Science.gov

Sample records for isotopes centrifugal stretching

  1. Isotope Separation in Concurrent Gas Centrifuges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Borman, V. D.

    An analytical equation defining separative power of an optimized concurrent gas centrifuge is obtained for an arbitrary binary mixture of isotopes. In the case of the uranium isotopes the equation gives δU= 12.7(V/700 m/s)2(300 K/T)L, kg SWU/yr, where L and V are the length and linear velocity of the rotor of the gas centrifuge, T is the temperature. This formula well agrees with an empirical separative power of counter current gas centrifuges.

  2. Stable isotope enrichment using a plasma centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; Madden, Robert

    2012-10-01

    A primary goal of the Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program (Isotope Program) within the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) is to produce isotopes that are in short supply in the U.S. and of which there exists no or insufficient domestic commercial production capability. A vacuum arc plasma centrifuge is a rigid rotor column of metal plasma in which centrifugal forces re-distribute ions radially according to their mass/charge ratio. Early work demonstrated rotation at 2 million rpm and separation of various stable isotopes. The spinning plasma column had a Gaussian flux profile, peaked on the rigid rotor axis. This work adopts a more efficient approach, with the plasma created as a hollow column, wherein the flux is concentrated at larger radii where the centrifugal action is highest. By tailoring the vacuum arc discharge geometry, the rotation rate can also be increased to ˜10 million rpm. Data from Cu, Al and other metal plasmas will be presented and discussed in light of enriched stable isotopes needed for research and medicine.

  3. Centrifugal stretching along the ground state band of {sup 168}Hf

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, A.; Pietralla, N.; Reese, M.; Moeller, O.; Ai, H.; Casten, R. F.; Heinz, A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Meyer, D. A.; Qian, J.; Werner, V.; Dusling, K.; Fitzpatrick, C. R.; Guerdal, G.; Petkov, P.; Rainovski, G.

    2009-02-15

    The lifetimes of the J{sup {pi}}=4{sup +}, 6{sup +}, 8{sup +}, and 10{sup +} levels along the ground state band in {sup 168}Hf were measured by means of the recoil distance Doppler shift (RDDS) method using the New Yale Plunger Device (NYPD) and the SPEEDY detection array at Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory of Yale University. Excited states in {sup 168}Hf were populated using the {sup 124}Sn({sup 48}Ti,4n) fusion evaporation reaction. The new lifetime values are sufficiently precise to clearly prove the increase of quadrupole deformation as a function of angular momentum in the deformed nucleus {sup 168}Hf. The data agree with the predictions from the geometrical confined {beta}-soft (CBS) rotor model that involves centrifugal stretching in a soft potential.

  4. Analysis of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotopes and optimal feed position

    SciTech Connect

    Chuntong Ying; Hongjiang Wu; Mingsheng Zhou; Yuguang Nie; Guangjun Liu

    1997-10-01

    Analysis of the concentration distribution in a gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures is different from that in a cascade for separation of two-component mixtures. This paper presents the governing equations for a multicomponent isotope separation cascade. Numerically predicted separation factors for the gas centrifuge cascade agree well with the experimental data. A theoretical optimal feed position is derived for a short square cascade for a two-component mixture in a close-separation case. The optimal feed position for a gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent mixture is discussed.

  5. CENTRIFUGE

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A vibration damping mechanism for damping vibration forces occurring during the operation of a centrifuge is described. The vibration damping mechanism comprises a plurality of nested spaced cylindrical elements surrounding the rotating shaft of the centrifuge. Some of the elements are held substantially stationary while the others are held with respect to a pair of hearings spaced along the rotating shaft. A fluid is retained about the cylindrical elements.

  6. CENTRIFUGE APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.; Urey, H.C.; Cohen, K.

    1960-08-01

    A high-speed centrifuge for the separation of gaseous isotopes is designed comprising a centrifugal pump mounted on the outlet of a centrifuge bowl and arranged to pump the heavy and light fractions out of the centrifuge bowl in two separate streams.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Non-Stationary Hydraulic Process Occurring in the Gas Centrifuge Cascade During the Separation of Multicomponent Isotope Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, A. A.; Ushakov, A. A.; Sovach, V. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents results of development of the mathematical model of nonstationary separation processes occurring in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures. This model was used for the calculation parameters of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of germanium isotopes. Comparison of obtained values with results of other authors revealed that developed mathematical model is adequate to describe nonstationary separation processes in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures.

  8. The plasma centrifuge: A compact, low cost, stable isotope separator. Phase 2 final technical report, September 15, 1991--September 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, W.

    1996-09-05

    Enriched stable isotopes are required for production of radionuclides as well as for research and diagnostic uses. Science Research Laboratory (SRL) has developed a plasma centrifuge for moderate throughput of enriched stable isotopes, such as {sup 13}C, {sup 17}O, {sup 18}O, and {sup 203}Tl, for medical as well as other applications. Dwindling isotope stocks have restricted the use of enriched isotopes and their associated labeled organic molecules in medical imaging to very few research facilities because of high costs of isotope separation. With the introduction of the plasma centrifuge separator, the cost per separated gram of even rarely occurring isotopes ({le} 1% natural abundance) is potentially many times lower than with other separation technologies (cryogenic distillation and calutrons). The centrifuge is a simple, robust, pulsed electrical discharge device that has successfully demonstrated isotope separation of small (mg) quantities of {sup 26}Mg. Based on the results of the Phase 2 program, modest enhancements to the power supplies and cooling systems, a centrifuge separator will have high repetition rate (60 pps) and high duty cycle (60%) to produce in one month kilogram quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes. The centrifuge may be used in stand-alone operation or could be used as a high-throughput pre-separation stage with calutrons providing the final separation.

  9. Numerical modelling of the flow and isotope separation in centrifuge Iguasu for different lengths of the rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Borisevich, V. D.; Borman, V. D.; Tronin, I. V.; Tronin, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical modelling and optimization of the gas flow and isotope separation in the Iguasu gas centrifuge (GC) for uranium enrichment have been performed for different lengths of the rotor. The calculations show that the specific separative power of the GC reduces with the length of the rotor. We show that the reduction of the specific separative power is connected with the growth of the pressure in the optimal regime and corresponding growth of temperature to prevent the working gas sublimation. The specific separative power remains constant with the growth of the rotor length provided that the temperature of the gas is taken to be constant.

  10. Vibrationally mediated photodissociation of ethene isotopic variants preexcited to the fourth C-H stretch overtone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespechansky, Evgeny; Portnov, Alexander; Zwielly, Amir; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana

    2006-10-01

    H and D photofragments produced via vibrationally mediated photodissociation of jet-cooled normal ethene (C2H4), 1,2-trans-d2-ethene (HDCCDH), and 1,1-d2-ethene (CH2CD2), initially excited to the fourth C-H stretch overtone region, were studied for the first time. H and D vibrational action spectra and Doppler profiles were measured. The action spectra include partially resolved features due to rotational cooling, while the monitored room temperature photoacoustic spectra exhibit only a very broad feature in each species. Simulation of the spectral contours allowed determination of the band types and origins, limited precision rotational constants, and linewidths, providing time scales for energy redistribution. The H and D Doppler profiles correspond to low average translational energies and show slight preferential C-H over C-D bond cleavage in the deuterated variants. The propensities toward H photofragments emerge even though the energy flow out of the initially prepared C-H stretch is on a picosecond time scale and the photodissociation occurs following internal conversion, indicating a more effective release of the light H atoms.

  11. Boundary-value problem for a counterrotating electrical discharge in an axial magnetic field. [plasma centrifuge for isotope separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. H.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    An electrical discharge between two ring electrodes embedded in the mantle of a cylindrical chamber is considered, in which the plasma in the anode and cathode regions rotates in opposite directions under the influence of an external axial magnetic field. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations describing the azimuthal velocity and radial current-density fields is solved in closed form. The velocity, current density, induced magnetic induction, and electric fields are presented for typical Hartmann numbers, magnetic Reynolds numbers, and geometry parameters. The discharge is shown to produce anodic and cathodic plasma sections rotating at speeds of the order 1,000,000 cm/sec for conventional magnetic field intensities. Possible application of the magnetoactive discharge as a plasma centrifuge for isotope separation is discussed.

  12. A closer examination of the coupling between ionic hydrogen bond (IHB) stretching and flanking group motions in (CH3OH)2H(+): the strong isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jake A; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2016-06-01

    The intermode coupling between shared proton (O-H(+)-O) fundamental stretching and flanking modes in (CH3OH)2H(+) was revisited in the following contexts: (1) evaluation of Hamiltonian matrix elements represented in a "pure state" (PS) basis and (2) tuning of coupling strengths using H/D isotopic substitution. We considered four experimentally accessible isotopologues for this study. These are: (CH3OH)2H(+), (CD3OH)2H(+), (CH3OD)2D(+), and (CD3OD)2D(+). Potential energy surfaces (PESs), as well as dipole moment surfaces (DMSs), were constructed at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level. Multidimensional vibrational calculations were conducted by solving a reduced dimensional Schrödinger equation using a discrete variable representation (DVR). We found that vibrational states in (CH3OH)2H(+) and (CD3OH)2H(+) are much more heavily mixed than those in (CH3OD)2D(+) and (CD3OD)2D(+). Furthermore, each isotopologue chooses to strongly couple between out-of-phase in-plane CH3 rocking and its out-of-plane counterpart. Lastly, the interaction between O-O stretching and O-H(+)-O stretching was explored. We found that between the first overtone of O-O stretching and its combination tone with O-H(+)-O fundamental stretching, only the second couples with O-H(+)-O fundamental stretching. We hope that our isotopologue calculations would motivate experimentalists to measure them in the future.

  13. METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, K.

    1960-05-10

    A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.

  14. Ultra-high-sensitivity stable-isotope probing of rRNA by high-throughput sequencing of isopycnic centrifugation gradients.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Tomo; Hanada, Satoshi; Itoh, Hideomi; Sato, Yuya; Ogata, Atsushi; Friedrich, Michael W; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Hori, Tomoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) of rRNA directly identifies microorganisms assimilating an isotopically labelled substrate. High-throughput DNA sequencing is available for label screening at high resolution and high sensitivity, yet its effectiveness and validity remain to be clarified. Here, we investigated whether the detection sensitivity of rRNA-SIP could be improved by using Illumina sequencing in place of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. A dilution series of (13) C-labelled RNA from Escherichia coli (1-0.0001%) and unlabelled RNA from Bacillus subtilis was density separated and fractionated. Illumina sequencing of isopycnic centrifugation gradients was able to detect (13) C-labelled RNA in the heaviest fraction with a buoyant density of 1.798 g ml(-1) even at the mixing ratio of 0.001%, whereas the detection ability of T-RFLP was not lower than 0.5%. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of the density-separated RNAs showed that (13) C-labelled RNAs at mixing ratios of 0.05-0.001% had definitely accumulated in the heaviest fraction. Consequently, high-throughput sequencing provided up to 500-fold higher sensitivity for screening of (13) C-labelled RNA than T-RFLP. Ultra-high-sensitivity rRNA-SIP represents a clear advance towards a more complete understanding of microbial ecosystem function, including the ecophysiology of rare microorganisms in various natural environments.

  15. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  16. Stretch Marks

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes that can go with bodybuilding. People who use steroid-containing skin creams or ointments (such as hydrocortisone) for more than a few weeks may also get stretch marks. So might people who have to ... surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual ...

  17. Centrifuge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sartory, Walter K.; Eveleigh, John W.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for operating a continuous flow blood separation centrifuge are provided. The hematocrit of the entrant whole blood is continuously maintained at an optimum constant value by the addition of plasma to the entrant blood. The hematocrit of the separated red cells is monitored to indicate the degree of separation taking place, thereby providing a basis for regulating the flow through the centrifuge.

  18. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  19. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  20. Centrifugal pyrocontactor

    DOEpatents

    Chow, L.S.; Leonard, R.A.

    1993-10-19

    A method is described for mixing and separating immiscible liquid salts and liquid metals in a centrifugal contractor. The method includes introducing the liquids into an annular mixing zone and intensely mixing the liquids using vertical vanes attached to a rotor cooperating with vertical baffles, a horizontal baffle, and bottom vanes attached to the contactor housing. The liquids enter the contactor in the range of 700-800 degrees Celsius. The liquids are separated in the rotor into a dense phase and a light phase which are discharged from the contactor. 6 figures.

  1. Centrifugal pyrocontactor

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Lorac S.; Leonard, Ralph A.

    1993-01-01

    A method for mixing and separating immiscible liquid salts and liquid metals in a centrifugal contractor. The method includes introducing the liquids into an annular mixing zone and intensely mixing the liquids using vertical vanes attached to a rotor cooperating with vertical baffles, a horizontal baffle, and bottom vanes attached to the contactor housing. The liquids enter the contactor in the range of 700-800 degrees Celsius. The liquids are separated in the rotor into a dense phase and a light phase which are discharged from the contactor.

  2. A two force-constant model for complexes B⋯M-X (B is a Lewis base and MX is any diatomic molecule): Intermolecular stretching force constants from centrifugal distortion constants DJ or ΔJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Dror M.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Legon, Anthony C.

    2016-02-01

    A two force-constant model is proposed for complexes of the type B⋯MX, in which B is a simple Lewis base of at least C2v symmetry and MX is any diatomic molecule lying along a Cn axis (n ≥ 2) of B. The model assumes a rigid subunit B and that force constants beyond quadratic are negligible. It leads to expressions that allow, in principle, the determination of three quadratic force constants F11, F12, and F22 associated with the r(B⋯M) = r2 and r(M-X) = r1 internal coordinates from the equilibrium centrifugal distortion constants DJ e or ΔJ e , the equilibrium principal axis coordinates a1 and a2, and equilibrium principal moments of inertia. The model can be applied generally to complexes containing different types of intermolecular bond. For example, the intermolecular bond of B⋯MX can be a hydrogen bond if MX is a hydrogen halide, a halogen-bond if MX is a dihalogen molecule, or a stronger, coinage-metal bond if MX is a coinage metal halide. The equations were tested for BrCN, for which accurate equilibrium spectroscopic constants and a complete force field are available. In practice, equilibrium values of DJ e or ΔJ e for B⋯MX are not available and zero-point quantities must be used instead. The effect of doing so has been tested for BrCN. The zero-point centrifugal distortion constants DJ 0 or ΔJ 0 for all B⋯MX investigated so far are of insufficient accuracy to allow F11 and F22 to be determined simultaneously, even under the assumption F12 = 0 which is shown to be reasonable for BrCN. The calculation of F22 at a series of fixed values of F11 reveals, however, that in cases for which F11 is sufficiently larger than F22, a good approximation to F22 is obtained. Plots of F22 versus F11 have been provided for Kr⋯CuCl, Xe⋯CuCl, OC⋯CuCl, and C2H2⋯AgCl as examples. Even in cases where F22 ˜ F11 (e.g., OC⋯CuCl), such plots will yield either F22 or F11 if the other becomes available.

  3. A two force-constant model for complexes B⋯M-X (B is a Lewis base and MX is any diatomic molecule): Intermolecular stretching force constants from centrifugal distortion constants D(J) or Δ(J).

    PubMed

    Bittner, Dror M; Walker, Nicholas R; Legon, Anthony C

    2016-02-21

    A two force-constant model is proposed for complexes of the type B⋯MX, in which B is a simple Lewis base of at least C2v symmetry and MX is any diatomic molecule lying along a Cn axis (n ≥ 2) of B. The model assumes a rigid subunit B and that force constants beyond quadratic are negligible. It leads to expressions that allow, in principle, the determination of three quadratic force constants F11, F12, and F22 associated with the r(B⋯M) = r2 and r(M-X) = r1 internal coordinates from the equilibrium centrifugal distortion constants DJ (e) or ΔJ (e), the equilibrium principal axis coordinates a1 and a2, and equilibrium principal moments of inertia. The model can be applied generally to complexes containing different types of intermolecular bond. For example, the intermolecular bond of B⋯MX can be a hydrogen bond if MX is a hydrogen halide, a halogen-bond if MX is a dihalogen molecule, or a stronger, coinage-metal bond if MX is a coinage metal halide. The equations were tested for BrCN, for which accurate equilibrium spectroscopic constants and a complete force field are available. In practice, equilibrium values of DJ (e) or ΔJ (e) for B⋯MX are not available and zero-point quantities must be used instead. The effect of doing so has been tested for BrCN. The zero-point centrifugal distortion constants DJ (0) or ΔJ (0) for all B⋯MX investigated so far are of insufficient accuracy to allow F11 and F22 to be determined simultaneously, even under the assumption F12 = 0 which is shown to be reasonable for BrCN. The calculation of F22 at a series of fixed values of F11 reveals, however, that in cases for which F11 is sufficiently larger than F22, a good approximation to F22 is obtained. Plots of F22 versus F11 have been provided for Kr⋯CuCl, Xe⋯CuCl, OC⋯CuCl, and C2H2⋯AgCl as examples. Even in cases where F22 ∼ F11 (e.g., OC⋯CuCl), such plots will yield either F22 or F11 if the other becomes available.

  4. Get up and Stretch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crupi, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Daily stretching has many benefits for one's body. It can relieve stress and tension, it increases flexibility and it can help prevent injuries. There are many stretching exercises that a teacher can do with his or her students to help promote daily stretching routines. In this article, the author presents several stretching exercises and some…

  5. Gas dynamics in strong centrifugal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bogovalov, S.V.; Kislov, V.A.; Tronin, I.V.

    2015-03-10

    Dynamics of waves generated by scopes in gas centrifuges (GC) for isotope separation is considered. The centrifugal acceleration in the GC reaches values of the order of 106g. The centrifugal and Coriolis forces modify essentially the conventional sound waves. Three families of the waves with different polarisation and dispersion exist in these conditions. Dynamics of the flow in the model GC Iguasu is investigated numerically. Comparison of the results of the numerical modelling of the wave dynamics with the analytical predictions is performed. New phenomena of the resonances in the GC is found. The resonances occur for the waves polarized along the rotational axis having the smallest dumping due to the viscosity.

  6. Waves in a gas centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2016-09-01

    Impact of the pulsed braking force on the axial gas circulation and gas content in centrifuges for uranium isotope separation was investigated by the method of numerical simulation. Pulsed brake of the rotating gas by the momentum source results into generation of the waves which propagate along the rotor of the centrifuge. The waves almost doubles the axial circulation flux in the working camera in compare with the case of the steady state breaking force with the same average power in the model under the consideration. Flux through the hole in the bottom baffle on 15% exceeds the flux in the stationary case for the same pressure and temperature in the model. We argue that the waves reduce the pressure in the GC on the same 15%.

  7. Gas centrifuge purge method

    DOEpatents

    Theurich, Gordon R.

    1976-01-01

    1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.

  8. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  9. Stretching: Does It Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  10. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  11. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOEpatents

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  12. Liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-03-11

    The performance of liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste partitioning is examined for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Program currently under study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Centrifugation might have application for the separation of the LiF-BeF{sub 2} salt from heavier radioactive materials fission product and actinides in the separation of fission product from actinides, in the isotope separation of fission-product cesium before transmutation of the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 135}Cs, and in the removal of spallation product from the liquid lead target. It is found that useful chemical separations should be possible using existing materials for the centrifuge construction for all four cases with the actinide fraction in fission product perhaps as low as 1 part in 10{sup 7} and the fraction of {sup 137}CS in {sup 133}Cs being as low as a few parts in 10{sup 5}. A centrifuge cascade has the advantage that it can be assembled and operated as a completely closed system without a waste stream except that associated with maintenance or replacement of centrifuge components.

  13. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOEpatents

    Hahs, Charles A.; Burbage, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  14. The American Gas Centrifuge Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Dean

    2004-09-15

    The art of gas centrifugation was born in 1935 at the University of Virginia when Dr. Jesse Beams demonstrated experimentally the separation of chlorine isotopes using an ultra-high speed centrifuge. Dr. Beam’s experiment initiated work that created a rich history of scientific and engineering accomplishment in the United States in the art of isotope separation and even large scale biological separation by centrifugation. The early history of the gas centrifuge development was captured in a lecture and documented by Dr. Jesse Beams in 1975. Much of Dr. Beams lecture material is used in this paper up to the year 1960. Following work by Dr. Gernot Zippe at the University of Virginia between 1958 and 1960, the US government embarked on a centrifuge development program that ultimately led to the start of construction of the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant in Piketon Ohio in the late 1970’s. The government program was abandoned in 1985 after investing in the construction of two of six planned process buildings, a complete supply chain for process and centrifuge parts, and the successful manufacture and brief operation of an initial complement of production machines that would have met 15 percent of the planned capacity of the constructed process buildings. A declining market for enriched uranium, a glut of uranium enrichment capacity worldwide, and the promise of a new laser based separation process factored in the decision to stop the government program. By the late 1990’s it had become evident that gas centrifugation held the best promise to produce enriched uranium at low cost. In1999, the United States Enrichment Corporation undertook an initiative to revive the best of the American centrifuge technology that had been abandoned fourteen years earlier. This is an exciting story and one that when complete will enable the United States to maintain its domestic supply and to be highly competitive in the world market for this important energy commodity. (auth)

  15. Stretching & Flexibility: An Interactive Encyclopedia of Stretching. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This CD-ROM offers 140 different stretches in full-motion video sequences. It focuses on the proper techniques for overall physical fitness, injury prevention and rehabilitation, and 23 different sports (e.g., golf, running, soccer, skiing, climbing, football, and baseball). Topics include stretching for sports; stretching awareness and education…

  16. Centrifugal separation. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning processes used for centrifugal separation of nonsimilar materials. Topics include sugars, bloodcells, gasses, coal, isotopes, and partially molten metals. Apparatus for centrifugal separation using rotors or tubular containers are also presented. (Contains a minimum of 60 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  18. Capillary stretching of fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat, C.; Protiere, S.

    2015-09-01

    We study the interaction of a finite volume of liquid with two parallel thin flexible fibers. A tension along the fibers is imposed and may be varied. We report two morphologies, i.e. two types of wet adhesion: a weak capillary adhesion, where a liquid drop bridges the fibers, and a strong elastocapillary adhesion where the liquid is spread between two collapsed fibers. We show that geometry, capillarity and stretching are the key parameters at play. We describe the collapse and detachment of the fibers as a function of two nondimensional parameters, arising from the geometry of the system and a balance between capillary and stretching energies. In addition, we show that the morphology, thus the capillary adhesion, can be controlled by changing the tension within the fibers.

  19. Attack on centrifugal costs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, P.F.

    1986-03-01

    The Monsanto Chocolate Bayou plant has had an aggressive and successful energy conservation program. The combined efforts have resulted in a 80% reduction in unit energy consumption compared to 1972. The approach of using system audits to optimize fluid systems was developed. Since most of the fluid movers are centrifugal, the name Centrifugal Savings Task Force was adopted. There are three tools that are particularly valuable in optimizing fluid systems. First, a working level understanding of the Affinity Laws seems a must. In addition, the performance curves for the fluid movers is needed. The last need is accurate system field data. Systems effectively managed at the Chocolate Bayou plant were process air improvement, feed-water pressure reduction, combustion air blower turbine speed control, and cooling tower pressure reduction. Optimization of centrifugal systems is an often-overlooked opportunity for energy savings. The basic guidelines are to move only the fluid needed, and move it at as low a pressure as possible.

  20. Stretch-Oriented Polyimide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Klinedinst, D.; Feuz, L.

    2000-01-01

    Two thermoplastic polyimides - one amorphous, the other crystallizable -- were subjected to isothermal stretching just above their glass transition temperatures. Room-temperature strengths in the stretch direction were greatly improved and, moduli increased up to 3.6-fold. Optimum stretching conditions were determined.

  1. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  2. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  3. Enhancing Centrifugal Separation With Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, F. T.

    1986-01-01

    Separation of biological cells by coil-planet centrifuge enhanced by electrophoresis. By itself, coil-planet centrifuge offers relatively gentle method of separating cells under low centrifugal force in physiological medium that keeps cells alive. With addition of voltage gradient to separation column of centrifuge, separation still gentle but faster and more complete. Since separation apparatus contains no rotary seal, probability of leakage, contamination, corrosion, and short circuits reduced.

  4. Lightweight Shield for Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luper, C.

    1982-01-01

    Centrifuge bowl composed of laminated aluminum offers required combination of high strength at reduced weight. Around outside wall of bowl core of 1/16 inch thick spun aluminum are wrapped two layers of aluminum, each also one-sixteenth inch thick. Layered structure prevents cracks from propagating through wall.

  5. Human Powered Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  6. Stretching cells with DEAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, S.; Rosset, S.; Shea, H. R.

    2012-04-01

    Biological cells regulate their biochemical behavior in response to mechanical stress present in their organism. Most of the available cell cultures designed to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on cells are cm2 area, far too large to monitor single cell response or have a very low throughput. We have developed two sets of high throughput single cell stretcher devices based on dielectric elastomer microactuators to stretch groups of individual cells with various strain levels in a single experiment. The first device consists of an array of 100 μm x 200 μm actuators on a non-stretched PDMS membrane bonded to a Pyrex chip, showing up to 4.7% strain at the electric field of 96 V/μm. The second device contains an array of 100 μm x 100 μm actuators on a 160% uniaxially prestretched PDMS membrane suspended over a frame. 37% strain is recorded at the nominal electric field of 114 V/μm. The performance of these devices as a cell stretcher is assessed by comparing their static and dynamic behavior.

  7. Plasma isotope separation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, M.W. ); Shepp, T.A. )

    1991-12-01

    Isotope separation has many important industrial, medical, and research applications. Large-scale processes have typically utilized complex cascade systems; for example, the gas centrifuge. Alternatively, high single-stage enrichment processes (as in the case of the calutron) are very energy intensive. Plasma-based methods being developed for the past 15 to 20 years have attempted to overcome these two drawbacks. In this review, six major types of isotope separation methods which involve plasma phenomena are discussed. These methods are: plasma centrifuge, AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotope separation), ion wave, ICR (ion-cyclotron resonance), calutron, and gas discharge. The emphasis of this paper is to describe the plasma phenomena in these major categories. An attempt was made to include enough references so that more detailed study or evaluation of a particular method could readily be pursued. A brief discussion of isotope separation using mass balance concepts is also carried out.

  8. Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F

    2014-06-24

    Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

  9. Centrifugal unbalance detection system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Reeves, George; Mets, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A system consisting of an accelerometer sensor attached to a centrifuge enclosure for sensing vibrations and outputting a signal in the form of a sine wave with an amplitude and frequency that is passed through a pre-amp to convert it to a voltage signal, a low pass filter for removing extraneous noise, an A/D converter and a processor and algorithm for operating on the signal, whereby the algorithm interprets the amplitude and frequency associated with the signal and once an amplitude threshold has been exceeded the algorithm begins to count cycles during a predetermined time period and if a given number of complete cycles exceeds the frequency threshold during the predetermined time period, the system shuts down the centrifuge.

  10. Centrifugal adsorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min D. (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal force generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then separated through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway. A filter material captures target substances contained in the fluid.

  11. Oscillatory counter-centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shujing; Nadim, Ali

    2016-02-01

    In ordinary centrifugation, a suspended particle that is heavier than the displaced fluid migrates away from the rotation axis when the fluid-filled container rotates steadily about that axis. In contrast a particle that is lighter than the displaced fluid (e.g., a bubble) migrates toward the rotation axis in a centrifuge. In this paper, we show theoretically that if a fluid-filled container rotates in an oscillatory manner as a rigid body about an axis, at high enough oscillation frequencies, the sense of migration of suspended particles is reversed. That is, in that case particles denser than the fluid migrate inward, while those that are lighter than the fluid move outward. We term this unusual phenomenon "Oscillatory Counter-Centrifugation" or OCC, for short. Through application of the method of averaging to the equations of motion, we derive a simple criterion to predict the occurrence of OCC. The analysis also reveals that the time-average of the Coriolis force in the radial direction is the term that is responsible for this effect. In addition, we analyze the effects of the Basset history force and the Rubinow-Keller lift force on particle trajectories and find that OCC persists even when these forces are active. The phenomenon awaits experimental verification.

  12. Gas Centrifuges and Nuclear Proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, David

    2004-09-15

    Gas centrifuges have been an ideal enrichment method for a wide variety of countries. Many countries have built gas centrifuges to make enriched uranium for peaceful nuclear purposes. Other countries have secretly sought centrifuges to make highly enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. In more recent times, several countries have secretly sought or built gas centrifuges in regions of tension. The main countries that have been of interest in the last two decades have been Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and North Korea. Currently, most attention is focused on Iran, Pakistan, and North Korea. These states did not have the indigenous abilities to make gas centrifuges, focusing instead on illicit and questionable foreign procurement. The presentation covered the following main sections: Spread of centrifuges through illicit procurement; Role of export controls in stopping proliferation; Increasing the transparency of gas centrifuge programs in non-nuclear weapon states; and, Verified dismantlement of gas centrifuge programs. Gas centrifuges are important providers of low enriched uranium for civil nuclear power reactors. They also pose special nuclear proliferation risks. We all have special responsibilities to prevent the spread of gas centrifuges into regions of tension and to mitigate the consequences of their spread into the Middle East, South Asia, and North Asia.

  13. The Magnetic Centrifugal Mass Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-08-04

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages. __________________________________________________

  14. Centrifuge impact cratering experiment 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Transient crates motions, cratering flow fields, crates dynamics, determining impact conditions from total crater welt, centrifuge quarter-space cratering, and impact cratering mechanics research is documented.

  15. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Stepan; Bradley G. Stevens; Melanie D. Hetland

    1999-10-01

    The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc).

  16. National geotechnical centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallam, J. A.; Kunz, N.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    A high G-ton centrifuge, able to take a 2700 kg (6000 lb) payload up to 300 G, is described. The stability of dams and embankments, the bearing capacity of soil foundations, and the dynamic behavior of foundations due to vibration of machinery are examples of applications. A power rating of 6,000 kW (9,000 hp) was established for the motor. An acceptable maximum speed of 70 rpm was determined. A speed increase with a ratio of 1:3 is discussed. The isolated tension straps, the anti-spreader bar and the flexwall bucket, and safety precautions are also discussed.

  17. Centrifugal Adsorption Cartridge System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Lee, Wenshan

    2004-01-01

    The centrifugal adsorption cartridge system (CACS) is an apparatus that recovers one or more bioproduct(s) from a dilute aqueous solution or suspension flowing from a bioreactor. The CACS can be used both on Earth in unit gravity and in space in low gravity. The CACS can be connected downstream from the bioreactor; alternatively, it can be connected into a flow loop that includes the bioreactor so that the liquid can be recycled. A centrifugal adsorption cartridge in the CACS (see figure) includes two concentric cylinders with a spiral ramp between them. The volume between the inner and outer cylinders, and between the turns of the spiral ramp is packed with an adsorbent material. The inner cylinder is a sieve tube covered with a gas-permeable, hydrophobic membrane. During operation, the liquid effluent from the bioreactor is introduced at one end of the spiral ramp, which then constrains the liquid to flow along the spiral path through the adsorbent material. The spiral ramp also makes the flow more nearly uniform than it would otherwise be, and it minimizes any channeling other than that of the spiral flow itself. The adsorbent material is formulated to selectively capture the bioproduct(s) of interest. The bioproduct(s) can then be stored in bound form in the cartridge or else eluted from the cartridge. The centrifugal effect of the spiral flow is utilized to remove gas bubbles from the liquid. The centrifugal effect forces the bubbles radially inward, toward and through the membrane of the inner cylinder. The gas-permeable, hydrophobic membrane allows the bubbles to enter the inner cylinder while keeping the liquid out. The bubbles that thus enter the cylinder are vented to the atmosphere. The spacing between the ramps determines rate of flow along the spiral, and thereby affects the air-bubble-removal efficiency. The spacing between the ramps also determines the length of the fluid path through the cartridge adsorbent, and thus affects the bioproduct

  18. Advanced centrifugal contactor development

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, S.F.; Jubin, R.T.; Ladd, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), compact centrifugal contactors were designed and prototypes were built for the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET) facility. These contactors were designed for a nominal throughput of 0.1 metric tons of heavy metal per day. While construction of BRET has been put on indefinite hold, development of the 5.5-cm-diam rotor centrifugal contactors has advanced due to their broad applicability in other areas of reprocessing. Development has been concentrated in three areas: (1) mass transfers, (2) hydraulics, and (3) fabrication. Mass transfer development has involved determining how the stage efficiency is affected by the rotor speed, phase ratio, and feed flow rate. Hydraulic efforts have focused on the cascade operation with individual stage failures. Fabrication development has resulted in reducing the number of rotor components from seven to four. This paper discusses the results of these development efforts. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Centrifugal shot blast system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  20. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  1. Centrifugal microfluidics for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Gorkin, Robert; Park, Jiwoon; Siegrist, Jonathan; Amasia, Mary; Lee, Beom Seok; Park, Jong-Myeon; Kim, Jintae; Kim, Hanshin; Madou, Marc; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2010-07-21

    The centrifugal microfluidic platform has been a focus of academic and industrial research efforts for almost 40 years. Primarily targeting biomedical applications, a range of assays have been adapted on the system; however, the platform has found limited commercial success as a research or clinical tool. Nonetheless, new developments in centrifugal microfluidic technologies have the potential to establish wide-spread utilization of the platform. This paper presents an in-depth review of the centrifugal microfluidic platform, while highlighting recent progress in the field and outlining the potential for future applications. An overview of centrifugal microfluidic technologies is presented, including descriptions of advantages of the platform as a microfluidic handling system and the principles behind centrifugal fluidic manipulation. The paper also discusses a history of significant centrifugal microfluidic platform developments with an explanation of the evolution of the platform as it pertains to academia and industry. Lastly, we review the few centrifugal microfluidic-based sample-to-answer analysis systems shown to date and examine the challenges to be tackled before the centrifugal platform can be more broadly accepted as a new diagnostic platform. In particular, fully integrated, easy to operate, inexpensive and accurate microfluidic tools in the area of in vitro nucleic acid diagnostics are discussed.

  2. Simple method of DNA stretching on glass substrate for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Guru P.; Dhakal, Krishna P.; Kim, Min Su; Lee, Hyunsoo; Guthold, Martin; Joseph, Vincent S.; Hong, Jong-Dal; Kim, Jeongyong

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate a simple method of stretching DNA to its full length, suitable for optical imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two competing forces on the DNA molecules, which are the electrostatic attraction between positively charged dye molecules (YOYO-1) intercalated into DNA and the negatively charged surface of glass substrate, and the centrifugal force of the rotating substrate, are mainly responsible for the effective stretching and the dispersion of single strands of DNA. The density of stretched DNA molecules could be controlled by the concentration of the dye-stained DNA solution. Stretching of single DNA molecules was confirmed by AFM imaging and the photoluminescence spectra of single DNA molecule stained with YOYO-1 were obtained, suggesting that our method is useful for spectroscopic analysis of DNA at the single molecule level.

  3. Rat growth during chronic centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Oyama, J.

    1978-01-01

    Female weanling rats were chronically centrifuged at 4.15 G with controls at terrestrial gravity. Samples were sacrificed for body composition studies at 0, 28, 63, 105 and 308 days of centrifugation. The centrifuged group approached a significantly lower mature body mass than the controls (251 and 318g) but the rate of approach was the same in both groups. Retirement to 1G on the 60th day resulted in complete recovery. Among individual components muscle, bone, skin, CNS, heart, kidneys, body water and body fat were changed in the centrifuged group. However, an analysis of the growth of individual components relative to growth of the total fat-free compartment revealed that only skin (which increased in mass) was responding to centrifugation per se.

  4. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    PubMed Central

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression maneuvers. After pressure equilibration cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics. PMID:25664452

  5. [Galileo and centrifugal force].

    PubMed

    Vilain, Christiane

    This work intends to focus on Galileo's study of what is now called "centrifugal force," within the framework of the Second Day of his Dialogo written in 1632, rather than on the previously published commentaries on the topic. Galileo proposes three geometrical demonstrations in order to prove that gravity will always overcome centrifugalforce, and that the potential rotation of the Earth, whatever its speed, cannot in any case project objects beyond it. Each of these demonstrations must consequently contain an error and it has seemed to us that the first one had not been understood up until now. Our analysis offers an opportunity to return to Galileo's geometrical representation of dynamical questions; actually, we get an insight into the sophistication of Galileo's practices more than into his mistakes. Our second point, concerning the historiography of the problem, shows an evolution from anachronic critics to more contextual considerations, in the course of the second half of the twentieth century. PMID:25029818

  6. [Galileo and centrifugal force].

    PubMed

    Vilain, Christiane

    This work intends to focus on Galileo's study of what is now called "centrifugal force," within the framework of the Second Day of his Dialogo written in 1632, rather than on the previously published commentaries on the topic. Galileo proposes three geometrical demonstrations in order to prove that gravity will always overcome centrifugalforce, and that the potential rotation of the Earth, whatever its speed, cannot in any case project objects beyond it. Each of these demonstrations must consequently contain an error and it has seemed to us that the first one had not been understood up until now. Our analysis offers an opportunity to return to Galileo's geometrical representation of dynamical questions; actually, we get an insight into the sophistication of Galileo's practices more than into his mistakes. Our second point, concerning the historiography of the problem, shows an evolution from anachronic critics to more contextual considerations, in the course of the second half of the twentieth century.

  7. Human stretch reflex pathways reexamined

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Ş. Utku; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Sebik, Oğuz; Berna Ünver, M.; Farina, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Reflex responses of tibialis anterior motor units to stretch stimuli were investigated in human subjects. Three types of stretch stimuli were applied (tap-like, ramp-and-hold, and half-sine stretch). Stimulus-induced responses in single motor units were analyzed using the classical technique, which involved building average surface electromyogram (SEMG) and peristimulus time histograms (PSTH) from the discharge times of motor units and peristimulus frequencygrams (PSF) from the instantaneous discharge rates of single motor units. With the use of SEMG and PSTH, the tap-like stretch stimulus induced five separate reflex responses, on average. With the same single motor unit data, the PSF technique indicated that the tap stimulus induced only three reflex responses. Similar to the finding using the tap-like stretch stimuli, ramp-and-hold stimuli induced several peaks and troughs in the SEMG and PSTH. The PSF analyses displayed genuine increases in discharge rates underlying the peaks but not underlying the troughs. Half-sine stretch stimuli induced a long-lasting excitation followed by a long-lasting silent period in SEMG and PSTH. The increase in the discharge rate, however, lasted for the entire duration of the stimulus and continued during the silent period. The results are discussed in the light of the fact that the discharge rate of a motoneuron has a strong positive linear association with the effective synaptic current it receives and hence represents changes in the membrane potential more directly and accurately than the other indirect measures. This study suggests that the neuronal pathway of the human stretch reflex does not include inhibitory pathways. PMID:24225537

  8. Centrifugal dryers keep pace with the market

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    New plant design and upgrades create a shift in dewatering strategies. The article describes recent developments. Three major manufacturers supply centrifugal dryers - TEMA, Centrifugal & Mechanical Industries (CMI) and Ludowici. CMI introduced a line of vertical centrifugal dryers. TEMA improved the techniques by developing a horizontal vibratory centrifuge (HVC) which simplified maintenance. 3 figs., 1 photo.

  9. Microwave assisted centrifuge and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    Centrifuge samples may be exposed to microwave energy to heat the samples during centrifugation and to promote separation of the different components or constituents of the samples using a centrifuge device configured for generating microwave energy and directing the microwave energy at a sample located in the centrifuge.

  10. HOUSINGS AND MOUNTINGS FOR CENTRIFUGES

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-08-16

    A protective housing for a gas centrifuge comprises a slidable connection between flanges and framework portions for absorbing rotational energy in case of bursting of the rotor and a sealing means for sealing the rotor chamber.

  11. Variable-Speed Instrumented Centrifuges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, David K.; Brown, Allan H.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes conceptual pair of centrifuges, speed of which varied to produce range of artificial gravities in zero-gravity environment. Image and data recording and controlled temperature and gravity provided for 12 experiments. Microprocessor-controlled centrifuges include video cameras to record stop-motion images of experiments. Potential applications include studies of effect of gravity on growth and on production of hormones in corn seedlings, experiments with magnetic flotation to separate cells, and electrophoresis to separate large fragments of deoxyribonucleic acid.

  12. Centrifugal Compressor Aeroelastic Analysis Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Centrifugal compressors are very widely used in the turbomachine industry where low mass flow rates are required. Gas turbine engines for tanks, rotorcraft and small jets rely extensively on centrifugal compressors for rugged and compact design. These compressors experience problems related with unsteadiness of flowfields, such as stall flutter, separation at the trailing edge over diffuser guide vanes, tip vortex unsteadiness, etc., leading to rotating stall and surge. Considerable interest exists in small gas turbine engine manufacturers to understand and eventually eliminate the problems related to centrifugal compressors. The geometric complexity of centrifugal compressor blades and the twisting of the blade passages makes the linear methods inapplicable. Advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are needed for accurate unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of centrifugal compressors. Most of the current day industrial turbomachines and small aircraft engines are designed with a centrifugal compressor. With such a large customer base and NASA Glenn Research Center being, the lead center for turbomachines, it is important that adequate emphasis be placed on this area as well. Currently, this activity is not supported under any project at NASA Glenn.

  13. A Purposeful Dynamic Stretching Routine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Craig; Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic stretching, which involves moving parts of the body and gradually increases range of motion, speed of movement, or both through controlled, sport-specific movements, has become the popular choice of pre-exercise warm-up. This type of warm-up has evolved to encompass several variations, but at its core is the principle theme that preparing…

  14. Design of Warped Stretch Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Chen, Claire Lifan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-11-01

    Time stretch dispersive Fourier transform enables real-time spectroscopy at the repetition rate of million scans per second. High-speed real-time instruments ranging from analog-to-digital converters to cameras and single-shot rare-phenomena capture equipment with record performance have been empowered by it. Its warped stretch variant, realized with nonlinear group delay dispersion, offers variable-rate spectral domain sampling, as well as the ability to engineer the time-bandwidth product of the signal’s envelope to match that of the data acquisition systems. To be able to reconstruct the signal with low loss, the spectrotemporal distribution of the signal spectrum needs to be sparse. Here, for the first time, we show how to design the kernel of the transform and specifically, the nonlinear group delay profile dictated by the signal sparsity. Such a kernel leads to smart stretching with nonuniform spectral resolution, having direct utility in improvement of data acquisition rate, real-time data compression, and enhancement of ultrafast data capture accuracy. We also discuss the application of warped stretch transform in spectrotemporal analysis of continuous-time signals.

  15. Design of Warped Stretch Transform.

    PubMed

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Chen, Claire Lifan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-11-25

    Time stretch dispersive Fourier transform enables real-time spectroscopy at the repetition rate of million scans per second. High-speed real-time instruments ranging from analog-to-digital converters to cameras and single-shot rare-phenomena capture equipment with record performance have been empowered by it. Its warped stretch variant, realized with nonlinear group delay dispersion, offers variable-rate spectral domain sampling, as well as the ability to engineer the time-bandwidth product of the signal's envelope to match that of the data acquisition systems. To be able to reconstruct the signal with low loss, the spectrotemporal distribution of the signal spectrum needs to be sparse. Here, for the first time, we show how to design the kernel of the transform and specifically, the nonlinear group delay profile dictated by the signal sparsity. Such a kernel leads to smart stretching with nonuniform spectral resolution, having direct utility in improvement of data acquisition rate, real-time data compression, and enhancement of ultrafast data capture accuracy. We also discuss the application of warped stretch transform in spectrotemporal analysis of continuous-time signals.

  16. Three Fresh Exposures, Stretched Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic camera image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been processed using a technique known as a decorrelation stretch to exaggerate the colors. The area in the image includes three holes created inside 'Endurance Crater' by Opportunity's rock abrasion tool between sols 143 and 148 (June 18 and June 23, 2004). Because color variations are so subtle in the pictured area, stretched images are useful for discriminating color differences that can alert scientists to compositional and textural variations. For example, without the exaggeration, no color difference would be discernable among the tailings left behind after the grinding of these holes, but in this stretched image, the tailings around 'London' (top) appear more red than those of the other holes ('Virginia,' middle, and 'Cobble Hill,' bottom). Scientists believe that is because the rock abrasion tool sliced through two 'blueberries,' or spherules (visible on the upper left and upper right sides of the circle). When the blades break up these spherules, composed of mostly gray hematite, the result is a bright red powder. In this image, you can see the rock layers that made the team want to grind holes in each identified layer. The top layer is yellowish red, the middle is yellowish green and the lower layer is green. Another advantage to viewing this stretched image is the clear detail of the distribution of the rock abrasion tool tailings (heading down-slope) and the differences in rock texture. This image was created using the 753-, 535- and 432-nanometer filters.

  17. Iterated Stretching of Viscoelastic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Demekhin, Evgeny A.; Kalaidin, Evgeny

    1999-01-01

    We examine, with asymptotic analysis and numerical simulation, the iterated stretching dynamics of FENE and Oldroyd-B jets of initial radius r(sub 0), shear viscosity nu, Weissenberg number We, retardation number S, and capillary number Ca. The usual Rayleigh instability stretches the local uniaxial extensional flow region near a minimum in jet radius into a primary filament of radius [Ca(1 - S)/ We](sup 1/2)r(sub 0) between two beads. The strain-rate within the filament remains constant while its radius (elastic stress) decreases (increases) exponentially in time with a long elastic relaxation time 3We(r(sup 2, sub 0)/nu). Instabilities convected from the bead relieve the tension at the necks during this slow elastic drainage and trigger a filament recoil. Secondary filaments then form at the necks from the resulting stretching. This iterated stretching is predicted to occur successively to generate high-generation filaments of radius r(sub n), (r(sub n)/r(sub 0)) = square root of 2[r(sub n-1)/r(sub 0)](sup 3/2) until finite-extensibility effects set in.

  18. Design of Warped Stretch Transform

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Chen, Claire Lifan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Time stretch dispersive Fourier transform enables real-time spectroscopy at the repetition rate of million scans per second. High-speed real-time instruments ranging from analog-to-digital converters to cameras and single-shot rare-phenomena capture equipment with record performance have been empowered by it. Its warped stretch variant, realized with nonlinear group delay dispersion, offers variable-rate spectral domain sampling, as well as the ability to engineer the time-bandwidth product of the signal’s envelope to match that of the data acquisition systems. To be able to reconstruct the signal with low loss, the spectrotemporal distribution of the signal spectrum needs to be sparse. Here, for the first time, we show how to design the kernel of the transform and specifically, the nonlinear group delay profile dictated by the signal sparsity. Such a kernel leads to smart stretching with nonuniform spectral resolution, having direct utility in improvement of data acquisition rate, real-time data compression, and enhancement of ultrafast data capture accuracy. We also discuss the application of warped stretch transform in spectrotemporal analysis of continuous-time signals. PMID:26602458

  19. SEDIMENTATION IN THE ANGLE CENTRIFUGE.

    PubMed

    Pickels, E G

    1943-01-20

    1. Using hemocyanin from Limulus polyphemus as a test material, the process of sedimentation in the angle centrifuge, operating both in vacuum and in the open air, has been investigated. 2. Sedimentation in a given field of force was found less efficient when centrifugation was conducted in the open air, because of thermal convection. 3. Correlations have been made with results obtained in the analytical ultracentrifuge, and a theory of sedimentation in inclined tubes has been presented to explain the experimental results. 4. It has been shown that under proper conditions the angle centrifuge may be used for approximate determinations of particle size. 5. Recommendations, based mostly on experimental evidence, have been made for improving sedimentation and interpreting results. 6. To counteract convective disturbances of either thermal or inertial origin, a satisfactory method has been developed which consists of furnishing the fluid under study with a synthetic density gradient, formed with sucrose or some other non-sedimentable material.

  20. Centrifugal trapping in the magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delcourt, D. C.; Martin, R. F., Jr.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Moore, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    Particles leving the neutral sheet in the distant magnetotail at times display adiabatic trajectory sequences characterized by an inflection toward the equator and subsequent mirroring in its vicinity. We demonstrate that this low-latitude mirroring results primarily from a centrifugal deceleration due to the fast direction-changing E x B drift. This effect which we refer to as 'centrifugal trapping' appears both in guiding centre and full particle treatments. It thus does not directly relate to nonadiabatic motion. However, pitch angle scattering due to nonadiabatic neutral sheet interaction does play a role in reducing the parallel speed of the particles. We show that centrifugal trapping is an important mechanism for the confinement of the slowest (typically below the equatorial E x B drift speed) plasma sheet populations to the midplane vicinity.

  1. MEANS FOR DETERMINING CENTRIFUGE ALIGNMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, W.Q.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for remotely determining the alignment of a centrifuge. The centrifage shaft is provided with a shoulder, upon which two followers ride, one for detecting radial movements, and one upon the shoulder face for determining the axial motion. The followers are attached to separate liquid filled bellows, and a tube connects each bellows to its respective indicating gage at a remote location. Vibrations produced by misalignment of the centrifuge shaft are transmitted to the bellows, and tbence through the tubing to the indicator gage. This apparatus is particularly useful for operation in a hot cell where the materials handled are dangerous to the operating personnel.

  2. Centrifugation and the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2009-05-01

    A study of U. S. Army Manhattan Engineer District documents reveals that consideration of centrifugation as a means of uranium enrichment during World War II was considerably more extensive than is commonly appreciated. By the time the centrifuge project was abandoned in early 1944 a full-scale prototype unit had been fabricated and tested at near-production speeds, enrichments of close to theoretically-expected levels had been demonstrated with pilot-plant units, and plans for production plants had been developed. This paper will review the history of this little-known aspect of the Project and examine the circumstances of how it came to be discontinued.

  3. Centrifugation and the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2009-04-01

    A study of U. S. Army Manhattan Engineer District documents reveals that consideration of centrifugation as a means of uranium enrichment during World War II was considerably more extensive than is commonly appreciated. By the time the centrifuge project was abandoned in early 1944 a full-scale prototype unit had been fabricated and tested at near-production speeds, enrichments of close to theoretically-expected levels had been demonstrated with pilot-plant units, and plans for production plants had been developed. This paper will review the history of this little-known aspect of the Project and examine the circumstances of how it came to be discontinued.

  4. Stretching short DNAs in electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jizeng; Fan, Xiaojun; Gao, Huajian

    2006-03-01

    This paper is aimed at a combined theoretical and numerical study of the force-extension relation of a short DNA molecule stretched in an electrolyte. A theoretical formula based on a recent discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model of Kierfeld et al. (Eur Phys. J. E, Vol. 14, pp.17-34, 2004) and the classical OSF mean-field theory on electrostatic stiffening of a charged polymer is numerically verified by a set of Brownian dynamics simulations based on a generalized bead-rod (GBR) model incorporating long-ranged electrostatic interactions via the Debye-Hueckel potential (DH). The analysis indicates that the stretching of a short DNA can be well described as a WLC with a constant effective persistent length. This contrasts the behavior of long DNA chains that are known to exhibit variable persistent lengths depending on the ion concentration levels and force magnitudes. PMID:16711068

  5. Stretching

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  6. BSDB: the Biomolecule Stretching Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marek; Sikora, Mateusz; Sulkowska, Joanna I.; Witkowski, Bartlomiej

    2011-03-01

    Despite more than a decade of experiments on single biomolecule manipulation, mechanical properties of only several scores of proteins have been measured. A characteristic scale of the force of resistance to stretching, Fmax , has been found to range between ~ 10 and 480 pN. The Biomolecule Stretching Data Base (BSDB) described here provides information about expected values of Fmax for, currently, 17 134 proteins. The values and other characteristics of the unfolding proces, including the nature of identified mechanical clamps, are available at www://info.ifpan.edu.pl/BSDB/. They have been obtained through simulations within a structure-based model which correlates satisfactorily with the available experimental data on stretching. BSDB also lists experimental data and results of the existing all-atom simulations. The database offers a Protein-Data-Bank-wide guide to mechano-stability of proteins. Its description is provided by a forthcoming Nucleic Acids Research paper. Supported by EC FUNMOL project FP7-NMP-2007-SMALL-1, and European Regional Development Fund: Innovative Economy (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08).

  7. Biaxially Stretched Polycarbonate Film For Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shaio-Ping S.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments on effects of biaxial stretching on crystal structures, dielectric properties, and sellected thermal and mechanical properties of biaxially stretched polycarbonate films. Highest stretch ratios produce highest degree of crystallinity, with single crystalline phase and distribution of crystallites more nearly isotropic than uniaxially oriented film. Electrical properties at high temperatures improved.

  8. 77 FR 9273 - USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Direct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... COMMISSION USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Direct Transfer of Licenses In the Matter of USEC INC. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American... holder of materials licenses SNM-7003 and SNM-2011 for the American Centrifuge Lead Cascade...

  9. Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of the status of the Centrifuge Facility being developed by ARC for flight on the International Space Station Alpha. The assessment includes technical status, schedules, budgets, project management, performance of facility relative to science requirements, and identifies risks and issues that need to be considered in future development activities.

  10. Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1994-01-01

    The Centrifuge Facility Project at ARC was reviewed by a code U team to determine appropriateness adequacy for the ISSA. This report represents the findings of one consultant to this team and concentrates on scientific and technical risks. This report supports continuation of the project to the next phase of development.

  11. Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Law, Jack D.; Garn, Troy G.; Todd, Terry A.; Macaluso, Lawrence L.

    2012-03-20

    Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods are described. More particularly, fluid transfer connections for a centrifugal separator system having support assemblies with a movable member coupled to a connection tube and coupled to a fixed member, such that the movable member is constrained to movement along a fixed path relative to the fixed member are described. Also, centrifugal separator systems including such fluid transfer connections are described. Additionally, methods of installing, removing and/or replacing centrifugal separators from centrifugal separator systems are described.

  12. Design of a centrifugal blood pump: Heart Turcica Centrifugal.

    PubMed

    Demir, Onur; Biyikli, Emre; Lazoglu, Ismail; Kucukaksu, Suha

    2011-07-01

    A prototype of a new implantable centrifugal blood pump system named Heart Turcica Centrifugal (HTC) was developed as a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) for the treatment of end-stage cardiac failure. In the development of HTC, effects of blade height and volute tongue profiles on the hydraulic and hemolytic performances of the pump were investigated. As a result, the prototype was manufactured using the best blade height and volute tongue profiles. Performance of the prototype model was experimentally evaluated in a closed-loop flow system using water as the medium. The hydraulic performance requirement of an LVAD (5 L/min flow rate against a pressure difference of 100 mm Hg) was attained at 2800 rpm rotational speed.

  13. Time stretch enhanced recording oscilloscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shalabh; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    Recording analog signals using photonic time-stretch technique in a mode which combines advantages of continuous signal capture, as in real-time analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and very high bandwidth capability of (equivalent-time) sampling oscilloscopes, is proposed. It is shown that the eye diagrams of high speed serial data can be acquired at least 100 times faster than the fastest capture rates today. Unlike conventional sampling scopes, this technique can capture ultrafast dynamics of repetitive signals, nonrepetitive signals, and rare events. Experimentally, 45 Gbit/s data eye diagram measurement is demonstrated.

  14. Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Safeguards System Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J; Boyer, B D

    2006-06-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems used in enrichment facilities. This research focuses on analyzing the effectiveness of the safeguards in protecting against the range of safeguards concerns for enrichment plants, including diversion of attractive material and unauthorized modes of use. We developed an Extend simulation model for a generic medium-sized centrifuge enrichment plant. We modeled the material flow in normal operation, plant operational upset modes, and selected diversion scenarios, for selected safeguards systems. Simulation modeling is used to analyze both authorized and unauthorized use of a plant and the flow of safeguards information. Simulation tracks the movement of materials and isotopes, identifies the signatures of unauthorized use, tracks the flow and compilation of safeguards data, and evaluates the effectiveness of the safeguards system in detecting misuse signatures. The simulation model developed could be of use to the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, enabling the IAEA to observe and draw conclusions that uranium enrichment facilities are being used only within authorized limits for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It will evaluate improved approaches to nonproliferation concerns, facilitating deployment of enhanced and cost-effective safeguards systems for an important part of the nuclear power fuel cycle.

  15. Unsymmetrical flow in a centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslen, S. H.

    1984-09-01

    The differential equations for a centrifuge sector are discussed in which cylinder whose cross section is a slice of pie is presumed to be mud. Three boundary layers are considered: the cylindrical wall layer, Ekman layers at the ends and the buoyancy layers on the theta = constant walls. It is suggested that the cylinder is most of the time infinitely long, and that the atmospheric scale height is of the order of the bowl radius all of the time. Both restrictions are relaxed.

  16. Decorrelation Stretch Near Cerberus Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 25, 2004 On this image you can see two infrared frames of the same area on Mars. One of the images (in black and white) represents a single wavelength or band of the THEMIS IR instrument, while the other image (in false color) represents 3 different bands. The image with the various colors was created with a technique called Decorrelation Stretch (DCS). In this technique individual bands of the THEMIS IR instrument are stretched to better show compositional variations throughout the whole range. After the bands are stretched they are overlayed on one another and colors are assigned to each band. This makes up the colors in the image.

    As you can see, there is a difference in what is noticable in the single band IR image versus the false-colored one. On the color image the pink/magenta colors usually represent basaltic content, cyan often indicates the presence of water ice clouds, while green can represent dust.

    The bright purple and pink colors associated with the valley are due to basalt. There may be a thin veneer of dust present in the region (it was a dark colored region during the Viking mission in the 1970's) through which the basaltic material pokes out along the edges of the valley and the nearby knobby terrain.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 10.7, Longitude 163 East (197 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  17. Twinning of amphibian embryos by centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    In the frog Xenopus laevis, the dorsal structures of the embryonic body axis normally derive from the side of the egg opposite the side of sperm entry. However, if the uncleaved egg is inclined at lg or centrifuged in an inclined position, this topographic relationship is overridden: the egg makes its dorsal axial structures according to its orientation in the gravitational/centrifugal field, irrespective of the position of sperm entry. Certain conditions of centrifugation cause eggs to develop into conjoined twins with two sets of axial structures. A detailed analysis of twinning provided some insight into experimental axis orientation. First, as with single-axis embryos, both axes in twins are oriented according to the direction of centrifugation. One axis forms at the centripetal side of the egg and the other forms at the centrifugal side, even when the side of sperm entry is normal to the centrifugal force vector. Second, if eggs are centrifuged to give twins, but are inclined at lg to prevent post-centrifugation endoplasmic redistributions, only single-axis embryos develop. Thus, a second redistribution is required for high-frequency secondary axis formation. This can be accomplished by lg (as in the single centrifugations) or by a second centrifugation directed along the egg's animal-vegetal axis.

  18. Cell reorientation under cyclic stretching

    PubMed Central

    Livne, Ariel; Bouchbinder, Eran; Geiger, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical cues from the extracellular microenvironment play a central role in regulating the structure, function and fate of living cells. Nevertheless, the precise nature of the mechanisms and processes underlying this crucial cellular mechanosensitivity remains a fundamental open problem. Here we provide a novel framework for addressing cellular sensitivity and response to external forces by experimentally and theoretically studying one of its most striking manifestations – cell reorientation to a uniform angle in response to cyclic stretching of the underlying substrate. We first show that existing approaches are incompatible with our extensive measurements of cell reorientation. We then propose a fundamentally new theory that shows that dissipative relaxation of the cell’s passively-stored, two-dimensional, elastic energy to its minimum actively drives the reorientation process. Our theory is in excellent quantitative agreement with the complete temporal reorientation dynamics of individual cells, measured over a wide range of experimental conditions, thus elucidating a basic aspect of mechanosensitivity. PMID:24875391

  19. Neuro-Motor Responses to Daily Centrifugation in Bed-Rested Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffery T.; Krnavek, Jody; Fisher, Elizibeth; Ford, George; Paloski, William H.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known from numerous space flight studies that exposure to micro-g produces both morphological and neural adaptations in the major postural muscles. However, the characteristics and mechanism of these changes, particularly when it may involve the central nervous system are not defined. Furthermore, it is not known what role unloading of the muscular system may have on central changes in sensorimotor function or if centrifugation along the +Gz direction (long body axis) can mitigate both the peripheral changes in muscle function and modification of the central changes in sensorimotor adaptation to the near weightless environment of space flight. The purpose of this specific effort was, therefore, to investigate the efficacy of artificial gravity (AG) as a method for maintaining sensorimotor function in micro-g. Eight male subjects were exposed to daily 1 hr centrifugation during a 21 day 6 degree head-down bed rest study. Seven controls were placed on the centrifuge without rotation. The radius and angular velocity of the centrifuge were adjusted such that each subject experienced a centripetal acceleration of 2.5g at the feet, and approximately 1.0g at the heart. Both the tendon (MSR) and functional stretch reflexes (FSR) were collected using an 80 lb. ft. servomotor controlled via position feedback to provide a dorsiflexion step input to elicit the MSR, and the same step input with a built in 3 sec hold to evoke the FSR. EMG data were obtained from the triceps surae. Supplementary torque, velocity and position data were collected with the EMG responses. All data were digitized and sampled at 4 kHz. Only the MSR data has been analyzed at this time, and preliminary results suggest that those subjects exposed to active centrifugation (treatment group) show only minor changes in MSR peak latency times, either as a function of time spent in bed rest or exposure to centrifugation, while the control subjects show delays in the MSR peak latencies that are

  20. Kinematics analyses related to stretch-shortening cycle during soccer instep kicking after different acute stretching.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Mohammadkazemi, Reza; Sarafrazi, Soodeh; Riyahi-Malayeri, Shahin; Sotoodeh, Vahid

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static and dynamic stretching within a preexercise warm-up on angular velocity of knee joint, deepest knee flexion (DKF), and duration of eccentric and concentric contractions, which are relative to the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) during instep kicking in professional soccer players. The kicking motions of dominant legs were captured from 18 Olympic professional male soccer players (height: 180.38 ± 7.34 cm; weight: 69.77 ± 9.73 kg; age: 19.22 ± 1.83 years) using 4 digital video cameras at 50 Hz. There was a significant difference in the DKF after the dynamic stretching (-3.22 ± 3.10°) vs. static stretching (-0.18 ± 3.19°) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. Moreover, there was significant difference in eccentric duration after the dynamic stretching (0.006 ± 0.01 seconds) vs. static stretching (-0.003 ± 0.01 seconds) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.015. There was a significant difference in the concentric duration after the dynamic stretching (-0.007 ± 0.01 seconds) vs. static stretching (0.002 ± 0.01 seconds) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. There was also a significant difference in knee angular velocity after the dynamic stretching (4.08 ± 3.81 rad·s) vs. static stretching (-5.34 ± 4.40 rad·s) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. We concluded that dynamic stretching during warm-ups, as compared with static stretching, is probably the most effective way as preparation for the kinematics characteristics of soccer instep kick, which are relative to the SSC.

  1. Centrifugal separators and related devices and methods

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Law, Jack D.; Garn, Troy G.; Macaluso, Lawrence L.; Todd, Terry A.

    2012-03-06

    Centrifugal separators and related methods and devices are described. More particularly, centrifugal separators comprising a first fluid supply fitting configured to deliver fluid into a longitudinal fluid passage of a rotor shaft and a second fluid supply fitting sized and configured to sealingly couple with the first fluid supply fitting are described. Also, centrifugal separator systems comprising a manifold having a drain fitting and a cleaning fluid supply fitting are described, wherein the manifold is coupled to a movable member of a support assembly. Additionally, methods of cleaning centrifugal separators are described.

  2. ORNL centrifuge pellet fueling system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Grapperhaus, M.J.; Milora, S.L. ); Drawin, H.; Geraud, A.; Chatelier, M.; Gros, G. )

    1992-01-01

    A centrifuge pellet injecter designed and built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is in operation on Tore Supra. This injector has the capability of injecting up to 100 pellets at speeds up to 800 M/s. The solid deuterium pellets can be formed with a variable mass from 3 to 10 torr-L and are fired at a rate of up to 10 pellets per second. The experimental program that is under way combines repetitive pellet fueling with the ergodic divertor and pump limiters to establish and understand long-pulse plasmas in which the pellet fuel source is in balance with the particle exhaust. With lower hybrid current drive, pulse lengths of up to 2 min might be achieved. To prepare for these extended pulse lengths, the pellet source on the centrifuge will be extended to provide a 300- to 500-pellet capability. A similar system extended to steady-state pellet fabrication technology and designed for a radiation and tritium environment would be a candidate for a fueling system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Analysis of pellet-fueled ITER discharges using the WHIST code shows the potential for controlling the radial fuel deposition point to achieve the desired core density while maintaining the edge density and temperatures so as to minimize the diverter plate erosion. A centrifuge fueling system would have the capability of taking the D-T exhaust directly from the cryopumping systems, recondensing and purifying the fuel, and injecting the reconstituted pellets into the plasma, thereby minimizing the tritium inventory.

  3. ORNL centrifuge pellet fueling system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Grapperhaus, M.J.; Milora, S.L.; Drawin, H.; Geraud, A.; Chatelier, M.; Gros, G.

    1992-11-01

    A centrifuge pellet injecter designed and built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is in operation on Tore Supra. This injector has the capability of injecting up to 100 pellets at speeds up to 800 M/s. The solid deuterium pellets can be formed with a variable mass from 3 to 10 torr-L and are fired at a rate of up to 10 pellets per second. The experimental program that is under way combines repetitive pellet fueling with the ergodic divertor and pump limiters to establish and understand long-pulse plasmas in which the pellet fuel source is in balance with the particle exhaust. With lower hybrid current drive, pulse lengths of up to 2 min might be achieved. To prepare for these extended pulse lengths, the pellet source on the centrifuge will be extended to provide a 300- to 500-pellet capability. A similar system extended to steady-state pellet fabrication technology and designed for a radiation and tritium environment would be a candidate for a fueling system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Analysis of pellet-fueled ITER discharges using the WHIST code shows the potential for controlling the radial fuel deposition point to achieve the desired core density while maintaining the edge density and temperatures so as to minimize the diverter plate erosion. A centrifuge fueling system would have the capability of taking the D-T exhaust directly from the cryopumping systems, recondensing and purifying the fuel, and injecting the reconstituted pellets into the plasma, thereby minimizing the tritium inventory.

  4. Centrifugal quantum states of neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Petukhov, A. K.; Protasov, K. V.; Voronin, A. Yu.

    2008-09-01

    We propose a method for observation of the quasistationary states of neutrons localized near a curved mirror surface. The bounding effective well is formed by the centrifugal potential and the mirror Fermi potential. This phenomenon is an example of an exactly solvable “quantum bouncer” problem that can be studied experimentally. It could provide a promising tool for studying fundamental neutron-matter interactions, as well as quantum neutron optics and surface physics effects. We develop a formalism that describes quantitatively the neutron motion near the mirror surface. The effects of mirror roughness are taken into account.

  5. Testing of pyrochemical centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, L.S.; Carls, E.L.; Basco, J.K.; Johnson, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    A centrifugal contactor that performs oxidation and reduction exchange reactions between molten metals and salts at 500 degrees Centigrade has been tested successfully at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The design is based on contactors for aqueous- organic systems operation near room temperature. In tests to demonstrate the performance of the pyrocontactor, cadmium and LICl- KCl eutectic salt were the immiscible solvent phases, and rare earths were the distributing solutes. The tests showed that the pyrocontactor mixed and separated the phases well, with stage efficiencies approaching 99% at rotor speeds near 2700 rpm. The contactor ran smoothly and reliably over the entire range of speeds that was tested.

  6. Directly observed reversible shape changes and hemoglobin stratification during centrifugation of human and Amphiuma red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Joseph F; Inoué, Shinya

    2006-02-21

    This paper describes changes that occur in human and Amphiuma red blood cells observed during centrifugation with a special microscope. Dilute suspensions of cells were layered, in a centrifuge chamber, above an osmotically matched dense solution, containing Nycodenz, Ficoll, or Percoll (Pharmacia) that formed a density gradient that allowed the cells to slowly settle to an equilibrium position. Biconcave human red blood cells moved downward at low forces with minimum wobble. The cells oriented vertically when the force field was increased and Hb sedimented as the lower part of each cell became bulged and assumed a "bag-like" shape. The upper centripetal portion of the cell became thinner and remained biconcave. These changes occurred rapidly and were completely reversible upon lowering the centrifugal force. Bag-shaped cells, upon touching red cells in rouleau, immediately reverted to biconcave disks as they flipped onto a stack. Amphiuma red cells displayed a different type of reversible stratification and deformation at high force fields. Here the cells became stretched, with the nucleus now moving centrifugally, the Hb moving centripetally, and the bottom of the cells becoming thinner and clear. Nevertheless, the distribution of the marginal bands at the cells' rim was unchanged. We conclude that centrifugation, per se, while changing a red cell's shape and the distribution of its intracellular constituents, does so in a completely reversible manner. Centrifugation of red cells harboring altered or missing structural elements could provide information on shape determinants that are still unexplained. PMID:16477016

  7. Stretching Impacts Inflammation Resolution in Connective Tissue.

    PubMed

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J; Colas, Romain A; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-07-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 min twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, 2 weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch versus no stretch for 48 h, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue.

  8. Stretching Impacts Inflammation Resolution in Connective Tissue.

    PubMed

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J; Colas, Romain A; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-07-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 min twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, 2 weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch versus no stretch for 48 h, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue. PMID:26588184

  9. Reinforcement for Stretch Formed Sheet Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, J. B.; Baxter, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Tearing of aluminum sheet metal durinng stretch forming prevented by flame spraying layer of aluminum on edges held in stretch-forming machine. Technique improves grip of machine on metal and reinforced sheet better able to with stand concentration of force in vicinity of grips.

  10. CENTRIFUGES

    DOEpatents

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    Damping bearings for use on the shafts of an ultracentrifuge were designed which are capable of passing through critical angular speeds. The shaft extending from one end of the rotor is journaled in fixed-plain bearings mounted on annular resilient shock-absorbing elements to dampen small vibrations. The shaft at the other end of the rotor is journaled in two damper-bearing assemblies which are so spaced on the shaft that a vibration node can at no time exist at both bearing assemblies. These bearings are similar to the other bearings except that the bearing housings are slidably mounted on the supporting structure for movement transverse to the rotational axis of the rotor.

  11. 76 FR 9613 - USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Register on November 17, 2010 (75 FR 70300), including a notice of opportunity to request a hearing, or to... COMMISSION USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order... licenses numbers SNM- 7003 and SNM-2011 for the American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility (Lead...

  12. Hamstrings stretch reflex in human spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Burke, David; Gillies, J. D.; Lance, James W.

    1971-01-01

    In 16 patients with spastic paralysis the hamstrings stretch reflex was found to increase as the velocity of stretch increased, and generally to subside after movement ceased. These effects are attributable to the dynamic property of the primary spindle ending. The stretch reflex commonly appeared in only the last third of the stretching movement and was maximal as the knee became fully extended. This is consistent with the static properties of the primary and secondary spindle endings, and accounts for the absence of the clasp-knife phenomenon in the spastic hamstrings. The difference in the nature of the stretch reflex in spastic flexor and extensor muscles is best explained by the differential reflex effects of group II afferent fibres which facilitate flexor motoneurones and inhibit extensor motoneurones. PMID:4255176

  13. Strategy as stretch and leverage.

    PubMed

    Hamel, G; Prahalad, C K

    1993-01-01

    Global competition is not just product versus product or company versus company. It is mind-set versus mind-set. Driven to understand the dynamics of competition, we have learned a lot about what makes one company more successful than another. But to find the root of competitiveness--to understand why some companies create new forms of competitive advantage while others watch and follow--we must look at strategic mind-sets. For many managers, "being strategic" means pursuing opportunities that fit the company's resources. This approach is not wrong, Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad contend, but it obscures an approach in which "stretch" supplements fit and being strategic means creating a chasm between ambition and resources. Toyota, CNN, British Airways, Sony, and others all displaced competitors with stronger reputations and deeper pockets. Their secret? In each case, the winner had greater ambition than its well-endowed rivals. Winners also find less resource-intensive ways of achieving their ambitious goals. This is where leverage complements the strategic allocation of resources. Managers at competitive companies can get a bigger bang for their buck in five basic ways: by concentrating resources around strategic goals; by accumulating resources more efficiently; by complementing one kind of resource with another; by conserving resources whenever they can; and by recovering resources from the market-place as quickly as possible. As recent competitive battles have demonstrated, abundant resources can't guarantee continued industry leadership.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10124635

  14. Mars Under the Microscope (stretched)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This magnified look at the martian soil near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, Meridiani Planum, shows coarse grains sprinkled over a fine layer of sand. The image was captured on the 10th day, or sol, of the rover's mission by its microscopic imager, located on the instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' Scientists are intrigued by the spherical rocks, which can be formed by a variety of geologic processes, including cooling of molten lava droplets and accretion of concentric layers of material around a particle or 'seed.'

    The examined patch of soil is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. The circular grain in the lower left corner is approximately 3 millimeters (.12 inches) across, or about the size of a sunflower seed.

    This stretched color composite was obtained by merging images acquired with the orange-tinted dust cover open and closed. The varying hints of orange suggest differences in mineral composition. The blue tint at the lower right corner is a tag used by scientists to indicate that the dust cover is closed.

  15. DNA stretching on the wall surfaces in curved microchannels with different radii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    DNA molecule conformation dynamics and stretching were made on semi-circular surfaces with different radii (500 to 5,000 μm) in microchannels measuring 200 μm × 200 μm in cross section. Five different buffer solutions - 1× Tris-acetate-EDTA (TAE), 1× Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE), 1× Tris-EDTA (TE), 1× Tris-phosphate-EDTA (TPE), and 1× Tris-buffered saline (TBS) solutions - were used with a variety of viscosity such as 40, 60, and 80 cP, with resultant 10−4 ≤ Re ≤ 10−3 and the corresponding 5 ≤ Wi ≤ 12. The test fluids were seeded with JOJO-1 tracer particles for flow visualization and driven through the test channels via a piezoelectric (PZT) micropump. Micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV) measuring technique was applied for the centered-plane velocity distribution measurements. It is found that the radius effect on the stretch ratio of DNA dependence is significant. The stretch ratio becomes larger as the radius becomes small due to the larger centrifugal force. Consequently, the maximum stretch was found at the center of the channel with a radius of 500 μm. PMID:25147488

  16. DNA stretching on the wall surfaces in curved microchannels with different radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Shou-Shing; Wu, Fong-He; Tsai, Ming-Ju

    2014-08-01

    DNA molecule conformation dynamics and stretching were made on semi-circular surfaces with different radii (500 to 5,000 μm) in microchannels measuring 200 μm × 200 μm in cross section. Five different buffer solutions - 1× Tris-acetate-EDTA (TAE), 1× Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE), 1× Tris-EDTA (TE), 1× Tris-phosphate-EDTA (TPE), and 1× Tris-buffered saline (TBS) solutions - were used with a variety of viscosity such as 40, 60, and 80 cP, with resultant 10-4 ≤ Re ≤ 10-3 and the corresponding 5 ≤ Wi ≤ 12. The test fluids were seeded with JOJO-1 tracer particles for flow visualization and driven through the test channels via a piezoelectric (PZT) micropump. Micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV) measuring technique was applied for the centered-plane velocity distribution measurements. It is found that the radius effect on the stretch ratio of DNA dependence is significant. The stretch ratio becomes larger as the radius becomes small due to the larger centrifugal force. Consequently, the maximum stretch was found at the center of the channel with a radius of 500 μm.

  17. Centrifuge modelling of granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    A common characteristic of mass flows like debris flows, rock avalanches and mudflows is that gravity is their main driving force. Gravity defines the intensity and duration of the main interactions between particles and their surrounding media (particle-particle, particle-fluid, fluid-fluid). At the same time, gravity delimits the occurrence of phase separation, inverse segregation, and mass consolidation, among other phenomena. Therefore, in the understanding of the flow physics it is important to account for the scaling of gravity in scaled models. In this research, a centrifuge model is developed to model free surface granular flows down an incline at controlled gravity conditions. Gravity is controlled by the action of an induced inertial acceleration field resulting from the rotation of the model in a geotechnical centrifuge. The characteristics of the induced inertial acceleration field during flow are discussed and validated via experimental data. Flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and impact forces are measured for a range of channel inclinations and gravity conditions. Preliminary results enlighten the flow characteristics at variable gravity conditions and open a discussion on the simulation of large scale processes at a laboratory scale. Further analysis on the flow physics brings valuable information for the validation of granular flows rheology.

  18. The Energetics of Centrifugal Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, W. K.; Jiao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A recent study has argued that the California Undercurrent, and poleward eastern boundary currents in general, generate mixing events through centrifugal instability (CI). Conditions favorable for CI are created by the strong horizontal shears developed in turbulent bottom layers of currents flowing in the direction of topographic waves. At points of abrupt topographic change, like promontories and capes, the coastal current separates from the boundary and injects gravitationally stable but dynamically unstable flow into the interior. The resulting finite amplitude development of the instability involves overturnings and diabatic mixing. The purpose of this study is to examine the energetics of CI in order to characterize it as has been done for other instabilities and develop a framework in which to estimate its regional and global impacts. We argue that CI is roughly twice as efficient at mixing as is Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and that roughly 10% of the initial energy in a CUC-like current is lost to either local mixing or the generation of unbalanced flows. The latter probably leads to non-local mixing. Thus centrifugal instability is an effective process by which energy is lost from the balanced flow and spent in mixing neighboring water masses. We argue the importance of the mixing is regional in nature, but of less importance to the global budgets given its regional specificity.

  19. Dependence of cyclic stretch-induced stress fiber reorientation on stretch waveform.

    PubMed

    Tondon, Abhishek; Hsu, Hui-Ju; Kaunas, Roland

    2012-03-15

    Cyclic uniaxial stretching of adherent nonmuscle cells induces the gradual reorientation of their actin stress fibers perpendicular to the stretch direction to an extent dependent on stretch frequency. By subjecting cells to various temporal waveforms of cyclic stretch, we revealed that stress fibers are much more sensitive to strain rate than strain frequency. By applying asymmetric waveforms, stress fibers were clearly much more responsive to the rate of lengthening than the rate of shortening during the stretch cycle. These observations were interpreted using a theoretical model of networks of stress fibers with sarcomeric structure. The model predicts that stretch waveforms with fast lengthening rates generate greater average stress fiber tension than that generated by fast shortening. This integrated approach of experiment and theory provides new insight into the mechanisms by which cells respond to matrix stretching to maintain tensional homeostasis.

  20. Astronaut Gordon Cooper in centrifuge for tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, is strapped into the gondola while undergoing tests in the centrifuge at the Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, Pennsylvania. The centrifuge is used to investigate by simulation the pilot's capability to control the vehicle during the actual flight in its booster and reentry profile.

  1. Apparatus for centrifugal separation of coal particles

    DOEpatents

    Dickie, William; Cavallaro, Joseph A.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A gravimetric cell for centrifugal separation of fine coal by density has a cylindrical body and a butterfly valve or other apparatus for selectively sealing the body radially across the approximate center of the cylinder. A removable top is provided which seals the cylinder in the centrifuge and in unvented areas.

  2. Centrifugal innervation of the mammalian olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Shinji; Yamamoto, Noboru

    2008-12-01

    Although it has been known for decades that the mammalian olfactory bulb receives a substantial number of centrifugal inputs from other regions of the brain, relatively few data have been available on the function of the centrifugal olfactory system. Knowing the role of the centrifugal projection and how it works is of critical importance to fully understanding olfaction. The centrifugal fibers can be classified into two groups, a group that release neuromodulators, such as noradrenaline, serotonin, or acetylcholine, and a group originating in the olfactory cortex. Accumulating evidence suggests that centrifugal neuromodulatory inputs are associated with acquisition of odor memory. Because the distribution of the terminals on these fibers is diffuse and widespread, the neuromodulatory inputs must affect diverse subsets of bulbar neurons at the same time. In contrast, knowledge of the role of centrifugal fibers from the olfactory cortical areas is limited. Judging from recent morphological evidence, these fibers may modify the activity of neurons located in sparse and discrete loci in the olfactory bulb. Given the modular organization of the olfactory bulb, centrifugal fibers from the olfactory cortex may help coordinate the activities of restricted subsets of neurons belonging to distinct functional modules in an odor-specific manner. Because the olfactory cortex receives inputs from limbic and neocortical areas in addition to inputs from the bulb, the centrifugal inputs from the cortex can modulate odor processing in the bulb in response to non-olfactory as well as olfactory cues.

  3. Stretch induced hyperexcitability of mice callosal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Anthony; Stebbings, Kevin A.; Llano, Daniel A.; Saif, Taher

    2015-01-01

    Memory and learning are thought to result from changes in synaptic strength. Previous studies on synaptic physiology in brain slices have traditionally been focused on biochemical processes. Here, we demonstrate with experiments on mouse brain slices that central nervous system plasticity is also sensitive to mechanical stretch. This is important, given the host of clinical conditions involving changes in mechanical tension on the brain, and the normal role that mechanical tension plays in brain development. A novel platform is developed to investigate neural responses to mechanical stretching. Flavoprotein autofluoresence (FA) imaging was employed for measuring neural activity. We observed that synaptic excitability substantially increases after a small (2.5%) stretch was held for 10 min and released. The increase is accumulative, i.e., multiple stretch cycles further increase the excitability. We also developed analytical tools to quantify the spatial spread and response strength. Results show that the spatial spread is less stable in slices undergoing the stretch-unstretch cycle. FA amplitude and activation rate decrease as excitability increases in stretch cases but not in electrically enhanced cases. These results collectively demonstrate that a small stretch in physiological range can modulate neural activities significantly, suggesting that mechanical events can be employed as a novel tool for the modulation of neural plasticity. PMID:26300729

  4. Simulator sickness provoked by a human centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Voge, V M

    1991-10-01

    Simulator sickness is now a well-recognized entity. It is recognized as a form of motion sickness, having a higher incidence in the more sophisticated simulators. Human centrifuges (dynamic simulators) are the newest innovation in aircrew training devices. Simulator sickness has never been reported in human centrifuges. We are reporting on a case of delayed simulator sickness in a pilot-subject after a centrifuge experience. A review of the "psycho-physiological" problems routinely experienced by subjects on human centrifuges indicates such problems are due to simulator sickness, although they are not reported as such. In this paper, we give a brief overview of simulator sickness and briefly discuss simulator sickness, as related to the human centrifuge experience.

  5. Isotopically Modified Molybdenum: Production for Application in Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. Yu.; Bonarev, A. K.; Sulaberidze, G. A.; Borisevich, V. D.; Kulikov, G. G.; Shmelev, A. N.

    The possibility to use the isotopically modified molybdenum as a constructive material for the fuel rods of light water and fast reactors is discussed. The calculations demonstrate that the isotopically modified molybdenum with an average neutron absorption cross-section comparable to that of zirconium can be obtained with the reasonable for practice cost by a cascade of gas centrifuges, specially designed for separation of non-uranium isotopes.

  6. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    PubMed Central

    Baten, E.; Vandewalle, T.; van Renterghem, K.

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch. PMID:26793592

  7. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration.

    PubMed

    Baten, E; Vandewalle, T; van Renterghem, K

    2016-03-01

    A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  8. Modeling of UF{sub 6} enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G.

    2012-09-26

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF{sub 6} gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays). Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the 'on site' inspectors' measurements.

  9. Centrifuges in gravitational physiology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Davies, Phil; Fuller, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Data from space flight and ground based experiments have clearly demonstrated the importance of Earth gravity for normal physiological function in man and animals. Gravitational Physiology is concerned with the role and influence of gravity on physiological systems. Research in this field examines how we perceive and respond to gravity and the mechanisms underlying these responses. Inherent in our search for answers to these questions is the ability to alter gravity, which is not physically possible without leaving Earth. However, useful experimental paradigms have been to modify the perceived force of gravity by changing either the orientation of subjects to the gravity vector (i.e., postural changes) or by applying inertial forces to augment the magnitude of the gravity vector. The later technique has commonly been used by applying centripetal force via centrifugation.

  10. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Lee, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A uv-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  11. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90.degree. and 180.degree. excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A UV-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  12. Springback prediction and optimization of variable stretch force trajectory in three-dimensional stretch bending process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Fei; Zhang, Wanxi; Liang, Jicai; Gao, Song

    2015-11-01

    Most of the existing studies use constant force to reduce springback while researching stretch force. However, variable stretch force can reduce springback more efficiently. The current research on springback prediction in stretch bending forming mainly focuses on artificial neural networks combined with the finite element simulation. There is a lack of springback prediction by support vector regression (SVR). In this paper, SVR is applied to predict springback in the three-dimensional stretch bending forming process, and variable stretch force trajectory is optimized. Six parameters of variable stretch force trajectory are chosen as the input parameters of the SVR model. Sixty experiments generated by design of experiments (DOE) are carried out to train and test the SVR model. The experimental results confirm that the accuracy of the SVR model is higher than that of artificial neural networks. Based on this model, an optimization algorithm of variable stretch force trajectory using particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. The springback amount is used as the objective function. Changes of local thickness are applied as the criterion of forming constraints. The objection and constraints are formulated by response surface models. The precision of response surface models is examined. Six different stretch force trajectories are employed to certify springback reduction in the optimum stretch force trajectory, which can efficiently reduce springback. This research proposes a new method of springback prediction using SVR and optimizes variable stretch force trajectory to reduce springback.

  13. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups.

  14. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups. PMID:25729210

  15. Centrifugal membrane filtration -- Task 9

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to demonstrate applications for the SpinTek technology within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. Membrane-screening tests were performed with the SpinTek STC-X4 static test cell filtration unit, using five ceramic membranes with different pore size and composition. Based on permeate flux, a 0.25-{micro}m TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane was selected for detailed performance evaluation using the SpinTek ST-IIL centrifugal membrane filtration unit with a surrogate tank waste solution. An extended test run of 100 hr performed on a surrogate tank waste solution showed some deterioration in filtration performance, based on flux, apparently due to the buildup of solids near the inner portion of the membrane where relative membrane velocities were low. Continued testing of the system will focus on modifications to the shear pattern across the entire membrane surface to affect improved long-term performance.

  16. Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Egle, Brian; Aaron, W Scott; Hart, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

  17. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  18. Stretching the imagination beyond muscle spindles - stretch-sensitive mechanisms in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Suslak, Thomas J; Jarman, Andrew P

    2015-08-01

    Much attention has been given to mammalian muscle spindles and their role in stretch-mediated muscle proprioception. Recent studies, particularly, have sought to determine the molecular mediators of stretch-evoked mechanotransduction, which these endings rely upon for functionality. Nonetheless, much about these endings remains unknown. Opportunities may be presented from consideration of extensive parallel research in stretch receptor mechanisms in arthropods. Such systems may provide a useful source of additional data and powerful tools for dissecting the complex systems of stretch transduction apparatus. At the least, such systems provide tractable exemplars of how organisms solve the problem of converting stretch stimuli to electrical output. Potentially, they may even provide molecular mechanisms and candidate molecular mediators of direct relevance to mammalian muscle spindles. Here we provide a brief overview of research on arthropod stretch receptors.

  19. Advanced isotope separation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-04

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems.

  20. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Converse, David

    2011-01-01

    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  1. Gas centrifuge with driving motor

    DOEpatents

    Dancy, Jr., William H.

    1976-01-01

    1. A centrifuge for separating gaseous constituents of different masses comprising a vertical tubular rotor, means for introducing a gas mixture of different masses into said rotor and means for removing at least one of the gas components from the rotor, a first bearing means supporting said rotor at one end for rotational movement, a support, a damping bearing mounted on said support, a shaft fixed to said rotor at the opposite end and mechanically connecting said rotor to said damping bearing, a cup-shaped tube of electrically conductive, non-magnetic material in coaxial relationship with said shaft, the open end of said tube extending away from said rotor and the closed end of said tube being directly secured to the adjacent end of the rotor, an annular core of magnetic material fixedly mounted on said support so as to be disposed within said tube and around said shaft, and a second annular magnetic core with coils arranged thereon to receive polyphase current to produce a rotating magnetic field traversing the circumference of said tube, fixedly mounted on said support so as to surround said tube, the size of said first annular core and said second annular core being such as to permit limited radial displacement of said shaft and said tube.

  2. Renal Response to Chronic Centrifugation in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wang, T. J.; Corbin, B. J.; Wade, C. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Previously reported effects of chronic centrifugation on renal function in mammals are contradictory. The present study was conducted as an effort to provide a comprehensive analysis of renal response to chronic centrifugation (12 days at +2 Gz). Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats (210-230 g) were used: eight centrifuged (EC) and eight off centrifuge controls (OCC). During centrifugation EC had lower body weight and food consumption. EC showed a decrease (72%) in water intake for the first two days (T1 and T2) followed by significant increases from T4-T6. EC urine output increased two-fold over the first four days, returning to baseline by T9. EC urea excretion was elevated on T3 through T5. Creatinine, Na(+), K(+), and osmolar excretion were lower than OCC over the last four days of the study. Assuming constant plasma osmolarity and creatinine levels, EC free water clearance (C(sub H2O)) was elevated significantly on T4 when the peak urine output was exhibited. EC also had a greater C(sub H2O) over the last four days, associated with a significantly lower osmolar clearance and GFR. The initial diuresis exhibited during centrifugation can be attributed to a reduced water resorption and increased urea excretion. This diuresis was mediated independent of changes in GFR over the first eight days. However, differences in excretion seen after eight days of centrifugation are probably GFR mediated which would imply animals established a new homeostatic setpoint by that time. Centrifugation elicites an acute alteration in fluid homeostasis followed by adaptation within a week.

  3. Isolation of symbiotic dinoflagellates by centrifugal elutriation

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, A.E.; Quinn, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation, a method combining centripetal liquid flow with centrifugal force, has been used to isolate symbiotic dinoflagellates from a cnidarian host. The elutriated cells were shown to be viable by photosynthetic incorporation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and low release of photosynthetic products into the incubation medium. The level of contamination by clinging debris was low and by host solids was negligible.

  4. Centrifugal Separation of Antiprotons and Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielse, G.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Wrubel, J.; Kalra, R.; Novitski, E.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Zielinski, M.; Sefzick, T.; Borbely, J. S.; Fitzakerley, D.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Muellers, A.; Walz, J.; Speck, A.

    2010-11-19

    Centrifugal separation of antiprotons and electrons is observed, the first such demonstration with particles that cannot be laser cooled or optically imaged. The spatial separation takes place during the electron cooling of trapped antiprotons, the only method available to produce cryogenic antiprotons for precision tests of fundamental symmetries and for cold antihydrogen studies. The centrifugal separation suggests a new approach for isolating low energy antiprotons and for producing a controlled mixture of antiprotons and electrons.

  5. Centrifugal separation of antiprotons and electrons.

    PubMed

    Gabrielse, G; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Wrubel, J; Kalra, R; Novitski, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Borbely, J S; Fitzakerley, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Müllers, A; Walz, J; Speck, A

    2010-11-19

    Centrifugal separation of antiprotons and electrons is observed, the first such demonstration with particles that cannot be laser cooled or optically imaged. The spatial separation takes place during the electron cooling of trapped antiprotons, the only method available to produce cryogenic antiprotons for precision tests of fundamental symmetries and for cold antihydrogen studies. The centrifugal separation suggests a new approach for isolating low energy antiprotons and for producing a controlled mixture of antiprotons and electrons.

  6. Geotechnical Centrifuge Studies of Unsaturated Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. W.; Mattson, E. D.; Palmer, C. D.

    2007-12-01

    Improved understanding of contaminant migration in heterogeneous, variably saturated porous media is required to better define the long-term stewardship requirements for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands and to assist in the design of effective vadose-zone barriers to contaminant migrations. A geotechnical centrifuge provides an experimental approach to explore vadose zone transport over a wide range of relevant conditions in time frames not possible for conventional bench-top experiments. Our research to date resulted in the design, construction, and testing of in-flight experimental apparatus allowing the replication of traditional bench top unsaturated transport experiments using the 2-meter radius geotechnical centrifuge capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. Additionally we conducted a series of unsaturated 1-dimenstional column experiments using conservative tracers to evaluate the effects of increased centrifugal acceleration on derived transport properties and assessing the scaling relationships for these properties. Our experimental results indicated that breakthrough times for a conservative tracer decreased significantly and systematically as a function of increased centrifugal acceleration. Differences between these experimental results and estimates based on predictive scaling rules are due to slight moisture content differences between experiments at different centrifugal accelerations. In contrast, dispersion coefficients varied systemically with centrifugal acceleration in accordance with predictive scaling rules. The results we obtained in this study indicate that the centrifuge technique is a viable experimental method for the study of subsurface processes where gravitational acceleration is important. The geotechnical centrifuge allows experiments to be completed more quickly than tests conducted at 1-gravity and can be used to experimentally address important scaling issues, and permits experiments under a range of conditions that

  7. Combination Of Investment And Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creeger, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    Modifications, including incorporation of centrifugal casting, made in investment-casting process reducing scrap rate. Used to make first- and second-stage high-pressure-fuel-turbopump nozzles, containing vanes with thin trailing edges and other thin sections. Investment mold spun for short time while being filled, and stopped before solidification occurs. Centrifugal force drives molten metal into thin trailing edges, ensuring they are filled. With improved filling, preheat and pour temperatures reduced and solidification hastened so less hot tearing.

  8. An Analysis of Individual Stretching Programs of Intercollegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate individual stretching programs of intercollegiate athletes, 238 athletes (164 male, 74 female) in ten sports were surveyed about their stretching practices. Almost all of the athletes stretched, but to varying degrees. Muscle groups stretched by the fewest athletes were the adductors, plantar flexors, hips, and neck. (Author/MT)

  9. Clinical experience with the Sarns centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J J; Walls, J T; Demmy, T L; Boley, T M; Schmaltz, R A; Goss, C F; Wagner-Mann, C C

    1993-07-01

    Since October 1986, we have had experience with 96 Sarns centrifugal pumps in 72 patients (pts). Heparinless left atrial to femoral artery or aorta bypass was used in 14 pts undergoing surgery on the thoracic aorta with 13 survivors (93%). No paraplegia or device-related complications were observed. In 57 patients, the Sarns centrifugal pump was used as a univentricular (27 pts) or biventricular (30 pts) cardiac assist device for postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock. In these patients, cardiac assist duration ranged from 2 to 434 h with a hospital survival rate of 29% in those requiring left ventricular assist and 13% in those requiring biventricular assist. Although complications were ubiquitous in this mortally ill patient population, in 5,235 pump-hours, no pump thrombosis was observed. Hospital survivors followed for 4 months to 6 years have enjoyed an improved functional class. We conclude that the Sarns centrifugal pump is an effective cardiac assist device when used to salvage patients otherwise unweanable from cardiopulmonary bypass. Partial left ventricular bypass using a centrifugal pump has become our procedure of choice for unloading the left ventricle and for maintenance of distal aortic perfusion pressure when performing surgery on the thoracic aorta. This clinical experience with the Sarns centrifugal pump appears to be similar to that reported with other centrifugal assist devices.

  10. Does motor imagery enhance stretching and flexibility?

    PubMed

    Guillot, Aymeric; Tolleron, Coralie; Collet, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Although several studies have demonstrated that motor imagery can enhance learning processes and improve motor performance, little is known about its effect on stretching and flexibility. The increased active and passive range of motion reported in preliminary research has not been shown to be elicited by motor imagery training alone. We thus compared flexibility scores in 21 synchronized swimmers before and after a 5-week mental practice programme that included five stretching exercises in active and passive conditions. The imagery training programme resulted in selective increased flexibility, independently of the stretching method. Overall, the improvement in flexibility was greater in the imagery group than in the control group for the front split (F(1,18) = 4.9, P = 0.04), the hamstrings (F(1,18) = 5.2, P = 0.035), and the ankle stretching exercises (F(1,18) = 5.6, P = 0.03). There was no difference in shoulders and side-split flexibility (F(1,18) = 0.1, P = 0.73 and F(1,18) = 3.3, P = 0.08 respectively). Finally, there was no correlation between individual imagery ability and improvement in flexibility. Psychological and physiological effects of motor imagery could explain the increase in range of motion, suggesting that imagery enhances joint flexibility during both active and passive stretching.

  11. Isotopic Biogeochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is provided of the biogeochemical research. The funding, productivity, personnel and facilities are reviewed. Some of the technical areas covered are: carbon isotopic records; isotopic studies of banded iron formations; isotope effects in microbial systems; studies of organic compounds in ancient sediments; and development in isotopic geochemistry and analysis.

  12. Simple method of DNA stretching on glass substrate for fluorescence image and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Guru P.; Dhakal, Krishna P.; Lee, Hyunsoo; Guthold, Martin; Joseph, Vincent S.; Hong, Jong-Dal; Kim, Jeongyong

    2013-05-01

    Study of biological molecule DNA has contributed to developing many breaking thoughts and wide applications in multidisciplinary fields, such as genomic, medical, sensing and forensic fields. Stretching of DNA molecules is an important supportive tool for AFM or spectroscopic studies of DNA in a single molecular level. In this article, we established a simple method of DNA stretching (to its full length) that occurred on a rotating negatively-charged surface of glass substrate. The isolation of a single DNA molecule was attained by the two competitive forces on DNA molecules, that is, the electrostatic attraction developed between the positively charged YOYO-1 stained DNA and the negatively charged substrate, and the centrifugal force of the rotating substrate, which separates the DNA aggregates into the single molecule. Density of stretched DNA molecules was controlled by selecting the specific parameters such as spinning time and rates, loading volume of DNA-dye complex solution etc. The atomic force microscopy image exhibited a single DNA molecule on the negatively-charged substrate in an isolated state. Further, the photoluminescence spectra of a single DNA molecule stained with YOYO-1 were achieved using the method developed in the present study, which is strongly believed to effectively support the spectroscopic analysis of DNA in a single molecular level.

  13. Stretched arc discharge in produced water.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y I; Wright, K C; Kim, H S; Cho, D J; Rabinovich, A; Fridman, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost. PMID:25638080

  14. Unfolding of Isotactic Polypropylene under Uniaxial Stretching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jia; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Akihiro Kamimura, Akihiro Otsubo Collaboration

    Despite numerous investigations on polymer processing, understanding the deformation mechanisms of semicrystalline polymer under uniaxial stretching is still challenging. In this work, 13C-13C Double Quantum (DQ) NMR was applied to trace the structural evolution of 13C-labeled isotactic polypropylene (iPP) chains inside the crystallites stretched to engineering strain (e) of 21 at 100 °C. DQ NMR based on spatial proximity of 13C labeled nuclei proved conformational changes from the folded chains to the locally extended chains induced by stretching. By combining experimental findings with literature results on molecular dynamics, it was concluded that transportation of the crystalline chains plays a critical role to achieve large deformability of iPP.

  15. Stretching and folding in finite time.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian; Ouellette, Nicholas T; Bollt, Erik M

    2016-02-01

    Complex flows mix efficiently, and this process can be understood by considering the stretching and folding of material volumes. Although many metrics have been devised to characterize stretching, fewer are able to capture folding in a quantitative way in spatiotemporally variable flows. Here, we extend our previous methods based on the finite-time curving of fluid-element trajectories to nonzero scales and show that this finite-scale finite-time curvature contains information about both stretching and folding. We compare this metric to the more commonly used finite-time Lyapunov exponent and illustrate our methods using experimental flow-field data from a quasi-two-dimensional laboratory flow. Our new analysis tools add to the growing set of Lagrangian methods for characterizing mixing in complex, aperiodic fluid flows.

  16. Stretched arc discharge in produced water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Wright, K. C.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, D. J.; Rabinovich, A.; Fridman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost.

  17. Optical Data Compression in Time Stretch Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Claire Lifan; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Time stretch imaging offers real-time image acquisition at millions of frames per second and subnanosecond shutter speed, and has enabled detection of rare cancer cells in blood with record throughput and specificity. An unintended consequence of high throughput image acquisition is the massive amount of digital data generated by the instrument. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of real-time optical image compression applied to time stretch imaging. By exploiting the sparsity of the image, we reduce the number of samples and the amount of data generated by the time stretch camera in our proof-of-concept experiments by about three times. Optical data compression addresses the big data predicament in such systems. PMID:25906244

  18. Altered surface character of stretched condom latex.

    PubMed

    Jay, G D; Drummond, E; Lane, B

    1992-02-01

    A new type of imperfection in condom latex, present during moderate stretching, was observed by low magnification scanning electron microscopy. The normally smooth surface of relaxed natural latex was transformed into an accordion-like arrangement of ripples in addition to tears. A corollary experiment with Alcian blue dye placed into both stretched and unstretched condoms leaked no dye. These surface features are consistent with latex acting as a molecular barrier. The tears may represent areas of lowered mechanical resistance and raise questions concerning quality control.

  19. Factors affecting the C=N stretching in protonated retinal Schiff base: a model study for bacteriorhodopsin and visual pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Baasov, T.; Friedman, N.; Sheves, M.

    1987-06-02

    Factors affecting the C=N stretching frequency of protonated retinal Schiff base (RSBH/sup +/) were studied with a series of synthetic chromophores and measured under different conditions. Interaction of RSBH/sup +/ with nonconjugated positive charges in the vicinity of the ring moiety or a planar polyene conformation (in contrast to the twisted retinal conformation in solution) shifted the absorption maxima but did not affect the C=N stretching frequency. The latter, however, was affected by environmental perturbations in the vicinity of the Schiff base linkage. Diminished ion pairing achieved either by substituting a more bulky counteranion or by designing models with a homoconjugation effect lowered the C=N stretch energy. Decreasing solvation of the positively charged nitrogen leads to a similar trend. These effects in the vicinity of the Schiff base linkage also perturb the deuterium isotope effect observed upon deuteriation of the Schiff base. The results are interpreted by considering the mixing of the C=N stretching and C=N-H bending vibration. The C=N mode is shifted due to electrostatic interaction with nonconjugated positive charges in the vicinity of the Schiff base linkage, an interaction that does not influence the isotope effect. Weak hydrogen bonding between the Schiff base linkage in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and its counteranion or, alternatively, poor solvation of the positively charged Schiff base nitrogen can account for the C=N stretching frequency of 1640 cm/sup -1/ and the deuterium isotope effect of 17 cm/sup -1/ observed in this pigment. Conversion of bR to the photochemically induced intermediate K/sub 610/ involves environmental perturbation in the vicinity of the C=N linkage, lowering the C=N stretch energy.

  20. Cloud Network Helps Stretch IT Dollars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    No matter how many car washes or bake sales schools host to raise money, adding funds to their coffers is a recurring problem. This perpetual financial difficulty makes expansive technology purchases or changes seem like a pipe dream for school CIOs and has education technologists searching for ways to stretch money. In 2005, state K-12 school…

  1. Project Stretch Final Narrative Report. Year III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    In June, 1979, the American Camping Association implemented Project STRETCH (Strategies to Try out Resources to Enhance the Training of Camp Directors serving the Handicapped), a nationwide in-service training program for personnel providing services to handicapped children and youth in regularly and specially designed camping and outdoor…

  2. 26. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Centrifugals, 1879, 1881. Manufacturer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Centrifugals, 1879, 1881. Manufacturer, unknown. Supplied by Honolulu Ironworks, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1879, 1881. View: Historical view, 1934, from T. T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Once the molasses was separated from the sugar crystals it flowed through the spouts in the base of the centrifugals. The centrifugals' pulleys can be seen underneath the centrifugal. The centrifugal on the right has been reinforced with seven metal bands. The handles for the clutch mechanism are located above the centrifugal. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  3. Update on plasma arc centrifugal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.E.; Paulson, W.S.; Eschenbach, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Over the last eight years, Retech has developed a plasma-powered system for destroying organics and stabilizing metal oxides in a non-leaching slag. The system, termed Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT), can handle a variety of waste streams such as contaminated soils, sludges, ion-exchange resins, incinerator bottom and fly-ash and drummed waste among others. This paper will review recent commercial applications of the technology. Three Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment systems having an eight-foot diameter centrifuge (PACT-8) are in the construction phase. One will be used in the Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies (LESAT) system for remediating Pit 9 at the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEL). A second unit will be located at the Retech plant in Ukiah, California. The third unit will be located at a site in Munster, Germany.

  4. Effects of chronic centrifugation on mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janer, L.; Duke, J.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to excess gravity in vitro alters the developmental sequence in embryonic mouse limbs and palates (Duke, Janer and Campbell, 1984; Duke, 1983). The effects of excess gravity on in vivo mammalian development was investigated using a small animal centrifuge. Four-week old female mice exposed to excess gravities of 1.8-3.5 G for eight weeks weighed significantly less than controls. Mice were mated after five weeks of adaptation to excess G, and sacrificed either at gestational day 12 or 18. There were fewer pregnancies in the centrifuged group (4/36) than in controls (9/31), and crown rump lengths (CRL) of embryos developing in the centrifuge were less than CRLs of 1-G embryos. These results show that although immersed in amniotic fluid, embryos are responsive to Delta-G.

  5. Centrifugal compressor design for electrically assisted boost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y Yang, M.; Martinez-Botas, R. F.; Zhuge, W. L.; Qureshi, U.; Richards, B.

    2013-12-01

    Electrically assisted boost is a prominent method to solve the issues of transient lag in turbocharger and remains an optimized operation condition for a compressor due to decoupling from turbine. Usually a centrifugal compressor for gasoline engine boosting is operated at high rotational speed which is beyond the ability of an electric motor in market. In this paper a centrifugal compressor with rotational speed as 120k RPM and pressure ratio as 2.0 is specially developed for electrically assisted boost. A centrifugal compressor including the impeller, vaneless diffuser and the volute is designed by meanline method followed by 3D detailed design. Then CFD method is employed to predict as well as analyse the performance of the design compressor. The results show that the pressure ratio and efficiency at design point is 2.07 and 78% specifically.

  6. Effects of Centrifuge Diameter and Operation on Rodent Adaptation to Chronic Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the responses of rats to centrifugation in a constant acceleration field (1.5 G). Centrifuge diameter (1.8m, 2.5m or 6.0m) and schedule of operation (Daily or weekly stop) varied between groups. Body mass, food consumption, water consumption and neurovestibular function were measured weekly. Body temperature and activity were continuously monitored using telemetry. A subset of subjects were videotaped (50 minutes per day) to allow for movement analysis. Exposure to a hyperdynamic field of this magnitude did cause the expected depression in the physiological variables monitored. Recovery was accomplished within a relatively rapid time frame; all variables returned to precentrifugation levels. In general, the magnitudes of the changes and the rate of recovery were similar at different centrifuge diameters and stopping frequency. There were cases, however, in which the magnitude of the response and/or the rate of recovery to a new steady-state were altered as a result of centrifuge diameter. In summary, these results indicate that stopping frequency has little, if any, effect on adaptation to chronic centrifugation. However, the angular velocity (omega), and therefore centrifuge diameter is an important consideration in the adaptation of an organism to chronic centrifugation.

  7. Effects of Centrifuge Diameter and Operation on Rodent Adaptation to Chronic Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the responses of rats to centrifugation in a constant acceleration field (1.5 G). Centrifuge diameter (1.8m, 2.5m or 6.0m) and schedule of operation (Daily or weekly stop) varied between groups. Body mass, food consumption, water consumption and neurovestibular function were measured weekly. Body temperature and activity were continuously monitored using telemetry. A subset of subjects were videotaped (50 minutes per day) to allow for movement analysis. Exposure to a hyperdynamic field of this magnitude did cause the expected depression in the physiological variables monitored. Recovery was accomplished within a relatively rapid time frame; all variables returned to precentrifugation levels. In general, the magnitudes of the changes and the rate of recovery were similar at different centrifuge diameters and stopping frequency. There were cases, however, in which the magnitude of the response and/or the rate of recovery to a new steady-state were altered as a result of centrifuge diameter. In summary, these results indicate that stopping frequency has little, if any, effect on adaptation to chronic centrifugation. However, the angular velocity (omega), and therefore centrifuge diameter is an important consideration in the adaptation of an organism to chronic centrifugation.

  8. Detection methods for centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Burger, Robert; Amato, Letizia; Boisen, Anja

    2016-02-15

    Centrifugal microfluidics has attracted much interest from academia as well as industry, since it potentially offers solutions for affordable, user-friendly and portable biosensing. A wide range of so-called fluidic unit operations, e.g. mixing, metering, liquid routing, and particle separation, have been developed and allow automation and integration of complex assay protocols in lab-on-a-disc systems. Besides liquid handling, the detection strategy for reading out the assay is crucial for developing a fully integrated system. In this review, we focus on biosensors and readout methods for the centrifugal microfluidics platform and cover optical as well as mechanical and electrical detection principles.

  9. System analysis of plasma centrifuges and sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    System analyses of cylindrical plasma centrifuges are presented, for which the velocity field and electromagnetic fields are calculated. The effects of different electrode geometrics, induced magnetic fields, Hall-effect, and secondary flows are discussed. It is shown that speeds of 10000 m/sec can be achieved in plasma centrifuges, and that an efficient separation of U238 and U235 in uranium plasmas is feasible. The external boundary-value problem for the deposition of sputtering products is reduced to a Fredholm integral equation, which is solved analytically by means of the method of successive approximations.

  10. Wave-Driven Rotation In Centrifugal Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-03-28

    Centrifugal mirrors use supersonic rotation to provide axial confinement and enhanced stability. Usually the rotation is produced using electrodes, but these electrodes have limited the rotation to the Alfven critical ionization velocity, which is too slow to be useful for fusion. Instead, the rotation could be produced using radio frequency waves. A fixed azimuthal ripple is a simple and efficient wave that could produce rotation by harnessing alpha particle energy. This is an extension of the alpha channeling effect. The alpha particle power and efficiency in a simulated devices is sufficient to produce rotation without external energy input. By eliminating the need for electrodes, this opens new opportunities for centrifugal traps.

  11. Rhie-Chow interpolation in strong centrifugal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    Rhie-Chow interpolation formulas are derived from the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. These formulas are generalized to gas dynamics in strong centrifugal fields (as high as 106 g) occurring in gas centrifuges.

  12. NORTHERLY STRETCH OF MILLBURY PORTION; GENERAL VIEW ACROSS CANAL PRISM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHERLY STRETCH OF MILLBURY PORTION; GENERAL VIEW ACROSS CANAL PRISM TO TOWPATH BERM (LATER FILL ENCROACHING LEFT) NEAR CENTER OF THIS STRETCH; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST - Blackstone Canal Worcester-Millbury Segment, Eastern bank of Blackstone River, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  13. The stretching vibration of hydroxyl ions in LaGaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, K.; Kovacs, L.; Baraldi, A.; Capelletti, R.; Berkowski, M.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of hydroxyl ions in LaGaO3 single crystals has been detected by means of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy. A single narrow absorption line of the OH- stretching vibration at about 3521 cm(-1) has been observed at T=9 K in most of the as-grown crystals. The vibrational frequency decreased abruptly at the orthorhombic-rhombohedral structural phase transition temperature (T-c = 418 K). The parameters of the anharmonic potential of the OH- stretching vibration have been determined from the isotopic replica and the overtone frequency and intensity, and found to be in agreement with those measured for hydroxyl ions in other oxide crystals.

  14. Modeling aftershocks as a stretched exponential relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, A.

    2015-11-01

    The decay rate of aftershocks has been modeled as a power law since the pioneering work of Omori in the late nineteenth century. Although other expressions have been proposed in recent decades to describe the temporal behavior of aftershocks, the number of model comparisons remains limited. After reviewing the aftershock models published from the late nineteenth century until today, I solely compare the power law, pure exponential and stretched exponential expressions defined in their simplest forms. By applying statistical methods recommended recently in applied mathematics, I show that all aftershock sequences tested in three regional earthquake catalogs (Southern and Northern California, Taiwan) and with three declustering techniques (nearest-neighbor, second-order moment, window methods) follow a stretched exponential instead of a power law. These results infer that aftershocks are due to a simple relaxation process, in accordance with most other relaxation processes observed in Nature.

  15. Stretching cells and delivering drugs with bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohl, Claus-Dieter; Li, Fenfang; Chon U, Chan; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-11-01

    In this talk we'll review our work on impulsive cell stretching using cavitation bubbles and magnetic microbubbles for drug delivery. For sufficient short times cells can sustain a much larger areal strain than the yield strain obtained from quasi-static stretching. Experiments with red blood cells show that even then the rupture of the cell is slow process; it is caused by diffusive swelling rather than mechanical violation of the plasma membrane. In the second part we'll discuss bubbles coated with magnetic and drug loaded particles. These bubbles offer an interesting vector for on demand delivery of drugs using mild ultrasound and magnetic fields. We report on basic experiments in microfluidic channels revealing the release of the agent during bubble oscillations and first in vivo validation with a mouse tumor model. Singapore National Research Foundations Competitive Research Program funding (NRF-CRP9-2011-04).

  16. Stretched cell cycle model for proliferating lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Mark R.; Kan, Andrey; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Wellard, Cameron J.; Markham, John F.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic variation in cell cycle time is a consistent feature of otherwise similar cells within a growing population. Classic studies concluded that the bulk of the variation occurs in the G1 phase, and many mathematical models assume a constant time for traversing the S/G2/M phases. By direct observation of transgenic fluorescent fusion proteins that report the onset of S phase, we establish that dividing B and T lymphocytes spend a near-fixed proportion of total division time in S/G2/M phases, and this proportion is correlated between sibling cells. This result is inconsistent with models that assume independent times for consecutive phases. Instead, we propose a stretching model for dividing lymphocytes where all parts of the cell cycle are proportional to total division time. Data fitting based on a stretched cell cycle model can significantly improve estimates of cell cycle parameters drawn from DNA labeling data used to monitor immune cell dynamics. PMID:24733943

  17. Stretching skin: The physiological limit and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Tepole, Adrián Buganza; Gosain, Arun K.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this manuscript is to establish a novel computational model for skin to characterize its constitutive behavior when stretched within and beyond its physiological limits. Within the physiological regime, skin displays a reversible, highly nonlinear, stretch locking, and anisotropic behavior. We model these characteristics using a transversely isotropic chain network model composed of eight wormlike chains. Beyond the physiological limit, skin undergoes an irreversible area growth triggered through mechanical stretch. We model skin growth as a transversely isotropic process characterized through a single internal variable, the scalar-valued growth multiplier. To discretize the evolution of growth in time, we apply an unconditionally stable, implicit Euler backward scheme. To discretize it in space, we utilize the finite element method. For maximum algorithmic efficiency and optimal convergence, we suggest an inner Newton iteration to locally update the growth multiplier at each integration point. This iteration is embedded within an outer Newton iteration to globally update the deformation at each finite element node. To illustrate the characteristic features of skin growth, we first compare the two simple model problems of displacement- and force-driven growth. Then, we model the process of stretch-induced skin growth during tissue expansion. In particular, we compare the spatio-temporal evolution of stress, strain, and area gain for four commonly available tissue expander geometries. We believe that the proposed model has the potential to open new avenues in reconstructive surgery and rationalize critical process parameters in tissue expansion, such as expander geometry, expander size, expander placement, and inflation timing. PMID:23459410

  18. NASA/MSFC Large Stretch Press Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choate, M. W.; Nealson, W. P.; Jay, G. C.; Buss, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: A. assess and document the advantages/disadvantages of a government agency investment in a large stretch form press on the order of 5000 tons capacity (per jaw); B. develop a procurement specification for the press; and C. provide trade study data that will permit an optimum site location. Tasks were separated into four major elements: cost study, user survey, site selection, and press design/procurement specification.

  19. 21 CFR 864.5350 - Microsedimentation centrifuge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microsedimentation centrifuge. 864.5350 Section 864.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  20. 21 CFR 864.5350 - Microsedimentation centrifuge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microsedimentation centrifuge. 864.5350 Section 864.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  1. 21 CFR 864.5350 - Microsedimentation centrifuge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microsedimentation centrifuge. 864.5350 Section 864.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  2. 21 CFR 864.5350 - Microsedimentation centrifuge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microsedimentation centrifuge. 864.5350 Section 864.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  3. 21 CFR 864.5350 - Microsedimentation centrifuge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microsedimentation centrifuge. 864.5350 Section 864.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology...

  4. Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

  5. Centrifuge in space fluid flow visualization experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William A.; Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype flow visualization system is constructed to examine buoyancy driven flows during centrifugation in space. An axial density gradient is formed by imposing a thermal gradient between the two ends of the test cell. Numerical computations for this geometry showed that the Prandtl number plays a limited part in determining the flow.

  6. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  7. Mass Transfer in 12-CM Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chesna, J.C.

    2001-06-26

    One eight-stage unit (8-pack) of centrifugal contactors was tested in both extraction and stripping modes. Efficiencies approaching 100 percent were obtained in both modes. The contactors were operated successfully at a wide range of combined flow rates, including the HEF conditions. This report discusses the results of that test.

  8. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

  9. Research centrifuge accommodations on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.; Horkachuk, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Life sciences research using plants and animals on the Space Station Freedom requires the ability to maintain live subjects in a safe and low stress environment for long durations at microgravity and at one g. The need for a centrifuge to achieve these accelerations is evident. Programmatic, technical, and cost considerations currently favor a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge located either in the end cone of a Space Station Freedom node or in a separate module. A centrifuge facility could support a mix of rodent, plant, and small primate habitats. An automated cage extractor could be used to remove modular habitats in pairs without stopping the main rotor, minimizing the disruption to experiment protocols. The accommodation of such a centrifuge facility on the Space Station represents a significant demand on the crew time, power, data, volume, and logistics capability. It will contribute to a better understanding of the effects of space flight on humans, an understanding of plant growth in space for the eventual production of food, and an understanding of the role of gravity in biological processes.

  10. Stretched polyethylene films probed by single molecules.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Alexander C; Hofmann, Clemens; Groenen, Edgar J J

    2011-06-01

    Stretched films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) doped with 2.3,8.9-dibenzanthanthrene (DBATT) were studied using polarization-selective single-molecule spectroscopy at 1.8 K. By measuring the in-plane component of the electronic transition-dipole moments of individual chromophores, the alignment of dopant molecules is determined without averaging. The distributions of chromophore orientations reveal the presence of two fractions of dopant molecules: those oriented along the stretching direction and randomly oriented molecules. With increasing drawing ratio of the polyethylene films, the ratio of oriented to randomly oriented guest molecules increases, whereas the extent of chromophore orientation, that is, the width of the orientation distribution, remains the same. The results are consistent with the interpretation that oriented chromophores reside on the surfaces of polyethylene crystals, instead of in the amorphous polyethylene regions. Guest molecules in stretched polyethylene are oriented due to the alignment of the crystallites on which they are adsorbed. As such, the shape and width of the distributions of chromophore orientations are determined by the interaction of guest molecules with the crystal surfaces.

  11. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    SciTech Connect

    Law, C.K.

    1993-12-01

    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  12. Stretch Moduli of Ribonucleotide Embedded Short DNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Koh, Kyung Duk; Riedo, Elisa; Storici, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of DNA is essential to comprehending the dynamics of many cellular functions. DNA deformations are involved in many mechanisms when genetic information needs to be stored and used. In addition, recent studies have found that Ribonucleotides (rNMPs) are among the most common non-standard nucleotides present in DNA. The presences of rNMPs in DNA might cause mutation, fragility or genotoxicity of chromosome but how they influence the structure and mechanical properties of DNA remains unclear. By means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based single molecule spectroscopy, we measure the stretch moduli of double stranded DNAs (dsDNA) with 30 base pairs and 5 equally embedded rNMPs. The dsDNAs are anchored on gold substrate via thiol chemistry, while the AFM tip is used to pick up and stretch the dsDNA from its free end through biotin-streptavidin bonding. Our preliminary results indicate that the inclusion of rNMPs in dsDNA might significantly change its stretch modulus, which might be important in some biological processes.

  13. Membrane characteristics and osmotic fragility of red cells, fractionated with anglehead centrifugation and counterflow centrifugation.

    PubMed

    van der Vegt, S G; Ruben, A M; Werre, J M; de Gier, J; Staal, G E

    1985-11-01

    Red cell populations were separated on the basis of differences in density using anglehead centrifugation and on the basis of differences in mean cell volume using counterflow centrifugation. In the different fractions, mean surface area was calculated, phospholipid and cholesterol content determined as well as the osmotic behaviour in hypotonic salt solutions. Older red cells appeared to be more resistant to hypotonic salt solutions, due to favourable surface area to volume ratio. PMID:4063204

  14. Quantitative microbial ecology through stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Hungate, Bruce A; Mau, Rebecca L; Schwartz, Egbert; Caporaso, J Gregory; Dijkstra, Paul; van Gestel, Natasja; Koch, Benjamin J; Liu, Cindy M; McHugh, Theresa A; Marks, Jane C; Morrissey, Ember M; Price, Lance B

    2015-11-01

    Bacteria grow and transform elements at different rates, and as yet, quantifying this variation in the environment is difficult. Determining isotope enrichment with fine taxonomic resolution after exposure to isotope tracers could help, but there are few suitable techniques. We propose a modification to stable isotope probing (SIP) that enables the isotopic composition of DNA from individual bacterial taxa after exposure to isotope tracers to be determined. In our modification, after isopycnic centrifugation, DNA is collected in multiple density fractions, and each fraction is sequenced separately. Taxon-specific density curves are produced for labeled and nonlabeled treatments, from which the shift in density for each individual taxon in response to isotope labeling is calculated. Expressing each taxon's density shift relative to that taxon's density measured without isotope enrichment accounts for the influence of nucleic acid composition on density and isolates the influence of isotope tracer assimilation. The shift in density translates quantitatively to isotopic enrichment. Because this revision to SIP allows quantitative measurements of isotope enrichment, we propose to call it quantitative stable isotope probing (qSIP). We demonstrated qSIP using soil incubations, in which soil bacteria exhibited strong taxonomic variations in (18)O and (13)C composition after exposure to [(18)O]water or [(13)C]glucose. The addition of glucose increased the assimilation of (18)O into DNA from [(18)O]water. However, the increase in (18)O assimilation was greater than expected based on utilization of glucose-derived carbon alone, because the addition of glucose indirectly stimulated bacteria to utilize other substrates for growth. This example illustrates the benefit of a quantitative approach to stable isotope probing.

  15. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation

  16. Secondary structure of double-stranded DNA under stretching: Elucidation of the stretched form

    SciTech Connect

    Maaloum, M.; Muller, P.; Beker, A-F.

    2011-03-15

    Almost two decades ago, measurements of force versus extension on isolated double-stranded DNA molecules revealed a force plateau. This unusual stretching phenomenon in DNA suggests that the long molecules may be extended from the usual B form into a new conformation. Different models have been proposed to describe the nature of DNA in its stretched form, S-DNA. Using atomic force microscopy combined with a molecular combing method, we identified the structure of {lambda}-phage DNA for different stretching values. We provide strong evidence for the existence of a first-order transition between B form and S form. Beyond a certain extension of the natural length, DNA molecules adopt a new double-helix conformation characterized by a diameter of 1.2 nm and a helical pitch of18 nm.

  17. Effects of cervical self-stretching on slow vital capacity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dongwook; Yoon, Nayoon; Jeong, Yeongran; Ha, Misook; Nam, Kunwoo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of self-stretching of cervical muscles, because the accessory inspiratory muscle is considered to improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy university students 19–21 years old who did not have any lung disease, respiratory dysfunction, cervical injury, or any problems upon cervical stretching. [Methods] Spirometry was used as a pulmonary function test to measure the slow vital capacity before and after stretching. The slow vital capacity of the experimental group was measured before and after cervical self-stretching. Meanwhile, the slow vital capacity of the control group, which did not perform stretching, was also measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The expiratory vital capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume of the experimental group increased significantly after the cervical self-stretching. [Conclusion] Self-stretching of the cervical muscle (i.e., the inspiratory accessory muscle) improves slow vital capacity. PMID:26311984

  18. Effects of cervical self-stretching on slow vital capacity.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongwook; Yoon, Nayoon; Jeong, Yeongran; Ha, Misook; Nam, Kunwoo

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of self-stretching of cervical muscles, because the accessory inspiratory muscle is considered to improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy university students 19-21 years old who did not have any lung disease, respiratory dysfunction, cervical injury, or any problems upon cervical stretching. [Methods] Spirometry was used as a pulmonary function test to measure the slow vital capacity before and after stretching. The slow vital capacity of the experimental group was measured before and after cervical self-stretching. Meanwhile, the slow vital capacity of the control group, which did not perform stretching, was also measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The expiratory vital capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume of the experimental group increased significantly after the cervical self-stretching. [Conclusion] Self-stretching of the cervical muscle (i.e., the inspiratory accessory muscle) improves slow vital capacity.

  19. Acute effects of dynamic stretching, static stretching, and light aerobic activity on muscular performance in women.

    PubMed

    Curry, Brad S; Chengkalath, Devendra; Crouch, Gordon J; Romance, Michelle; Manns, Patricia J

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three warm-up protocols--static stretching, dynamic stretching, and light aerobic activity--on selected measures of range of motion and power in untrained females and to investigate the sustained effects at 5 and 30 minutes after warm-up. A total of 24 healthy females (ages 23-29 years) attended one familiarization session and three test sessions on nonconsecutive days within 2 weeks. A within-subject design protocol with the testing investigators blinded to the subjects' warm-up was followed. Each session started with 5 minutes of light aerobic cycling followed by pretest baseline measures. Another 5 minutes of light aerobic cycling was completed and followed by one of the three randomly selected warm-up interventions (static stretching, dynamic stretching, or light aerobic activity). The following posttest outcome measures were collected 5 and 30 minutes following the intervention: modified Thomas test, countermovement jump, and isometric time to peak force knee extension measured by dynamometer. Analysis of the data revealed significant time effects on range of motion and countermovement jump changes. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the warm-up conditions on any of the variables. The variation in responses to warm-up conditions emphasizes the unique nature of individual reactions to different warm-ups; however, there was a tendency for warm-ups with an active component to have beneficial effects. The data suggests dynamic stretching has greater applicability to enhance performance on power outcomes compared to static stretching. PMID:19675479

  20. Efficacy of static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretch on hamstrings length after a single session.

    PubMed

    O'Hora, John; Cartwright, Abigail; Wade, Clive D; Hough, Alan D; Shum, Gary L K

    2011-06-01

    A number of studies have investigated the efficacy of several repetitions of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) and static stretching (SS). However, there is limited research comparing the effects of a single bout of these stretching maneuvers. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a single bout of a therapist-applied 30-second SS vs. a single bout of therapist-applied 6-second hamstring (agonist) contract PNF. Forty-five healthy subjects between the ages of 21 and 35 were randomly allocated to 1 of the 2 stretching groups or a control group, in which no stretching was received. The flexibility of the hamstring was determined by a range of passive knee extension, measured using a universal goniometer, with the subject in the supine position and the hip at 90° flexion, before and after intervention. A significant increase in knee extension was found for both intervention groups after a single stretch (SS group = 7.53°, p < 0.01 and PNF group = 11.80°, p < 0.01). Both interventions resulted in a significantly greater increase in knee extension when compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The PNF group demonstrated significantly greater gains in knee extension compared to the SS group (mean difference 4.27°, p < 0.01). It can be concluded that a therapist applied SS or PNF results in a significant increase in hamstring flexibility. A hamstring (agonist) contract PNF is more effective than an SS in a single stretching session. These findings are important to physiotherapists or trainers working in clinical and sporting environments. Where in the past therapists may have spent time conducting multiple repetitions of a PNF and an SS, a single bout of either technique may be considered just as effective. A key component of the study methodology was the exclusion of a warm-up period before stretching. Therefore, the findings of efficacy of a single PNF are of particular relevance in sporting environments and busy clinical

  1. Isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  2. Uni-Directional Cell Stretching Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L. (Inventor); Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an apparatus and method for applying various degrees of linear, mechanical loads on mammalian tissues, and in particular, for effecting linear stretching of tissue and simulating changes in hydrostatic pressures encountered during tissue contraction in vivo. The apparatus is useful for the study of mechanical loading in human tissue, and specifically, for permitting the evaluation of the effects of mechanical loading of skeletal or cardiac tissue and of the effects of removal of mechanical loading due to inactivity or the like, and the subsequent reapplication of load to these tissues.

  3. Finite stretching of an annular plate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biricikoglu, V.; Kalnins, A.

    1971-01-01

    The problem of the finite stretching of an annular plate which is bonded to a rigid inclusion at its inner edge is considered. The material is assumed to be isotropic and incompressible with a Mooney-type constitutive law. It is shown that the inclusion of the effect of the transverse normal strain leads to a rapid variation in thickness which is confined to a narrow edge zone. The explicit solutions to the boundary layer equations, which govern the behavior of the plate near the edges, are presented.

  4. Venus Chasmata: A Lithospheric Stretching Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    An outstanding problem for Venus is the characterization of its style of global tectonics, an issue intimately related to the dominant mechanism of lithospheric heat loss. Among the most spectacular and extensive of the major tectonic features on Venus are the chasmata, deep linear valleys generally interpreted to be the products of lithospheric extension and rifting. Systems of chasmata and related features can be traced along several tectonic zones up to 20,000 km in linear extent. A lithospheric stretching model was developed to explain the topographic characteristics of Venus chasmata and to constrain the physical properties of the Venus crust and lithosphere.

  5. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  6. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  7. To Stretch and Search for Better Ways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-06-01

    There's a lot to do to get each issue of this Journal ready for publication, and there's a lot that can go awry during that process. We the editorial staff do our utmost to make certain that each issue is the best it can possibly be, but, of necessity, a lot of our effort is focused on solving problems, correcting errors, and avoiding pitfalls. It is not surprising that we sometimes lose sight of the bigger picture--all of the things that came out as well as or better than we hoped they would. Therefore it gives us great pleasure when a reader applauds (and thereby rewards) our efforts. One such communication inspired this editorial.

    I have appreciated the extra effort put forward by the staff to make the Journal really come alive. The high quality of the Journal serves as an incentive to chemical educators to stretch and search for better ways to inspire our students.
    I fervently hope that we do encourage you "to stretch and search for better ways", not only to inspire students but in everything you do. Stretching and searching for better ways is what life, science, chemistry, and teaching are all about, and it is a wonderfully stimulating and exciting way to approach anything and everything. Sometimes, though, one's ability to stretch is akin to that of a rubber band exposed too long to sunlight. Change becomes a threat or a burden instead of an opportunity. This often happens in one area but not others, as in the case of someone doing original research but whose lecture notes are yellow with age, or someone who experiments with new teaching approaches but neglects the latest chemical discoveries. Whatever its manifestation, failure to stretch and search for better ways is a great loss, both for the individual directly involved and for others. Fortunately there are many who continually stretch and search, often in conjunction with JCE. For example, some time ago the Chair of the Board of Publication, Jerry Bell, challenged Journal

  8. A vibration model for centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Wasserman, M.O.; Wygmans, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    Using the transfer matrix method, we created the Excel worksheet ``Beam`` for analyzing vibrations in centrifugal contactors. With this worksheet, a user can calculate the first natural frequency of the motor/rotor system for a centrifugal contactor. We determined a typical value for the bearing stiffness (k{sub B}) of a motor after measuring the k{sub B} value for three different motors. The k{sub B} value is an important parameter in this model, but it is not normally available for motors. The assumptions that we made in creating the Beam worksheet were verified by comparing the calculated results with those from a VAX computer program, BEAM IV. The Beam worksheet was applied to several contactor designs for which we have experimental data and found to work well.

  9. High stability design for new centrifugal compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, H.; Katayama, K.; Morii, S.; Mouri, Y.; Umemura, S.; Ozawa, U.; Oda, T.

    1989-01-01

    It is essential that high-performance centrifugal compressors be free of subsynchronous vibrations. A new high-performance centrifugal compressor has been developed by applying the latest rotordynamics knowledge and design techniques: (1) To improve the system damping, a specially designed oil film seal was developed. This seal attained a damping ratio three times that of the conventional design. The oil film seal contains a special damper ring in the seal cartridge. (2) To reduce the destabilizing effect of the labyrinth seal, a special swirl canceler (anti-swirl nozzle) was applied to the balance piston seal. (3) To confirm the system damping margin, the dynamic simulation rotor model test and the full load test applied the vibration exciting test in actual load conditions.

  10. Supernatant decanting on a centrifugal platform.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chih-Hsin; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Yuan, Wei-Li; Chiang, Wei-Ling; Lin, Chia-Hui

    2011-03-30

    This study presents a novel approach to decant supernatant on a centrifugal platform. By manipulating the centrifugally induced pressure and the elastic deformation of the plastic lids in the decanting chamber, fixed amounts of the supernatant can be decanted into the detection chamber at lower rotational speeds. The experimental results showed that decanted volume is affected by the volume of deformation and the operating parameters. Factors that influence the decanting ratio are also discussed. This approach has the advantages of simple design and low manufacturing cost; further, it has no need of surface modification. It has been applied to on-disk separation of plasma from whole blood, and the results showed good stability and repeatability.

  11. Spaceborne centrifugal relays for spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzidane, Malika

    1991-01-01

    Acceleration using centrifugal relays is a recently discovered method for the acceleration of spaceborne payloads to high velocity at high thrust. Centrifugal relays are moving rotors which progressively accelerate reaction mass to higher velocities. One important engineering problem consists of accurately tracking the position of the projectiles and rotors and guiding each projectile exactly onto the appropriate guide tracks on each rotor. The topics of this research are the system kinematics and dynamics and the computerized guidance system which will allow the projectile to approach each rotor with exact timing with respect to the rotor rotation period and with very small errors in lateral positions. Kinematics studies include analysis of rotor and projectile positions versus time and projectile/rotor interactions. Guidance studies include a detailed description of the tracking mechanism (interrupt of optical beams) and the aiming mechanism (electromagnetic focusing) including the design of electromagnetic deflection coils and the switching circuitry.

  12. Study on Stretching Methods of Biaxially Stretched Co-polyester Film with Has Uniaxially Heat Shrinkage Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruta, Masayuki; Mukouyama, Yukinobu; Tabota, Norimi; Ito, Katsuya; Nonomura, Chisato

    Heat shrinkable film made of stretched film is widely used for decorative labels by attaching on PET bottles with heat shrinkage by steam or dry heating. Trouble cancellation in the installation process of the PET bottle is necessary. The purpose of this study is development of uniaxially heat shrinkable co-polyester film that has strength both in the machine direction (MD) and transverse direction (TD). The film production was performed using sequential biaxial stretched process that combined roll stretching with TD stretching. Cast film was processed in the order of TD stretching-Anneal 1-MD stretching-Anneal 2. As a result, the heat shrinkable film that shrunk only in MD got high tensile strength both in MD and TD. The anneal 1 temperature over Tg (Glass transition temperature) of material resin was needed to obtain the heat shrinkable film shrunk in MD after TD stretching.

  13. Wave-driven Countercurrent Plasma Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2009-03-20

    A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the α channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided.

  14. Operating and maintenance guidelines for screenbowl centrifuges

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnig, W.S.R.; Bratton, R.; Luttrell, G.

    2009-01-15

    Plant dewatering circuits equipped with screenbowl centrifuges need to be well designed, properly operated, and adequately maintained to maximize the dewatering performance. The most important 'feed variables' are particle size, dry solids feed rate and slurry flow rate. The most important 'machine variables' include pool depth, rotational speed and gearbox ratio. The article discusses the effect of these parameters and offers some maintenance guidelines. The article was adapted from a paper presented at CoalPrep 2008. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

  16. Centrifugal microfluidic platform for radiochemistry: potentialities for the chemical analysis of nuclear spent fuels.

    PubMed

    Bruchet, Anthony; Taniga, Vélan; Descroix, Stéphanie; Malaquin, Laurent; Goutelard, Florence; Mariet, Clarisse

    2013-11-15

    The use of a centrifugal microfluidic platform is for the first time reported as an alternative to classical chromatographic procedures for radiochemistry. The original design of the microfluidic platform has been thought to fasten and simplify the prototyping process with the use of a circular platform integrating four rectangular microchips made of thermoplastic. The microchips, dedicated to anion-exchange chromatographic separations, integrate a localized monolithic stationary phase as well as injection and collection reservoirs. The results presented here were obtained with a simplified simulated nuclear spent fuel sample composed of non-radioactive isotopes of Europium and Uranium, in proportion usually found for uranium oxide nuclear spent fuel. While keeping the analytical results consistent with the conventional procedure (extraction yield for Europium of ≈97%), the use of the centrifugal microfluidic platform allowed to reduce the volume of liquid needed by a factor of ≈250. Thanks to their unique "easy-to-use" features, centrifugal microfluidic platforms are potential successful candidates for the downscaling of chromatographic separation of radioactive samples (automation, multiplexing, easy integration in glove-boxes environment and low cost of maintenance).

  17. Centrifugal microfluidic platform for radiochemistry: potentialities for the chemical analysis of nuclear spent fuels.

    PubMed

    Bruchet, Anthony; Taniga, Vélan; Descroix, Stéphanie; Malaquin, Laurent; Goutelard, Florence; Mariet, Clarisse

    2013-11-15

    The use of a centrifugal microfluidic platform is for the first time reported as an alternative to classical chromatographic procedures for radiochemistry. The original design of the microfluidic platform has been thought to fasten and simplify the prototyping process with the use of a circular platform integrating four rectangular microchips made of thermoplastic. The microchips, dedicated to anion-exchange chromatographic separations, integrate a localized monolithic stationary phase as well as injection and collection reservoirs. The results presented here were obtained with a simplified simulated nuclear spent fuel sample composed of non-radioactive isotopes of Europium and Uranium, in proportion usually found for uranium oxide nuclear spent fuel. While keeping the analytical results consistent with the conventional procedure (extraction yield for Europium of ≈97%), the use of the centrifugal microfluidic platform allowed to reduce the volume of liquid needed by a factor of ≈250. Thanks to their unique "easy-to-use" features, centrifugal microfluidic platforms are potential successful candidates for the downscaling of chromatographic separation of radioactive samples (automation, multiplexing, easy integration in glove-boxes environment and low cost of maintenance). PMID:24148434

  18. Shallow water model for horizontal centrifugal casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boháček, J.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.; Wu, M.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical model was proposed to simulate the solidification process of an outer shell of work roll made by the horizontal centrifugal casting technique. Shallow water model was adopted to solve the 2D average flow dynamics of melt spreading and the average temperature distribution inside the centrifugal casting mould by considering the centrifugal force, Coriolis force, viscous force due to zero velocity on the mould wall, gravity, and energy transport by the flow. Additionally, a 1D sub-model was implemented to consider the heat transfer in the radial direction from the solidifying shell to the mould. The solidification front was tracked by fulfilling the Stefan condition. Radiative and convective heat losses were included from both, the free liquid surface and the outer wall of the mould. Several cases were simulated with the following assumed initial conditions: constant height of the liquid metal (10, 20, and 30 mm), uniform temperature of the free liquid surface (1755 K). The simulation results have shown that while the solidification front remained rather flat, the free surface was disturbed by waves. The amplitude of waves increased with the liquid height. Free surface waves diminished as the solidification proceeded.

  19. In-vivo Centrifugation of Drosophila Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Susan L.; Welte, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    A major strategy for purifying and isolating different types of intracellular organelles is to separate them from each other based on differences in buoyant density. However, when cells are disrupted prior to centrifugation, proteins and organelles in this non-native environment often inappropriately stick to each other. Here we describe a method to separate organelles by density in intact, living Drosophila embryos. Early embryos before cellularization are harvested from population cages, and their outer egg shells are removed by treatment with 50% bleach. Embryos are then transferred to a small agar plate and inserted, posterior end first, into small vertical holes in the agar. The plates containing embedded embryos are centrifuged for 30 min at 3000g. The agar supports the embryos and keeps them in a defined orientation. Afterwards, the embryos are dug out of the agar with a blunt needle. Centrifugation separates major organelles into distinct layers, a stratification easily visible by bright-field microscopy. A number of fluorescent markers are available to confirm successful stratification in living embryos. Proteins associated with certain organelles will be enriched in a particular layer, demonstrating colocalization. Individual layers can be recovered for biochemical analysis or transplantation into donor eggs. This technique is applicable for organelle separation in other large cells, including the eggs and oocytes of diverse species. PMID:20613707

  20. Compact, Automated Centrifugal Slide-Staining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Directional Acceleration Vector-Driven Displacement of Fluids (DAVD-DOF) system, under development at the time of reporting the information for this article, would be a relatively compact, automated, centrifugally actuated system for staining blood smears and other microbiological samples on glass microscope slides in either a microgravitational or a normal Earth gravitational environment. The DAVD-DOF concept is a successor to the centrifuge-operated slide stainer (COSS) concept, which was reported in Slide-Staining System for Microgravity or Gravity (MSC-22949), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 64. The COSS includes reservoirs and a staining chamber that contains a microscope slide to which a biological sample is affixed. The staining chamber is sequentially filled with and drained of staining and related liquids from the reservoirs by use of a weighted plunger to force liquid from one reservoir to another at a constant level of hypergravity maintained in a standard swing-bucket centrifuge. In the DAVD-DOF system, a staining chamber containing a sample would also be sequentially filled and emptied, but with important differences. Instead of a simple microscope slide, one would use a special microscope slide on which would be fabricated a network of very small reservoirs and narrow channels connected to a staining chamber (see figure). Unlike in the COSS, displacement of liquid would be effected by use of the weight of the liquid itself, rather than the weight of a plunger.

  1. Avoid self-priming centrifugal pump

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The self-priming horizontal centrifugal pump becomes known to its operator either as a good pump or a bad pump. The latter is usually replaced by another type of pump, even though a properly specified self-priming centrifugal pump might have been a good choice. Use of the guidelines described in this article are intended to help in the purchase and installation of a good pump. Self-priming centrifugal pumps are used for removing liquids from below grade sumps or pits that may also contain solids, fibers and/or muck. Alternate pumps for this service include submersible pumps, vertical turbine pumps and positive displacement pumps. These alternate pumps do not pass solid particles as large as self-priming pumps do without damage. Positive displacement pumps are not normally cost-effective when pumping liquid at rates in excess of 500 gallons per minute in low-head applications. Vertical and submersible pumps must be removed when cleaning of the pump is required. Self-priming pumps are easily cleaned by opening the access plates without moving the pump; and they cost less than the other types.

  2. Research opportunities with the Centrifuge Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Glenn A.

    1992-01-01

    The Centrifuge Facility on Space Station Freedom will consist of a 2.5-meter diameter Centrifuge accommodating two concentric rings of habitats and providing variable g-forces between 0.01 g and 2.0 g; modular habitats providing housing and lifesupport for rats, mice, and plants; a habitat holding system providing power, water, airflow and other utilities to several modular habitats; and a life sciences glovebox, an isolated work volume accommodating simultaneous operations by at least two scientists and providing lighting, airflow, video and data access, and other experiment support functions. The centrifuge facility will enable long-duration animal and plant microgravity research not previously possible in the NASA flight research program. It will offer unprecedented opportunities for use of on-board 1-g control populations and statistically significant numbers of specimens. On orbit 1-g controls will allow separation of the effects of microgravity from other environmental factors. Its selectable-g and simultaneous multiple-g capabilities will enable studies of gravitational thresholds, the use of artificial gravity as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, and ready simulation of Lunar and Martian gravities.

  3. Rounded stretched exponential for time relaxation functions.

    PubMed

    Powles, J G; Heyes, D M; Rickayzen, G; Evans, W A B

    2009-12-01

    A rounded stretched exponential function is introduced, C(t)=exp{(tau(0)/tau(E))(beta)[1-(1+(t/tau(0))(2))(beta/2)]}, where t is time, and tau(0) and tau(E) are two relaxation times. This expression can be used to represent the relaxation function of many real dynamical processes, as at long times, t>tau(0), the function converges to a stretched exponential with normalizing relaxation time, tau(E), yet its expansion is even or symmetric in time, which is a statistical mechanical requirement. This expression fits well the shear stress relaxation function for model soft soft-sphere fluids near coexistence, with tau(E)

  4. Stretched Exponential relaxation in pure Se glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, S.; Ravindren, S.; Boolchand, P.

    A universal feature of glasses is the stretched exponential relaxation, f (t) = exp[ - t / τ ] β . The model of diffusion of excitations to randomly distributed traps in a glass by Phillips1 yields the stretched exponent β = d[d +2] where d, the effective dimensionality. We have measured the enthalpy of relaxation ΔHnr (tw) at Tg of Se glass in modulated DSC experiments as glasses age at 300K and find β = 0.43(2) for tw in the 0

  5. Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

  6. Characteristic infrared intensities of carbonyl stretching vibrations.

    PubMed

    Richter, Wagner E; Silva, Arnaldo F; Vidal, Luciano N; Bruns, Roy E

    2016-07-14

    The experimental infrared fundamental intensities of gas phase carbonyl compounds obtained by the integration of spectral bands in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) spectral database are in good agreement with the intensities reported by other laboratories having a root mean square error of 27 km mol(-1) or about 13% of the average intensity value. The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules/Charge-Charge Transfer-Counterpolarization (QTAIM/CCTCP) model indicates that the large intensity variation from 61.7 to 415.4 km mol(-1) is largely due to static atomic charge contributions, whereas charge transfer and counterpolarization effects essentially cancel one another leaving only a small net effect. The Characteristic Substituent Shift Model estimates the atomic charge contributions to the carbonyl stretching intensities within 30 km mol(-1) or 10% of the average contribution. However, owing to the size of the 2 × C × CTCP interaction contribution, the total intensities cannot be estimated with this degree of accuracy. The dynamic intensity contributions of the carbon and oxygen atoms account for almost all of the total stretching intensities. These contributions vary over large ranges with the dynamic contributions of carbon being about twice the size of the oxygen ones for a large majority of carbonyls. Although the carbon monoxide molecule has an almost null dipole moment contrary to the very polar bond of the characteristic carbonyl group, its QTAIM/CCTCP model is very similar to those found for the carbonyl compounds. PMID:27306140

  7. Stretching the Spines of Gymnasts: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sands, William A; McNeal, Jeni R; Penitente, Gabriella; Murray, Steven Ross; Nassar, Lawrence; Jemni, Monèm; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Stone, Michael H

    2016-03-01

    Gymnastics is noted for involving highly specialized strength, power, agility and flexibility. Flexibility is perhaps the single greatest discriminator of gymnastics from other sports. The extreme ranges of motion achieved by gymnasts require long periods of training, often occupying more than a decade. Gymnasts also start training at an early age (particularly female gymnasts), and the effect of gymnastics training on these young athletes is poorly understood. One of the concerns of many gymnastics professionals is the training of the spine in hyperextension-the ubiquitous 'arch' seen in many gymnastics positions and movements. Training in spine hyperextension usually begins in early childhood through performance of a skill known as a back-bend. Does practising a back-bend and other hyperextension exercises harm young gymnasts? Current information on spine stretching among gymnasts indicates that, within reason, spine stretching does not appear to be an unusual threat to gymnasts' health. However, the paucity of information demands that further study be undertaken. PMID:26581832

  8. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  9. Levator Ani Muscle Stretch Induced by Simulated Vaginal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Kuo-Cheng; Mooney, Brian; DeLancey, John O. L.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a three-dimensional computer model to predict levator ani muscle stretch during vaginal birth. METHODS: Serial magnetic resonance images from a healthy nulliparous 34-year-old woman, published anatomic data, and engineering graphics software were used to construct a structural model of the levator ani muscles along with related passive tissues. The model was used to quantify pelvic floor muscle stretch induced during the second stage of labor as a model fetal head progressively engaged and then stretched the iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles. RESULTS: The largest tissue strain reached a stretch ratio (tissue length under stretch/original tissue length) of 3.26 in medial pubococcygeus muscle, the shortest, most medial and ventral levator ani muscle. Regions of the ileococcygeus, pubococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles reached maximal stretch ratios of 2.73, 2.50, and 2.28, respectively. Tissue stretch ratios were proportional to fetal head size: For example, increasing fetal head diameter by 9% increased medial pubococcygeus stretch by the same amount. CONCLUSION: The medial pubococcygeus muscles undergo the largest stretch of any levator ani muscles during vaginal birth. They are therefore at the greatest risk for stretch-related injury. PMID:14704241

  10. Acute stretching increases postural stability in nonbalance trained individuals.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Arnold G; Kokkonen, Joke; Arnall, David A; Li, Li

    2012-11-01

    Studies into the relationship between acute stretching and maintenance of postural balance have been inconclusive. It was hypothesized that familiarization with the task and subsequent learning might be involved in the conflicting results. Therefore, this study was to designed determine if a regimen of static stretching exercises after a familiarization period would improve a person's ability to maintain a stabilometer in a neutral position and whether stretching had the same effect on individuals with extensive involvement with balancing tasks. Forty-two college students (21 male, 21 female) and 10 surfers (all male) performed tests on a stabilometer on 2 separate days after 3 days of familiarization. Testing followed either 30 minutes of quiet sitting (nonstretched) or 30 minutes of stretching activities (stretched). Stretching exercises consisted of various assisted and unassisted static stretches of the muscles around the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Improved flexibility after the stretching exercises was demonstrated by significant (p < 0.05) 6.5 ± 2.7 cm (mean ± SD) increase in the sit and reach. Balance time for the students improved significantly by 11.4% (2.0-second increase), but the surfers had no significant change. Thus, stretching improved maintenance of balance perhaps by helping the subjects to eliminate the gross muscle contractions that caused large stabilometer displacements and to replace them with fine muscle contractions that caused little or no stabilometer displacements. However, it appears that experience doing balance tasks supplants any stretching benefit.

  11. Effects of stretching the scalene muscles on slow vital capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juncheol; Hwang, Sehee; Han, Seungim; Han, Dongwook

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether stretching of the scalene muscles would improve slow vital capacity (SVC). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy female students to whom the study’s methods and purpose were explained and their agreement for participation was obtained. The SVC was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). The intervention used was stretching of the scalene muscles. Stretching was carried out for 15 min, 10 times at per each portion of scalene muscles: the anterior, middle, and posterior parts. [Results] Expiratory vital capacity (EVC) and tidal volume (Vt) noticeably increased after stretching. However, there were no changes in any of the SVC items in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that stretching of the scalene muscles can effectively improve SVC. In particular, we confirmed that stretching of the scalene muscles was effective in increasing EVC and Vt, which are items of SVC. PMID:27390425

  12. Effects of stretching the scalene muscles on slow vital capacity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juncheol; Hwang, Sehee; Han, Seungim; Han, Dongwook

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether stretching of the scalene muscles would improve slow vital capacity (SVC). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy female students to whom the study's methods and purpose were explained and their agreement for participation was obtained. The SVC was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). The intervention used was stretching of the scalene muscles. Stretching was carried out for 15 min, 10 times at per each portion of scalene muscles: the anterior, middle, and posterior parts. [Results] Expiratory vital capacity (EVC) and tidal volume (Vt) noticeably increased after stretching. However, there were no changes in any of the SVC items in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that stretching of the scalene muscles can effectively improve SVC. In particular, we confirmed that stretching of the scalene muscles was effective in increasing EVC and Vt, which are items of SVC.

  13. Effects of three different stretching techniques on vertical jumping performance.

    PubMed

    Kirmizigil, Berkiye; Ozcaldiran, Bahtiyar; Colakoglu, Muzaffer

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate 3 different flexibility techniques: (a) ballistic stretching (BS), (b) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) + BS, and (c) PNF + static stretching (SS) on vertical jump (VJ) performance and to determine the most appropriate stretching method during warm-up period before explosive force disciplines. One hundred voluntary male athletes participated in this study. All subjects performed aerobic warm-up (5-minute jog) followed by BS (5 seconds for each stretching exercise), PNF + BS (PNF performed followed by 5 seconds of BS), and PNF + SS (PNF performed followed by 30 seconds of SS) treatment protocol, respectively in the same day. Each stretching treatment was applied for 4 sets bilaterally. In all stretching treatments, lumbar extensor, gluteus maximus, and hamstring muscles were stretched with a single stretching exercise. After a 2-minute brief rest period, participants performed 3 trials of VJ test followed by one of the treatment protocols. Vertical jump performance was evaluated by countermovement jump (CMJ). Participants were divided into 3 groups according to their flexibility and prejump performances after warm-up. For each individual group and the whole group, after all treatments, differences in CMJ values were obtained (p ≤ 0.05). Ballistic stretching increased the VJ performance in the groups with low and average flexibility, poor prejumping performance, and also in the whole group (p ≤ 0.05). Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching + BS affected VJ performance in the group of participants with high flexibility (p ≤ 0.05). Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation + SS decreased VJ performance in groups of participants with high flexibility, moderate, and high prejumping performance and in whole group (p ≤ 0.05). Ballistic stretching method increased VJ height, therefore seems to be more suitable than PNF + SS and PNF + BS before events that rely on explosive power as a part

  14. Monitoring the centrifugal recovery of recombinant protein inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Middelberg, A P; O'Neill, B K

    1991-04-01

    The industrial processing of proteins expressed as insoluble inclusion bodies employs a reasonably standard sequence of unit operations. One of these is centrifugation, which serves to concentrate the inclusion bodies after disruption of the host microorganism, and also separates the inclusion bodies from other cellular debris. Monitoring the performance of the centrifuge is essential if excessive product and hence financial loss is to be avoided and a reasonable separation obtained. The analytical disc centrifuge may be used to monitor the centrifugation. This instrument returns the sample size distribution with high resolution and without fouling. By obtaining size distributions of the centrifuge feed, supernatant and concentrate, the fractional collection efficiency of the centrifuge may be determined as a function of the Stokes diameter, and a mass balance constructed. PMID:1367325

  15. A toy model of polymer stretching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardiani, Carlo; Bagnoli, Franco

    2006-08-01

    We present an extremely simplified model of multiple-domain polymer stretching in an atomic force microscopy experiment. We portray each module as a binary set of contacts and decompose the system energy into a harmonic term (the cantilever) and long-range interaction terms inside each domain. Exact equilibrium computations and Monte Carlo simulations qualitatively reproduce the experimental sawtooth pattern of force-extension profiles, corresponding (in our model) to first-order phase transitions. We study the influence of the coupling induced by the cantilever and the pulling speed on the relative heights of the force peaks. The results suggest that the increasing height of the critical force for subsequent unfolding events is an out-of-equilibrium effect due to a finite pulling speed. The dependence of the average unfolding force on the pulling speed is shown to reproduce the experimental logarithmic law.

  16. Universal stretched exponential relaxation in nanoconfined water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, Adarsh; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Alm, Camilla K.; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the behavior of water confined at the nanometer scale is a fundamental problem not only in physics but also in life sciences, geosciences, and atmospheric sciences. Here, we examine spatial and dynamic heterogeneities in water confined in nanoporous silica using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulations reveal intermixed low-density water and high-density water with distinct local structures in nanopores of silica. The MD simulations also show dynamic heterogeneities in nanoconfined water. The temporal decay of cage correlation functions for room temperature and supercooled, nanoconfined water is very well described by stretched exponential relaxation, exp(-(t/τ)β). The exponent β has a unique value, d/(d + 2), which agrees with an exact result for diffusion in systems with static, random traps in d = 3 dimensions.

  17. Knots "Choke Off" Polymers upon Stretching.

    PubMed

    Stauch, Tim; Dreuw, Andreas

    2016-01-11

    Long polymer chains inevitably get tangled into knots. Like macroscopic ropes, polymer chains are substantially weakened by knots and the rupture point is always located at the "entry" or "exit" of the knot. However, these phenomena are only poorly understood at a molecular level. Here we show that when a knotted polyethylene chain is tightened, most of the stress energy is stored in torsions around the curved part of the chain. The torsions act as "work funnels" that effectively localize mechanical stress in the immediate vicinity of the knot. As a result, the knot "chokes" the chain at its entry or exit, thus leading to bond rupture at much lower forces than those needed to break a linear, unknotted chain. Our work not only explains the weakening of the polymer chain and the position of the rupture point, but more generally demonstrates that chemical bonds do not have to be extensively stretched to be broken. PMID:26629964

  18. Force fluctuations in stretching a tethered polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Anoop; Vemparala, Satyavani; Rajesh, R.

    2013-08-01

    The recently proposed fluctuation relation in unfolding forces [Phys. Rev. E1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.84.060101 84, 060101(R) (2011)] is reexamined taking into account the explicit time dependence of the force distribution. The stretching of a tethered Rouse polymer is exactly solved and the ratio of the probabilities of positive to negative forces is shown to be an exponential in force. Extensive steered molecular dynamics simulations of unfolding of deca alanine peptide confirm the form of fluctuation relation proposed earlier, but with explicit correct time dependence of unfolding forces taken into account. From exact calculations and simulations, a linear dependence of the constant in the exponential of the fluctuation relation on average unfolding forces and inverse temperature is proposed.

  19. Constellation Stretch Goals: Review of Industry Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, John

    2006-01-01

    Many good ideas received based on industry experience: a) Shuttle operations; b) Commercial aircraft production; c) NASA's historical way of doing business; d) Military and commercial programs. Aerospace performed preliminary analysis: a) Potential savings; b) Cost of implementation; c) Performance or other impact/penalties; d) Roadblocks; e) Unintended consequences; f) Bottom line. Significant work ahead for a "Stretch Goal"to become a good, documented requirement: 1) As a group, the relative "value" of goals are uneven; 2) Focused analysis on each goal is required: a) Need to ensure that a new requirement produces the desired consequence; b) It is not certain that some goals will not create problems elsewhere. 3) Individual implementation path needs to be studied: a) Best place to insert requirement (what level, which document); b) Appropriate wording for the requirement. Many goals reflect "best practices" based on lessons learned and may have value beyond near-term CxP requirements process.

  20. Aerothermodynamic properties of stretched flames in enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotman, D. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    Flames are stretched by being pulled along their frontal surface by the flow field in which they reside. Their trajectories tend to approach particle paths, acquiring eventually the role of contact boundaries, -interfaces between the burnt and unburnt medium that may broaden solely as a consequence of diffusion. Fundamental properties of flow fields governing such flames are determined here on the basis of the zero Mach number model, providng a rational method of approach to the computational analysis of combustion fields in enclosures where, besides the aerodynamic properties flow, the thermodynamic process of compression must be taken into account. To illustrate its application, the method is used to reveal the mechanism of formation of a tulip-shape flame in a rectangular enclosure under nonturbulent flow conditions.

  1. Stretched Lens Array Photovoltaic Concentrator Technology Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    Solar arrays have been and continue to be the mainstay in providing power to nearly all commercial and government spacecraft. Light from the Sun is directly converted into electrical energy using solar cells. One way to reduce the cost of future space power systems is by minimizing the size and number of expensive solar cells by focusing the sunlight onto smaller cells using concentrator optics. The stretched lens array (SLA) is a unique concept that uses arched Fresnel lens concentrators to focus sunlight onto a line of high-efficiency solar cells located directly beneath. The SLA concept is based on the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) design that was used on NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 mission. The highly successful asteroid/comet rendezvous mission (1998 to 2001) demonstrated the performance and long-term durability of the SCARLET/SLA solar array design and set the foundation for further improvements to optimize its performance.

  2. Sh-Stretching Intensities and Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Alkanethiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. J.; Lane, J. R.; Sodergren, A. H.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Dunn, M. E.; Vaida, V.

    2009-06-01

    The SH-stretching overtone transitions of tert-butylthiol and ethanethiol are observed using FT-IR, NIR and photoacoustic spectroscopies. The intensities of these are compared with OH-stretching overtones from the corresponding alcohols. We explain the paucity of SH-stretching intensity using an anharmonic oscillator local mode model. SH- and OH-stretching overtone spectra of 1,2-ethanedithiol and 2-mercaptoethanol are recorded to observe the different effects that hydrogen bonding involving SH - - - S, SH - - - O and OH - - - S have on the spectra. We discuss these effects with the help of high level ab initio calculations.

  3. Do Stretch Durations Affect Muscle Mechanical and Neurophysiological Properties?

    PubMed

    Opplert, J; Genty, J-B; Babault, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether stretching durations influence acute changes of mechanical and neurophysiological properties of plantar flexor muscles. Plantar flexors of 10 active males were stretched in passive conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Different durations of static stretching were tested in 5 randomly ordered experimental trials (1, 2, 3, 4 and 10×30-s). Fascicle stiffness index, evoked contractile properties and spinal excitability (Hmax/Mmax) were examined before (PRE), immediately after (POST0) and 5 min after (POST5) stretching. No stretch duration effect was recorded for any variable. Moreover, whatever the stretching duration, stiffness index, peak twitch torque and rate of force development were significantly lower at POST0 and POST5 as compared to PRE (P<0.05). Electromechanical delay was longer at POST0 and POST5 as compared to PRE (P<0.05). Whatever the stretch duration, no significant changes of Hmax/Mmax ratio were recorded. In conclusion, 30 s of static stretching to maximum tolerated discomfort is sufficient enough to alter mechanical properties of plantar flexor muscles, but 10×30 s does not significantly affect these properties further. Stretching does not impair spinal excitability. PMID:27191211

  4. Large Deviation Statistics of Vorticity Stretching in Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-11-01

    A key feature of 3D fluid turbulence is the stretching/re-alignment of vorticity by the action of the strain-rate. It is shown using the cumulant-generating function that cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence behaves statistically like a sum of i.i.d. variables. The Cramer function for vorticity stretching is computed from the JHTDB isotropic DNS (Reλ = 430) and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain-rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramer functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of largest FTLE. A model Fokker-Planck equation is constructed by approximating the viscous destruction of vorticity with a deterministic non-linear relaxation law matching conditional statistics, while the fluctuations in vorticity stretching are modelled by stochastic noise matching the statistics encoded in the Cramer function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude PDF, with good agreement for the exponent but significant error (30-40%) in the pre-factor. Supported by NSF Graduate Fellowship (DGE-1232825) and NSF Grant CMMI-0941530.

  5. Enhancement of multispectral thermal infrared images - Decorrelation contrast stretching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Decorrelation contrast stretching is an effective method for displaying information from multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) images. The technique involves transformation of the data to principle components ('decorrelation'), independent contrast 'stretching' of data from the new 'decorrelated' image bands, and retransformation of the stretched data back to the approximate original axes, based on the inverse of the principle component rotation. The enhancement is robust in that colors of the same scene components are similar in enhanced images of similar scenes, or the same scene imaged at different times. Decorrelation contrast stretching is reviewed in the context of other enhancements applied to TIR images.

  6. Reduced stretch-reflex sensitivity after exhausting stretch-shortening cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Nicol, C; Komi, P V; Horita, T; Kyröläinen, H; Takala, T E

    1996-01-01

    The stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is an effective and natural form of muscle function but, when repeated with sufficient intensity or duration, it may lead to muscle damage and functional defects. A reduced tolerance to impact has been reported, which may be partly attributed to a reduced stretch-reflex potentiation. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of SSC-induced metabolic fatigue and muscle damage on the efficacy of stretch reflexes, as judged by the electromyograph (EMG) response of two shank muscles (lateral gastrocnemius LG, soleus SOL) to controlled ramp stretches. These EMG responses were recorded before and immediately after exhausting SSC-type leg exercise and 2 h, 2 days and 4 days later. Serum concentrations of creatine kinase ([CK]), myoglobin and lactate were measured repetitively along the protocol. Two maximal vertical drop jumps and counter-movement jumps were performed after each reflex test. The exhausting SSC-type exercise induced an immediate reduction (P < 0.05) with a delayed short-term recovery of the LG peak-to-peak reflex amplitude. This was not accompanied by significant changes in the reflex latency. The drop jump performance remained slightly but significantly reduced (P < 0.05) until the 2nd day postexercise. Peak [CK] appeared for all the subjects on the 2nd day, suggesting the presence of muscle damage. The increase in [CK] between the 2nd h and the 2nd day postexercise was found to be negatively related (P < 0.001) to the relative changes in the drop jump height. Furthermore, a significant relationship (P < 0.05) was found between recovery of the stretch reflex in LG and the decrease of [CK] between the 2nd and the 4th day. These findings support the hypothesis of a reduced stretch-reflex sensitivity. While the exact mechanisms of the reflex inhibition remain unclear, it is emphasized that the delayed recovery of the reflex sensitivity could have resulted from the progressive inflammation that develops in

  7. Laminar flow effects in the coil planet centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, F. T.

    1984-01-01

    The coil planet centrifuge designed by Ito employs flow of a single liquid phase, through a rotating coiled tube in a centrifugal force field, to provide a separation of particles based on sedimentation rates. Mathematical solutions are derived for the linear differential equations governing particle behavior in the coil planet centrifuge device. These solutions are then applied as the basis of a model for optimizing particle separations.

  8. [Design and optimization of a centrifugal pump for CPCR].

    PubMed

    Pei, J; Tan, X; Chen, K; Li, X

    2000-06-01

    Requirements for an optimal centrifugal pump, the vital component in the equipment for cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation(CPCR), have been presented. The performance of the Sarns centrifugal pump (Sarns, Inc./3M, Ann arbor, MI, U.S.A) was tested. The preliminarily optimized model for CPCR was designed according to the requirements of CPCR and to the comparison and analysis of several clinically available centrifugal pumps. The preliminary tests using the centrifugal pump made in our laboratory(Type CPCR-I) have confirmed the design and the optimization.

  9. Autobalancing and FDIR for a space-based centrifuge prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Edward; Mah, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes centrifuge-related work performed at the Smart Systems Research Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center's Computational Sciences Division from 1995 through 2003. The goal is to develop an automated system that will sense an imbalance (both static and dynamic3) in a centrifuge and issue control commands to drive counterweights to eliminate the effects of the imbalance. This autobalancing development began when the ISS centrifuge design was not yet finalized, and was designed to work with the SSRL Centrifuge laboratory prototype, constructed in 1993-1995. Significant differences between that prototype and the current International Space Station (ISS) Centrifuge design are that: the spin axis for the SSRL Centrifuge prototype can translate freely in x and y, but not wobble, whereas the ISS centrifuge spin axis has 3 translational and two rotational degrees of freedom, supported by a vibration 34. The imbalance sensors are strained gauges both in the rotor and the stator, measuring the imbalance forces, whereas the ISS centrifuge uses eddy current displacement sensors to measure the displacements resulting from imbalance. High fidelity autobalancing and FDIR systems (for both counterweights and strain gauges) are developed and tested in MATLAB simulation, for the SSRL Centrifuge configuration. Hardware implementation of the autobalancing technology was begun in 1996, but was terminated due to lack of funding. The project lay dormant until 2001-2002 when the FDIR capability was added.

  10. Lube oil centrifuge saves Odeco $360,000/year

    SciTech Connect

    Closs, D.E.

    1983-05-01

    Purifying centrifuges were installed in the offshore drilling operation diesel engines of the Odeco Co. of New Orleans. The centrifuges extend filter life fourfold, eliminate the need to change oil at all, and defer the need for costly overhauls indefinitely. The Alfa-Laval built centrifuges were placed on 23 mobile rigs that Odeco has working in the Gulf of Mexico, and they paid for their cost twice over during the first year of operation. Originally, a lubricant centrifuge was tested aboard the Ocean Tempest. The results were so remarkable that similar installations were placed on all other vessels in the domestic drilling division.

  11. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  12. Effects of Prolonged Centrifugation on Orthostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M..; Hargens, A. R.; Yates, B. J.; Bowley, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A feasibility study conducted on the Ames 20-G Human Centrifuge examined how well humans can maintain orthostatic tolerance during and after prolonged exposures to hypergravity. Three adult males lived for periods of 22 hours in the centrifuge while it was at rest (1.00 G), and while it rotated at 9.38 RPM to provide 1.25 G-total at the mean radius of 7.62 m. Two participants also experienced 22-hour habitation sessions at 11.46 RPM, which provided 1.50 G-total. Both before and after each habitation session, the participants were given gradual onset rate (GOR) acceleration profiles at 0.067 G/sec to determine their Gz tolerance. In addition, cardiovascular responses were compared while subjects were supine, siting, and standing at various times during the habitation (stand test), and cardiovascular responsiveness was determined using a lower body negative pressure tilt table (LBNPTT) at the beginning of the experiment and after each session. Post-Pre changes in G tolerance were -0.33 (mean) +/- 0.11 (std. error) Gz for habitation at 1.00 G, -0.02 +/- 0.12 Gz for habitation at 1.25 G, and +0.41 +/- 0.13 Gz for habitation at 1.50 G. Performance on the stand test generally improved with duration of habitation in hypergravity. Our results suggest that habitation in a confined chamber at 1.00 G reduces G tolerance and leads to lowered LBNPTT tolerance. Exposure to increased G in the centrifuge leads to enhanced performance on the stand test, and to increased GOR acceleration tolerance, but only when fluid balance is maintained; when motion sickness and negative fluid balance were observed, G tolerance was reduced. The data indicate that enhanced G tolerance can result from prolonged exposure to hypergravity, but that these changes are complex and depend on multiple underlying physiological processes.

  13. Development of a 3D circular microfluidic centrifuge for the separation of mixed particles by using their different centrifuge times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, H. J.; Kim, D. I.; Kim, M. J.; Nguyen, X. D.; Park, D. H.; Go, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a circular microfluidic centrifuge with two inlets and two outlets to separate mixed microparticles with a specially designed sample injection hole. To separate the mixed particles, it uses a rotational flow, generated in a chamber by counter primary flows in the microchannels. The shape and sizes of the circular microfluidic centrifuge have been designed through numerical evaluation to have a large relative centrifugal force. The difference of centrifuge times of the mixed particles of 1 μm and 6 μm was determined to be 8.2 s at an inlet Reynolds number of 500 and a sample Reynolds number of 20. In the experiment, this was measured to be about 10 s. From the separation of the two polymer particles analogous to the representative sizes of platelets and red blood cells, the circular microfluidic centrifuge shows a potential to separate human blood cells size-selectively by using the difference of centrifuge times.

  14. Theory and experiments on centrifuge cratering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R. M.; Holsapple, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Centrifuge experimental techniques provide possibilities for laboratory simulation of ground motion and cratering effects due to explosive loadings. The results of a similarity analysis for the thermomechanical response of a continuum show that increased gravity is a necessary condition for subscale testing when identical materials for both model and prototype are being used. The general similarity requirements for this type of subscale testing are examined both theoretically and experimentally. The similarity analysis is used to derive the necessary and sufficient requirements due to the general balance and jump equations and gives relations among all the scale factors for size, density, stress, body forces, internal energy, heat supply, heat conduction, heat of detonation, and time. Additional constraints due to specific choices of material constitutive equations are evaluated separately. The class of constitutive equations that add no further requirements is identified. For this class of materials, direct simulation of large-scale cratering events at small scale on the centrifuge is possible and independent of the actual constitutive equations. For a rate-independent soil it is shown that a small experiment at gravity g and energy E is similar to a large event at 1 G but with energy equal to g3E. Consequently, experiments at 500 G with 8 grams of explosives can be used to simulate a kiloton in the field. A series of centrifuge experiments was performed to validate the derived similarity requirements and to determine the practicality of applying the technique to dry granular soils having little or no cohesion. Ten shots using Ottawa sand at various gravities confirmed reproducibility of results in the centrifuge environment, provided information on particle size effects, and demonstrated the applicability of the derived similitude requirements. These experiments used 0.5-4 grams of pentaerythritol-tetranitrate (PETN) and 1.7 grams of lead-azide explosives. They

  15. Transuranium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1985-12-01

    The needs of the research community for the production of transuranium isotopes, the quantities required, the continuity of production desired, and what a new steady state neutron source would have to provide to satisfy these needs are discussed. Examples of past frontier research which need these isotopes as well as an outline of the proposed Large Einsteinium Activation Program, LEAP, which requires roughly ten times the current production of /sup 254/Es are given. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Isotopic Paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, R.

    Paleotemperature scales were calculated by H. C. Urey and others in the 1950s to assess past temperatures, and later work using the stable isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon employed standards such as Peedee belemnite (PDB) and Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW). Subsequently, subjects as diverse as ice volume and paleotemperatures, oceanic ice and sediment cores, Pleistocene/Holocene climatic changes, and isotope chronostratigraphy extending back to the Precambrian were investigated.

  17. Isotopic chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Floss, H.G.

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  18. Large-scale and highly efficient synthesis of micro- and nano-fibers with controlled fiber morphology by centrifugal jet spinning for tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Liyun; Pandit, Vaibhav; Elkin, Joshua; Denman, Tyler; Cooper, James A.; Kotha, Shiva P.

    2013-02-01

    PLLA fibrous tissue scaffolds with controlled fiber nanoscale surface roughness are fabricated with a novel centrifugal jet spinning process. The centrifugal jet spinning technique is a highly efficient synthesis method for micron- to nano-sized fibers with a production rate up to 0.5 g min-1. During the centrifugal jet spinning process, a polymer solution jet is stretched by the centrifugal force of a rotating chamber. By engineering the rheological properties of the polymer solution, solvent evaporation rate and centrifugal force that are applied on the solution jet, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) composite fibers with various diameters are fabricated. Viscosity measurements of polymer solutions allowed us to determine critical polymer chain entanglement limits that allow the generation of continuous fiber as opposed to beads or beaded fibers. Above a critical concentration at which polymer chains are partially or fully entangled, lower polymer concentrations and higher centrifugal forces resulted in thinner fibers. Etching of PVP from the PLLA-PVP composite fibers doped with increasing PVP concentrations yielded PLLA fibers with increasing nano-scale surface roughness and porosity, which increased the fiber hydrophilicity dramatically. Scanning electron micrographs of the etched composite fibers suggest that PVP and PLLA were co-contiguously phase separated within the composite fibers during spinning and nano-scale roughness features were created after the partial etching of PVP. To study the tissue regeneration efficacy of the engineered PLLA fiber matrix, human dermal fibroblasts are used to simulate partial skin graft. Fibers with increased PLLA surface roughness and porosity demonstrated a trend towards higher cell attachment and proliferation.PLLA fibrous tissue scaffolds with controlled fiber nanoscale surface roughness are fabricated with a novel centrifugal jet spinning process. The centrifugal jet spinning technique is a

  19. Postcardiotomy centrifugal assist: a single surgeon's experience.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jack J; McKenney-Knox, Charlotte A; Wagner-Mann, Colette C

    2002-11-01

    Because of the infrequent application of cardiac assist devices for postcardiotomy heart failure, most published reports include the results of learning curves from multiple surgeons. Between October 1986 and June 2001, a single surgeon used 35 Sarns Centrifugal Pumps as ventricular assist devices in 21 patients with severe hemodynamic compromise after open heart surgery (0.88% incidence). Patients' ages ranged from 39 to 77 (mean, 59.6 years). Three patients required right ventricular assist devices, 4 left ventricular assist devices, and 14 had biventricular assist devices. For all, the indication for application was inability to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass despite multiple inotropes and intraaortic balloon pumping. All were expected to be intraoperative deaths without further mechanical assistance. Patients were assisted from 2 to 434 h (median, 48 h). Fifteen patients (71.4%) were weaned from device(s), and 11 patients (52.4%) were hospital survivors. Actuarial survival in those dismissed from the hospital was 78% at 5 years and 39% at 10 years. Patients facing certain demise after cardiac surgery can be salvaged with temporary centrifugal mechanical assist. Results are competitive with that achieved with more sophisticated devices. Hospital survivors enjoy reasonable longevity.

  20. Centrifugation of coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Weintraub, Murray; Weiss, Milton L.; Akhtar, Sayeed

    1980-06-01

    The application of the continuous solid bowl centrifuge to the removal of solids from coal liquefaction products was investigated. The centrifuge removed from 23 to 88% of the input ash from 8 to 73% of the input organic benzene insolubles while flow rates, viscosities, and dam heights were varied. Viscosity ..mu.., effluent liquid rate Q/sub e/, and Ambler's geometric parameter ..sigma.. were graphically correlated with attained separations. The separation was relatively insensitive to the variables, as a 50-fold increase in Q/sub e//..sigma.. corresponded to a decrease in ash removal only from 84% to 60% and to a decrease in organic solids removal only from 77% to 22%. Organic solids removal was poorer and more erratic than ash removal because of the lesser density differences and greater size variability of the organics. Ancillary studies demonstrated that coal liquefaction products may behave as a Bingham Plastic fluid, and that this results in an absolute limit on the attainable solids separation. Additional studies showed that little difference in density may exist between the organic solids and liquids, and that effects of aging may threaten the validity of viscosity measurements.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Centrifugal Compressor Stabilization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2003-01-01

    Results from a series of experiments to investigate techniques for extending the stable flow range of a centrifugal compressor are reported. The research was conducted in a high-speed centrifugal compressor at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The stabilizing effect of steadily flowing air-streams injected into the vaneless region of a vane-island diffuser through the shroud surface is described. Parametric variations of injection angle, injection flow rate, number of injectors, injector spacing, and injection versus bleed were investigated for a range of impeller speeds and tip clearances. Both the compressor discharge and an external source were used for the injection air supply. The stabilizing effect of flow obstructions created by tubes that were inserted into the diffuser vaneless space through the shroud was also investigated. Tube immersion into the vaneless space was varied in the flow obstruction experiments. Results from testing done at impeller design speed and tip clearance are presented. Surge margin improved by 1.7 points using injection air that was supplied from within the compressor. Externally supplied injection air was used to return the compressor to stable operation after being throttled into surge. The tubes, which were capped to prevent mass flux, provided 9.3 points of additional surge margin over the baseline surge margin of 11.7 points.

  2. Some aversive characteristics of centrifugally generated gravity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, F.

    1973-01-01

    The effective weight of rats was manipulated by centrifugation. Two effective weight levels were obtained. In three escape avoidance conditions a lever press produced a change from a base level of 2.1 g to a response level of 1.1 g. In a punishment condition a response produced a change from a 1.1 g level to a 2.1 g level and in an extinction condition responses had no effect on the 2.1 g effective weight level present. All changes took 30 sec and were maintained for an additional 10 sec before a return to base level was initiated. When responses occurred closer together than the 40 sec, they delayed the return to base level by 40 sec. This 40 sec interval is referred to as response-contingent-time. The response rate and amount of response-contingent-time served as the data. The results confirmed previous data that centrifugation is aversive. The results are interpreted as indicating that the aversiveness is attributable to the increase in effective weight, and that rats can discriminate the different angular velocity-radius of rotation combinations used.

  3. Wave Augmented Diffusers for Centrifugal Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Skoch, Gary J.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual device is introduced which would utilize unsteady wave motion to slow and turn flows in the diffuser section of a centrifugal compressor. The envisioned device would substantially reduce the size of conventional centrifugal diffusers by eliminating the relatively large ninety degree bend needed to turn the flow from the radial/tangential to the axial direction. The bend would be replaced by a wall and the flow would instead exit through a series of rotating ports located on a disk, adjacent to the diffuser hub, and fixed to the impeller shaft. The ports would generate both expansion and compression waves which would rapidly transition from the hub/shroud (axial) direction to the radial/tangential direction. The waves would in turn induce radial/tangential and axial flow. This paper presents a detailed description of the device. Simplified cycle analysis and performance results are presented which were obtained using a time accurate, quasi-one-dimensional CFD code with models for turning, port flow conditions, and losses due to wall shear stress. The results indicate that a periodic wave system can be established which yields diffuser performance comparable to a conventional diffuser. Discussion concerning feasibility, accuracy, and integration follow.

  4. Centrifugally Stimulated Exospheric Ion Escape at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delcourt, Dominique; Seki, K.; Terada, N.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the transport of ions in the low-altitude magnetosphere magnetosphere of Mercury. We show that, because of small spatial scales, the centrifugal effect due to curvature of the E B drift paths can lead to significant particle energization in the parallel direction. We demonstrate that because of this effect, ions with initial speed smaller than the escape speed such as those produced via thermal desorption can overcome gravity and escape into the magnetosphere. The escape route of this low-energy exosphere originating material is largely controlled by the magnetospheric convection rate. This escape route spreads over a narrower range of altitudes when the convection rate increases. Bulk transport of low-energy planetary material thus occurs within a limited region of space once moderate magnetospheric convection is established. These results suggest that, via release of material otherwise gravitationally trapped, the E B related centrifugal acceleration is an important mechanism for the net supply of plasma to the magnetosphere of Mercury.

  5. Embossed metal diaphragm has two-way stretch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macglashan, W. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Diaphragm with embossed pattern has greater structural rigidity than one with smooth surfaces, but under severe stress, tensile loads will flatten embossing. This provides necessary additional panel stretch needed to prevent rupture of diaphragm material. Hexagonal embossing-configuration allows panel stretch in any direction or in all directions simultaneously.

  6. Does Postexercise Static Stretching Alleviate Delayed Muscle Soreness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buroker, Katherine C.; Schwane, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Because many experts recommend stretching after exercise to relieve muscle soreness, 23 subjects performed a 30-minute step test to induce delayed muscle soreness. There was neither temporary relief of pain immediately after stretching nor a reduction in pain during the 3-day postexercise period. (Author/SM)

  7. Large-scale and highly efficient synthesis of micro- and nano-fibers with controlled fiber morphology by centrifugal jet spinning for tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ren, Liyun; Pandit, Vaibhav; Elkin, Joshua; Denman, Tyler; Cooper, James A; Kotha, Shiva P

    2013-03-21

    PLLA fibrous tissue scaffolds with controlled fiber nanoscale surface roughness are fabricated with a novel centrifugal jet spinning process. The centrifugal jet spinning technique is a highly efficient synthesis method for micron- to nano-sized fibers with a production rate up to 0.5 g min(-1). During the centrifugal jet spinning process, a polymer solution jet is stretched by the centrifugal force of a rotating chamber. By engineering the rheological properties of the polymer solution, solvent evaporation rate and centrifugal force that are applied on the solution jet, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) composite fibers with various diameters are fabricated. Viscosity measurements of polymer solutions allowed us to determine critical polymer chain entanglement limits that allow the generation of continuous fiber as opposed to beads or beaded fibers. Above a critical concentration at which polymer chains are partially or fully entangled, lower polymer concentrations and higher centrifugal forces resulted in thinner fibers. Etching of PVP from the PLLA-PVP composite fibers doped with increasing PVP concentrations yielded PLLA fibers with increasing nano-scale surface roughness and porosity, which increased the fiber hydrophilicity dramatically. Scanning electron micrographs of the etched composite fibers suggest that PVP and PLLA were co-contiguously phase separated within the composite fibers during spinning and nano-scale roughness features were created after the partial etching of PVP. To study the tissue regeneration efficacy of the engineered PLLA fiber matrix, human dermal fibroblasts are used to simulate partial skin graft. Fibers with increased PLLA surface roughness and porosity demonstrated a trend towards higher cell attachment and proliferation.

  8. View of new centrifuge at Flight Acceleration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    View of the new centrifuge at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), located in the Flight Acceleration Facility, bldg 29. The 50-ft. arm can swing the three man gondola to create g-forces astronauts will experience during controlled flight and during reentry. The centrifuge was designed primarily for training Apollo astronauts.

  9. Coil planet centrifugation as a means for small particle separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    The coil planet centrifuge uses a centrifugal force field to provide separation of particles based on differences in sedimentation rates by flow through a rotating coiled tube. Three main separations are considered: (1) single phase fresh sheep and human erythrocytes, (2) single phase fixed heep and human erythrocytes, and (3) electrophoretically enhanced single phase fresh sheep and human erythrocytes.

  10. Stretched Lens Array Squarerigger (SLASR) Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A.J.; Howell, Joe; Lollar, Louis; Carrington, Connie; Hoppe, David; Piszczor, Michael; Suszuki, Nantel; Eskenazi, Michael; Aiken, Dan; Fulton, Michael; Brandhorst, Henry; Schuller, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Since April 2005, our team has been underway on a competitively awarded program sponsored by NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop, refine, and mature the unique solar array technology known as Stretched Lens Array SquareRigger (SLASR). SLASR offers an unprecedented portfolio of performance metrics, SLASR offers an unprecedented portfolio of performance metrics, including the following: Areal Power Density = 300 W/m2 (2005) - 400 W/m2 (2008 Target) Specific Power = 300 W/kg (2005) - 500 W/kg (2008 Target) for a Full 100 kW Solar Array Stowed Power = 80 kW/cu m (2005) - 120 kW/m3 (2008 Target) for a Full 100 kW Solar Array Scalable Array Capacity = 100 s of W s to 100 s of kW s Super-Insulated Small Cell Circuit = High-Voltage (300-600 V) Operation at Low Mass Penalty Super-Shielded Small Cell Circuit = Excellent Radiation Hardness at Low Mass Penalty 85% Cell Area Savings = 75% Lower Array Cost per Watt than One-Sun Array Modular, Scalable, & Mass-Producible at MW s per Year Using Existing Processes and Capacities

  11. Global stability of gravitationally stretched capillary jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Rubio, Mariano; Sevilla, Alejandro; Gordillo, José Manuel

    2013-11-01

    We analyze the global linear stability of capillary jets stretched by gravity both experimentally and theoretically, extending the work by Sauter & Buggisch (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 533, 2005, pp. 237-257). Our results reveal the essential stabilizing role played by the axial curvature of the jet, the latter effect being especially relevant for injectors with a large diameter. The theoretical description, based on the one-dimensional mass and momentum equations retaining the exact expression for the interfacial curvature, accurately predicts the onset of jet self-excited oscillations experimentally observed for wide ranges of liquid viscosity and injector diameter. The marginal self-sustained oscillations observed in the experiments are shown to correspond to the excitation of the leading global mode of the jet. The model developed in the present work shows better agreement with the experimental jetting-dripping transition events than those available in the literature, thus allowing us to conclude that, surprisingly, the size of the steady threads produced at a given distance from the exit can be reduced by increasing the nozzle diameter. The proposed formulation allows to describe the inviscid limit, and experiments are being performed to study this distinguished case. Supported by Spanish MINECO under projects DPI 2011-28356-C03-01 and DPI 2011-28356-C03-02.

  12. Single, stretched membrane, structural module experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes tests done on stretched-membrane heliostats used to reflect solar radiation onto a central receiver. The tests were used to validate prior analysis and mathematical models developed to describe module performance. The modules tested were three meters in diameter and had reflective polymer film laminated to the membrane. The frames were supported at three points equally spaced around the ring. Three modules were pneumatically attached with their weight suspended at the bottom support, two were pneumatically attached with their weight suspended from the upper mounts, and one was rigidly attached with its weight suspended at the bottom mount. By varying the membrane tension we could simulate a uniform wind loading normal to the mirror's surface. A video camera 15+ meters away from the mirror recorded the virtual image of a target grid as reflected by the mirrors' surface. The image was digitized and stored on a microcomputer. Using the law of reflection and analytic geometry, we computed the surface slopes of a sampling of points on the surface. The dominant module response was consistent with prior SERI analyses. The simple analytical model is quite adequate for designing and sizing single-membrane modules if the initial imperfections and their amplification are appropriately controlled. To avoid potential problems resulting from the fundamentally n = 2 deformation phenomena, we advise using either relatively stiffer ring frames or more than three support points.

  13. High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.; Jongwook, Joo; Hardin, Larry W.; McCormick, Duane C.; Cousins, William T.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Shabbir, Aamir; Holley, Brian M.; Van Slooten, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    The report "High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications" documents the work conducted at UTRC under the NRA Contract NNC08CB03C, with cost share 2/3 NASA, and 1/3 UTRC, that has been extended to 4.5 years. The purpose of this effort was to identify key technical barriers to advancing the state-of-the-art of small centrifugal compressor stages; to delineate the measurements required to provide insight into the flow physics of the technical barriers; to design, fabricate, install, and test a state-of-the-art research compressor that is representative of the rear stage of an axial-centrifugal aero-engine; and to acquire detailed aerodynamic performance and research quality data to clarify flow physics and to establish detailed data sets for future application. The design activity centered on meeting the goal set outlined in the NASA solicitation-the design target was to increase efficiency at higher work factor, while also reducing the maximum diameter of the stage. To fit within the existing Small Engine Components Test Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and to facilitate component re-use, certain key design parameters were fixed by UTRC, including impeller tip diameter, impeller rotational speed, and impeller inlet hub and shroud radii. This report describes the design effort of the High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage (HECC) and delineation of measurements, fabrication of the compressor, and the initial tests that were performed. A new High-Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage with a very challenging reduction in radius ratio was successfully designed, fabricated and installed at GRC. The testing was successful, with no mechanical problems and the running clearances were achieved without impeller rubs. Overall, measured pressure ratio of 4.68, work factor of 0.81, and at design exit corrected flow rate of 3 lbm/s met the target requirements. Polytropic efficiency of 85.5 percent and stall margin of 7.5 percent were

  14. The development of the International Space Station centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tamotsu

    2004-11-01

    Gravitational biology research facility "Centrifuge" is currently under development for the International Space Station. Research in the Complex Organism Biology, indispensable to the progress in Health Science, is only possible in the Centrifuge aboard the station. So, on-orbit 1 G controls for various specimens including small mammals, fish, and higher plants will be rigorously done in the Centrifuge. This facility is also capable of providing "reduced gravity" likely on the Moon or on Mars. Thus, it will play a key role in creating knowledge of space fundamental biology. As part of the offset of NASA's Shuttle launch services for the Japanese Experiment Module, JAXA is developing the Centrifuge Rotor (CR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM). Critical Design Review (CDR) of LSG was conducted on July 2004, while the system CDRs of the CAM and CR are scheduled for December 2004 and August 2005, respectively. Their launch schedules are under review.

  15. Centrifugal regulator for control of deployment rates of deployable elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermalle, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements, design, and performance of a centrifugal regulator aimed at limiting deployment rates of deployable elements are discussed. The overall mechanism is comprised of four distinct functional parts in a machined housing: (1) the centrifugal brake device, which checks the payout of a deployment cable; (2) the reducing gear, which produces the spin rate necesary for the braking device; (3) the payout device, which allows the unwinding of the cable; and (4) the locking device, which prevents untimely unwinding. The centrifugal regulator is set into operation by a threshold tension of the cable which unlocks the mechanism and allows unwinding. The pulley of the windout device drives the centrifugal brake with the help of the reducing gear. The centrifugal force pushes aside weights that produce friction of the studs in a cylindrical housing. The mechanism behaved well at qualification temperature and vibrations.

  16. Measuring and balancing dynamic unbalance of precision centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yafei; Huo, Xin

    2008-10-01

    A precision centrifuge is used to test and calibrate accelerometer model parameters. Its dynamic unbalance may cause the perturbation of the centrifuge to deteriorate the test and calibration accuracy of an accelerometer. By analyzing the causes of dynamic unbalance, the influences on precision centrifuge from static unbalance and couple unbalance are developed. It is considered measuring and balancing of static unbalance is a key to resolving a dynamic unbalance problem of precision centrifuge with a disk in structure. Measuring means and calculating formulas of static unbalance amount are given, and balancing principle and method are provided. The correctness and effectiveness of this method are confirmed by experiments on a device under tuning, thereby the accurate and high-effective measuring and balancing method of dynamic unbalance of this precision centrifuge was provided.

  17. Quantitative centrifugation to extract benthic protozoa from freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Starink, M; Bär-Gilissen, M J; Bak, R P; Cappenberg, T E

    1994-01-01

    TWO METHODS FOR EXTRACTING PROTISTS FROM FRESHWATER SEDIMENT ARE DESCRIBED: (i) an adapted isopycnic centrifugation technique for sandy and gyttja-like sediments and (ii) a rate zonal centrifugation technique for sediments rich in particulate organic material (litter-like sediments). The recoveries of protists during isopycnic centrifugation in media of several densities were compared. No significant losses in sodium diatrizoate and Percoll were recorded. After known amounts of nanoflagellates were added to azoic sediments, the protists were extracted and counted. For sandy sediments, we found 100% recovery, and for the gyttja-like sediments we found a maximum recovery of 94%. The recovery of protozoa extracted from litter-like sediments, characteristic of littoral systems, depends on a given centrifugal force, on time, and on the dimensions of the flagellates. A recovery model which takes into account cell dimensions and centrifugation characteristics gives the minimum expected recovery.

  18. Effect of science laboratory centrifuge of space station environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searby, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that it is essential to have a centrifuge operating during manned space station operations. Background information and a rationale for the research centrifuge are given. It is argued that we must provide a controlled acceleration environment for comparison with microgravity studies. The lack of control groups in previous studies throws into question whether the obseved effects were the result of microgravity or not. The centrifuge could be used to provide a 1-g environment to supply specimens free of launch effects for long-term studies. With the centrifuge, the specimens could be immediately transferred to microgravity without undergoing gradual acclimation. Also, the effects of artificial gravity on humans could be investigated. It is also argued that the presence of the centrifuge on the space station will not cause undo vibrations or other disturbing effects.

  19. Rho kinase signaling pathways during stretch in primary alveolar epithelia.

    PubMed

    DiPaolo, Brian C; Margulies, Susan S

    2012-05-15

    Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) maintain integrity of the blood-gas barrier with actin-anchored intercellular tight junctions. Stretched type I-like AECs undergo magnitude- and frequency-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling into perijunctional actin rings. On the basis of published studies in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs), we hypothesize that RhoA activity, Rho kinase (ROCK) activity, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain II (MLC2) increase in stretched type I-like AECs in a manner that is dependent on stretch magnitude, and that RhoA, ROCK, or MLC2 activity inhibition will attenuate stretch-induced actin remodeling and preserve barrier properties. Primary type I-like AEC monolayers were stretched biaxially to create a change in surface area (ΔSA) of 12%, 25%, or 37% in a cyclic manner at 0.25 Hz for up to 60 min or left unstretched. Type I-like AECs were also treated with Rho pathway inhibitors (ML-7, Y-27632, or blebbistatin) and stained for F-actin or treated with the myosin phosphatase inhibitor calyculin-A and quantified for monolayer permeability. Counter to our hypothesis, ROCK activity and MLC2 phosphorylation decreased in type I-like AECs stretched to 25% and 37% ΔSA and did not change in monolayers stretched to 12% ΔSA. Furthermore, RhoA activity decreased in type I-like AECs stretched to 37% ΔSA. In contrast, MLC2 phosphorylation in HPAECs increased when HPAECs were stretched to 12% ΔSA but then decreased when they were stretched to 37% ΔSA, similar to type I-like AECs. Perijunctional actin rings were observed in unstretched type I-like AECs treated with the Rho pathway inhibitor blebbistatin. Myosin phosphatase inhibition increased MLC2 phosphorylation in stretched type I-like AECs but had no effect on monolayer permeability. In summary, stretch alters RhoA activity, ROCK activity, and MLC2 phosphorylation in a manner dependent on stretch magnitude and cell type. PMID:22287611

  20. Bubble Eliminator Based on Centrifugal Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Lee, Wenshan

    2004-01-01

    The fluid bubble eliminator (FBE) is a device that removes gas bubbles from a flowing liquid. The FBE contains no moving parts and does not require any power input beyond that needed to pump the liquid. In the FBE, the buoyant force for separating the gas from the liquid is provided by a radial pressure gradient associated with a centrifugal flow of the liquid and any entrained bubbles. A device based on a similar principle is described in Centrifugal Adsorption Cartridge System (MSC- 22863), which appears on page 48 of this issue. The FBE was originally intended for use in filtering bubbles out of a liquid flowing relatively slowly in a bioreactor system in microgravity. Versions that operate in normal Earth gravitation at greater flow speeds may also be feasible. The FBE (see figure) is constructed as a cartridge that includes two concentric cylinders with flanges at the ends. The outer cylinder is an impermeable housing; the inner cylinder comprises a gas-permeable, liquid-impermeable membrane covering a perforated inner tube. Multiple spiral disks that collectively constitute a spiral ramp are mounted in the space between the inner and outer cylinders. The liquid enters the FBE through an end flange, flows in the annular space between the cylinders, and leaves through the opposite end flange. The spiral disks channel the liquid into a spiral flow, the circumferential component of which gives rise to the desired centrifugal effect. The resulting radial pressure gradient forces the bubbles radially inward; that is, toward the inner cylinder. At the inner cylinder, the gas-permeable, liquid-impermeable membrane allows the bubbles to enter the perforated inner tube while keeping the liquid in the space between the inner and outer cylinders. The gas thus collected can be vented via an endflange connection to the inner tube. The centripetal acceleration (and thus the radial pressure gradient) is approximately proportional to the square of the flow speed and

  1. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  2. Centrifugal governor for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, M.

    1986-09-23

    A centrifugal governor is described for use with an internal combustion engine which consists of: a control rack for regulating the quantity of fuel to be supplied to the engine; flyweights radially displaceable in response to the rotational speed of the engine; a tension lever pivotable through an angle dependent upon the amount of radial displacement of the flyweights; an idling spring for urging the tension lever against radially outward displacement of the flyweights; a torque cam having a cam surface determining a fuel increment to be applied at the start of the engine; a sensor lever having one end engaged by the control rack, and another end adapted to engage with the cam surface of the torque cam; a cancelling spring interposed between the torque cam and the tension lever; a control lever; a floating lever interlocking with the control lever; and spring force adjusting means arranged at one end of the idling spring.

  3. Algorithm for Controlling a Centrifugal Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedict, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for controlling a centrifugal compressor that serves as the prime mover in a heatpump system. Experimental studies have shown that the operating conditions for maximum compressor efficiency are close to the boundary beyond which surge occurs. Compressor surge is a destructive condition in which there are instantaneous reversals of flow associated with a high outlet-to-inlet pressure differential. For a given cooling load, the algorithm sets the compressor speed at the lowest possible value while adjusting the inlet guide vane angle and diffuser vane angle to maximize efficiency, subject to an overriding requirement to prevent surge. The onset of surge is detected via the onset of oscillations of the electric current supplied to the compressor motor, associated with surge-induced oscillations of the torque exerted by and on the compressor rotor. The algorithm can be implemented in any of several computer languages.

  4. Closed continuous-flow centrifuge rotor

    DOEpatents

    Breillatt, Jr., Julian P.; Remenyik, Carl J.; Sartory, Walter K.; Thacker, Louis H.; Penland, William Z.

    1976-01-01

    A blood separation centrifuge rotor having a generally parabolic core disposed concentrically and spaced apart within a housing having a similarly shaped cavity. Blood is introduced through a central inlet and into a central passageway enlarged downwardly to decrease the velocity of the entrant blood. Septa are disposed inside the central passageway to induce rotation of the entrant blood. A separation chamber is defined between the core and the housing wherein the whole blood is separated into red cell, white cell, and plasma zones. The zones are separated by annular splitter blades disposed within the separation chamber. The separated components are continuously removed through conduits communicating through a face seal to the outside of the rotor.

  5. A modeling study of a centrifugal compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, P.; Shapiro, H.N.

    1998-12-31

    A centrifugal compressor, which is part of a chlorofluorocarbon R-114 chiller installation, was investigated, operating with a new refrigerant, hydrofluorocarbon R-236ea, a proposed alternative to R-114. A large set of R-236ea operating data, as well as a limited amount of R-114 data, were available for this study. A relatively simple analytical compressor model was developed to describe compressor performance. The model was built upon a thorough literature search, experimental data, and some compressor design parameters. Two original empirical relations were developed, providing a new approach to the compressor modeling. The model was developed in a format that would permit it to be easily incorporated into a complete chiller simulation. The model was found to improve somewhat on the quantitative and physical aspects of a compressor model of the same format found in the literature. It was found that the compressor model is specific to the particular refrigerant.

  6. [Hemodynamic analysis of a centrifugal blood pump].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Ming; Xu, Zihao; Zhuang, Xiaoqi; Li, Qilei; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This paper built the mathematical model of a centrifugal blood pump, which was designed by ourselves, combined it with that of the human cardiovascular system and simulated the coupling system using Matlab. Then we set up the experiment platform, linked the blood pump to mock human cardiovascular system in case of three-stage heart failure, and measured aortic pressure and flow under different speed. The comparison between experiment results and simulation results not only indicates the coupling model is correct and the blood pump works well, but also shows that with the increase of blood pump speed, the pulsation of aortic pressure and flow will be reduced, this situation will affect the structure and function of blood vessels.

  7. Membrane stretching triggers mechanosensitive Ca2+ channel activation in Chara.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Naoya; Kikuyama, Munehiro

    2009-03-01

    In order to confirm that mechanosensitive Ca(2+) channels are activated by membrane stretching, we stretched or compressed the plasma membrane of Chara by applying osmotic shrinkage or swelling of the cell by varying the osmotic potential of the bathing medium. Aequorin studies revealed that treatments causing membrane stretching induced a transient but large increase in cytoplasmic concentration of Ca(2+) (Delta[Ca(2+)](c)). However, the observed Delta[Ca(2+)](c) decreased during the treatments, resulting in membrane compression. A second experiment was carried out to study the relationship between changes in membrane potential (DeltaE(m)) and stretching or compression of the plasma membrane. Significant DeltaE(m) values, often accompanied by an action potential, were observed during the initial exchange of the bathing medium from a hypotonic medium to a hypertonic one (plasmolysis). DeltaE(m) appears to be triggered by a partial stretching of the membrane as it was peeled from the cell wall. After plasmolysis, other exchanges from hypertonic to hypotonic media, with their accompanying membrane stretching, always induced large DeltaE(m) values and were often accompanied by an action potential. By contrast, action potentials were scarcely observed during other exchanges from hypotonic to hypertonic solutions (=membrane compression). Thus, we concluded that activation of the mechanosensitive channels is triggered by membrane stretching in Chara.

  8. The role of stretching in slow axonal transport.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Matthew; Miller, Kyle E

    2011-01-19

    Axonal stretching is linked to rapid rates of axonal elongation. Yet the impact of stretching on elongation and slow axonal transport is unclear. Here, we develop a mathematical model of slow axonal transport that incorporates the rate of axonal elongation, protein half-life, protein density, adhesion strength, and axonal viscosity to quantify the effects of axonal stretching. We find that under conditions where the axon (or nerve) is free of a substrate and lengthens at rapid rates (>4 mm day⁻¹), stretching can account for almost 50% of total anterograde axonal transport. These results suggest that it is possible to accelerate elongation and transport simultaneously by increasing either the axon's susceptibility to stretching or the forces that induce stretching. To our knowledge, this work is the first to incorporate the effects of stretching in a model of slow axonal transport. It has relevance to our understanding of neurite outgrowth during development and peripheral nerve regeneration after trauma, and hence to the development of treatments for spinal cord injury.

  9. Membrane stretching triggers mechanosensitive Ca2+ channel activation in Chara.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Naoya; Kikuyama, Munehiro

    2009-03-01

    In order to confirm that mechanosensitive Ca(2+) channels are activated by membrane stretching, we stretched or compressed the plasma membrane of Chara by applying osmotic shrinkage or swelling of the cell by varying the osmotic potential of the bathing medium. Aequorin studies revealed that treatments causing membrane stretching induced a transient but large increase in cytoplasmic concentration of Ca(2+) (Delta[Ca(2+)](c)). However, the observed Delta[Ca(2+)](c) decreased during the treatments, resulting in membrane compression. A second experiment was carried out to study the relationship between changes in membrane potential (DeltaE(m)) and stretching or compression of the plasma membrane. Significant DeltaE(m) values, often accompanied by an action potential, were observed during the initial exchange of the bathing medium from a hypotonic medium to a hypertonic one (plasmolysis). DeltaE(m) appears to be triggered by a partial stretching of the membrane as it was peeled from the cell wall. After plasmolysis, other exchanges from hypertonic to hypotonic media, with their accompanying membrane stretching, always induced large DeltaE(m) values and were often accompanied by an action potential. By contrast, action potentials were scarcely observed during other exchanges from hypotonic to hypertonic solutions (=membrane compression). Thus, we concluded that activation of the mechanosensitive channels is triggered by membrane stretching in Chara. PMID:19234734

  10. No difference in pre- and postexercise stretching on flexibility.

    PubMed

    Beedle, Barry B; Leydig, Summer N; Carnucci, Jennifer M

    2007-08-01

    According to the American College of Sports Medicine (1), there is limited information about when to stretch during an exercise session. The purpose of this study was to determine if the placement of static stretching, either before or after a workout, would affect flexibility in the hip, knee, and ankle. Thirty college-age men (n = 12) and women (n = 18) volunteered to participate. Nine were highly trained, 13 were moderately trained, and 8 were sedentary. Subjects participated in both treatments, which were randomly assigned and were 48-72 hours apart. In one treatment, subjects warmed-up first by walking on a treadmill for 5 minutes at approximately 50% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, and then performed 3 static stretches: quadriceps, hamstrings, and calf muscles. Each stretch was held 3 times, 15 seconds each. Next, flexibility measurements were determined for the hip, hamstrings, and ankle using a goniometer. The other treatment consisted of performing 20 minutes of walking or jogging at a moderate intensity, then the same stretching exercises were performed and the same flexibility measurements were taken. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.90-0.96. There were no significant differences in any of the flexibility measurements except for hip flexibility, which approached significance (p = 0.06) and therefore favored stretching after the workout. The placement of stretching, before or after a workout, does not make a difference in its effect on flexibility.

  11. Reciprocating flow-based centrifugal microfluidics mixer.

    PubMed

    Noroozi, Zahra; Kido, Horacio; Micic, Miodrag; Pan, Hansheng; Bartolome, Christian; Princevac, Marko; Zoval, Jim; Madou, Marc

    2009-07-01

    Proper mixing of reagents is of paramount importance for an efficient chemical reaction. While on a large scale there are many good solutions for quantitative mixing of reagents, as of today, efficient and inexpensive fluid mixing in the nanoliter and microliter volume range is still a challenge. Complete, i.e., quantitative mixing is of special importance in any small-scale analytical application because the scarcity of analytes and the low volume of the reagents demand efficient utilization of all available reaction components. In this paper we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a novel centrifugal force-based unit for fast mixing of fluids in the nanoliter to microliter volume range. The device consists of a number of chambers (including two loading chambers, one pressure chamber, and one mixing chamber) that are connected through a network of microchannels, and is made by bonding a slab of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to a glass slide. The PDMS slab was cast using a SU-8 master mold fabricated by a two-level photolithography process. This microfluidic mixer exploits centrifugal force and pneumatic pressure to reciprocate the flow of fluid samples in order to minimize the amount of sample and the time of mixing. The process of mixing was monitored by utilizing the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. A time series of high resolution images of the mixing chamber were analyzed for the spatial distribution of light intensities as the two fluids (suspension of red fluorescent particles and water) mixed. Histograms of the fluorescent emissions within the mixing chamber during different stages of the mixing process were created to quantify the level of mixing of the mixing fluids. The results suggest that quantitative mixing was achieved in less than 3 min. This device can be employed as a stand alone mixing unit or may be integrated into a disk-based microfluidic system where, in addition to mixing, several other sample preparation steps may be

  12. Analysis of centrifugal convection in rotating pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtern, Vladimir; Zimin, Valery; Hussain, Fazle

    2001-08-01

    New exact solutions, obtained for centrifugal convection of a compressible fluid in pipes and annular pipes, explain axially elongated counterflow and energy separation—poorly understood phenomena occurring in vortex devices, e.g., hydrocyclones and Ranque tubes. Centrifugal acceleration (which can be up to 106 times gravity in practical vortex tubes), combined with an axial gradient of temperature (even small), induces an intense flow from the cold end to the hot end along the pipe wall and a backflow near the axis. To account for large density variations in vortex devices, we use the axial temperature gradient as a small parameter instead of the Boussinesq approximation. For weak pipe rotation, the swirl is of solid-body type and solutions are compact: vz/vza=1-4y2+3y4 and (T-Tw)/(Ta-Tw)=(1-y2)3; where y=r/rw, the subscripts w and a denote values of axial velocity vz, temperature T, and radial distance r, at the wall and on the axis. The axial gradient of pressure, being proportional to 3y2-1, has opposite directions near the wall, y=1, and near the axis, y=0; this explains the counterflow. With increasing pipe rotation, the flow starts to converge to the axis. This causes important new effects: (i) the density and swirl velocity maxima occur away from the wall (vortex core formation), (ii) the temperature near the axis becomes lower than near the wall (the Ranque effect), (iii) the axial gradient of temperature drops from the wall to the axis, and (iv) the total axial heat flux (Nu) reaches its maximum Numax≈4000 and then decreases as swirl increases. These features can be exploited for the development of a micro-heat-exchanger, e.g., for cooling computer chips.

  13. Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Perry L; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-03-01

    A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Re(λ)=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.

  14. Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry L.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-03-01

    A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Reλ=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.

  15. The acute effects of different stretching exercises on jump performance.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Laura; Balius, Ramon; Aliste, Luisa; Pujol, Montse; Pedret, Carles

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the short-term effects of different stretching exercises during the warm-up period on the lower limbs. A controlled, crossover clinical study involving 49 volunteers (14 women and 35 men; mean age: 20.4 years) enrolled in a "physical and sporting activities monitor" program. The explosive force was assessed using the Bosco test. The protocol was as follows: The test involved a (pre) jump test, general warm-up, intervention and (post) jump test. Each volunteer was subjected to each of the 5 interventions (no stretching [NS] and stretching: static passive stretching [P]; proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation [PNF] techniques; static active stretching in passive tension [PT]; static active stretching in active tension [AT]) in a random order. The jump test was used to assess the squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), elasticity index (EI), and drop jump. An intragroup statistical analysis was performed before and after each intervention to compare the differences between the different stretching exercises. An intergroup analysis was also performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between all variables for the interventions "P," "PNF," and "TA" in the intragroup analysis, with each value being higher in the postjump test. Only the "P" intervention showed a significant difference (p = 0.046) for "EI," with the postvalue being lower. Likewise, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for the "CMJ" measurements during the intergroup analysis, especially between "NS" and the interventions "P," "PNF," "AT," and "PT," with each value, particularly that for "AT," being higher after stretching. The results of this study suggest that static active stretching in AT can be recommended during the warm-up for explosive force disciplines. PMID:21993032

  16. Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Perry L; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-03-01

    A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Re(λ)=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor. PMID:27078458

  17. A straight path centrifugal blood pump concept in the Capiox centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Kijima, T; Oshiyama, H; Horiuchi, K; Nogawa, A; Hamasaki, H; Amano, N; Nojiri, C; Fukasawa, H; Akutsu, T

    1993-07-01

    This article describes comparative studies of a newly developed "straight path" centrifugal pump (Capiox centrifugal pump) targeted for open-heart surgery and circulatory support. A unique straight path design of the rotor was very effective in reducing the pump's rotational speed and prime volume. This pump was evaluated for hydraulics, hemolysis, depriming characteristics, cavitation, and heat generation. Two commercially available centrifugal pumps, the Biomedicus cone-type pump and the Sarns 3M impeller-type pump, were used as controls. The new pump required the lowest pump speed to produce the same flow rates under the same pressure loads and demonstrated the lowest hemolysis and the lowest temperature rise with the outlet clamped. The air volume required to deprime the new pump was one-third to one-half that for the other pumps, and no sign of cavitation was observed even if a small amount of air was introduced to the pump inlet under a negative pressure of 200 mm Hg.

  18. Characterizing the stretch-flangeability of hot rolled multiphase steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, N.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.; Gao, J.

    2013-12-16

    Hole expansion tests are commonly used to characterize the edge stretching limit of a material. Traditionally, a conical punch is used to expand a punched hole until a through-thickness crack appears. However, many automotive stretch flanging operations involve in-plane edge stretching that is best captured with a flat punch. In this paper, hole expansion tests were carried out on two different hot-rolled multiphase steels using both flat and conical punches. The fracture mechanisms for both punch types were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  19. Anti-de Sitter space, squashed and stretched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, Ingemar; Sandin, Patrik

    2006-02-01

    We study the Lorentzian analogues of the squashed 3-sphere, namely, (2+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space squashed or stretched along fibres that are either spacelike or timelike. The causal structure and the property of being an Einstein Weyl space depend critically on whether we squash or stretch. We argue that squashing and stretching completely destroy the conformal boundary of the unsquashed spacetime. As a physical application we observe that the near horizon geometry of the extremal Kerr black hole, at constant Boyer Lindquist latitude, is anti-de Sitter space squashed along compactified spacelike fibres.

  20. Water balance in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R M; Wade, C E

    2000-07-01

    Changes in gravitational load have been shown to alter renal function, which could potentially affect water balance. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effects of chronic centrifugation on water balance. Eight Sprague-Dawley rats were centrifuged (12 days at 2 G), and eight rats were used as a control group. Water balance over the course of the study was determined by quantifying the percentage (%) of total body water [TBW; (TBW/body mass)] and water flux (water consumption - urine volume). TBW was estimated, by means of deuterium oxide dilution, before the study and after 3 days of centrifugation and by means of desiccation after 12 days of centrifugation. %TBW did not change in the centrifuged rats from initial levels or relative to controls over the course of the study. Differences between the sum of water consumption and sum of urine volume for the 12-day period were the same in both groups. Although an initial period of negative water balance was observed, the lack of a change in %TBW among the three measurement periods or in water flux over the 12 days of centrifugation suggests that water balance is not negatively affected as a result of centrifugation at 2 G.

  1. Centrifugal Casting Features/Metallurgical Characterization of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chirita, G.; Soares, D.; Cruz, D.; Silva, F. S.; Stefanescu, I.

    2008-02-15

    This paper deals with the study of centrifugal effects on aluminium castings under high G values. Most of the studies in this domain (FGMs obtained by centrifugal casting) deal with functionally graded composites reinforced with a solid phase such as silicon particles or others. However, in this study it will be shown that unreinforced aluminium alloys may be significantly influenced by the centrifugal effect and that functionally graded castings are also obtained. It has been observed that the centrifugal effect may increase in some alloys, depending on the relative position in the castings, the rupture strength by approx. 50%, and rupture strain by about 300%, as compared to the gravity casting technique. The Young's modulus may also increase by about 20%. It has also been reported that in vertical centrifugal castings there are mainly three aspects that affect the components thus obtained, namely: fluid dynamics; vibration (inherent to the system); and centrifugal force. These features have a different effect on the castings depending on the aluminium alloy. In this paper, an analysis of the most important effects of the centrifugal casting process on metallurgical features is conducted. A solidification characterization at several points along the mould will be made in order to have an accurate idea of both the fluid dynamics inside the mould during the casting and the solidification behavior in different parts of the component. These two analyses will be related to the metallurgical properties (phase distribution; SDAS; eutectic silicon content and shape, pores density and shape) along the component and mainly along the direction of the centrifugal pressure. A comparison between castings obtained by both centrifugal casting technique and gravity casting technique is made for reference (gravity casting)

  2. Isotopically Enriched Films and Nanostructures by Ultrafast Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pronko

    2004-12-13

    This project involved a systematic study to apply newly discovered isotopic enrichment effects in laser ablation plumes to the fabrication of isotopically engineered thin films, superlattices, and nanostructures. The approach to this program involved using ultrafast lasers as a method for generating ablated plasmas that have preferentially structured isotopic content in the body of the ablation plasma plumes. In examining these results we have attempted to interpret the observations in terms of a plasma centrifuge process that is driven by the internal electro-magnetic fields of the plasma itself. The research plan involved studying the following phenomena in regard to the ablation plume and the isotopic mass distribution within it: (1) Test basic equations of steady state centrifugal motion in the ablation plasma. (2) Investigate angular distribution of ions in the ablation plasmas. (3) Examine interactions of plasma ions with self-generated magnetic fields. (3) Investigate ion to neutral ratios in the ablation plasmas. (5) Test concepts of plasma pumping. (6) Fabricate isotopically enriched nanostructures.

  3. [Sciatica. From stretch rack to microdiscectomy].

    PubMed

    Gruber, P; Böni, T

    2015-12-01

    In ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages treatment options for discogenic nerve compression syndrome were limited and usually not very specific because of low anatomical and pathophysiological knowledge. The stretch rack (scamnum Hippocratis) was particularly prominent but was widely used as a therapeutic device for very different spinal disorders. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century anatomical knowledge increased and the advances in the fields of asepsis, anesthesia and surgery resulted in an increase in surgical interventions on the spine. In 1908 the first successful lumbar discectomy was initiated and performed by the German neurologist Heinrich O. Oppenheim (1858-1919) and the surgeon Fedor Krause (1857-1937); however, neither recognized the true pathological condition of discogenic nerve compression syndrome. With the landmark report in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1934, the two American surgeons William Jason Mixter (1880-1958) and Joseph Seaton Barr (1901-1963) finally clarified the pathomechanism of lumbar disc herniation and furthermore, propagated discectomy as the standard therapy. Since then interventions on intervertebral discs rapidly increased and the treatment options for lumbar disc surgery quickly evolved. The surgical procedures changed over time and were continuously being refined. In the late 1960s the surgical microscope was introduced for spinal surgery by the work of the famous neurosurgeon Mahmut Gazi Yasargil and his colleague Wolfhard Caspar and so-called microdiscectomy was introduced. Besides open discectomy other interventional techniques were developed to overcome the side effects of surgical procedures. In 1964 the American orthopedic surgeon Lyman Smith (1912-1991) introduced chemonucleolysis, a minimally invasive technique consisting only of a cannula and the proteolytic enzyme chymopapain, which is injected into the disc compartment to dissolve the displaced disc material. In 1975 the Japanese orthopedic

  4. Guidelines for Stretch Flanging Advanced High Strength Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, S.; Chintamani, J.

    2005-08-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are currently being considered for use in closure and structural panels in the automotive industry because of their high potential for affordable weight reduction and improved performance. AHSS such as dual phase steels are currently being used in some vehicle platforms. From a manufacturing perspective, stretch flanging during stamping is an important deformation mode requiring careful consideration of geometry and the die process. This paper presents some geometric and process guidelines for stretch flanging AHSS. Hole expansion experiments were conducted to determine the failure limit for a sheared edge condition. Effects of punching clearance, prestrain and prior strain path on hole expansion were explored in these experiments. In addition, dynamic explicit FE calculations using LS-DYNA were also conducted for a typical stretch flange by varying some key geometric parameters. The experimental and FEA results were then analyzed to yield process and geometric guidelines to enable successful stretch flanging of AHSS.

  5. Cell stretching devices as research tools: engineering and biological considerations.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Harshad; Barton, Matthew J; Jun, Myeongjun; Park, Sungsu; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-08-16

    Cells within the human body are subjected to continuous, cyclic mechanical strain caused by various organ functions, movement, and growth. Cells are well known to have the ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli. This process is referred to as mechanotransduction. A better understanding of mechanotransduction is of great interest to clinicians and scientists alike to improve clinical diagnosis and understanding of medical pathology. However, the complexity involved in in vivo biological systems creates a need for better in vitro technologies, which can closely mimic the cells' microenvironment using induced mechanical strain. This technology gap motivates the development of cell stretching devices for better understanding of the cell response to mechanical stimuli. This review focuses on the engineering and biological considerations for the development of such cell stretching devices. The paper discusses different types of stretching concepts, major design consideration and biological aspects of cell stretching and provides a perspective for future development in this research area. PMID:27440436

  6. Development of Internal Fine Structure in Stretched Rubber Vulcanizates

    SciTech Connect

    M Tosaka; S Toki; J Che; L Rong; B Hsiao

    2011-12-31

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) pattern and tensile stress during relaxation of stretched rubber vulcanizates (synthetic polyisoprene) were measured simultaneously at room temperature and at 0 C. The samples were quickly stretched to the prefixed strain and then allowed to relax for 1 h. In every SAXS pattern, the intensity distribution was elongated along the equator, indicating the formation of structures elongated in the stretching direction. The so-called two-spots pattern corresponding to the long period of stacked lamellar crystals did not appear even when the critical strain to induce crystallization was exceeded. On the other hand, even below the critical strain, additional development of equatorial streaks was detected in the differential SAXS patterns. This result suggests the growth of the density fluctuation elongated in the stretching direction, which is not directly related to strain-induced crystallization.

  7. Damage percolation during stretch flange forming of aluminum alloy sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zengtao; Worswick, Michael J.; Keith Pilkey, A.; Lloyd, David J.

    2005-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE)-damage percolation model was employed to simulate stretch flange forming of aluminum alloys AA5182 and AA5754. Material softening and strain gradients were captured using a Gurson-based FE model. FE results were then fed into the so-called damage percolation code, from which the damage development was modelled within measured microstructures. The formability of the stretch flange samples was predicted based upon the onset of catastrophic failure triggered by profuse void coalescence within the measured second-phase particle field. Damage development is quantified in terms of crack and void areal fractions, and compared to metallographic results obtained from interrupted stretch flange specimens. Parametric study is conducted on the effect of void nucleation strain in the prediction of formability of stretch flanges to "calibrate" proper nucleation strains for both alloys.

  8. Extinction of low-stretched diffusion flame in microgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Maruta, Kaoru; Yoshida, Masaharu; Guo, Hongsheng; Ju, Yiguang; Niioka, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Extinction of counterflow diffusion flames of air and methane diluted with nitrogen is studied by drop tower experiments and numerical calculation using detailed chemistry and transport properties. Radiative heat loss from the flame zone is taken into consideration. Experimental results identified two kinds of extinction at the same fuel concentration, that is, in addition to the widely known stretch extinction, another type of extinction is observed when the stretch rate is sufficiently low. Consequently, plots of stretch rates versus fuel concentration limits exhibit a C-shaped extinction curve. Numerical calculation including radiative heat loss from the flame zone qualitatively agreed with the experimental results and indicated that the mechanism of counterflow diffusion flame extinction at low stretch rates was radiative heat loss.

  9. VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH RECTANGULAR SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH RECTANGULAR SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT PIT IN BACKGROUND, FACING NORTH. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH SQUARE SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH SQUARE SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT PITS CENTER, FACING NORTH. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

  12. Stretching Response of Knotted and Unknotted Polymer Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraglio, Michele; Micheletti, Cristian; Orlandini, Enzo

    2015-10-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental advances have clarified the major effects of knotting on the properties of stretched chains. Yet, how knotted chains respond to weak mechanical stretching and how this behavior differs from the unknotted case are still open questions and we address them here by profiling the complete stretching response of chains of hundreds of monomers and different topology. We find that the ratio of the knotted and unknotted chain extensions varies nonmonotonically with the applied force. This surprising feature is shown to be a signature of the crossover between the well-known high-force stretching regime and the previously uncharacterized low-force one. The observed differences of knotted and unknotted chain response increases with knot complexity and are sufficiently marked that they could be harnessed in single-molecule contexts to infer the presence and complexity of physical knots in micron-long biomolecules.

  13. Magnetically driven solid sample preparation for centrifugal microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Duford, David A; Peng, Dan D; Salin, Eric D

    2009-06-01

    A prototype for solid sample preparation on centrifugal microfluidic devices has been designed and characterized. The system uses NdFeB magnets in both the centrifugal device and a fixed base. As the centrifugal device rotates, the magnets move and spin in their chambers creating a pulverizing mechanical motion. This technique was successfully applied to the dissolution of potassium ferricyanide (K(3)[Fe(CN)(6)]), a hard colored crystal. A 0.10 g sample was completely dissolved in 3 s in 1.0 mL of water while rotating at 1000 rpm. This is a 300-fold improvement over static dissolution. PMID:19422186

  14. 27. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Centrifugals, 1879, 1881. Manufacturer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Centrifugals, 1879, 1881. Manufacturer, Unknown. Supplied by Honolulu Ironworks, Honolulu Hawaii, 1879, 1881. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. With the inner basket of the centrifugal revolving at 1200 rpm molasses flew outward from the granulated sugar, through the holes in the brass lining, and into the stationary outer basket. The molasses drained through the spout at the right and into molasses storage pits below the floor. The centrifugals were underdriven with a belt connected to the pulley beneath the basket. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. Centrifugal Size-Separation Sieve for Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis (Inventor); Dreyer, Christopher (Inventor); Riedel, Edward (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A centrifugal sieve and method utilizes centrifugal force in rapidly-rotated cylindrical or conical screens as the primary body force contributing to size segregation. Within the centrifugal acceleration field, vibration and/or shearing flows are induced to facilitate size segregation and eventual separation of the fines from the coarse material. Inside a rotating cylindrical or conical screen, a separately-rotated screw auger blade can be used to transport material along the rotating cylinder or conical wall and to induce shearing in the material.

  16. Ocular counterrolling induced by centrifugation during orbital space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, S. T.; Clement, G.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural centripetal accelerations (Gy centrifugation) of 0.5 g and 1 g during rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear out or right-ear out, facing or back to motion. Binocular eye movements were measured in three dimensions using a video technique. On Earth, tangential centrifugation that produces 1 g of interaural linear acceleration combines with gravity to tilt the gravitoinertial acceleration (GIA) vector 45 degrees in the roll plane relative to the head vertical, generating a summed vector of 1.4 g. Before flight, this elicited mean ocular counterrolling (OCR) of 5.7 degrees. Due to the relative absence of gravity during flight, there was no linear acceleration along the dorsoventral axis of the head. As a result, during in-flight centrifugation, gravitoinertial acceleration was strictly aligned with the centripetal acceleration along the interaural axis. There was a small but significant decrease (mean 10%) in the magnitude of OCR in space (5.1 degrees). The magnitude of OCR during postflight 1 g centrifugation was not significantly different from preflight OCR (5.9 degrees). Findings were similar for 0.5 g centrifugation, but the OCR magnitude was approximately 60% of that induced by centrifugation at 1 g. OCR during pre- and postflight static tilt was not significantly different and was always less than OCR elicited by centrifugation of Earth for an equivalent interaural linear acceleration. In contrast, there was no difference between the OCR generated by in-flight centrifugation and by static tilt on Earth at equivalent interaural linear accelerations. These data support the following conclusions: (1) OCR is generated predominantly in response to interaural linear acceleration; (2) the increased OCR during centrifugation on Earth is a response to the head dorsoventral 1 g linear acceleration component, which

  17. Increased mitogenic response in lymphocytes from chronically centrifuged mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Otfried; Hunzinger, E.; Cogoli, Augusto; Bechler, B.; Lee, J.; Moore, J.; Duke, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects upon the mitogenic response of splenic lymphocytes when exposing mice to prolonged hypergravity conditions (3.5 G for 1 year) were studied. Cultures of splenic lymphocytes isolated from both centrifuged and control (1 G) animals were stimulated with Concanavalin A and the response measured using both morphological and biochemical means. Lymphocytes obtained from centrifuged mice exhibited much higher activation rates (as measured by the incorporation of H-3 thymidine) and larger cell aggregates consisting of more lymphoblasts and mitotic figures than those observed in non centrifuged control animals. Isolated splenic lymphocytes thus appear to have been conditioned by hypergravity state.

  18. STATIC STRETCHING DOES NOT REDUCE VARIABILITY, JUMP AND SPEED PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Rama, Luís Manuel Pinto Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Background Stretching is often part of the warm-up routine prior to athletic participation; however, controversial evidence exists on the effects of stretching on countermovement jump (CMJ) and sprint performance. Additionally, analysis of variability between repeated tasks is useful for monitoring players, to analyze factors that could affect the performance, and to guide clinical decisions for training strategies. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine whether static stretching (SS) prior to CMJ and 20-meter (20-m) sprint would affect performance, and to investigate whether SS affects an athlete's ability to perform these tasks consistently. Methods Twenty-two trained healthy athletes (23.2 ± 5.0 years) attended, randomly, two testing sessions, separated by 48 hours. At session one, all participants underwent 10 minutes of dynamic running warm-up followed by the experimental tasks (three CMJ and three 20-m sprint), whereas five minutes of stretching was added after the warm-up routine at session two. All participants performed the same experimental tasks in both sessions. The stretching protocol consisted of five stretching exercises for each lower limb. Results The paired-samples t-test revealed no significant differences between the stretching protocol condition and no stretching condition for the 20-m sprint (t(21)=.920; p=.368) and CMJ (t(21)=.709; p=.486). There were no significant differences in trial-by-trial variability on 20-m sprint (t(21)=1.934; p=.067) and CMJ scores (t(21)=.793; p=.437) as result of SS. Conclusion The SS protocol did not modify jumping and running ability in trained healthy athletes. The SS prior to training or competition may not cause detrimental effects to athletic performance. Level of evidence Level III, Nonrandomized controlled trial. PMID:27104057

  19. Image stretching on a curved surface to improve satellite gridding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsby, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A method for substantially reducing gridding errors due to satellite roll, pitch and yaw is given. A gimbal-mounted curved screen, scaled to 1:7,500,000, is used to stretch the satellite image whereby visible landmarks coincide with a projected map outline. The resulting rms position errors averaged 10.7 km as compared with 25.6 and 34.9 km for two samples of satellite imagery upon which image stretching was not performed.

  20. Magnetron sputtering of copper on thermosensitive polymer materials of the gas centrifuge rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisevich, V.; Senchenkov, S.; Titov, D.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetron sputtering is the well-known and widely-used deposition technique for coating versatile high-quality and well-adhered films. However, the technology has some limitations, caused by high temperatures on the coating surface. The paper is devoted to the experimental development of a process of magnetron sputtering of copper on a surface coated with a thermosensitive polymer made of carbon fiber with epoxide binder. This process is applied for balancing a rotor of a gas centrifuge for isotope separation. The optimum operating parameters of the process are found and discussed. They were in quantitative agreement with data obtained by means of non-stationary modeling based on a global description of plasma in the typical geometry of the magnetron discharges obtained in independent research. The structure of the resulting layer is investigated.

  1. Desorption of Hydrogen from Si(111) by Resonant Excitation of the Si-H Vibrational Stretch Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhiheng; Feldman, Leonard C.; Tolk, Norman; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cohen, Philip I

    2006-01-01

    Past efforts to achieve selective bond scission by vibrational excitation have been thwarted by energy thermalization. Here we report resonant photodesorption of hydrogen from a Si(111) surface using tunable infrared radiation. The wavelength dependence of the desorption yield peaks at 0.26 electron volt: the energy of the Si-H vibrational stretch mode. The desorption yield is quadratic in the infrared intensity. A strong H/D isotope effect rules out thermal desorption mechanisms, and electronic effects are not applicable in this low-energy regime. A molecular mechanism accounting for the desorption event remains elusive.

  2. Intelligent stretching of ankle joints with contracture/spasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Qun; Chung, Sun G; Bai, Zhiqiang; Xu, Dali; van Rey, Elton M T; Rogers, Mark W; Johnson, Marjorie E; Roth, Elliot J

    2002-09-01

    An intelligent stretching device was developed to treat the spastic/contractured ankle of neurologically impaired patients. The device stretched the ankle safely throughout the range of motion (ROM) to extreme dorsiflexion and plantarflexion until a specified peak resistance torque was reached with the stretching velocity controlled based on the resistance torque. The ankle was held at the extreme position for a period of time to let stress relaxation occur before it was rotated back to the other extreme position. Stretching was slow at the joint extreme positions, making it possible to reach a larger ROM safely and it was fast in the middle ROM so the majority of the treatment was spent in stretching the problematic extreme ROM. Furthermore, the device evaluated treatment outcome quantitatively in multiple aspects, including active and passive ROM, joint stiffness and viscous damping and reflex excitability. The stretching resulted in considerable changes in joint passive ROM, stiffness, viscous damping and reflex gain. The intelligent control and yet simple design of the device suggest that with appropriate simplification, the device can be made portable and low cost, making it available to patients and therapists for frequent use in clinics/home and allowing more effective treatment and long-term improvement. PMID:12503779

  3. Heavy snow: IR spectroscopy of isotope mixed crystalline water ice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Andy; Shi, Liang; Auchettl, Rebecca; McNaughton, Don; Appadoo, Dominique R T; Robertson, Evan G

    2016-02-14

    Mid-infrared spectra have been measured for crystalline water ice aerosols of widely varied H/D isotopic composition. Particles with diameters ranging from 10-200 nm were generated via rapid collisional cooling with a cold buffer gas over a range of temperatures from 7-200 K. In near isotopically pure ices, the νL band position is slightly red-shifted with increasing temperature whilst in the ν2 region apparently anomalous shifts in peak maxima are explained by the contribution of a broad 2νL band of H2O and a 3νL band of D2O together with ν2 intensity that is particularly weak in low temperature crystalline ice. The hydrogen bonded OH (or OD) oscillator bands of near pure H2O (or D2O) ices are blue-shifted with temperature, with a gradient very similar to that of the corresponding band in isotope diluted samples, HOD in D2O (or H2O). It implies that this observed temperature trend is predominantly due to the intrinsic change in local hydride stretch potential energy, rather than to changes in intermolecular coupling. However, it is also observed that the narrow hydride stretch bands of an isotope diluted sample rapidly develop sub-band structure as the oscillator concentration increases, evidence of strong intermolecular coupling and a high degree of delocalisation. Anomalous blue-shifts in the OD stretch profile as D2O concentration grows is attributable to Fermi resonance with 2ν2 of D2O, in much closer proximity than the corresponding H2O levels. Theoretical results from a mixed quantum/classical approach are used to validate these findings in the hydride stretching region. Theory qualitatively reproduces the experimental trends as a function of temperature and isotopic variance.

  4. Heavy snow: IR spectroscopy of isotope mixed crystalline water ice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Andy; Shi, Liang; Auchettl, Rebecca; McNaughton, Don; Appadoo, Dominique R T; Robertson, Evan G

    2016-02-14

    Mid-infrared spectra have been measured for crystalline water ice aerosols of widely varied H/D isotopic composition. Particles with diameters ranging from 10-200 nm were generated via rapid collisional cooling with a cold buffer gas over a range of temperatures from 7-200 K. In near isotopically pure ices, the νL band position is slightly red-shifted with increasing temperature whilst in the ν2 region apparently anomalous shifts in peak maxima are explained by the contribution of a broad 2νL band of H2O and a 3νL band of D2O together with ν2 intensity that is particularly weak in low temperature crystalline ice. The hydrogen bonded OH (or OD) oscillator bands of near pure H2O (or D2O) ices are blue-shifted with temperature, with a gradient very similar to that of the corresponding band in isotope diluted samples, HOD in D2O (or H2O). It implies that this observed temperature trend is predominantly due to the intrinsic change in local hydride stretch potential energy, rather than to changes in intermolecular coupling. However, it is also observed that the narrow hydride stretch bands of an isotope diluted sample rapidly develop sub-band structure as the oscillator concentration increases, evidence of strong intermolecular coupling and a high degree of delocalisation. Anomalous blue-shifts in the OD stretch profile as D2O concentration grows is attributable to Fermi resonance with 2ν2 of D2O, in much closer proximity than the corresponding H2O levels. Theoretical results from a mixed quantum/classical approach are used to validate these findings in the hydride stretching region. Theory qualitatively reproduces the experimental trends as a function of temperature and isotopic variance. PMID:26812598

  5. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Kieran; Murray, Elaine; Sainsbury, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. Methods A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. Results Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p < 0.001). PKE ROM significantly increased with warm-up (p < 0.001). From warm-up, PKE ROM further increased with static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after 15 minutes of rest, but remained significantly greater than at baseline (p < 0.001). Between groups, there was no main effect for group (p = 0.462), with no difference in mean PKE ROM values at any individual stage of the protocol (p > 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). Conclusion Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced

  6. 8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  7. 25. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Centrifugals, 1879, 1881. Manufacturer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Centrifugals, 1879, 1881. Manufacturer, Unknown. Supplied by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1879, 1881. View: After sugar was granulated and cooled it had to be dried and drained, completely separating the sugar crystals from the molasses. Revolving at 1200 rpm the inner basket drove the molasses outward into the stationary outer basket leaving dried sugar behind. The steam engine counter-shaft at the left was belt driven and belts running from the counter-shaft pulleys to the centrifugals' base-pulleys provided the necessary power. Part of the clutch system which moved the belt from a moving to a stationary pulley, thus turning the centrifugals on and off, is seen in Between the counter-shaft and the centrifugals. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  8. Centrifuge modeling of LNAPL transport in partially saturated sand

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, G.; Allersma, H.G.B.; Selvadurai, A.P.S.

    1999-12-01

    Model tests were performed at the Geotechnical Centrifuge Facility of Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, to examine the mechanics of light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) movement in a partially saturated porous granular medium. The experiment simulated a 2D spill of LNAPL in an unsaturated sand prepared at two values of porosity. The duration of the centrifuge model tests corresponded to a prototype equivalent of 110 days. The choice of modeling a 2D flow together with the use of a transparent container enabled direct visual observation of the experiments. Scaling laws developed in connection with other centrifuge modeling studies were used to support the test results. Tests were conducted at two different centrifuge accelerations to verify, by means of the modeling of models technique, the similitude between the different experiments. The paper presents details of the experimental methodologies and the measuring techniques used to evaluate the final distribution of water and LNAPL content in the soils.

  9. A multiplexed immunoassay system based upon reciprocating centrifugal microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noroozi, Zahra; Kido, Horacio; Peytavi, Régis; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Jasinskas, Algimantas; Micic, Miodrag; Felgner, Philip L.; Madou, Marc J.

    2011-06-01

    A novel, centrifugal disk-based micro-total analysis system (μTAS) for low cost and high throughput semi-automated immunoassay processing was developed. A key innovation in the disposable immunoassay disk design is in a fluidic structure that enables very efficient micro-mixing based on a reciprocating mechanism in which centrifugal acceleration acting upon a liquid element first generates and stores pneumatic energy that is then released by a reduction of the centrifugal acceleration, resulting in a reversal of direction of flow of the liquid. Through an alternating sequence of high and low centrifugal acceleration, the system reciprocates the flow of liquid within the disk to maximize incubation/hybridization efficiency between antibodies and antigen macromolecules during the incubation/hybridization stage of the assay. The described reciprocating mechanism results in a reduction in processing time and reagent consumption by one order of magnitude.

  10. Looking Southeast at Precipitation System, Steam Dryer and Centrifuge in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southeast at Precipitation System, Steam Dryer and Centrifuge in Red Room within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  11. Blood culture technique based on centrifugation: clinical evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, G L; Burson, G G; Haynes, J R

    1976-01-01

    A total of 1,000 blood samples from patients suspected of having a bacteremia were analyzed concurrently, where possible, by three methods: (i) Trypticase soy broth with sodium polyanethol sulfonate and a CO2 atmosphere: (ii) pour plates with either brain heart infusion agar or Sabouraud dextrose agar; and (iii) centrifugation of the suspected organism in a hypertonic solution. There were 176 positive cultures. The centrifugation technique recovered 73% of the positive cultures. The broth and pour plate techniques recovered 38 and 49%, respectively. The centrifugation technique showed an increased isolation rate for Pseudomonas, fungi, and gram-positive cocci. In general, for each organism the time required for the detection of a positive culture was shortest for the centrifugation technique. PMID:1270591

  12. 15. FLOOR 1; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR TENTERS BOTH PAIR OF MILLSTONES; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FLOOR 1; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR TENTERS BOTH PAIR OF MILLSTONES; STEELYARD RUNNING TO END OF NORTH BRIDGE TREE CAN BE SEEN - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  13. 15. FRONT VIEW, DETAIL, CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FRONT VIEW, DETAIL, CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, NEW HAVEN YARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 14. CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, NEW HAVEN YARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CENTRIFUGAL FREQUENCY RELAY IN WAYSIDE CABINET, NEW HAVEN YARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

  16. 23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP ENG TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. 19. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: SHARPLES OIL CENTRIFUGE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: SHARPLES OIL CENTRIFUGE AND OIL TANK, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  18. Centrifugally-assisted combustion synthesis of functionally-graded materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, W.; Munir, Z.A.; McCoy, B.J.; Risbud, S.H.

    1997-02-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM`s) have been prepared by a variety of techniques, including combustion synthesis, and the use of a centrifugal force in this method of synthesis has been demonstrated previously. However, in the earlier work, a centrifugal force was applied to investigate the changes in the dynamics of self-propagating combustion waves or to deposit coatings on the inside surfaces of pipes. The use of a centrifugal force to investigate the formation of FGM`s has not been reported previously and is the focus of this communication. In this work, the authors have chosen thermite reactions to investigate the feasibility of FGM formation by centrifugally-assisted combustion synthesis.

  19. 16. View northwest of Arctic Chamber Worthington centrifugal compressor and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View northwest of Arctic Chamber Worthington centrifugal compressor and control panel, in machine area. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  20. 18. View north of Tropic Chamber Worthington centrifugal compressor and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View north of Tropic Chamber Worthington centrifugal compressor and control panel, in machine area. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  1. Long-latency component of the stretch reflex in human muscle is not mediated by intramuscular stretch receptors.

    PubMed

    Corden, D M; Lippold, O C; Buchanan, K; Norrington, C

    2000-07-01

    Reflex responses to mechanical stimulation of muscle (brief imposed movement) were investigated. Reflexes were elicited in the forefinger, recording from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), and in the foot, recording from soleus. These responses typically consisted of a short-latency component (M1) and a long-latency component (M2) at 33 ms and 53 ms, respectively, after the stimulus in the case of FDI, and 37 ms and 68 ms, respectively, in soleus upon stimulation of the sole of the foot. Normally, when a muscle is stretched by a mechanical stimulus (either naturally or by an experimentally imposed movement), both skin receptors and muscle stretch receptors are activated. It is possible, however, to devise stimulation parameters where this is not the case. Fixating the finger with plasticine enables the effects of skin stimulation to be studied without stretching the FDI muscle. On the other hand, tapping a long tendon allows muscle stretch receptors to be activated without involving skin or subcutaneous structures. Component M1 was always abolished by finger fixation in 40 trials on 10 subjects, with M2 being essentially unchanged in latency, duration, or amplitude. Reflex responses were obtained in soleus muscle in nine experiments by prodding the sole of the foot (thereby stimulating both skin and muscle stretch receptors). Alternatively, the tendo achilles was prodded (which solely activates stretch receptors in the muscle). In the former, M1 and M2 were generated. In the latter, only M1 was produced. It is concluded that the long-latency component of the stretch reflex, M2, originates in skin and/or subcutaneous nerve terminals and that no part of M2 originates in muscle stretch receptors. PMID:10899195

  2. Centrifuge Facility for the International Space Station Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1994-01-01

    The Centrifuge Facility planned for the International Space Station Alpha has under-one considerable redesign over the past year, primarily because the Station is now viewed as a 10 year mission rather than a 30 year mission and because of the need to simply the design to meet budget constraints and a 2000 launch date. The basic elements of the Centrifuge Facility remain the same, i.e., a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, a micro-g holding unit, plant and animal habitats, a glovebox and a service unit. The centrifuge will still provide the full range of artificial gravity from 0.01 a to 2 - as originally planned; however, the extractor to permit withdrawal of habitats from the centrifuge without stopping the centrifuge has been eliminated. The specimen habitats have also been simplified and are derived from other NASA programs. The Plant Research Unit being developed by the Gravitational Biology Facility will be used to house plants in the Centrifuge Facility. Although not as ambitious as the Centrifuge Facility plant habitat, it will provide much better environmental control and lighting than the current Shuttle based Plant Growth Facility. Similarly, rodents will be housed in the Advanced Animal Habitat being developed for the Shuttle program. The Centrifuge Facility and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform repeatable, high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies on both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The Centrifuge Facility will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will for the first time permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of micro-g from

  3. Centrifugal governor for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkoshi, M.

    1987-04-14

    This patent describes a centrifugal governor for use with an internal combustion engine, comprising: a control rack for regulating the quantity of fuel to be supplied to the engine; flyweights radially displaceable in response to the rotational speed of the engine; a tension lever pivotable through an angle dependent upon the amount of radial displacement of the flyweights; a torque cam pivotable about and relative to a fulcrum shaft thereof and having a cam surface including a cam surface portion determining a fuel increment to be applied at the start of the engine; a sensor lever having one end engaged by the control rack; the sensor lever having another end disposed to engage with the cam surface portion of the torque cam when the engine is in a starting condition, to permit displacement of the control rack into a fuel increasing position for the start of the engine; and a cancelling spring interposed between the torque cam and the tension lever and urging the torque cam with a force dependent upon the angularity of the tension lever to cause pivoting of the torque cam about the fulcrum shaft thereof in a direction of disengaging the sensor lever from the cam surface portion of the torque cam. The improvement is described comprising biasing means for forcibly pivotally displacing, immediately before operation of a starter of the engine, the torque cam in one direction against the urging force of the cancelling spring to a predetermined position.

  4. Centrifugal governor for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, M.

    1986-08-12

    A centrifugal governor is described for use with an internal combustion engine, comprising: a control rack for regulating the quantity of fuel to be supplied to the engine; flyweights radially displaceable in response to the rotational speed of the engine; a tension lever pivotable about a stationary fulcrum in response to the radial displacement of the flyweights; a torque cam having a cam surface determining a fuel increment to be applied at the start of the engine; a sensor lever having one end engaged by the control rack and another end disposed for engagement with the cam surface of the torque cam, the sensor lever being adapted to engage with the cam surface of the torque cam when the engine is in a starting condition, to cause displacement of the control rack into a fuel increasing position for the start of the engine; and spring means interposed between the torque cam and the tension lever and urging the torque cam with a force dependent upon the angularity of the tension lever in a direction of disengaging the sensor lever from the cam surface of the torque cam; the spring means comprising first and second springs, one of the first and second springs being formed of a thermosensitive material having a smaller spring constant at a low temperature below a predetermined value, and a larger spring constant at a temperature above the predetermined value; and the first and second springs of the spring means comprising coiled springs disposed concentrically with each other.

  5. Investigation of Flow in a Centrifugal Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Karl

    1946-01-01

    The investigation of the flow in a centrifugal pump indicated that the flow patterns in frictional fluid are fundamentally different from those in frictionless fluid. In particular, the dead air space adhering to the section side undoubtedly causes a reduction of the theoretically possible delivery head. The velocity distribution over a parallel circle is also subjected to a noticeable change as a result of the incomplete filling of the passages. The relative velocity on the pressure side of the vane, which for passages completely filled with active flow would differ little from zero even at comparatively lower than normal delivery volume, is increased, so that no rapid reverse flow occurs on the pressure side of the vane even for smaller delivery volume. It was established, further, that the flow ceases to be stationary for very small quantities of water. The inflow to the impeller can be regarded as radial for the operating range an question. The velocity triangles at the exit are subjected to a significant alteration in shape ae a result of the increased peripheral velocity, which may be of particular importance in the determination of the guide vane entrance angle.

  6. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. PMID:27574457

  7. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. PMID:27574457

  8. Xurography actuated valving for centrifugal flow control.

    PubMed

    Kinahan, David J; Early, Philip L; Vembadi, Abhishek; MacNamara, Eoghan; Kilcawley, Niamh A; Glennon, Thomas; Diamond, Dermot; Brabazon, Dermot; Ducrée, Jens

    2016-09-21

    We introduce a novel instrument controlled valving scheme for centrifugal platforms which is based upon xurography. In a first approach, which is akin to previously presented event-triggered flow control, the valves are composed of a pneumatic chamber sealed by a dissolvable film (DF) and by a pierceable membrane. Liquid is initially prevented from wetting the DF by the counter pressure of a trapped gas. Via a channel, this pocket is pneumatically connected to a vent, sealed by the pierceable membrane, located on the top surface of the disc. By scouring the top surface of the disc, along a pre-defined track by a robotic knife-cutter, the trapped gas is released and so the liquid can wet and disintegrate the DF. In order to automate assay protocols without the need to integrate DFs, we extend this xurography-based flow control concept by selective venting of chambers subjected to pneumatic over-pressure or vacuum suction. Unlike most instrument controlled flow-control mechanisms, in this approach to valve actuation can occur during disc rotation. To demonstrate the potential of this flow control approach, we designed a disc architecture to automate the liquid handling as the backbone of a biplex liver assay panel. We demonstrate valve actuation during rotation, using the robotic arm, using this disc with visualisation via dyed water. We then demonstrate the biplex liver assay, using calibration reagent, by stopping the disc and manually piercing the membrane to actuate the same valves. PMID:27523628

  9. Wave Augmented Diffuser for Centrifugal Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A wave augmented diffuser for a centrifugal compressor surrounds the outlet of an impeller that rotates on a drive shaft having an axis of rotation. The impeller brings flow in in an axial direction and imparts kinetic energy to the flow discharging it in radial and tangential directions. The flow is discharged into a plurality of circumferentially disposed wave chambers. The wave chambers are periodically opened and closed by a rotary valve such that the flow through the diffuser is unsteady. The valve includes a plurality of valve openings that are periodically brought into and out of fluid communication with the wave chambers. When the wave chambers are closed, a reflected compression wave moves upstream towards the diffuser bringing the flow into the wave chamber to rest. This action recovers the kinetic energy from the flow and limits any boundary layer growth. The flow is then discharged in an axial direction through an opening in the valve plate when the valve plate is rotated to an open position. The diffuser thus efficiently raises the static pressure of the fluid and discharges an axially directed flow at a radius that is predominantly below the maximum radius of the diffuser.

  10. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression.

  11. Transport modes during crystal growth in a centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William A.; Wilcox, William R.; Carlson, Frederick; Chait, Arnon; Regel', Liia L.

    1992-01-01

    Flow modes arising under average acceleration in centrifugal crystal growth, the gradient of acceleration, and the Coriolis force are investigated using a fully nonlinear three-dimensional numerical model for a centrifugal crystal growth experiment. The analysis focuses on an examination of the quasi-steady state flow modes. The importance of the gradient acceleration is determined by the value of a new nondimensional number, Ad.

  12. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  13. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  14. The effect of acute stretching on agility performance.

    PubMed

    Van Gelder, Leonard H; Bartz, Shari D

    2011-11-01

    Static stretching (SS) has shown decreases in many areas including strength, anaerobic power, and sprinting time. Dynamic stretching (DS) has shown increases in anaerobic power and decreases in sprinting time. Research on the effects of stretching on agility performance is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of SS and DS on performance time of a sport agility test. Sixty male subjects consisting of collegiate (n = 18) and recreational (n = 42) basketball athletes volunteered for the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups: SS, DS, or no stretching (NS). All groups completed a 10-minute warm-up jog followed by a 3-minute rest. The SS and DS groups then completed an 8.5-minute stretching intervention. Next, all subjects completed 3 trials of the 505 agility test with 2-5 minutes of rest between trials. A 2-way repeated-measure analysis of variance (Stretch group, athlete category, group × athlete interaction) was used to determine statistical significance (p < 0.05). A Tukey post hoc test was performed to determine differences between groups. For all athletes, the DS group produced significantly faster times on the agility test (2.22 ± 0.12 seconds, mean ± SD) in comparison to both the SS group (2.33 ± 0.15 seconds, p = 0.013) and NS group (2.32 ± 0.12 seconds, p = 0.026). Differences between the SS and NS groups revealed no significance (p = 0.962). There was a significant difference in mean times for the type of athlete (p = 0.002); however, interaction between the type of athlete and stretching group was not significant (p = 0.520). These results indicate that in comparison to SS or NS, DS significantly improves performance on closed agility skills involving a 180° change of direction.

  15. A wireless centrifuge force microscope (CFM) enables multiplexed single-molecule experiments in a commercial centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Tony; Patel, Dhruv S.; Halvorsen, Ken

    2016-08-01

    The centrifuge force microscope (CFM) was recently introduced as a platform for massively parallel single-molecule manipulation and analysis. Here we developed a low-cost and self-contained CFM module that works directly within a commercial centrifuge, greatly improving accessibility and ease of use. Our instrument incorporates research grade video microscopy, a power source, a computer, and wireless transmission capability to simultaneously monitor many individually tethered microspheres. We validated the instrument by performing single-molecule force shearing of short DNA duplexes. For a 7 bp duplex, we observed over 1000 dissociation events due to force dependent shearing from 2 pN to 12 pN with dissociation times in the range of 10-100 s. We extended the measurement to a 10 bp duplex, applying a 12 pN force clamp and directly observing single-molecule dissociation over an 85 min experiment. Our new CFM module facilitates simple and inexpensive experiments that dramatically improve access to single-molecule analysis.

  16. A wireless centrifuge force microscope (CFM) enables multiplexed single-molecule experiments in a commercial centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tony; Patel, Dhruv S; Halvorsen, Ken

    2016-08-01

    The centrifuge force microscope (CFM) was recently introduced as a platform for massively parallel single-molecule manipulation and analysis. Here we developed a low-cost and self-contained CFM module that works directly within a commercial centrifuge, greatly improving accessibility and ease of use. Our instrument incorporates research grade video microscopy, a power source, a computer, and wireless transmission capability to simultaneously monitor many individually tethered microspheres. We validated the instrument by performing single-molecule force shearing of short DNA duplexes. For a 7 bp duplex, we observed over 1000 dissociation events due to force dependent shearing from 2 pN to 12 pN with dissociation times in the range of 10-100 s. We extended the measurement to a 10 bp duplex, applying a 12 pN force clamp and directly observing single-molecule dissociation over an 85 min experiment. Our new CFM module facilitates simple and inexpensive experiments that dramatically improve access to single-molecule analysis. PMID:27587129

  17. Stretch-regulated Exocytosis/Endocytosis in Bladder Umbrella Cells

    PubMed Central

    Truschel, Steven T.; Wang, Edward; Ruiz, Wily G.; Leung, Som-Ming; Rojas, Raul; Lavelle, John; Zeidel, Mark; Stoffer, David; Apodaca, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    The epithelium of the urinary bladder must maintain a highly impermeable barrier despite large variations in urine volume during bladder filling and voiding. To study how the epithelium accommodates these volume changes, we mounted bladder tissue in modified Ussing chambers and subjected the tissue to mechanical stretch. Stretching the tissue for 5 h resulted in a 50% increase in lumenal surface area (from ∼2900 to 4300 μm2), exocytosis of a population of discoidal vesicles located in the apical cytoplasm of the superficial umbrella cells, and release of secretory proteins. Surprisingly, stretch also induced endocytosis of apical membrane and 100% of biotin-labeled membrane was internalized within 5 min after stretch. The endocytosed membrane was delivered to lysosomes and degraded by a leupeptin-sensitive pathway. Last, we show that the exocytic events were mediated, in part, by a cyclic adenosine monophosphate, protein kinase A-dependent process. Our results indicate that stretch modulates mucosal surface area by coordinating both exocytosis and endocytosis at the apical membrane of umbrella cells and provide insight into the mechanism of how mechanical forces regulate membrane traffic in nonexcitable cells. PMID:11907265

  18. Controlled cyclic stretch bioreactor for tissue-engineered heart valves.

    PubMed

    Syedain, Zeeshan H; Tranquillo, Robert T

    2009-09-01

    A tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) represents the ultimate valve replacement, especially for juvenile patients given its growth potential. To date, most TEHV bioreactors have been developed based on pulsed flow of culture medium through the valve lumen to induce strain in the leaflets. Using a strategy for controlled cyclic stretching of tubular constructs reported previously, we developed a controlled cyclic stretch bioreactor for TEHVs that leads to improved tensile and compositional properties. The TEHV is mounted inside a latex tube, which is then cyclically pressurized with culture medium. The root and leaflets stretch commensurately with the latex, the stretching being dictated by the stiffer latex and thus controllable. Medium is also perfused through the lumen at a slow rate in a flow loop to provide nutrient delivery. Fibrin-based TEHVs prepared with human dermal fibroblasts were subjected to three weeks of cyclic stretching with incrementally increasing strain amplitude. The TEHV possessed the tensile stiffness and stiffness anisotropy of leaflets from sheep pulmonary valves and could withstand cyclic pulmonary pressures with similar distension as for a sheep pulmonary artery. PMID:19473698

  19. Mechanical fatigue in repetitively stretched single molecules of titin.

    PubMed Central

    Kellermayer, M S; Smith, S B; Bustamante, C; Granzier, H L

    2001-01-01

    Relaxed striated muscle cells exhibit mechanical fatigue when exposed to repeated stretch and release cycles. To understand the molecular basis of such mechanical fatigue, single molecules of the giant filamentous protein titin, which is the main determinant of sarcomeric elasticity, were repetitively stretched and released while their force response was characterized with optical tweezers. During repeated stretch-release cycles titin becomes mechanically worn out in a process we call molecular fatigue. The process is characterized by a progressive shift of the stretch-force curve toward increasing end-to-end lengths, indicating that repeated mechanical cycles increase titin's effective contour length. Molecular fatigue occurs only in a restricted force range (0-25 pN) during the initial part of the stretch half-cycle, whereas the rest of the force response is repeated from one mechanical cycle to the other. Protein-folding models fail to explain molecular fatigue on the basis of an incomplete refolding of titin's globular domains. Rather, the process apparently derives from the formation of labile nonspecific bonds cross-linking various sites along a pre-unfolded titin segment. Because titin's molecular fatigue occurs in a physiologically relevant force range, the process may play an important role in dynamically adjusting muscle's response to the recent history of mechanical perturbations. PMID:11159452

  20. Stretching and quenching of flamelets in premixed turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Meneveau, C. ); Poinsot, T. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on the stretch rate of flamelets in premixed turbulent combustion which is computed using detailed numerical simulations of vortex-flame interactions and a model for intermittent turbulence taking into account all possible turbulence scales acting on the flame front. Simulations of interactions between isolated vortices and a laminar flame front are used to obtain a relation between the characteristics of a given vortex and the actual flame stretch generated by this structure. Quenching conditions and quenching times are also given by these simulations. A net rate of stretch is then defined in the case of a complete turbulent flow field as the difference between the total rate of flame stretch and the quenching rate due to scales that have a high enough energy and a long enough lifetime to quench locally the flame front. The net rate of stretch is computed for a variety of parameters of interest in practical applications. It is a function of the large-scale turbulence parameters and the laminar flame speed and flame thickness and may be used as an input in most flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion.

  1. Buoyant Low Stretch Diffusion Flames Beneath Cylindrical PMMA Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Tien, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    A unique new way to study low gravity flames in normal gravity has been developed. To study flame structure and extinction characteristics in low stretch environments, a normal gravity low-stretch diffusion flame is generated using a cylindrical PMMA sample of varying large radii. Burning rates, visible flame thickness, visible flame standoff distance, temperature profiles in the solid and gas, and radiative loss from the system were measured. A transition from the blowoff side of the flammability map to the quenching side of the flammability map is observed at approximately 6-7/ sec, as determined by curvefits to the non-monotonic trends in peak temperatures, solid and gas-phase temperature gradients, and non-dimensional standoff distances. A surface energy balance reveals that the fraction of heat transfer from the flame that is lost to in-depth conduction and surface radiation increases with decreasing stretch until quenching extinction is observed. This is primarily due to decreased heat transfer from the flame, while the magnitude of the losses remains the same. A unique local extinction flamelet phenomena and associated pre-extinction oscillations are observed at very low stretch. An ultimate quenching extinction limit is found at low stretch with sufficiently high induced heat losses.

  2. Data on calcium increases depending on stretch in dystrophic cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Aguettaz, E; Lopez, J J; Krzesiak, A; Constantin, B; Cognard, C; Sebille, S

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) was measured in isolated ventricular Wild Type (WT) and mdx cardiomyocytes in two different conditions: at rest and during the application of an axial stretch. Using a carbon microfibers technique, axial stretch was applied to mimic effects of physiological conditions of ventricular filling. A study of cation entry with the same experimental model and the manganese quenching method reported (i) a constitutive cation entry in mdx cardiomyocytes and (ii) the involvement of TRPV2 channels in axial-stretch dependant cation entry, "Axial stretch-dependent cation entry in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: involvement of several TRPs channels" (Aguettaz et al., 2016) [1]. Here, the Ca(2+) dye fluo-8 was used for [Ca(2+)]i measurement, in both resting and stretching conditions, using a perfusion protocol starting initially with a calcium free Tyrode solution followed by the perfusion of 1.8 mM Ca(2+) Tyrode solution. The variation of [Ca(2+)]i was found higher in mdx cardiomyocytes. PMID:27617280

  3. Stretching Fibroblasts Remodels Fibronectin and Alters Cancer Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Mingfang; Brewer, Bryson M.; Yang, Lijie; Franco Coronel, Omar E.; Hayward, Simon W.; Webb, Donna J.; Li, Deyu

    2015-02-01

    Most investigations of cancer-stroma interactions have focused on biochemical signaling effects, with much less attention being paid to biophysical factors. In this study, we investigated the role of mechanical stimuli on human prostatic fibroblasts using a microfluidic platform that was adapted for our experiments and further developed for both repeatable performance among multiple assays and for compatibility with high-resolution confocal microscopy. Results show that mechanical stretching of normal tissue-associated fibroblasts (NAFs) alters the structure of secreted fibronectin. Specifically, unstretched NAFs deposit and assemble fibronectin in a random, mesh-like arrangement, while stretched NAFs produce matrix with a more organized, linearly aligned structure. Moreover, the stretched NAFs exhibited an enhanced capability for directing co-cultured cancer cell migration in a persistent manner. Furthermore, we show that stretching NAFs triggers complex biochemical signaling events through the observation of increased expression of platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα). A comparison of these behaviors with those of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) indicates that the observed phenotypes of stretched NAFs are similar to those associated with CAFs, suggesting that mechanical stress is a critical factor in NAF activation and CAF genesis.

  4. Numerical study of stretched smectic-A elastomer sheets.

    PubMed

    Brown, A W; Adams, J M

    2013-07-01

    We present a numerical study of stretching monodomain smectic-A elastomer sheets, computed using the finite element method. When stretched parallel to their smectic layer normal the smectic layers are unstable to a transition to a buckled state. We model macroscopic deformations by replacing the microscopic energy with a coarse grained effective free energy that accounts for the fine-scale layer buckling. We augment this model with a term to describe the energy of deforming buckled layers, which is necessary to reproduce the experimentally observed Poisson ratios postbuckling. We examine the spatial distribution of the microstructure phases for various stretching angles relative to the layer normal and for different length-to-width aspect ratios. When stretching parallel to the layer normal the majority of the sample forms a bidirectionally buckled microstructure, except at the clamps where a unidirectionally buckled microstructure is predicted. When stretching at small inclinations to the layer normal the phase of the sample is sensitive to the aspect ratio of the sample, with the bidirectionally buckled phase persistent to large angles only for small aspect ratios. We relate these theoretical results to experiments on smectic-A elastomers.

  5. Printable low-cost, sustained and dynamic cell stretching apparatus.

    PubMed

    Toume, Samer; Gefen, Amit; Weihs, Daphne

    2016-05-24

    Deformations that are applied on body tissues during daily activities, as a result of morbid conditions, or during various medical treatments, affect cell viability and biological function. Such mechanobiological phenomena are often studied in vitro, in monolayer cultures. To facilitate such studies cost effectively, we have developed a novel, printable cell stretching apparatus. The apparatus is used to apply tensile strains on cells cultured on elastic, stretchable substrata, either by sustained or by dynamic-cyclic application. Most of the apparatus parts are three-dimensionally printed (excluding motors), and stretching is automatically performed by two direct current geared motors that are controlled by a programmable microcontroller platform. To demonstrate functionality of this novel printable device, which can be produced in multiple copies in research labs at a cost of under 100 US$ per unit, including motors and controller, we performed cell culture studies monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Specifically, we have applied sustained and cyclic, radial stretching at large strains to NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts, and have demonstrated that cell viability, adhesion and morphology were maintained following stretching. Our apparatus is designed to be low-cost, rapidly manufactured at a university or small-company setting, and simple to use and control, where its flexible, versatile design allows users to experimentally induce different stretching regimes with varying amplitudes and frequencies. PMID:27038541

  6. Acute effect of constant torque and angle stretching on range of motion, muscle passive properties, and stretch discomfort perception.

    PubMed

    Cabido, Christian E T; Bergamini, Juliana C; Andrade, André G P; Lima, Fernando V; Menzel, Hans J; Chagas, Mauro H

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the acute effects of constant torque (CT) and constant angle (CA) stretching exercises on the maximum range of motion (ROMmax), passive stiffness (PS), and ROM corresponding to the first sensation of tightness in the posterior thigh (FSTROM). Twenty-three sedentary men (age, 19-33 years) went through 1 familiarization session and afterward proceeded randomly to both CA and CT treatment stretching conditions, on separate days. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to analyze hamstring muscles during passive knee extension. The subjects performed 4 stretches of 30 seconds each with a 15-second interval between them. In the CA stretching, the subject reached a certain ROM (95% of ROMmax), and the angle was kept constant. However, in the CT stretching exercise, the volunteer reached a certain resistance torque (corresponding to 95% of ROMmax) and it was kept constant. The results showed an increase in ROMmax for both CA and CT (p < 0.001), but the increase was greater for CT than for CA (CA vs. CT in poststretching, p = 0.002). Although the PS decreased for both CA and CT (p < 0.001), the decrease was greater for CT than for CA (CA vs. CT in poststretching, p = 0.002). The FSTROM increased for both CA and CT, but the increase for CT was greater than that for CA (CA vs. CT in poststretching, p = 0.003). The greater increase in ROMmax for the CT stretch may be explained by greater changes in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit and stretch tolerance, as indicated by the results of PS and FSTROM.

  7. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  8. Cerebral Hypoperfusion Precedes Nausea During Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrador, Jorge M.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Black, F. Owen; Wood, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    Nausea and motion sickness are important operational concerns for aviators and astronauts. Understanding underlying mechanisms associated with motion sickness may lead to new treatments. The goal of this work was to determine if cerebral blood flow changes precede the development of nausea in motion sick susceptible subjects. Cerebral flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (Finapres) and end-tidal CO2 were measured while subjects were rotated on a centrifuge (250 degrees/sec). Following 5 min of rotation, subjects were translated 0.504 m off-center, creating a +lGx centripetal acceleration in the nasal-occipital plane. Ten subjects completed the protocol without symptoms while 5 developed nausea (4 while 6ff-center and 1 while rotating on-center). Prior to nausea, subjects had significant increases in blood pressure (+13plus or minus 3 mmHg, P less than 0.05) and cerebrovascular resistance (+46 plus or minus 17%, P less than 0.05) and decreases in cerebral flow velocity both in the second (-13 plus or minus 4%) and last minute (-22 plus or minus 5%) before symptoms (P less than 0.05). In comparison, controls demonstrated no change in blood pressure or cerebrovascular resistance in the last minute of off-center rotation and only a 7 plus or minus 2% decrease in cerebral flow velocity. All subjects had significant hypocapnia (-3.8 plus or minus 0.4 mmHg, P less than 0.05), however this hypocapnia could not fully explain the cerebral hypoperfusion associated with the development of nausea. These data indicate that reductions in cerebral blood flow precede the development of nausea. Further work is necessary to determine what role cerebral hypoperfusion plays in motion sickness and whether cerebral hypoperfusion can be used to predict the development of nausea in susceptible individuals.

  9. Relocation and repair of the National Geotechnical Centrifuge. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    In January of 1984, the large geotechnical centrifuge located at NASA Ames Research Center, was in the first stages of operational checkout when the main thrust bearing of the large D.C. drive motor failed. After many months of investigation and proposals for repair of the facility, it became evident that it would be far more advantageous to the engineering community to remove those components of the centrifuge that were undamaged to the Davis campus and replace the drive system completely. The large centrifuge had cost over 2 million dollars to build, and it would have been irresponsible to simply scrap it. Recognizing this fact, funds were solicited and received from various sources, and Beam Engineering Inc. was contracted to design and construct the centrifuge at its new location. The University of California contributed a quarter of a million dollars and Tyndall Air Force Base, through Los Alamos National Laboratory, contributed $140,000. There were funds also contributed by LANL, LLNL, US Navy and NSF. The first stage in the phased development of the newly located centrifuge is nearing completion, which prompts the writing of this report. By the time that this report reaches the reader the first runs of the centrifuge will have been completed. The present report describes the present capability of the centrifuge and the plans for upgrading as time goes on. Several pilot studies were carried out. The experiments involved (1) the effects of nearby explosions on buried thin walled containers and (2) the advection and dispersion of toxic waste water through soils.

  10. Determination of the stretch tensor for structural transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian; Song, Yintao; Tamura, Nobumichi; James, Richard D.

    2016-08-01

    Structural transformations in crystalline solids are increasingly the basis of the functional behavior of materials. Recently, in diverse alloy systems, both low hysteresis and reversibility of phase transformations have been linked to the satisfaction of the nongeneric conditions of compatibility between phases. According to the Cauchy-Born rule, these conditions are expressed as properties of transformation stretch tensor. The transformation stretch tensor is difficult to measure directly due to the lack of knowledge about the exact transforming pathway during the structural change, and the complicating effects of microstructure. In this paper we give a rigorous algorithmic approach for determining the transformation stretch tensor from X-ray measurements of structure and lattice parameters. For some traditional and emerging phase transformations, the results given by the algorithm suggest unexpected transformation mechanisms.

  11. Sketch-n-Stretch: sketching animations using cutouts.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eisung; Choy, Yoon-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Sketch-n-Stretch lets novices quickly and easily create 2D animations. The system has a seamless two-layer drawing interface that supports cutouts using a whiteboard metaphor. Cutout animations serve as building blocks to help users construct sophisticated animations. While manipulating cutout animations, users can draw and write text to create effects-such as articulated figures, multiple motions, and image objects-that have been difficult with previous sketching approaches. An intuitive timeline interface employs visually integrated motion cues and supports several traditional animation effects. Novices positively evaluated Sketch-n-Stretch's effectiveness in creating object motions, compared to an existing sketching tool. They also used its advanced features to animate complete stories. This video demonstrates the Sketch-n-Stretch tool for making sketch-based animations. PMID:24806002

  12. Single particle measurements of material line stretching in turbulence: Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramel, Stefan; Tympel, Saskia; Toschi, Federico; Voth, Greg

    2015-11-01

    We find that particles in the shape of chiral dipoles display a preferential rotation direction in three dimensional isotropic turbulence. The particles consist of two helical ends with opposite chirality that are connected by a straight rod. They are fabricated using 3D printing and have an aspect ratio of 10 and a length in the inertial range of our flow between oscillating grids. Due to their high aspect ratio, they move like material lines. Because material lines align with the extentional eigenvectors of the velocity gradient tensor they experience a mean stretching in turbulence. The stretching of a chiral dipole produces a rotation about the dipole axis and so chiral dipoles experience a non-zero mean spinning rate in turbulence. These results provide a first direct experimental measurement of the rate of material line stretching in turbulence.

  13. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    PubMed Central

    Sloot, Lizeth H.; van den Noort, Josien C.; van der Krogt, Marjolein M.; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Harlaar, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163–191 ms). Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally measure reflexes during

  14. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    PubMed

    Sloot, Lizeth H; van den Noort, Josien C; van der Krogt, Marjolein M; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Harlaar, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms). Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally measure reflexes during

  15. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-17

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

  16. The acute effects of dynamic and ballistic stretching on vertical jump height, force, and power.

    PubMed

    Jaggers, Jason R; Swank, Ann M; Frost, Karen L; Lee, Chong D

    2008-11-01

    Stretching before performance is a common practice among athletes in hopes of increasing performance and reducing the risk of injury. However, cumulative results indicate a negative impact of static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on performance; thus, there is a need for evaluating other stretching strategies for effective warm-up. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences between two sets of ballistic stretching and two sets of a dynamic stretching routine on vertical jump performance. Twenty healthy male and female college students between the ages of 22 and 34 (24.8 +/- 3 years) volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects completed three individual testing sessions on three nonconsecutive days. On each day, the subjects completed one of three treatments (no stretch, ballistic stretch, and dynamic stretch). Intraclass reliability was determined using the data obtained from each subject. A paired samples t-test revealed no significant difference in jump height, force, or power when comparing no stretch with ballistic stretch. A significant difference was found on jump power when comparing no stretch with dynamic stretch, but no significant difference was found for jump height or force. Statistics showed a very high reliability when measuring jump height, force, and power using the Kistler Quattro Jump force plate. It seems that neither dynamic stretching nor ballistic stretching will result in an increase in vertical jump height or force. However, dynamic stretching elicited gains in jump power poststretch.

  17. Lidar equations for turbid media with pulse stretching.

    PubMed

    Walker, R E; McLean, J W

    1999-04-20

    Lidar equations for a system with multiple-scattering beam spreading and pulse stretching are developed from an analytical model for the beam spread function. The resulting lidar equations are transparent to the physics and with some simple approximations for system transfer functions become mathematically simple engineering models for system studies. Application to and comparison with a variety of lidar applications in ocean environments (turbidity and bathymetry) and clouds (aerosol scattering) are presented. These examples provide model validation. The lidar model developed represents a significant extension beyond historical lidar models that exclude pulse stretching. Their mathematical simplicity should foster use in a broader class of problems involving light propagation in turbid media.

  18. Stretched Exponential Relaxation of Glasses at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingtian; Wang, Mengyi; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Bu; Sant, Gaurav; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2015-10-01

    The question of whether glass continues to relax at low temperature is of fundamental and practical interest. Here, we report a novel atomistic simulation method allowing us to directly access the long-term dynamics of glass relaxation at room temperature. We find that the potential energy relaxation follows a stretched exponential decay, with a stretching exponent β =3 /5 , as predicted by Phillips's diffusion-trap model. Interestingly, volume relaxation is also found. However, it is not correlated to the energy relaxation, but it is rather a manifestation of the mixed alkali effect.

  19. Stretched-exponential Doppler spectra in underwater acoustic communication channels.

    PubMed

    van Walree, P A; Jenserud, T; Otnes, R

    2010-11-01

    The theory of underwater sound interacting with the sea surface predicts a Gaussian-spread frequency spectrum in the case of a large Rayleigh parameter. However, recent channel soundings reveal more sharply peaked spectra with heavier tails. The measured Doppler spread increases with the frequency and differs between multipath arrivals. The overall Doppler spectrum of a broadband waveform is the sum of the spectra of all constituent paths and frequencies, and is phenomenologically described by a stretched or compressed exponential. The stretched exponential also fits well to the broadband spectrum of a single propagation path, and narrowband spectra summed over all paths.

  20. Stretched Exponential Relaxation of Glasses at Low Temperature.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingtian; Wang, Mengyi; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Bu; Sant, Gaurav; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2015-10-16

    The question of whether glass continues to relax at low temperature is of fundamental and practical interest. Here, we report a novel atomistic simulation method allowing us to directly access the long-term dynamics of glass relaxation at room temperature. We find that the potential energy relaxation follows a stretched exponential decay, with a stretching exponent β=3/5, as predicted by Phillips's diffusion-trap model. Interestingly, volume relaxation is also found. However, it is not correlated to the energy relaxation, but it is rather a manifestation of the mixed alkali effect.

  1. Centrifugation Effects on Estrous Cycling, Mating Success and Pregnancy Outcome in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Rushing, Linda S.; Tou, Janet; Wade, Charles E.; Baer, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of 2-g centrifugation on estrous cycling, mating success and pregnancy outcome in rats. Sexually mature female and male rats were assigned to either 2-g centrifuge or non-centrifuge conditions, and to non-breeding or breeding conditions. In non-breeding females, estrous cycles were analyzed by examining vaginal cytology before and for 35 days during centrifugation. Breeding females were time-mated following 7 days of adaptation to centrifugation. Following adaptation to centrifugation, estrous cycle duration over a five-cycle period was similar in centrifuged and non-centrifuged females. Identical numbers of centrifuged and non-centrifuged females conceived, however centrifuged females took four-times longer than controls to achieve conception. Births occurred at the normal gestational length. Pup birth weight and postnatal survival were p<0.05 reduced in centrifuged as compared to non-centrifuged groups. In conclusion, 2-g centrifugation had no effect on estrous cycle length or the probably of becoming pregnant but delayed conception and diminished pregnancy outcome.

  2. [The analytical setting of rotary speed of centrifuge rotor and centrifugation time in chemical, biochemical and microbiological practice].

    PubMed

    Zolotarev, K V

    2012-08-01

    The researchers happen to face with suspensions in their chemical, biochemical and microbiological practice. The suspensions are the disperse systems with solid dispersed phase and liquid dispersion medium and with dispersed phase particle size > 100 nm (10-7 m). Quite often the necessity occurs to separate solid particles from liquid. To use for this purpose the precipitation in gravitation field can make the process to progress too long. In this respect an effective mode is the precipitation in the field of centrifugal forces--the centrifugation. The rotary speed of centrifuge rotor and centrifugation time can be set analytically using regularities of general dynamics and hydrodynamics. To this effect, should be written and transformed the equation of First and Second Newton Laws for suspension particle being in the field of centrifugal forces and forces of resistance of liquid and vessel wall. The force of liquid resistance depends on particle motion condition in liquid. To determine the regimen the Archimedes and Reynolds numerical dimensionless criteria are to be applied. The article demonstrates the results of these transformations as analytical inverse ratio dependence of centrifugation time from rotary speed. The calculation of series of "rate-time" data permits to choose the optimal data pair on the assumption of centrifuge capacity and practical reasonability. The results of calculations are validated by actual experimental data hence the physical mathematical apparatus can be considered as effective one. The setting progress depends both from parameter (Reynolds criterion) and data series calculation. So, the most convenient way to apply this operation is the programming approach. The article proposes to use the program Microsoft Excel and VBA programming language for this purpose. The possibility to download the file from Internet to use it for fast solution is proposed. PMID:23097986

  3. Experience with the Sarns centrifugal pump in postcardiotomy ventricular failure.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J J; Walls, J T; Schmaltz, R; Boley, T M; Nawarawong, W; Landreneau, R J

    1992-09-01

    The reported clinical use of the Sarns centrifugal pump (Sarns, Inc./3M, Ann Arbor, Mich.) as a cardiac assist device for postcardiotomy ventricular failure is limited. During a 25-month period ending November 1988, we used 40 Sarns centrifugal pumps as univentricular or biventricular cardiac assist devices in 27 patients who could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass despite maximal pharmacologic and intraaortic balloon support. Eighteen men and nine women with a mean age of 60.4 years (28 to 83) required assistance. Left ventricular assist alone was used in 12 patients, right ventricular assist in 2, and biventricular assist in 13. The duration of assist ranged from 2 to 434 hours (median 45). Centrifugal assist was successful in weaning 100% of the patients. Ten of 27 patients (37%) improved hemodynamically, allowing removal of the device(s), and 5 of 27 (18.5%) survived hospitalization. Survival of patients requiring left ventricular assist only was 33.3% (4/12). Complications were common and included renal failure, hemorrhage, coagulopathy, ventricular arrhythmias, sepsis, cerebrovascular accident, and wound infection. During 3560 centrifugal pump hours, no pump thrombosis was observed. The Sarns centrifugal pump is an effective assist device when used to salvage patients who otherwise cannot be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Statistical analysis of preoperative patient characteristics, operative risk factors, and postoperative complications failed to predict which patients would be weaned from cardiac assist or which would survive.

  4. Rules governing the classification of coal slurries for filtering centrifuges

    SciTech Connect

    G.Y. Gol'berg; Y.B. Rubinshtein; S.A. Osadchii

    2008-07-01

    The feasibility of using filtering centrifuges for the cleaning of a coking-coal slurry is confirmed in principle, and regime operating parameters which ensure the production of a concentrate of conditioned quality are determined on the basis of results of experimental-industrial tests of a new procedure for this operation at the Neryungrinskaya Concentrating Mill. An equation is proposed for determination of solid carry-off in the centrifuge effluent, which completely satisfactorily (with a correlation coefficient of 0.7-0.8) describes the dependence of the parameter in question on the solid content in the centrifuge feed, and on its content of -0.2-mm material. It is noted that special investigations to determine the effect of the speed of the rotor and shape of the particles on the amount of solid carry-off in the centrifuge effluent are required for construction of a model describing the size reduction of solid-phase particles in the effluent during centrifuge filtration.

  5. A fuzzy controlled three-phase centrifuge for waste separation

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J.; Smith, R.E.; Miller, N.

    1998-02-01

    The three-phase centrifuge technology discussed in this paper was developed by Neal Miller, president of Centech, Inc. The three-phase centrifuge is an excellent device for cleaning up oil field and refinery wastes which are typically composed of hydrocarbons, water, and solids. The technology is unique. It turns the waste into salable oil, reusable water, and landfill-able solids. No secondary waste is produced. The problem is that only the inventor can set up and run the equipment well enough to provide an optimal cleanup. Demand for this device has far exceeded a one man operation. There is now a need for several centrifuges to be operated at different locations at the same time. This has produced a demand for an intelligent control system, one that could replace a highly skilled operator, or at least supplement the skills of a less experienced operator. The control problem is ideally suited to fuzzy logic, since the centrifuge is a highly complicated machine operated entirely by the skill and experience of the operator. A fuzzy control system was designed for and used with the centrifuge.

  6. Development of a Feeder for Uninterrupted Centrifugation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M.; Vasques, Marilyn F.; Gundo, Daniel P.; Griffith, Jon B.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A specialized paste diet feeder was developed in support of a hypergravity (2G) centrifuge study. The centrifuge study was to be compared to a previously flown Russian Cosmos spaceflight so experimental parameters of the 14 day spaceflight had to be duplicated. In order to duplicate at hyper G an experiment that took place in weightlessness, all other conditions must be as identical as possible. Stopping the centrifuge to provide maintenance for the animals causes unacceptable changes in experimental research results. Thus the experimental protocol required the delivery of a designated amount of paste diet at regular intervals for a two week period without stopping the centrifuge. A centrifuge and a stationary control cage, each containing 10 laboratory rats, were fitted with feeders that were calibrated to provide 140 plus or minus 2g of paste diet every 6 hours. This paper describes development of the feeder design and results of its operation over the two week experiment. The design philosophy and details of the feeder system are provided with recommendations for future such devices.

  7. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

  8. Stationary patterns in centrifugally driven interfacial elastic fingering.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gabriel D; Gadêlha, Hermes; Miranda, José A

    2014-12-01

    A vortex sheet formalism is used to search for equilibrium shapes in the centrifugally driven interfacial elastic fingering problem. We study the development of interfacial instabilities when a viscous fluid surrounded by another of smaller density flows in the confined environment of a rotating Hele-Shaw cell. The peculiarity of the situation is associated to the fact that, due to a chemical reaction, the two-fluid boundary becomes an elastic layer. The interplay between centrifugal and elastic forces leads to the formation of a rich variety of stationary shapes. Visually striking equilibrium morphologies are obtained from the numerical solution of a nonlinear differential equation for the interface curvature (the shape equation), determined by a zero vorticity condition. Classification of the various families of shapes is made via two dimensionless parameters: an effective bending rigidity (ratio of elastic to centrifugal effects) and a geometrical radius of gyration. PMID:25615189

  9. Solvent-free cleaning using a centrifugal cryogenic pellet accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, J.R.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    An advanced centrifuge that accelerates frozen CO{sub 2} pellets to high speeds for surface cleaning and paint removal is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The centrifuge-based accelerator was designed, fabricated, and tested under a program sponsored by the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air ``sandblast`` pellet accelerators, the centrifugal accelerator system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as energy efficient. Furthermore, the use of frozen CO{sub 2} pellets instead of conventional metal, plastic, sand, or other abrasive materials that remain solid at room temperature, minimizes the waste stream. This apparatus has been used to demonstrate cleaning of various surfaces, including removal of paint, oxide coatings, metal coatings, organic coatings, and oil and grease coatings from a variety of surfaces. The design and operation of the apparatus is discussed.

  10. Stationary patterns in centrifugally driven interfacial elastic fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Gabriel D.; Gadêlha, Hermes; Miranda, José A.

    2014-12-01

    A vortex sheet formalism is used to search for equilibrium shapes in the centrifugally driven interfacial elastic fingering problem. We study the development of interfacial instabilities when a viscous fluid surrounded by another of smaller density flows in the confined environment of a rotating Hele-Shaw cell. The peculiarity of the situation is associated to the fact that, due to a chemical reaction, the two-fluid boundary becomes an elastic layer. The interplay between centrifugal and elastic forces leads to the formation of a rich variety of stationary shapes. Visually striking equilibrium morphologies are obtained from the numerical solution of a nonlinear differential equation for the interface curvature (the shape equation), determined by a zero vorticity condition. Classification of the various families of shapes is made via two dimensionless parameters: an effective bending rigidity (ratio of elastic to centrifugal effects) and a geometrical radius of gyration.

  11. Cause of kinematic differences during centrifugal and centripetal saccades.

    PubMed

    Koene, Ansgar R; Erkelens, Casper J

    2002-06-01

    Measurements of eye movements have shown that centrifugal movements (i.e. away from the primary position) have a lower maximum velocity and a longer duration than centripetal movements (i.e. toward the primary position) of the same size. In 1988 Pelisson proposed that these kinematic differences might be caused by differences in the neural command signals, oculomotor mechanics or a combination of the two. By using the result of muscle force measurements that were made in recent years (Orbit 1.8 Gaze mechanics simulation, Eidactics, San Francisco, 1999) we simulated the muscle forces during centrifugal and centripetal saccades. Based on these simulations we show that the cause of the kinematic differences between the centrifugal and centripetal saccades is the non-linear force-velocity relationship (i.e. muscle viscosity) of the muscles. PMID:12127111

  12. Passively Shunted Piezoelectric Damping of Centrifugally-Loaded Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Min, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center have been investigating shunted piezoelectric circuits as potential damping treatments for turbomachinery rotor blades. This effort seeks to determine the effects of centrifugal loading on passively-shunted piezoelectric - damped plates. Passive shunt circuit parameters are optimized for the plate's third bending mode. Tests are performed both non-spinning and in the Dynamic Spin Facility to verify the analysis, and to determine the effectiveness of the damping under centrifugal loading. Results show that a resistive shunt circuit will reduce resonant vibration for this configuration. However, a tuned shunt circuit will be required to achieve the desired damping level. The analysis and testing address several issues with passive shunt circuit implementation in a rotating system, including piezoelectric material integrity under centrifugal loading, shunt circuit implementation, and tip mode damping.

  13. Space Station Centrifuge: A Requirement for Life Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Arthur H.; Fuller, Charles A.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Winget, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A centrifuge with the largest diameter that can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom is required to conduct life science research in the microgravity environment of space. (This was one of the findings of a group of life scientists convened at the University of California, Davis, by Ames Research Center.) The centrifuge will be used as a research tool to understand how gravity affects biological processes; to provide an on-orbit one-g control; and to assess the efficacy of using artificial gravity to counteract the deleterious biological effect of space flight. The rationale for the recommendation and examples of using ground-based centrifugation for animal and plant acceleration studies are presented. Included are four appendixes and an extensive bibliography of hypergravity studies.

  14. Liquid density effect on burst frequency in centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Joseph, Karunan; Mohktar, Mas S; Madou, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal microfluidic platforms are widely used in various advanced processes such as biomedical diagnostics, chemical analysis and drug screening. This paper investigates the effect of liquid density on the burst frequency of the centrifugal microfluidic platform. This effect is experimentally investigated and compared to theoretical values. It is found that increasing the liquid density results in lower burst frequency and it is in agreement with theoretical calculations. Moreover, in this study we proposed the use of the microfluidic CD platform as an inexpensive and simple sensor for liquid density measurements. The proposed liquid sensor requires much less liquid volume (in the range of microliters) compared to conventional density meters. This study presents fundamental work which allows for future advance studies with the aim of designing and fabricating centrifugal microfluidic platforms for more complex tasks such as blood analysis.

  15. Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.

  16. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1994-02-15

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation. 4 figures.

  17. Operation effectiveness of wells by enhancing the electric- centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyatikov, P. N.; Kozyrev, I. N.; Deeva, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    We present the method to improve the operation effectiveness of wells by enhancing the electric-centrifugal pump. Some of the best ways to extend the electric-centrifugal pumps operating lifetime is using today's techniques as well as additional protective equipment as a part of the electric-centrifugal pump. In paper it is shown that high corrosiveness of formation fluid (a multi-component medium composed of oil, produced water, free and dissolved gases) is a major cause of failures of downhole equipment. Coil tubing is the most efficient technology to deal with this problem. The experience of coil tubing operations has proved that high-quality bottom hole cleaning saving the cost of operation due to a decreased failure rate of pumps associated with ejection of mechanical impurity.

  18. Our Enrichment Program was a Mind-Stretching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Barbara Colvin

    1976-01-01

    For three years Hollow Tree School, in Darien, Connecticut, has had a related arts program. The aim of the program was to acquaint children in grades four through six with a variety of crafts and skills. It also provided a two-way mind-stretching experience in which classroom knowledge could be used at home. (Author/RK)

  19. Stretching of DNA confined in nanochannels with charged walls

    PubMed Central

    Manneschi, Chiara; Fanzio, Paola; Angeli, Elena; Repetto, Luca; Valbusa, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    There is currently a growing interest in control of stretching of DNA inside nanoconfined regions due to the possibility to analyze and manipulate single biomolecules for applications such as DNA mapping and barcoding, which are based on stretching the DNA in a linear fashion. In the present work, we couple Finite Element Methods and Monte Carlo simulations in order to study the conformation of DNA molecules confined in nanofluidic channels with neutral and charged walls. We find that the electrostatic forces become more and more important when lowering the ionic strength of the solution. The influence of the nanochannel cross section geometry is also studied by evaluating the DNA elongation in square, rectangular, and triangular channels. We demonstrate that coupling electrostatically interacting walls with a triangular geometry is an efficient way to stretch DNA molecules at the scale of hundreds of nanometers. The paper reports experimental observations of λ-DNA molecules in poly(dimethylsiloxane) nanochannels filled with solutions of different ionic strength. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions, confirming the crucial role of the electrostatic repulsion of the constraining walls on the molecule stretching. PMID:25553196

  20. Crystallization of Stretched Polyimides: A Structure-Property Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Dezern, James F.

    2002-01-01

    A simple rotational isomeric state model was used to detect the degree to which polyimide repeat units might align to give an extended crystal. It was found experimentally that the hallmarks of stretch-crystallization were more likely to occur in materials whose molecules could readily give extended, aligned conformations. A proposed screening criterion was 84% accurate in selecting crystallizing molecules.

  1. Perspective view of the Fifteenth Street facade; this facade stretches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Fifteenth Street facade; this facade stretches almost three city blocks but is partially masked by trees and relieved by four pedimented pavilions. At the time of its construction, this was the largest office building in the world. - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Cooperativity among Short Amyloid Stretches in Long Amyloidogenic Sequences

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhisong; Shi, Xiaohe; Feng, Kaiyan; Ma, Buyong; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid fibrillar aggregates of polypeptides are associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. Short peptide segments in protein sequences may trigger aggregation. Identifying these stretches and examining their behavior in longer protein segments is critical for understanding these diseases and obtaining potential therapies. In this study, we combined machine learning and structure-based energy evaluation to examine and predict amyloidogenic segments. Our feature selection method discovered that windows consisting of long amino acid segments of ∼30 residues, instead of the commonly used short hexapeptides, provided the highest accuracy. Weighted contributions of an amino acid at each position in a 27 residue window revealed three cooperative regions of short stretch, resemble the β-strand-turn-β-strand motif in A-βpeptide amyloid and β-solenoid structure of HET-s(218–289) prion (C). Using an in-house energy evaluation algorithm, the interaction energy between two short stretches in long segment is computed and incorporated as an additional feature. The algorithm successfully predicted and classified amyloid segments with an overall accuracy of 75%. Our study revealed that genome-wide amyloid segments are not only dependent on short high propensity stretches, but also on nearby residues. PMID:22761773

  3. Effects of stretching on maintaining the Kuroshio meander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurogi, Masao; Hasumi, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Yukio

    2013-03-01

    Using a two-way nested-grid ocean general circulation model driven by a repeat annual cycle forcing, the Kuroshio path variation is examined by varying the strength of wind forcing. For climatological or 10% weaker wind forcing, both large-meander (LM) and non-large-meander (NLM) paths alternately appear, with each type of path continuing for a few years to a decade. This timescale and path transition processes are generally consistent with observations. For the LM path, the main balance in the depth-integrated vorticity equation for the upper ocean is shown to be between the beta, advection, and stretching terms. The stretching term is comparable to and has the same sign as the beta term at the western side of the meandering part, indicating that the stretching term has the effects of shortening the wavelength and stabilizing the LM path. The stretching term is mainly determined by downwelling caused by crossing of the upper and deep flows. Contrary to the above two cases, only the NLM path appears for 10% stronger wind forcing. It is suggested that the strength of climatological wind forcing is near the upper limit that allows the LM path to occur. In this study, the control experiment is carried out by choosing parameterizations and parameter values to reproduce the Kuroshio path variation as realistic as possible. Therefore, the results from the two sensitivity experiments are expected to represent a realistic response of the Kuroshio path variation.

  4. Amplified stretch of bottlebrush-coated DNA in nanofluidic channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ce; Hernandez-Garcia, Armando; Jiang, Kai; Gong, Zongying; Guttula, Durgarao; Ng, Siow Yee; Malar, Piravi P.; van Kan, Jeroen A.; Dai, Liang; Doyle, Patrick S.; de Vries, Renko; van der Maarel, Johan R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a cationic-neutral diblock polypeptide on the conformation of single DNA molecules confined in rectangular nanochannels is investigated with fluorescence microscopy. An enhanced stretch along the channel is observed with increased binding of the cationic block of the polypeptide to DNA. A maximum stretch of 85% of the contour length can be achieved inside a channel with a cross-sectional diameter of 200 nm and at a 2-fold excess of polypeptide with respect to DNA charge. With site-specific fluorescence labelling, it is demonstrated that this maximum stretch is sufficient to map large-scale genomic organization. Monte Carlo computer simulation shows that the amplification of the stretch inside the nanochannels is owing to an increase in bending rigidity and thickness of bottlebrush-coated DNA. The persistence lengths and widths deduced from the nanochannel data agree with what has been estimated from the analysis of atomic force microscopy images of dried complexes on silica. PMID:24003032

  5. SOUTHERLY STRETCH OF MILLBURY PORTION; GENERAL VIEW OF TOWPATH BERM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERLY STRETCH OF MILLBURY PORTION; GENERAL VIEW OF TOWPATH BERM (LEFT) AND CANAL PRISM (CENTER) WITH LATER EMBANKMENT OF U.S. ROUTE 20 RAMP ENCROACHING RIGHT; VIEW TO NORTH - Blackstone Canal Worcester-Millbury Segment, Eastern bank of Blackstone River, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  6. SOUTHERLY STRETCH OF MILLBURY PORTION; CLOSER VIEW OF TRUNCATED NORTHERLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERLY STRETCH OF MILLBURY PORTION; CLOSER VIEW OF TRUNCATED NORTHERLY END OF TOWPATH BERM (RIGHT) AND CANAL PRISM (LEFT); VIEW TO SOUTH FROM LATER BORROW PIT - Blackstone Canal Worcester-Millbury Segment, Eastern bank of Blackstone River, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  7. NORTHERLY STRETCH OF MILLBURY PORTION, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING TOWPATH BERM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHERLY STRETCH OF MILLBURY PORTION, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING TOWPATH BERM (CENTER/RIGHT) AND CANAL PRISM (LEFT); VIEW TO SOUTH FROM FOOT OF THE "TOWN-LINE DUMP" - Blackstone Canal Worcester-Millbury Segment, Eastern bank of Blackstone River, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  8. Effects of Warm-Up Stretching Exercises on Sprint Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makaruk, Hubert; Makaruk, Beata; Kedra, Stanislaw

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess direct effects of warm-up consisting of static and dynamic stretching exercises on sprint results attained by students differing in sprint performance. Material and methods: A group of 24 male and 19 female physical education students, including 12 and 9 sprinters, respectively. They performed warm-ups consisting of dynamic…

  9. Laser-induced structure formation on stretched polymer foils

    SciTech Connect

    Bityurin, Nikita; Arnold, Nikita; Baeuerle, Dieter; Arenholz, Enno

    2007-04-15

    Noncoherent structures that develop during UV laser ablation of stretched semicrystalline polymer foils are a very general phenomenon. A thermodynamic model based on stress relaxation within the modified layer of the polymer surface describes the main features of the observed phenomena, and, in particular, the dependence of the period of structures on laser wavelength, fluence, and number of laser pulses.

  10. Role of stretch reflex in voluntary movements. [of human foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, G. L.; Agarwal, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The stretch reflex is often described as a spinal servomechanism, a device for assisting in the regulation of muscle length. Observation of the EMG response to mechanical interruption of voluntary movements fails to demonstrate a significant role for spinal reflexes at 40 msec latency. Two functional responses with latencies of 120 msec and 200 msec, implying supraspinal mediation, are observed.

  11. Mediators of yoga and stretching for chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Karen J; Wellman, Robert D; Cook, Andrea J; Cherkin, Daniel C; Ceballos, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week), cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy), affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep), and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA) mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ)). For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators). For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators). In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups), relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga), benefits of regular practice (stretching). Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms. PMID:23690832

  12. Method for separating isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-10-21

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether.

  13. Stable isotope studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs.

  14. The fractionation of nuclei from mammalian cells by zonal centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, I. R.; Mathias, A. P.; Pennington, F.; Ridge, D.

    1968-01-01

    1. Purified liver nuclei from adult rats separate into two main zones when centrifuged in the slow-speed zonal rotor. One zone contains diploid nuclei, the other tetraploid. 2. The effect of age on the pattern of rat liver ploidy was examined. Tetraploid nuclei are virtually absent from young animals. They increase in proportion steadily with age. Partial hepatectomy disturbs the pattern of ploidy. 3. The zonal centrifuge permits the separation of diploid, tetraploid, octaploid and hexadecaploid nuclei from mouse liver. 4. Rat liver nuclei are isopycnic with sucrose solutions of density 1·35 at 5°. ImagesFig. 1.PLATE 1Fig. 9. PMID:4876099

  15. Artificial gravity studies and design considerations for Space Station centrifuges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, T. W.; Brown, A. H.; Fuller, C. A.; Oyama, J.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements to and capabilities of a Space Station biological facility centrifuge are discussed on the basis of an assessment of the objectives and subjects of future microgravity biological experiments. It is argued that the facility should be capable of both acute and extended chronic exposure of test subjects and biological materials to altered-g loading. In addition, the experimental approaches and equipment for microgravity studies on a Space Station are outlined. Finally, the engineering requirements of such a centrifuge are examined, with consideration of radial gravity gradients, size, and physical access to animals.

  16. Sharp nonlinear stability for centrifugal filtration convection in magnetizable media.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Brindha, D

    2011-11-01

    A nonlinear stability theory is adopted to study centrifugal thermal convection in a magnetic-fluid-saturated and differentially heated porous layer placed in a zero-gravity environment. The axis of rotation of the layer is placed within its boundaries that leads to an alternating direction of the centrifugal body force. An analysis through the variational principles is made to find the unconditional and sharp nonlinear limits. The compound matrix method is employed to solve the eigenvalue problems of the nonlinear and corresponding linear theories. The importance of nonlinear theory is established by demonstrating the failure of the linear theory in capturing the physics of the onset of convection. PMID:22181509

  17. The use of centrifugation to study early Drosophila embryogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    By the end of 10th nuclear cycle, the somatic nuclei of the Drosophila embryo have migrated to the periphery of the egg. Centrifugation of embryos did not result in the displacement of these nuclei, since cytoskeletal elements anchor them to the cortex. But, mild centrifugal forces displace the centrally located, nascent yolk nuclei. If this increased sensitivity to hypergravity occurs before the beginning of nuclear differentiation during cycle 8, when the nascent yolk and somatic nuclei physically separate, then it would mark the earliest functional difference between these two lineages.

  18. 24. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Centrifugal inner basket, 1879. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Centrifugal inner basket, 1879. Manufacturer, unknown. Supplied by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1879. View: After sugar was granulated and cooled it was dried and drained, completely separating the sugar crystals from the molasses, in the centrifugal. Revolving at 1200 rpm the sugar charge was forced outward with the molasses flying through the holes in the brass lining. Dried sugar was left behind in the inner basket and was dug out by hand. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  19. Multiplexed single-molecule force spectroscopy using a centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Darren; Ward, Andrew; Halvorsen, Ken; Wong, Wesley P.

    2016-03-01

    We present a miniature centrifuge force microscope (CFM) that repurposes a benchtop centrifuge for high-throughput single-molecule experiments with high-resolution particle tracking, a large force range, temperature control and simple push-button operation. Incorporating DNA nanoswitches to enable repeated interrogation by force of single molecular pairs, we demonstrate increased throughput, reliability and the ability to characterize population heterogeneity. We perform spatiotemporally multiplexed experiments to collect 1,863 bond rupture statistics from 538 traceable molecular pairs in a single experiment, and show that 2 populations of DNA zippers can be distinguished using per-molecule statistics to reduce noise.

  20. Multiplexed single-molecule force spectroscopy using a centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Darren; Ward, Andrew; Halvorsen, Ken; Wong, Wesley P

    2016-01-01

    We present a miniature centrifuge force microscope (CFM) that repurposes a benchtop centrifuge for high-throughput single-molecule experiments with high-resolution particle tracking, a large force range, temperature control and simple push-button operation. Incorporating DNA nanoswitches to enable repeated interrogation by force of single molecular pairs, we demonstrate increased throughput, reliability and the ability to characterize population heterogeneity. We perform spatiotemporally multiplexed experiments to collect 1,863 bond rupture statistics from 538 traceable molecular pairs in a single experiment, and show that 2 populations of DNA zippers can be distinguished using per-molecule statistics to reduce noise. PMID:26984516

  1. Centrifugation applied to drilling fluids and sludge pit cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Grichar, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Solid bowl decanting centrifuges are an indispensible part of a well-designed, modern oilfield solids control system. They have application throughout the entire drilling process and during the post-drilling sludge pit cleanup operation. As drilling costs rise further, and as environmental regulations become stricter, the decanting centrifuge will become even more important and contribute more heavily to the overall cost effectiveness of the drilling process. The significance of this technology as applied to drilling fluids and sludge pit cleanup is emphasized in this paper.

  2. Centrifugal inertia effects in two-phase face seal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, P.; Hughes, W. F.; Beeler, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified, semianalytical model has been developed to analyze the effect of centrifugal inertia in two-phase face seals. The model is based on the assumption of isothermal flow through the seal, but at an elevated temperature, and takes into account heat transfer and boiling. Using this model, seal performance curves are obtained with water as the working fluid. It is shown that the centrifugal inertia of the fluid reduces the load-carrying capacity dramatically at high speeds and that operational instability exists under certain conditions. While an all-liquid seal may be starved at speeds higher than a 'critical' value, leakage always occurs under boiling conditions.

  3. Isolation of Early and Late Endosomes by Density Gradient Centrifugation.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Mariana E G; Lamberti, Giorgia; Huber, Lukas A

    2015-11-01

    Density gradient centrifugation is a common method for separating intracellular organelles. During centrifugation, organelles float or sediment until they reach their isopycnic position within the gradient. The density of an organelle depends on its content, size, shape, and the lipid:protein ratio. The degree of separation between different organelles will therefore be highly dependent on how different their isopycnic points are in a given buffer. Separation will also depend on the medium used to prepare the gradient, whether it is sucrose (the most common) or an alternative. Here we describe the use of both continuous and discontinuous (step) gradients to isolate endocytic organelles. PMID:26527762

  4. Multiplexed single-molecule force spectroscopy using a centrifuge

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Darren; Ward, Andrew; Halvorsen, Ken; Wong, Wesley P.

    2016-01-01

    We present a miniature centrifuge force microscope (CFM) that repurposes a benchtop centrifuge for high-throughput single-molecule experiments with high-resolution particle tracking, a large force range, temperature control and simple push-button operation. Incorporating DNA nanoswitches to enable repeated interrogation by force of single molecular pairs, we demonstrate increased throughput, reliability and the ability to characterize population heterogeneity. We perform spatiotemporally multiplexed experiments to collect 1,863 bond rupture statistics from 538 traceable molecular pairs in a single experiment, and show that 2 populations of DNA zippers can be distinguished using per-molecule statistics to reduce noise. PMID:26984516

  5. On the characteristics of centrifugal-reciprocating machines. [cryogenic coolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higa, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    A method of compressing helium gas for cryogenic coolers is presented which uses centrifugal force to reduce the forces on the connecting rod and crankshaft in the usual reciprocating compressor. This is achieved by rotating the piston-cylinder assembly at a speed sufficient for the centrifugal force on the piston to overcome the compressional force due to the working fluid. The rotating assembly is dynamically braked in order to recharge the working space with fluid. The intake stroke consists of decelerating the rotating piston-cylinder assembly and the exhaust stroke consists of accelerating the assembly.

  6. Deep eutectic solvents in countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Roehrer, Simon; Bezold, Franziska; García, Eva Marra; Minceva, Mirjana

    2016-02-19

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were evaluated as solvents in centrifugal partition chromatography, a liquid-liquid chromatography separation technology. To this end, the partition coefficients of ten natural compounds of different hydrophobicity were determined in non-aqueous biphasic systems containing DES. The influence of the composition of DESs and the presence of water in the biphasic system on the partition coefficient were also examined. In addition, several process relevant physical properties of the biphasic system, such as the density and viscosity of the phases, were measured. A mixture of three to four hydrophobic compounds was successfully separated in a centrifugal partition extractor using a heptane/ethanol/DES biphasic system.

  7. Apparatus and method for centrifugation and robotic manipulation of samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vellinger, John C. (Inventor); Ormsby, Rachel A. (Inventor); Kennedy, David J. (Inventor); Thomas, Nathan A. (Inventor); Shulthise, Leo A. (Inventor); Kurk, Michael A. (Inventor); Metz, George W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A device for centrifugation and robotic manipulation of specimen samples, including incubating eggs, and uses thereof are provided. The device may advantageously be used for the incubation of avian, reptilian or any type of vertebrate eggs. The apparatus comprises a mechanism for holding samples individually, rotating them individually, rotating them on a centrifuge collectively, injecting them individually with a fixative or other chemical reagent, and maintaining them at controlled temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric composition. The device is applicable to experiments involving entities other than eggs, such as invertebrate specimens, plants, microorganisms and molecular systems.

  8. Secondary Containment Design for a High Speed Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, K.W.

    1999-03-01

    Secondary containment for high speed rotating machinery, such as a centrifuge, is extremely important for operating personnel safety. Containment techniques can be very costly, ungainly and time consuming to construct. A novel containment concept is introduced which is fabricated out of modular sections of polycarbonate glazed into a Unistrut metal frame. A containment study for a high speed centrifuge is performed which includes the development of parameters for secondary containment design. The Unistrut/polycarbonate shield framing concept is presented including design details and proof testing procedures. The economical fabrication and modularity of the design indicates a usefulness for this shielding system in a wide variety of containment scenarios.

  9. Stretched versus compressed exponential kinetics in α-helix folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Peter; Helbing, Jan; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2006-03-01

    In a recent paper (J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, J.R. Kumita, G.A. Woolley, P. Hamm, α-helix formation in a photoswitchable peptide tracked from picoseconds to microseconds by time resolved IR spectroscopy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 102 (2005) 2379), we have investigated the folding of a photo-switchable α-helix with a kinetics that could be fit by a stretched exponential function exp(-( t/ τ) β). The stretching factor β became smaller as the temperature was lowered, a result which has been interpreted in terms of activated diffusion on a rugged energy surface. In the present paper, we discuss under which conditions diffusion problems occur with stretched exponential kinetics ( β < 1) and under which compressed exponential kinetics is obtained ( β > 1). We show that diffusion problems do have a strong tendency to yield stretched exponential kinetics, yet, that there are conditions (strong perturbation from equilibrium, performing the experiment in the folding direction) under which compressed exponential kinetics would be expected instead. We discuss the kinetics on free energy surfaces predicted by simple initiation-propagation models (zipper models) of α-helix folding, as well as by folding funnel models. We show that our recent experiment has been performed under condition for which models with strong downhill driving force, such as the zipper model, would predict compressed, rather than stretched exponential kinetics, in disagreement with the experimental observation. We therefore propose that the free energy surface along a reaction coordinate that governs the folding kinetics must be relatively flat and has a shape similar to a 1D golf course. We discuss how this conclusion can be unified with the thermodynamically well established zipper model by introducing an additional kinetic reaction coordinate.

  10. Stretch-sensitive paresis and effort perception in hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Vinti, Maria; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Emilie; Burke, David; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2015-08-01

    In spastic paresis, stretch applied to the antagonist increases its inappropriate recruitment during agonist command (spastic co-contraction). It is unknown whether antagonist stretch: (1) also affects agonist recruitment; (2) alters effort perception. We quantified voluntary activation of ankle dorsiflexors, effort perception, and plantar flexor co-contraction during graded dorsiflexion efforts at two gastrocnemius lengths. Eighteen healthy (age 41 ± 13) and 18 hemiparetic (age 54 ± 12) subjects performed light, medium and maximal isometric dorsiflexion efforts with the knee flexed or extended. We determined dorsiflexor torque, Root Mean Square EMG and Agonist Recruitment/Co-contraction Indices (ARI/CCI) from the 500 ms peak voluntary agonist recruitment in a 5-s maximal isometric effort in tibialis anterior, soleus and medial gastrocnemius. Subjects retrospectively reported effort perception on a 10-point visual analog scale. During gastrocnemius stretch in hemiparetic subjects, we observed: (1) a 25 ± 7 % reduction of tibialis anterior voluntary activation (maximum reduction 98 %; knee extended vs knee flexed; p = 0.007, ANOVA); (2) an increase in dorsiflexion effort perception (p = 0.03, ANCOVA). Such changes did not occur in healthy subjects. Effort perception depended on tibialis anterior recruitment only (βARI(TA) = 0.61, p < 0.01) in healthy subjects (not on gastrocnemius medialis co-contraction) while it depended on both tibialis anterior agonist recruitment (βARI(TA) = 0.41, p < 0.001) and gastrocnemius medialis co-contraction (βCCI(MG) = 0.43, p < 0.001) in hemiparetic subjects. In hemiparesis, voluntary ability to recruit agonist motoneurones is impaired--sometimes abolished--by antagonist stretch, a phenomenon defined here as stretch-sensitive paresis. In addition, spastic co-contraction increases effort perception, an additional incentive to evaluate and treat this phenomenon.

  11. Experimental and Theoretical Study on Circular Disk Particles Suspended in Centrifugal and Non-Centrifugal Force Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Shuichi; Watanabe, Yoshimi; Tanaka, Satoyuki; Yano, Toshiaki; Iino, Naoko

    2008-02-15

    Theoretical and experimental studies are performed on suspension particle motion in Centrifugal and Non-Centrifugal Force Environment, i.e., in both an axially rotating drum and a stable liquid tank. The particle velocity of circular disks is measured by PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry) method and is predicted by BBO (Basset-Boussinesq-Ossen) equation. It is found that (1) as time progresses, one side of the disk in the axially rotating drum is attracted toward the drum wall and its velocity is affected by the rotating speed, (2) when the particle moves in the Stokes' regime, its velocity is linearly increased with the distance from the center of the drum, (3) in contrast, the autorotation of the disk occurs in the non-centrifugal force field, and (4) the corresponding drag coefficient in the low Reynolds number region is in good agreement with the theoretical value of the sphere.

  12. Isotope separation by photochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Suslick, K.S.

    1975-10-03

    A photochromatographic method for isotope separation is described. An isotopically mixed molecular species is adsorbed on an adsorptive surface, and the adsorbed molecules are irradiated with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thus separate them from the undesired isotopic species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes. (BLM)

  13. Isotope separation by photochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    1977-01-01

    An isotope separation method which comprises physically adsorbing an isotopically mixed molecular species on an adsorptive surface and irradiating the adsorbed molecules with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite a desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thereby separate them from the unexcited undesired isotopic species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes.

  14. Stretch calculated from grip distance accurately approximates mid-specimen stretch in large elastic arteries in uniaxial tensile tests.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lian; Henningsen, Joseph; Salick, Max R; Crone, Wendy C; Gunderson, McLean; Dailey, Seth H; Chesler, Naomi C

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical properties of vascular tissues affect hemodynamics and can alter disease progression. The uniaxial tensile test is a simple and effective method for determining the stress-strain relationship in arterial tissue ex vivo. To enable calculation of strain, stretch can be measured directly with image tracking of markers on the tissue or indirectly from the distance between the grips used to hold the specimen. While the imaging technique is generally considered more accurate, it also requires more analysis, and the grip distance method is more widely used. The purpose of this study is to compare the stretch of the testing specimen calculated from the grip distance method to that obtained from the imaging method for canine descending aortas and large proximal pulmonary arteries. Our results showed a significant difference in stretch between the two methods; however, this difference was consistently less than 2%. Therefore, the grip distance method is an accurate approximation of the stretch in large elastic arteries in the uniaxial tensile test. PMID:25881308

  15. Effects of centrifugation stress on pituitary-gonadal function in male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, G. D.; Smith, E. R.; Damassa, D. A.; Davidson, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of centrifugation for various lengths of time on circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone in male rats were investigated. In a chronic 52-day experiment, centrifugation at 4.1 G significantly reduced LH and testosterone levels for the entire period. Centrifugation at 2.3 G had less effect inasmuch as LH levels were not significantly decreased and testosterone levels were significantly reduced only during the first few days of centrifugation. In more acute experiments, centrifugation at 4.1 G for 4 h resulted in reduced testosterone levels, whereas centrifugation for 15 min did not significantly alter the hormone levels. These results indicate that centrifugation can decrease circulating LH and testosterone levels if the gravitational force is of sufficient magnitude and is maintained for a period of hours. Chronic centrifugation may also inhibit the acute excitatory response of LH to handling and ether stress.

  16. The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plantar heel pain is a commonly occurring foot complaint. Stretching is frequently utilised as a treatment, yet a systematic review focusing only on its effectiveness has not been published. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of stretching on pain and function in people with plantar heel pain. Methods Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and The Cochrane Library were searched from inception to July 2010. Studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were independently assessed, and their quality evaluated using the modified PEDro scale. Results Six studies including 365 symptomatic participants were included. Two compared stretching with a control, one study compared stretching to an alternative intervention, one study compared stretching to both alternative and control interventions, and two compared different stretching techniques and durations. Quality rating on the modified Pedro scale varied from two to eight out of a maximum of ten points. The methodologies and interventions varied significantly between studies, making meta-analysis inappropriate. Most participants improved over the course of the studies, but when stretching was compared to alternative or control interventions, the changes only reached statistical significance in one study that used a combination of calf muscle stretches and plantar fascia stretches in their stretching programme. Another study comparing different stretching techniques, showed a statistically significant reduction in some aspects of pain in favour of plantar fascia stretching over calf stretches in the short term. Conclusions There were too few studies to assess whether stretching is effective compared to control or other interventions, for either pain or function. However, there is some evidence that plantar fascia stretching may be more effective than Achilles tendon stretching alone in the short-term. Appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, utilizing validated outcome measures, blinded assessors and

  17. Acute effect of different stretching methods on Illinois agility test in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Sahebozamani, Mansour; Tabrizi, Kourosh G; Yusof, Ashril B

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static, dynamic, and the combination of static and dynamic stretching within a pre-exercise warm-up on the Illinois agility test (IAT) in soccer players. Nineteen professional soccer players (age = 22.5 ± 2.5 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.003 m, body mass = 74.8 ± 10.9 kg) were tested for agility performance using the IAT after different warm-up protocols consisting of static, dynamic, combined stretching, and no stretching. The players were subgrouped into less and more experienced players (5.12 ± 0.83 and 8.18 ± 1.16 years, respectively). There were significant decreases in agility time after no stretching, among no stretching vs. static stretching; after dynamic stretching, among static vs. dynamic stretching; and after dynamic stretching, among dynamic vs. combined stretching during warm-ups for the agility: mean ± SD data were 14.18 ± 0.66 seconds (no stretch), 14.90 ± 0.38 seconds (static), 13.95 ± 0.32 seconds (dynamic), and 14.50 ± 0.35 seconds (combined). There was significant difference between less and more experienced players after no stretching and dynamic stretching. There was significant decrease in agility time following dynamic stretching vs. static stretching in both less and more experienced players. Static stretching does not appear to be detrimental to agility performance when combined with dynamic warm-up for professional soccer players. However, dynamic stretching during the warm-up was most effective as preparation for agility performance. The data from this study suggest that more experienced players demonstrate better agility skills due to years of training and playing soccer.

  18. A vorticity stretching diagnostic for turbulent and transitional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Johan; Schlatter, Philipp; Sandham, Neil D.

    2012-12-01

    Vorticity stretching in wall-bounded turbulent and transitional flows has been investigated by means of a new diagnostic measure, denoted by Γ, designed to pick up regions with large amounts of vorticity stretching. It is based on the maximum vorticity stretching component in every spatial point, thus yielding a three-dimensional scalar field. The measure was applied in four different flows with increasing complexity: (a) the near-wall cycle in an asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL), (b) K-type transition in a plane channel flow, (c) fully turbulent channel flow at Re τ = 180 and (d) a complex turbulent three-dimensional separated flow. Instantaneous data show that the coherent structures associated with intense vorticity stretching in all four cases have the shape of flat `pancake' structures in the vicinity of high-speed streaks, here denoted `h-type' events. The other event found is of `l-type', present on top of an unstable low-speed streak. These events (l-type) are further thought to be associated with the exponential growth of streamwise vorticity in the turbulent near-wall cycle. It was found that the largest occurrence of vorticity stretching in the fully turbulent wall-bounded flows is present at a wall-normal distance of y + = 6.5, i.e. in the transition between the viscous sublayer and buffer layer. The associated structures have a streamwise length of ~200-300 wall units. In K-type transition, the Γ-measure accurately locates the regions of interest, in particular the formation of high-speed streaks near the wall (h-type) and the appearance of the hairpin vortex (l-type). In the turbulent separated flow, the structures containing large amounts of vorticity stretching increase in size and magnitude in the shear layer upstream of the separation bubble but vanish in the backflow region itself. Overall, the measure proved to be useful in showing growing instabilities before they develop into structures, highlighting the mechanisms creating high

  19. Apollo 8 prime crew stand beside gondola for centrifuge training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The Apollo 8 prime crew stands beside the gondola in bldg 29 after suiting up for centrifuge training in the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Flight Acceleration Facility. Left to right, are Astronauts William A. Anders, lunar module pilot; James A. Lovell Jr.,command module pilot; and Frank Borman, commander.

  20. Design of a piezoelectric shaker for centrifuge testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canclini, J. G.; Henderson, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The design of a prototype piezoelectric shaker and its development to date is described. Although certain design problems remain to be solved, the piezoelectric system shows promise for adaptation to a larger payload system, such as the proposed geotechnical centrifuge at the Ames Research Center.

  1. Latex micro-balloon pumping in centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Aeinehvand, Mohammad Mahdi; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Kazemzadeh, Amin; Madou, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Centrifugal microfluidic platforms have emerged as point-of-care diagnostic tools. However, the unidirectional nature of the centrifugal force limits the available space for multi-step processes on a single microfluidic disc. To overcome this limitation, a passive pneumatic pumping method actuated at high rotational speeds has been previously proposed to pump liquid against the centrifugal force. In this paper, a novel micro-balloon pumping method that relies on elastic energy stored in a latex membrane is introduced. It operates at low rotational speeds and pumps a larger volume of liquid towards the centre of the disc. Two different micro-balloon pumping mechanisms have been designed to study the pump performance at a range of rotational frequencies from 0 to 1500 rpm. The behaviour of the micro-balloon pump on the centrifugal microfluidic platforms has been theoretically analysed and compared with the experimental data. The experimental data show that the developed pumping method dramatically decreases the required rotational speed to pump liquid compared to the previously developed pneumatic pumping methods. It also shows that within a range of rotational speed, a desirable volume of liquid can be stored and pumped by adjusting the size of the micro-balloon.

  2. 8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE; ALSO SEEN IS THE CHUTE FROM THE TUN OF THE BURR STONES; HANGING IN THE BACKGROUND ARE THE MILL SAILS. - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  3. Convection and segregation during vertical Bridgman growth with centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, W. R.; Regel, L. L.; Arnold, W. A.

    1998-05-01

    Both experiments and numerical simulations have shown that centrifugation can have a large influence on convection and segregation during vertical Bridgman growth. The buoyancy-driven flow pattern differs dramatically from that observed without centrifugation. The Coriolis force introduces an azimuthal circulation that cannot be seen via the usual side view of the ampoule. The flow pattern and intensity depend on the rotation rate, centrifuge arm length, and interface shape. Several experiments and numerical simulations exhibited a minimum in axial convection or segregation at a particular rotation rate. A correlation for these results indicate that the minimum in convection occurs at a rotation rate that is independent of the centrifuge arm length, proportional to the square root of the depth of the concave interface, and inversely proportional to the ampoule radius. In attempts to better understand this minimum, three simple models have been proposed, here called "buoyancy-Coriolis balance", "flow transition", and "thermal stability". The thermal stability model is developed here. Unfortunately, none of these models agree with the correlation to the published experimental and numerical results. Numerical simulations show that rotation of a vertical ampoule about its own axis at a constant rate may be a better method to control convection.

  4. Advanced Remote Maintenance Design for Pilot-Scale Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Lawrence Macaluso

    2011-02-01

    Advanced designs of used nuclear fuel recycling processes and radioactive waste treatment processes are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, annular centrifugal contactors are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Pilot-scale testing will be an integral part of development of many of these processes. An advanced design for remote maintenance of pilot-scale centrifugal contactors has been developed and a prototype module fabricated and tested for a commercially available pilot-scale centrifugal contactor (CINC V-02, 5-cm rotor diameter). Advanced design features include air actuated clamps for holding the motor-rotor assembly in place, an integral electrical connection, upper flange o-rings, a welded bottom plate, a lifting bale, and guide pins. These design features will allow for rapid replacement of the motor rotor assembly, which can be accomplished while maintaining process equilibrium. Hydraulic testing of a three-stage prototype unit was also performed to verify that design changes did not impact performance of the centrifugal contactors. Details of the pilot-scale remote maintenance design, results of testing in a remote mockup test facility, and results of hydraulic testing of the advanced design are provided.

  5. Materials processing in a centrifuge - Numerical modeling of macrogravity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Downey, J. P.; Jones, J. C.; Curreri, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    The fluid mechanics associated with crystal growth processes on a centrifuge is investigated. A simple scaling analysis is used to examine the relative magnitudes of the forces acting on the system and good agreement is obtained with previous studies. A two-dimensional model of crystal growth on a centrifuge is proposed and calculations are undertaken to help in understanding the fundamental transport processes within the crystal growth cell. Results from three-dimensional calculations of actual centrifuge-based crystal growth systems are presented both for the thermodynamically stable and unstable configurations. The calculations show the existence of flow bifurcations in certain configurations but not in all instances. The numerical simulations also show that the centrifugal force is the dominant stabilizing force on fluid convection in the stable configuration. The stabilizing influence of the Coriolis force is found to be only secondary in nature. No significant impact of gravity gradient is found in the calculations. Simulations of unstable configurations show that the Coriolis force has a stabilizing influence on fluid motion by delaying the onset of unsteady convection. Detailed flow and thermal field characteristics are presented for all the different cases that are simulated.

  6. Effect of chronic centrifugation on body composition in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Bull, L. S.; Oyama, J.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of adult female rats were chronically centrifuged for 60 days (2.76 G, 4.15 G, controls at 1.00 G). Live weights of centrifugal rats decreased about 20 g (6%) per Delta 1 G above control. This weight loss comprised reductions in both body fat and fat-free body weight (FFBW) as determined by body-composition studies on eight rats per group killed at the end of centrifugation. Of nine components constituting the FFBW, only skeletal muscle, liver, and heart changed significantly in weight. Chemical composition showed reductions (compared with controls) in the fat fraction of most components and increases in the water fraction of liver and gut. Identical measurements were made on the remaining eight rats per group killed 43 days after return to 1 G. Neither centrifuged group had reached the control body-weight level at this time. No statistically significant effect of previous G level was found in any of the body-composition parameters. The possible involvment of physiological regulation was considered.

  7. Prediction of performance of centrifugal pumps during starts under pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1969-01-01

    Method which calculates start-up characteristics of centrifugal pumps reveals a capacity to predict pressure drop characteristics of pumps with vaned diffusers. Calculations are based on pump geometry, design-point flow, speed, and pressure rise, and the pump characteristic within range of approximately ten percent of the design-point flow.

  8. Why have we stopped research on liquid centrifugal separation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.

    1996-05-28

    Using high-temperature high-speed liquid centrifuges for lanthanides and actinides separation was originally proposed as a physical separation method in the Los Alamos ADTT/ATW concept [C. Bowman, LA-UR-92-1065 (1992)]. The authors investigated centrifugal separation in a concerted effort of experiments, theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. They discovered that owing to the ionic-composition-dependence of the sedimentation coefficients for the fission products and actinides, separation by grouping of molecular densities would not work in general in the molten salt environment. Alternatively the lanthanides and actinides could be transferred to a liquid metal carrier (e.g. bismuth) via reductive extraction and then separated by liquid centrifuges, but the material and technical challenges are severe. Meanwhile the authors have established that the reductive extraction procedure itself can be used for desired separations. Unlike conventional aqueous-based reprocessing technologies, reductive extraction separation uses only reagent (Li) that reconstitutes carrier salts (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) and a processing medium (Bi) that can be continuously recycled and reused, with a nearly-pure fission products waste stream. The processing units are compact and reliable, and can be built at relatively low cost while maintaining high throughput. Therefore the research effort on developing liquid centrifuges for separations in ADTT/ATW was terminated in late 1995. This paper will discuss the various aspects involved in reaching this decision.

  9. Theoretical analysis on spray performance of centrifugal spray nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Zhuang, Fengchen

    1991-08-01

    The relationships between spray characteristics and the configurational parameters of a centrifugal spray nozzle are presently explored via the theory of momentum conservation. Predicted mean spray angles are substantially in accord with the experimental data obtained; the predicted nozzle discharge coefficients are slightly lower than experimental data, due to the ignoring of fluid viscosity effects.

  10. Hydraulic Performance of a Multistage Array of Advanced Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, M.E.

    2001-05-29

    The hydraulic characteristics of an advanced design centrifugal contactor array have been determined at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The advanced design utilizes couette mixing (Taylor vortices) in the annulus between the rotating and stationary bowls. Excellent phase separation over a wide range of flow conditions was obtained. Interfaces within an entire eight-stage array were controlled with a single weir air pressure.

  11. Quasi-steady centrifuge method for unsaturated hydraulic properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caputo, M.C.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    [1] We have developed the quasi-steady centrifuge (QSC) method as a variation of the steady state centrifuge method that can be implemented simply and inexpensively with greater versatility in terms of sample size and other features. It achieves these advantages by somewhat relaxing the criterion for steadiness of flow through the sample. This compromise entails an increase in measurement uncertainty but to a degree that is tolerable in most applications. We have tested this new approach with an easily constructed apparatus to establish a quasi-steady flow of water in unsaturated porous rock samples spinning in a centrifuge, obtaining measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention that agree with results of other methods. The QSC method is adaptable to essentially any centrifuge suitable for hydrogeologic applications, over a wide range of sizes and operating speeds. The simplified apparatus and greater adaptability of this method expands the potential for exploring situations that are common in nature but have been the subject of few laboratory investigations. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Measurements of the rotordynamic shroud forces for centrifugal pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinzburg, A.; Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.; Caughey, T. K.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was designed to measure the rotordynamic shroud forces on a centrifugal pump impeller. The measurements were done for various whirl/impeller speed ratios and for different flow rates. A destabilizing tangential force was measured for small positive whirl ratios and this force decreased with increasing flow rate.

  13. Propeller Vibrations and the Effect of the Centrifugal Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, T

    1935-01-01

    A method has been devised for determining the frequencies of the various modes of a stationary propeller and the associated crankshaft. A method has also been devised to obtain the effect of the centrifugal force on a revolving propeller by use of a flexible model.

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE RETECH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The plasma centrifugal furnace is a thermal technology which uses the heat generated from a plasma torch to decontaminate metal and organic contaminated waste. This is accomplished by melting metal-bearing solids and, in the process, thermally destroying organic contaminants. The...

  15. Demonstration of Reduced Gas Pressure in a Centrifugal Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Fred; Wild, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple demonstration that shows the change in molecular density and the reduction in pressure of air in a centrifugal field. Uses two circular disks with the same radius and rotating with the same angular velocity, in loose mutual contact, around their symmetry axis. (GA)

  16. Liquid egg white pasteurization using a centrifugal UV irradiator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies are lacking on UV nonthermal pasteurization of liquid egg white (LEW). The objective of this study was to inactivate Escherichia coli using a UV irradiator that centrifugally formed a thin film of LEW on the inside of a rotating cylinder. The LEW was inoculated with E. coli K12 to approximat...

  17. Pasteurization of grapefruit juice using a centrifugal ultraviolet light irradiator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pharmaceutical industry uses UV irradiators to inactivate viruses in liquids without heat. The penetration depth of UV in some liquids, such as serum plasma, can be short. To overcome this, very thin films may be produced by centrifugal force, small diameter tubing, or other means. Many liquid f...

  18. Pasteurization of Grapefruit Juice using a Centrifugal Ultraviolet Light Device

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pharmaceutical industry uses UV devices to nonthermally inactivate viruses in liquids. To overcome the low penetration depth of UV in some liquids, such as serum plasma, thin films are formed by centrifugal force. Liquid foods also have low UV penetration depths. Studies are lacking on nontherma...

  19. Simulation of Centrifugal Forces on an Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buvari, A.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of images on an overhead projector to explain concepts like centrifugal force and Cariolis force in such a way that students can realize that they are pseudo-forces, i.e., observations arising only from referring phenomena to an accelerating reference system. (MLH)

  20. 14 CFR 35.35 - Centrifugal load tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.35 Centrifugal load tests. The applicant must demonstrate that a propeller complies with paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this section without evidence of failure, malfunction, or permanent deformation that would result in a major or hazardous propeller effect. When...

  1. 14 CFR 35.35 - Centrifugal load tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.35 Centrifugal load tests. The applicant must demonstrate that a propeller complies with paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this section without evidence of failure, malfunction, or permanent deformation that would result in a major or hazardous propeller effect. When...

  2. 14 CFR 35.35 - Centrifugal load tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.35 Centrifugal load tests. The applicant must demonstrate that a propeller complies with paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this section without evidence of failure, malfunction, or permanent deformation that would result in a major or hazardous propeller effect. When...

  3. 14 CFR 35.35 - Centrifugal load tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.35 Centrifugal load tests. The applicant must demonstrate that a propeller complies with paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this section without evidence of failure, malfunction, or permanent deformation that would result in a major or hazardous propeller effect. When...

  4. 14 CFR 35.35 - Centrifugal load tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.35 Centrifugal load tests. The applicant must demonstrate that a propeller complies with paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this section without evidence of failure, malfunction, or permanent deformation that would result in a major or hazardous propeller effect. When...

  5. Fluid forces on rotating centrifugal impeller with whirling motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, H.; Ohashi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Fluid forces on a centrifugal impeller, whose rotating axis whirls with a constant speed, were calculated by using unsteady potential theory. Calculations were performed for various values of whirl speed, number of impeller blades and angle of blades. Specific examples as well as significant results are given.

  6. Return to Flying Duties Following Centrifuge or Vibration Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Clarke, Jonathan; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In an effort to determine the human performance limits for vibration in spacecraft being developed by NASA, astronauts were evaluated during a simulated launch profile in a centrifuge/vibration environment and separate vibration-only simulation. Current USAF and Army standards for return to flight following centrifuge exposures require 12-24 hours to pass before a crewmember may return to flying duties. There are no standards on vibration exposures and return to flying duties. Based on direct observation and provocative neurological testing of the astronauts, a new standard for return to flying duties following centrifuge and/or vibration exposures was established. Methods: 13 astronaut participants were exposed to simulated launch profiles in a + 3.5 Gx bias centrifuge/vibration environment and separately on a vibration table at the NASA-Ames Research Center. Each subject had complete neurological evaluations pre- and post-exposure for the centrifuge/vibration runs with the NASA neurological function rating scale (NFRS). Subjects who participated in the vibration-only exposures had video oculography performed with provocative maneuvers in addition to the NFRS. NFRS evaluations occurred immediately following each exposure and at 1 hour post-run. Astronauts who remained symptomatic at 1 hour had repeat NFRS performed at 1 hour intervals until the crewmember was asymptomatic. Results: Astronauts in the centrifuge/vibration study averaged a 3-5 point increase in NFRS scores immediately following exposure but returned to baseline 3 hours post-run. Subjects exposed to the vibration-only simulation had a 1-3 point increase following exposure and returned to baseline within 1-2 hours. Pre- and post- vibration exposure video oculography did not reveal any persistent ocular findings with provocative testing 1 hour post-exposure. Discussion: Based on direct observations and objective measurement of neurological function in astronauts following simulated launch

  7. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9285 Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology is a device...

  16. Cycle-powered short radius (1.9M) centrifuge: exercise vs. passive acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Gundo, D. P.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Mulenburg, G. M.; Marchman, N.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    A human-powered short-arm centrifuge is described. This centrifuge could be used during spaceflight to provide +Gz acceleration while subjects performed exercise, thus supplying two forms of weightlessness countermeasures. Results from a study of cardiovascular responses while using the centrifuge are presented.

  17. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  18. Force responses to controlled stretches of electrically stimulated human muscle-tendon complex.

    PubMed

    Cook, C S; McDonagh, M J

    1995-05-01

    Human first dorsal interosseus muscle was tetanized using percutaneous electrical stimulation. During the tetanus the muscle was subjected to constant velocity stretches. The stretch produced an enhancement of muscular force of up to 80% during the stretch. The size of the enhancement was dependent on both the amplitude and the velocity of the stretch. During an isometric hold phase after the stretch, the force decayed quickly for the first 100 ms and thereafter much more slowly, reaching a level 30% higher than the isometric force without pre-stretch. The force during this hold phase was dependent on amplitude of stretch but was independent of stretch velocity. The interaction of tendon elasticity and muscle fibre mechanics in producing these responses is discussed. Implications for normal human movements are also explored. PMID:7640012

  19. Color enhancement of highly correlated images. I - Decorrelation and HSI contrast stretches. [hue saturation intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.; Kahle, Anne B.; Walker, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional enhancements for the color display of multispectral images are based on independent contrast modifications or 'stretches' of three input images. This approach is not effective if the image channels are highly correlated or if the image histograms are strongly bimodal or more complex. Any of several procedures that tend to 'stretch' color saturation while leaving hue unchanged may better utilize the full range of colors for the display of image information. Two conceptually different enhancements are discussed: the 'decorrelation stretch', based on principal-component (PC) analysis, and the 'stretch' of 'hue' - 'saturation' - intensity (HSI) transformed data. The PC transformation in scene-dependent, but the HSI transformation is invariant. Examples of images enhanced by conventional linear stretches, decorrelation stretch, and by stretches of HSI transformed data are compared. Schematic variation diagrams or two- and three-dimensional histograms are used to illustrate the 'decorrelation stretch' method and the effect of the different enhancements.

  20. Screen bowl centrifuge: a high-efficiency particle size separator

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, M.K.; Zhang, B.; Khanna, N.; Palit, A.; Dube, B.

    2008-05-15

    Over the years, screen bowl centrifuges have been widely used for dewatering fine coal in coal preparation plants in the United States and elsewhere. It is generally recognized in the engineering and scientific communities that screen bowl centrifuges provide some degree of particle size separation while dewatering fine coal in a common application. However, the extent of differential partitioning of coarse and fine particles achievable by a screen bowl centrifuge has not been systematically studied in the past. The present investigation was aimed at conducting a parametric study using a statistically designed experimental program to better understand and optimize the size classification performance of a screen bowl centrifuge. A continuously operating screen bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 0.5 m was used for this study at the Illinois Coal Development Park. Three key operating parameters, i.e., feed flow rate, feed solid content and pool depth, were varied to conduct a total of 17 experiments using a three-level factorial test matrix. Some of the best size separation performances achieved in this study may be described as having an imperfection value of 0.13 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 38 mu m and an imperfection value of 0.27 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 2.8 mu m. Due to an effective separation of ultrafine high ash materials, the ash content of the screen bowl feed was reduced from 22.3% to a minimum of 8.84% with a combustible recovery of 84.1% and an ash rejection of 71.6%. A higher combustible recovery of 92.1% was achieved at a product ash content of 12.5% with a d(50c) of 2.8 mu m and imperfection of 0.27.

  1. Diverse Representations of Olfactory Information in Centrifugal Feedback Projections

    PubMed Central

    Osakada, Fumitaka; Tarabrina, Anna; Kizer, Erin; Callaway, Edward M.; Gage, Fred H.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2016-01-01

    Although feedback or centrifugal projections from higher processing centers of the brain to peripheral regions have long been known to play essential functional roles, the anatomical organization of these connections remains largely unknown. Using a virus-based retrograde labeling strategy and 3D whole-brain reconstruction methods, we mapped the spatial organization of centrifugal projections from two olfactory cortical areas, the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) and the piriform cortex, to the granule cell layer of the main olfactory bulb in the mouse. Both regions are major recipients of information from the bulb and are the largest sources of feedback to the bulb, collectively constituting circuits essential for olfactory coding and olfactory behavior. We found that, although ipsilateral inputs from the AON were uniformly distributed, feedback from the contralateral AON had a strong ventral bias. In addition, we observed that centrifugally projecting neurons were spatially clustered in the piriform cortex, in contrast to the distributed feedforward axonal inputs that these cells receive from the principal neurons of the bulb. Therefore, information carried from the bulb to higher processing structures by anatomically stereotypic projections is likely relayed back to the bulb by organizationally distinct feedback projections that may reflect different coding strategies and therefore different functional roles. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Principles of anatomical organization, sometimes instantiated as “maps” in the mammalian brain, have provided key insights into the structure and function of circuits in sensory systems. Generally, these characterizations focus on projections from early sensory processing areas to higher processing structures despite considerable evidence that feedback or centrifugal projections often constitute major conduits of information flow. Our results identify structure in the organization of centrifugal feedback projections to the

  2. Quantized Evolution of the Plasmonic Response in a Stretched Nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Tuomas P.; Zugarramurdi, Asier; Puska, Martti J.; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantum aspects, such as electron tunneling between closely separated metallic nanoparticles, are crucial for understanding the plasmonic response of nanoscale systems. We explore quantum effects on the response of the conductively coupled metallic nanoparticle dimer. This is realized by stretching a nanorod, which leads to the formation of a narrowing atomic contact between the two nanorod ends. Based on first-principles time-dependent density-functional-theory calculations, we find a discontinuous evolution of the plasmonic response as the nanorod is stretched. This is especially pronounced for the intensity of the main charge-transfer plasmon mode. We show the correlation between the observed discontinuities and the discrete nature of the conduction channels supported by the formed atomic-sized junction.

  3. Progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Ghoncheh, Shahyad; Smith, Jonathan C

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the psychological effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching (hatha) exercises. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups and taught PMR or yoga stretching exercises. Both groups practiced once a week for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, practitioners of PMR displayed higher levels of relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement at Week 4 and higher levels of Mental Quiet and Joy as a posttraining aftereffect at Week 5. Contrary to what was hypothesized, groups did not display different levels of R-States Energized or Aware. Results suggest the value of supplementing traditional somatic conceptualizations of relaxation with the psychological approach embodied in ABC relaxation theory. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  4. Effect of hydrodynamic interaction on partially stretched polymers.

    PubMed

    Sain, Anirban

    2008-06-01

    We compute the effect of hydrodynamic interaction and stretching on the fluctuation properties of a polymer, with its end points held fixed. Computing the preaveraged hydrodynamic tensor exactly for this geometry, we study both flexible and semiflexible polymer chains, such as Zimm, freely jointed chain, and wormlike chain (WLC) models. We compare the spectra of relaxation-time scales for the effective normal modes of these models. The spectra differ across models with respect to the degree of stretch, but their power-law scaling with low mode numbers turns out to be the same. The characteristics of the transverse modes of WLC agree very well with the experimental data on DNA. The crossover scaling function for (1/r), the inverse of the distance along the polymer contour, yields a modified formula for the size of a "Pincus blob," appropriate for the fixed-end boundary condition.

  5. Convective Flow of Sisko Fluid over a Bidirectional Stretching Surface

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Asif; Shahzad, Azeem; Khan, Masood

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation focuses the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the steady three-dimensional Sisko fluid driven by a bidirectional stretching sheet. The modeled partial differential equations are reduced to coupled ordinary differential equations by a suitable transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically by the shooting method using adaptive Runge Kutta algorithm in combination with Newton's method in the domain [0,∞). The numerical results for the velocity and temperature fields are graphically presented and effects of the relevant parameters are discussed in detail. Moreover, the skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number for different values of the power-law index and stretching ratio parameter are presented through tabulated data. The numerical results are also verified with the results obtained analytically by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, the results are validated with previously published pertinent literature as a limiting case of the problem. PMID:26110873

  6. Effect of passive muscle stretching in osteoarthritis of the hip.

    PubMed

    Leivseth, G; Torstensson, J; Reikerås, O

    1989-01-01

    1. Twenty-five minute daily muscle stretching, perpendicular to the fibre direction of the adductor muscles without movement of the hip, was performed in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. 2. Before and after treatment hip abduction was measured and muscle biopsies were taken for analysis of fibre cross-sectional areas of type 1 and type 2 fibres as well as adenosine 5'-triphosphate, creatine phosphate and glycogen contents. 3. From the results it is concluded that passive muscle stretching leads to a significant increase in hip abduction of 8.3 degrees (P less than 0.05). There was also a significant increase of type 1 and type 2 fibre cross-sectional area and of glycogen content after the treatment period (P less than 0.05), but the concentrations of adenosine 5'-triphosphate and creatine phosphate did not change significantly.

  7. The effects of strain heating in lithospheric stretching models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, M.; Hodge, D.; Cozzarelli, F.

    1985-01-01

    The deformation by stretching of a continental type lithosphere has been formulated so that the problem can be solved by a continuum mechanical approach. The deformation, stress state, and temperature distribution are constrained to satisfy the physical laws of conservation of mass, energy, momentum, and an experimentally defined rheological response. The conservation of energy equation including a term of strain energy dissipation is given. The continental lithosphere is assumed to have the rheology of an isotropic, incompressible, nonlinear viscous, two layered solid.

  8. Reflex facilitation during the stretch-shortening cycle.

    PubMed

    Trimble, M H; Kukulka, C G; Thomas, R S

    2000-06-01

    Maximal torque during the concentric phase of a movement has been shown to be enhanced by prior eccentric muscle actions, a movement strategy referred to as the stretch-shortening cycle. Although the mechanical basis for this enhancement is well established, the neural component is not. We hypothesized that brief high-frequency bursts of spindle afferent discharge during the eccentric phase of the stretch-shortening cycle could be one mechanism for facilitating the volitional drive. To test this hypothesis, three sets of experiments were done. In the first (N=15), we demonstrated that both the peak and mean EMG of the soleus (S) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles were considerably greater during a reciprocal hopping (RHOP) task than for maximum isometric contractions (MIVCs). In the second experiment, we tested whether the dynamic nature of the RHOP or the eccentric phase of the RHOP contributed to the EMG potentiation. Peak and mean EMG produced with a concentric hop (CHOP), in which the lengthening phase of the hop was eliminated, were compared with that produced with the RHOP and MIVCs conditions (N=7). The RHOP produced greater peak EMG than either the CHOP or the MIVCs while the mean EMG for both hopping conditions was considerably more than the MIVCs. In the final experiment, we attempted to mimic the brief high-frequency burst of spindle afferent activity during the lengthening phase of the stretch-shortening cycle in the absence of muscle length changes. High-frequency (100 Hz) afferent stimulation (HFS) was delivered during MIVCs. At rest, the HFS produced negligible EMG activity but when superimposed over MIVCs produced a marked potentiation of the S EMG over values obtained during MIVCs alone. Evidence that HFS synchronizes the EMG associated with volitional activation is also provided. We conclude that a substantial but brief facilitation and possible synchronization of the neural drive is provided by the spindle afferents during the eccentric phase

  9. Positioning and stretching of actin filaments by electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigge, Christoph; Hinssen, Horst; Reiss, Günter; Herth, Simone

    2010-06-01

    The alignment of biological filaments on surfaces offers a high potential for controllable geometries in lab-on-a-chip-structures and micrototal analysis systems. Actin is a polar filamentous protein with a diameter of 7-8 nm that can be manipulated with strong electric fields. It is demonstrated that with the use of microelectrodes or nanoelectrodes and electric fields of 20 kV/m single actin filaments can be manipulated, stretched, and positioned between gold electrodes.

  10. Growth on demand: reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Alexander M; Holland, Maria A; Honda, Kord S; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. Here we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. This allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part. To demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts

  11. The Acute Effects of Static Stretching on Speed and Agility Performance Depend on Stretch Duration and Conditioning Level.

    PubMed

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Avloniti, Christina; Protopapa, Maria; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Stampoulis, Theodoros; Leontsini, Diamanda; Mavropalias, George; Gounelas, George; Kambas, Antonios

    2016-10-01

    Avloniti, A, Chatzinikolaou, A, Fatouros, IG, Avloniti, C, Protopapa, M, Draganidis, D, Stampoulis, T, Leontsini, D, Mavropalias, G, Gounelas, G, and Kambas, A. The acute effects of static stretching on speed and agility performance depend on stretch duration and conditioning level. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2767-2773, 2016-Although static stretching (SS) is an integral part of physical preparation before training and competition, its usefulness in regards to power performance improvement has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 SS durations on speed and agility performance. According to a cross-over design, 34 trained men (age, 20.5 ± 1.4 years; height, 1.81 ± 0.2 m; weight, 77.2 ± 2.6 kg; body fat, 8.2 ± 2.6%) participated in a control session (no stretch) and 6 experimental conditions (10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 60 seconds) performed in a randomized order. Performance in speed (10 and 20 m) and agility (T-test) was measured after the control and experimental conditions. Static stretching, consisting of stretches for hip extensors, hip adductors, knee extensors, knee flexors, and ankle sole flexors, was performed after light cardiovascular exercise (8 minutes). A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that speed was improved only by SS of short duration (15/20 seconds), whereas agility remained unaffected by all SS trials. When participants' speed and agility level was taken into account, it was revealed that only those of moderate performance demonstrated an improved speed (in 15- and 20-second trials) and agility (in 10- and 15-second trials) performance. These results suggest that short-duration SS protocols induce an acute improvement of speed and agility performance, whereas longer-duration SS protocols have neither positive nor negative effect. Furthermore, it seems that individuals of lower speed and agility performance level are more likely to benefit by a short-duration SS protocol.

  12. Stretching Diagnostics and Mixing Properties In The Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legras, B.; Shuckburgh, E.

    The "finite size Lyapunov exponent" and the "effective diffusivity" are two diagnos- tics of mixing which have been recently introduced to investigate atmospheric flows. Both have been used to successfully identify the barriers to transport, for instance at the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex. Here we compare the two diagnostics in detail. The equivalent length has the advantage of arising as a mixing quantification from a rigid theoretical framework, however it has the disadvantage of being an aver- age quantity (the average around a tracer contour). The finite size Lyapunov exponent may be defined at any point in the flow, and quantifies the stretching properties expe- rienced by a fluid parcel both in its past and future evolution. In particular, the lines of maximum stretching at any time delineate the building blocks of the chaotic stirring. However the interpretation of the finite size Lyapunov exponent as a mixing time is less direct and depends on the alignment of tracer contours with the stretching lines.

  13. Fibril orientation redistribution induced by stretching of cellulose nanofibril hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Josefsson, Gabriella; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Mushi, Ngesa Ezekiel

    2015-06-07

    The mechanical performance of materials reinforced by cellulose nanofibrils is highly affected by the orientation of these fibrils. This paper investigates the nanofibril orientation distribution of films of partly oriented cellulose nanofibrils. Stripes of hydrogel films were subjected to different amount of strain and, after drying, examined with X-ray diffraction to obtain the orientation of the nanofibrils in the films, caused by the stretching. The cellulose nanofibrils had initially a random in-plane orientation in the hydrogel films and the strain was applied to the films before the nanofibrils bond tightly together, which occurs during drying. The stretching resulted in a reorientation of the nanofibrils in the films, with monotonically increasing orientation towards the load direction with increasing strain. Estimation of nanofibril reorientation by X-ray diffraction enables quantitative comparison of the stretch-induced orientation ability of different cellulose nanofibril systems. The reorientation of nanofibrils as a consequence of an applied strain is also predicted by a geometrical model of deformation of nanofibril hydrogels. Conversely, in high-strain cold-drawing of wet cellulose nanofibril materials, the enhanced orientation is promoted by slipping of the effectively stiff fibrils.

  14. The different muscle-energetics during shortening and stretch.

    PubMed

    Jarosch, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The helical shape of the thin filaments causes their passive counterclockwise rotation during muscle stretch that increases tensile stress and torque at first by unwinding and then by winding up the four anchoring Z-filaments. This means storage of energy in the series elastic Z-filaments and a considerable decrease of the liberated energy of heat and work to (h-w(ap)), where h is the heat energy and w(ap) the stretch energy induced from outside by an apparatus. The steep thin filament helix with an inclination angle of 70° promotes the passive rotation during stretch, but impedes the smooth sliding of shortening by increased friction and production of frictional heat. The frictional heat may be produced by the contact with the myosin cross-bridges: (1) when they passively snap on drilling thin filaments from cleft to cleft over a distance 2 × 2.7 nm = 5.4 nm between the globular actin monomers in one groove, causing stepwise motion; or (2) when they passively cycle from one helical groove to the next (distance 36 nm). The latter causes more heat and may take place on rotating thin filaments without an effective forward drilling ("idle rotation"), e.g., when they produce "unexplained heat" at the beginning of an isometric tetanus. In an Appendix to this paper the different states of muscle are defined. The function of its most important components is described and rotation model and power-stroke model of muscular contraction is compared.

  15. Stretch fast dynamo mechanism via conformal mapping in Riemannian manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C.

    2007-10-15

    Two new analytical solutions of the self-induction equation in Riemannian manifolds are presented. The first represents a twisted magnetic flux tube or flux rope in plasma astrophysics, where the rotation of the flow implies that the poloidal field is amplified from toroidal field, in the spirit of dynamo theory. The value of the amplification depends on the Frenet torsion of the magnetic axis of the tube. Actually this result illustrates the Zeldovich stretch, twist, and fold method to generate dynamos from straight and untwisted ropes. Based on the fact that this problem was previously handled, using a Riemannian geometry of twisted magnetic flux ropes [Phys Plasmas 13, 022309 (2006)], investigation of a second dynamo solution, conformally related to the Arnold kinematic fast dynamo, is obtained. In this solution, it is shown that the conformal effect on the fast dynamo metric enhances the Zeldovich stretch, and therefore a new dynamo solution is obtained. When a conformal mapping is performed in an Arnold fast dynamo line element, a uniform stretch is obtained in the original line element.

  16. A Single 30-s Stretch Is Sufficient to Inhibit Maximal Voluntary Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Jason B.; Nelson, Arnold G.; Kokkonen, Joke

    2009-01-01

    While it has been well established that an acute stretching program can inhibit maximal muscle performance, the amount of stretching needed to produce the deleterious response is unknown. Therefore this study examined the dose-response relationship between acute stretching and strength inhibition. Eighteen college students performed a one…

  17. Can Stretching Prior to Exercise and Sports Improve Performance and Prevent Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracko, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines data from research on stretching as it relates to enhanced performance and injury prevention so that fitness, exercise, and sports performance professionals can make informed decisions about stretching programs for clients. The paper notes that stretching is a misunderstood component of fitness and sports training. Few studies show…

  18. Ocular Counter-Rolling During Centrifugation and Static Tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Bernard; Clement, Gilles; Moore, Steven; Curthoys, Ian; Dai, Mingjia; Koizuka, Izumi; Kubo, Takeshi; Raphan, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    Activation of the gravity sensors in the inner ear-the otoliths-generates reflexes that act to maintain posture and gaze. Ocular counter-rolling (OCR) is an example of such a reflex. When the head is tilted to the side, the eyes rotate around the line of sight in the opposite direction (i.e., counter-rolling). While turning comers, undergoing centrifugation, or making side-to-side tilting head movements, the OCR reflex orients the eyes towards the sum of the accelerations from body movements and gravity. Deconditioning of otolith-mediated reflexes following adaptation to microgravity has been proposed as the basis of many of the postural, locomotor, and gaze control problems experienced by returning astronauts. Evidence suggests that OCR is reduced postflight in about 75% of astronauts tested; but the data are sparse, primarily due to difficulties in recording rotational eye movements. During the Neurolab mission, a short-arm human centrifuge was flown that generated sustained sideways accelerations of 0.5-G and one-G to the head and upper body. This produces OCR; and so for the first time, the responses to sustained centrifugation could be studied without the influence of Earth's gravity on the results. This allowed us to determine the relative importance of sideways and vertical acceleration in the generation of OCR. This also provided the first test of the effects of exposure to artificial gravity in space on postflight otolith-ocular reflexes. There was little difference between the responses to centrifugation in microgravity and on Earth. In both conditions, the induced OCR was roughly proportional to the applied acceleration, with the OCR magnitude during 0.5-G centrifugation approximately 60% of that generated during one-G centrifugation. The overall mean OCR from the four payload crewmembers in response to one-G of sideways acceleration was 5.7 plus or minus 1.1 degree (mean and SD) on Earth. Inflight one-G centrifugation generated 5.7 plus or minus 1

  19. Acute Lower Extremity Running Kinematics After a Hamstring Stretch

    PubMed Central

    Davis Hammonds, Autumn L.; Laudner, Kevin G.; McCaw, Steve; McLoda, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Limited passive hamstring flexibility might affect kinematics, performance, and injury risk during running. Pre-activity static straight-leg raise stretching often is used to gain passive hamstring flexibility. Objective: To investigate the acute effects of a single session of passive hamstring stretching on pelvic, hip, and knee kinematics during the swing phase of running. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Biomechanics research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-four male (age = 21.2 ± 1.4 years) and female (age = 21.3±2.0 years) recreational athletes. Intervention(s): Participants performed treadmill running pretests and posttests at 70% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate. Pelvis, hip, and knee joint angles during the swing phase of 5 consecutive gait cycles were collected using a motion analysis system. Right and left hamstrings of the intervention group participants were passively stretched 3 times for 30 seconds in random order immediately after the pretest. Control group participants performed no stretching or movement between running sessions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Six 2-way analyses of variance to determine joint angle differences between groups at maximum hip flexion and maximum knee extension with an α level of .008. Results: Flexibility increased between pretest and post-test in all participants (F1,30 = 80.61, P<.001). Anterior pelvic tilt (F1,30 = 0.73, P=.40), hip flexion (F1,30 = 2.44, P=.13), and knee extension (F1,30 = 0.06, P=.80) at maximum hip flexion were similar between groups throughout testing. Anterior pelvic tilt (F1,30 = 0.69, P=.41), hip flexion (F1,30 = 0.23, P=.64), and knee extension (F1,30 = 3.38, P=.62) at maximum knee extension were similar between groups throughout testing. Men demonstrated greater anterior pelvic tilt than women at maximum knee extension (F1,30 = 13.62, P=.001). Conclusions: A single session of 3 straight-leg raise hamstring stretches did not change

  20. Electrochemical isotope effect and lithium isotope separation.

    PubMed

    Black, Jay R; Umeda, Grant; Dunn, Bruce; McDonough, William F; Kavner, Abby

    2009-07-29

    A large electrochemical isotopic effect is observed upon the electrodeposition of lithium from solutions of propylene carbonate producing isotopically light metal deposits. The magnitude of fractionation is controlled by the applied overpotential and is largest close to equilibrium. Calculated partition function ratios for tetrahedrally coordinated lithium complexes and metallic lithium predict an equilibrium fractionation close to that measured experimentally.