in interpreting meteoritic data. Figure 1 shows schematically the effect of various processes on an initial composition at the center of the diagram. Almost all terrestrial materials lie along a "fractionation" trend; most meteoritic materials lie near a line of "16O addition" (or subtraction). (4K)Figure 1. Schematic representation of various isotopic processes shown on an oxygen three-isotope plot. Almost all terrestrial materials plot along a line of "fractionation"; most primitive meteoritic materials plot near a line of "16O addition." The three isotopes of oxygen are produced by nucleosynthesis in stars, but by different nuclear processes in different stellar environments. The principal isotope, 16O, is a primary isotope (capable of being produced from hydrogen and helium alone), formed in massive stars (>10 solar masses), and ejected by supernova explosions. The two rare isotopes are secondary nuclei (produced in stars from nuclei formed in an earlier generation of stars), with 17O coming primarily from low- and intermediate-mass stars (<8 solar masses), and 18O coming primarily from high-mass stars (Prantzos et al., 1996). These differences in type of stellar source result in large observable variations in stellar isotopic abundances as functions of age, size, metallicity, and galactic location ( Prantzos

  1. Coupling stable isotopes with bioenergetics to estimate interspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    Caut, Stephane; Roemer, Gary W; Donlan, C Josh; Courchamp, Franck

    2006-10-01

    Interspecific interactions are often difficult to elucidate, particularly with large vertebrates at large spatial scales. Here, we describe a methodology for estimating interspecific interactions by combining stable isotopes with bioenergetics. We illustrate this approach by modeling the population dynamics and species interactions of a suite of vertebrates on Santa Cruz Island, California, USA: two endemic carnivores (the island fox and island spotted skunk), an exotic herbivore (the feral pig), and their shared predator, the Golden Eagle. Sensitivity analyses suggest that our parameter estimates are robust, and natural history observations suggest that our overall approach captures the species interactions in this vertebrate community. Nonetheless, several factors provide challenges to using isotopes to infer species interactions. Knowledge regarding species-specific isotopic fractionation and diet breadth is often lacking, necessitating detailed laboratory studies and natural history information. However, when coupled with other approaches, including bioenergetics, mechanistic models, and natural history, stable isotopes can be powerful tools in illuminating interspecific interactions and community dynamics.

  2. Physicochemical isotope anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Esat, T.M.

    1988-06-01

    Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

  3. Matching isotopic distributions from metabolically labeled samples

    PubMed Central

    McIlwain, Sean; Page, David; Huttlin, Edward L.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: In recent years stable isotopic labeling has become a standard approach for quantitative proteomic analyses. Among the many available isotopic labeling strategies, metabolic labeling is attractive for the excellent internal control it provides. However, analysis of data from metabolic labeling experiments can be complicated because the spacing between labeled and unlabeled forms of each peptide depends on its sequence, and is thus variable from analyte to analyte. As a result, one generally needs to know the sequence of a peptide to identify its matching isotopic distributions in an automated fashion. In some experimental situations it would be necessary or desirable to match pairs of labeled and unlabeled peaks from peptides of unknown sequence. This article addresses this largely overlooked problem in the analysis of quantitative mass spectrometry data by presenting an algorithm that not only identifies isotopic distributions within a mass spectrum, but also annotates matches between natural abundance light isotopic distributions and their metabolically labeled counterparts. This algorithm is designed in two stages: first we annotate the isotopic peaks using a modified version of the IDM algorithm described last year; then we use a probabilistic classifier that is supplemented by dynamic programming to find the metabolically labeled matched isotopic pairs. Such a method is needed for high-throughput quantitative proteomic metabolomic experiments measured via mass spectrometry. Results: The primary result of this article is that the dynamic programming approach performs well given perfect isotopic distribution annotations. Our algorithm achieves a true positive rate of 99% and a false positive rate of 1% using perfect isotopic distribution annotations. When the isotopic distributions are annotated given ‘expert’ selected peaks, the same algorithm gets a true positive rate of 77% and a false positive rate of 1%. Finally, when annotating using

  4. Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Body Water and Hair: Modeling Isotope Dynamics in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Shannon P.; Valenzuela, Luciano O.; Remien, Christopher H.; Enright, Lindsey E.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Wagner, Janice D.; Cerling, Thure E.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of drinking water, diet, and atmospheric oxygen influence the isotopic composition of body water (2H/1H, 18O/16O expressed as δ2H and δ18O). In turn, body water influences the isotopic composition of organic matter in tissues, such as hair and teeth, which are often used to reconstruct historical dietary and movement patterns of animals and humans. Here, we used a nonhuman primate system (Macaca fascicularis) to test the robustness of two different mechanistic stable isotope models: a model to predict the δ2H and δ18O values of body water and a second model to predict the δ2H and δ18O values of hair. In contrast to previous human-based studies, use of nonhuman primates fed controlled diets allowed us to further constrain model parameter values and evaluate model predictions. Both models reliably predicted the δ2H and δ18O values of body water and of hair. Moreover, the isotope data allowed us to better quantify values for two critical variables in the models: the δ2H and δ18O values of gut water and the 18O isotope fractionation associated with a carbonyl oxygen-water interaction in the gut (αow). Our modeling efforts indicated that better predictions for body water and hair isotope values were achieved by making the isotopic composition of gut water approached that of body water. Additionally, the value of αow was 1.0164, in close agreement with the only other previously measured observation (microbial spore cell walls), suggesting robustness of this fractionation factor across different biological systems. PMID:22553163

  5. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in body water and hair: modeling isotope dynamics in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Shannon P; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Remien, Christopher H; Enright, Lindsey E; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R; Wagner, Janice D; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2012-07-01

    The stable isotopic composition of drinking water, diet, and atmospheric oxygen influence the isotopic composition of body water ((2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O expressed as δ(2) H and δ(18)O). In turn, body water influences the isotopic composition of organic matter in tissues, such as hair and teeth, which are often used to reconstruct historical dietary and movement patterns of animals and humans. Here, we used a nonhuman primate system (Macaca fascicularis) to test the robustness of two different mechanistic stable isotope models: a model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and a second model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of hair. In contrast to previous human-based studies, use of nonhuman primates fed controlled diets allowed us to further constrain model parameter values and evaluate model predictions. Both models reliably predicted the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and of hair. Moreover, the isotope data allowed us to better quantify values for two critical variables in the models: the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of gut water and the (18)O isotope fractionation associated with a carbonyl oxygen-water interaction in the gut (α(ow)). Our modeling efforts indicated that better predictions for body water and hair isotope values were achieved by making the isotopic composition of gut water approached that of body water. Additionally, the value of α(ow) was 1.0164, in close agreement with the only other previously measured observation (microbial spore cell walls), suggesting robustness of this fractionation factor across different biological systems.

  6. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    PubMed

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-06-23

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Ubeda, 18-22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes.

  7. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    PubMed Central

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I.; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C.; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A.; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Úbeda, 18–22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes. PMID:20015858

  8. Using stable isotopes to determine seabird trophic relationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobson, Keith A.; Piatt, John F.; Pitocchelli, Jay

    1994-01-01

    1. The stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) were analysed in 22 species of marine birds from coastal waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Analyses confirm that stable nitrogen isotopes can predict seabird trophic positions.2. Based on δ15N analyses, seabird trophic-level inferences generally agree with those of conventional dietary studies, but suggest that lower trophic-level organisms are more important to several seabirds than was recognized previously.3. Stable-carbon isotope analysis may be a good indicator of inshore vs. offshore feeding preference.4. In general, stable-isotope analysis to determine trophic level offers many advantages over conventional dietary approaches since trophic inferences are based on time-integrated estimates of assimilated and not just ingested foods, and isotopic abundance represents a continuous variable that is amenable to statistical analysis.

  9. Separation of sulfur isotopes

    DOEpatents

    DeWitt, Robert; Jepson, Bernhart E.; Schwind, Roger A.

    1976-06-22

    Sulfur isotopes are continuously separated and enriched using a closed loop reflux system wherein sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or the like to form sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO.sub.3). Heavier sulfur isotopes are preferentially attracted to the NaHSO.sub.3, and subsequently reacted with sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) forming sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO.sub.4) and SO.sub.2 gas which contains increased concentrations of the heavier sulfur isotopes. This heavy isotope enriched SO.sub.2 gas is subsequently separated and the NaHSO.sub.4 is reacted with NaOH to form sodium sulfate (Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4) which is subsequently decomposed in an electrodialysis unit to form the NaOH and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 components which are used in the aforesaid reactions thereby effecting sulfur isotope separation and enrichment without objectionable loss of feed materials.

  10. Transportation of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  11. Shifts in rotifer life history in response to stable isotope enrichment: testing theories of isotope effects on organismal growth

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In ecology, stable isotope labelling is commonly used for tracing material transfer in trophic interactions, nutrient budgets and biogeochemical processes. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism growth and metabolism. This assumption is, however, challenged by theoretical considerations and experimental studies on kinetic isotope effects in vivo. Here, I demonstrate profound changes in life histories of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis fed 15N-enriched algae (0.4–5.0 at%); i.e. at the enrichment levels commonly used in ecological studies. These findings support theoretically predicted effects of heavy isotope enrichment on growth, metabolism and ageing in biological systems and underline the importance of accounting for such effects when using stable isotope labelling in experimental studies.

  12. Isotope separation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Arnush, Donald; MacKenzie, Kenneth R.; Wuerker, Ralph F.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

  13. Isotopic Effects in Nuclear Fragmentation and GCR Transport Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2002-01-01

    Improving the accuracy of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment and transport models is an important goal in preparing for studies of the projected risks and the efficiency of potential mitigations methods for space exploration. In this paper we consider the effects of the isotopic composition of the primary cosmic rays and the isotopic dependence of nuclear fragmentation cross sections on GCR transport models. Measurements are used to describe the isotopic composition of the GCR including their modulation throughout the solar cycle. The quantum multiple-scattering approach to nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used as the data base generator in order to accurately describe the odd-even effect in fragment production. Using the Badhwar and O'Neill GCR model, the QMSFRG model and the HZETRN transport code, the effects of the isotopic dependence of the primary GCR composition and on fragment production for transport problems is described for a complete GCR isotopic-grid. The principle finding of this study is that large errors ( 100%) will occur in the mass-flux spectra when comparing the complete isotopic-grid (141 ions) to a reduced isotopic-grid (59 ions), however less significant errors 30%) occur in the elemental-flux spectra. Because the full isotopic-grid is readily handled on small computer work-stations, it is recommended that they be used for future GCR studies.

  14. Microbially Mediated Kinetic Sulfur Isotope Fractionation: Reactive Transport Modeling Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, C.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Amos, R. T.; Steefel, C. I.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Microbially mediated sulfate reduction is a ubiquitous process in many subsurface systems. Isotopic fractionation is characteristic of this anaerobic process, since sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) favor the reduction of the lighter sulfate isotopologue (S32O42-) over the heavier isotopologue (S34O42-). Detection of isotopic shifts have been utilized as a proxy for the onset of sulfate reduction in subsurface systems such as oil reservoirs and aquifers undergoing uranium bioremediation. Reactive transport modeling (RTM) of kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation has been applied to field and laboratory studies. These RTM approaches employ different mathematical formulations in the representation of kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation. In order to test the various formulations, we propose a benchmark problem set for the simulation of kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation during microbially mediated sulfate reduction. The benchmark problem set is comprised of four problem levels and is based on a recent laboratory column experimental study of sulfur isotope fractionation. Pertinent processes impacting sulfur isotopic composition such as microbial sulfate reduction and dispersion are included in the problem set. To date, participating RTM codes are: CRUNCHTOPE, TOUGHREACT, MIN3P and THE GEOCHEMIST'S WORKBENCH. Preliminary results from various codes show reasonable agreement for the problem levels simulating sulfur isotope fractionation in 1D.

  15. A model of isotope fractionation in reacting geochemical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ming-Kuo; Bethke, C.M.

    1996-11-01

    The authors present a numerical technique that predicts how the stable isotopes {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 18}O, and {sup 34}S fractionate among solvent, aqueous species, minerals, and gases over the course of a geochemical reaction process. This model is based on mass balance techniques similar to those already presented in the literature but differs from previous techniques in that it allows minerals to be segregated form isotopic exchange instead of remaining in isotopic equilibrium. Such an approach allows us to simulate the fractionation of isotopes between rock and fluid resulting solely from mineral dissolution and precipitation. The technique was tested by modeling isotopic fractionation during several reaction processes, including (1) dolomitization of limestone by a migrating pore fluid, (2) diagenetic alteration of the Permian Lyons sandstone in the Denver basin, and (3) hydrothermal alteration of the Okanagan Batholith in southern British Columbia. The results of calculations in which minerals are segregated from isotopic exchange compare well to isotopic trends observed in nature but differ markedly from calculations that assume isotopic equilibrium. 54 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  17. High Atomic Weight Isotope Separator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This patent discusses a method of separating one isotopic species of a given element from a mixture. Collisionless plasma instabilities slow down the ions and oppositely charged electrodes separate the isotopes.

  18. Isotope geochemistry of caliche developed on basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauth, L. Paul; Brilli, Mauro; Klonowski, Stan

    2003-01-01

    Enormous variations in oxygen and carbon isotopes occur in caliche developed on < 3 Ma basalts in 3 volcanic fields in Arizona, significantly extending the range of δ 18O and δ 13C observed in terrestrial caliche. Within each volcanic field, δ 18O is broadly co-variant with δ 13C and increases as δ 13C increases. The most 18O and 13C enriched samples are for subaerial calcite developed on pinnacles, knobs, and flow lobes that protrude above tephra and soil. The most 18O and 13C depleted samples are for pedogenic carbonate developed in soil atmospheres. The pedogenic caliche has δ 18O fixed by normal precipitation in local meteoric waters at ambient temperatures and has low δ 13C characteristic of microbial soil CO 2. Subaerial caliche has formed from 18O-rich evapoconcentrated meteoric waters that dried out on surfaces after local rains. The associated 13C enrichment is due either to removal of 12C by photosynthesizers in the evaporating drops or to kinetic isotope effects associated with evaporation. Caliche on basalt lava flows thus initially forms with the isotopic signature of evaporation and is subsequently over-layered during burial by calcite carrying the isotopic signature of the soil environment. The large change in carbon isotope composition in subsequent soil calcite defines an isotopic biosignature that should have developed in martian examples if Mars had a "warm, wet" early period and photosynthesizing microbes were present in the early soils. The approach can be similarly applied to terrestrial Precambrian paleocaliche in the search for the earliest record of life on land. Large variations reported for δ 18O of carbonate in Martian meteorite ALH84001 do not necessarily require high temperatures, playa lakes, or flood runoff if the carbonate is an example of altered martian caliche.

  19. DEEP WATER ISOTOPIC CURRENT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, W.H.

    1964-04-21

    A deepwater isotopic current analyzer, which employs radioactive isotopes for measurement of ocean currents at various levels beneath the sea, is described. The apparatus, which can determine the direction and velocity of liquid currents, comprises a shaft having a plurality of radiation detectors extending equidistant radially therefrom, means for releasing radioactive isotopes from the shaft, and means for determining the time required for the isotope to reach a particular detector. (AEC)

  20. The new face of isotopic NMR at natural abundance.

    PubMed

    Jézéquel, Tangi; Joubert, Valentin; Giraudeau, Patrick; Remaud, Gérald S; Akoka, Serge

    2017-02-01

    The most widely used method for isotope analysis at natural abundance is isotope ratio monitoring by Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS) which provides bulk isotopic composition in (2) H, (13) C, (15) N, (18) O or (34) S. However, in the 1980s, the direct access to Site-specific Natural Isotope Fractionation by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNIF-NMR(TM) ) was immediately recognized as a powerful technique to authenticate the origin of natural or synthetic products. The initial - and still most popular - application consisted in detecting the chaptalization of wines by irm-(2) H NMR. The approach has been extended to a wide range of methodologies over the last decade, paving the way to a wide range of applications, not only in the field of authentication but also to study metabolism. In particular, the emerging irm-(13) C NMR approach delivers direct access to position-specific (13) C isotope content at natural abundance. After highlighting the application scope of irm-NMR ((2) H and (13) C), this article describes the major improvements which made possible to reach the required accuracy of 1‰ (0.1%) in irm-(13) C NMR. The last part of the manuscript summarizes the different steps to perform isotope analysis as a function of the sample properties (concentration, peak overlap) and the kind of targeted isotopic information (authentication, affiliation). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Proteomic response to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA, vadimezan) in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells determined by the stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Dong; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    5,6-Dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA), also known as ASA404 and vadimezan, is a potent tumor blood vessel-disrupting agent and cytokine inducer used alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other cancers. However, the latest Phase III clinical trial has shown frustrating outcomes in the treatment of NSCLC, since the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanism for the anticancer effect of DMXAA are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to examine the proteomic response to DMXAA and unveil the global molecular targets and possible mechanisms for the anticancer effect of DMXAA in NSCLC A549 cells using a stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach. The proteomic data showed that treatment with DMXAA modulated the expression of 588 protein molecules in A549 cells, with 281 protein molecules being up regulated and 306 protein molecules being downregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) identified 256 signaling pathways and 184 cellular functional proteins that were regulated by DMXAA in A549 cells. These targeted molecules and signaling pathways were mostly involved in cell proliferation and survival, redox homeostasis, sugar, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, cell migration, and invasion and programed cell death. Subsequently, the effects of DMXAA on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, autophagy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were experimentally verified. Flow cytometric analysis showed that DMXAA significantly induced G1 phase arrest in A549 cells. Western blotting assays demonstrated that DMXAA induced apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway and promoted autophagy, as indicated by the increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c, activation of caspase 3, and enhanced expression of beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) in A549 cells. Moreover, DMXAA significantly promoted intracellular ROS

  2. Method for separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  3. Shape coexistence and phase transitions in the platinum isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Irving O.; Frank, Alejandro; Vargas, Carlos E.; Isacker, P. Van

    2008-08-15

    The matrix coherent-state approach of the interacting boson model with configuration mixing is used to study the geometry of the platinum isotopes. With a parameter set determined in previous studies, it is found that the absolute minimum of the potential for the Pt isotopes evolves from spherical to oblate and finally to prolate shapes when the neutron number decreases from N=126 (semi-magic) to N=104 (mid-shell). Shape coexistence is found in the isotopes {sup 182,184,186,188}Pt. A phase diagram is constructed that shows the coexistence region as a function of the number of bosons and the strength of the mixing parameter.

  4. Uranium Isotopic Analysis with the FRAM Isotopic Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Duc T. Vo; Thomas E. Sampson

    1999-05-01

    FRAM is the acronym for Fixed-energy Response-function Analysis with Multiple efficiency. This software was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory originally for plutonium isotopic analysis. Later, it was adapted for uranium isotopic analysis in addition to plutonium. It is a code based on a self-calibration using several gamma-ray peaks for determining the isotopic ratios. The versatile-parameter database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration and detector type.

  5. Sulfur isotopic data

    SciTech Connect

    Rye, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary sulfur isotope data have been determined for samples of the Vermillion Creek coal bed and associated rocks in the Vermillion Creek basin and for samples of evaporites collected from Jurassic and Triassic formations that crop out in the nearby Uinta Mountains. The data are inconclusive, but it is likely that the sulfur in the coal was derived from the evaporites.

  6. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  7. Isotopic archives of sulphate in speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Peter M.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Baker, Andy; Baldini, James U. L.; McDermott, Frank

    2008-05-01

    The hemispheric impact of industrial emissions upon atmospheric sulphur loading is reflected in the sulphur depositional history recorded in cores from ice sheets. However, these do not reveal regional variations. Recently deposited speleothems are used here as archives of regional sulphur depositional history at two locations within the United Kingdom and Ireland. δ34S-SO4 and δ18O-SO4 present within speleothem carbonate are measured for the first time as part of a dual isotope approach to decode the speleothem sulphur record. The largely refractory nature of δ34S-SO4 under oxidising conditions enables source provenance of atmospheric SO2, whereas the complex cycles of isotopic exchange and fractionation during incorporation of oxygen into sulphate molecules enable δ18O-SO4 signatures to yield insights into ambient environmental conditions and biogeochemical cycling in the ecosystem above the cave. δ34S-SO4 values extracted from speleothem carbonate formed within Browns Folly Mine, UK, range from +3.5 to +5.5‰ and δ18O-SO4 +10.3 to +13.7‰. Both signatures lie within the range expected from sulphate deposition in industrial locations and reflect the transfer of sulphate into speleothem calcite with little fractionation. However, δ18O-SO4 signatures at Crag Cave, western Ireland, are isotopically heavier than expected and approach isotopic equilibrium with δ18O-H2O under reducing conditions. Dual isotope analysis of δ34S-SO4 and δ18O-SO4 optimises the correct identification of sulphur sources and biogeochemical cycling prior to incorporation into the speleothem record. At carefully selected cave sites where drip water flowpaths into the cave remain oxic, speleothems hold the potential to retain records of atmospheric sulphur loading at the local and regional scale.

  8. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-01

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR), a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods tested are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated

  9. Quantitative imaging of subcellular metabolism with stable isotopes and multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Matthew L; Lechene, Claude P

    2013-01-01

    Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) is the quantitative imaging of stable isotope labels in cells with a new type of secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS). The power of the methodology is attributable to (i) the immense advantage of using non-toxic stable isotope labels, (ii) high resolution imaging that approaches the resolution of usual transmission electron microscopy and (iii) the precise quantification of label down to 1 part-per-million and spanning several orders of magnitude. Here we review the basic elements of MIMS and describe new applications of MIMS to the quantitative study of metabolic processes including protein and nucleic acid synthesis in model organisms ranging from microbes to humans.

  10. Fishing for isotopes in the Brookhaven Lab Isotope Producer (BLIP) cooling water

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan

    2016-04-29

    Be-7 has been used in environmental studies; the isotope is produced during BLIP irradiations and accumulates in the 320 gallons of cooling water. Be-7 has a 53.24 day half-life, so the optimal production/purification time is at the end of the BLIP run season. To purify Be-7 fifteen to twenty gallons of BLIP cooling water are removed and pumped through ion exchange columns that retain Be-7. This labor intensive approach captures ~15 mCi of Be-7, but the solution requires further purification. The method can lead to increased radiation exposure to staff. The ideal way to capture isotopes from large volumes is to reach in to the solution and selectively pull out the desired isotope. It is a lot like fishing.

  11. Stable carbon isotope analysis of coprocessing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M.S.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-02-01

    Consol R D is developing and demonstrating stable carbon isotope analysis as a method to quantitatively distinguish coal-derived and petroleum-derived carbon in products from coal/petroleum coprocessing. The approach taken is develop the method, then demonstrate its application on authentic continuous-unit products. The significance of selective isotopic fractionation is being determined and, when necessary, corrections are applied to account for it. Precision, accuracy and range of applicability are being defined. The value of accessory analytical techniques also is being assessed. Previously reported data on samples from HRI bench-scale coprocessing Runs 227-53 (Texas lignite/Maya ASB and Texas lignite/Maya VSB) and 238-1 (Westerholt coal/Cold Lake VSB) were corrected for selective isotopic fractionation. Carbon sourcing was performed on samples from HRI bench-scale coprocessing Run 227-60 (Texas lignite/Maya VSB) and samples from UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 26 (Illinois 6 coal/Lloydminster vacuum resid); the latter data were corrected for isotopic fractionation, though the former could not be corrected. A paper presented at the 1990 DOE Direct Liquefaction Contractor's Review Meeting is appended. 15 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Influence of isotopic re-equilibration on speleothem and fluid inclusion isotope ratios after primary calcite precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Tobias; Haderlein, Astrid; Weißbach, Therese

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios in speleothems (notably stalagmites) have been used since decades to successfully infer paleotemperatures and deduce paleo-environmental information. In addition, recent technical developments allow to increasingly use fluid inclusions as an archive for drip-water and together with the surrounding calcite as paleothermometer. A basic requirement for isotope data interpretation is the complete knowledge of the fractionation between calcite and fluid. Most laboratory and in-situ cave experiments focus on calcite growth and the isotope fractionation between calcite and feed solution. Potential isotope exchange and re-equilibration processes after the initial deposition have mostly been neglected. However, experiments of Oelkers et al. (2015) showed that the isotope exchange between minerals and fluid can proceed rapidly (within days), even at chemical equilibrium. In hydrous Mg carbonates a similar process of continuous isotope exchange between carbonate and fluid was observed after the carbonate precipitation was completed (Mavromatis et al., 2015). These observations suggest that the isotope ratios of speleothem calcite may be affected by this continuous exchange, likely driving the isotope composition continuously towards equilibrium at the respective cave conditions. In addition, fluid inclusions are suspected to be sensitive to an isotope exchange with the surrounding carbonate highlighting the need to precisely understand and quantify this effect. We assessed the oxygen isotope exchange between calcite and solution at chemical equilibrium conditions with theoretical estimates and laboratory experiments over an intermediate time scale (hours-weeks). A large isotope gradient (~20 ‰)) between solution and calcite was prepared in the experiment to investigate the dynamics of this re-equilibration process. We used a theoretical model based on a Rayleigh fractionation approach and the direct comparison with the experiment to determine

  13. New Isotope 263Hs

    SciTech Connect

    Dragojevic, I.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Dvorak, J.; Ellison, P.A.; Gates, J.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Stavsetra, L.; Nitsche, H.

    2010-03-16

    A new isotope of Hs was produced in the reaction 208Pb(56Fe, n)263Hs at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Six genetically correlated nuclear decay chains have been observed and assigned to the new isotope 263Hs. The measured cross section was 21+13-8.4 pb at 276.4 MeV lab-frame center-of-target beam energy. 263Hs decays with a half-life of 0.74 ms by alpha-decay and the measured alpha-particle energies are 10.57 +- 0.06, 10.72 +- 0.06, and 10.89 +- 0.06 MeV. The experimental cross section is compared to a theoretical prediction based on the Fusion by Diffusion model [W. J. Swiatecki et al., Phys. Rev. C 71, 014602 (2005)].

  14. Iron isotope biosignatures.

    PubMed

    Beard, B L; Johnson, C M; Cox, L; Sun, H; Nealson, K H; Aguilar, C

    1999-09-17

    The (56)Fe/(54)Fe of Fe-bearing phases precipitated in sedimentary environments varies by 2.5 per mil (delta(56)Fe values of +0.9 to -1. 6 per mil). In contrast, the (56)Fe/(54)Fe of Fe-bearing phases in igneous rocks from Earth and the moon does not vary measurably (delta(56)Fe = 0.0 +/- 0.3 per mil). Experiments with dissimilatory Fe-reducing bacteria of the genus Shewanella algae grown on a ferrihydrite substrate indicate that the delta(56)Fe of ferrous Fe in solution is isotopically lighter than the ferrihydrite substrate by 1.3 per mil. Therefore, the range in delta(56)Fe values of sedimentary rocks may reflect biogenic fractionation, and the isotopic composition of Fe may be used to trace the distribution of microorganisms in modern and ancient Earth.

  15. Metal stable isotope signatures as tracers in environmental geochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Jan G

    2015-03-03

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals in natural systems is often accompanied by stable isotope fractionation which can now be measured due to recent analytical advances. In consequence, a new research field has emerged over the last two decades, complementing the traditional stable isotope systems (H, C, O, N, S) with many more elements across the periodic table (Li, B, Mg, Si, Cl, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, W, Pt, Hg, Tl, U) which are being explored and potentially applicable as novel geochemical tracers. This review presents the application of metal stable isotopes as source and process tracers in environmental studies, in particular by using mixing and Rayleigh model approaches. The most important concepts of mass-dependent and mass-independent metal stable isotope fractionation are introduced, and the extent of natural isotopic variations for different elements is compared. A particular focus lies on a discussion of processes (redox transformations, complexation, sorption, precipitation, dissolution, evaporation, diffusion, biological cycling) which are able to induce metal stable isotope fractionation in environmental systems. Additionally, the usefulness and limitations of metal stable isotope signatures as tracers in environmental geochemistry are discussed and future perspectives presented.

  16. Kinetic 15N-isotope effects on algal growth

    PubMed Central

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling is a standard technique for tracing material transfer in molecular, ecological and biogeochemical studies. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism metabolism and growth, which is not consistent with current theoretical and empirical knowledge on kinetic isotope effects. Here, we demonstrate profound changes in growth dynamics of the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata grown in 15N-enriched media. With increasing 15N concentration (0.37 to 50 at%), the lag phase increased, whereas maximal growth rate and total yield decreased; moreover, there was a negative relationship between the growth and the lag phase across the treatments. The latter suggests that a trade-off between growth rate and the ability to adapt to the high 15N environment may exist. Remarkably, the lag-phase response at 3.5 at% 15N was the shortest and deviated from the overall trend, thus providing partial support to the recently proposed Isotopic Resonance hypothesis, which predicts that certain isotopic composition is particularly favorable for living organisms. These findings confirm the occurrence of KIE in isotopically enriched algae and underline the importance of considering these effects when using stable isotope labeling in field and experimental studies. PMID:28281640

  17. Isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture from pan water evaporation measurements.

    PubMed

    Devi, Pooja; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Rao, M Someshwer; Kumar, Bhishm

    2015-01-01

    A continuous and reliable time series data of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is an important requirement for the wider applicability of isotope mass balance methods in atmospheric and water balance studies. This requires routine sampling of atmospheric moisture by an appropriate technique and analysis of moisture for its isotopic composition. We have, therefore, used a much simpler method based on an isotope mass balance approach to derive the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture using a class-A drying evaporation pan. We have carried out the study by collecting water samples from a class-A drying evaporation pan and also by collecting atmospheric moisture using the cryogenic trap method at the National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, India, during a pre-monsoon period. We compared the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture obtained by using the class-A drying evaporation pan method with the cryogenic trap method. The results obtained from the evaporation pan water compare well with the cryogenic based method. Thus, the study establishes a cost-effective means of maintaining time series data of the isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture at meteorological observatories. The conclusions drawn in the present study are based on experiments conducted at Roorkee, India, and may be examined at other regions for its general applicability.

  18. Kinetic 15N-isotope effects on algal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Stable isotope labeling is a standard technique for tracing material transfer in molecular, ecological and biogeochemical studies. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism metabolism and growth, which is not consistent with current theoretical and empirical knowledge on kinetic isotope effects. Here, we demonstrate profound changes in growth dynamics of the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata grown in 15N-enriched media. With increasing 15N concentration (0.37 to 50 at%), the lag phase increased, whereas maximal growth rate and total yield decreased; moreover, there was a negative relationship between the growth and the lag phase across the treatments. The latter suggests that a trade-off between growth rate and the ability to adapt to the high 15N environment may exist. Remarkably, the lag-phase response at 3.5 at% 15N was the shortest and deviated from the overall trend, thus providing partial support to the recently proposed Isotopic Resonance hypothesis, which predicts that certain isotopic composition is particularly favorable for living organisms. These findings confirm the occurrence of KIE in isotopically enriched algae and underline the importance of considering these effects when using stable isotope labeling in field and experimental studies.

  19. Strontium isotope characterization of wines from Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Victor; Stevenson, Ross; Pedneault, Karine; Poirier, André; Hélie, Jean-François; Widory, David

    2016-11-01

    The (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios were measured on grape, wine and soil samples collected in 13 commercial vineyards located in three major wine producing areas of Quebec (Canada). The soils yield Sr isotope ratios that are intimately related to the local geology and unambiguously discriminate the different producing areas. A strong relationship exists between the (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios of the wine and the grapes. This suggests that the vinification process does not alter the overall Sr budget. Although the Sr isotope ratios of the grapes do not show a strong correlation with the bulk Sr isotope composition of the soil, they do correlate strongly with the Sr isotope composition contained in the labile fraction of the soil. This indicates that the labile fraction of the soil represents the Sr reservoir available to the plant during its growth. This study demonstrates that the Sr isotope approach can be used as a viable tool in forensic science for investigating the provenance of commercial wines.

  20. ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-08-25

    An improved isotope separating apparatus of the electromagnetic type, commonly referred to as a calutron, is described. Improvements in detecting and maintaining optimum position and focus of the ion beam are given. The calutron collector is provided with an additional electrode insulated from and positioned between the collecting pockets. The ion beams are properly positioned and focused until the deionizing current which flows from ground to this additional electrode ts a minimum.

  1. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    SciTech Connect

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  2. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  3. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, Christopher A.; Worden, Earl F.

    1995-01-01

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

  4. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-08-22

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

  5. Nickel isotopes and methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubeck, A.; Ivarsson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Methanogens require Ni for their growth and as a consequence the microbial fractionation of Ni isotopes can be used as a biomarker for activity of methanogenic communities1. Anaerobic laboratory experiments was performed using methanogens to investigate methanogenic growth in a modified nutrient media2 with olivine Fo91 (5g/l) added as an additional mineral nutrient source and as the only H2 provider. One of the investigated methanogens showed an increased growth in the experiments with added olivine. There were also a close relationship between the mobilized Ni and the growth of the methanogen. Ni is an element that previously has been neglected in the study of fossilized microorganisms and their interaction with mineral substrates and, thus, there are no records or published data of Ni in association with microfossils. However, we have detected enrichments of Ni in fossilized microorganisms and ichno-fossils, respectively, from three separate locations. Ni is not present in the host rock in any of the samples. Thus, Ni is present in association with fossilized microorganisms from environments and more extensive analysis is required to understand the magnitude, uptake, preservation and fractionation of Ni in microfossils. In order to analyze Ni isotope fractionation from microbe-mineral interaction, we plan to use a high-resolution Laser-Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LMS)3. In situ profile ablation will provide detailed and localized data on fractionation patterns between microfossils and their host rock. Also, this technique will allow us to identify the change in Ni isotopic fractionation in rock samples caused by abiotic and biogenic processes in a faster and easier way and with less risk for contamination compared to the wet chemistry analyses of Ni isotopes. 1. Cameron, V., Vance, D., Archer, C. & House, C. H. A biomarker based on the stable isotopes of nickel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 10944-10948 (2009). 2. Schn

  6. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient Pt isotopes in a configuration mixing IBM

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Irving O.; Vargas, Carlos E.; Frank, Alejandro

    2004-09-13

    The recently proposed matrix-coherent state approach for configuration mixing IBM is used to describe the evolving geometry of the neutron deficient Pt isotopes. It is found that the Potential Energy Surface (PES) of the Platinum isotopes evolves, when the number of neutrons decreases, from spherical to oblate and then to prolate shapes, in agreement with experimental measurements. Oblate-Prolate shape coexistence is observed in 194,192Pt isotopes.

  7. Efficient isotope separation by single-photon atomic sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Jerkins, M.; Chavez, I.; Raizen, M. G.; Even, U.

    2010-09-15

    We propose a general and scalable approach to isotope separation. The method is based on an irreversible change of the mass-to-magnetic moment ratio of a particular isotope in an atomic beam, followed by a magnetic multipole whose gradients deflect and guide the atoms. The underlying mechanism is a reduction of the entropy of the beam by the information of a single scattered photon for each atom that is separated. We numerically simulate isotope separation for a range of examples, which demonstrate this technique's general applicability to almost the entire periodic table. The practical importance of the proposed method is that large-scale isotope separation should be possible, using ordinary inexpensive magnets and the existing technologies of supersonic beams and lasers.

  8. Stable Isotope Ratios as Biomarkers of Diet for Health Research.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a leading modifiable risk factor for chronic disease, but it remains difficult to measure accurately due to the error and bias inherent in self-reported methods of diet assessment. Consequently, there is a pressing need for more objective biomarkers of diet for use in health research. The stable isotope ratios of light elements are a promising set of candidate biomarkers because they vary naturally and reproducibly among foods, and those variations are captured in molecules and tissues with high fidelity. Recent studies have identified valid isotopic measures of short- and long-term sugar intake, meat intake, and fish intake in specific populations. These studies provide a strong foundation for validating stable isotopic biomarkers in the general US population. Approaches to improve specificity for specific foods are needed; for example, by modeling intake using multiple stable isotope ratios or by isolating and measuring specific molecules linked to foods of interest.

  9. Examining the stability of thermally fissile Th and U isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Bharat; Biswal, S. K.; Singh, S. K.; Patra, S. K.

    2015-11-01

    The properties of recently predicted thermally fissile Th and U isotopes are studied within the framework of the relativistic mean-field approach using the axially deformed basis. We calculate the ground, first intrinsic excited state for highly neutron-rich thorium and uranium isotopes. The possible modes of decay such as α decay and β decay are analyzed. We found that neutron-rich isotopes are stable against α decay, however, they are very unstable against β decay. The lifetime of these nuclei is predicted to be tens of seconds against β decay. If these nuclei are utilized before their decay time, a lot of energy can be produced with the help of multifragmentation fission. Also, these nuclei have great implications from the astrophysical point of view. In some cases, we found that the isomeric states with energy range from 2 to 3 MeV and three maxima in the potential energy surface of Th-230228 and U-234228 isotopes.

  10. Stable Isotope Ratios as Biomarkers of Diet for Health Research

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Diane M.

    2016-01-01

    Diet is a leading modifiable risk factor for chronic disease, but it remains difficult to measure accurately due to the error and bias inherent in self-reported methods of diet assessment. Consequently there is a pressing need for more objective biomarkers of diet for use in health research. The stable isotope ratios of light elements are a promising set of candidate biomarkers because they vary naturally and reproducibly among foods, and those variations are captured in molecules and tissues with high fidelity. Recent studies have identified valid isotopic measures of short and long-term sugar intake, meat intake, and fish intake in specific populations. These studies provide a strong foundation for validating stable isotopic biomarkers in the general United States population. Approaches to improve specificity for specific foods are needed, for example, by modeling intake using multiple stable isotope ratios, or by isolating and measuring specific molecules linked to foods of interest. PMID:26048703

  11. Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Richard E.; Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Mao, Xianglei; McKay, Christopher P.; Perry, Dale L.; Sorkhabi, Osman

    2011-02-01

    A new method of performing optical isotopic analysis of condensed samples in ambient air and at ambient pressure has been developed: Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS). The technique uses radiative transitions from molecular species either directly vaporized from a sample or formed by associative mechanisms of atoms or ions in a laser ablation plume. This method is an advanced modification of a known atomic emission technique called laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The new method — LAMIS — can determine not only chemical composition but also isotopic ratios of elements in the sample. Isotopic measurements are enabled by significantly larger isotopic shifts found in molecular spectra relative to atomic spectra. Analysis can be performed from a distance and in real time. No sample preparation or pre-treatment is required. Detection of the isotopes of hydrogen, boron, carbon, and oxygen are discussed to illustrate the technique.

  12. Finite mixture models for the computation of isotope ratios in mixed isotopic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffler, Daniel; Laaha, Gregor; Leisch, Friedrich; Kappel, Stefanie; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Finite mixture models have been used for more than 100 years, but have seen a real boost in popularity over the last two decades due to the tremendous increase in available computing power. The areas of application of mixture models range from biology and medicine to physics, economics and marketing. These models can be applied to data where observations originate from various groups and where group affiliations are not known, as is the case for multiple isotope ratios present in mixed isotopic samples. Recently, the potential of finite mixture models for the computation of 235U/238U isotope ratios from transient signals measured in individual (sub-)µm-sized particles by laser ablation - multi-collector - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) was demonstrated by Kappel et al. [1]. The particles, which were deposited on the same substrate, were certified with respect to their isotopic compositions. Here, we focus on the statistical model and its application to isotope data in ecogeochemistry. Commonly applied evaluation approaches for mixed isotopic samples are time-consuming and are dependent on the judgement of the analyst. Thus, isotopic compositions may be overlooked due to the presence of more dominant constituents. Evaluation using finite mixture models can be accomplished unsupervised and automatically. The models try to fit several linear models (regression lines) to subgroups of data taking the respective slope as estimation for the isotope ratio. The finite mixture models are parameterised by: • The number of different ratios. • Number of points belonging to each ratio-group. • The ratios (i.e. slopes) of each group. Fitting of the parameters is done by maximising the log-likelihood function using an iterative expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm. In each iteration step, groups of size smaller than a control parameter are dropped; thereby the number of different ratios is determined. The analyst only influences some control

  13. Vapor Transport Modeling of Continental Water Isotope Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritch, A. J.; Caves, J. K.; Ibarra, D. E.; Winnick, M. J.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotopes have been widely used to reconstruct past climatic conditions and topographic histories of mountain belts. However, many studies do not account for the influences of evapotranspiration and vapor recycling on downstream meteoric water isotopic compositions. Here we present a case study of the modern Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range to illustrate the value of using process-based models across larger spatial scales to reconstruct the conditions driving local- to regional-scale water isotopic compositions. We use a one-dimensional reactive vapor transport model, driven by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) high-resolution North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset, to simulate the isotopic composition of modern meteoric waters (δ18O and δD) along storm tracks across the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range. Storm track pathways are generated using NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory's Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. In addition, we couple the vapor transport model with a soil moisture model to simulate depth profiles of the oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic carbonate along our storm tracks. We show that, given reasonable estimates of the modern partitioning between evaporation and transpiration, our model output is in agreement with modern isotopic data both from compilations of published meteoric water samples and from newly collected soil carbonate samples along a transect across the northern Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range (~38-42° N). These results demonstrate that our modeling approach can be used to analyze the relative contributions of climate and topography to observed isotopic gradients. Future studies can apply this modeling framework to isotopes preserved in the geologic record to provide a quantitative means of understanding the paleoclimatic influences on spatial isotopic distributions.

  14. Intrinsic and Synthetic Stable Isotope Marking of Tsetse Flies

    PubMed Central

    Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca; Watzka, Margarete; Mayr, Leo; Mekonnen, Solomon; Kapitano, Berisha; Parker, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The sterile insect technique has been successfully used to eliminate tsetse populations in a number of programs. Program monitoring in the field relies on the ability to accurately differentiate released sterile insects from wild insects so that estimates can be made of the ratio of sterile males to wild males. Typically, released flies are marked with a dye, which is not always reliable. The difference in isotopic signatures between wild and factory-reared populations could be a reliable and intrinsic secondary marker to complement existing marking methods. Isotopic signatures are natural differences in stable isotope composition of organisms due to discrimination against the heavier isotopes during some biological processes. As the isotopic signature of an organism is mainly dependent on what it eats; by feeding factory-reared flies isotopically different diets to those of the wild population it is possible to intrinsically mark the flies. To test this approach unlabeled samples of Glossina pallidipes (Austen) (Diptera: Glossinidae) from a mass rearing facility and wild populations were analyzed to determine whether there were any natural differences in signatures that could be used as markers. In addition experiments were conducted in which the blood diet was supplemented with isotopically enriched compounds and the persistence of the marker in the offspring determined. There were distinct natural isotopic differences between factory reared and wild tsetse populations that could be reliably used as population markers. It was also possible to rear artificially isotopically labeled flies using simple technology and these flies were clearly distinguishable from wild populations with greater than 95% certainty after 85 days of “release”. These techniques could be readily adopted for use in SIT programs as complimentary marking techniques. PMID:21870965

  15. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars.

  16. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces the multi-element isotope data observed in previous experimental studies. Furthermore, it precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways as well as their range of variation consistent with observed bulk isotope fractionation. It was also possible to directly validate the model capability to predict the evolution of position-specific isotope ratios with available experimental data. Therefore, the approach is useful both for a mechanism-based evaluation of experimental results and as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available.

  17. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods tested are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the

  18. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; ...

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods testedmore » are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated

  19. Apportioning carbon sources of authigenic carbonate of extremely 13C-depleted foraminifera from the western North Pacific sediments: Implication from the coupled 13C and 14C isotopic mass balance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, M.; Ohkushi, K.; Ahagon, N.; Kimoto, K.; Inagaki, F.; Shibata, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Recently, Uchida et al. (G-cubed, 2004) and Ohkushi et al. (G-cubed, 2005) interprete /delta 13C variations of planktonic and benthic foraminifera found in Last Glacial sediments in off Shimokita Peninsula and Tokachi as evidence for periodic releases of methane, arising from the dissociation of methane hydrate, and its subsequent oxidation in bottom- and/or surface-water environments. According to recent observations of anomalous bottom-simulating reflections, northwest Pacific marginal sediments around Japan main islands bear large abundances of methane hydrate. In this study, analyzed piston cores (42° 21.42' N, 144° 13.36' E) at a water depth 1066-m was retrieved from the off Tokachi continental slope in the Oyashio current region, where recently is found to bear immense amounts of methane hydrate. The piston core covered past 22 ka with high-resolution. Here we showed that carbon isotope signals indicated that planktonic and benthic foraminifera in several glacial sediment layers in the core were highly depleted in13 C; both the planktonic and benthic foraminiferal /delta 13C values ranged from about -10/permil to -2/permil. Most foraminiferal tests in these horizons were brown as a result of postdepositional alteration. Foraminiferal oxygen isotopes fluctuated abnormally in the glacial sediment layers, showing small (about 0.5/permil) positive shifts relative to normal glacial values. We attributed the positive shifts to authigenic carbonate formation in the foraminiferal tests. In order to decipher the relation between foraminifera carbon isotopic signal and methane release from the seafloor, we have apportioned carbon sources (methane from methane hydrate or not) of foraminiferal carbon isotopic anomalies using dual mass balance isotopic model (14C/ 12C and 13C/ 12C). It has been suggested that sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) dominates carbon oxidation and attendant authigenic carbonate precipitation to foraminifera. To this assumption

  20. CO2 Isotopes and Elemental Carbon Measurements in air Samples at Canadian Baseline Stations: Can Human Impacts on Atmospheric CO2 be Detected and Quantified via an Integrated Approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Zhang, W.; Sharma, S.; Chan, D.; Ishizawa, M.; Worthy, D.; Tans, P.; Sweeney, C.; Brook, J.; Chan, T.; Leaitch, R.

    2009-05-01

    Detecting and quantifying human induced CO2 and other air pollutants are important in air quality as well as in carbon cycle related climate research, particularly for addressing the issue of the continued increase of atmospheric CO2. It is known that isotope compositions are widely used as tracers in source identifications and attributions for atmospheric CO2. Due to a long life time (about 200 years) of CO2 and its exchanges with natural systems, the signal of human induced CO2 and its carbon isotopic compositions in the atmosphere is small. It is very challenging to quantify its impact within an accepted range of uncertainty at global/regional scales. Thus, the requirements for the precision and accuracy in CO2 and related tracers measurements, including its stable isotope, are very rigid. At the same time, measuring multi- species together with CO2, has been strongly recommended by the global carbon cycle research community. Elemental carbon or black carbon (EC or BC) in fine carbonaceous particulate matter (PM2.5μm) is an important air pollutant as well as a key player in climate change. Similar to CO2, EC is also called as greenhouse aerosol, absorbing light and warming the atmosphere. Since it is coemitted with CO2 from fossil fuel combustions and biomass burning, tracking the spatial and temporal distributions of EC may provide valuable insight to those emission sources/transport mechanisms. Having a short atmospheric life time (7-10 days), the atmospheric EC is sensitive to the emission strength of those related sources (i.e., fossil fuel combustions and biomass burning). Thus, with a combination of EC with CO2 and its isotope measurements, it is expected to provide independent constraints for detecting and quantifying the human induced CO2 at regional scales. In this talk, an integrated data set of CO2 concentration, CO2 isotopes (with a focus on δ13C) and EC measurements in fine PM at Canadian baseline sites will be presented. Those measurements have

  1. A multi-isotope approach to understanding the evolution of Cenozoic magmatism in the northeastern Basin and Range: Results from igneous rocks in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, A.; Strickland, A.; Miller, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    Deep crustal rocks exposed by extensional processes in metamorphic core complexes provide a unique opportunity to address the magmatic and isotopic evolution of the crust and assess the relative crust versus mantle contributions in Cenozoic igneous rocks exposed in the complexes. The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex exposes mid-crustal rocks that resided at depths of ~15-20 km before the onset of Cenozoic extension. Three major Cenozoic magmatic events are represented in the complex and have been studied using multiple isotopic systems (whole rock Sr and Nd coupled with the Oxygen isotopes in zircon). These three major events are: (1) 42-31 Ma intrusion of a composite plutonic complex of calc-alkaline composition that intrudes both upper crustal rocks (~5-10 km depth) and deeper rocks. (2) A 32-25 Ma plutonic complex, with evolved calc-alkaline composition that intruded in the middle crust (~12-15 km depth), and (3) A 10-8 Ma bimodal (basalt-rhyolite) suite of volcanic rocks that contain high-T anhydrous mineral assemblages erupted across the complex. The pre-extensional crust consisted of an upper crust composed primarily of Neoproterozoic through Triassic metasedimentary rocks (schist and quartzite at its base and limestone at its top). The middle crust consists of late Archean orthogneiss with evolved composition (metamorphosed peraluminous granite) with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.800, ɛNd40~ -43.4 and δ18Ozirc ~5.7‰. The lower crust is inferred to have been composed of Precambrian intermediate composition igneous rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.750, ɛNd40~ -37.5 and δ18Ozirc ~5.9‰, and Precambrian mafic rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.717, ɛNd40~ -25 and δ18Ozirc ~7.0‰. Existing and new data indicate that the 42-31 Ma upper crustal plutonic complex ranges in isotopic composition from 87Sr/86Sri=0.709-0.712, ɛNdi=-15 to -25 and δ18Ozirc 4.7-6.5‰. The composition of the 32-25 Ma middle crustal plutonic complex ranges from 87Sr

  2. Isotope shifts and coulomb displacement energies in calcium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caurier, E.; Poves, A.; Zuker, A.

    1980-10-01

    Isotope shifts, neutron-proton radii differences and Coulomb displacement energies are calculated for calcium isotopes A = 41 to 48. A simple parametrization of the core polarization terms of the effective force in the framework of the Isospin Projected Hartree-Fock (IPHF) method leads to good agreement between theory and experiment.

  3. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Aldridge, Frederick T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  4. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Aldridge, F.T.

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu/sub 5/ type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo/sub 4/ and CaNi/sub 5/, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen cn produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  5. ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Clewett, G.H.; Lee, DeW.A.

    1958-05-20

    A new method is described for isotopic enrichment of uranium. It has been found that when an aqueous acidic solution of ionic tetravalent uraniunn is contacted with chelate complexed tetravalent uranium, the U/sup 238/ preferentially concentrates in the complexed phase while U/sup 235/ concentrates in the ionic phase. The effect is enhanced when the chelate compound is water insoluble and is dissolved in a water-immiscible organic solvent. Cupferron is one of a number of sultable complexing agents, and chloroform is a suitable organic solvent.

  6. Budget of Methyl Bromide in the Atmosphere: Isotopic Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, M.; Miller, L. G.; Rhew, R. C.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2001-12-01

    Bromine radicals contribute significantly to stratospheric ozone loss through coupled reactions with ClO, HO2, and NO2 radicals. Bromine is approximately 40-100 times more effective, atom for atom, at destroying ozone than chlorine. For instance, Br coupled reactions are responsible for 30 to 50% of the total ozone loss in the polar vortex. The largest source of bromine to the stratosphere is methyl bromide (CH3Br). CH3Br has a concentration in the troposphere of about 10 pptv, a total estimated lifetime of 0.6 to 0.9 years, and has the highest concentration of any long lived organobromine. Unlike chlorofluorocarbons, which are produced entirely by humans, methyl bromide is produced by both anthropogenic and natural processes. We are developing the use of stable isotopes to constrain the budget of CH3Br through quantification of the source signatures and the isotopic fractionations associated with sinks. The largest natural sources appear to be biological production in oceans ( ~35%), biomass burning ( ~13%), and salt marshes ( ~10%). Thus far, the only natural emissions to be isotopically characterized is from salt marsh plants. Carbon isotopic ratios of CH3Br emitted from the salt marsh have a strong diurnal variation from -65\\permil during daytime when emission rates are highest to -12\\permil at night when emissions are ~13% of the daytime rates. The \\delta13C weighted mean of salt marsh emission is -43\\permil CH3Br. Anthropogenically produced CH3Br is used for fumigation of soils, harvested crops and structures, and represents approximately 30% of the total source flux. The fumigation of harvested crops and structures constitutes approximately one third of the anthropogenic source to the atmosphere and, because the release rate of applied CH3Br approaches 100%, it should have a mean isotopic composition equal to industrially manufactured CH3Br, -54.4\\permil. However during soil fumigation, some of the CH3Br is consumed insitu causing isotopic fractionation

  7. Tellurium Stable Isotope Fractionation in Chondritic Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, M. A.; Hammond, S. J.; Parkinson, I. J.

    2014-09-01

    New Te double spike procedures were set up to obtain high-precision accurate Te stable isotope data. Tellurium stable isotope data for 16 chondrite falls are presented, providing evidence for significant Te stable isotope fractionation.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR RESOLUTION OF HYDROLOGY PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of environmental isotopes as tracers in the hydrosphere is increasing as analytical instrumentation improves and more applications are discovered. There exists still misconceptions on the role of isotopes in resolving hydrology problems. Naturally occurring isotopes in th...

  9. Mass-independent isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L

    2013-02-28

    Three fundamental properties of atomic nuclei-mass, spin (and related magnetic moment), and volume-are the source of isotope effects. The mostly deserved and popular, with almost hundred-year history, is the mass-dependent isotope effect. The first mass-independent isotope effect which chemically discriminates isotopes by their nuclear spins and nuclear magnetic moments rather than by their masses was detected in 1976. It was named as the magnetic isotope effect because it is controlled by magnetic interaction, i.e., electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling in the paramagnetic species, the reaction intermediates. The effect follows from the universal physical property of chemical reactions to conserve angular momentum (spin) of electrons and nuclei. It is now detected for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, germanium, tin, mercury, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and uranium in a great variety of chemical and biochemical reactions including those of medical and ecological importance. Another mass-independent isotope effect was detected in 1983 as a deviation of isotopic distribution in reaction products from that which would be expected from the mass-dependent isotope effect. On the physical basis, it is in fact a mass-dependent effect, but it surprisingly results in isotope fractionation which is incompatible with that predicted by traditional mass-dependent effects. It is supposed to be a function of dynamic parameters of reaction and energy relaxation in excited states of products. The third, nuclear volume mass-independent isotope effect is detected in the high-resolution atomic and molecular spectra and in the extraction processes, but there are no unambiguous indications of its importance as an isotope fractionation factor in chemical reactions.

  10. Si Isotopes of Brownleeite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, Scott R.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Jones, J. H.; Tatsuoka, H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Tatsuoka, H.

    2010-01-01

    Brownleeite is a manganese silicide, ideally stoichiometric MnSi, not previously observed in nature until its discovery within an interplanetary dust particle (IDP) that likely originated from a comet [1]. Three discrete brownleeite grains in the IDP L2055 I3 (4 microns in size, hereafter IDP I3) were identified with maximum dimensions of 100, 250 and 600 nm and fully analyzed using scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM) [1]. One of the grains (100 nm in size) was poikilitically enclosed by low-Fe, Mn-enriched (LIME) olivine. LIME olivine is epitaxial to the brownleeite with the brownleeite (200) parallel to the olivine c* [1]. LIME olivine is an enigmatic phase first reported from chondritic porous IDPs and some unequilibrated ordinary chondrites [ 2], that is commonly observed in chondritic-porous IDPs. Recently, LIME olivine has been also found in comet Wild-2 (Stardust) samples [3], indicating that LIME olivine is a common mineral component of comets. LIME olivine has been proposed to form as a high temperature condensate in the protosolar nebula [2]. Brownleeite grains also likely formed as high-temperature condensates either in the early Solar System or in the outflow of an evolved star or supernova explosion [1]. The isotopic composition of the brownleeite grains may strongly constrain their ultimate source. To test this hypothesis, we performed isotopic analyses of the brownleeite and the associated LIME olivine, using the NASA/JSC NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe.

  11. (Availability of isotopic materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, H.L.

    1987-10-22

    The traveler visited several installations in Belgium, Germany, and England to meet with users of the enriched stable and radioactive materials provided by the ORNL Isotope Distribution Program (IDP). The purpose of the visits was to determine their future needs for the materials and services provided by the ORNL program and to update our existing or potential future customers on the materials and services presently available from the program. In Belgium and England, extreme interest was expressed among our customers and competitors about the status of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. This related mainly to our ability to supply the radioisotopes Ir-192 and Gd-153. A number of concerns were expressed about our ability to provide various stable and radioactive materials. Particular concern was expressed about our present capability to supply enriched Kr-85. The traveler participated in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) specialists' meeting where the chief topic of discussion was the influence of target and sample properties on nuclear data measurements. At the end of this meeting, plans were formalized for a joint IAEA/International Nuclear Target Development Society (INTDS) meeting on sample fabrication and characterization to be held in Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany, in 1988. as President, the traveler conducted the 1987 INTDS Board meeting at the Central Bureau of Nuclear Measurements (CBNM). The major agenda items included the recent changes in the INTDS bylaws, guidelines for future hosts of INTDS meetings, and future directions the Society should take.

  12. Data reduction framework for standard atomic weights and isotopic compositions of the elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meija, Juris; Possolo, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We outline a general framework to compute consensus reference values of standard atomic weights, isotope ratios, and isotopic abundances, and to evaluate associated uncertainties using modern statistical methods for consensus building that can handle mutually inconsistent measurement results. The multivariate meta-regression approach presented here is directly relevant to the work of the IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundances and atomic weights (CIAAW), and we illustrate the proposed method in meta-analyses of the isotopic abundances and atomic weights of zinc, platinum, antimony, and iridium.

  13. Method of separating boron isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.J.; Cluff, C.L.; Hayes, J.K.; Thorne, J.M.

    1984-05-08

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl/sub 3/.

  14. Exotic Structure of Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Hagino, Kouichi

    2003-12-01

    Ground state properties of C isotopes, deformation and elecromagnetic moments, as well as electric dipole transition strength are investigated. We first study the ground state properties of C isotopes using a deformed Hartree-Fock (HF) + BCS model with Skyrme interactions. Isotope dependence of the deformation properties is investigated. Shallow deformation minima are found in several neutron-rich C isotopes. It is also shown that the deformation minima appear in both the oblate and the prolate sides in 17C and 19C having almost the same binding energies. Next, we carry out shell model calculations to study electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions of C isotopes. We point out the clear configuration dependence of the quadrupole and magnetic moments in the odd C isotopes, which will be useful to find out the deformation and spin-parities of the ground states of these nuclei. Electric dipole states of C isotopes are studied focusing on the interplay between low energy Pigmy strength and giant dipole resonances. Low peak energies, two-peak structure and large widths of the giant resonances show deformation effects. Calculated transition strength below dipole giant resonance in heavier C isotopes than 15C is found to exhaust 12 ~ 15% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule value and 50 ~ 80% of the cluster sum rule value.

  15. Aleutian terranes from Nd isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, R. W.; Kay, S. M.; Rubenstone, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Nd isotope ratios substantiate the identification of oceanic crustal terranes within the continental crustal basement of the Aleutian island arc. The oceanic terranes are exposed in the westernmost Aleutians, but to the east, they are completely buried by isotopically distinct arc-volcanic rocks. Analogous oceanic terranes may be important components of the terrane collages that comprise the continents.

  16. Method of separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.J.; Thorne, J.M.; Cluff, C.L.

    1981-01-23

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)-dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily by achieved with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl/sub 3/.

  17. Method of separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Reed J.; Thorne, James M.; Cluff, Coran L.; Hayes, John K.

    1984-01-01

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

  18. Calcium isotopes in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  19. Carbon isotopes as indicators of peatland growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alewell, Christine; Krüger, Jan Paul; von Sengbusch, Pascal; Szidat, Sönke; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    As undisturbed and/or growing peatlands store considerable amounts of carbon and are unique in their biodiversity and species assemblage, the knowledge of the current status of peatlands (growing with carbon sequestration, stagnating or degrading with carbon emissions) is crucial for landscape management and nature conservation. However, monitoring of peatland status requires long term measurements and is only feasible with expert knowledge. The latter determination is increasingly impeded in a scientific world, where taxonomic expert knowledge and funding of long term monitoring is rare. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes depth profiles in peatland soils have been shown to be a useful tool to monitor the degradation of peatlands due to permafrost thawing in Northern Sweden (Alewell et al., 2011; Krüger et al., 2014), drainage in Southern Finland (Krüger et al., 2016) as well as land use intensification in Northern Germany (Krüger et al., 2015). Here, we tackle the questions if we are able to differentiate between growing and degrading peats with the use of a combination of carbon stable (δ13C) and radiogenic isotope data (14C) with peat stratification information (degree of humification and macroscopic plant remains). Results indicate that isotope data are a useful tool to approximate peatland status, but that expert taxonomic knowledge will be needed for the final conclusion on peatland growth. Thus, isotope tools might be used for landscape screening to pin point sites for detailed taxonomic monitoring. As the method remains qualitative future research at these sites will need to integrate quantitative approaches to determine carbon loss or gain (soil C balances by ash content or C accumulation methods by radiocarbon data; Krüger et al., 2016). Alewell, C., R. Giesler, J. Klaminder, J. Leifeld, and M. Rollog. 2011. Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for micro-geomorphic changes in palsa peats. Biogeosciences, 8, 1769-1778. Krüger, J. P., Leifeld, J

  20. Molybdenum Isotopes and Soil Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, C.; Pett-Ridge, J. C.; Halliday, A. N.; Burton, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygenation state of Earth's oceans is a driver of evolution and extinction events as well as climate change. In recent years stable isotope fractionation of redox sensitive elements such as molybdenum (Mo) have been used as quantitative tracers of past redox-conditions in a number of marine environments. However, little is known about the processes controlling the Mo isotope compositions of the riverine inputs to the oceans and their short- and long-term variations. Several recent studies [Archer & Vance, 2008; Pearce et al., 2010] have shown that many river waters have heavy Mo isotope compositions. In some terrestrial weathering environments dissolved Mo isotope compositions in rivers are controlled by the catchment lithology [Neubert et al., 2011]. However, many rivers show fractionation of Mo isotopes relative to their catchment lithology. Possible mechanisms causing this fractionation are chemical weathering and pedogenic processes. This study has investigated the behavior of Mo isotopes during weathering of basalt under different conditions. Results from oxic to reducing soil profiles in Hawaii show that redox conditions during soil formation can control Mo isotope compositions in soils. Reducing soil profiles have light isotope compositions whereas oxidizing profiles are heavy. This general isotope behavior is confirmed by results from soil profiles from Iceland. Here reducing layers within the profiles show marked negative isotope excursions. In oxic profiles a surprisingly strong interaction of Mo with organic matter can be observed producing significant Mo isotope fractionation. This behavior might explain long term retention of Mo in soils besides its high mobility in molybdate form. Mo associated with organic matter is bioavailable and essential for processes like nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observe that fractionation relative to the source rock is dependent on the degree of weathering, i.e. relatively un-weathered profiles do not show

  1. Calculation of isotope shifts for cesium and francium

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V.A.; Johnson, W.R.; Safronova, M.S.

    2005-08-15

    We perform ab initio calculations of isotope shifts for isotopes of cesium (from A=123 to A=137) and francium (from A=207 to A=228). These calculations start from the relativistic Hartree-Fock method and make use of several techniques to include correlations. The field (volume) isotope shift is calculated by means of an all-order correlation potential method and within the singles-doubles-partial-triples linearized coupled-cluster approach. Many-body perturbation theory in two different formulations is used to calculate the specific mass shift. We discuss the strong points and shortcomings of the different approaches and implications for parity nonconservation in atoms. Changes in nuclear charge radii are found by comparing the present calculations with experiment.

  2. Ca isotope variations in Allende

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jungck, M. H. A.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ca-isotope measurements of Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), together with those on an apatite-enriched fraction from Orgueil, indicate the existence of widespread excesses on the neutron-rich isotope Ca-48. Isotopic anomalies are noted in 7 out of 11 CAIs analyzed. This abundance of isotopic excesses places Ca alongside Ti and O, although no clear correlation has yet been found between Ca-48 and Ti-50, which are thought to be coproduced by neutron-rich nucleosynthetic processes within stars. It is suggested that the higher volatility of Ca, by comparison with Ti compounds, led to a variable dilution with isotopically normal Ca in vaporization and recondensation processes in stellar envelopes, the interstellar medium, and/or the solar nebula.

  3. Isotope separation by laser means

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Greiner, Norman R.; Boyer, Keith

    1982-06-15

    A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

  4. Isotope evidence of hexavalent chromium stability in ground water samples.

    PubMed

    Čadková, Eva; Chrastný, Vladislav

    2015-11-01

    Chromium stable isotopes are of interest in many geochemical studies as a tool to identify Cr(VI) reduction and/or dilution in groundwater aquifers. For such studies the short term stability of Cr(VI) in water samples is required before the laboratory analyses can be carried out. Here the short term stability of Cr(VI) in groundwater samples was studied using an isotope approach. Based on commonly available methods for Cr(VI) stabilization, water samples were filtered and the pH value was adjusted to be equal to or greater than 8 before Cr isotope analysis. Based on our Cr isotope data (expressed as δ(53)CrNIST979), Cr(VI) was found to be unstable over short time periods in anthropogenically contaminated groundwater samples regardless of water treatment (e.g., pH adjustment, different storage temperatures). Based on our laboratory experiments, δ(53)CrNIST979 of the Cr(VI) pool was found to be unstable in the presence of dissolved Fe(II), Mn(IV) and/or SO2. Threshold concentrations of Fe(II) causing Cr(VI) reduction range between 10 mg L(-1) and 100 mg L(-1)and less than 1 mg L(-1) for Mn. Hence our isotope data show that water samples containing Cr(VI) should be processed on-site through anion column chemistry to avoid any isotope shifts.

  5. Mass transfer and carbon isotope evolution in natural water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Plummer, L.N.; Pearson, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical treatment of the evolution of the carbon isotopes C13 and C14 in natural waters and in precipitates which derive from such waters. The effects of an arbitrary number of sources (such as dissolution of carbonate minerals and oxidation of organic material) and sinks (such as mineral precipitation, CO2 degassing and production of methane), and of equilibrium fractionation between solid, gas and aqueous phases are considered. The results are expressed as equations relating changes in isotopic composition to changes in conventional carbonate chemistry. One implication of the equations is that the isotopic composition of an aqueous phase may approach a limiting value whenever there are simultaneous inputs and outputs of carbonate. In order to unambiguously interpret isotopic data from carbonate precipitates and identify reactants and products in reacting natural waters, it is essential that isotopic changes are determined chiefly by reactant and product stoichiometry, independent of reaction path. We demonstrate that this is so by means of quantitative examples. The evolution equations are applied to: 1. (1) carbon-14 dating of groundwaters; 2. (2) interpretation of the isotopic composition of carbonate precipitates, carbonate cements and diagenetically altered carbonates; and 3. (3) the identification of chemical reaction stoichiometry. These applications are illustrated by examples which show the variation of ??C13 in solutions and in precipitates formed under a variety of conditions involving incongruent dissolution, CO2 degassing, methane production and mineral precipitation. ?? 1978.

  6. Isotope effect in charge-transfer collisions of H with He{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Loreau, J.; Dalgarno, A.; Ryabchenko, S.

    2011-11-15

    We present a theoretical study of the isotope effect arising from the replacement of H by T in the charge-transfer collision H(n=2) + He{sup +}(1s) at low energy. Using a quasimolecular approach and a time-dependent wave-packet method, we compute the cross sections for the reaction including the effects of the nonadiabatic radial and rotational couplings. For H(2s) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions, we find a strong isotope effect at energies below 1 eV/amu for both singlet and triplet states. We find a much smaller isotopic dependence of the cross section for H(2p) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions in triplet states, and no isotope effect in singlet states. We explain the isotope effect on the basis of the potential energy curves and the nonadiabatic couplings, and we evaluate the importance of the isotope effect on the charge-transfer rate coefficients.

  7. Simulating Stable Isotope Ratios in Plumes of Groundwater Pollutants with BIOSCREEN-AT-ISO.

    PubMed

    Höhener, Patrick; Li, Zhi M; Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S

    2017-03-01

    BIOSCREEN is a well-known simple tool for evaluating the transport of dissolved contaminants in groundwater, ideal for rapid screening and teaching. This work extends the BIOSCREEN model for the calculation of stable isotope ratios in contaminants. A three-dimensional exact solution of the reactive transport from a patch source, accounting for fractionation by first-order decay and/or sorption, is used. The results match those from a previously published isotope model but are much simpler to obtain. Two different isotopes may be computed, and dual isotope plots can be viewed. The dual isotope assessment is a rapidly emerging new approach for identifying process mechanisms in aquifers. Furthermore, deviations of isotope ratios at specific reactive positions with respect to "bulk" ratios in the whole compound can be simulated. This model is named BIOSCREEN-AT-ISO and will be downloadable from the journal homepage.

  8. Comparing compound-specific and bulk stable nitrogen isotope trophic discrimination factors across multiple freshwater fish species and diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of nitrogen stable isotopes for estimation of animal trophic position has become an indispensable approach in food web ecology. Compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids is a new approach for estimating trophic position that may overcome key issues associated with nitrogen stable iso...

  9. Carbon isotope separation and molecular formation in laser-induced plasmas by laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Meirong; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Lu, Jidong; Russo, Richard E

    2013-03-05

    Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry (LAMIS) recently was reported for rapid isotopic analysis by measuring molecular emission from laser-induced plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This research utilized the LAMIS approach to study C2 molecular formation from laser ablation of carbon isotopic samples in a neon gas environment at 0.1 MPa. The isotopic shift for the Swan system of the C2 Δν = 1 band was chosen for carbon isotope analysis. Temporal and spatial resolved measurements of (12)C2, (12)C(13)C, and (13)C2 show that C2 forms from recombination reactions in the plasma. A theoretical simulation was used to determine the temperature from the molecular bands and to extract the isotopic ratio of (12)C/(13)C derived from (12)C2, (12)C(13)C, and (13)C2. Our data show that the ratio of (12)C/(13)C varies with time after the laser pulse and with distance above the sample. (12)C/(13)C deviates from the nominal ratio (2:1) at early times and closest to the sample surface. These measurements provide understanding of the chemical processes in the laser plasma and analytical improvement using LAMIS.

  10. Technical Note: A simple method for vaterite precipitation in isotopic equilibrium: implications for bulk and clumped isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, T.; John, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) plays an important role in the natural environment as a major constituent of the skeleton and supporting structure of marine life and has high economic importance as additive in food, chemicals and medical products. Pure CaCO3 occurs in the three different polymorphs calcite, aragonite and vaterite, whereof calcite is the most abundant and best characterized mineral. In contrast, little is known about the rare polymorph vaterite, in particular with regard to the oxygen isotope fractionation between H2O and the mineral. Synthetic precipitation of vaterite in the laboratory typically involves rapid processes and isotopic non-equilibrium, which excludes isotope studies focused on characterization of vaterite at equilibrium conditions. Here, we used a new experimental approach that enables vaterite mineral formation from an isotopically equilibrated solution. The solution consists of a ~ 0.007 mol L-1 CaCO3 solution that is saturated with NaCl at room temperature (up to 6.5 mol L-1). Vaterite precipitated as single phase or major phase (≥ 94%) in experiments performed between 23 and 91 °C. Only at 80 °C was vaterite a minor phase with a relative abundance of 27%. The high mineral yield of up to 235 mg relative to a total dissolved CaCO3 amount of 370 mg enables an investigation of the oxygen isotope fractionation between mineral and water, and the determination of clumped isotope values in vaterite.

  11. Helium and neon isotopes in stratospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    He and Ne isotope ratios were determined for 16 interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The observed He concentration varied greatly from particle to particle, with the highest values approaching those found for lunar surface fines and some gas-rich meteorites. The average Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio was 12.0 + or - 0.5. The data suggest that the observed IDPs could have entered the atmosphere at relatively low velocities, and hence may be primarily of asteroidal rather than cometary origin.

  12. Isotope scattering and phonon thermal conductivity in light atom compounds: LiH and LiF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, L.

    2016-11-01

    Engineered isotope variation is a pathway toward modulating lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of a material through changes in phonon-isotope scattering. The effects of isotope variation on intrinsic thermal resistance is little explored, as varying isotopes have relatively small differences in mass and thus do not affect bulk phonon dispersions. However, for light elements, isotope mass variation can be relatively large (e.g., hydrogen and deuterium). Using a first principles Peierls-Boltzmann transport equation approach, the effects of isotope variance on lattice thermal transport in ultra-low-mass compound materials LiH and LiF are characterized. The isotope mass variance modifies the intrinsic thermal resistance via modulation of acoustic and optic phonon frequencies, while phonon-isotope scattering from mass disorder plays only a minor role. This leads to some unusual cases where κ values of isotopically pure systems (6LiH ,7L i2H , and 6LiF ) are lower than the values from their counterparts with naturally occurring isotopes and phonon-isotope scattering. However, these κ differences are relatively small. The effects of temperature-driven lattice expansion on phonon dispersions and calculated κ are also discussed. This paper provides insight into lattice thermal conductivity modulation with mass variation and the interplay of intrinsic phonon-phonon and phonon-isotope scattering in interesting light atom systems.

  13. Isotope scattering and phonon thermal conductivity in light atom compounds: LiH and LiF

    DOE PAGES

    Lindsay, Lucas R.

    2016-11-08

    Engineered isotope variation is a pathway toward modulating lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of a material through changes in phonon-isotope scattering. The effects of isotope variation on intrinsic thermal resistance is little explored, as varying isotopes have relatively small differences in mass and thus do not affect bulk phonon dispersions. However, for light elements isotope mass variation can be relatively large (e.g., hydrogen and deuterium). Using a first principles Peierls-Boltzmann transport equation approach the effects of isotope variance on lattice thermal transport in ultra-low-mass compound materials LiH and LiF are characterized. The isotope mass variance modifies the intrinsic thermal resistance viamore » modulation of acoustic and optic phonon frequencies, while phonon-isotope scattering from mass disorder plays only a minor role. This leads to some unusual cases where values of isotopically pure systems (6LiH, 7Li2H and 6LiF) are lower than the values from their counterparts with naturally occurring isotopes and phonon-isotope scattering. However, these differences are relatively small. The effects of temperature-driven lattice expansion on phonon dispersions and calculated κ are also discussed. This work provides insight into lattice thermal conductivity modulation with mass variation and the interplay of intrinsic phonon-phonon and phonon-isotope scattering in interesting light atom systems.« less

  14. Isotope scattering and phonon thermal conductivity in light atom compounds: LiH and LiF

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, Lucas R.

    2016-11-08

    Engineered isotope variation is a pathway toward modulating lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of a material through changes in phonon-isotope scattering. The effects of isotope variation on intrinsic thermal resistance is little explored, as varying isotopes have relatively small differences in mass and thus do not affect bulk phonon dispersions. However, for light elements isotope mass variation can be relatively large (e.g., hydrogen and deuterium). Using a first principles Peierls-Boltzmann transport equation approach the effects of isotope variance on lattice thermal transport in ultra-low-mass compound materials LiH and LiF are characterized. The isotope mass variance modifies the intrinsic thermal resistance via modulation of acoustic and optic phonon frequencies, while phonon-isotope scattering from mass disorder plays only a minor role. This leads to some unusual cases where values of isotopically pure systems (6LiH, 7Li2H and 6LiF) are lower than the values from their counterparts with naturally occurring isotopes and phonon-isotope scattering. However, these differences are relatively small. The effects of temperature-driven lattice expansion on phonon dispersions and calculated κ are also discussed. This work provides insight into lattice thermal conductivity modulation with mass variation and the interplay of intrinsic phonon-phonon and phonon-isotope scattering in interesting light atom systems.

  15. New, heavy transuranium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1990-10-22

    In this report, we offer our most recent results concerning the decay properties for five new isotopes of Md, No, Lr, and for {sup 258m}Md. In additions to these successful experiments, we have also conducted searches for {sup 263}(105), {sup 264}(105), {sup 272}(109), and superheavy elements from bombardments of {sup 254}Es with heavy ions. {sup 2} An exciting finding in the course of this work is a new fission phenomenon, which we have termed bidmodal fission''. This is described in a subsequent section. The final part summarizes our conclusions based on the unexpectedly long half-lives and surprising fission properties of the heaviest nuclei. 27 refs., 19 figs.

  16. Carbon isotopes in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehinger, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    The progress is reported of high resolution spectra of selected bright comets with the aim of determining the carbon isotope abundance ratio, C-12/C-13. The ratio was determined for various Solar System objects (in the atmospheres of the giant planets, meteorites, the Earth, and the solar photosphere), where the C-12/C-13 = 89/1. In the interstellar medium, optical and radio observations give a range of C-12/C-13 = 43-67/1 depending on the observing techniques used and the specific interstellar cloud observed. The echelle spectra is presented of the CN(0,0) violet system in three comets: P/Brorsen-Metcalf, C/Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko, and C/Austin. P/Brorsen-Metcalf has a period of 70 y (prograde) compared with P/Halley which is 76 y (retrograde). The similar periods made P/Brorsen-Metcalf of special interest for comparison with P/Halley.

  17. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Solomon, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  18. Cometary Isotopic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Calmonte, Ursina; Charnley, Steven; Duprat, Jean; Engrand, Cécile; Gicquel, Adeline; Hässig, Myrtha; Jehin, Emmanuël; Kawakita, Hideyo; Marty, Bernard; Milam, Stefanie; Morse, Andrew; Rousselot, Philippe; Sheridan, Simon; Wirström, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Isotopic ratios in comets provide keys for the understanding of the origin of cometary material, and the physical and chemical conditions in the early Solar Nebula. We review here measurements acquired on the D/H, 14N/15N, 16O/18O, 12C/13C, and 32S/34S ratios in cometary grains and gases, and discuss their cosmogonic implications. The review includes analyses of potential cometary material available in collections on Earth, recent measurements achieved with the Herschel Space Observatory, large optical telescopes, and Rosetta, as well as recent results obtained from models of chemical-dynamical deuterium fractionation in the early solar nebula. Prospects for future measurements are presented.

  19. Tracking ENSO with tropical trees: Progress in stable isotope dendroclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. N.; Poussart, P. F.; Saleska, S. R.; Schrag, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    The terrestrial tropics remain an important gap in the growing proxy network used to characterize past ENSO behavior. Here we describe a strategy for development of proxy estimates of paleo-ENSO, via proxy rainfall estimates derived from stable isotope (δ18O) measurements made on tropical trees. The approach applies a new model of oxygen isotopic composition of alpha-cellulose (Roden et al., 2000), a rapid method for cellulose extraction from raw wood (Brendel et al., 2000), and continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (Brand, 1996) to develop proxy chronological, rainfall and growth rate estimates from tropical trees, even those lacking annual rings. The promise and pitfalls of the approach are illustrated in pilot datasets from the US, Costa Rica, Brazil, and Peru, which show isotopic cycles of 4-6 per mil, and interannual anomalies of up to 8 per mil. Together with the mature ENSO proxies (corals, extratropical tree-rings, varved sediments, and ice cores), replicated and well-dated stable isotope chronologies from tropical trees may eventually improve our understanding of ENSO history over the past several hundred years.

  20. Interpreting isotopic analyses of microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Li, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Coates, J. D.; Conrad, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs is often associated with secondary production of oil where seawater (28 mM sulfate) is commonly injected to maintain reservoir pressure and displace oil. The hydrogen sulfide produced can cause a suite of operating problems including corrosion of infrastructure, health exposure risks and additional processing costs. We propose that monitoring of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate can be used as early indicators that microbial sulfate reduction is occurring, as this process is well known to cause substantial isotopic fractionation. This approach relies on the idea that reactions with reservoir (iron) minerals can remove dissolved sulfide, thereby delaying the transport of the sulfide through the reservoir relative to the sulfate in the injected water. Changes in the sulfate isotopes due to microbial sulfate reduction may therefore be measurable in the produced water before sulfide is detected. However, turning this approach into a predictive tool requires (i) an understanding of appropriate fractionation factors for oil reservoirs, (ii) incorporation of isotopic data into reservoir flow and reactive transport models. We present here the results of preliminary batch experiments aimed at determining fractionation factors using relevant electron donors (e.g. crude oil and volatile fatty acids), reservoir microbial communities and reservoir environmental conditions (pressure, temperature). We further explore modeling options for integrating isotope data and discuss whether single fractionation factors are appropriate to model complex environments with dynamic hydrology, geochemistry, temperature and microbiology gradients.

  1. Microbes: Agents of Isotopic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Microbes drive many of the important oxidation and reduction reactions on Earth; digest almost all forms of organic matter; and can serve as both primary and secondary producers. Because of their versatile biochemistry and physiology, they impart unique isotopic signatures to organic and inorganic materials, which have proven to be key measurements for understanding elemental cycling now and throughout Earth's history. Understanding microbial isotope fractionations in laboratory experiments has been important for interpreting isotopic patterns measured in natural settings. In fact, the pairing of simple experiment with natural observation has been the pathway for interpreting the fingerprint of microbial processes in ancient sediments and rocks. Examples of how key experiments have explained stable isotope fractionations by microbes and advanced the field of microbial ecology will be presented. Learning the isotopic signatures of Earth's microbes is a valuable exercise for predicting what isotopic signatures could be displayed by possible extant or extinct extraterrestrial life. Given the potential for discovery on Mars, Enceladus, and other solar system bodies, new methods and techniques for pinpointing what is unique about microbial isotope signatures is particularly relevant.

  2. Isotope effects in ESR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stößer, Reinhard; Herrmann, Werner

    2013-06-07

    In order to present the relationship between ESR spectroscopy and isotope effects three levels are considered: (i) ESR spectroscopy is described on a general level up to the models for interpretation of the experimental spectra, which go beyond the usually used time and mass independent spin-Hamilton operator, (ii) the main characteristics of the generalized isotope effects are worked out, and finally (iii) the basic, mainly quantum mechanical effects are used to describe the coupling of electron spins with the degrees of freedom, which are accessible under the selected conditions, of the respective paramagnetic object under investigation. The ESR parameters and the respective models are formalized so far, that they include the time and mass depending influences and reflect the specific isotope effects. Relations will be established between the effects in ESR spectra to spin relaxation, to spin exchange, to the magnetic isotope effect, to the Jahn-Teller effects, as well as to the influence of zero-point vibrations. Examples will be presented which demonstrate the influence of isotopes as well as the kind of accessible information. It will be differentiated with respect to isotope effects in paramagnetic centres itself and in the respective matrices up to the technique of ESR imaging. It is shown that the use of isotope effects is indispensable in ESR spectroscopy.

  3. Isotopic analysis of planetary solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulej, M.; Riedo, A.; Neuland, M.; Meyer, S.; Wurz, P.

    2013-09-01

    Isotopic analysis of planetary surfaces is of considerable interest for planetology. Studies of isotope composition can deliver information on radio-isotope chronology of planetary soil/regolith, an insight to processes that altered planetary surface (space weathering) or on possible biogenic processes that occurred or still occur on the planet. Mass spectrometry is a well-suited method that delivers accurate and precise isotope composition. Among other instruments (LAZMA and LAMS), the miniature laser ablation/ionisation mass analyser, LMS developed in Bern for in situ space research can be used to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of planetary solids. LMS support mass spectrometric investigation with a mass resolution of m/Δm≈500-1500, dynamic range of at least 8 decades and detection sensitivity of ~10 ppb. Current studies of various solid materials and standard reference materials show that isotope composition can be conducted with an accuracy and precision at per mill level if the isotope concentration exceeds 10-100 ppm. Implications of the studies for in situ application are discussed.

  4. Calcium isotopic compositions of chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shichun; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2017-03-01

    We report mass-dependent and mass-independent Ca isotopic variations in nine chondrites from three groups: carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites. There is about 0.25‰ per amu, i.e., ∼1‰ in 44Ca/40Ca, variation in chondrites: carbonaceous chondrites have the lightest Ca isotopes, enstatite chondrites have modeled bulk Earth like Ca isotopes, and ordinary chondrites are in between. The correlations between mass-dependent Ca isotopic variation and chemical variations in chondrites may reflect variable contributions from different endmembers, including refractory inclusions, in different chondrite groups. In detail, enstatite chondrites and the Earth share similar isotopic characteristics, but are very different in chemical compositions. At the ±1 and ±2 ε-unit levels, respectively, there is no measurable 40Ca or 43Ca anomaly in bulk chondrites. Carbonaceous chondrites show several ε-units of 48Ca excess. That is, Ca exhibits both mass-dependent and mass-independent isotopic variations in chondrites, similar to O isotopes. The 48Ca anomaly in bulk chondrites is positively correlated with 50Ti anomaly, but does not form simple correlation with 54Cr anomaly, implying multiple supernova sources for these neutron-rich isotopes in the Solar System. Finally, all meteorites with negative Δ17O have either 48Ca deficits (differentiated meteorites) or 48Ca excess (carbonaceous chondrites), implying that the Sun with a very negative Δ17O is probably also characterized by 48Ca anomaly compared to the Earth. CAIs cannot be taken as representative of the initial isotopic compositions of refractory elements like Ca for the Earth-Moon system.

  5. Magnesium isotopic composition of achondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedaghatpour, Fatemeh; Teng, Fang-Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Magnesium isotopic compositions of 22 well-characterized differentiated meteorites including 7 types of achondrites and pallasite meteorites were measured to estimate the average Mg isotopic composition of their parent bodies and evaluate Mg isotopic heterogeneity of the solar system. The δ26Mg values are -0.236‰ and -0.190‰ for acapulcoite-lodranite and angrite meteorites, respectively and vary from -0.267‰ to -0.222‰ in the winonaite-IAB-iron silicate group, -0.369‰ to -0.292‰ in aubrites, -0.269‰ to -0.158‰ in HEDs, -0.299‰ to -0.209‰ in ureilites, -0.307‰ to -0.237‰ in mesosiderites, and -0.303‰ to -0.238‰ in pallasites. Magnesium isotopic compositions of most achondrites and pallasite meteorites analyzed here are similar and reveal no significant isotopic fractionation. However, Mg isotopic compositions of D‧Orbigny (angrite) and some HEDs are slightly heavier than chondrites and the other achondrites studied here. The slightly heavier Mg isotopic compositions of angrites and some HEDs most likely resulted from either impact-induced evaporation or higher abundance of clinopyroxene with the Mg isotopic composition slightly heavier than olivine and orthopyroxene. The average Mg isotopic composition of achondrites (δ26Mg = -0.246 ± 0.082‰, 2SD, n = 22) estimated here is indistinguishable from those of the Earth (δ26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.07‰; 2SD, n = 139), chondrites (δ26Mg = -0.28 ± 0.06‰; 2SD, n = 38), and the Moon (δ26Mg = -0.26 ± 0.16‰; 2SD, n = 47) reported from the same laboratory. The chondritic Mg isotopic composition of achondrites, the Moon, and the Earth further reflects homogeneity of Mg isotopes in the solar system and the lack of Mg isotope fractionation during the planetary accretion process and impact events.

  6. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine

  7. Neodymium isotopic variations in seawater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepgras, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Direct measurement of the isotopic composition of Nd in the Atlantic agree with the Nd content in ferromanganese sediments and differ from the observed amounts in the Pacific samples. These data indicate the existence of distinctive differences in the isotopic composition of Nd in the waters of major oceans; the average values determined from seawater and ferromanganese sediments are considerably lower than in sources with oceanic mantle affinities showing that the REE in the oceans is dominated by continental sources. The Nd isotopic variations in seawater are applied to relate the residence time of Nd and mixing rates between the oceans.

  8. Stable isotopes in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Marsh, Julian B; Das, Sai Krupa; Welty, Francine K

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a major public health problem. Obesity is a multifactorial disease and is often associated with a wide range of comorbidities including hypertension, non-insulin dependent (Type II) diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, all of which contribute to morbidity and mortality. This review deals with stable isotope mass spectrometric methods and the application of stable isotopes to metabolic studies of obesity. Body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) can be measured by mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeled water, and the metabolism of protein, lipid, and carbohydrate can be measured using appropriate labeled tracer molecules.

  9. Carbon isotope geochemistry and geobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, D.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon isotope fractionation values were used to understand the history of the biosphere. For example, plankton analyses confirmed that marine extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous period were indeed severe (see Hsu's article in Sundquist and Broeker, 1984). Variations in the isotopic compositions of carbonates and evaporitic sulfates during the Paleozoic reflect the relative abundances of euxinic (anoxic) marine environments and organic deposits from terrestrial flora. The carbon isotopic composition of Precambrian sediments suggest that the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase has existed for perhaps 3.5 billion years.

  10. Apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K; Sessions, Henry T; Xiao, Xin

    2013-06-25

    The apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes is provided using dual columns, each column having an opposite hydrogen isotopic effect such that when a hydrogen isotope mixture feedstock is cycled between the two respective columns, two different hydrogen isotopes are separated from the feedstock.

  11. Method for laser induced isotope enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Pronko, Peter P.; Vanrompay, Paul A.; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2004-09-07

    Methods for separating isotopes or chemical species of an element and causing enrichment of a desired isotope or chemical species of an element utilizing laser ablation plasmas to modify or fabricate a material containing such isotopes or chemical species are provided. This invention may be used for a wide variety of materials which contain elements having different isotopes or chemical species.

  12. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    DOEpatents

    Harney, Robert C.; Bloom, Stewart D.

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances.

  13. Stable Isotopic Tracing—A Way Forward for Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, Brian; Wong, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Numerous publications and reports have expressed health and safety concerns about the production and use of nanoparticles, especially in areas of exposure monitoring, personal use, and environmental fate and transport. We suggest that stable isotopic tracers, which have been used widely in the earth sciences and in metabolic and other health-related studies for several decades, could be used to address many of these issues. One such example we are pursuing is the use of stable isotopes to monitor dermal absorption of zinc and titanium oxides in sunscreen preparations and other personal care products. Other potential applications of this tracing approach are discussed. PMID:17035130

  14. Selective photoionisation of lutetium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    D'yachkov, Aleksei B; Kovalevich, S K; Labozin, Valerii P; Mironov, Sergei M; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya; Firsov, Valerii A; Tsvetkov, G O; Shatalova, G G

    2012-10-31

    A three-stage laser photoionisation scheme intended for enriching the {sup 176}Lu isotope from natural lutetium was considered. An investigation was made of the hyperfine structure of the second excited state 5d6s7s {yields} {sup 4}D{sub 3/2} with an energy of 37194 cm{sup -1} and the autoionisation state with an energy of 53375 cm{sup -1} of the {sup 176}Lu and {sup 175}Lu isotopes. The total electron momentum of the autoionisation level and the constant A of hyperfine magnetic interaction were determined. Due to a small value of the isotopic shift between {sup 176}Lu and {sup 175}Lu, appreciable selectivity of their separation may be achieved with individual hyperfine structure components. The first tentative enrichment of the 176Lu isotope was performed to a concentration of 60 % - 70 %. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. Isotopic Analysis and Evolved Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, Timothy D.; Boynton, William V.; Chutjian, Ara; Hoffman, John H.; Jordan, Jim L.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; McEntire, Richard W.; Nyquist, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Precise measurements of the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of planetary surface material and gases, and observed variations in these compositions, can contribute significantly to our knowledge of the source(s), ages, and evolution of solar system materials. The analyses discussed in this paper are mostly made by mass spectrometers or some other type of mass analyzer, and address three broad areas of interest: (1) atmospheric composition - isotopic, elemental, and molecular, (2) gases evolved from solids, and (3) solids. Current isotopic data on nine elements, mostly from in situ analysis, but also from meteorites and telescopic observations are summarized. Potential instruments for isotopic analysis of lunar, Martian, Venusian, Mercury, and Pluto surfaces, along with asteroid, cometary and icy satellites, surfaces are discussed.

  16. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  17. Lasers utilizing CO2 isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechenin, Yu V.; Domanov, M. S.

    1980-08-01

    The lasing spectra and energy characteristics were investigated for lasers operating with the isotopes 12C16O2, 13C16O2, 12C18O2, and 12C16O18O. It was found that the output power of a laser utilizing the CO2 isotopes was determined by the content of a particular isotope in the carbon dioxide gas. For equal enrichments, all the isotopes investigated, with the exception of 12C16O18O, gave comparable output powers. The unsaturated gains were identical for the most intense transitions of the symmetric molecules; the gain was a factor of two less for the asymmetric molecule. The gain rose linearly with increasing enrichment. The ultimate specific power output, given by the product of the saturation power density and the gain, was practically independent of the enrichment.

  18. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E. E.

    2010-07-15

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  19. Novel hybrid isotope separation scheme and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A method of yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which the specific isotope is to be isolated, radiating the gas with frequencies characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photoionization reaction of the desired isotope, and collecting the specific isotope ion by suitable ion collection means.

  20. Novel hybrid isotope separation scheme and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which the specific isotope is to be isolated, radiating the gas with frequencies characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photoionization reaction of the desired isotope, and collecting the specific isotope ion by suitable ion collection means. 3 figures.

  1. The behavior and release of methane related to hydrates in a pockmark area in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea: An approach from chlorine isotope composition in pore water and sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Satake, H.; Takeuchi, A.; Gamo, T.

    2006-12-01

    Methane released from the seafloor is a strong contributor to the greenhouse gas budget. Some deposits of methane hydrates existing in ocean sediment are linked to plate collision/subduction boundaries and associated tectonic motion. Methane plumes were observed in the pockmark area off Sado, at the end of the eastern margin of the Japan Sea where the North American and Eurasian tectonic plates intersect. Our goal in this study is to investigate the origin of methane and its actual release mechanisms from the seafloor and its behavior and seasonal variation in the water column by using chemical oceanic observations and geochemical analysis of pore water and sea waters. Geochemical data sets are from five cruises over two years and three seasons. The KT05-11 and KT06-26 expeditions were on the R/V Tansei-Maru, NA220 on the T/S Nagasaki-Maru, and the NT05-10 and NT06-19 expeditions using the unmanned submersible HYPER-DOLPHIN and its mother-ship R/V Natsushima. Results of chlorine and oxygen isotope compositions and other water chemical characteristics indicate that methane hydrate is generated over the bottom and is then melted in the shallow water. The possible processes are: 1) In deep water, chlorine isotope composition shows inverse correlation with oxygen, which suggests the fine particles of methane hydrate are adhering to the surface of gas bubbles released from deep sediment together with cold seep; the methane hydrate particles possibly grow and expand above the bottom and rise in water column. 2) In shallower water mass (< 300m depth), the amount of fresh water accumulated hints that fresh water is derived from the melting of methane hydrate and contributes up to 3% of the amount calculated by the decrease in upper-water salinity; this implies that a corresponding amount of methane was transported to ocean surface. The seasonal variations of dissolved methane and other chemical features in shallow water are possibly affected by the methane-oxidation and

  2. Influence of trophic ecology on the accumulation of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Mediterranean gulls (Larus michahellis and L. audouinii): A three-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Roscales, Jose L; Vicente, Alba; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; Morales, Laura; Abad, Esteban; Aguirre, Jose I; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-05-01

    The impact of pollution caused by severe anthropogenic pressure in the Mediterranean Sea, an important biodiversity hotspot, requires continuous research efforts. Sources of highly toxic chemicals such as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are misunderstood in representative Mediterranean species, which limits our capability to establish proper conservation strategies. In the present study, eggs of Audouin's and yellow-legged gulls (Larus audouinii and L. michahellis) were used to investigate the trophic sources, as measured by δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S, of legacy POPs, in particular, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs), as well as recently-regulated POPs, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Special attention was paid to the usefulness of rarely-explored δ(34)S ratios in explaining POP exposure in wildlife, and δ(34)S was the isotopic ratio that best explained POP variations among gulls in most cases, thus demonstrating its usefulness for understanding POP exposure in wildlife. Significant relationships between stable isotope signatures and POP concentrations revealed increasing levels of no-PCBs and low halogenated PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in Mediterranean gulls as the consumption of marine resources increases. In contrast, highly chlorinated and brominated congeners appeared to preferentially accumulate in gulls feeding primarily on refuse from dump sites and terrestrial food webs. The use of suitable dietary tracers in the study of POPs in yellow-legged gulls revealed the importance of dump sites as a source of POPs in Mediterranean seabirds, which has not previously been reported. In contrast, the preferential accumulation through marine food webs of low chlorinated PCCD/Fs and no-PCBs, which show the highest toxic equivalents factors (TEFs), led to a significantly greater toxicological concern in Audouin's as compared to yellow-legged gulls. Audouin's gull exposure to POPs appears

  3. Clumped isotope thermometry and catagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiler, J. M.; Clog, M. D.; Dallas, B.; Douglas, P. M.; Piasecki, A.; Sessions, A. L.; Stolper, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Clumped- and site-specific isotopic compositions of organic compounds can constrain their formation temperatures, sources, and chemical reaction histories. The large number of isotopologues of organic molecules may allow for the isotopic composition of a single compound to illuminate many processes. For example, it is possible that clumping or site specific effects in different parts of the same molecule will differ in blocking temperature, such that a molecule's full isotopic structure could simultaneously constrain conditions of biosynthesis, catagenic 'cracking', and storage in the crust. Recent innovations in high-resolution mass spectrometry and methods of IR and NMR spectroscopy make it possible to explore these questions. Methane is the first organic molecule to have its clumped isotope geochemistry analyzed in a variety of natural environments and controlled experiments. Methane generated through catagenic cracking of kerogen and other organic matter forms in equilibrium with respect to isotopic clumping, and preserves that state through later storage or migration, up to temperatures of ~250 ˚C. This kinetic behavior permits a variety of useful geological applications. But it is unexpected because the bulk stable isotope composition of thermogenic methane is thought to reflect kinetic isotope effects on irreversible reactions. Our observations imply a new interpretation of the chemical physics of catagenic methane formation. Additional instrument and methods developments are currently extending the measurement of isotopic clumping and position specific effects to larger alkanes, other hydrocarbon compounds, and amino acids. These measurements will ultimately expand our capacity to understand the formational conditions and fates of organic molecules in high- and low-temperature environments through geological time.

  4. Isotope-Identifying neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitenko, Yu. V. Petrenko, A. V.; Gundorin, N. A.; Gledenov, Yu. M.; Aksenov, V. L.

    2015-07-15

    The possibilities of an isotope-indentifying study of layered structures in different regimes of a neutron wave field are considered. The detection of specularly reflected neutrons and secondary radiation (caused by neutron capture) in the form of charged particles, γ quanta, and nuclear fission fragments, as well as neutrons spin-flipped in a noncollinear magnetic field and on nuclei of elements with spin, makes it possible to implement isotope-indentifying neutron reflectometry.

  5. Compound-specific stable isotope records of precipitation isotopes and paleotopographic evolution: Patterns of Cenozoic change in the Western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hren, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    The topography of an orogen reflects the complex interplay between processes that occur at depth in the crust and processes such as erosion and weathering that shape the surface landscape. Reconstructions of paleotopography are critical for evaluating geodynamic models and separating effects of climatic and tectonic change in terrestrial records. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry has proved to be an important tool for understanding changes in topography through time, however this approach is complicated by factors such as mixing of moisture sources, uncertainty over how uplift impacts air mass transport and resultant isotope hydrology, and debate over what some proxies actually record. Hydrogen isotopes of organic molecules provide a means of reconstructing isotopes of ambient water, but these data are also impacted by factors that affect biological processes and stomatal regulation. Despite the myriad factors that can impact isotope fractionation in plant waxes, a growing body of data show these molecules to be an important record of precipitation isotopes when coupled with data that relates to ecosystem type. This study will examine the distribution of hydrogen isotopes of higher plant waxes across the western U.S. at key intervals of the Cenozoic to provide a snapshot of long-wavelength changes to topography and moisture sources from the Eocene to recent. These data demonstrate the utility of biomarker isotopes as a paleohydrologic/paleotopographic proxy and point to long-standing high topography over much of western U.S. throughout the Cenozoic.

  6. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    PubMed

    Good, Stephen P; Mallia, Derek V; Lin, John C; Bowen, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18)O, > 160‰ for δ(2)H) and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰) were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  7. Natural isotope correction of MS/MS measurements for metabolomics and (13)C fluxomics.

    PubMed

    Niedenführ, Sebastian; ten Pierick, Angela; van Dam, Patricia T N; Suarez-Mendez, Camilo A; Nöh, Katharina; Wahl, S Aljoscha

    2016-05-01

    Fluxomics and metabolomics are crucial tools for metabolic engineering and biomedical analysis to determine the in vivo cellular state. Especially, the application of (13)C isotopes allows comprehensive insights into the functional operation of cellular metabolism. Compared to single MS, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides more detailed and accurate measurements of the metabolite enrichment patterns (tandem mass isotopomers), increasing the accuracy of metabolite concentration measurements and metabolic flux estimation. MS-type data from isotope labeling experiments is biased by naturally occurring stable isotopes (C, H, N, O, etc.). In particular, GC-MS(/MS) requires derivatization for the usually non-volatile intracellular metabolites introducing additional natural isotopes leading to measurements that do not directly represent the carbon labeling distribution. To make full use of LC- and GC-MS/MS mass isotopomer measurements, the influence of natural isotopes has to be eliminated (corrected). Our correction approach is analyzed for the two most common applications; (13)C fluxomics and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) based metabolomics. Natural isotopes can have an impact on the calculated flux distribution which strongly depends on the substrate labeling and the actual flux distribution. Second, we show that in IDMS based metabolomics natural isotopes lead to underestimated concentrations that can and should be corrected with a nonlinear calibration. Our simulations indicate that the correction for natural abundance in isotope based fluxomics and quantitative metabolomics is essential for correct data interpretation.

  8. Clumped-isotope thermometry of magnesium carbonates in ultramafic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García del Real, Pablo; Maher, Kate; Kluge, Tobias; Bird, Dennis K.; Brown, Gordon E.; John, Cédric M.

    2016-11-01

    mineralization at shallow crustal depths in the presence of meteoric water. Hydrous magnesium carbonates from a 400-km latitudinal transect along the serpentinized-peridotite bodies of the California Coast Ranges record clumped-isotope temperatures between 14.2 and 22.7 ± 2.8 °C, in agreement with historical maximum temperatures during the rainy season for California. Talc-carbonate alteration of ultramafic rocks in Greenland (Isua Supracrustal Belt) and Vermont (Ludlow) yields clumped-isotope alteration temperatures of magnesite and dolomite between 326 and 490 °C, broadly consistent with paragenesis and thermodynamic analysis for CO2 metasomatism of ultramafic rocks. These metamorphic carbonates extend the applicability of clumped-isotope thermometry to high-temperature magnesium carbonate systems and indicate equilibrium blocking temperatures for magnesite of ∼490 °C. Our study demonstrates the applicability of the clumped isotope approach to provide information on the formation of magnesium carbonates as ore resources, surface records of climate, and metamorphic assemblages.

  9. Interpreting the Ca isotope record of marine biogenic carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Neil G.; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Tipper, Edward T.; Tripati, Aradhna; Galy, Albert; Bickle, Michael J.

    2007-08-01

    of seawater from Ca isotope curves should be approached cautiously.

  10. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, Barry J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferably substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. Because the molecules in the beam occupy various degenerate energy levels, if the laser beam comprises chirped pulses comprising selected wavelengths, the laser beam will very efficiently excite substantially all unexcited molecules and will cause stimulated emission of substantially all excited molecules of a selected one of the isotopes in the beam which such pulses encounter. Excitation caused by first direction chirped pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning chirped pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement of essentially all the molecules containing the one isotope is accomplished by a large number of chirped pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam.

  11. Magnesium isotopes in permafrost-dominated Central Siberian larch forest watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatis, Vasileios; Prokushkin, Anatoly S.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jérôme; Korets, Mikhail A.

    2014-12-01

    To unravel the Mg isotope fractionation pathways within the continuous permafrost zone in the larch deciduous forest of Central Siberia, we measured the Mg isotopic composition of two large Siberian rivers (Nizhnaya Tunguska and Kochechum, which flow into the Yenisey), a small forested stream, and the major fluid and solid sources of Mg in the watershed: atmospheric precipitates, surface suprapermafrost flow, interstitial soil solutions, plant biomass, litter and mineral soils. The obtained results indicate a significant seasonal variation in riverine water Mg isotope signatures. During the winter baseflow, the Mg isotope composition of large rivers is significantly lighter than the source basaltic rocks and the atmospheric depositions. These differences support the presence of fluids enriched in lighter Mg isotopes, such as those affected by the mineral precipitation of secondary silicates or fluids that dissolve sedimentary carbonate rocks. During the spring flood and in the summer and fall seasons, the river fluid δ26Mg values increased by 0.2-0.3‰ and approached the Mg isotope composition of the ground vegetation (dwarf shrubs, mosses) and the soil organic horizon. Overall, the riverine waters were 0.3-0.7‰ lighter than the unaltered bedrock and the deep minerals soil horizons. The Mg isotopic compositions of Larix gmelinii organs (i.e., stem wood, roots and needles) exhibit a low variability. However, an enrichment of 0.2-0.3‰ in the δ26Mg of larch needles in the course of the growing season, from June to September can be observed. This enrichment most likely demonstrates uptake of isotopically heavier Mg by the plant in addition to the progressive thawing of the mineral soil (deepening of the active layer of the soil). Overall, the Mg isotope approach indicates the important contribution of vegetation (larch needles, mosses and dwarf shrubs) to the riverine Mg isotope signature and helps to reveal the contribution of isotopically light carbonate rocks

  12. Cu isotope fractionation during bornite dissolution: An in situ X-ray diffraction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Andrew J.; Mathur, Ryan; Post, Jeffrey E.; Heaney, Peter J.

    2012-10-24

    Low-temperature ore deposits exhibit a large variation in {delta}{sup 65}Cu ({approx}12{per_thousand}), and this range has been attributed, in part, to isotope fractionation during weathering reactions of primary minerals such as chalcocite and chalcopyrite. Here, we examine the fractionation of Cu isotopes during dissolution of another important Cu ore mineral, bornite, using a novel approach that combines time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) and isotope analysis of reaction products. During the initial stages of bornite oxidative dissolution by ferric sulfate (< 5 mol% of total Cu leached), dissolved Cu was enriched in isotopically heavy Cu ({sup 65}Cu) relative to the solid, with an average apparent isotope fractionation ({Delta}{sub aq - min} = {delta}{sup 65}Cu{sub aq} - {delta}{sup 65}Cu{sub min}{sup 0}) of 2.20 {+-} 0.25{per_thousand}. When > 20 mol% Cu was leached from the solid, the difference between the Cu isotope composition of the aqueous and mineral phases approached zero, with {Delta}{sub aq - min}{sup 0} values ranging from - 0.21 {+-} 0.61{per_thousand} to 0.92 {+-} 0.25{per_thousand}. XRD analysis allowed us to correlate changes in the atomic structure of bornite with the apparent isotope fractionation as the dissolution reaction progressed. These data revealed that the greatest degree of apparent fractionation is accompanied by a steep contraction in the unit-cell volume, which we identified as a transition from stoichiometric to non-stoichiometric bornite. We propose that the initially high {Delta}{sub aq - min} values result from isotopically heavy Cu ({sup 65}Cu) concentrating within Cu{sup 2+} during dissolution. The decrease in the apparent isotope fractionation as the reaction progresses occurs from the distillation of isotopically heavy Cu ({sup 65}Cu) during dissolution or kinetic isotope effects associated with the depletion of Cu from the surfaces of bornite particles.

  13. Accurate Hf isotope determinations of complex zircons using the "laser ablation split stream" method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Christopher M.; Vervoort, Jeffery D.; DuFrane, S. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The "laser ablation split stream" (LASS) technique is a powerful tool for mineral-scale isotope analyses and in particular, for concurrent determination of age and Hf isotope composition of zircon. Because LASS utilizes two independent mass spectrometers, a large range of masses can be measured during a single ablation, and thus, the same sample volume can be analyzed for multiple geochemical systems. This paper describes a simple analytical setup using a laser ablation system coupled to a single-collector (for U-Pb age determination) and a multicollector (for Hf isotope analyses) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). The ability of the LASS for concurrent Hf + age technique to extract meaningful Hf isotope compositions in isotopically zoned zircon is demonstrated using zircons from two Proterozoic gneisses from northern Idaho, USA. These samples illustrate the potential problems associated with inadvertently sampling multiple age and Hf components in zircons, as well as the potential of LASS to recover meaningful Hf isotope compositions. We suggest that such inadvertent sampling of differing age and Hf components can be a significant cause of excess scatter in Hf isotope analyses and demonstrate that the LASS approach offers a robust solution to these issues. The veracity of the approach is demonstrated by accurate analyses of 10 reference zircons with well-characterized age and Hf isotopic composition, using laser spot diameters of 30 and 40 µm. In order to expand the database of high-precision Lu-Hf isotope analyses of reference zircons, we present 27 new isotope dilution-MC-ICPMS Lu-Hf isotope measurements of five U-Pb zircon standards: FC1, Temora, R33, QGNG, and 91500.

  14. Sr isotopic microsampling of magmatic rocks; a review (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    Sr isotopes have been used since the 1960s as powerful tracers of source for igneous rocks. In the past 10 years in-situ isotopic microsampling has afforded us tremendous progress in our capacity to understand magmatic processes. This progress is underpinned by analytical advances particularly in sample extraction through laser or micromill and in multicollector mass spectrometer improvements to sensitivity and precision. Perhaps the biggest surprise was the recognition in the 1990s that young magmatic rocks are commonly isotopically heterogeneous at the component (inter- or intra- crystal) scale. Given that melting and fractionation do not affect 87Sr/86Sr we would not a priori expect isotopic variations within or among crystals in a young igneous rock. This observation alone attests to open system behavior in magmas, and tells us that many of the crystals have been mechanically aggregated and not grown directly from the melt in which they are found solidified (a conclusion that can also commonly be drawn from cursory petrographic examination). This recognition in turn means that we can make use of the crystals as recorders of the isotopic environments in which they crystallise: If a crystal grows progressively from a melt which changes its isotopic composition through processes such as contamination and mixing, then the only record of the melt evolution is in the core-rim compositions of the crystals - analogous to the environmental record of tree rings. Plagioclase crystals in mafic enclaves from Lassen (CA) and Purico-Chascon (Chile), for instance, have isotopic records that reflect origination from the more silicic host. Core-rim records of evolution can also be integrated with textural measurements. At Stromboli we have shown how isotopic zoning correlates with crystal size distribution. The detailed records of single crystals can be complemented by multi crystal core analyses which can be used to distinguish specific populations. This approach was used on

  15. Selected scientific topics of the 11th International Isotope Symposium on the Synthesis and Applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labeled Compounds.

    PubMed

    Atzrodt, Jens; Derdau, Volker

    2013-01-01

    This micro-review describes hot topics and new trends in isotope science discussed at the 11th International Isotope Symposium on the Synthesis and Applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labeled Compounds from a personal perspective.

  16. Production of rare isotope beams with the NSCL fragment separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, A.; Baumann, T.; Ginter, T. N.; Morrissey, D. J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B. M.; Steiner, M.; Stetson, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    Rare isotope beams at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory are produced by projectile fragmentation of medium energy primary beams on beryllium targets. The fragments of interest are selected by the A1900 high-acceptance fragment separator. The A1900 consists of superconducting magnets: four 45° dipoles and eight quadrupole triplets with a maximum magnetic rigidity of 6 Tm. A momentum acceptance of Δp/p = 5% with a solid angle acceptance of ΔΩ = 8 msr makes the A1900 one of the highest-acceptance separators in the world. Detector systems installed within the device allow tracking and unambiguous identification of individual isotopes. During the first three years of operation of the A1900, more than 200 different rare isotope beams approaching both the neutron and proton driplines have been delivered to experiments.

  17. Stereoselective synthesis of stable-isotope-labeled amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, C.J.; Martinez, R.A.; Silks, L.A. III; Lodwig, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    For magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopies to reach their full potential, they must be used in combination with sophisticated site-specific stable isotope labeling of biological macromolecules. Labeled amino acids are required for the study of the structure and function of enzymes and proteins. Because there are 20 common amino acids, each with its own distinguishing chemistry, they remain a synthetic challenge. The Oppolzer chiral auxiliary provides a general tool with which to approach the synthesis of labeled amino acids. By using the Oppolzer auxiliary, amino acids can be constructed from several small molecules, which is ideal for stable isotope labeling. In addition to directing the stereochemistry at the {alpha}-carbon, the camphorsultam can be used for stereo-specific isotope labeling at prochiral centers in amino acids. By using the camphorsultam auxiliary we have the potential to synthesize virtually any isotopomer of all of the common amino acids.

  18. Large sulfur isotope fractionations associated with Neoarchean microbial sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhelezinskaia, Iadviga; Kaufman, Alan J; Farquhar, James; Cliff, John

    2014-11-07

    The minor extent of sulfur isotope fractionation preserved in many Neoarchean sedimentary successions suggests that sulfate-reducing microorganisms played an insignificant role in ancient marine environments, despite evidence that these organisms evolved much earlier. We present bulk, microdrilled, and ion probe sulfur isotope data from carbonate-associated pyrite in the ~2.5-billion-year-old Batatal Formation of Brazil, revealing large mass-dependent fractionations (approaching 50 per mil) associated with microbial sulfate reduction, as well as consistently negative Δ(33)S values (~ -2 per mil) indicative of atmospheric photochemical reactions. Persistent (33)S depletion through ~60 meters of shallow marine carbona