Science.gov

Sample records for isotopically controlled semiconductors

  1. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    2004-11-15

    A review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors is presented. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, can be considered the most important one for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples. Manuel Cardona, the longtime editor-in-chief of Solid State Communications has been and continues to be one of the major contributors to this field of solid state physics and it is a great pleasure to dedicate this review to him.

  2. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  3. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E. E.

    2010-07-15

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  4. Diffusion in isotopically controlled semiconductor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracht, H.

    1999-12-01

    Isotopically controlled heterostructures of 28Si/natSi and Al71GaAs/Al69GaAs/71GaAs have been used to study the self-diffusion process in this elemental and compound semiconductor material. The directly measured Si self-diffusion coefficient is compared with the self-interstitial and vacancy contribution to self-diffusion which were deduced from metal diffusion experiments. The remarkable agreement between the Si self-diffusion coefficients and the individual contributions to self-diffusion shows that both self-interstitials and vacancies mediate Si self-diffusion. The Ga self-diffusion in undoped AlGaAs was found to decrease with increasing Al concentration. The activation enthalpy of Ga and Al diffusion in GaAs and of Ga diffusion in AlGaAs all lie in the range of (3.6±0.1) eV, but with different pre-exponential factors. The doping dependence of Ga self-diffusion reveals a retardation (enhancement) of Ga diffusion under p-type (n-type) doping compared to intrinsic conditions. All experimental results on the group-III atom diffusion are accurately described if vacancies on the group-III sublattice are assumed to mediate the Ga self- and Al-Ga interdiffusion in undoped AlGaAs and the Ga self-diffusion in Be- and Si-doped GaAs with an active dopant concentration of 3×1018 cm-3. The doping dependence of Ga self-diffusion in GaAs provides strong evidence that neutral, singly and doubly charged Ga vacancies govern the self-diffusion process.

  5. Physics with chemically and isotopically pure semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, E. E.

    1993-05-01

    Chemically and isotopically pure semiconductors offer a wealth of interesting physics. We review a number of impurity complexes which were discovered in ultrapure Germanium. They have led the way to the widely pursued studies of hydrogen in numerous semiconductors. Isotope related effects and processes include neutron transmutation doping, a technique used for a number of silicon and germanium devices. Isotopically pure and deliberately mixed crystals of germanium have been grown recently and have been used to study the dependence of the indirect bandgap and phonon properties on the mass and mass disorder of the nuclei. The large number of stable isotopes of the various semiconductors present a great potential for basic and applied studies. Semi-conductor isotope engineering may become a reality because of the new economic and political world order.

  6. Power semiconductor controlled drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Gopal K.

    This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.

  7. Cameras for semiconductor process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, W. A.; Parker, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The application of X-ray topography to semiconductor process control is described, considering the novel features of the high speed camera and the difficulties associated with this technique. The most significant results on the effects of material defects on device performance are presented, including results obtained using wafers processed entirely within this institute. Defects were identified using the X-ray camera and correlations made with probe data. Also included are temperature dependent effects of material defects. Recent applications and improvements of X-ray topographs of silicon-on-sapphire and gallium arsenide are presented with a description of a real time TV system prototype and of the most recent vacuum chuck design. Discussion is included of our promotion of the use of the camera by various semiconductor manufacturers.

  8. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  9. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  10. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  11. ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-08-25

    An improved isotope separating apparatus of the electromagnetic type, commonly referred to as a calutron, is described. Improvements in detecting and maintaining optimum position and focus of the ion beam are given. The calutron collector is provided with an additional electrode insulated from and positioned between the collecting pockets. The ion beams are properly positioned and focused until the deionizing current which flows from ground to this additional electrode ts a minimum.

  12. Semiconductor nanowires: Controlled growth and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiying

    This dissertation presents an experimental study of the controlled growth of semiconductor nanowires and their thermophysical properties. The synthesis of nanowires was based on the well-known Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism in which the growth of nanowire is initiated by a nanosized liquid droplet. The prepared nanowires are single-crystalline with certain preferred growth direction. Nanowires with different compositions have been synthesized, including Si, Ge, boron and MgB2. The control of nanowire composition, diameter and orientation has also been achieved. In addition, a Pulsed Laser Ablation-Chemical Vapor Deposition (PLA-CVD) hybrid process was developed to synthesize Si/SiGe longitudinally superlattice nanowires. The thermal conductivity of individual pure Si nanowire and Si/SiGe nanowire was measured using a microfabricated suspended device over a temperature range of 20--320 K. The thermal conductivities of individual 22, 37, 56, and 115 nm diameter single crystalline intrinsic Si nanowires were much lower than the bulk value due to the strong phonon boundary scattering. Except for the 22 nm diameter nanowire, theoretical predictions using a modified Callaway model fit the experimental data very well. The data for the 22 nm diameter wire suggest that changes in phonon dispersion due to confinement can cause additional thermal conductivity reduction. The Si/SiGe superlattice nanowires with diameters of 83 run and 58 nm were also measured. Their thermal conductivities are smaller than pure Si nanowire with similar diameter, as well as Si/SiGe superlattice thin film with comparable period. Both the alloying scattering and the boundary scattering are believed to contribute to this reduction. Size dependent melting-recrystallization study of the carbon-sheathed semiconductor Ge nanowires was carried out in in-situ high temperature transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant depression in melting temperature with decreasing size of the nanowires as

  13. Two beam coherent control in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Král, P.; Sipe, J. E.

    1998-03-01

    Recently, DC current has been generated in superlatices and bulk semiconductors [1] by a simultaneous excitations with two laser beams, giving one-photon and two-photon transitions with frequencies 2ω, ω. In these experiments directionality of the current can be controlled by the relative phase of the two fields. We develop a methodology, based on nonequilibrium Green functions, describing this phenomenon in the presence of many-particle scattering. In the mean-field level of this approach, simultaneous action of the two fields can be reduced to an effective field with a tunable relative excitation strength for different wave vectors of the Brillouine zone. We derive transport equations for a `quasi'-linear, nonlinear and pulse-like excitations in this effective field. In the weak scattering limit, they agree with the Boltzmann equation with generation rates obtained from the Fermi's Golden Rule [2]. We apply the steady-state `quasi'-linear equations to a model 1D quantum wire in the presence of LA phonons, which serves as a reference system for future calculations in realistic 3D systems. Numerical results for the induced dc current are presented in many details. [1] E. Dupont et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596 (1995); A. Haché et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306 (1997). [2] R. Atanasov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703 (1996).

  14. Temperature control of power semiconductor devices in traction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugachev, A. A.; Strekalov, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    The peculiarity of thermal management of traction frequency converters of a railway rolling stock is highlighted. The topology and the operation principle of the automatic temperature control system of power semiconductor modules of the traction frequency converter are designed and discussed. The features of semiconductors as an object of temperature control are considered; the equivalent circuit of thermal processes in the semiconductors is suggested, the power losses in the two-level voltage source inverters are evaluated and analyzed. The dynamic properties and characteristics of the cooling fan induction motor electric drive with the scalar control are presented. The results of simulation in Matlab are shown for the steady state of thermal processes.

  15. Electron-Beam Controlled Semiconductor Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-02

    34 Proceedings of the 7th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference (1989) 348- 351. Thomas, B, et al., "Investigation of Surface Flashover in Silicon...Phbs- trolled semiconductor switch. In 1990 he joined the Naval Surface Warfare ical Electronics Research Institute His current research interests...field of 17 depletion region over the entire zone I1. In addition to this kV/cm. At this point, problems with surface flashover prevented depletion

  16. Controlled Chemical Doping of Semiconductor Nanocrystals Using Redox Buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Jesse H.; Surendranath, Yogesh; Alivisatos, Paul

    2013-07-20

    Semiconductor nanocrystal solids are attractive materials for active layers in next-generation optoelectronic devices; however, their efficient implementation has been impeded by the lack of precise control over dopant concentrations. Herein we demonstrate a chemical strategy for the controlled doping of nanocrystal solids under equilibrium conditions. Exposing lead selenide nanocrystal thin films to solutions containing varying proportions of decamethylferrocene and decamethylferrocenium incrementally and reversibly increased the carrier concentration in the solid by 2 orders of magnitude from their native values. This application of redox buffers for controlled doping provides a new method for the precise control of the majority carrier concentration in porous semiconductor thin films.

  17. Carbon isotope controlled molecular switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Brian K.

    Single molecules represent one fundamental limit to the downscaling of electronics. As a prototype element for carbon-based nanoscale science and technology, the detailed behavior of carbon monoxide (CO) on the copper surface Cu(111) has been investigated. These investigations span from individual carbon isotope resolution, to single molecules, to compact clusters assembled by molecular manipulation via a homemade scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Sub-nanoscale devices, composed of only a few molecules, which exploit both lone CO properties and molecule-molecule interaction, have been designed and assembled. The devices function as bi-stable switches and can serve as classical bits with densities > 50 Tbits/cm2. Operated in the nuclear mass sensitive regime, each switch can also function as a molecular "centrifuge" capable of identifying the isotope of a single carbon atom in real-time. A model, based on electron-vibron couping and inelastic tunneling, has been developed and explains the dynamic behavior of the switch. The interaction between pairs of switches was also explored and it was found that their behavior ranges from completely independent to strongly coupled. Larger nanostructures, which were composed of many sub-switches organized to leverage the fully coupled interaction, link two spatially separated "bits" on the surface. Such a linked system can set or read a state non-locally, which is equivalent to bidirectional information transfer. The linked system has also exhibited logic functionality. These experiments demonstrate scalable molecular cells for information storage, and for information processing through cellular automata logic schemes.

  18. Quality Control On Strained Semiconductor Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dommann, Alex; Neels, Antonia

    2010-11-24

    New semiconductor devices are based very often on strained silicon which promises to squeeze more device performance out of current devices. With strained silicon it is possible to get the same device performance using less power. The technique is using strain as a 'design element' for silicon to improve the device performance and has become a hot topic in semiconductor research in the past years. However in the same time topics like 'System in Package'(SiP) on thin wafers are getting more and more important. The chips of thin wafers in advanced packaging are extremely sensitive to induced stresses due to packaging issues. If we are using now strain as a design element for improving device performance we increase the sensitivity again and therefore also the risk of aging of such SiP's. High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) techniques such as Rocking Curves (RC's) and Reciprocal Space Mapping (RSM) are therefore very powerful tools to study the stresses in packaged devices.

  19. Controlling Carrier Dynamics using Quantum-Confined Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Matthew C.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2016-06-01

    The articles included in this special issue of Chemical Physics explore the use of quantum-confined semiconductor nanocrystals to control the flow of energy and/or charge. Colloidal quantum-confined semiconductor nanostructures are an emerging class of functional materials being developed for novel opto-electronic applications. In the last few years numerous examples in the literature have emerged where novel nanostructures have been tailored such as to achieve a specific function thus moving the field from the stage of discovery of novel behaviors to that of control of nanostructure properties. In addition to the internal structure of the NCs their assemblies can be tailored to achieve emergent properties and add additional control parameters that determine the final opto-electronic properties. These principles are explored via variations in shape, size, surface ligands, heterostructuring, morphology, composition, and assemblies and are demonstrated through measurements of excited state processes, such as Auger recombination; photoluminescence; charge separation and charge transport.

  20. Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chitraleema; Kinnischtzke, Laura; Goodfellow, Kenneth M; Beams, Ryan; Vamivakas, A Nick

    2015-06-01

    Although semiconductor defects can often be detrimental to device performance, they are also responsible for the breadth of functionality exhibited by modern optoelectronic devices. Artificially engineered defects (so-called quantum dots) or naturally occurring defects in solids are currently being investigated for applications ranging from quantum information science and optoelectronics to high-resolution metrology. In parallel, the quantum confinement exhibited by atomically thin materials (semi-metals, semiconductors and insulators) has ushered in an era of flatland optoelectronics whose full potential is still being articulated. In this Letter we demonstrate the possibility of leveraging the atomically thin semiconductor tungsten diselenide (WSe2) as a host for quantum dot-like defects. We report that this previously unexplored solid-state quantum emitter in WSe2 generates single photons with emission properties that can be controlled via the application of external d.c. electric and magnetic fields. These new optically active quantum dots exhibit excited-state lifetimes on the order of 1 ns and remarkably large excitonic g-factors of 10. It is anticipated that WSe2 quantum dots will provide a novel platform for integrated solid-state quantum photonics and quantum information processing, as well as a rich condensed-matter physics playground with which to explore the coupling of quantum dots and atomically thin semiconductors.

  1. Microscopic Control of Semiconductor Interface Reactivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-10

    St. Louis, MO). Enhanced Control of Interface Reactivity for Mercury- Cadmium -Telluride. - "Purdue University, Department of Physics (Professors R...Te interfaces with simple and noble metals. Mercury- cadmium -telluride is probably the most studied 5 X 10- " Torr with coverage 0 monitored by a...were grown at McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories using a modified Bridgman method. The bulk crystals exhibited a band gap of 0. 175 ± 0.01 eV nI

  2. Investigations of semiconductor devices using SIMS; diffusion, contamination, process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Cheol; Won, Jeongyeon; Chung, Youngsu; Lee, Hyungik; Lee, Eunha; Kang, Donghun; Kim, Changjung; Choi, Jinhak; Kim, Jeomsik

    2008-12-01

    We have surveyed 22,155 analyses issues to know the portion of surface analysis at the total analyses activities. According to the survey result, the contribution of SIMS in the total analyses issues was about 7%. The portions of semiconductor process control, composition and contamination in the SIMS analyses issues are 25%, 29% and 16%, respectively. In this article, some examples of the semiconductor device process control, identification of contaminants, and failure analyses have been reviewed. The behavior of H, O, and Ti at the Pt/Ti/GaInZnO interfaces and their influences on the electrical property of thin film transistor are demonstrated. Also discolor issues including organic material contamination problem on Au pad are discussed in detail.

  3. Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical etching of semiconductor nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Wang, George T.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical (QSC-PEC) etching provides a new route to the precision fabrication of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures in the sub-10-nm size regime. For example, quantum dots (QDs) can be QSC-PEC-etched from epitaxial InGaN thin films using narrowband laser photoexcitation, and the QD sizes (and hence bandgaps and photoluminescence wavelengths) are determined by the photoexcitation wavelength.

  4. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1960-01-26

    A method is described for controlling the position of the ion beams in a calutron used for isotope separation. The U/sup 238/ beams is centered over the U/sup 235/ receiving pocket, the operator monitoring the beam until a maximum reading is achieved on the meter connected to that pocket. Then both beams are simultaneously shifted by a preselected amount to move the U/sup 235/ beam over the U/sup 235/ pocket. A slotted door is placed over the entrance to that pocket during the U/sup 238/ beam centering to reduce the contamination to the pocket, while allowing enough beam to pass for monitoring purposes.

  5. Controlling the stoichiometry and doping of semiconductor materials

    DOEpatents

    Albin, David; Burst, James; Metzger, Wyatt; Duenow, Joel; Farrell, Stuart; Colegrove, Eric

    2016-08-16

    Methods for treating a semiconductor material are provided. According to an aspect of the invention, the method includes annealing the semiconductor material in the presence of a compound that includes a first element and a second element. The first element provides an overpressure to achieve a desired stoichiometry of the semiconductor material, and the second element provides a dopant to the semiconductor material.

  6. Low temperature carrier transport properties in isotopically controlled germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kohei

    1994-12-01

    Investigations of electronic and optical properties of semiconductors often require specimens with extremely homogeneous dopant distributions and precisely controlled net-carrier concentrations and compensation ratios. The previous difficulties in fabricating such samples are overcome as reported in this thesis by growing high-purity Ge single crystals of controlled 75Ge and 70Ge isotopic compositions, and doping these crystals by the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique. The resulting net-impurity concentrations and the compensation ratios are precisely determined by the thermal neutron fluence and the [74Ge]/[70Ge] ratios of the starting Ge materials, respectively. This method also guarantees unprecedented doping uniformity. Using such samples the authors have conducted four types of electron (hole) transport studies probing the nature of (1) free carrier scattering by neutral impurities, (2) free carrier scattering by ionized impurities, (3) low temperature hopping conduction, and (4) free carrier transport in samples close to the metal-insulator transition.

  7. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices are described. Topics investigated include: measurements of transistor delay time; application of the infrared response technique to the study of radiation-damaged, lithium-drifted silicon detectors; and identification of a condition that minimizes wire flexure and reduces the failure rate of wire bonds in transistors and integrated circuits under slow thermal cycling conditions. Supplementary data concerning staff, standards committee activities, technical services, and publications are included as appendixes.

  8. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1971-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is discussed. The following subjects are also presented: (1) demonstration of the high sensitivity of the infrared response technique by the identification of gold in a germanium diode, (2) verification that transient thermal response is significantly more sensitive to the presence of voids in die attachment than steady-state thermal resistance, and (3) development of equipment for determining susceptibility of transistors to hot spot formation by the current-gain technique.

  9. Semiconductor CMP Process Control Predicting Degradation Effect of Consumed Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Kenji; Kaneko, Shun'ichi

    This paper describes a methodology to build a virtual metrology (VM) model for semiconductor chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process control. The VM model predicts the polishing rate based on equipment-derived data as soon as allowed, and immediately applies the results to advanced process control (APC). The proposed methodology uses Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to build an analytical model with many parameters for individual consumed materials from historical data in small quantities. The mutual interference of two kinds of consumed materials: dresser and pad are modeled in a form of multilevel predictive model. The methodology uses MCMC methods again to identify the multilevel predictive model taking into account the assumed operation of an actual manufacturing line, for instance, using preliminary test result, learning a model parameter online, and being affected by metrology lag as disturbance. The simulation results show the APC with the proposed VM model is low sensitivity to metrology lag and high precision on polishing amount control.

  10. Flexible distributed architecture for semiconductor process control and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gower, Aaron E.; Boning, Duane S.; McIlrath, Michael B.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductor fabrication requires an increasingly expensive and integrated set of tightly controlled processes, driving the need for a fabrication facility with fully computerized, networked processing equipment. We describe an integrated, open system architecture enabling distributed experimentation and process control for plasma etching. The system was developed at MIT's Microsystems Technology Laboratories and employs in-situ CCD interferometry based analysis in the sensor-feedback control of an Applied Materials Precision 5000 Plasma Etcher (AME5000). Our system supports accelerated, advanced research involving feedback control algorithms, and includes a distributed interface that utilizes the internet to make these fabrication capabilities available to remote users. The system architecture is both distributed and modular: specific implementation of any one task does not restrict the implementation of another. The low level architectural components include a host controller that communicates with the AME5000 equipment via SECS-II, and a host controller for the acquisition and analysis of the CCD sensor images. A cell controller (CC) manages communications between these equipment and sensor controllers. The CC is also responsible for process control decisions; algorithmic controllers may be integrated locally or via remote communications. Finally, a system server images connections from internet/intranet (web) based clients and uses a direct link with the CC to access the system. Each component communicates via a predefined set of TCP/IP socket based messages. This flexible architecture makes integration easier and more robust, and enables separate software components to run on the same or different computers independent of hardware or software platform.

  11. 77 FR 64143 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope..., Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application by renewal to the... registration of Cambridge Isotope Lab to manufacture the listed basic class of controlled substance...

  12. Direct digital simulation of power semiconductor-controlled electrical machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahnassy, H. M.

    1981-06-01

    Generalized computer programming techniques for simulating power semiconductor-controlled electric machines in coil-variable representation are presented. These techniques are developed primarily for implementation in large scale general purpose computer-aided design and analysis (CADA) circuit programs. To demonstrate the validity of the developed techniques, a coil-variable model of a brushless synchronous generator with an ac exciter and rotating rectifiers was constructed. The performance of the control system (thyristor voltage regulator) is represented by a transfer function block diagram model. The CADA circuit program used is the recently developed SUPER SCEPTRE program. The model is validated using the design data and test results of a 60 kVA brushless generator. Numerous computer simulation cases are presented including the steady state and transient conditions. Brushless generator performance under diode failure faults (opened-diode, shorted-diode) is simulated. The effects of the external faults, at the main generator terminals, on the main generator, as well as its excitation system currents, are simulated.

  13. Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers: Design, fabrication, and directional control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongjun

    Monolithic semiconductor ring lasers (SRLs) are attractive light sources for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) due to their convenience in monolithic integration: neither cleaved facets nor gratings are required for optical feedback. They are promising candidates for wavelength filtering, multiplexing-demultiplexing applications, electrical or all-optical switching, gating, and memories, and particularly, optical inertial rotation sensors or ring laser gyros. As the major part of a NASA-supported project "Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring laser gyro for space applications," this dissertation research was focused on design, fabrication, and directional control of monolithically integrated SRLs with relatively large size and sophisticated OEIC structures. The main potential application is the next-generation monolithic ring laser gyros. Specifically, monolithic SRLs with the longest reported cavity of 10.28 mm have been demonstrated. In device characterization, differential I-V analysis has been used for the first time in SRLs for purely electrical identification of lasing threshold and directional switching. Sophisticated device structures have been devised, including optically independent novel ring laser pairs, from which frequency beating between monolithically integrated SRLs was reported for the first time. In addition, no frequency lock-in was observed in the beating spectra, indicating an important progress for proposed gyro applications. Functional OEIC components including photodetectors, passive and active waveguides, and novel Joule heaters have been integrated on-chip along with the ring lasers. Mode competition, directional switching, bistability, and bidirectional and unidirectional operation in SRLs have been investigated. Directional control techniques with asymmetric mechanisms including spiral and S-section waveguides have been implemented. The S-section was investigated and analyzed in great detail for its suppression of

  14. Optimal doping control of magnetic semiconductors via subsurfactant epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Changgan; Zhang, Zhenyu; van Benthem, Klaus; Chisholm, Matthew F; Weitering, Harm H

    2008-02-01

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) with high ferromagnetic ordering temperatures (T{sub c}) have vast potential for advancing spin-based electronics or 'spintronics'. To date, achieving high-T{sub c} DMS typically required doping levels of order 5%. Such high doping levels inevitably compromise the structural homogeneity and carrier mobility of the DMS. Here, we establish 'subsurfactant epitaxy' as a novel kinetic pathway for synthesizing Mn-doped germanium with T{sub c} much higher than room temperature, at dramatically reduced doping levels. This is accomplished by optimal control of the diffusion kinetics of the dopant atoms near the growth front in two separate deposition steps. The first involves a submonolayer dose of Mn on Ge(100) at low temperature, which populates subsurface interstitial sites with Mn while suppressing lateral Mn diffusion and clustering. The second step involves epitaxial growth of Ge at elevated temperature, taking advantage of the strong floating ability of the interstitial Mn dopants towards the newly defined subsurface sites at the growth front. Most remarkably, the Mn dopants trapped inside the film are uniformly distributed at substitutional sites, and the resulting film exhibits ferromagnetism above 400 K at the nominal doping level of only 0.2%.

  15. Continuing progress toward controlled intracellular delivery of semiconductor quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Breger, Joyce; Delehanty, James B; Medintz, Igor L

    2015-01-01

    The biological applications of luminescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) continue to grow at a nearly unabated pace. This growth is driven, in part, by their unique photophysical and physicochemical properties which have allowed them to be used in many different roles in cellular biology including: as superior fluorophores for a wide variety of cellular labeling applications; as active platforms for assembly of nanoscale sensors; and, more recently, as a powerful tool to understand the mechanisms of nanoparticle mediated drug delivery. Given that controlled cellular delivery is at the intersection of all these applications, the latest progress in delivering QDs to cells is examined here. A brief discussion of relevant considerations including the importance of materials preparation and bioconjugation along with the continuing issue of endosomal sequestration is initially provided for context. Methods for the cellular delivery of QDs are then highlighted including those based on passive exposure, facilitated strategies that utilize peptides or polymers and fully active modalities such as electroporation and other mechanically based methods. Following on this, the exciting advent of QD cellular delivery using multiple or combined mechanisms is then previewed. Several recent methods reporting endosomal escape of QD materials in cells are also examined in detail with a focus on the mechanisms by which access to the cytosol is achieved. The ongoing debate over QD cytotoxicity is also discussed along with a perspective on how this field will continue to evolve in the future. PMID:25154379

  16. Zn isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle: A melting control?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucet, Luc S.; Mattielli, Nadine; Ionov, Dmitri A.; Debouge, Wendy; Golovin, Alexander V.

    2016-10-01

    We present new Zn elemental and isotope data on seventeen fertile and refractory mantle peridotite xenoliths. Eleven fertile peridotites are garnet and spinel lherzolites from Vitim and Tariat (Siberia and Mongolia) and represent some of the most pristine fertile peridotites available. Six refractory peridotites are spinel harzburgites from the Udachnaya kimberlite (Siberian craton) that are nearly pristine residues of high-degree polybaric melting at high pressure (7-4 GPa). Geochemical data suggest that Zn isotopic compositions in the peridotites have not been affected by post-melting processes such as metasomatism, contamination by the host-magmas or alteration. The fertile peridotites have uniform Zn concentrations (59 ± 2 ppm) and Zn isotopic compositions with δ66Zn (relative to JMC-Lyon-03-0749l) = +0.30 ± 0.03‰ consistent with the Bulk Silicate Earth estimates of δ66Zn = +0.28 ± 0.05‰ (Chen et al., 2013). The refractory peridotites have Zn concentrations ranging from 30 to 48 ppm and δ66Zn from + 0.10 ± 0.01 ‰ to + 0.18 ± 0.01 ‰ with an average of + 0.14 ± 0.03 ‰. Our data suggest that the lithospheric mantle has a heterogeneous Zn isotopic composition. Modeling of Zn isotope partitioning during partial melting of fertile mantle suggests that high degrees of melt extraction (>30%) may significantly fractionate Zn isotopes (up to 0.16‰) and that during mantle melting, Zn concentrations and isotopic compositions are mainly controlled by the stability of clinopyroxene and garnet within the melting residue. Because the stability of clinopyroxene and garnet is mainly pressure dependent we suggest that both the depth and the degrees of melt extraction may control Zn isotope fractionation during mantle melting.

  17. Control of lasing from a highly photoexcited semiconductor microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Feng-Kuo

    optically induced confinement, multiple-lasing modes were produced, with sequential lasing time depending on energies. These phenomena are attributed to the spin-dependent stimulated emission from correlated e-h pairs. We further performed a non-degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy to investigate dynamic carrier relaxation. We find transient resonances with significant changes in differential reflectivity that can last more than 1 ns. The resonance exhibits a polarization-dependent splitting in about 1 meV under circularly polarized pumping. All the aforementioned phenomena can be explained by the combination effect of carrier-induced refractive index change and the light-induced e-h correlation. Our research enriches the studies of coupled e-h-gamma systems at room temperature and a high-density regime; however, further experiments and theoretical works are required to claim and clarify the formation of such correlated e-h pairs in a highly photoexcited microcavity. Nonetheless, we have demonstrated that many-body effects can be harnessed to control lasing dynamics and energies in highly photoexcited semiconductor microcavities. We expect an improved understanding of the many-body effect resulted from e-h pairing to help the development of polarization-controlled and wavelength-tunable lasers.

  18. 77 FR 26789 - Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and Products Containing Same; Determination Rescinding the Exclusion Order and Cease and Desist Orders...

  19. Electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.; Vook, F.L.

    1988-06-16

    An electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process for carrying out patterning and selective removing of material in semiconductor device fabrication includes the steps of selective ion implanting, photochemical dry etching, and thermal annealing, in that order. In the selective ion implanting step, regions of the semiconductor material in a desired pattern are damaged and the remainder of the regions of the material not implanted are left undamaged. The rate of recombination of electrons and holes is increased in the damaged regions of the pattern compared to undamaged regions. In the photochemical dry etching step which follows ion implanting step, the material in the undamaged regions of the semiconductor are removed substantially faster than in the damaged regions representing the pattern, leaving the ion-implanted, damaged regions as raised surface structures on the semiconductor material. After completion of photochemical dry etching step, the thermal annealing step is used to restore the electrical conductivity of the damaged regions of the semiconductor material.

  20. Electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Myers, David R.; Vook, Frederick L.

    1989-01-01

    An electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process for carrying out patterning and selective removing of material in semiconductor device fabrication includes the steps of selective ion implanting, photochemical dry etching, and thermal annealing, in that order. In the selective ion implanting step, regions of the semiconductor material in a desired pattern are damaged and the remainder of the regions of the material not implanted are left undamaged. The rate of recombination of electrons and holes is increased in the damaged regions of the pattern compared to undamaged regions. In the photochemical dry etching step which follows ion implanting step, the material in the undamaged regions of the semiconductor are removed substantially faster than in the damaged regions representing the pattern, leaving the ion-implanted, damaged regions as raised surface structures on the semiconductor material. After completion of photochemical dry etching step, the thermal annealing step is used to restore the electrical conductivity of the damaged regions of the semiconductor material.

  1. Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayral, B.

    Spontaneous emission of light can be controlled, cavity quantum electrodynamics tells us, and many experiments in atomic physics demonstrated this fact. In particular, coupling an emitter to a resonant photon mode of a cavity can enhance its spontaneous emission rate: this is the so-called Purcell effect. Though appealing it might seem to implement these concepts for the benefit of light-emitting semiconductor devices, great care has to be taken as to which emitter/cavity system should be used. Semiconductor quantum boxes prove to be good candidates for witnessing the Purcell effect. Also, low volume cavities having a high optical quality in other words a long photon storage time are required. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of such cavities are presented and discussed.We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement for InAs/GaAs quantum boxes in time-resolved and continuous-wave photoluminescence experiments. This is done for two kinds of cavities, namely GaAs/AlAs micropillars (global enhancement by a factor of 5), and GaAs microdisks (global enhancement by a factor of 20). Prospects for lasers, light-emitting diodes and single photon sources based on the Purcell effect are discussed. L'émission spontanée de lumière peut être contrôlée, ainsi que nous l'enseigne l'électrodynamique quantique en cavité, ce fait a été démontré expérimentalement en physique atomique. En particulier, coupler un émetteur à un mode photonique résonnant d'une cavité peut exalter son taux d'émission spontanée : c'est l'effet Purcell. Bien qu'il semble très prometteur de mettre en pratique ces concepts pour améliorer les dispositifs semi-conducteurs émetteurs de lumière, le choix du système émetteur/cavité est crucial. Nous montrons que les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des bons candidats pour observer l'effet Purcell. Il faut par ailleurs des cavités de faible volume ayant une grande qualité optique en d'autres mots un long temps de

  2. Controlling the interaction of light with polymer semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Christoph; Paquin, Francis; Treat, Neil D; Bruno, Annalisa; Reynolds, Luke X; Haque, Saif A; Stavrinou, Paul N; Silva, Carlos; Stingelin, Natalie

    2013-09-20

    In this study, a generally applicable strategy is described to manipulate the optical properties of a wide range of polymer semiconductors in the solid state. Blending these materials with a non-conjugated, polar polymer matrix is found to be the processing key to a drastic change and red-shift of the absorption characteristics.

  3. Controls over the strontium isotope composition of river water

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.R. ); Edmond, J.M. )

    1992-05-01

    Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios have been measured in river and ground waters from the Granges, Orinoco, and Amazon river basins. When compared with major element concentrations, the data set has allowed a detailed examination of the controls over the strontium isotope systematics of riverine input to the oceans in the following environments: (1) typical drainage basins containing limestones, evaporites, shales, and alumino-silicate metamorphic and igneous rocks; (2) shield terrains containing no chemical or biogenic sediments; and (3) the flood plains that constitute the largest areas of many large rivers. The strontium concentration and isotope compositions of river waters are largely defined by mixing of strontium derived from limestones and evaporites with strontium derived from silicate rocks. The strontium isotope composition of the limestone end member generally lies within the Phanerozoic seawater range, which buffers the [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios of major rivers. A major exception is provided by the rivers draining the Himalayas, where widescale regional metamorphism appears to have led to an enrichment in limestones of radiogenic strontium derived from coexisting silicate rocks. The strontium isotope systematics of rivers draining shield areas are controlled by the intense, transport-limited, nature of the weathering reactions, and thereby limits variations in the strontium flux from these terrains. Flood plains are only a minor source of dissolved strontium to river waters, and precipitation of soil salts in some flood plains can reduce the riverine flux of dissolved strontium to the oceans.

  4. Controls on Calcium Isotope Fractionation in Cultured Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisakurek, B.; Boehm, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Hathorne, E.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.; Erez, J.

    2008-12-01

    Calcium isotopes have recently emerged as an important tool to study the biomineralization pathways and processes in foraminifera. We analyzed calcium isotopes in planktonic and benthic foraminifera grown under controlled laboratory conditions at different salinity, temperature and pH values. Our results indicate that calcium isotope fractionation in foraminifera is controlled by more than one environmental parameter, requiring a common mechanism to explain the observed trends. There is a significant negative correlation between calcium isotope fractionation and the distribution coefficient of strontium in planktonic foraminifera, which has the same slope (within error) as that in inorganic calcite (Tang et al, 2008). In analogy to these inorganic experiments, calcium isotopic fractionation and Sr/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera appear to be mainly controlled by the precipitation rate. However, the two regressions (inorganic vs. foraminiferal) have a small but constant offset from each other by about 0.2 permil in delta(44Ca/40Ca) for a given D(Sr). This offset is presumably due to a vital effect that can be modeled via Rayleigh distillation from an internal biomineralization reservoir (Elderfield et al., 1996). Our preliminary results suggest that such a reservoir behaves as a semi-open system, wherein only less than 25 percent of the calcium taken up from seawater is being utilized for calcification. Elderfield, H., Bertram, C.J., Erez, J. 1996. A biomineralization model for the incorporation of trace elements into foraminiferal calcium carbonate. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 142:409-423. Tang J., Dietzel M., Boehm F., Koehler S.J., Eisenhauer A. 2008. Sr2+/Ca2+ and 44Ca/40Ca fractionation during inorganic calcite formation: II. Ca isotopes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72:3733-3745.

  5. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Significant accomplishments include development of a procedure to correct for the substantial differences of transistor delay time as measured with different instruments or with the same instrument at different frequencies; association of infrared response spectra of poor quality germanium gamma ray detectors with spectra of detectors fabricated from portions of a good crystal that had been degraded in known ways; and confirmation of the excellent quality and cosmetic appearance of ultrasonic bonds made with aluminum ribbon wire. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; study of gold-doped silicon, development of the infrared response technique; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; and measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices, delay time and related carrier transport properties in junction devices, and noise properties of microwave diodes.

  6. Domain control of carrier density at a semiconductor-ferroelectric interface

    PubMed Central

    Misirlioglu, I. B.; Yildiz, M.; Sendur, K.

    2015-01-01

    Control of charge carrier distribution in a gated channel via a dielectric layer is currently the state of the art in the design of integrated circuits such as field effect transistors. Replacing linear dielectrics with ferroelectrics would ultimately lead to more energy efficient devices as well as the added advantage of the memory function of the gate. Here, we report that the channel-off/channel-on states in a metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor stack are actually transitions from a multi domain state to a single domain state of the ferroelectric under bias. In our approach, there is no a priori assumption on the single or multi-domain nature of the ferroelectric layer that is often neglected in works discussing the ferroelectric-gate effect on channel conductivity interfacing a ferroelectric. We also predict that semiconductor/ferroelectric/semiconductor stacks can function at even lower gate voltages than metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor stacks when an n-type semiconductor is placed between the ferroelectric and the gate metal. Our results suggest the ultimate stability of the multidomain state whenever it interfaces a semiconductor electrode and that a switchable single domain state may not be necessary to achieve effective control of conductivity in a p-type channel. Finally, we discuss some experimental results in the literature in light of our findings. PMID:26477394

  7. Controlled Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films Using Liquid Crystal Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufkin, Kevin; Ohlson, Brooks; Hillman, Ben; Johnson, Brad; Patrick, David

    2008-05-01

    Interest in using organic semiconductors in applications such as large area displays, photovoltaic devices, and RFID tags stems in part from their prospects for enabling significantly reduced manufacturing costs compared to traditional inorganic semiconductors. However many of the best performing prototype devices produced so far have involved expensive or time-consuming fabrication methods, such as the use of single crystals or thin films deposited under high vacuum conditions. We present a new approach for growing low molecular weight organic crystalline films at ambient conditions based on a vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using thermotropic nematic liquid crystal (LC) solvents. Tetracene is deposited via atmospheric-pressure sublimation onto substrates coated by a LC layer oriented using rubbed polyimide, producing films that are highly crystalline, with large grain sizes, and possessing macroscopic uniaxial orientation. This poster will describe the growth mechanism, discuss the effects of processing conditions such as LC layer thickness, substrate temperature and flux rate, and compare the results to a model of deposition-diffusion aggregation accounting for the finite thickness of the solvent layer.

  8. Controlled Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films Using Liquid Crystal Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufkin, Kevin; Ohlson, Brooks; Hillman, Ben; Johnson, Brad; Patrick, David

    2008-03-01

    Interest in using organic semiconductors in applications such as large area displays, photovoltaic devices, and RFID tags stems in part from their prospects for enabling significantly reduced manufacturing costs compared to traditional inorganic semiconductors. However many of the best performing prototype devices produced so far have involved expensive or time-consuming fabrication methods, such as the use of single crystals or thin films deposited under high vacuum conditions. We present a new approach for growing low molecular weight organic crystalline films at ambient conditions based on a vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using thermotropic nematic liquid crystal (LC) solvents. Tetracene is deposited via atmospheric-pressure sublimation onto substrates coated by a LC layer oriented using rubbed polyimide, producing films that are highly crystalline, with large grain sizes, and possessing macroscopic uniaxial orientation. This poster will describe the growth mechanism, discuss the effects of processing conditions such as LC layer thickness, substrate temperature and flux rate, and compare the results to a model of diffusion limited aggregation accounting for the finite thickness of the solvent layer.

  9. Period-control and chaos-anti-control of a semiconductor laser using the twisted fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Sen-Lin

    2016-09-01

    A novel semiconductor laser system is presented based on a twisted fiber. To study the period-control and chaos-anti-control of the laser system, we design a type of optic path as a control setup using the combination of the twisted fiber and the polarization controller while we present a physical dynamics model of the delayed dual-feedback laser containing the twisted fiber effect. We give an analysis of the effect of the twisted fiber on the laser. We use the effects of the delayed phase and the rotation angle of the twisted fiber and the characteristics of the system to achieve control of the laser. The laser is deduced to a stable state, a double-periodic state, a period-6 state, a period-8 state, a period-9 state, a multi-period state, beat phenomenon, and so on. The periodic laser can be anti-controlled to chaos. Some chaos-anti-control area is found. The laser system is very useful for the study of chaos-control of the laser setup and the applications of some physics effects.

  10. Nonlinear burn condition control in tokamaks using isotopic fuel tailoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Mark D.; Schuster, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    One of the fundamental problems in tokamak fusion reactors is how to control the plasma density and temperature in order to regulate the amount of fusion power produced by the device. Control of these parameters will be critical to the success of burning plasma experiments like ITER. The most previous burn condition control efforts use either non-model based control designs or techniques based on models linearized around particular operating points. Such strategies limit the potential operational space and must be carefully retuned or redesigned to accommodate changes in operating points or plasma parameters. In this work, a nonlinear dynamic model of the spatial averages of energy and ion species densities is used to synthesize a nonlinear feedback controller for stabilizing the burn condition. The nonlinear model-based control strategy guarantees a much larger operational space than previous linear controllers. Because it is not designed around a particular operating point, the controller can be used to move from one burn condition to another. The proposed scheme first attempts to use regulation of the auxiliary heating power to reject temperature perturbations, then, if necessary, uses isotopic fuel tailoring as a way to reduce fusion heating during positive temperature perturbations. A global model of hydrogen recycling is incorporated into the model used for design and simulation, and the proposed control scheme is tested for a range of recycling model parameters. As we find the possibility of changing the isotopic mix can be limited for certain unfavorable recycling conditions, we also consider impurity injection as a back-up method for controlling the system. A simple supervisory control strategy is proposed to switch between the primary and back-up control schemes based on stability and performance criteria. A zero-dimensional simulation study is used to study the performance of the control scheme for several scenarios and model parameters. Finally, a one

  11. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab... 7, 2012, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  12. 78 FR 52802 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab... 01, 2013, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  13. The TR13 control system for automatic isotope production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. J.; Ewert, T.; Harrison, D.; Lam, J.; Keitel, R.

    1994-12-01

    The TR13 is a 13 MeV H cyclotron which produces short-lived isotopes for use in PET scanners. Machines of this type are usually installed in hospitals and call for automatic operation with a minimum of operator intervention and maintenance. The control system implementation follows the approach of the TR30 line of cyclotrons, using commercial software and hardware wherever possible. The two-processor system uses an Allen Bradley PLC for control and an IBM PC as console computer. Aspects of automatic operation are discussed in detail.

  14. Control of excitonic population inversion in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Evangelou, Sofia; Terzis, Andreas F.

    2013-06-01

    We study the potential for controlled population inversion in a coupled system comprised of a semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanoparticle. We show that the widely used method of population inversion by a π pulse can be modified for small interparticle distances. This modification depends strongly on the pulse duration. We also present analytical solutions of the nonlinear density matrix equations, for specific pulse envelopes, which lead to efficient excitonic population inversion in the quantum dot for several distances between the semiconductor quantum dot and the metal nanoparticle.

  15. Real time quantitative imaging for semiconductor crystal growth, control and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative real time image processing system has been developed which can be software-reconfigured for semiconductor processing and characterization tasks. In thermal imager mode, 2D temperature distributions of semiconductor melt surfaces (900-1600 C) can be obtained with temperature and spatial resolutions better than 0.5 C and 0.5 mm, respectively, as demonstrated by analysis of melt surface thermal distributions. Temporal and spatial image processing techniques and multitasking computational capabilities convert such thermal imaging into a multimode sensor for crystal growth control. A second configuration of the image processing engine in conjunction with bright and dark field transmission optics is used to nonintrusively determine the microdistribution of free charge carriers and submicron sized crystalline defects in semiconductors. The IR absorption characteristics of wafers are determined with 10-micron spatial resolution and, after calibration, are converted into charge carrier density.

  16. Compound semi-conductors and controlled doping thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, David J. (Inventor); Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor); Matus, Lawrence G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method of controlling the amount of impurity incorporation in a crystal grown by a chemical vapor deposition process. Conducted in a growth chamber, the method includes the controlling of the concentration of the crystal growing components in the growth chamber to affect the demand of particular growth sites within the growing crystal thereby controlling impurity incorporation into the growth sites.

  17. Controlled assembly and electronics in semiconductor nanocrystal-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndic, Marija

    2006-03-01

    I will discuss the assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals (CdSe and PbSe) into electronic devices and the basic mechanisms of charge transport in nanocrystal arrays [1-4]. Spherical CdSe nanocrystals show robust memory effects that can be exploited for memory applications [1]. Nanocrystal memory can be erased electrically or optically and is rewritable. In PbSe nanocrystal arrays, as the interdot coupling is increased, the system evolves from an insulating regime dominated by Coulomb blockade to a semiconducting regime, where hopping conduction is the dominant transport mechanism [2]. Two-dimensional CdSe nanorod arrays show striking and anomalous transport properties, including strong and reproducible non-linearities and current oscillations with dc-voltage [4]. I will also discuss imaging of the charge transport in nanocrystal-based electronic devices. Nanocrystal arrays were investigated using electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) [3]. Changes in lattice and transport properties upon annealing in vacuum were revealed. Local charge transport was directly imaged by EFM and correlated to nanopatterns observed with TEM. This work shows how charge transport in complex nanocrystal networks can be identified with nm resolution [3]. This work was supported by the ONR grant N000140410489, the NSF grants DMR-0449553 and MRSEC DMR00-79909, and the ACS PRF grant 41256-G10. References:1) Fischbein M. D. and Drndic M., ``CdSe nanocrystal quantum-dot memory,'' Applied Physics Letters, 86 (19), 193106, 2005.2) H. E. Romero and Drndic M., ``Coulomb blockade and hopping conduction in PbSe quantum dots,'' Physical Review Letters 95, 156801, 2005.3) Hu Z., Fischbein M. D. and Drndic M., ``Local charge transport in two-dimensional PbSe nanocrystal arrays studied by electrostatic force microscopy",'' Nano Letters 5 (7), 1463, 2005.4) Romero H.E., Calusine G. and Drndic M., ``Current oscillations, switching and hysteresis in CdSe nanorod

  18. All-optical noninvasive chaos control of a semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Schikora, S; Wünsche, H-J; Henneberger, F

    2008-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally control of a chaotic system on time scales much shorter than in any previous study. Combining a multisection laser with an external Fabry-Perot etalon, the chaotic output transforms into a regular intensity self-pulsation with a frequency in the 10-GHz range. The control is noninvasive as the feedback from the etalon is minimum when the target state is reached. The optical phase is identified as a crucial control parameter. Numerical simulations agree well with the experimental data and uncover global control properties.

  19. Controlling ferromagnetism of (In,Fe)As semiconductors by electron doping

    SciTech Connect

    Dang Vu, Nguyen; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori

    2014-02-21

    Based on experimental results, using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) method and Monte Carlo simulation, we study the mechanism of ferromagnetic behavior of (In,Fe)As. We show that with doped Be atoms occupying in interstitial sites, chemical pair interactions between atoms and magnetic exchange interactions between Fe atoms change due to electron concentration. Therefore, by controlling the doping process, magnetic behavior of (In,Fe)As is controlled and ferromagnetism is observed in this semiconductor.

  20. Gate-controlled energy barrier at a graphene/molecular semiconductor junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parui, S.; Pietrobon, L.; Ciudad, D.; Velez, S.; Sun, X.; Stoliar, P.; Casanova, F.; Hueso, L. E.

    The formation of an energy barrier at a metal/molecular semiconductor junction is both a ubiquitous phenomenon as well as the subject of intense research in order to improve the performance of molecular semiconductor-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. For these devices, a junction with a large energy barrier provides rectification, leading to a diode behavior, whereas a relatively small energy barrier provides nearly-ohmic behavior, resulting in efficient carrier injection (extraction) into the molecular semiconductor. Typically, a specific metal/molecular semiconductor combination leads to a fixed energy barrier; therefore, the possibility of a gate-controlled energy barrier is very appealing for advanced applications. Here, we present a graphene/C60 junction-based vertical field-effect transistor in which we demonstrate control of the interfacial energy-barrier such that the junction switches from a highly rectifying diode at negative gate voltages to a nearly-ohmic behavior at positive gate voltages and at room temperature. We extract an energy-barrier modulation of up to 660 meV, a transconductance of up to five orders of magnitude and a gate-modulated photocurrent.

  1. Protection of semiconductor converters for controlled bypass reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgopolov, A. G.; Akhmetzhanov, N. G.; Karmanov, V. F.

    2010-05-15

    Possible ways of protecting thyristor converters in systems for magnetizing 110 - 500 kV controlled bypass reactors during switching and automatic reclosing are examined based on experience with the development of equipment, line tests, and mathematical modelling.

  2. Active RF Pulse Compression using Electrically Controlled Semiconductor Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

    2008-01-30

    In this paper, we will present our recent results on the research of the ultra-fast high power RF switches based on silicon. We have developed a switch module at X-band which can use a silicon window as the switch. The switching is realized by generation of carriers in the bulk silicon. The carriers can be generated electrically or/and optically. The electrically controlled switches use PIN diodes to inject carrier. We have built the PIN diode switches at X-band, with <300ns switching time. The optically controlled switches use powerful lasers to excite carriers. By combining the laser excitation and electrical carrier generation, significant reduction in the required power of both the laser and the electrical driver is expected. High power test is under going.

  3. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization

    PubMed Central

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P.; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by “fishbone” gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed. PMID:25512515

  4. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A; Linfield, Edmund H; Capasso, Federico

    2014-12-30

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by "fishbone" gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed.

  5. Fabrication of control rods for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a research-type nuclear reactor that was designed and built in the early 1960s and has been in continuous operation since its initial criticality in 1965. Under current plans, the HFIR is expected to continue in operation until 2035. This report updates ORNL/TM-9365, Fabrication Procedure for HFIR Control Plates, which was mainly prepared in the early 1970's but was not issued until 1984, and reflects process changes, lessons learned in the latest control rod fabrication campaign, and suggested process improvements to be considered in future campaigns. Most of the personnel involved with the initial development of the processes and in part campaigns have retired or will retire soon. Because their unlikely availability in future campaigns, emphasis has been placed on providing some explanation of why the processes were selected and some discussions about the importance of controlling critical process parameters. Contained in this report is a description of the function of control rods in the reactor, the brief history of the development of control rod fabrication processes, and a description of procedures used in the fabrication of control rods. A listing of the controlled documents and procedures used in the last fabrication campaigns is referenced in Appendix A.

  6. Voltage controlled optics of a monolayer semiconductor quantum emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Chitraleema; Goodfellow, Kenneth; Kinnischtzke, Laura; Vamivakas, Nick; University of Rochester Team

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional atomically thin materials are being actively investigated for next generation optoelectronic devices. Particularly exciting are transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) since these materials exhibit a band gap, and support valley specific exciton mediated optical transitions. In this work we report the observation of single photon emission in the TMDC tungsten diselenide. We present magneto-optical spectroscopy results and demonstrate voltage controlled photoluminescence of these localized quantum emitters.

  7. Generalization of the theory of coherent control of photocurrent generation in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L. P. Hughes, James; Sipe, J. E.; Shkrebtii, A. I.

    1998-03-01

    The theoretical prediction of the coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors [1] has recently been experimentally confirmed for GaAs [2]. When two monochromatic beams of frequency ω and 2ω are incident on an intrinsic semiconductor, a photocurrent is generated whose direction and magnitude can be controlled by simply adjusting the relative phase between the two pulses. Such a process is very interesting from a technological and scientific point of view. The aims of this presentation are twofold. First, the theoretical approach of [1] is generalized for nondegenerate frequencies, and second, we examine the physics behind the coherent control effect in more detail as a means of gaining more insight into the process. We analyze the origin of the coherent photocurrent in terms of contributing regions in separate parts of the Brillouin zone, fine details of the electronic band structure, the dependence on contributions from various real and virtual bands, and the velocity distribution of electrons and holes for various energies and relative phases. The possibility of observing coherently controlled photocurrent for a wider class of semiconductors will be discussed, and in this regard, we present results for this current in Germanium. [1] R. Atanasov, et. al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 1703 (1996). [2] A. Hache, et. al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 306 (1997).

  8. Control over hysteresis curves and thresholds of optical bistability in different semiconductor double quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, R. Hamedi; M, R. Mehmannavaz; Hadi, Afshari

    2015-08-01

    The effects of optical field on the phenomenon of optical bistability (OB) are investigated in a K-type semiconductor double quantum well (SDQW) under various parametric conditions. It is shown that the OB threshold can be manipulated by increasing the intensity of coupling field. The dependence of the shift of OB hysteresis curve on probe wavelength detuning is then explored. In order to demonstrate controllability of the OB in this SDQW, we compare the OB features of three different configurations which could arise in this SDQW scheme, i.e., K-type, Y-type, and inverted Y-type systems. The controllability of this semiconductor nanostructure medium makes the presented OB scheme more valuable for applications in all-optical switches, information storage, and logic circuits of all optical information processing. Project supported by the Lithuanian Research Council (Grant No. VP1-3.1-ŠM-01-V-03-001).

  9. [A semiconductor photostimulator for electroencephalography with USB control].

    PubMed

    Marageĭ, R A; Okhritskiĭ, A A; Prilutskiĭ, D A

    2004-01-01

    The paper contains a description of electroencephalography (EEG) photostimulator for examining the induced cerebral potentials. The device was designed to function within the EEG computer complexes; a high-intensity irradiation LED matrix is used as the light source. The 1.1 USB control bus serves as the communication interface; there is an extra external synchronization bus. It is possible to preset the frequency, brightness, on-off time ratio and pattern of light stimuli. A library of application programmer is supplied to monitor the photostimulation.

  10. Synchronization and control of chaos in semiconductor laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethel, Shawn Dwayne

    2000-08-01

    Diode lasers are miniature, highly efficient, reliable sources of low-power coherent light. For high-power applications diode lasers can be fabricated into arrays. Although beam power can be easily increased this way, it is at the expense of beam quality. The in-phase state is inherently unstable in diode laser arrays and for many parameters these devices display spatio-temporal chaos in the near field. This dissertation uses a coupled-mode model to study the dynamics of a weakly-coupled array of diode lasers. A stability analysis is done to investigate the effect of the coupling parameter on various phase- locked states. Possible control techniques are discussed and analyzed. It is found that a knowledge of relative phase across the array along with the ability to rapidly modulate the injection current can lead to a very robust method of phase control. In addition to the power- combining in-phase mode it is shown that other phase states can be stabilized with applications to beam steering.

  11. Ultrathin film organic transistors: precise control of semiconductor thickness via spin-coating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Di, Chong-an; Berdunov, Nikolai; Hu, Yuanyuan; Hu, Yunbin; Gao, Xike; Meng, Qing; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhu, Daoben

    2013-03-13

    Construction of ultrathin film organic transistors is an important challenge towards deeper understanding of the charge transport mechanism and multifunctional applications. We report on precise thickness control of ultrathin films of several organic semiconductors by using a simple spin-coating approach. Ultrathin film, n-channel organic transistors with mobilities well over 1.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been realized and their potential in high-sensitivity gas sensing and other applications is demonstrated.

  12. Metal ions to control the morphology of semiconductor nanoparticles: copper selenide nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhua; Zamani, Reza; Ibáñez, Maria; Cadavid, Doris; Shavel, Alexey; Morante, Joan Ramon; Arbiol, Jordi; Cabot, Andreu

    2013-03-27

    Morphology is a key parameter in the design of novel nanocrystals and nanomaterials with controlled functional properties. Here, we demonstrate the potential of foreign metal ions to tune the morphology of colloidal semiconductor nanoparticles. We illustrate the underlying mechanism by preparing copper selenide nanocubes in the presence of Al ions. We further characterize the plasmonic properties of the obtained nanocrystals and demonstrate their potential as a platform to produce cubic nanoparticles with different composition by cation exchange.

  13. Continuously controlled optical band gap in oxide semiconductor thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Herklotz, Andreas; Rus, Stefania Florina; Ward, Thomas Zac

    2016-02-02

    The optical band gap of the prototypical semiconducting oxide SnO2 is shown to be continuously controlled through single axis lattice expansion of nanometric films induced by low-energy helium implantation. While traditional epitaxy-induced strain results in Poisson driven multidirectional lattice changes shown to only allow discrete increases in bandgap, we find that a downward shift in the band gap can be linearly dictated as a function of out-of-plane lattice expansion. Our experimental observations closely match density functional theory that demonstrates that uniaxial strain provides a fundamentally different effect on the band structure than traditional epitaxy-induced multiaxes strain effects. In conclusion, charge density calculations further support these findings and provide evidence that uniaxial strain can be used to drive orbital hybridization inaccessible with traditional strain engineering techniques.

  14. Continuously controlled optical band gap in oxide semiconductor thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Herklotz, Andreas; Rus, Stefania Florina; Ward, Thomas Zac

    2016-02-02

    The optical band gap of the prototypical semiconducting oxide SnO2 is shown to be continuously controlled through single axis lattice expansion of nanometric films induced by low-energy helium implantation. While traditional epitaxy-induced strain results in Poisson driven multidirectional lattice changes shown to only allow discrete increases in bandgap, we find that a downward shift in the band gap can be linearly dictated as a function of out-of-plane lattice expansion. Our experimental observations closely match density functional theory that demonstrates that uniaxial strain provides a fundamentally different effect on the band structure than traditional epitaxy-induced multiaxes strain effects. In conclusion, chargemore » density calculations further support these findings and provide evidence that uniaxial strain can be used to drive orbital hybridization inaccessible with traditional strain engineering techniques.« less

  15. Fabrication of reliable semiconductor nanowires by controlling crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangdan; Lim, Taekyung; Ju, Sanghyun

    2011-07-29

    One-dimensional SnO(2) nanomaterials with wide bandgap characteristics are attractive for flexible and/or transparent displays and high-performance nano-electronics. In this study, the crystallinity of SnO(2) nanowires was regulated by controlling their growth temperatures. Moreover, the correlation of the crystallinity of nanowires with optical and electrical characteristics was analyzed. When SnO(2) nanowires were grown at temperatures below 900 °C, they showed various growth directions and abnormal discontinuity in their crystal structures. On the other hand, most nanowires grown at 950 °C exhibited a regular growth trend in the direction of [100]. In addition, the low temperature photoluminescence measurement revealed that the higher growth temperatures of nanowires gradually decreased the 500 nm peak rather than the 620 nm peak. The former peak is derived from the surface defect related to the shallow energy level and affects nanowire surface states. Owing to crystallinity and defects, the threshold voltage range (maximum-minimum) of SnO(2) nanowire transistors was 1.5 V at 850 °C, 1.1 V at 900 °C, and 0.5 V at 950 °C, with dispersion characteristics dramatically decreased. This study successfully demonstrated the effects of nanowire crystallinity on optical and electrical characteristics. It also suggested that the optical and electrical characteristics of nanowire transistors could be regulated by controlling their growth temperatures in the course of producing SnO(2) nanowires.

  16. Effect of semiconductor-controlled voltage injection by UPFC and ULTC on power system stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavian Mehr, Alireza

    Commercial availability of various power semiconductor switches indicates proliferation of power electronic based apparatus in utility power systems. Furthermore, existing power system apparatus, e.g. mechanical phase shifters and mechanical tap changing transformers, will be retrofitted to utilize higher switching speed of semiconductor switches. A group of these apparatus, i.e., unified power flow controller (UPFC), static phase shifter (SPS), under-load tap-changing (ULTC) transformer and static series capacitor (SSC), perform their respective functions by means of injecting series controlled voltages in power systems. This thesis demonstrates that fast series voltage injection, for dynamic power flow regulation, can result in voltage dynamics and even voltage instability. This indicates that fast voltage injection by means of power electronic based apparatus can couple voltage stability and angle stability phenomena. To investigate this coupling phenomena, the voltage dependency of the load must be adequately represented in the load model. The reported studies in this work are based on representing the load by a combination of static and dynamic loads. This thesis primarily investigates impacts of UPFC and semiconductor-controlled ULTC on voltage stability and angle stability phenomena. An eigen analysis approach is used for the studies. The eigen analysis results are validated by digital time-domain simulations using a transient stability software. Both the eigen analysis and the transient stability software tools are tailored to account for angle and voltage stability phenomena.

  17. The control of stoichiometry in Epitaxial semiconductor structures. Interfacial Chemistry: Property relations. A workshop review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Klaus J.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on the control of stoichiometry in epitaxial semiconductor structures was held on August 21-26, 1995 in the hotel Stutenhaus at Vesser in Germany. The secluded location of the workshop in the forest of Thuringia and its informal style stimulated extensive private discussions among the participants and promoted new contacts between young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe and the USA. Topics addressed by the presentations were interactions of precursors to heteroepitaxy and doping with the substrate surface, the control of interfacial properties under the conditions of heteroepitaxy for selected materials systems, methods of characterization of interfaces and native point defects in semiconductor heterostructures and an in depth evaluation of the present status of the control and characterization of the point defect chemistry for one specific semiconductor (ZnGeP2), including studies of both heterostructures and bulk single crystals. The selected examples of presentations and comments given here represent individual choices - made by the author to highlight major points of the discussions.

  18. Control of the spin geometric phase in semiconductor quantum rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Fumiya; Frustaglia, Diego; Saarikoski, Henri; Richter, Klaus; Nitta, Junsaku

    2013-09-01

    Since the formulation of the geometric phase by Berry, its relevance has been demonstrated in a large variety of physical systems. However, a geometric phase of the most fundamental spin-1/2 system, the electron spin, has not been observed directly and controlled independently from dynamical phases. Here we report experimental evidence on the manipulation of an electron spin through a purely geometric effect in an InGaAs-based quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. By applying an in-plane magnetic field, a phase shift of the Aharonov-Casher interference pattern towards the small spin-orbit-coupling regions is observed. A perturbation theory for a one-dimensional Rashba ring under small in-plane fields reveals that the phase shift originates exclusively from the modulation of a pure geometric-phase component of the electron spin beyond the adiabatic limit, independently from dynamical phases. The phase shift is well reproduced by implementing two independent approaches, that is, perturbation theory and non-perturbative transport simulations.

  19. Control of the spin geometric phase in semiconductor quantum rings

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Fumiya; Frustaglia, Diego; Saarikoski, Henri; Richter, Klaus; Nitta, Junsaku

    2013-01-01

    Since the formulation of the geometric phase by Berry, its relevance has been demonstrated in a large variety of physical systems. However, a geometric phase of the most fundamental spin-1/2 system, the electron spin, has not been observed directly and controlled independently from dynamical phases. Here we report experimental evidence on the manipulation of an electron spin through a purely geometric effect in an InGaAs-based quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. By applying an in-plane magnetic field, a phase shift of the Aharonov–Casher interference pattern towards the small spin-orbit-coupling regions is observed. A perturbation theory for a one-dimensional Rashba ring under small in-plane fields reveals that the phase shift originates exclusively from the modulation of a pure geometric-phase component of the electron spin beyond the adiabatic limit, independently from dynamical phases. The phase shift is well reproduced by implementing two independent approaches, that is, perturbation theory and non-perturbative transport simulations. PMID:24067870

  20. Control of the spin geometric phase in semiconductor quantum rings.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Fumiya; Frustaglia, Diego; Saarikoski, Henri; Richter, Klaus; Nitta, Junsaku

    2013-01-01

    Since the formulation of the geometric phase by Berry, its relevance has been demonstrated in a large variety of physical systems. However, a geometric phase of the most fundamental spin-1/2 system, the electron spin, has not been observed directly and controlled independently from dynamical phases. Here we report experimental evidence on the manipulation of an electron spin through a purely geometric effect in an InGaAs-based quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. By applying an in-plane magnetic field, a phase shift of the Aharonov-Casher interference pattern towards the small spin-orbit-coupling regions is observed. A perturbation theory for a one-dimensional Rashba ring under small in-plane fields reveals that the phase shift originates exclusively from the modulation of a pure geometric-phase component of the electron spin beyond the adiabatic limit, independently from dynamical phases. The phase shift is well reproduced by implementing two independent approaches, that is, perturbation theory and non-perturbative transport simulations.

  1. Chaos synchronization based on a continuous chaos control method in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Ohtsubo, J

    2001-06-01

    Chaos synchronization using a continuous chaos control method was studied in two identical chaotic laser systems consisting of semiconductor lasers and optical feedback from an external mirror. Numerical calculations for rate equations indicate that the stability of chaos synchronization depends significantly on the external mirror position. We performed a linear stability analysis for the rate equations. Our results show that the stability of the synchronization is much influenced by the mode interaction between the relaxation oscillation frequency of the semiconductor laser and the external cavity frequency. Due to this interaction, an intensive mode competition between the two frequencies destroys the synchronization, but stable synchronization can be achieved when the mode competition is very weak.

  2. In situ reflectance and virtual interface analysis for compound semiconductor process control

    SciTech Connect

    Breiland, W.G.; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The authors review the use of in-situ normal incidence reflectance, combined with a virtual interface model, to monitor and control the growth of complex compound semiconductor devices. The technique is being used routinely on both commercial and research metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactors and in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to measure growth rates and high temperature optical constants of compound semiconductor alloys. The virtual interface approach allows one to extract the calibration information in an automated way without having to estimate the thickness or optical constants of the alloy, and without having to model underlying thin film layers. The method has been used in a variety of data analysis applications collectively referred to as ADVISOR (Analysis of Deposition using Virtual Interfaces and Spectroscopic Optical Reflectance). This very simple and robust monitor and ADVISOR method provides one with the equivalent of a real-time reflection high energy electron reflectance (RHEED) tool for both MBE and MOCVD applications.

  3. The control of purity and stoichiometry of compound semiconductors by high vapor pressure transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Klaus J.; Ito, Kazufumi; Scroggs, Jeffery S.; Tran, Hien T.

    1995-01-01

    In this report we summarize the results of a three year research program on high pressure vapor transport (HPVT) of compound semiconductors. Most of our work focused onto pnictides, in particular ZnGeP2, as a model system. Access to single crystals of well controlled composition of this material is desired for advancing the understanding and control of its point defect chemistry in the contest of remote, real-time sensing of trace impurities, e.g., greenhouse gases, in the atmosphere by ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillators (OPO's).

  4. Controls on the stable isotope compositions of travertine from hyperalkaline springs in Oman: Insights from clumped isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, E. S.; Guo, W.; Paukert, A. N.; Matter, J. M.; Mervine, E. M.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2016-11-01

    Carbonate formation at hyperalkaline springs is typical of serpentinization in peridotite massifs worldwide. These travertines have long been known to exhibit large variations in their carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, extending from apparent equilibrium values to highly depleted values. However, the exact causes of these variations are not well constrained. We analyzed a suite of well-characterized fresh carbonate precipitates and travertines associated with hyperalkaline springs in the peridotite section of the Samail ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman, and found their clumped isotope compositions vary systematically with formation environments. Based on these findings, we identified four main processes controlling the stable isotope compositions of these carbonates. These include hydroxylation of CO2, partial isotope equilibration of dissolved inorganic carbon, mixing between isotopically distinct carbonate end-members, and post-depositional recrystallization. Most notably, in fresh crystalline films on the surface of hyperalkaline springs and in some fresh carbonate precipitates from the bottom of hyperalkaline pools, we observed large enrichments in Δ47 (up to ∼0.2‰ above expected equilibrium values) which accompany depletions in δ18O and δ13C, yielding about 0.01‰ increase in Δ47 and 1.1‰ decrease in δ13C for every 1‰ decrease in δ18O, relative to expected equilibrium values. This disequilibrium trend, also reflected in preserved travertines ranging in age from modern to ∼40,000 years old, is interpreted to arise mainly from the isotope effects associated with the hydroxylation of CO2 in high-pH fluids and agrees with our first-order theoretical estimation. In addition, in some fresh carbonate precipitates from the bottom of hyperalkaline pools and in subsamples of one preserved travertine terrace, we observed additional enrichments in Δ47 at intermediate δ13C and δ18O, consistent with mixing between isotopically distinct carbonate end

  5. Controlled deposition or organic semiconductor single crystals and its application in field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuhong

    single crystals are selectively nucleated on patterned templates of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. Several organic semiconductor materials are successfully patterned, including p-type pentacene, tetracene, sexiphenylene, and sexithiophene, as well as n-type tetracyanoquinodimethane. This study suggests that the selective growth of crystals onto patterned carbon nanotubes is most likely due to the coarse topography of the CNT bundles. Moreover, I observe that the crystals nucleate from CNT bundles and grow onto CNT bundles in a conformal fashion. The crystal growth can be directly applied onto transistor source-drain electrodes and arrays of organic single-crystal field effect transistors are demonstrated. To investigate the impact of CNTs on device performance, CNT bundles are incorporated into thin-film FETs and a mobility enhancement of organic semiconductors is observed. In the third approach, organic single crystals with well controlled sizes and shapes are successfully grown using patterned Au films as templates. It is observed that sexithiophene crystals nucleate from the edge or the top surface of Au films and then grow two dimensionally on SiO2 surface. The sizes and shapes of sexithiophene crystals are precisely determined by that of the Au patterns. After removing Au templates, large arrays of sexithiophene crystals with controlled sizes and various shapes such as stripes, squares, hexagons, etc. are achieved. Top-contact FETs made of sexithiophene ribbons are demonstrated. Besides organic single crystals, Au templates can also act as templates to pattern vapor- and solution-deposited organic semiconductor thin films. Patterned organic thin-film FETs exhibit superior performance compared to unpatterned devices. Finally, oriented growth of organic semiconductor single crystals on templates with various features is studied. On substrates with aligned features, such as friction-transferred poly(tetrafluoroethylene) thin films, organic semiconductor thin films

  6. Stable isotopic signature of Australian monsoon controlled by regional convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwart, C.; Munksgaard, N. C.; Kurita, N.; Bird, M. I.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main meteorological drivers of rainfall isotopic variation in north Australia in order to improve the interpretation of isotopic proxy records in this region. An intense monitoring program was conducted during two monsoonal events that showed significant and systematic isotopic change over time. The results showed a close link between isotopic variation in precipitation and variability in monsoon conditions, associated with the presence of large convective envelopes propagating through the study site. The largest negative amplitudes in the isotopic signal were observed when eastward and westward moving precipitation systems within the convective envelope merged over the measurement site. This suggests that the amplitude of the isotopic signal is related to the size and activity of the convective envelope. The strong correlation between rainfall isotopic variation, regional outgoing longwave radiation and regional rainfall amount supports this conclusion. This is further strengthened by the strong relationship between isotopic variation and the integrated rainfall history of air masses prior to arriving at the measurement locations. A local amount effect was not significant and these findings support the interpretation of δ18O as proxy for regional climatic conditions rather than local rainfall amount. Meteorological parameters that characterize intra-seasonal variability of monsoon conditions were also found to be strongly linked to inter-seasonal variability of the monthly based δ18O values in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database. This leads to the conclusion that information about the Australian monsoon variability can likely be inferred from the isotopic proxy record in North Australia on short (intra seasonal) and long (inter seasonal or longer) timescales.

  7. Environmental controls on stable isotope ratios in New Zealand Podocarpaceae: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, Marianne J.; Baldini, James U. L.; Gröcke, Darren R.

    2014-09-01

    Stable isotope ratios of various proxies are widely used for palaeoclimate reconstruction, and it is often assumed that isotope ratios reflect vegetation abundance or type. However, very little research exists on the isotopic equilibration of extant biomes under variable environmental conditions. In this study, carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from leaves of various Podocarpaceae genera, endemic to New Zealand, are linked to environmental parameters from the Land Environments New Zealand model. The dominant influence on stable isotope ratios within the majority of Podocarpaceae studied here is vapour pressure deficit (VPD). A simple latitudinal trend does not exist, and neither temperature nor rainfall (decoupled from VPD) controls the stable isotope ratios. The results suggest that modern spatial heterogeneity in VPD affects the stable isotope values of vegetation, and that historic VPD variability would change the stable isotope ratios of Podocarpaceae without necessitating a change in vegetation type, density, or productivity. This represents an alternative model for temporal isotope change within geochemical proxies and reinforces the need for increased stable isotopic research in modern plant ecosystems to better understand modern, and eventually palaeoclimatic processes affecting the terrestrial biosphere.

  8. Solution speciation controls mercury isotope fractionation of Hg(II) sorption to goethite.

    PubMed

    Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2012-06-19

    The application of Hg isotope signatures as tracers for environmental Hg cycling requires the determination of isotope fractionation factors and mechanisms for individual processes. Here, we investigated Hg isotope fractionation of Hg(II) sorption to goethite in batch systems under different experimental conditions. We observed a mass-dependent enrichment of light Hg isotopes on the goethite surface relative to dissolved Hg (ε(202)Hg of -0.30‰ to -0.44‰) which was independent of the pH, chloride and sulfate concentration, type of surface complex, and equilibration time. Based on previous theoretical equilibrium fractionation factors, we propose that Hg isotope fractionation of Hg(II) sorption to goethite is controlled by an equilibrium isotope effect between Hg(II) solution species, expressed on the mineral surface by the adsorption of the cationic solution species. In contrast, the formation of outer-sphere complexes and subsequent conformation changes to different inner-sphere complexes appeared to have insignificant effects on the observed isotope fractionation. Our findings emphasize the importance of solution speciation in metal isotope sorption studies and suggest that the dissolved Hg(II) pool in soils and sediments, which is the most mobile and bioavailable, should be isotopically heavy, as light Hg isotopes are preferentially sequestered during binding to both mineral phases and natural organic matter.

  9. Computer Controlled Magnetotransport Setup for the Characterization of Semiconductor Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ducoudray, G. O.; Collazo, R.; Martinez, A.

    1997-01-01

    We have considered a computer controlled magnetotransport setup using LabWindows environment. It allows for measurements of resistivity, Hall resistance, carrier concentration and charge mobility in semiconductor thin films using a van der Pauw configuration. The setup features an electromagnet (B = 0.7 Tesla) a 80486-DX 33 computer with a National Instrument AT-MIO 16 AD/DA and a GPIB interface board. A Keithely 224 current source and a Keithley 196 digital voltmeter were also used in the setup. Plans for the addition of capabilities to allow for magnetic field sweeping and the performance of measurements as a function of temperature will be presented.

  10. Origin and control of ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors and oxides (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Tomasz

    2008-04-01

    The author reviews the present understanding of the hole-mediated ferromagnetism in magnetically doped semiconductors and oxides as well as the origin of high temperature ferromagnetism in materials containing no valence band holes. It is argued that in these systems spinodal decomposition into regions with a large and a small concentration of magnetic component takes place. This self-organized assembling of magnetic nanocrystals can be controlled by codoping and growth conditions. Functionalities of these multicomponent systems are described together with prospects for their applications in spintronics, nanoelectronics, photonics, plasmonics, and thermoelectrics.

  11. Emission polarization control in semiconductor quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal microcavity.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, E; Martínez, L J; Nowak, A K; van der Meulen, H P; Calleja, J M; Tejedor, C; Prieto, I; Granados, D; Taboada, A G; García, J M; Postigo, P A

    2010-06-07

    We study the optical emission of single semiconductor quantum dots weakly coupled to a photonic-crystal micro-cavity. The linearly polarized emission of a selected quantum dot changes continuously its polarization angle, from nearly perpendicular to the cavity mode polarization at large detuning, to parallel at zero detuning, and reversing sign for negative detuning. The linear polarization rotation is qualitatively interpreted in terms of the detuning dependent mixing of the quantum dot and cavity states. The present result is relevant to achieve continuous control of the linear polarization in single photon emitters.

  12. Two-Color Coherent Control of Optical Bistability in Asymmetric Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia-Hua; Hao, Xiang-Ying

    We investigate optical bistability in intersubband transitions of an asymmetric semiconductor quantum well structure that has equidistant transitions between three subbands of the system and is placed in a unidirectional cavity. The system is simultaneously coupled by a fundamental field and its second harmonic. The second harmonic field acts as a control field and significantly influences the optical bistability. In addition, the two-color coherent control of optical bistability by the relative phase of the fundamental and the second harmonic fields is shown. The influence of the electronic cooperation parameter on the OB behavior is also discussed. This investigation may be used for optimizing and controlling the optical switching process in the SQW solid-state system, which is much more practical than that in the atomic system because of its flexible design and the controllable interference strength.

  13. Plasmon-assisted local temperature control to pattern individual semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Linyou; Barsic, David N; Guichard, Alex R; Brongersma, Mark L

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate a new versatile strategy to rapidly heat and cool subdiffraction-limited volumes of material with a focused light beam. The local temperature rise is obtained by exploiting the unique optical properties of metallic nanostructures that facilitate efficient light-to-heat conversion through the excitation of surface plasmons (collective electron oscillations). By locally heating nanoscale metallic catalysts, growth of semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes can be initiated and controlled at arbitrarily prespecified locations and down to the single nanostructure level in a room-temperature chamber. This local heating strategy can be orders of magnitude (>10(5)) more energy efficient than conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tools in which an entire chamber/substrate is heated. For these reasons, it has great potential for use in process- and energy-efficient assembly of nanowires into complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible device architectures. In general, the high degree of spatial and temporal control over nanoscale thermal environments afforded by this method inspires new pathways for manipulating a range of important thermally stimulated processes and the development of novel photothermal devices.

  14. East Asian Monsoon controls on the inter-annual variability in precipitation isotope ratio in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, N.; Fujiyoshi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Matsumi, Y.; Kitagawa, H.

    2015-02-01

    To elucidate the mechanism for how the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) variability have influenced the isotope proxy records in Japan, we explore the primary driver of variations of precipitation isotopes at multiple temporal scales (event, seasonal and inter-annual scales). Using a new 1-year record of the isotopic composition of event-based precipitation and continuous near-surface water vapor at Nagoya in central Japan, we identify the key atmospheric processes controlling the storm-to-storm isotopic variations through an analysis of air mass sources and rainout history during the transport of moisture to the site, and then apply the identified processes to explain the inter-annual isotopic variability related to the EAM variability in the historical 17-year long Tokyo station record in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). In the summer, southerly flows transport moisture with higher isotopic values from subtropical marine regions and bring warm rainfall enriched with heavy isotopes. The weak monsoon summer corresponds to enriched isotopic values in precipitation, reflecting higher contribution of warm rainfall to the total summer precipitation. In the strong monsoon summer, the sustaining Baiu rainband along the southern coast of Japan prevents moisture transport across Japan, so that the contribution of warm rainfall is reduced. In the winter, storm tracks are the dominant driver of storm-to-storm isotopic variation and relatively low isotopic values occur when a cold frontal rainband associated with extratropical cyclones passes off to the south of the Japan coast. The weak monsoon winter is characterized by lower isotopes in precipitation, due to the distribution of the cyclone tracks away from the southern coast of Japan. In contrast, the northward shift of the cyclone tracks and stronger development of cyclones during the strong monsoon winters decrease the contribution of cold frontal precipitation, resulting in higher isotopic values in

  15. Spatially Controlled Fe Isotope Variations at Torres del Paine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, N.; Lundstrom, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in mass-spectrometry have identified systematic trends of non-traditional stable isotope variation in igneous rocks with differentiation index. We present new Fe isotope data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of a 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous and possibly cogenetic 0.5 km mafic gabbro suite. Whereas previous isotopic investigations do little to address variations across important magmatic contacts, this study focuses on a first-of-its-kind spatially dependent non-traditional stable isotope investigation of an igneous pluton. Samples were collected at Torres del Paine in spatially significant transects, focusing on major contacts between country rock, granite and mafic units. Results collected by bracketed double spike MC-ICP-MS (2s precision of ×0.03) show an increase in δ56Fe towards the high silica margins of the pluton with values as high as δ56Fe 0.36. Additionally, the data show a decrease in δ56Fe toward the mafic center of the pluton with δ56Fe values ranging from δ56Fe -0.05 to 0.18. Samples collected on the contact between the granite and mafic complex show intermediate values of δ56Fe= 0.18(×) 0.03. Country rock samples in contact with granite show an isotopically light signature of δ56Fe=0.04 (×) 0.03. Analysis of 50 samples in total show a trend of increasing δ56Fe with SiO2 content. The process responsible for Fe isotope variations remains debated but is suggested to reflect four mechanisms: (1) crustal assimilation, (2) fractional crystallization, (3) late stage fluid exsolution [1] and (4) thermal migration [3]. Preliminary results show that mechanisms #1 and #2 would produce isotopic signatures opposite of those seen at Torres del Paine and other plutonic rocks. Isotopically light Torres country rock samples reveal that assimilation of rocks would not produce the isotopically heavy granites seen at Torres. Based on

  16. What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Hirabayashi, M.; Winkler, R.; Satow, K.; Prié, F.; Bayou, N.; Brun, E.; Cuffey, K. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Dumont, M.; Guillevic, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Landais, A.; Popp, T.; Risi, C.; Steffen, K.; Stenni, B.; Sveinbjörnsdottír, A. E.

    2014-02-01

    Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation isotopic composition simulated by isotopically enabled atmospheric models. However, post-depositional processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, monitoring of the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD) of near-surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of the top (0.5 cm) snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011-2012) at NEEM, NW Greenland. The samples also include a subset of 17O-excess measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a strong correlation between near-surface vapor δ18O and air temperature (0.85 ± 0.11‰ °C-1 (R = 0.76) for 2012). The correlation with air temperature is not observed in precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess) is strongly anti-correlated with δ18O with a stronger slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During nine 1-5-day periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and near-surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or deposition. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in near-surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic variations and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in near-surface vapor

  17. What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Hirabayashi, M.; Winkler, R.; Satow, K.; Prié, F.; Bayou, N.; Brun, E.; Cuffey, K. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Dumont, M.; Guillevic, M.; Kipfstuhl, J.; Landais, A.; Popp, T.; Risi, C.; Steffen, K.; Stenni, B.; Sveinbjörnsdottír, A.

    2013-10-01

    Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation isotopic composition simulated by isotopically-enabled atmospheric models. However, post-deposition processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, a monitoring of the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD) of surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of top (0.5 cm) snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011-2012) at NEEM, NW Greenland. The measurements also include a subset of 17O-excess measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a strong correlation between surface vapor δ18O and air temperature (0.85 ± 0.11 ‰ °C-1 (R = 0.76) for 2012). The correlation with air temperature is not observed in precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess) is strongly anti-correlated with δ18O with a stronger slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During nine 1-5 days periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere using the CROCUS snow model. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or condensation. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic weather and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in-between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in surface vapor isotopic composition. This

  18. Voltage control of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in ferromagnetic-semiconductor-piezoelectric hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushforth, A. W.; de Ranieri, E.; Zemen, J.; Wunderlich, J.; Edmonds, K. W.; King, C. S.; Ahmad, E.; Campion, R. P.; Foxon, C. T.; Gallagher, B. L.; Výborný, K.; Kučera, J.; Jungwirth, T.

    2008-08-01

    We demonstrate voltage control of the magnetic anisotropy of a (Ga,Mn)As device bonded to a piezoelectric transducer. The application of a uniaxial strain leads to a large reorientation of the magnetic easy axis, which is detected by anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements. Calculations based on the mean-field kinetic-exchange model of (Ga,Mn)As provide a microscopic understanding of the measured effect. The reported smooth voltage control of the uniaxial in-plane anisotropy, electrically induced magnetization switching, and detection of unconventional crystalline components of the anisotropic magnetoresistance illustrate the generic utility of our multiferroic system in providing device functionalities and in the research of micromagnetic and magnetotransport phenomena in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  19. Control of spin defects in wide-bandgap semiconductors for quantum technologies

    DOE PAGES

    Heremans, F. Joseph; Yale, Christopher G.; Awschalom, David D.

    2016-05-24

    Deep-level defects are usually considered undesirable in semiconductors as they typically interfere with the performance of present-day electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the electronic spin states of certain atomic-scale defects have recently been shown to be promising quantum bits for quantum information processing as well as exquisite nanoscale sensors due to their local environmental sensitivity. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in quantum control protocols of several of these spin defects, the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) center in diamond and a variety of forms of the neutral divacancy (VV0) complex in silicon carbide (SiC). These defects exhibit amore » spin-triplet ground state that can be controlled through a variety of techniques, several of which allow for room temperature operation. Microwave control has enabled sophisticated decoupling schemes to extend coherence times as well as nanoscale sensing of temperature along with magnetic and electric fields. On the other hand, photonic control of these spin states has provided initial steps toward integration into quantum networks, including entanglement, quantum state teleportation, and all-optical control. Electrical and mechanical control also suggest pathways to develop quantum transducers and quantum hybrid systems. In conclusion, the versatility of the control mechanisms demonstrated should facilitate the development of quantum technologies based on these spin defects.« less

  20. Control of spin defects in wide-bandgap semiconductors for quantum technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heremans, F. Joseph; Yale, Christopher G.; Awschalom, David D.

    2016-05-24

    Deep-level defects are usually considered undesirable in semiconductors as they typically interfere with the performance of present-day electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the electronic spin states of certain atomic-scale defects have recently been shown to be promising quantum bits for quantum information processing as well as exquisite nanoscale sensors due to their local environmental sensitivity. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in quantum control protocols of several of these spin defects, the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) center in diamond and a variety of forms of the neutral divacancy (VV0) complex in silicon carbide (SiC). These defects exhibit a spin-triplet ground state that can be controlled through a variety of techniques, several of which allow for room temperature operation. Microwave control has enabled sophisticated decoupling schemes to extend coherence times as well as nanoscale sensing of temperature along with magnetic and electric fields. On the other hand, photonic control of these spin states has provided initial steps toward integration into quantum networks, including entanglement, quantum state teleportation, and all-optical control. Electrical and mechanical control also suggest pathways to develop quantum transducers and quantum hybrid systems. In conclusion, the versatility of the control mechanisms demonstrated should facilitate the development of quantum technologies based on these spin defects.

  1. Coherent control of optical bistability and multistability in a triple semiconductor quantum well nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheli, A.; Afshari, H.; Hamedi, H. R.

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) behaviors for a triple semiconductor quantum well (SQW) structure driven coherently with two control fields, confined in a unidirectional ring cavity. The effect of different system parameters on OB and OM is explored. It is found that the threshold of onset of the OB can be controlled by manipulating the Rabi frequency of control fields. In this case, OB can be converted to OM. Then we investigate the effect of probe and control field detunings on OB behaviors. We found that the frequency detuning of probe field affects only the upper-lower branches of the OB curves but has no specific impact on OB threshold. By manipulating the first control field detuning, neither the OB threshold intensity nor upper-lower branches change. Finally, it is found that increasing the second control field detuning can reduce merely the OB threshold intensity, while no change happens in upper-lower OB branches. The results may be applicable in real experiments for realizing an all-optical switching or coding element in a solid-state platform.

  2. Controls of Isotopic Patterns in Saprotrophic and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) in ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi contain important information about ecological functioning, but the complexity of physiological and ecosystem processes contributing to fungal carbon and nitrogen dynamics has limited our abil...

  3. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Harmonic modulation of radiation of an external-feedback semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, Aleksandr G.; Napartovich, A. P.

    2007-02-01

    The appearance of the harmonic modulation regime at the Hopf bifurcation point is described analytically for a delayed-feedback semiconductor laser. The second-order delay differential equation with complex coefficients is derived. The frequency of oscillations appearing at the Hopf bifurcation point is determined by the solution of two relatively simple transcendental equations, from which the bifurcation point itself is found. These equations contain dependences on all the control parameters of the problem. The exact upper and lower limits of the oscillation frequency are found. A comparison with numerical results shows that the modulation frequency is preserved almost constant in a broad range of feedback phases. A procedure is proposed for determining the parameters of the laser providing the presence of bifurcations with a passage to oscillations with the specified frequency. The results obtained in the paper are of interest for WDM communication systems.

  4. Leveraging Nanocavity Harmonics for Control of Optical Processes in 2D Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Akselrod, Gleb M; Ming, Tian; Argyropoulos, Christos; Hoang, Thang B; Lin, Yuxuan; Ling, Xi; Smith, David R; Kong, Jing; Mikkelsen, Maiken H

    2015-05-13

    Optical cavities with multiple tunable resonances have the potential to provide unique electromagnetic environments at two or more distinct wavelengths--critical for control of optical processes such as nonlinear generation, entangled photon generation, or photoluminescence (PL) enhancement. Here, we show a plasmonic nanocavity based on a nanopatch antenna design that has two tunable resonant modes in the visible spectrum separated by 350 nm and with line widths of ∼60 nm. The importance of utilizing two resonances simultaneously is demonstrated by integrating monolayer MoS2, a two-dimensional semiconductor, into the colloidally synthesized nanocavities. We observe a 2000-fold enhancement in the PL intensity of MoS2--which has intrinsically low absorption and small quantum yield--at room temperature, enabled by the combination of tailored absorption enhancement at the first harmonic and PL quantum-yield enhancement at the fundamental resonance.

  5. Controlling the metal to semiconductor transition of MoS2 and WS2 in solution

    DOE PAGES

    Chou, Stanley Shihyao; Yi-Kai Huang; Kim, Jaemyung; ...

    2015-01-22

    Lithiation-exfoliation produces single to few-layered MoS2 and WS2 sheets dispersible in water. However, the process transforms them from the pristine semiconducting 2H phase to a distorted metallic phase. Recovery of the semiconducting properties typically involves heating of the chemically exfoliated sheets at elevated temperatures. Therefore, it has been largely limited to sheets deposited on solid substrates. We report the dispersion of chemically exfoliated MoS2 sheets in high boiling point organic solvents enabled by surface functionalization and the controllable recovery of their semiconducting properties directly in solution. Ultimately, this process connects the scalability of chemical exfoliation with the simplicity of solutionmore » processing, enabling a facile method for tuning the metal to semiconductor transitions of MoS2 and WS2 within a liquid medium.« less

  6. Electric field control of spin splitting in III-V semiconductor quantum dots without magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick

    2015-10-01

    We provide an alternative means of electric field control for spin manipulation in the absence of magnetic fields by transporting quantum dots adiabatically in the plane of two-dimensional electron gas. We show that the spin splitting energy of moving quantum dots is possible due to the presence of quasi-Hamiltonian that might be implemented to make the next generation spintronic devices of post CMOS technology. Such spin splitting energy is highly dependent on the material properties of semiconductor. It turns out that this energy is in the range of meV and can be further enhanced with increasing pulse frequency. In particular, we show that quantum oscillations in phonon mediated spin-flip behaviors can be observed. We also confirm that no oscillations in spin-flip behaviors can be observed for the pure Rashba or pure Dresselhaus cases.

  7. Controlling the metal to semiconductor transition of MoS2 and WS2 in solution.

    PubMed

    Chou, Stanley S; Huang, Yi-Kai; Kim, Jaemyung; Kaehr, Bryan; Foley, Brian M; Lu, Ping; Dykstra, Conner; Hopkins, Patrick E; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Huang, Jiaxing; Dravid, Vinayak P

    2015-02-11

    Lithiation-exfoliation produces single to few-layered MoS2 and WS2 sheets dispersible in water. However, the process transforms them from the pristine semiconducting 2H phase to a distorted metallic phase. Recovery of the semiconducting properties typically involves heating of the chemically exfoliated sheets at elevated temperatures. Therefore, it has been largely limited to sheets deposited on solid substrates. Here, we report the dispersion of chemically exfoliated MoS2 sheets in high boiling point organic solvents enabled by surface functionalization and the controllable recovery of their semiconducting properties directly in solution. This process connects the scalability of chemical exfoliation with the simplicity of solution processing, ultimately enabling a facile method for tuning the metal to semiconductor transitions of MoS2 and WS2 within a liquid medium.

  8. Carrier-lifetime-controlled selective etching process for semiconductors using photochemical etching

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Myers, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The minority carrier lifetime is significantly much shorter in semiconductor materials with very high impurity concentrations than it is in semiconductor materials with lower impurity concentration levels. This phenomenon of reduced minority carrier lifetime in semiconductor materials having high impurity concentration is utilized to advantage for permitting highly selective semiconductor material etching to be achieved using a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. Various means may be employed for increasing the local impurity concentration level in specific near-surface regions of a semiconductor prior to subjecting the semiconductor material to a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. The regions having the localized increased impurity concentration form a self-aligned mask inhibiting photochemical etching at such localized regions while the adjacent regions not having increased impurity concentrations are selectively photochemically etched. Liquid- or gas-phase etching may be performed.

  9. Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. H.; Sherman, D. M.; Vance, D.; Hein, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    The isotopic systems of the transition metals are increasingly being developed as oceanic tracers, due to their tendency to be fractionated by biological and/or redox-related processes. However, for many of these promising isotope systems the molecular level controls on their isotopic fractionations are only just beginning to be explored. Here we investigate the relative roles of abiotic and biotic fractionation processes in controlling modern seawater Cu and Zn isotopic compositions. Scavenging to Fe-Mn oxides represents the principal output for Cu and Zn to sediments deposited under normal marine (oxic) conditions. Using Fe-Mn crusts as an analogue for these dispersed phases, we investigate the phase association and crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in such sediments. We present the results of an EXAFS study that demonstrate unequivocally that Cu and Zn are predominantly associated with the birnessite (δ-MnO2) phase in Fe-Mn crusts, as previously predicted from sequential leaching experiments (e.g., Koschinsky and Hein, 2003). The crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in the crusts implies a reduction in coordination number in the sorbed phase relative to the free metal ion in seawater. Thus, theory would predict equilibrium fractionations that enrich the heavy isotope in the sorbed phase (e.g., Schauble, 2004). In natural samples, Fe-Mn crusts and nodules are indeed isotopically heavy in Zn isotopes (at ∼1‰) compared to deep seawater (at ∼0.5‰), consistent with the predicted direction of equilibrium isotopic fractionation based on our observations of the coordination environment of sorbed Zn. Further, ∼50% of inorganic Zn‧ is chloro-complexed (the other ∼50% is present as the free Zn2+ ion), and complexation by Cl- is also predicted to favour equilibrium partitioning of light Zn isotopes into the dissolved phase. The heavy Zn isotopic composition of Fe-Mn crusts and nodules relative to seawater can therefore be explained by an inorganic fractionation during

  10. Semiconductor heterostructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold John (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry MacPherson (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  11. Semiconductor structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold J. (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  12. Atmospheric controls on the precipitation isotopes over the Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Sinha, N.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Sengupta, S.; Mohan, P. M.; Datye, A.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic analysis of precipitation over the Andaman Island, Bay of Bengal was carried out for the year 2012 and 2013 in order to study the atmospheric controls on rainwater isotopic variations. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions are typical of the tropical marine sites but show significant variations depending on the ocean-atmosphere conditions; maximum depletion was observed during the tropical cyclones. The isotopic composition of rainwater seems to be controlled by the dynamical nature of the moisture rather than the individual rain events. Precipitation isotopes undergo systematic depletions in response to the organized convection occurring over a large area and are modulated by the integrated effect of convective activities. Precipitation isotopes appear to be linked with the monsoon intraseasonal variability in addition to synoptic scale fluctuations. During the early to mid monsoon the amount effect arose primarily due to rain re-evaporation but in the later phase it was driven by moisture convergence rather than evaporation. Amount effect had distinct characteristics in these two years, which appeared to be modulated by the intraseasonal variability of monsoon. It is shown that the variable nature of amount effect limits our ability to reconstruct the past-monsoon rainfall variability on annual to sub-annual time scale.

  13. Atmospheric controls on the precipitation isotopes over the Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, S.; Sinha, N.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Sengupta, S.; Mohan, P. M.; Datye, A.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic analysis of precipitation over the Andaman Island, Bay of Bengal was carried out for the year 2012 and 2013 in order to study the atmospheric controls on rainwater isotopic variations. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions are typical of the tropical marine sites but show significant variations depending on the ocean-atmosphere conditions; maximum depletion was observed during the tropical cyclones. The isotopic composition of rainwater seems to be controlled by the dynamical nature of the moisture rather than the individual rain events. Precipitation isotopes undergo systematic depletions in response to the organized convection occurring over a large area and are modulated by the integrated effect of convective activities. Precipitation isotopes appear to be linked with the monsoon intraseasonal variability in addition to synoptic scale fluctuations. During the early to mid monsoon the amount effect arose primarily due to rain re-evaporation but in the later phase it was driven by moisture convergence rather than evaporation. Amount effect had distinct characteristics in these two years, which appeared to be modulated by the intraseasonal variability of monsoon. It is shown that the variable nature of amount effect limits our ability to reconstruct the past-monsoon rainfall variability on annual to sub-annual time scale. PMID:26806683

  14. Quantifying the climatic and topographic controls of precipitation isotopes in continental interiors: applications to unraveling isotopic records of climate in Cenozoic Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnick, M. J.; Chamberlain, C. P.; Caves, J. K.; Welker, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Since the establishment of the IAEA-WMO precipitation-monitoring network in 1961, it has been observed that isotope ratios in precipitation (δ2H and δ18O) generally decrease from coastal to inland locations, an observation described as the continental effect. While discussed frequently in the literature, there have been few attempts to quantify the variables controlling this effect despite the fact that isotopic gradients over continents vary by orders of magnitude. In a number of studies, traditional Rayleigh fractionation has proven inadequate in describing the global variability of isotopic gradients due to its simplified treatment of moisture transport and its lack of moisture recycling through evapotranspiration (ET). We use a one-dimensional idealized model of water vapor transport along a storm track to investigate the dominant variables controlling isotopic gradients in precipitation across terrestrial environments. We find that the sensitivity of these gradients to progressive rainout is controlled primarily by ET with secondary controls exerted by eddy transport. A comparison of modern isotopic gradients within high elevation continental interior regions shows that the effects of seasonal changes in ET are of the same order of magnitude as the effects of rainout due to orographic precipitation. This implies that changing climate and associated changes in ET rates may amplify or completely negate isotopic signals of uplift. We further apply the model to a spatial compilation of Cenozoic isotopic records throughout Central Asia. Over the past 50 Ma, extensive recycling of water via ET has likely masked isotopic signals of the uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau, Tian Shan, Altai, and Hangay ranges as revealed by complimentary methods of measuring uplift timing and rates. Our results highlight the importance of the coupling between topography, atmospheric circulation, and biological processes in controlling isotopic records of past climate.

  15. Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alperin, M. J.; Blair, N. E.; Albert, D. B.; Hoehler, T. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1992-09-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in anoxic marine sediment is controlled by four factors: (1) the pathway of methane formation, (2) the isotopic composition of the methanogenic precursors, (3) the isotope fractionation factors for methane production, and (4) the isotope fractionation associated with methane oxidation. The importance of each factor was evaluated by monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios in methane produced by a sediment microcosm. Methane did not accumulate during the initial 42-day period when sediment contained sulfate, indicating little methane production from "noncompetitive" substrates. Following sulfate depletion, methane accumulation proceeded in three distinct phases. First, CO2 reduction was the dominant methanogenic pathway and the isotopic composition of the methane produced ranged from -80 to -94‰. The acetate concentration increased during this phase, suggesting that acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria were unable to keep pace with acetate production. Second, acetate fermentation became the dominant methanogenic pathway as bacteria responded to elevated acetate concentrations. The methane produced during this phase was progressively enriched in 13C, reaching a maximum δ13C value of -42‰. Third, the acetate pool experienced a precipitous decline from >5 mM to <20 μM and methane production was again dominated by CO2 reduction. The δ13C of methane produced during this final phase ranged from -46 to -58‰. Methane oxidation concurrent with methane production was detected throughout the period of methane accumulation, at rates equivalent to 1 to 8% of the gross methane production rate. Thus methane oxidation was too slow to have significantly modified the isotopic signature of methane. A comparison of microcosm and field data suggests that similar microbial interactions may control seasonal variability in the isotopic composition of methane emitted from undisturbed Cape Lookout Bight sediment.

  16. Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alperin, M. J.; Blair, Neal E.; Albert, D. B.; Hoehler, T. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in anoxic marine sediment is controlled by four factors: (1) the pathway of methane formation, (2) the isotopic composition of the methanogenic precursors, (3) the isotope fractionation factors for methane production, and (4) the isotope fractionation associated with methane oxidation. The importance of each factor was evaluated by monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios in methane produced by a sediment microcosm. Methane did not accumulate during the initial 42-day period when sediment contained sulfate, indicating little methane production from 'noncompetitive' substrates. Following sulfate depletion, methane accumulation proceeded in three distinct phases. First, CO2 reduction was the dominant methanogenic pathway and the isotopic composition of the methane produced ranged from -80 to -94 per thousand. The acetate concentration increased during this phase, suggesting that acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria were unable to keep pace with acetate production. Second, acetate fermentation became the dominant methanogenic pathway as bacteria responded to elevated acetate concentrations. The methane produced during this phase was progressively enriched in C-13, reaching a maximum delta(C-13) value of -42 per thousand. Third, the acetate pool experienced a precipitous decline from greater than 5 mM to less than 20 micro-M and methane production was again dominated by CO2 reduction. The delta(C-13) of methane produced during this final phase ranged from -46 to -58 per thousand. Methane oxidation concurrent with methane production was detected throughout the period of methane accumulation, at rates equivalent to 1 to 8 percent of the gross methane production rate. Thus methane oxidation was too slow to have significantly modified the isotopic signature of methane. A comparison of microcosm and field data suggests that similar microbial interactions may control seasonal variability in the isotopic composition of methane

  17. The read-out and control system For the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandaker, H.

    2005-04-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) in the ATLAS experiment has entered the stage of system assembly. Around 35% of the 4088 silicon modules are already produced, tested and will soon be mounted on the four barrel cylinders and 18 end-cap disks which make up the SCT. A new Data Acquisition System (DAQ) will provide binary readout, via front-end ASICs, of 16,000 silicon wafers and 6.3 million read-out channels using optical links. A new Detector Control System (DCS) will control up to 500 V bias voltage and the 30 kW low voltage power to the modules, as well as monitor the C3F8 evaporative cooling system, humidity and temperatures. Recently, several macro-assembly sites have mounted modules on both end-cap and barrel prototype structures and gained first experience with system-operation of the SCT. This presentation will give an overview of the full system required to operate and read-out a large-scale silicon detector. A description of both off-detector systems, DAQ and DCS, and their interactions will be presented, as well as the macro-assembly status.

  18. Controlled buckling structures in semiconductor interconnects and nanomembranes for stretchable electronics

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A; Meitl, Matthew; Sun, Yugang; Ko, Heung Cho; Carlson, Andrew; Choi, Won Mook; Stoykovich, Mark; Jiang, Hanqing; Huang, Yonggang; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Zhu, Zhengtao; Menard, Etienne; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2014-05-20

    In an aspect, the present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, components such as semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed, and related methods of making or tuning such stretchable components. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention are adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  19. Controlled buckling structures in semiconductor interconnects and nanomembranes for stretchable electronics

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A [Champaign, IL; Meitl, Matthew [Raleigh, NC; Sun, Yugang [Naperville, IL; Ko, Heung Cho [Urbana, IL; Carlson, Andrew [Urbana, IL; Choi, Won Mook [Champaign, IL; Stoykovich, Mark [Dover, NH; Jiang, Hanqing [Urbana, IL; Huang, Yonggang [Glencoe, IL; Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Lee, Keon Jae [Tokyo, JP; Zhu, Zhengtao [Rapid City, SD; Menard, Etienne [Durham, NC; Khang, Dahl-Young [Seoul, KR; Kan, Seong Jun [Daejeon, KR; Ahn, Jong Hyun [Suwon, KR; Kim, Hoon-sik [Champaign, IL

    2012-07-10

    In an aspect, the present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, components such as semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed, and related methods of making or tuning such stretchable components. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention are adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  20. Investigating controls on boron isotope ratios in shallow marine carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang; Henehan, Michael J.; Hull, Pincelli M.; Reid, R. Pamela; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Hood, Ashleigh v. S.; Planavsky, Noah J.

    2017-01-01

    The boron isotope-pH proxy has been widely used to reconstruct past ocean pH values. In both planktic foraminifera and corals, species-specific calibrations are required in order to reconstruct absolute values of pH, due to the prevalence of so-called vital effects - physiological modification of the primary environmental signals by the calcifying organisms. Shallow marine abiotic carbonate (e.g. ooids and cements) could conceivably avoid any such calibration requirement, and therefore provide a potentially useful archive for reconstructions in deep (pre-Cenozoic) time. However, shallow marine abiotic carbonates could also be affected by local shifts in pH caused by microbial photosynthesis and respiration, something that has up to now not been fully tested. In this study, we present boron isotope measurements from shallow modern marine carbonates, from the Bahama Bank and Belize to investigate the potential of using shallow water carbonates as pH archives, and to explore the role of microbial processes in driving nominally 'abiogenic' carbonate deposition. For Bahama bank samples, our boron-based pH estimates derived from a range of carbonate types (i.e. ooids, peloids, hardground cements, carbonate mud, stromatolitic micrite and calcified filament micrite) are higher than the estimated modern mean-annual seawater pH values for this region. Furthermore, the majority (73%) of our marine carbonate-based pH estimates fall out of the range of the estimated pre-industrial seawater pH values for this region. In shallow sediment cores, we did not observe a correlation between measured pore water pH and boron-derived pH estimates, suggesting boron isotope variability is a depositional rather than early diagenetic signal. For Belize reef cements, conversely, the pH estimates are lower than likely in situ seawater pH at the time of cement formation. This study indicates the potential for complications when using shallow marine non-skeletal carbonates as marine pH archives

  1. Image segmentation for uranium isotopic analysis by SIMS: Combined adaptive thresholding and marker controlled watershed approach

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, David G.; Naes, Benjamin E.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Zimmer, Mindy M.; Barrett, Christopher A.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2016-05-31

    A novel approach to particle identification and particle isotope ratio determination has been developed for nuclear safeguard applications. This particle search approach combines an adaptive thresholding algorithm and marker-controlled watershed segmentation (MCWS) transform, which improves the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) isotopic analysis of uranium containing particle populations for nuclear safeguards applications. The Niblack assisted MCWS approach (a.k.a. SEEKER) developed for this work has improved the identification of isotopically unique uranium particles under conditions that have historically presented significant challenges for SIMS image data processing techniques. Particles obtained from five NIST uranium certified reference materials (CRM U129A, U015, U150, U500 and U850) were successfully identified in regions of SIMS image data 1) where a high variability in image intensity existed, 2) where particles were touching or were in close proximity to one another and/or 3) where the magnitude of ion signal for a given region was count limited. Analysis of the isotopic distributions of uranium containing particles identified by SEEKER showed four distinct, accurately identified 235U enrichment distributions, corresponding to the NIST certified 235U/238U isotope ratios for CRM U129A/U015 (not statistically differentiated), U150, U500 and U850. Additionally, comparison of the minor uranium isotope (234U, 235U and 236U) atom percent values verified that, even in the absence of high precision isotope ratio measurements, SEEKER could be used to segment isotopically unique uranium particles from SIMS image data. Although demonstrated specifically for SIMS analysis of uranium containing particles for nuclear safeguards, SEEKER has application in addressing a broad set of image processing challenges.

  2. Improvement of process control using wafer geometry for enhanced manufacturability of advanced semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Honggoo; Lee, Jongsu; Kim, Sang Min; Lee, Changhwan; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kwon, Wontaik; Park, Sung-Ki; Vukkadala, Pradeep; Awasthi, Amartya; Kim, J. H.; Veeraraghavan, Sathish; Choi, DongSub; Huang, Kevin; Dighe, Prasanna; Lee, Cheouljung; Byeon, Jungho; Dey, Soham; Sinha, Jaydeep

    2015-03-01

    Aggressive advancements in semiconductor technology have resulted in integrated chip (IC) manufacturing capability at sub-20nm half-pitch nodes. With this, lithography overlay error budgets are becoming increasingly stringent. The delay in EUV lithography readiness for high volume manufacturing (HVM) and the need for multiple-patterning lithography with 193i technology has further amplified the overlay issue. Thus there exists a need for technologies that can improve overlay errors in HVM. The traditional method for reducing overlay errors predominantly focused on improving lithography scanner printability performance. However, processes outside of the lithography sector known as processinduced overlay errors can contribute significantly to the total overlay at the current requirements. Monitoring and characterizing process-induced overlay has become critical for advanced node patterning. Recently a relatively new technique for overlay control that uses high-resolution wafer geometry measurements has gained significance. In this work we present the implementation of this technique in an IC fabrication environment to monitor wafer geometry changes induced across several points in the process flow, of multiple product layers with critical overlay performance requirement. Several production wafer lots were measured and analyzed on a patterned wafer geometry tool. Changes induced in wafer geometry as a result of wafer processing were related to down-stream overlay error contribution using the analytical in-plane distortion (IPD) calculation model. Through this segmentation, process steps that are major contributors to down-stream overlay were identified. Subsequent process optimization was then isolated to those process steps where maximum benefit might be realized. Root-cause for the within-wafer, wafer-to-wafer, tool-to-tool, and station-to-station variations observed were further investigated using local shape curvature changes - which is directly related to

  3. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Palaniappan, Kumaranand; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Dickerson, Robert M.; Casson, Joanna L.; Baldwin, Jon K.

    2012-06-07

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth rates as a

  4. Modeling of optically controlled reflective bistability in a vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, L.

    2015-05-01

    Bistability switching between two optical signals has been studied theoretically utilizing the concept of cross absorption modulation in a vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber (VCSSA). The probe beam is fixed at a wavelength other than the low power cavity resonance wavelength, which exhibits bistable characteristic by controlling the power of a pump beam (λpump≠λprobe). The cavity nonlinear effects that arises simultaneously from the excitonic absorption bleaching, and the carrier induced nonlinear index change has been considered in the model. The high power absorption in the active region introduces thermal effects within the nonlinear cavity due to which the effective cavity length changes. This leads to a red-shift of the cavity resonance wavelength, which results a change in phase of the optical fields within the cavity. In the simulation, the phase-change due to this resonance shifting is considered to be constant over time, and it assumes the value corresponding to the maximum input power. Further, an initial phase detuning of the probe beam has been considered to investigate its effect on switching. It is observed from the simulated results that, the output of the probe beam exhibits either clockwise or counter-clockwise bistability, depending on its initial phase detuning.

  5. Optical Control of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Spin Qubits with Microcavity Exciton-Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puri, Shruti; McMahon, Peter L.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-03-01

    Topological surface codes demand the least stringent threshold conditions and are most promising for implementing large quantum algorithms. Based on the resource requirements to reach fault tolerance, we develop a hardware platform for large scale quantum computation with semiconductor quantum dot (QD) electron spin qubits. The current proposals for implementation of two-qubit gates and quantum non demolition (QND) readout in a QuDOS (Quantum Dots with Optically Controlled Spins) architecture suffer from large error rates. In our scheme, the optical manipulation of the QD spin qubits is carried out using their Coulomb exchange interaction with optically excited, spin-polarized, laterally confined quantum well (LcQW) exciton-polaritons. The small mass of polaritons protects them from interaction with their solid-state environment (phonons) and enables strong coupling between spin qubits separated by a few microns. Furthermore, the excitation manifold of the QD is well separated from that of the LcQW polaritons, preventing a spin-flip event during readout. We will outline schemes for implementing fast, high-fidelity, single qubit gate, two-qubit geometric phase gate and single-shot QND measurement and analyze important decoherence mechanisms. The work being presented was carried out at Stanford University. Currently the author is at University of Sherbrooke, Canada.

  6. Controlling factors of Ca isotope fractionation in scleractinian corals evaluated by temperature, pH and light controlled culture experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Mayuri; Gussone, Nikolaus; Koga, Yasuko; Iwase, Akihiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the 44Ca/40Ca ratios of Porites australiensis grown under three different culture experiments composed of temperature, pH and light controlled culture experiments are measured. The temperature dependent isotope fractionation of 0.02‰/°C deduced from this study is similar to inorganic aragonite, but the degree of isotope fractionation is about +0.4‰ offset in corals. These observations agree with earlier results on different coral species, suggesting Ca isotope fractionation during Ca transmembrane transport in corals. While in cultured corals a significant temperature dependence of δ44Ca is observed, the relationships between calcium isotope fractionation and pH as well as light intensity are negligible. Therefore variation of δ44Ca in Porites corals is mainly controlled by temperature. A combination of δ44Ca and Sr/Ca of corals in temperature controlled experiments cannot be explained by Rayleigh type fractionation directly from a fluid, which is seawater-like in terms of δ44Ca and Sr/Ca. Through coral-specific biomineralization processes, overall mean δ44Ca of scleractinian corals including previous studies are different from biogenic aragonites secreted by sclerosponges and pteropods, but are comparable with those of bivalves as well as calcitic coccolithophores and foraminifers. These findings are important for better understanding biomineralization in corals and in order to constrain the Ca isotopic composition of oceanic Ca sinks in response to climate changes and associated with shifts of calcite and aragonite seas.

  7. Experimental identification of mechanisms controlling calcium isotopic fractionations by the vegetation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobert, Florian; Schimtt, Anne-Désirée.; Bourgeade, Pascale; Stille, Peter; Chabaux, François; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Jaegler, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to better understand the role of vegetation on the Ca cycle at the level of the critical zone of the Earth, in order to specify the mechanisms controlling the Ca absorption by plants at the rock/plant interface. To do this, we performed experiments using hydroponic plant cultures in a way that we could control the co-occuring geochemical and physiological process and determine the impact of the nutritive solution on the Ca cycle within plants. A dicotyledon and calcicole plant with rapid growth, the French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), has been chosen to have access to one complete growth cycle. Several experiments have been conducted with two Ca concentrations, 6 (L) and 60 (H) ppm and two pH values (4 and 6) in the nutritive solution, for which the Ca concentration was maintained constant, so its Ca content is considered as infinite. A second experiment (non infinite L6) allowed Ca depletion in the solution through time; therefore, response effects on the Ca isotopic signatures in the plant organs and in the nutritive solution were observed. We determined Ca concentrations and isotopic ratios in the nutritive solution and in different organs (main roots, secondary roots, old and young stems, old and young leaves and fruits) at two different growth stages (10 days and 6 weeks). Preliminary results show that: (1) the roots (main and secondary) were enriched in the light isotope (40Ca) compared to the nutritive solution, and leaves were enriched in the heavy isotope (44Ca) compared to stems. These results are in accord with previously published field studies (Wigand et al., 2005; Page et al., 2008; Cenki-Tok et al., 2009; Holmden and Bélanger, 2010). Leaves and secondary roots were however enriched in the heavy isotope (44Ca) compared to bean pods, stems and main roots. These results could be related to kinetic fractionation processes occurring either during the Ca root uptake, or during the Ca transport within the plant, or physiological mechanisms

  8. Precise in situ etch depth control of multilayered III−V semiconductor samples with reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) equipment

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschmidt, Ann-Kathrin; Barzen, Lars; Strassner, Johannes; Doering, Christoph; Bock, Wolfgang; Wahl, Michael; Kopnarski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) equipment is applied to monitor dry-etch processes (here specifically reactive ion etching (RIE)) of monocrystalline multilayered III–V semiconductors in situ. The related accuracy of etch depth control is better than 16 nm. Comparison with results of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) reveals a deviation of only about 4 nm in optimal cases. To illustrate the applicability of the reported method in every day settings for the first time the highly etch depth sensitive lithographic process to form a film lens on the waveguide ridge of a broad area laser (BAL) is presented. This example elucidates the benefits of the method in semiconductor device fabrication and also suggests how to fulfill design requirements for the sample in order to make RAS control possible. PMID:28144528

  9. Controls on Fe Isotope Fractionation During Organic Complexation: the Importance of Covalent Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Kubicki, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Fe isotopes have been proposed as a tracer of changes to the redox state of the oceans (Rouxel et al., 2005), and for use as a biosignature (e.g., Johnson et al., 1999). Previous modeling work supports this, as they suggest redox fractionations are likely the main control over Fe isotopes.Fe isotopes have been proposed as a tracer of changes to the redox state of the oceans (Rouxel et al., 2005), and for use as a biosignature (e.g., Beard et al., 1999). Previous modeling work (Domagal-Goldman and Kubicki, submitted) that predicts greater equilibrium fractionations for redox reactions than for complexation reactions supports the former application. In this study, we try to ascertain the first-principles chemical drivers of fractionation of Fe isotopes. We do this by using Natural Bond Order (NBO) analyses and isotope fractionation predictions of Fe bound to various organic ligands at different Fe oxidation states and Fe:ligand ratios.NBO analysis re-assigns electrons in molecular orbitals to bond orbitals within a complex; this allows for the examination of the presence and strength of covalent bonding in a complex. By comparing the presence and strength of covalent Fe-O bonds in the studied complexes to other predicted variables such as bond lengths and predicted fractionation factors, we can assess the importance of these bonds to Fe isotope fractionation in nature. Byexamining the effect controlled variables such as Fe oxidation state and the number of Fe-ligand bonds have on the formation of covalent bonds, we will begin to understand what controls bonding for these types of complexes. Ultimately, this work is geared towards driving future research questions related to the isotopicfractionations of Fe and other transition metals.

  10. Evaluation of carbon isotope flux partitioning theory under simplified and controlled environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Separation of the photosynthetic (Fp) and respiratory (Fr) fluxes of net CO2 exchange (Fn)remains a necessary step toward understanding the biological and physical controls on carbon cycling between the soil, biomass, and atmosphere. Despite recent advancements in stable carbon isotope partitioning ...

  11. Analysis of stable isotopes in fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  12. Stable isotope analysis of fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  13. What processes control the oxygen isotopes of soil bio-available phosphate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Avner; Angert, Alon

    2015-06-01

    The biological availability of phosphorus (P) is considered to be the limiting factor for plant growth in many natural and agricultural soils. Recent studies demonstrated that valuable information on soil P dynamics can be gained from the stable oxygen isotopes of soil phosphate (δ18OP). However, to interpret this information correctly, our understanding of the processes that controls soil phosphate δ18OP values needs to be improved since most of the current data is based primarily on laboratory studies of pure microbial cultures and enzymatic assays and may not be relevant to soils. Here we designed a series of controlled soil incubation experiments to study the actual isotopic effects induced by abiotic reactions, biological uptake, microbial turnover and organic-P mineralization on soil phosphate δ18OP values. We used this data to estimate the role of these processes in mediating soil P availability. Our study was conducted on Mediterranean soils sampled from the same site during winter, spring and summer. The soils were incubated with various mineral and organic-P compounds and their bioavailable phosphate concentrations and δ18OP values were measured. We confirmed that the role of abiotic reactions on phosphate δ18OP values was negligible and that the δ18OP values of the added phosphate were rapidly driven towards isotopic equilibrium with soil water. We suggest this process was mediated by rapid microbial phosphate turnover. Yet, we did not detect the expected isotopic enrichment effect associated with phosphate biological uptake. In another set of incubation experiments we demonstrated that mineralization of phosphate from organic compounds, such as phospho-mono-ester (PME) and phosphor-di-ester (PDE), produced an offset from isotopic equilibrium, as a result of the strong isotopic fractionation associated with the mineralization process. However, the δ18OP values recorded by the mineralized phosphate were gradually driven back towards isotopic

  14. Isotopic Controls of Rainwater and Water Vapor on Mangrove Leaf Water and Lipid Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, N.; Wolfshorndl, M.; Sachs, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (2H/1H or δ2H) of sedimentary mangrove lipid biomarkers can be used as a proxy of past salinity and water isotopes. This approach is based on the observation that apparent 2H/1H fractionation between surface water and mangrove lipids increases with surface water salinity in six species of mangroves with different salt management strategies growing at sites spanning a range of relative humidities throughout Australia and Micronesia. In order to more robustly apply mangrove lipid δ2H as a paleoclimate proxy, we investigated the cause of the correlation between apparent 2H fractionation and salinity. We present results from two related experiments that assessed controls on isotopes of mangrove leaf water, the direct source of hydrogen in lipids: (1) Measurements of natural δ2H in precipitation, surface water, and mangrove tissue water from a series of lakes with varying salinity and water isotope composition in Palau, and (2) measurements of mangrove tissue water and treatment water from a controlled simulation in which mangroves were treated with artificial rain of varying isotopic composition. Rainwater 2H/1H fluctuations of 30‰ over a one-month period explain up to 65% of the variance in leaf water δ2H for Bruguiera gymnorhiza mangroves from Palau despite lake water isotope differences among sites of up to 35‰. This indicates that in humid tropical settings, leaf water isotopes are more closely related to those of precipitation and water vapor than to those of lake surface water, explaining the observed change in apparent fractionation in B. gymnorhiza lipids with salinity. The relationship between leaf water and rainwater isotopes may be due to either equilibration of leaf water with water vapor in the nearly saturated air or direct foliar uptake of rain and/or dew. Foliar uptake is an important water source for many plants, but has not been documented in mangroves. We tested the capacity for mangroves to perform this function by

  15. Exceptional Isotopic Variability in Stream Waters of the Central Andes: Large-Scale or Local Controls?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorella, R. P.; Poulsen, C. J.; Ehlers, T. A.; Jeffery, M. L.; Pillco Zola, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Modern precipitation on the Altiplano in central South America shows large seasonal and interannual variability and is dominated by seasonal convection during austral summer. The stable isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation and surface waters may be useful in diagnosing atmospheric processes over the Altiplano as they reflect the atmospheric history of the water vapor forming precipitation. Few data exist about the spatial and temporal isotopic variability of precipitation or surface water in the region, however, and therefore, the controls governing isotope distribution over the Altiplano are poorly understood. Samples of stream water were collected from small catchments on the Altiplano and along two elevation transects on the eastern cordillera of the Andes (at 17°30' and 21°15'S) between April 2009 and April 2012. As precipitation over the Altiplano is highly seasonal and the environment is otherwise arid, the isotopic signature of these streams is thought integrate the composition of rainy season precipitation. We limit our analysis to ephemeral streams with no groundwater component. Sampled waters show high spatial and interannual isotopic variability. As expected, stream water becomes increasingly depleted with increased elevation along a transect, but the isotopic lapse rates along the two transects are different and show high interannual variability. The average isotopic lapse rate for the northern transect was 1.09‰/km, but varied from 0.79‰/km in 2010 to 1.36‰/km in 2011 (only collected 2010-2012), while the average isotopic lapse rate for the southern transect was 1.74‰/km and varied between 1.50‰/km in 2010 and 1.92‰/km in 2009. Across the Altiplano itself, stream water varies by over 10‰ (δ18O) within a single season (2011), and by over 13‰ across the entire collection period. The high spatial variability of the stream water isotopic composition on the Altiplano suggests that simple Rayleigh fractionation is

  16. Semiconductor TiO2 Gas Sensor for Controlling Nitrocarburizing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klümper-Westkamp, H.; Beling, S.; Mehner, A.; Hoffmann, F.; Mayr, P.

    2004-07-01

    TiO2 films can serve as oxygen sensors for controlling the nitrogen potential in the process of nitrocarburizing. In contrast to conventional semiconductor-base oxygen sensors that lose stability under extreme thermal and chemical conditions in nitriding and carburizing atmospheres, TiO2 films obtained by the sol-gel method offer a promising alternative. In the present work TiO2 films with a density of about 80% and a grain size of 30 - 50 nm are deposited by the sol-gel technology. Steel substrates and commercial substrates from Al2O3 aluminum oxide with platinum electrodes are coated and calcinated. In order to preserve the sensitive element of the sensor a special casing is constructed for operation under conditions very close to the atmosphere of nitrocarburizing. The sensitive element consists of an Al2O3 substrate with built-in Pt-electrodes, which is coated by a thin sol-gel TiO2 film. The direct current in the furnace is measured for nitrocarburizing in various mixtures (N2, O2, H2, and NH3) at a temperature of 500 - 600°C. A linear dependence log[ R] - log[ p O2], where R is the electrical resistivity, is obtained for the films in the studied range of partial pressure of oxygen independently p O2 of the presence of NH3 or H2 in the atmosphere. The dependence log[ R] - log[ p O2] for a nitriding furnace with a capacity of 90 liters is shown to be stable with 3% scattering per month.

  17. Phonon-assisted coherent control of injected carriers in indirect bandgap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Julien; Nastos, Fred; Sipe, John E.

    2007-03-01

    Charge and spin currents can be generated in direct semiconductors by quantum interference between one- and two-photon absorption. For semiconductors such as Si and Ge, optical injection of carriers over the indirect bandgap must be assisted by momentum transfer from phonon scattering. We consider the optical properties for such 1+2 photon processes in the presence of the electron-phonon interaction. The latter is modelled by acoustic deformation potential. Indirect transitions involve double Brillouin zone integrations, which are computed by a linearized tetrahedron method. We compare our results to those for bulk GaAs. M.J. Stevens, R.D.R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, H.M. van Driel, J.E. Sipe and A.L. Smirl, in Optics of Semiconductors and Their Nanostructures, edited by H. Kalt and M. Hetterich (Springer, Berlin, 2004), vol. 146 of Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences, p. 209.

  18. Opposing authigenic controls on the isotopic signature of dissolved iron in hydrothermal plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, A. J. M.; Klar, J. K.; Homoky, W. B.; Comer-Warner, S. A.; Milton, J. A.; Connelly, D. P.; James, R. H.; Mills, R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Iron is a scarce but essential micronutrient in the oceans that limits primary productivity in many regions of the surface ocean. The mechanisms and rates of Fe supply to the ocean interior are still poorly understood and quantified. Iron isotope ratios of different Fe pools can potentially be used to trace sources and sinks of the global Fe biogeochemical cycle if these boundary fluxes have distinct signatures. Seafloor hydrothermal vents emit metal rich fluids from mid-ocean ridges into the deep ocean. Iron isotope ratios have the potential to be used to trace the input of hydrothermal dissolved iron to the oceans if the local controls on the fractionation of Fe isotopes during plume dispersal in the deep ocean are understood. In this study we assess the behaviour of Fe isotopes in a Southern Ocean hydrothermal plume using a sampling program of Total Dissolvable Fe (TDFe), and dissolved Fe (dFe). We demonstrate that δ56Fe values of dFe (δ56dFe) within the hydrothermal plume change dramatically during early plume dispersal, ranging from -2.39 ± 0.05‰ to -0.13 ± 0.06‰ (2 SD). The isotopic composition of TDFe (δ56TDFe) was consistently heavier than dFe values, ranging from -0.31 ± 0.03‰ to 0.78 ± 0.05‰, consistent with Fe oxyhydroxide precipitation as the plume samples age. The dFe present in the hydrothermal plume includes stabilised dFe species with potential to be transported to the deep ocean. We estimate that stable dFe exported from the plume will have a δ56Fe of -0.28 ± 0.17‰. Further, we show that the proportion of authigenic iron-sulfide and iron-oxyhydroxide minerals precipitating in the buoyant plume exert opposing controls on the resultant isotope composition of dissolved Fe passed into the neutrally buoyant plume. We show that such controls yield variable dissolved Fe isotope signatures under the authigenic conditions reported from modern vent sites elsewhere, and so ought to be considered during iron isotope reconstructions of past

  19. Modelling aspects regarding the control in 13C isotope separation column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    Carbon represents the fourth most abundant chemical element in the world, having two stable and one radioactive isotope. The 13Carbon isotopes, with a natural abundance of 1.1%, plays an important role in numerous applications, such as the study of human metabolism changes, molecular structure studies, non-invasive respiratory tests, Alzheimer tests, air pollution and global warming effects on plants [9] A manufacturing control system manages the internal logistics in a production system and determines the routings of product instances, the assignment of workers and components, the starting of the processes on not-yet-finished product instances. Manufacturing control does not control the manufacturing processes themselves, but has to cope with the consequences of the processing results (e.g. the routing of products to a repair station). In this research it was fulfilled some UML (Unified Modelling Language) diagrams for modelling the C13 Isotope Separation column, implement in STARUML program. Being a critical process and needing a good control and supervising, the critical parameters in the column, temperature and pressure was control using some PLC (Programmable logic controller) and it was made some graphic analyze for this to observe some critical situation than can affect the separation process. The main parameters that need to be control are: -The liquid nitrogen (N2) level in the condenser. -The electrical power supplied to the boiler. -The vacuum pressure.

  20. Near-field thermal radiation transfer between semiconductors based on thickness control and introduction of photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takuya; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu

    2017-03-01

    We numerically investigate the spectral control of near-field thermal radiation transfer using interband absorption in semiconductors and the band-folding effect in photonic crystals (PCs) for highly efficient thermophotovoltaics. We reveal that the near-field coupling between two semiconductors (Si and GaSb) realizes frequency-selective thermal radiation transfer concentrated above their bandgap energy when their thicknesses are optimized considering their absorption coefficient spectra. Moreover, we elucidate the role of PC structures in the near-field thermal radiation transfer and demonstrate that the band-folding effect in PCs can further increase both the radiation power and frequency selectivity of the near-field thermal radiation transfer.

  1. The colloidal chemistry synthesis and electron microscopy characterization of shape-controlled metal and semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biacchi, Adam J.

    Solution methods of materials synthesis have found application in a variety of fields due to the diversity of products accessible, facility of process scalability, and the ease of tuning their properties through prudent selection of reaction conditions. Control of experimental variables during the formation of colloidally stable nanoscale solids within a liquid matrix allows for tailoring of the particles' characteristics, including shape, size, composition, and surface chemistry. In this dissertation, I will discuss how the manipulation of reaction chemistries can be used to synthesize shape-controlled metal and semiconductor colloidal nanocrystals. Further, I will elaborate on the mechanisms by which these particles form from molecular precursors and describe how their properties can differ from their bulk analogues through extensive characterization, especially using transmission electron microscopy. These studies contribute to the continued development of chemical routes to nanocrystals and their application as functional materials. First, I will review recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of shape-controlled nanocrystals, as well as highlight their promising applicability in a number of emerging technologies. These principles will then be leveraged to the specific case of catalytically-active rhodium nanocrystals, which can be synthesized with morphological and dimensional control using a polyol solution-mediated strategy. I describe an innovative shape-controlled synthesis to monodisperse colloidal rhodium icosahedra, cubes, triangular plates, and octahedra using this route. Additionally, new insights into the important role of the polyol reducing solvent on the synthesis of these nanocrystals are revealed, and how these might be exploited to engender superior reaction control and novel products. Next, I will describe how a crystallization mechanism was established for the synthesis of numerous morphologies of noble metal nanocrystals. I

  2. Controlling for anthropogenically induced atmospheric variation in stable carbon isotope studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Sweitzer, R.A.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Ben-David, M.

    2005-01-01

    Increased use of stable isotope analysis to examine food-web dynamics, migration, transfer of nutrients, and behavior will likely result in expansion of stable isotope studies investigating human-induced global changes. Recent elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration, related primarily to fossil fuel combustion, has reduced atmospheric CO2 ??13C (13C/12C), and this change in isotopic baseline has, in turn, reduced plant and animal tissue ??13C of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Such depletion in CO2 ??13C and its effects on tissue ??13C may introduce bias into ??13C investigations, and if this variation is not controlled, may confound interpretation of results obtained from tissue samples collected over a temporal span. To control for this source of variation, we used a high-precision record of atmospheric CO2 ??13C from ice cores and direct atmospheric measurements to model modern change in CO2 ??13C. From this model, we estimated a correction factor that controls for atmospheric change; this correction reduces bias associated with changes in atmospheric isotopic baseline and facilitates comparison of tissue ??13C collected over multiple years. To exemplify the importance of accounting for atmospheric CO2 ??13C depletion, we applied the correction to a dataset of collagen ??13C obtained from mountain lion (Puma concolor) bone samples collected in California between 1893 and 1995. Before correction, in three of four ecoregions collagen ??13C decreased significantly concurrent with depletion of atmospheric CO2 ??13C (n ??? 32, P ??? 0.01). Application of the correction to collagen ??13C data removed trends from regions demonstrating significant declines, and measurement error associated with the correction did not add substantial variation to adjusted estimates. Controlling for long-term atmospheric variation and correcting tissue samples for changes in isotopic baseline facilitate analysis of samples that span a large temporal range. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  3. Controlling for anthropogenically induced atmospheric variation in stable carbon isotope studies.

    PubMed

    Long, Eric S; Sweitzer, Richard A; Diefenbach, Duane R; Ben-David, Merav

    2005-11-01

    Increased use of stable isotope analysis to examine food-web dynamics, migration, transfer of nutrients, and behavior will likely result in expansion of stable isotope studies investigating human-induced global changes. Recent elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration, related primarily to fossil fuel combustion, has reduced atmospheric CO2 delta13C (13C/12C), and this change in isotopic baseline has, in turn, reduced plant and animal tissue delta13C of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Such depletion in CO2 delta13C and its effects on tissue delta13C may introduce bias into delta13C investigations, and if this variation is not controlled, may confound interpretation of results obtained from tissue samples collected over a temporal span. To control for this source of variation, we used a high-precision record of atmospheric CO2 delta13C from ice cores and direct atmospheric measurements to model modern change in CO2 delta13C. From this model, we estimated a correction factor that controls for atmospheric change; this correction reduces bias associated with changes in atmospheric isotopic baseline and facilitates comparison of tissue delta13C collected over multiple years. To exemplify the importance of accounting for atmospheric CO2 delta13C depletion, we applied the correction to a dataset of collagen delta13C obtained from mountain lion (Puma concolor) bone samples collected in California between 1893 and 1995. Before correction, in three of four ecoregions collagen delta13C decreased significantly concurrent with depletion of atmospheric CO2 delta13C (n > or = 32, P < or = 0.01). Application of the correction to collagen delta13C data removed trends from regions demonstrating significant declines, and measurement error associated with the correction did not add substantial variation to adjusted estimates. Controlling for long-term atmospheric variation and correcting tissue samples for changes in isotopic baseline facilitate analysis of samples that span a

  4. Magma redox and structural controls on iron isotope variations in Earth's mantle and crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphas, N.; Roskosz, M.; Alp, E. E.; Neuville, D. R.; Hu, M. Y.; Sio, C. K.; Tissot, F. L. H.; Zhao, J.; Tissandier, L.; Médard, E.; Cordier, C.

    2014-07-01

    The heavy iron isotopic composition of Earth's crust relative to chondrites has been explained by vaporization during the Moon-forming impact, equilibrium partitioning between metal and silicate at core-mantle-boundary conditions, or partial melting and magma differentiation. The latter view is supported by the observed difference in the iron isotopic compositions of MORBS and peridotites. However, the precise controls on iron isotope variations in igneous rocks remain unknown. Here, we show that equilibrium iron isotope fractionation is mainly controlled by redox (Fe3+/Fetot ratio) and structural (e.g., polymerization) conditions in magmas. We measured, for the first time, the mean force constants of iron bonds in silicate glasses by synchrotron Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (NRIXS, also known as Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy - NRVS, or Nuclear Inelastic Scattering - NIS). The same samples were studied by conventional Mössbauer and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The NRIXS results reveal a +0.2 to +0.4‰ equilibrium fractionation on 56Fe/54Fe ratio between Fe2+ and Fe3+ end-members in basalt, andesite, and dacite glasses at magmatic temperatures. These first measurements can already explain ∼1/3 of the iron isotopic shift measured in MORBs relative to their source. Further work will be required to investigate how pressure, temperature, and structural differences between melts and glasses affect equilibrium fractionation factors. In addition, large fractionation is also found between rhyolitic glass and commonly occurring oxide and silicate minerals. This fractionation reflects mainly changes in the coordination environment of Fe2+ in rhyolites relative to less silicic magmas and mantle minerals, as also seen by XANES. We provide a new calibration of XANES features vs. Fe3+/Fetot ratio determinations by Mössbauer to estimate Fe3+/Fetot ratio in situ in glasses of basaltic, andesitic, dacitic, and rhyolitic

  5. Theory of quantum control of spin-photon dynamics and spin decoherence in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wang

    Single electron spin in a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) and single photon wavepacket propagating in an optical waveguide are investigated as carriers of quantum bit (qubit) for information processing. Cavity quantum electrodynamics of the coupled system composed of charged QD, microcavity and waveguide provides a quantum interface for the interplay of stationary spin qubits and flying photon qubits via cavity assisted optical control. This interface forms the basis for a wide range of essential functions of a quantum network, including transferring, swapping, and entangling qubits at distributed quantum nodes as well as a deterministic source and an efficient detector of a single photon wavepacket with arbitrarily specified shape. The cavity assisted optical process also made possible ultrafast initialization and QND readout of the spin qubit in QD. In addition, the strong optical nonlinearity of dot-cavity-waveguide coupled system enables phase gate and entanglement operation for flying single photon qubits in waveguides. The coherence of the electron spin is the wellspring of these quantum applications being investigated. At low temperature and strong magnetic field, the dominant cause of electron spin decoherence is the coupling with the interacting lattice nuclear spins. We present a quantum solution to the coupled dynamics of the electron with the nuclear spin bath. The decoherence is treated in terms of quantum entanglement of the electron with the nuclear pair-flip excitations driven by the various nuclear interactions. A novel nuclear interaction, mediated by virtue spin-flips of the single electron, plays an important role in single spin free-induction decay (FID). The spin echo not only refocuses the dephasing by inhomogeneous broadening in ensemble dynamics but also eliminates the decoherence by electron-mediated nuclear interaction. Thus, the decoherence times for single spin FID and ensemble spin echo are significantly different. The quantum theory of

  6. Coherent control and detection of spin qubits in semiconductor with magnetic field engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Electrical control and detection of the spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are among the major rapidly progressing fields for possible implementation of scalable quantum information processing. Coherent control of one-[1-3] and two-[4,5] spin qubits by electrical means had been demonstrated with various approaches. We have used an engineered magnetic field structure realized with proximal micro-magnets to transduce the spin and charge degrees of freedom and to selectively address one of the two spins [3]. We have demonstrated an all-electrical two-qubit gate consisting of single-spin rotations and interdot spin exchange in double QDs. A partially entangled output state is obtained by the application of the two-qubit gate to an initial, uncorrelated state. Our calculations taking into account of the nuclear spin fluctuation show the degree of entanglement. Non-uniform magnetic field also enables spin selective photon-assisted tunneling in double QDs, which then constitutes non-demolition spin read-out system in combination with a near-by charge detector [6]. [4pt] In collaboration with R. Brunner, Inst. of Phys., Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700, Austria, M. Pioro-Ladrière, D'ep. de Phys., Universit'e de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Qu'ebec, J1K-2R1, Canada, T. Kubo, Y. -S. Shin, T. Obata, and S. Tarucha, ICORP-JST and Dep. of Appl. Phys., Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.[4pt] [1] F. H. Koppens, et al., Nature 442, 766 (2006).[0pt] [2] K. C. Nowack, et al., Science 318, 1430 (2007).[0pt] [3] M. Pioro-Ladrière, et al., Nature Physics 4, 776 (2008).[0pt] [4] J. R. Petta, et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005).[0pt] [5] R. Brunner, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146801 (2011).[0pt] [6] Y. -S. Shin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046802 (2010).

  7. The diet-body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: a controlled dietary study.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, T C; Kneale, C J; Tasevska, N; Kuhnle, G G C

    2012-11-01

    The "trophic level enrichment" between diet and body results in an overall increase in nitrogen isotopic values as the food chain is ascended. Quantifying the diet-body Δ(15) N spacing has proved difficult, particularly for humans. The value is usually assumed to be +3-5‰ in the archaeological literature. We report here the first (to our knowledge) data from humans on isotopically known diets, comparing dietary intake and a body tissue sample, that of red blood cells. Samples were taken from 11 subjects on controlled diets for a 30-day period, where the controlled diets were designed to match each individual's habitual diet, thus reducing problems with short-term changes in diet causing isotopic changes in the body pool. The Δ(15) N(diet-RBC) was measured as +3.5‰. Using measured offsets from other studies, we estimate the human Δ(15) N(diet-keratin) as +5.0-5.3‰, which is in good agreement with values derived from the two other studies using individual diet records. We also estimate a value for Δ(15) N(diet-collagen) of ≈6‰, again in combination with measured offsets from other studies. This value is larger than usually assumed in palaeodietary studies, which suggests that the proportion of animal protein in prehistoric human diet may have often been overestimated in isotopic studies of palaeodiet.

  8. Quantum control study of multilevel effect on ultrafast isotope-selective vibrational excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2009-10-01

    Quantum optimal control calculations have been carried out for isotope-selective vibrational excitations of the cesium iodide (CsI) molecule on the ground-state potential energy curve. Considering a gaseous isotopic mixture of C133sI and C135sI, the initial state is set to the condition that both C133sI and C135sI are in the vibrational ground level (v =0) and the target state is that C133sI is in the v =0 level while C135sI in the first-excited level (v =1). We find that, using the density-matrix formalism, perfect isotope-selective excitations for multilevel systems including more than ten lowest vibrational states can be completed in much shorter time scales than those for two-level systems. It is likely that this multilevel effect comes from the large isotope shifts in the vibrational levels of v >1. To check the reliability of the calculation we also carry out optimal control calculations based on the conventional wave-packet formalism, where the wave-function amplitude is temporally propagated on the grid points in real space, and obtain almost the same results as those with the density-matrix formalism.

  9. Redox-variability and controls in subduction zones from an iron-isotope perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, O.; Sossi, P. A.; Bénard, A.; Wille, M.; Vroon, P. Z.; Arculus, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    An ongoing controversy in mantle geochemistry concerns the oxidation state of the sources of island arc lavas (IAL). Three key factors control oxidation-reduction (redox) of IAL sources: (i) metasomatism of the mantle wedge by fluids and/or melts, liberated from the underlying subducted slab; (ii) the oxidation state of the wedge prior to melting and metasomatism; and (iii) the loss of melt from IAL sources. Subsequently, magmatic differentiation by fractional crystallisation, possible crustal contamination and degassing of melts en route to and at the surface can further modify the redox states of IAL. The remote nature of sub-arc processes and the complex interplay between them render direct investigations difficult. However, a possible gauge for redox-controlled, high-temperature pre-eruptive differentiation conditions is variations in stable Fe isotope compositions (expressed here as δ57Fe) in erupting IAL because Fe isotopes can preserve a record of sub-surface mass transfer reactions involving the major element Fe. Here we report Fe isotope compositions of bulk IAL along the active Banda arc, Indonesia, which is well known for a prominent subducted sediment input. In conjunction with other arc rocks, δ57Fe in erupted Banda IAL indicates that fractional crystallisation and possibly crustal contamination primarily control their Fe isotope signatures. When corrected for fractional crystallisation and filtered for contamination, arc magmas that had variable sediment melt contributions in their sources show no resolvable co-variation of δ57Fe with radiogenic isotope tracers. This indicates that crustal recycling in the form of subducted sediment does not alter the Fe isotope character of arc lavas, in agreement with mass balance estimates. Primitive sources of IAL, however, are clearly isotopically lighter than those sourced beneath mid-ocean ridges, indicating either preferential Fe3+-depletion in the mantle wedge by prior, δ57Fe-heavy melt extraction, and

  10. Methodologies for Controlled Conjugated Polymer Synthesis and Characterization of Small Molecule Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakus, Ronald C., II

    Conjugated polymers can broadly be described as materials which have a structure composed of repeating monomeric units that show extended electronic communication along the backbone. The extended pi-conjugated nature of these materials gives them a set of unique electronic and optical properties, and has lead to their application in a multitude of various technologies. Of specific interest is the application of these materials in various organic electronics applications, such as solution processed plastic solar cells, light emitting diodes, and field effect transistors. Herein is described the synthesis of a class of well-defined, highly active organometallic initiators for use in controlled polymer synthesis. The polymers prepared using the nickel based initiators in Grignard metathesis polymerization posses the following characteristics: rapid generation of high molecular weight polymers, low polydispersity, linear relation between monomer conversion and molecular weight growth, and the selective transfer of an initiating moiety from the organometallic initiator to one polymer chain end. This initiator was then used to prepare a new class of biosensor materials wherein the polymer had a well defined biosensing end group. Additionally, a series of small molecule donors have been developed that have shown promise in a wide variety of organic electronic applications. These materials can broadly be described as having a D'ADAD' type structure where D, D', and A correspond to electron rich and electron deficient aromatic heterocycles, respectively. By tuning the identity of these groups and the side-chains attached to them, one can subtly influence the optical, electronic, and physical properties of the materials. These materials were investigated via single crystal x-ray diffraction studies to gain insight into how changes to the molecule structure such as heteroatom regioisomerism and isoelectronic substitutions effected the molecular structure. These changes in

  11. Structurally controllable spin spatial splitter in a hybrid ferromagnet and semiconductor nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Mao-Wang Cao, Xue-Li; Huang, Xin-Hong; Jiang, Ya-Qing; Li, Shuai

    2014-05-07

    We theoretically investigate modulation of a tunable δ-potential to the lateral displacement of electrons across a magnetically modulated semiconductor nanostructure. Experimentally, this nanostructure can be produced by depositing a nanosized ferromagnetic stripe with in-plane magnetization on top of a semiconductor heterostructure, while the δ-potential can be realized by means of the atomic layer doping technique. Theoretical analysis reveals that this δ-doping can break the intrinsic symmetry in nanostructure and a considerable spin polarization in the lateral displacement will appear. Numerical calculations demonstrate that both magnitude and sign of spin polarization can be manipulated by changing the height and/or position of the δ-doping, giving rise to a structurally tunable spin spatial splitter.

  12. Using a Semiconductor-to-Metal Transition to Control Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Donev, E. U.; Suh, J. Y.; Lopez, R.; ...

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple configuration in which the extraordinary optical transmission effect through subwavelength hole arrays in noble-metal films can be switched by the semiconductor-to-metal transition in an underlying thin film of vanadium dioxide. In these experiments, the transition is brought about by thermal heating of the bilayer film. The surprising reverse hysteretic behavior of the transmission through the subwavelength holes in the vanadium oxide suggest that this modulation is accomplished by a dielectric-matching condition rather than plasmon coupling through the bilayer film. The results of this switching, including the wavelength dependence, are qualitatively reproduced by a transfer matrix model.more » The prospects for effecting a similar modulation on a much faster time scale by using ultrafast laser pulses to trigger the semiconductor-to-metal transition are also discussed.« less

  13. Strain-based control of crystal anisotropy for perovskite oxides on semiconductor-based material

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A crystalline structure and a semiconductor device includes a substrate of a semiconductor-based material and a thin film of an anisotropic crystalline material epitaxially arranged upon the surface of the substrate so that the thin film couples to the underlying substrate and so that the geometries of substantially all of the unit cells of the thin film are arranged in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate surface. The predisposition of the geometries of the unit cells of the thin film is responsible for a predisposed orientation of a directional-dependent quality, such as the dipole moment, of the unit cells. The predisposed orientation of the unit cell geometries are influenced by either a stressed or strained condition of the lattice at the interface between the thin film material and the substrate surface.

  14. Aspects regarding at 13C isotope separation column control using Petri nets system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, M. L.; Ciortea, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is intended to show that Petri nets can be also applicable in the chemical industry. It used linear programming, modeling underlying Petri nets, especially discrete event systems for isotopic separation, the purpose of considering and control events in real-time through graphical representations. In this paper it is simulate the control of 13C Isotope Separation column using Petri nets. The major problem with 13C comes from the difficulty of obtaining it and raising its natural fraction. Carbon isotopes can be obtained using many methods, one of them being the cryogenic distillation of carbon monoxide. Some few aspects regarding operating conditions and the construction of such cryogenic plants are known today, and even less information are available as far as the separation process modeling and control are concerned. In fact, the efficient control of the carbon monoxide distillation process represents a necessity for large-scale 13C production. Referring to a classic distillation process, some models for carbon isotope separation have been proposed, some based on mass, component and energy balance equations, some on the nonlinear wave theory or the Cohen equations. For modeling the system it was used Petri nets because in this case it is deal with discrete event systems. In use of the non-timed and with auxiliary times Petri model, the transport stream was divided into sections and these sections will be analyzed successively. Because of the complexity of the system and the large amount of calculations required it was not possible to analyze the system as a unitary whole. A first attempt to model the system as a unitary whole led to the blocking of the model during simulation, because of the large processing times.

  15. 3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content.

    PubMed

    Lesnyak, Vladimir; Wolf, André; Dubavik, Aliaksei; Borchardt, Lars; Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Gaponik, Nikolai; Kaskel, Stefan; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2011-08-31

    A 3D metal ion assisted assembly of nanoparticles has been developed. The approach relies on the efficient complexation of cadmium ions and 5-mercaptomethyltetrazole employed as the stabilizer of both colloidal CdTe and Au nanoparticles. It enables in a facile way the formation of hybrid metal-semiconductor 3D structures with controllable and tunable composition in aqueous media. By means of critical point drying, these assemblies form highly porous aerogels. The hybrid architectures obtained are characterized by electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and optical spectroscopy methods.

  16. Atmospheric control on isotopic composition and d-excess in water vapor over ocean surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Naixin

    For decades, stable isotopes of water have been used as proxies to infer the variation of the hydrological cycle. However, it is still not clear how various atmospheric processes quantitatively control kinetic fractionation during evaporation over the ocean. Understanding kinetic fractionation is important in that the interpretation of the isotopic composition record preserved in ice cores and precipitation relies in part on the isotopic information at the moisture source. In addition, the isotopic composition of vapor contains information about variation of atmospheric processes such as turbulence and change in moisture source region which is useful for studying meteorological processes and climate change. In this study the isotopic composition of water vapor in the marine boundary layer (MBL) over the ocean was investigated using a combination of a newly developed marine boundary layer (MBL) model and observational data. The new model has a more realistic MBL structure than previous models and includes new features such as vertical advection of air and diffusion coefficients that vary continuously in the vertical direction. A robust linear relationship between deltaD and delta18O was found in observational oceanic water vapor data and the model can well capture the characteristics of this relationship. The individual role of atmospheric processes or variables on deltaD, delta18O and d-excess was quantitatively investigated and an overview of the combined effect of all the meteorological processes is provided. In particular, we emphasize that the properties of subsiding air (such as its mixing ratio and isotopic values) are crucial to the isotopic composition of surface water vapor. Relative humidity has been used to represent the moisture deficit that drives evaporative isotopic fluxes, however, we argue that it has serious limitations in explaining d-excess variation as latitude varies. We introduce a new quantity Gd=SST-Td, the difference between the sea

  17. Asynchronous, self-controlled, all-optical label and payload separator using nonlinear polarization rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier.

    PubMed

    Vegas Olmos, J; Monroy, I; Liu, Y; Garcia Larrode, M; Turkiewicz, J; Dorren, H; Koonen, A

    2004-09-06

    We demonstrate an all-optical label and payload separator based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The proposed scheme uses a packet format composed of a label and payload information signal combined with a control signal by using polarization division multiplexing. The control signal is employed to separate the label from the payload signal by exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation in a SOA. Experimental results show a label from payload suppression factor of 22 dB. This scheme operates asynchronously and does not need external control signal. Clean and wide open eye diagrams are obtained for both the payload and the label signal operating at bit-rates of 10 Gbit/s and 625 Mbit/s, respectively.

  18. Novel, band-controlled metal oxide compositions for semiconductor-mediated photocatalytic splitting of water to produce H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Narendra M.

    2013-02-01

    Semiconductor-mediated photo-catalytic dissociation of water offers a unique opportunity for the production of H2, a sustainable source of energy. More efficient and chemically stable photo-catalysts, however, remain a vital requirement for commercial viability of this process. The recent research in my group has focused on the synthesis of several new metal oxide (MO) photo-catalysts, such as: LaInO3, GaFeO3, InVO4, In2TiO5 and nanotubular TiO2. These samples of controlled grain morphology have been synthesized by using different synthesis protocols and with and without coating of a noble metal co-catalyst. The doping of an impurity, either at cationic or at anionic lattice site, has helped in the tailoring of band structure and making these oxides visible-light-sensitive. Our study has revealed that the surface characteristics, grain morphology, band structure, and doping-induced lattice imperfections control the photo-physical properties and overall photo-catalytic water splitting activity of these metal/MO composites [1-6]. We have demonstrated that, besides promoting certain charge-transfer steps, metal-semiconductor interfaces influence the adsorption of water molecules and their subsequent interaction with photo-generated electron-hole pair at the catalyst surface. The role played by the above-mentioned micro-structural properties in photo-catalytic water splitting process will be discussed.

  19. Controlling of the optical properties of the solutions of the PTCDI-C8 organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdoğan, Erman; Gündüz, Bayram

    2016-09-01

    N,N'-Dioctyl-3,4,9,10 perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8) organic semiconductor have vast applications in solar cells, thermoelectric generators, thin film photovoltaics and many other optoelectronic devices. These applications of the materials are based on their spectral and optical properties. The solutions of the PTCDI-C8 for different molarities were prepared and the spectral and optical mesaurements were analyzed. Effects of the molarities on optical properties were investigated. Vibronic structure has been observed based on the absorption bands of PTCDI-C8 semiconductor with seven peaks at 2.292, 2.451, 2.616, 3.212, 3.851, 4.477 and 4.733 eV. The important spectral parameteres such as molar/mass extinction coefficients, absorption coefficient of the PTCDI-C8 molecule were calculated. Optical properties such as angle of incidence/refraction, optical band gap, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant, loss factor and electrical susceptibility of the the PTCDI-C8 were obtained. Finally, we discussed these parameters for optoelectronic applications and compared with related parameters in literature.

  20. Controlled far-field pattern selection in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, J.Z.; Jansen, M.; Silver, A.H.; Yang, J.J.J.; Simmons, W.W.

    1988-08-16

    A diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser array is described capable of being switched between essentially in-phase and essentially out-of-phase supermodes of operation. The array consists of: a waveguide section having an array of semiconductor lasers coupled together by evanescent coupling, and having one at least partially reflective optical emission element; a diffraction section connected to the waveguide section, and having an at least partially reflective optical emission element that cooperates with the optical emission element in the waveguide section, to produce lasing of the array; wherein the dimensions of the waveguide section and the diffraction section are selected to encourage in-phase lasing of the array; and wherein the diffraction section and the waveguide section have electrically isolated contact layers to switch the array, by independent current injection, between two different operating states, one of which promotes lasing in the in-phase supermode and the other of which promotes lasing in the out-of-phase supermode.

  1. Ion-beam induced atomic mixing in isotopically controlled silicon multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radek, M.; Bracht, H.; Liedke, B.; Böttger, R.; Posselt, M.

    2016-11-01

    Implantation of germanium (Ge), gallium (Ga), and arsenic (As) into crystalline and preamorphized isotopically controlled silicon (Si) multilayer structures at temperatures between 153 K and 973 K was performed to study the mechanisms mediating ion-beam induced atomic mixing. Secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry was applied to determine concentration-depth profiles of the stable isotopes before and after ion implantation. The intermixing is analytically described by a depth-dependent displacement function. The maximum displacement is found to depend not only on temperature and microstructure but also on the doping type of the implanted ion. Molecular dynamics calculations evaluate the contribution of cascade mixing, i.e., thermal-spike mixing, to the overall observed atomic mixing. Calculated and experimental results on the temperature dependence of ion-beam mixing in the amorphous and crystalline structures provide strong evidence for ion-beam induced enhanced crystallization and enhanced self-diffusion, respectively. On the other hand, the former process is confirmed by channeling Rutherford backscattering analyses of the amorphous layer thickness remaining after implantation, the latter process is consistently attributed to the formation of highly mobile Si di-interstitials formed under irradiation and in the course of damage annealing. The observed ion-beam mixing in Si is compared to recent results on ion-beam mixing of Ge isotope multilayers that, in contrast to Si, are fully described by thermal-spike mixing only.

  2. Nanosheets by design: The controllable synthesis of group IV-VI layered semiconductor chalcogenide nanostructures using colloidal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Dimitri D., II

    Nanosheets, a class of nanomaterials with two-dimensional structure and atomic or molecular scale thickness, have attracted a great deal of interest from the scientific community due to excellent physical properties and several promising applications in optoelectronics, energy conversion and storage, and catalysis. While advances in the synthesis of 2D nanostructures using top-down. chemical and physical strategies such as exfoliation and mechanical cleavage have been achieved, improved synthesis may be realized by applying bottom-up. colloidal strategies where nanosheets are built. directly from solution in an atomic layer-by-layer fashion. In this dissertation, I will discuss recent advances in the synthesis of semiconductor nanosheets with controllable lateral dimension, thickness, hierarchical structure, and porosity, specifically focusing on a class of group IV-VI layered semiconductor chalcogenides (GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe) as a model system. Finally, I will highlight my efforts for expanding the synthetic framework mentioned above to access other materials, including the colloidal synthesis of germanium and Ge-based nanostructures.

  3. Ultrafast Control of Magnetism in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors via Photoexcited Transient Carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Cotoros, Ingrid A.

    2008-12-01

    The field of spintronics offers perspectives for seamless integration of coupled and inter-tunable electrical and magnetic properties in a single device. For integration of the spin degree of freedom with current electronic technology, new semiconductors are needed that show electrically-tunable magnetic properties at room temperature and above. Dilute magnetic semiconductors derived from III-V compounds, like GaMnAs and InMnAs, show coupled and tunable magnetic, transport, and optical properties, due to the fact that their ferromagnetism is hole-mediated. These unconventional materials are ideal systems for manipulating the magnetic order by changing the carrier polarization, population density, and energy band distribution of the complementary subsystem of holes. This is the main theme we cover in this thesis. In particular, we develop a unique setup by use of ultraviolet pump, near-infrared probe femtosecond laser pulses, that allows for magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy experiments. We photo-excite transient carriers in our samples, and measure the induced transient magnetization dynamics. One set of experiments performed allowed us to observe for the first time enhancement of the ferromagnetic order in GaMnAs, on an ultrafast time scale of hundreds of picoseconds. The corresponding transient increase of Curie temperature (Tc, the temperature above which a ferromagnetic material loses its permanent magnetism) of about 1 K for our experimental conditions is a very promising result for potential spintronics applications, especially since it is seconded by observation of an ultrafast ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition above Tc. In a different set of experiments, we "write" the magnetization in a particular orientation in the sample plane. Using an ultrafast scheme, we alter the distribution of holes in the system and detect signatures of the particular memory state in the subsequent magnetization dynamics, with unprecedented hundreds of

  4. Magnetism in alkali-metal-doped wurtzite semiconductor materials controlled by strain engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. H.; Li, T. H.; Liu, L. Z.; Hu, F. R.

    2016-09-01

    The study of the magnetism and optical properties of semiconductor materials by defect engineering has attracted much attention because of their potential uses in spintronic and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, first-principle calculations discloses that cationic vacancy formation energy of the doped wurtzite materials can be sharply decreased due to alkali metal dopants and shows that their magnetic properties strongly depend on defect and doping concentration. This effect can be ascribed to the volume change induced by foreign elements doped into the host system and atomic population's difference. The symmetric deformation induced by biaxial strain can further regulate this behavior. Our results suggest that the formation of cationic vacancy can be tailored by strain engineering and dopants incorporation.

  5. Ferromagnetic Control of Spin-Dependent Electron Currents in a Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sham, L. J.

    2005-03-01

    It is well known that electrons or neutrons scattered against a polarized target become polarized. This talk will show how this principle can be used in variety of ways to generate and to change a spin polarization in a current flowing in a semiconductor interfaced with one or more ferromagnets. In theory it is possible to generate a 100% polarized current or a pure spin current without charge current. The relative merits of the various configurations will be assessed. Experiment tests will be described. Possible device applications provide illustrations of the theory.Work done in collaboration with J.P. McGuire, C. Ciuti, Eric Yang, Yuchang Chen, Thomas Grange, and Ed Yu, and supported by NSF DMR 0099572, DARPA/ONR N0014-99-1-1096 and University of California Campus- Laboratories Cooperation project.

  6. Control of Spin Helix Symmetry in Semiconductor Quantum Wells by Crystal Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammermeier, Michael; Wenk, Paul; Schliemann, John

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the possibility of spin-preserving symmetries due to the interplay of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in n -doped zinc-blende semiconductor quantum wells of general crystal orientation. It is shown that a conserved spin operator can be realized if and only if at least two growth direction Miller indices agree in modulus. The according spin-orbit field has in general both in-plane and out-of-plane components and is always perpendicular to the shift vector of the corresponding persistent spin helix. We also analyze higher-order effects arising from the Dresselhaus term, and the impact of our results on weak (anti)localization corrections.

  7. Dominant controls on catchment hydrological functions: what can we learn from biological and isotopic tracers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, L.; Klaus, J.; Wetzel, C. E.; Stewart, M. K.; McDonnell, J.; Martinez Carreras, N.

    2014-12-01

    One emerging and important control on catchment hydrological functions of water storage, mixing and release is bedrock geology. Until today, catchment-based work has been limited by small ranges of rock types in adjacent basins. Moreover, conventional hydrological tracer approaches suffer from limitations inherent to the large storages related to certain bedrock types (e.g. the damping of stable isotope tracer signatures in deep storage catchments and obliteration of output signals at larger spatial scales). Here, we show how a multi-tracer approach, based on terrestrial diatoms and different stable and radioactive isotopic tracers can help refining our understanding of the dominant controls on catchment hydrological functions, especially the role of bedrock geology. We present new data and results from a nested catchment set-up, located in the Alzette River basin in Luxembourg (Europe). These 16 catchments (with sizes ranging from 0.47 to 285 km2) are characterized by clean and mixed assemblages of geology and land use. We have monitored these systems since 2002, including meteorological variables (precipitation, air temperature, etc.), as well as 15 minute discharge. Additional parameters have been monitored bi-weekly and at the event time scale, including geochemical and isotopic (3H, D, 18O) tracers, as well as terrestrial diatom communities in streamwater. Our results show that water balance derived dynamic storage significantly differs across the 16 catchments and scales. Catchment mixing potential inferred from standard deviations in stream baseflow ∂D (as a proxy for the damping of isotopic signatures in precipitation), as well as tritium-derived baseflow transit times, both exhibit a significant spatial variability, but strong correlation to bedrock pemeability. Terrestrial diatom assemblages in streamwater, as a proxy for rapid flow pathway connectedness to the stream network, are highly variable across the study catchments but also show strong

  8. Mineral composition control on inter-mineral iron isotopic fractionation in granitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongjie; He, Yongsheng; Bao, Leier; Zhu, Chuanwei; Li, Shuguang

    2017-02-01

    This study reports elemental and iron isotopic compositions of feldspar and its coexisting minerals from four Dabie I-type granitoids to evaluate the factors that control inter-mineral Fe isotopic fractionation in granitoids. The order of heavy iron isotope enrichment is feldspar > pyrite > magnetite > biotite ≈ hornblende. Feldspar has heavier iron isotopic compositions than its co-existing magnetite (Δ56Feplagioclase-magnetite = +0.376‰ to +1.084‰, Δ56Fealkali-feldspar-magnetite = +0.516‰ to +0.846‰), which can be attributed to its high Fe3+/Fetot ratio and low coordination number (tetrahedrally-coordinated) of Fe3+. Δ56Femagnetite-biotite of coexisting magnetite and biotite ranges from 0.090‰ to 0.246‰. Based on homogeneous major and iron isotopic compositions of mineral replicates, the inter-mineral fractionation in this study should reflect equilibrium fractionation. The large variations of inter-mineral fractionation among feldspar, magnetite and biotite cannot be simply explained by temperature variation, but strongly depend on mineral compositions. The Δ56Feplagioclase-magnetite and Δ56Fealkali-feldspar-magnetite are positively correlated with albite mode in plagioclase and orthoclase mode in alkali-feldspar, respectively. This could be explained by different Fe-O bond strength in feldspar due to different Fe3+/∑Fe or different crystal parameters. The Δ56Femagnetite-biotite increases with decreasing Fe3+/∑Febiotite and increasing mole (Na + K)/Mgbiotite, indicating a decrease of β factor in low Fe3+/∑Fe and high (Na + K)/Mg biotite. High-silica leucosomes from Dabie migmatites with a feldspar accumulation petrogenesis have higher δ56Fe values (δ56Fe = 0.42-0.567‰) than leucosome that represents pristine partial melt (δ56Fe = 0.117 ± 0.016‰), indicating that accumulation of feldspar could account for high δ56Fe values of these rocks. High δ56Fe values are also predicted for other igneous rocks that are mainly composed of

  9. Density Functional Theory Study of Controls on Equilibrium Fe Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Kubicki, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Previous molecular orbital/density functional theory (MO/DFT) calculations of Fe(III) and Fe(II) complexed with oxalate and catechol was used to predict and compare the equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation factors associated with changes to ligands bound to Fe and those associated with changes to the oxidation state of Fe. The predicted fractionation factors between Fe bound by different ligands was < 1.7‰ in vacuo and < 1.2‰ in solution. These values were consistently and significantly smaller than those for equilibrium between different oxidation states of Fe, predicted to be > 2.8‰ in vacuo and > 2.2‰ in solution. Curiously, a trend was originally found where 56Fe is partitioned into smaller ligands with lower Fe affinities and presumably weaker Fe-O bonds. This was the case for the ligands water, oxalate, and catechol, which show respectively increasing Fe affinities yet decreasing predicted 56Fe/^{54}Fe. Current research is using a model of a full siderophore to calculate the Fe isotope fractionation associated with organic complexation. Fractionation is more complicated upon the inclusion of the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB). The high affinity of DFOB for Fe(III) results in the highest predicted fractionation for 56Fe of all the complexes studied, reversing the unexpected fractionation trend mentioned above. We present the results of a detailed analysis of the bonding between Fe(III) and the ligands bound to it. We use natural bond order (NBO) analysis to show why the smaller ligands result in a larger partitioning of 56Fe to smaller ligands, and why DFOB has the highest 56Fe partitioning. This study will help elucidate the molecular controls on Fe isotope fractionation, and as such will be useful in placing experimental work in theoretical context and in helping drive future research questions. Accordingly, the implications of our results for the use of Fe isotopes as a biomarker and as a tracer of ocean redox history will be discussed, as

  10. Elemental and Isotopic Incorporation into the Aragonitic Shells of Arctica Islandica: Insights from Temperature Controlled Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanamaker, A. D.; Gillikin, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The long-lived ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, is a fairly well developed and tested marine proxy archive, however, the utility of elemental ratios in A. islandica shell material as environmental proxies remains questionable. To further evaluate the influence of seawater temperature on elemental and isotopic incorporation during biomineralization, A. islandica shells were grown at constant temperatures under two regimes during a 16-week period from March 27 to July 21, 2011. Seawater from the Darling Marine Center in Walpole, Maine was pumped into temperature and flow controlled tanks that were exposed to ambient food and salinity conditions. A total of 20 individual juvenile clams with an average shell height of 36 mm were stained with calcein (a commonly used biomarker) and cultured at 10.3 ± 0.3 °C for six weeks. After this, shell heights were measured and the clams were again stained with calcein and cultured at 15.0 ± 0.4 °C for an additional 9.5 weeks. The average shell growth during the first phase of the experiment was 2.4 mm with a linear extension rate of 0.40 mm/week. The average shell growth during the second phase of the experiment was 3.2 mm with an extension rate of 0.34 mm/week. Average salinity values were 30.2 ± 0.7 and 30.7 ±0.7 in the first and second phases of the experiment, respectively. Oxygen isotopes from the cultured seawater were collected throughout the experiment and provide the basis for establishing if shells grew in oxygen isotopic equilibrium. Elemental ratios (primarily Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) in the aragonitic shells were determined via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), while stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Continuous sampling within and across the temperature conditions (from 10 °C to 15 °C) coupled with the calcein markings provides the ability to place each sample into a precise temporal framework. The

  11. Adhesiveless Transfer Printing of Ultrathin Microscale Semiconductor Materials by Controlling the Bending Radius of an Elastomeric Stamp.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungbum; Kim, Namyun; Song, Kwangsun; Lee, Jongho

    2016-08-09

    High-performance electronic devices integrated onto unconventional substrates provide opportunities for use in diverse applications, such as wearable or implantable forms of electronic devices. However, the interlayer adhesives between the electronic devices and substrates often limit processing temperature or cause electrical or thermal resistance at the interface. This paper introduces a very simple but effective transfer printing method that does not require an interlayer adhesive. Controlling the bending radius of a simple flat stamp enables picking up or printing of microscale semiconductor materials onto rigid, curvilinear, or flexible surfaces without the aid of a liquid adhesive. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal the underlying mechanism of the suggested approach. Adhesiveless printing of thin Si plates onto diverse substrates demonstrates the capability of this method.

  12. Semiconductor-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide nanostructures on silicon substrate: Applications for thermal control of spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Leahu, G. L. Li Voti, R. Larciprete, M. C. Belardini, A. Mura, F. Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Fratoddi, I.

    2014-06-19

    We present a detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide (VO2) film deposited on silicon wafer. The VO2 phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The temperature behaviour of the emissivity during the SMT put into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in VO2 which has been explained by applying the Maxwell Garnett effective medium approximation theory, together with a strong hysteresis phenomenon, both useful to design tunable thermal devices to be applied for the thermal control of spacecraft. We have also applied the photothermal radiometry in order to study the changes in the modulated emissivity induced by laser. Experimental results show how the use of these techniques represent a good tool for a quantitative measurement of the optothermal properties of vanadium dioxide based structures.

  13. Photosynthetic Carbon Isotope Fractionation of the Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense: A Chemostat Investigation of Taxonomic and Physiological Controls on the Stable Carbon Isotope Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, E.; Carter, S. J.; Pearson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Interpretations of stable carbon isotope excursions in the sedimentary record are strengthened by laboratory culture studies investigating the photosynthetic carbon isotope fractionation (ɛp) of marine phytoplankton taxa with long geological records. These studies are essential for understanding organic matter δ13C signals in terms of environmental changes (e.g., atmospheric pCO2 and nutrient availability) or taxonomic changes (e.g., algal species succession and community composition). Dinoflagellates are among the most widespread and ecologically dominant primary producers in modern oceans and throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Compared to more recently evolved phytoplankton taxa, however, dinoflagellate carbon isotope fractionation has received relatively little mechanistic study. Several dilute batch culture experiments with dinoflagellates have investigated ɛp as a function of CO2 availability, but the influences of changing growth rates, nutrient limitation, pH, and irradiance require further systematic exploration. We investigated stable carbon isotope fractionation in the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense under nitrate-limited conditions in a chemostat culture system in which full DIC system parameters, including the concentration and δ13C value of CO2, were determined. Growth rates were varied between experiments, and cells were grown under continuous light. Previously reported ɛp values for seven dinoflagellate species including A. tamarense ranged from approximately -1 to 14‰ in nutrient-replete batch culture studies ([CO2] = 0-50 µmol kg-1). In contrast, in chemostat conditions we measured ɛp values on the order of 20‰ ([CO2] = 20-30 µmol kg-1). These experiments provide an initial step toward understanding the physiological controls on ɛp in dinoflagellates and illuminating the role of algal taxonomy in shaping the Phanerozoic stable carbon isotope record.

  14. Identifying Hydrological Controls in the Lower Nelson River Basin utilizing Stable Water Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavau, C. J.; Smith, A. A.; Stadnyk, T.; Koenig, K.

    2012-12-01

    period. Conversely, the main stem of the Burntwood River system shows increased variability relative to the Nelson River and overall is more depleted (average δ18O of -12.9‰ and a standard deviation of 0.75‰). Many of the headwater tributaries to the Nelson and Burntwood River systems such as Birchtree Brook, and the Minago, Gunisao, Grass, Odei, Footprint and Sapochi Rivers show large temporal and spatial variability due to relatively smaller drainage areas and differences in typology and connectivity. For this reason, further investigation into the correlation of land cover with isotopic composition is assessed for the aforementioned tributaries to better establish the hydrological controls (i.e., sources and sinks) for each sub-basin at the mesoscale. Results signify a strong relationship between percent wetland coverage and the slope of the Local Evaporation Line (SLEL) for headwater sub-basins (R2=0.99), indicating the likelihood of enhanced evaporative enrichment for sub-basins with increased wetland coverage. The collection of SWI's within the LNRB will help to develop a comprehensive understanding of water sources and cycling in this basin with the end goal of improving hydrological forecasting tools to predict, with improved certainty, future water availability for hydroelectric power production.

  15. Silver Nanoshell Plasmonically Controlled Emission of Semiconductor Quantum Dots in the Strong Coupling Regime.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ning; Yuan, Meng; Gao, Yuhan; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2016-04-26

    Strong coupling between semiconductor excitons and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) giving rise to hybridized plexciton states in which energy is coherently and reversibly exchanged between the components is vital, especially in the area of quantum information processing from fundamental and practical points of view. Here, in photoluminescence spectra, rather than from common extinction or reflection measurements, we report on the direct observation of Rabi splitting of approximately 160 meV as an indication of strong coupling between excited states of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and LSP modes of silver nanoshells under nonresonant nanosecond pulsed laser excitation at room temperature. The strong coupling manifests itself as an anticrossing-like behavior of the two newly formed polaritons when tuning the silver nanoshell plasmon energies across the exciton line of the QDs. Further analysis substantiates the essentiality of high pump energy and collective strong coupling of many QDs with the radiative dipole mode of the metallic nanoparticles for the realization of strong coupling. Our finding opens up interesting directions for the investigation of strong coupling between LSPs and excitons from the perspective of radiative recombination under easily accessible experimental conditions.

  16. Plasma instability and wave propagation in gate-controlled semiconductor conduction channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg

    2013-03-01

    The plasma wave in the conduction channel of a semiconductor heterostructure high electron mobility transistor is an electron density excitation, possible at frequencies significantly higher than the cut-off frequency in a short channel device. When the electron-electron collision limited mean free path is much smaller than the wavelength of the density variations, the electron gas in the channel can be treated as a two-dimensional fluid. The flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equation and the heat conduction equation. The quality of the plasma resonance is limited by the electron mobility and the viscosity of the electron fluid. We use the hydrodynamic model derived as the balance equations from the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation, starting with a drifted Fermi-Dirac distribution as a zero order term in the expansion of the distribution function in orders of the Knudsen number. The charge flow can become unstable because of plasma wave amplification at the boundaries. The device then can be used as a tunable source of terahertz range radiation. We show that in such configuration the charge flow also develops shock waves due to hydrodynamic nonlinearities.

  17. Controlled metal-semiconductor sintering/alloying by one-directional reverse illumination

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1993-01-01

    Metal strips deposited on a top surface of a semiconductor substrate are sintered at one temperature simultaneously with alloying a metal layer on the bottom surface at a second, higher temperature. This simultaneous sintering of metal strips and alloying a metal layer on opposite surfaces of the substrate at different temperatures is accomplished by directing infrared radiation through the top surface to the interface of the bottom surface with the metal layer where the radiation is absorbed to create a primary hot zone with a temperature high enough to melt and alloy the metal layer with the bottom surface of the substrate. Secondary heat effects, including heat conducted through the substrate from the primary hot zone and heat created by infrared radiation reflected from the metal layer to the metal strips, as well as heat created from some primary absorption by the metal strips, combine to create secondary hot zones at the interfaces of the metal strips with the top surface of the substrate. These secondary hot zones are not as hot as the primary hot zone, but they are hot enough to sinter the metal strips to the substrate.

  18. Elucidating the controls on the Mg isotopic composition of marine pore fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, P.; Fantle, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Sr and Mg isotopic composition of pore fluids and carbonates from the Neogene section of Ocean Drilling Project Site 806B are reported (87Sr/86Sr and δ26Mg, measured using a Thermo Scientific Neptune Plus multi-collector ICP-MS). Site 806B, located on the northern margin of the Ontong Java Plateau, hosts a thick (776 m cored, depth to basement ~ 1200 m), relatively continuous, carbonate-rich section (between 83 and 96% CaCO3). Our goal in the current study is to use the Sr and Mg isotope data of pore fluids and carbonates to address open questions regarding (1) the extent to which the pore fluid chemistry is overprinted by calcite recrystallization, (2) the effects of diagenesis on bulk carbonate chemistry, and (3) the likelihood of preserving secular seawater δ26Mg trends in pore fluids. Accordingly, the current study compares and contrasts the isotopic and elemental data between adjacent ODP Sites 806B and 807A, which have similar depositional histories, carbonate contents, and pore fluid chemistries. The measured 87Sr/86Sr ratios of pore fluids at 806B range smoothly from 0.70914 at 4.45 mbsf to 0.70851 at 509.3 mbsf, similar (though offset relative) to the bulk carbonate trend (0.70918 to 0.70877 between 1.11 and 501.94 mbsf). The δ26MgDSM3 of 806B pore fluids generally increases from -0.86‰ at 4.45 mbsf to -0.17‰ at 679.0 mbsf. The overall trend is consistent with previously collected δ26Mg data at 807A [1]; there is, however, a significant difference in pore fluid δ26Mg between the two sites at depths of 300 to 600 mbsf. At these depths, 806B pore fluid δ26Mg values are +0.2 to 0.3‰ relative to 807A at similar depths [1]. The application of a depositional reactive transport model to the Sr isotope data suggests that bulk carbonate recrystallization rates at 806B are similar to those at 807A (<2%/Ma) [2]. An iterative model construct is employed to evaluate the dominant controls on the δ26Mg of marine pore fluids; specifically the relative

  19. Enhanced coherent control of carrier and spin density in a zinc-blende semiconductor by cascaded second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Martin J.; Bhat, R. D. R.; Pan, X. Y.; van Driel, H. M.; Sipe, J. E.; Smirl, Arthur L.

    2005-05-01

    Phase- and polarization-dependent optical processes involving pulses with frequencies ω and 2ω can be used to independently control electron and spin density in zinc-blende semiconductors such as GaAs. One such process is quantum interference control (QUIC) where interference between transition amplitudes associated with one- and two-photon absorption alters the carrier/spin generation rate. A second process, which has been acknowledged but not utilized, is cascaded second-harmonic (CASH) generation in which phase-dependent upconversion/downconversion between the two pulses modulates the 2ω pulse intensity and/or polarization and hence modulates the carrier or spin generation rate by single-photon absorption at 2ω. Here we report the use of (110)-oriented GaAs /AlGaAs quantum wells with a 500-nmAlGaAs buffer layer to enhance CASH and to allow independent control of spin and carrier densities. Experiments conducted with 100-fs pulses at 775 and 1550nm or at 715 and 1430nm, with different polarization states and with different sample orientations, show how QUIC and CASH processes vary with excitation frequency and demonstrate the dominant role played by CASH. We point the way to achieving nearly 100% control through CASH.

  20. Semiconductor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C. (Inventor); Lagowski, Jacek (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor sensor adapted to detect with a high degree of sensitivity small magnitudes of a mechanical force, presence of traces of a gas or light. The sensor includes a high energy gap (i.e., .about. 1.0 electron volts) semiconductor wafer. Mechanical force is measured by employing a non-centrosymmetric material for the semiconductor. Distortion of the semiconductor by the force creates a contact potential difference (cpd) at the semiconductor surface, and this cpd is determined to give a measure of the force. When such a semiconductor is subjected to illumination with an energy less than the energy gap of the semiconductors, such illumination also creates a cpd at the surface. Detection of this cpd is employed to sense the illumination itself or, in a variation of the system, to detect a gas. When either a gas or light is to be detected and a crystal of a non-centrosymmetric material is employed, the presence of gas or light, in appropriate circumstances, results in a strain within the crystal which distorts the same and the distortion provides a mechanism for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the gas or the light, as the case may be.

  1. Semiconductor photoelectrochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Semiconductor photoelectrochemical reactions are investigated. A model of the charge transport processes in the semiconductor, based on semiconductor device theory, is presented. It incorporates the nonlinear processes characterizing the diffusion and reaction of charge carriers in the semiconductor. The model is used to study conditions limiting useful energy conversion, specifically the saturation of current flow due to high light intensity. Numerical results describing charge distributions in the semiconductor and its effects on the electrolyte are obtained. Experimental results include: an estimate rate at which a semiconductor photoelectrode is capable of converting electromagnetic energy into chemical energy; the effect of cell temperature on the efficiency; a method for determining the point of zero zeta potential for macroscopic semiconductor samples; a technique using platinized titanium dioxide powders and ultraviolet radiation to produce chlorine, bromine, and iodine from solutions containing their respective ions; the photoelectrochemical properties of a class of layered compounds called transition metal thiophosphates; and a technique used to produce high conversion efficiency from laser radiation to chemical energy.

  2. New developments in power semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper represents an overview of some recent power semiconductor developments and spotlights new technologies that may have significant impact for aircraft electric secondary power. Primary emphasis will be on NASA-Lewis-supported developments in transistors, diodes, a new family of semiconductors, and solid-state remote power controllers. Several semiconductor companies that are moving into the power arena with devices rated at 400 V and 50 A and above are listed, with a brief look at a few devices.

  3. Controls on the stable isotopes in precipitation and surface waters across the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wei; Yao, Tandong; Xie, Shiyou; He, You

    2017-02-01

    Constraining temporal and spatial variability in water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) is requested for interpreting proxy records of paleoclimate/paleoaltimetry. The southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) receives large amounts of precipitation in both summer (JJAS) and spring (MAM) and this makes it different from most other parts of the TP where annual precipitation concentrates only in summer. However, our knowledge of controls on precipitation and surface runoff generation in this region is still far from sufficient. In this study, the δ18O and δD of precipitation and stream waters across the southeastern TP were analyzed to investigate moisture sources and empirical isotope-elevation relationships. Herein, seasonal precipitation patterns, moisture trajectories and precipitation isotopes suggest this region is seasonally dominated by the monsoon in summer and the southerlies (from the Bay of Bengal) or a mix of southerlies and westerlies in spring. Spatially, vertical variations in precipitation seasonality exert profound influences on isotopic variability for stream waters. Larger contributions of spring precipitation (with higher δ18O and d-excess (d-excess = δD-8δ18O) compared to summer precipitation) vs. summer precipitation in the surface runoff generation at lower elevations account for the uncommon altitudinal decrease in streamwater d-excess. Such a cause also contributes to the slightly greater vertical lapse rates of streamwater δ18O (-0.28 to -0.48‰/100 m) relative to the Himalayan front. In addition, although a robust δ18O-elevation relationship is demonstrated based upon our measured and other published data on a broad spatial scale (over a 5200 m elevation range), this relationship is found to deviate from the empirical/theoretical pattern in the Himalayan front, which is also caused by the substantial spring precipitation in the southeastern TP. It is suggested that long-term changes in δ18O or δD of paleowater in this region actually

  4. Atmospheric pCO2 control on speleothem stable carbon isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breecker, Daniel O.

    2017-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope compositions of C3 plants are controlled by the carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Ca) and by the stomatal response to water stress. These relationships permit the reconstruction of ancient environments and assessment of the water use efficiency of forests. It is currently debated whether the δ13C values of C3 plants are also controlled by atmospheric pCO2. Here I show that globally-averaged speleothem δ13C values closely track atmospheric pCO2 over the past 90 kyr. After accounting for other possible effects, this coupling is best explained by a C3 plant δ13C sensitivity of - 1.6 ± 0.3 ‰ / 100 ppmV CO2 during the Quaternary. This is consistent with 20th century European forest tree ring δ13C records, providing confidence in the result and suggesting that the modest pCO2-driven increase in water use efficiency determined for those ecosystems and simulated by land surface models accurately approximates the global average response. The δ13C signal from C3 plants is transferred to speleothems relatively rapidly. Thus, the effect of atmospheric pCO2 should be subtracted from new and existing speleothem δ13C records so that residual δ13C shifts can be interpreted in light of the other factors known to control spleleothem δ13C values. Furthermore, global average speleothem δ13C shifts may be used to develop a continuous radiometric chronology for Pleistocene atmospheric pCO2 fluctuations and, by correlation, ice core climate records.

  5. Tropical West Pacific moisture dynamics and climate controls on rainfall isotopic ratios in southern Papua, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Donaldi S.; Thompson, Lonnie G.; Setyadi, Gesang

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the controls on stable isotopologues of tropical rainfall is critical for paleoclimatic reconstruction from tropical ice core records. The southern Papua region, Indonesia, has a unique climate regime that allows for the evaluation of the influence of precipitation and convective activity on seasonal rainfall δ18O. The influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on interannual rainfall δ18O variation is also important for paleoclimate reconstruction. Here we present stable isotope analyses of 1332 rain samples collected daily during the period from January 2013 to February 2014 (ENSO-normal) and December 2014 to September 2015 (El Niño) at various elevation stations (9 to 3945 m above sea level) on the southern slope of the central mountain ranges in Papua. The results suggest an altitude effect with an isotopic lapse rate for δ18O (δD) of -2.4‰/km (-18.2‰/km). The temporal δ18O variability (daily to interannual) is controlled mostly by regional convective activity rather than local/regional precipitation amount. The intraseasonal δ18O variation resembles the Madden-Julian Oscillation cycle with major δ18O depletion events associated with active (wet) phases. Moisture origins, transport pathways, moisture convergence, and raindrop evaporation appear to have no significant seasonal effects on δ18O, leading to the conclusion that condensation temperature controls δ18O depletion associated with convective activity. Seasonal δ18O variation is likely associated with atmospheric temperature at the mean condensation level as indicated by the altitude of latent heat release in the troposphere. Rainfall δ18O (δD) is generally enriched by 1.6‰-2‰ (11‰-15‰) during El Niño than during ENSO-normal periods.

  6. Processes controlling the chromium isotopic composition of river water: Constraints from basaltic river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, Joan; Babechuk, Michael G.; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report chromium (Cr) isotope compositions and concentrations (and additional geochemical and physicochemical data) of bedrock, soils and river waters from two geographically distinct basaltic river catchments, the Uruguay River catchment (Uruguay) and the Glenariff River catchment (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom), to investigate the processes that control Cr mobilisation and fractionation during weathering and riverine transport to the sea. Our results show that the Cr isotope compositions of soils are a function of the modal abundance and weathering rates of Cr-bearing minerals. The accumulation of weathering resistant Cr-spinels in the soils of Northern Ireland results in soils which are enriched in Cr and have δ53Cr values within the range of local bedrock (δ53Cr value of -0.21 ± 0.12‰, 2σ, n = 4). By contrast, the more easily weathered Cr-silicates in the bedrock of Uruguay results in greater Cr loss from the soil and a depletion in the heavy isotopes of Cr (with average δ53Cr value of -0.32 ± 0.04‰, 2σ, n = 4) relative to the local bedrock (δ53Cr value of -0.22 ± 0.08‰, 2σ, n = 4). The river waters in both catchments are predominantly enriched in the heavy 53Cr isotope relative to bedrock, although the range and average river water δ53Cr values differ significantly between each. The Uruguay rivers exhibit a restricted range in δ53Cr values, with a mean of +0.08 ± 0.06‰ (2σ, n = 5) that represents a positive fractionation of +0.2‰ relative to bedrock, and is best explained by the unidirectional formation of Cr(VI) during weathering that has not been significantly modified by back-reduction to Cr(III). By contrast, the Glenariff stream and river waters (Northern Ireland) exhibit a wide range in δ53Cr values from -0.17 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 4) to +1.68 ± 0.3‰ (n = 1) that appears to reflect the variable redox conditions of the catchment. In general, the values with the lowest 53Cr enrichment have higher Cr concentrations, the lowest

  7. Coherent Optical Control of Electronic Excitations in Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductor Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    ABSTRACT The main objective of this research is to study coherent quantum effects, such as Rabi oscillations in optical spectra of wide- band-gap...materials, and to determine the feasibility of fast optical control of quantum states in gallium nitride and zinc oxide heterostructures. Because of...necessary work toward coherent optical control of quantum states at higher temperatures, with ultimately room-temperature coherent control. We also

  8. Adsorption-controlled growth of BiFeO3 by MBE and integration with wide band gap semiconductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Uecker, Reinhard , Germany); Doolittle, W. Alan; Reiche, P. , Germany); Liu, Zi-Kui; Bernhagen, Margitta , Germany); Tian, Wei; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2008-08-01

    BiFeO3 thin films have been deposited on (101) DyScO3, (0001) AlGaN/GaN, and (0001) SiC single crystal substrates by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy in an adsorption-controlled growth regime. This is achieved by supplying a bismuth over-pressure and utilizing the differential vapor pressures between bismuth oxides and BiFeO3 to control stoichiometry. Four-circle x-ray diffraction reveals phase-pure, epitaxial films with rocking curve full width at half maximum values as narrow as 7.2 arc seconds. Epitaxial growth of (0001)-oriented BiFeO3 thin films on (0001) GaN, including AlGaN HEMT structures, and (0001) SiC has been realized utilizing intervening epitaxial (111) SrTiO3/(100) TiO2 buffer layers. The epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films have two in-plane orientations: [1120] BiFeO3 [1120] GaN (SiC) plus a twin variant related by a 180{sup o} in-plane rotation. This epitaxial integration of the ferroelectric with the highest known polarization, BiFeO3, with wide band gap semiconductors is an important step toward novel field-effect devices.

  9. Isotopic Clues on Factors Controlling Geochemical Fluxes From Large Watersheds in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, E.; Helie, J.; Ghaleb, B.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Gaillardet, J.

    2008-12-01

    A monitoring and monthly sampling program of the Nelson, Ottawa, St. Lawrence, La Grande and Great Whale rivers was started in September 2007. It provides information on the seasonality and sources of geochemical fluxes into the Hudson Bay and the North Atlantic from watersheds covering more than 2.6 106 km2 of the eastern Canadian boreal domain. Measurements of pH and alkalinity, analyses of major ions, strontium and dissolved silica, 2H and 18O of water, concentrations and isotopic properties of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (13C) and uranium (234U/238U) were performed. Lithology more than latitudinal climatic gradients controls the river geochemistry. Rivers draining silicate terrains show lower dissolved U concentrations but greater 234U/238U disequilibria than rivers draining carbonates (average of 1.38 vs. 1.23). Groundwater supplies might exert some control on these U- isotope signatures. No clear seasonality is observed in 234U/238U ratios, but U concentrations are correlated to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in most rivers. Rivers draining carbonates present higher total dissolved carbon concentrations and higher 13C-contents in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in response to the dissolution of soil carbonates. DOC/DIC ratios above 2.4 are observed in rivers draining silicates; their lower 13C-DIC content directly reflects the organic matter oxidation in soils. Total dissolved solids are one order of magnitude or more greater in rivers draining carbonates, showing the strong difference in chemical weathering rates according to the geological setting. The stability in chemical fluxes and water isotopic compositions in the La Grande River, which hosts hydroelectric reservoirs covering more than 12 000 km2, indicates that it is the most buffered hydrological system among the investigated watersheds. Seasonal fluctuations are observed elsewhere, with maximum geochemical fluxes during the spring snowmelt. 2H-18O content of river water

  10. Crystallographic control on the boron isotope paleo-pH proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noireaux, J.; Mavromatis, V.; Gaillardet, J.; Schott, J.; Montouillout, V.; Louvat, P.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Neuville, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    When using the boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of marine carbonates as a seawater pH proxy, it is assumed that only the tetrahedral borate ion is incorporated into the growing carbonate crystals and that no boron isotope fractionation occurs during uptake. However, the δ11B of the calcium carbonate from most modern foraminifera shells or corals skeletons is not the same as the δ11B of seawater borate, which depends on pH, an observation commonly attributed to vital effects. In this study, we combined previously published high-field 11B MAS NMR and new δ11B measurements on the same synthetic calcite and aragonite samples precipitated inorganically under controlled environments to avoid vital effects. Our results indicate that the main controlling factors of δ11B are the solution pH and the mineralogy of the precipitated carbonate mineral, whereas the aqueous boron concentration of the solution, CaCO3 precipitation rate and the presence or absence of growth seeds all appear to have negligible influence. In aragonite, the NMR data show that boron coordination is tetrahedral (BO4), in addition, its δ11B is equal to that of aqueous borate, thus confirming the paleo-pH hypothesis. In contrast, both trigonal BO3 and tetrahedral BO4 are present in calcite, and its δ11B values are higher than that of aqueous borate and are less sensitive to solution pH variations compared to δ11B in aragonite. These observations are interpreted in calcite as a reflection of the incorporation of decreasing amounts of boric acid with increasing pH. Moreover, the fraction of BO3 measured by NMR in calcite is higher than that inferred from δ11B which indicates a coordination change from BO4 to BO3 upon boron incorporation in the solid. Overall, this study shows that although the observed differences in δ11B between inorganic and biological aragonite are compatible with a pH increase at calcification sites, the B speciation and isotope composition of biological calcites call for a

  11. Two-dimensional ferromagnet/semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenide contacts: p-type Schottky barrier and spin-injection control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Li-Yong; Zhang, Qingyun; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2013-12-01

    We study the ferromagnet/semiconductor contacts formed by transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, focusing on semiconducting MoS2 and WS2 and ferromagnetic VS2. We investigate the degree of p-type doping and demonstrate tuning of the Schottky barrier height by vertical compressive pressure. An analytical model is presented for the barrier heights that accurately describes the numerical findings and is expected to be of general validity for all transition metal dichalcogenide metal/semiconductor contacts. Furthermore, magnetic proximity effects induce a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level in the semiconductor where the spin splitting increases up to 0.70 eV for increasing pressure.

  12. Point defect reduction in wide bandgap semiconductors by defect quasi Fermi level control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P.; Hoffmann, M. P.; Kaess, F.; Bryan, Z.; Bryan, I.; Bobea, M.; Klump, A.; Tweedie, J.; Kirste, R.; Mita, S.; Gerhold, M.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical framework for a general approach to reduce point defect density in materials via control of defect quasi Fermi level (dQFL) is presented. The control of dQFL is achieved via excess minority carrier generation. General guidelines for controlling dQFL that lead to a significant reduction in compensating point defects in any doped material is proposed. The framework introduces and incorporates the effects of various factors that control the efficacy of the defect reduction process such as defect level, defect formation energy, bandgap, and excess minority carrier density. Modified formation energy diagrams are proposed, which illustrate the effect of the quasi Fermi level control on the defect formation energies. These formation energy diagrams provide powerful tools to determine the feasibility and requirements to produce the desired reduction in specified point defects. An experimental study of the effect of excess minority carriers on point defect incorporation in GaN and AlGaN shows an excellent quantitative agreement with the theoretical predictions. Illumination at energies larger than the bandgap is employed as a means to generate excess minority carriers. The case studies with CN in Si doped GaN, H and VN in Mg doped GaN and VM-2ON in Si doped Al0.65Ga0.35N revealed a significant reduction in impurities in agreement with the proposed theory. Since compensating point defects control the material performance (this is particularly challenging in wide and ultra wide bandgap materials), dQFL control is a highly promising technique with wide scope and may be utilized to improve the properties of various materials systems and performance of devices based upon them.

  13. Climate controls on forest soil C isotope ratios in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Cooper, L.W.; Post, W.M. III; Hanson, P.J.

    2000-04-01

    A large portion of terrestrial carbon (C) resides in soil organic carbon (SOC). The dynamics of this large reservoir depend on many factors, including climate. Measurements of {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C ratios, C concentrations, and C:N ratios at six forest sites in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA) were used to explore several hypotheses concerning the relative importance of factors that control soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and SOC turnover. Mean {delta}{sup 13}C values increased with soil depth and decreasing C concentrations along a continuum from fresh litter inputs to more decomposed soil constituents. Data from the six forest sites, in combination with data from a literature review, indicate that the extent of change in {delta}{sup 13}C values from forest litter inputs to mineral soil is significantly associated with mean annual temperature. The findings support a conceptual model of vertical changes in forest soil {delta}{sup 13}C values, C concentrations, and C:N ratios that are interrelated through climate controls on decomposition. The authors hypothesize that, if other environmental factors are not limiting, then temperature and litter quality indirectly control the extent of isotopic fractionation during SOM decomposition in temperate forest ecosystems.

  14. Climate controls on forest soil C isotope ratios in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Cooper, Lee W; Post, Wilfred M; Hanson, Paul J

    2000-04-01

    A large portion of terrestrial carbon (C) resides in soil organic carbon (SOC). The dynamics of this large reservoir depend on many factors, including climate. Measurements of {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C ratios, C concentrations, and C:N ratios at six forest sites in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA) were used to explore several hypotheses concerning the relative importance of factors that control soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and SOC turnover. Mean {delta}{sup 13}C values increased with soil depth and decreasing C concentrations along a continuum from fresh litter inputs to more decomposed soil constituents. Data from the six forest sites, in combination with data from a literature review, indicate that the extent of change in {delta}{sup 13}C values from forest litter inputs to mineral soil (20 cm deep) is significantly associated with mean annual temperature. The findings support a conceptual model of vertical changes in forest soil {delta}{sup 13}C values, C concentrations, and C:N ratios that are interrelated through climate controls on decomposition. We hypothesize that, if other environmental factors (like soil moisture) are not limiting, then temperature and litter quality indirectly control the extent of isotopic fractionation during SOM decomposition in temperate forest ecosystems.

  15. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Isotopic Yttrium-90-Labeled Rare Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals for Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paik, Taejong; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Mikitsh, John L; Friedberg, Joseph S; Pryma, Daniel A; Murray, Christopher B

    2015-09-22

    Isotopically labeled nanomaterials have recently attracted much attention in biomedical research, environmental health studies, and clinical medicine because radioactive probes allow the elucidation of in vitro and in vivo cellular transport mechanisms, as well as the unambiguous distribution and localization of nanomaterials in vivo. In addition, nanocrystal-based inorganic materials have a unique capability of customizing size, shape, and composition; with the potential to be designed as multimodal imaging probes. Size and shape of nanocrystals can directly influence interactions with biological systems, hence it is important to develop synthetic methods to design radiolabeled nanocrystals with precise control of size and shape. Here, we report size- and shape-controlled synthesis of rare earth fluoride nanocrystals doped with the β-emitting radioisotope yttrium-90 ((90)Y). Size and shape of nanocrystals are tailored via tight control of reaction parameters and the type of rare earth hosts (e.g., Gd or Y) employed. Radiolabeled nanocrystals are synthesized in high radiochemical yield and purity as well as excellent radiolabel stability in the face of surface modification with different polymeric ligands. We demonstrate the Cerenkov radioluminescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging capabilities of (90)Y-doped GdF3 nanoplates, which offer unique opportunities as a promising platform for multimodal imaging and targeted therapy.

  16. Controlling the onset of OB/OM in a semiconductor quantum well system in an inverted Y-type configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheli, Ali; Hamedi, H. R.; Sahrai, M.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) is numerically investigated in a four-level inverted Y-type semiconductor quantum well (SQW) structure immersed in a unidirectional ring cavity. In the four-level SQW system under consideration, a closed loop configuration is coupled to the upper level through a tunable probe field. We show that the OB threshold intensity can be controlled via the intensity of coupling fields which gives rise to the absorption variation of the probe field. In addition, due to the existence of the closed-loop configuration, the OB and OM behaviors of the proposed SQW medium are dependent on the relative phase of the applied fields. It is found that the OB can be switched to OM or vice versa by properly adjusting the relative phase of the applied fields. The results may provide new possibilities in real experiments for realizing an all-optical switching or coding element in a solid-state platform.

  17. Theory of controlling band-width broadening in terahertz sideband generation in semiconductors by a direct current electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Houquan; Zhang, Xingchu

    2017-03-01

    In a semiconductor, optically excited electron-hole pairs, driven by a strong terahertz (THz) field, can recombine to create THz sidebands in the optical spectrum. The sideband spectrum exhibits a "plateau" up to a cutoff frequency of 3.17Up, where Up is the ponderomotive energy. In this letter, we predict that the bandwidth of this sideband spectrum plateau can be broadened by applying an additional direct-current (DC) electric field. We find that if applying a DC field of EDC=0.2ETHz (where EDC and ETHz are the amplitudes of the DC field and THz field, respectively), the sideband spectrum presents three plateaus with 5.8Up, 10.05Up and 16Up being the cutoff frequencies of the first, second and third plateaus, respectively. This bandwidth broadening occurs because the DC field can increase the kinetic energy that an electron-hole pair can gain from the THz field. This effect means that the bandwidth of the sideband spectrum can be controlled flexibly by changing the DC field, thereby facilitating the ultrafast electro-optical applications of THz sideband generation.

  18. Structure and method for controlling band offset and alignment at a crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor interface

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2003-11-25

    A crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor structure and a process for constructing the structure involves a substrate of silicon, germanium or a silicon-germanium alloy and an epitaxial thin film overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the thin film consists of a first epitaxial stratum of single atomic plane layers of an alkaline earth oxide designated generally as (AO).sub.n and a second stratum of single unit cell layers of an oxide material designated as (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m so that the multilayer film arranged upon the substrate surface is designated (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m wherein n is an integer repeat of single atomic plane layers of the alkaline earth oxide AO and m is an integer repeat of single unit cell layers of the A'BO.sub.3 oxide material. Within the multilayer film, the values of n and m have been selected to provide the structure with a desired electrical structure at the substrate/thin film interface that can be optimized to control band offset and alignment.

  19. Magnetoresistance control in granular Zn 1 - x - y CdxMnyGeAs2 nanocomposite ferromagnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilanski, L.; Fedorchenko, I. V.; Górska, M.; Ślawska-Waniewska, A.; Nedelko, N.; Podgórni, A.; Avdonin, A.; Lähderanta, E.; Dobrowolski, W.; Aronov, A. N.; Marenkin, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    We present studies of structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Zn 1 - x - y CdxMnyGeAs2 nanocomposite ferromagnetic semiconductor samples with changeable chemical composition. The presence of MnAs clusters induces the studied alloy room temperature ferromagnetism with the Curie temperature, TC, around 305 K. The chemical composition of the chalcopyrite matrix controls the geometrical parameters of the clusters, inducing different magnetoresistance effects in the crystals. The presence of ferromagnetic clusters in the alloy induces either negative or positive magnetoresistance with different values. The Cd-content allows a change of magnetoresistance sign in our samples from negative (for x ≈ 0.85 ) to positive (for x ≈ 0.12 ). The negative magnetoresistance present in the samples with x ≈ 0.85 is observed at temperatures T < 25 K with maximum values of about -32% at T = 1.4 K and B = 13 T, strongly depending on the Mn content, y. The positive magnetoresistance present in the samples with x ≈ 0.12 is observed with maximum values not exceeding 50% at B = 13 T and T = 4.3 K, changing with the Mn content, y.

  20. Inductive equation of motion approach for a semiconductor QD-QED: coherence induced control of photon statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kabuss, Julia; Carmele, A.; Richter, M.; Chow, Weng W.; Knorr, A.

    2011-01-10

    This paper presents an inductive method for the microscopic description of quantum dot (QD) QED. Our description reproduces known effects up to an arbitrary accuracy, and is extendable to typical semiconductor effects, like many electron- and phonon-interactions. As an application, this method is used to theoretically examine quantum coherence phenomena and their impact on photon statistics for a Λ-type semiconductor QD strongly coupled to a single mode cavity and simultaneously excited with an external laser.

  1. Controlling Axial p-n Heterojunction Abruptness Through Catalyst Alloying in Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown Semiconductor Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Perea, Daniel E.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Devaraj, Arun; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, Samuel T.

    2012-07-30

    The p-n junction can be regarded as the most important electronic structure that is responsible for the ubiquity of semiconductor microelectronics today. Efforts to continually scale down the size of electronic components is guiding research to explore the use of nanomaterials synthesized from a bottom-up approach - group-IV semiconductor nanowires being one such material. However, Au-catalyzed synthesis of Si/Si1-x-Gex semiconductor nanowire heterojunctions using the commonly-used vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth technique results in diffuse heterojunction interfaces [1], leading to doubts of producing compositionally-sharp p-n junctions using this approach. However, we have recently reported the ability to increase Ge-Si nanowire heterojunction abruptness by VLS synthesis from a Au(1-x)Ga(x) catalyst alloy as shown by EDX analysis in an SEM [2]. In this work, we have extended the use of a AuGa catalyst alloy to produce more compositionally abrupt p-n junction interfaces compared to using pure Au as directly measured by atom probe tomography. As shown in Figure 1(a-b), individual Ge-Si heterostructured nanowires were grown vertically atop Ge(111) microposts. Direct growth on the microposts provides a facile approach to nanowire analysis which circumvents the need to use FIB-based sample preparation techniques. Both nanowires grown from pure Au and a AuGa catalyst alloy were analyzed. The corresponding 3D APT reconstruction of an individual heterostructured nanowire is shown in Figure 1(c) with the corresponding materials labeled. A 1-dimensional composition profile along the analysis direction in Figure 1(d) confirms an increase in heterojunction abruptness for nanowires grown from AuGa (~10nm) compared to nanowires grown from pure Au (~65nm). Analysis of the P distribution within the Si region (Figure 1(e)) indicates that P reaches a constant distribution over approximately 10nm when incorporated through the AuGa catalyst, whereas it continually increases over 100

  2. Controlled Growth of Ultrathin Film of Organic Semiconductors by Balancing the Competitive Processes in Dip-Coating for Organic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kunjie; Li, Hongwei; Li, Liqiang; Zhang, Suna; Chen, Xiaosong; Xu, Zeyang; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Wenping; Chi, Lifeng; Gao, Xike; Meng, Yancheng

    2016-06-28

    Ultrathin film with thickness below 15 nm of organic semiconductors provides excellent platform for some fundamental research and practical applications in the field of organic electronics. However, it is quite challenging to develop a general principle for the growth of uniform and continuous ultrathin film over large area. Dip-coating is a useful technique to prepare diverse structures of organic semiconductors, but the assembly of organic semiconductors in dip-coating is quite complicated, and there are no reports about the core rules for the growth of ultrathin film via dip-coating until now. In this work, we develop a general strategy for the growth of ultrathin film of organic semiconductor via dip-coating, which provides a relatively facile model to analyze the growth behavior. The balance between the three direct factors (nucleation rate, assembly rate, and recession rate) is the key to determine the growth of ultrathin film. Under the direction of this rule, ultrathin films of four organic semiconductors are obtained. The field-effect transistors constructed on the ultrathin film show good field-effect property. This work provides a general principle and systematic guideline to prepare ultrathin film of organic semiconductors via dip-coating, which would be highly meaningful for organic electronics as well as for the assembly of other materials via solution processes.

  3. New unorthodox semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Board, K.

    1985-12-01

    A range of new semiconductor devices, including a number of structures which rely entirely upon new phenomena, are discussed. Unipolar two-terminal devices, including impurity-controlled barriers and graded composition barriers, are considered, as are new transistor structures, including the hot-electron camel transistor, the planar-doped barrier transistor, the thermionic emission transistor, and the permeable base transistor. Regenerative switching devices are addressed, including the metal-tunnel insulator-semiconductor switch, the polysilicon switch, MIS, and MISIM switching structures, and the triangular-barrier switch. Heterostructure devices are covered, including the heterojunction bipolar transistor, the selectively doped heterojunction transistor, heterojunction lasers, and quantum-well structures.

  4. Factors controlling carbon isotopic composition of land snail shells estimated from lab culturing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Naizhong; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2014-05-01

    Carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate is widely applied in reconstructing the C3/C4 vegetation distribution of paleo-environment, which is considered to reflect variations of some environmental parameters [1][2][3]. Land snail shell carbon has three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested carbonate (limestone) [4]. However, their relative contributions to shell carbonate have not been understood well yet [4][5][6][7][8]. More researches are necessary before we could apply this tool in paleo-environment reconstruction, especially inter-lab culturing experiment. A kind of land snail species, Acusta despecta sieboldiana, was collected at Yokohama, Japan and cultured under suitable environment to lay eggs. The second generations were growing up from eggs to adults around 6-12 months at the temperature of 20°, 25° and 30°, respectively. All of the snails at 25° and 30° and most of those at 20° were fed by cabbage (C3 plant) during their life span while others were fed by corn (C4 plant). To investigate the effect of ingested carbonate, some of them were fed by Ca3(PO4)2 powder while others were fed by CaCO3 powder. δ13C of shells were analyzed by an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Thermo Finnigan MAT 253); δ13C of food and snail tissue were measured by a Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (Picarro G1121-i). At the same time, δ13C of eggshell and new born snails were analyzed by a Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GasBench II). We confirmed that diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested limestone could be important sources controlling shell δ13C values. And the temperature could affect shell carbonate δ13C values, too. A simple but credible frame was raised to discuss the mechanism of how each possible source and environmental parameter could affect shell carbonate δ13C values based on previous works [4][6][8] and this study. According to this frame and some reasonable assumptions, we have estimated the

  5. Occupational hazards control of hazardous substances in clean room of semiconductor manufacturing plant using CFD analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ya-Fei

    2015-02-01

    The manufacturing processes in chip industries are complex, and many kinds of raw materials and solvents of different nature are used, most of which are highly toxic and dangerous. During the machine preventive maintenance period, these toxic and harmful substances will escape from the sealed reaction chamber to the clean workshop environment and endanger the health of the workers on-site, resulting in occupational diseases. From the perspective of prevention, the spread and prediction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) that escaped from the metal-etching chamber during maintenance were studied in this article. The computational fluid dynamics technology was used for a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the indoor air velocity field and the HCl concentration field, and the simulation results were then compared with the on-site monitoring data to verify the correctness and feasibility. The occupational hazards and control measures were analyzed based on the numerical simulation, and the optimal control measure was obtained. In this article, using the method of ambient air to analyze the occupational exposure can provide a new idea to the field of occupational health research in the integrated circuit industry and had theoretical and practical significance.

  6. Spin-glass behaviors in carrier polarity controlled Fe3-xTixO4 semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamahara, H.; Seki, M.; Adachi, M.; Takahashi, M.; Nasu, H.; Horiba, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Tabata, H.

    2015-08-01

    Carrier-type control of spin-glass (cluster spin-glass) is studied in order to engineer basic magnetic semiconductor elements using the memory functions of spin-glass. A key of carrier-polarity control in magnetite is the valence engineering between Fe(II) and Fe(III) that is achieved by Ti(IV) substitution. Single phases of (001)-oriented Fe3-xTixO4 thin films have been obtained on spinel MgAl2O4 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Thermoelectric power measurements reveal that Ti-rich films (x = 0.8) show p-type conduction, while Ti-poor films (x = 0.6-0.75) show n-type conduction. The systematic Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) followed by Ti(IV) substitution in the octahedral sublattice is confirmed by the X-ray absorption spectra. All of the Fe3-xTixO4 films (x = 0.6-0.8) exhibit ferrimagnetism above room temperature. Next, the spin-glass behaviors of Ti-rich Fe2.2Ti0.8O4 film are studied, since this magnetically diluted system is expected to exhibit the spin-glass behaviors. The DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements for the Ti-rich Fe2.2Ti0.8O4 film reveal the presence of the spin glass phase. Thermal- and magnetic-field-history memory effects are observed and are attributed to the long time-decay nature of remanent magnetization. The detailed analysis of the time-dependent thermoremanent magnetization reveals the presence of the cluster spin glass state.

  7. Isotope selective photoionization of NaK by optimal control: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Bung, Boris; Bonacić-Koutecký, Vlasta; Sauer, Franziska; Weber, Stefan M; Wöste, Ludger; Lindinger, Albrecht

    2006-12-07

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental study of the maximization of the isotopomer ratio (23)Na(39)K(23)Na(41)K using tailored phase-only as well as amplitude and phase modulated femtosecond laser fields obtained in the framework of optimal control theory and closed loop learning (CLL) technique. A good agreement between theoretically and experimentally optimized pulse shapes is achieved which allows to assign the optimized processes directly to the pulse shapes obtained by the experimental isotopomer selective CLL approach. By analyzing the dynamics induced by the optimized pulses we show that the mechanism involving the dephasing of the wave packets between the isotopomers (23)Na (39)K and (23)Na (41)K on the first excited state is responsible for high isotope selective ionization. Amplitude and phase modulated pulses, moreover, allow to establish the connection between the spectral components of the pulse and corresponding occupied vibronic states. It will be also shown that the leading features of the theoretically shaped pulses are independent from the initial conditions. Since the underlying processes can be assigned to the individual features of the shaped pulses, we show that optimal control can be used as a tool for analysis.

  8. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of stable isotopes in meteoric waters on the Tibetan Plateau: Implications for paleoelevation reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Garzione, Carmala N.

    2017-02-01

    Debates persist about the interpretations of stable isotope based proxies for the surface uplift of the central-northern Tibetan Plateau. These disputes arise from the uncertain relationship between elevation and the δ18 O values of meteoric waters, based on modern patterns of isotopes in precipitation and surface waters. We present a large river water data set (1,340 samples) covering most parts of the Tibetan Plateau to characterize the spatial variability and controlling factors of their isotopic compositions. Compared with the amount-weighted mean annual oxygen isotopic values of precipitation, we conclude that river water is a good substitute for isotopic studies of precipitation in the high flat (e.g., elevation >3,300 m) interior of the Tibetan Plateau in the mean annual timescale. We construct, for the first time based on field data, contour maps of isotopic variations of meteoric waters (δ18 O, δD and d-excess) on the Tibetan Plateau. In the marginal mountainous regions of the Plateau, especially the southern through eastern margins, the δ18 O and δD values of river waters decrease with increasing mean catchment elevation, which can be modeled as a Rayleigh distillation process. However, in the interior of the Plateau, northward increasing trends in δ18 O and δD values are pronounced and present robust linear relations; d-excess values are lower than the marginal regions and exhibit distinct contrasts between the eastern (8 ‰- 12 ‰) and western (<8‰) Plateau. We suggest that these isotopic features of river waters in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau result from the combined effects of: 1) mixing of different moisture sources transported by the South Asian monsoon and Westerly winds; 2) contribution of moisture from recycled surface water; and 3) sub-cloud evaporation. We further provide a sub-cloud evaporation modified Rayleigh distillation and mixing model to simulate the isotopic variations in the western Plateau. Results of this work

  9. Position-controlled III-V compound semiconductor nanowire solar cells by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Takashi; Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Nakai, Eiji; Tomioka, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate position-controlled III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) by using selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and their application to solar cells. Efficiency of 4.23% is achieved for InP core-shell NW solar cells. We form a 'flexible NW array' without a substrate, which has the advantage of saving natural resources over conventional thin film photovoltaic devices. Four junction NW solar cells with over 50% efficiency are proposed and discussed.

  10. Fine-pitch control in EB lithography for semiconductor laser grating formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisa, Yoshihiro; Minami, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Kimitaka; Takemoto, Akira; Sato, Kazuhiko; Nagahama, Kouki; Otsubo, Mutuyuki; Aiga, Masao

    1996-05-01

    Grating-pitch accuracy is studied from minimum pitch variation point of view. The pitches of the gratings delineated at the focus range from -50micrometers to +50micrometers and stitching errors between subfields are evaluated using an EB machine which features a long distance between the deflector and the wafer stage. The grating pitch variation is realized by using a deflection amplitude control. It is confirmed that errors of the pitches due to defocus are less than 0.05 nm, and the deviations from nominal setting of the pitch are also less than 0.1 nm when the pitches are varied from -6 percent to +6 percent at 0.1 percent step.

  11. First-principles calculations reveal controlling principles for carrier mobilities in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Ning; Zhang, X.-G.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2016-11-01

    Carrier mobilities remain a key qualifying factor for materials competing for next-generation electronics. It has long been believed that carrier mobilities can be calculated using the Born approximation. Here, we introduce a parameter-free, first-principles approach based on complex-wavevector energy bands which does not invoke the Born expansion. We demonstrate that phonon-limited mobility is controlled by low-resistivity percolation paths, which arise from fluctuations that are beyond the Born approximation. We further demonstrate that, in ionized-impurity scattering, one must account for the effect of the screening charge, which cancels most of the Coulomb tail. Calculated electron mobilities in silicon are in agreement with experimental data. The method is easy to use and can provide guidance in the search for high-mobility device designs.

  12. Local Intermolecular Order Controls Photoinduced Charge Separation at Donor/Acceptor Interfaces in Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Feier, Hilary M.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Pace, Natalie A.; Park, Jaehong; Bergkamp, Jesse J.; Sellinger, Alan; Gust, Devens; Rumbles, Garry

    2016-03-23

    How free charge is generated at organic donor-acceptor interfaces is an important question, as the binding energy of the lowest energy (localized) charge transfer states should be too high for the electron and hole to escape each other. Recently, it has been proposed that delocalization of the electronic states participating in charge transfer is crucial, and aggregated or otherwise locally ordered structures of the donor or the acceptor are the precondition for this electronic characteristic. The effect of intermolecular aggregation of both the polymer donor and fullerene acceptor on charge separation is studied. In the first case, the dilute electron acceptor triethylsilylhydroxy-1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxyphthalocyaninatosilicon(IV) (SiPc) is used to eliminate the influence of acceptor aggregation, and control polymer order through side-chain regioregularity, comparing charge generation in 96% regioregular (RR-) poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with its regiorandom (RRa-) counterpart. In the second case, ordered phases in the polymer are eliminated by using RRa-P3HT, and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) is used as the acceptor, varying its concentration to control aggregation. Time-resolved microwave conductivity, time-resolved photoluminescence, and transient absorption spectroscopy measurements show that while ultrafast charge transfer occurs in all samples, long-lived charge carriers are only produced in films with intermolecular aggregates of either RR-P3HT or PC61BM, and that polymer aggregates are just as effective in this regard as those of fullerenes.

  13. Polarization Control via He-Ion Beam Induced Nanofabrication in Layered Ferroelectric Semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Belianinov, Alex; Iberi, Vighter; Tselev, Alexander; ...

    2016-02-23

    Rapid advanced in nanoscience rely on continuous improvements of matter manipulation at near atomic scales. Currently, well characterized, robust, resist-based lithography carries the brunt of the nanofabrication process. However, use of local electron, ion and physical probe methods is also expanding, driven largely by their ability to fabricate without the multi-step preparation processes that can result in contamination from resists and solvents. Furthermore, probe based methods extend beyond nanofabrication to nanomanipulation and imaging, vital ingredients to rapid transition to prototyping and testing of layered 2D heterostructured devices. In this work we demonstrate that helium ion interaction, in a Helium Ionmore » Microscope (HIM), with the surface of bulk copper indium thiophosphate CuMIIIP2X6 (M = Cr, In; X= S, Se), (CITP) results in the control of ferroelectric domains, and growth of cylindrical nanostructures with enhanced conductivity; with material volumes scaling with the dosage of the beam. The nanostructures are oxygen rich, sulfur poor, and with the copper concentration virtually unchanged as confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging contrast as well as Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM) measurements suggest enhanced conductivity in the formed particle, whereas Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements indicate that the produced structures have lower dissipation and a lower Young s modulus.« less

  14. Polarization Control via He-Ion Beam Induced Nanofabrication in Layered Ferroelectric Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, Alex; Iberi, Vighter; Tselev, Alexander; Susner, Michael A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Joy, David; Jesse, Stephen; Rondinone, Adam J.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-02-23

    Rapid advanced in nanoscience rely on continuous improvements of matter manipulation at near atomic scales. Currently, well characterized, robust, resist-based lithography carries the brunt of the nanofabrication process. However, use of local electron, ion and physical probe methods is also expanding, driven largely by their ability to fabricate without the multi-step preparation processes that can result in contamination from resists and solvents. Furthermore, probe based methods extend beyond nanofabrication to nanomanipulation and imaging, vital ingredients to rapid transition to prototyping and testing of layered 2D heterostructured devices. In this work we demonstrate that helium ion interaction, in a Helium Ion Microscope (HIM), with the surface of bulk copper indium thiophosphate CuMIIIP2X6 (M = Cr, In; X= S, Se), (CITP) results in the control of ferroelectric domains, and growth of cylindrical nanostructures with enhanced conductivity; with material volumes scaling with the dosage of the beam. The nanostructures are oxygen rich, sulfur poor, and with the copper concentration virtually unchanged as confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging contrast as well as Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM) measurements suggest enhanced conductivity in the formed particle, whereas Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements indicate that the produced structures have lower dissipation and a lower Young s modulus.

  15. Optical Control of Intersubband Absorption in a Multiple Quantum Well-Embedded Semiconductor Microcravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ansheng; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Optical intersubband response of a multiple quantum well (MQW)-embedded microcavity driven by a coherent pump field is studied theoretically. The n-type doped MQW structure with three subbands in the conduction band is sandwiched between a semi-infinite medium and a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). A strong pump field couples the two upper subbands and a weak field probes the two lower subbands. To describe the optical response of the MQW-embedded microcavity, we adopt a semi-classical nonlocal response theory. Taking into account the pump-probe interaction, we derive the probe-induced current density associated with intersubband transitions from the single-particle density-matrix formalism. By incorporating the current density into the Maxwell equation, we solve the probe local field exactly by means of Green's function technique and the transfer-matrix method. We obtain an exact expression for the probe absorption coefficient of the microcavity. For a GaAs/Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)As MQW structure sandwiched between a GaAs/AlAs DBR and vacuum, we performed numerical calculations of the probe absorption spectra for different parameters such as pump intensity, pump detuning, and cavity length. We find that the probe spectrum is strongly dependent on these parameters. In particular, we find that the combination of the cavity effect and the Autler-Townes effect results in a triplet in the optical spectrum of the MQW system. The optical absorption peak value and its location can be feasibly controlled by varying the pump intensity and detuning.

  16. Sulfur-controlled iron isotope fractionation experiments of core formation in planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, A.; Hillgren, V. J.; Horan, M. F.; Mesa-Garcia, J.; Kaufman, L. A.; Mock, T. D.

    2015-02-01

    A series of high pressure and temperature experiments were conducted to better constrain the Fe isotope fractionation during core-mantle differentiation in planetesimal and planetary bodies. Synthetic mixtures of oxides and metal having varying amounts of sulfur, approximating terrestrial and Martian compositions, were melted at 1-2 GPa and 1650 °C. Iron isotopic equilibrium between the resulting metal and glass run products was verified for all experiments using the three-isotope technique. Purified Fe from metal and glass was analyzed by multiple-collector ICP-MS in high resolution mode. Iron alloy and silicate glass show a well-resolved Δ57Femetal-silicate of +0.12 ± 0.04‰ in a sulfur-free system. Isotope fractionation increases with sulfur content to +0.43 ± 0.03‰ at 18 wt.% sulfur in the metal. These results cannot be easily interpreted within the context of known Fe isotope ratios in most natural samples of planetary and asteroidal mantles and therefore suggest more complex processes affected the Fe isotope fractionation therein. However, to reconcile Martian meteorite iron isotopic signatures with geophysical models using this new experimental data requires a smaller amount of sulfur in the Martian core than previous estimates, with an upper limit of ∼8 wt.%.

  17. Semiconductor technology program. Progress briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reviewed. Activities include: optical linewidth and thermal resistance measurements; device modeling; dopant density profiles; resonance ionization spectroscopy; and deep level measurements. Standardized oxide charge terminology is also described.

  18. Ultrafast optical coherent control of individual electron and hole spins in a semiconductor quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Greve, Kristiaan

    2012-02-01

    We report on the complete optical coherent control of individual electron and hole spin qubits in InAs quantum dots. With a magnetic field in Voigt geometry, broadband, detuned optical pulses couple the spin-split ground states, resulting in Rabi flopping. In combination with the Larmor precession around the external magnetic field, this allows an arbitrary single-qubit operation to be realized in less than 20 picoseconds [1,2]. Slow fluctuations in the spin's environment lead to shot-to-shot variations in the Larmor precession frequency. In a time-ensemble measurement, these would prevent a measurement of the true decoherence of the qubit, and instead give rise to ensemble dephasing. This effect was overcome by implementing a spin echo measurement scheme for both electron and hole spins, where an optical π-pulse refocuses the spin coherence and filters out the slow variations in Larmor precession frequency. We measured coherence times up to 3 microseconds [2,3]. Finally, our optical pulse manipulation scheme allows us to probe the hyperfine interaction between the single spin and the nuclei in the quantum dot. Interesting non-Markovian dynamics could be observed in the free-induction decay of a single electron spin, whereas the complete absence of such effects illustrates the reduction of the hyperfine interaction for hole spin qubits. We measured and modeled these effects, and explain the non-Markovian electron spin dynamics as involving a feedback effect resulting from both the strong Overhauser shift of the electron spin and spin dependent nuclear relaxation [2,4]. [4pt] [1] D. Press, T. D. Ladd, B. Zhang and Y. Yamamoto, Nature 456, 218 (2008)[0pt] [2] K. De Greve, P. McMahon, D. Press et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 872 (2011)[0pt] [3] D. Press, K. De Greve, P. McMahon et al., Nat. Phot. 4, 367 (2010)[0pt] [4] T. D. Ladd, D. Press, K. De Greve et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 107401 (2010)

  19. Soils and Springs - Controls on the Isotope Hydrology of 3 Appalachian Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, M. A.; Dewalle, D. R.; McGuire, K. J.; Gburek, W. J.

    2003-12-01

    Environmental isotopes, such as O-18 and D, have been used to study hydrological processes in a variety of settings. The seasonal variations of stream baseflow isotopic composition at a catchment outlet are often used to estimate the residence time of groundwater within a catchment. Residence time models can be improved with information related to the spatial variability of baseflow isotopic composition within a catchment. This study aimed to quantify the annual variations in O-18 composition of waters within several Appalachian watersheds representative of 3 common landscape types in central Pennsylvania: the Valley and Ridge-shale (Mahantango Creek); Valley and Ridge-carbonate (Buffalo Run); and Appalachian Plateau-sandstone (Benner Run). Bi-weekly precipitation, snowmelt, soil water, and baseflow isotopic composition data were collected for the 3 catchments over one year (May 1999-May 2000). Preliminary results suggest that soils at these sites can effectively damp seasonal precipitation O-18 signals by the time they reach depths of 1.62-2.85 meters in the subsurface. This suggests that seasonal isotopic composition variations in baseflow are due to waters that drain the shallower soils within these catchments. The presence of springs was found to exert an influence on baseflow isotopic composition within each of the catchments. Two watersheds contained diffuse-fed springs, which resulted in a damping of seasonal variability of baseflow isotopic composition downstream. The remaining watershed contained a conduit spring, draining carbonate bedrock. This spring discharge resulted in an increase in seasonal variability of baseflow isotopic composition downstream. The seasonal variability of baseflow isotopic composition observed at the catchment outlets was a result of the combination of several distinct water sources: slow-draining groundwater; fast-draining near-channel groundwater; and spring discharges. An improvement in modeling of residence times of these

  20. Self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Ian D.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Nicols, Samuel P.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, John L.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Haller, Eugene E.

    2002-04-01

    Isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures were used to measure the enhancement of self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped silicon. {sup 30}Si was used as a tracer through a multilayer structure of alternating natural Si and enriched {sup 28}Si layers. Low energy, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allowed for simultaneous measurement of self- and dopant diffusion profiles of samples annealed at temperatures between 850 C and 1100 C. A specially designed ion- implanted amorphous Si surface layer was used as a dopant source to suppress excess defects in the multilayer structure, thereby eliminating transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior. Self- and dopant diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, and native defect charge states were determined from computer-aided modeling, based on differential equations describing the diffusion processes. We present a quantitative description of B diffusion enhanced self-diffusion in silicon and conclude that the diffusion of both B and Si is mainly mediated by neutral and singly positively charged self-interstitials under p-type doping. No significant contribution of vacancies to either B or Si diffusion is observed.

  1. Key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily precipitation of Costa Rica: Caribbean Sea versus Eastern Pacific Ocean moisture sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Murillo, R.; Birkel, C.; Welsh, K.; Esquivel-Hernández, G.; Corrales-Salazar, J.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Roupsard, O.; Sáenz-Rosales, O.; Katchan, I.; Arce-Mesén, R.; Soulsby, C.; Araguás-Araguás, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives moisture inputs directly from the Caribbean Sea and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This location includes unique mountainous and lowland microclimates, but only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition. Therefore, the main scope of this project is to identify the key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily-scale precipitation of Costa Rica. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ to -0.9‰ δ18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ δ18O). HYSPLIT air mass back trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of three main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet, the Colombian Low Level Jet, and localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that lifted condensation level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to a) enhance groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management, b) improve the re-construction of paleoclimatic records in the Central American land bridge, c) calibrate and validate regional circulation models.

  2. The Mo isotope oceanic redox tool: understanding the controls on the input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, D.

    2011-12-01

    Secular records of the molybdenum (Mo) isotopic composition of the oceans potentially hold information on the redox state of the past global ocean. But the full realisation of this potential requires a quantitative understanding of the nature and magnitude of the inputs to the ocean, which are dominated by rivers. Mo in the dissolved load of rivers is isotopically heavy1. Though a study of small Alpine catchments2 suggests a role for the congruent weathering of evaporites in generating heavy riverine Mo isotopes, the minor contribution of evaporites to global solute fluxes as well as their low Mo concentration means that their global role must be trivial. Moreover, a study of other small catchments in Iceland3 clearly show that Mo isotopes in the dissolved load of their rivers is isotopically heavy relative to the rocks which the rivers drain. Thus, it is clear that the Mo delivered to the oceans by rivers in the dissolved state is isotopically heavy relative to likely average continental crust1. This feature presents several problems, discussed here, for understanding global Mo isotope budgets. Firstly, the heavy dissolved load of rivers makes it very difficult to simultaneously balance both Mo abundances and isotopes in the modern oceans. Secondly, the precise processes producing heavy riverine dissolved Mo are not fully understood. Though fractionation processes in soils, and the retention of light Mo adsorbed onto secondary phases like Fe-Mn oxides is the most likely explanation, the global soil inventory is equivalent to the dissolved flux to the oceans over only a few thousand years. Thus, the ultimate repository of the complementary light Mo must be elsewhere, presumably the suspended material that is washed out of the weathering environment and deposited on ocean margins. If this is so then the third uncertainty concerns the fate of the Mo in this material. Significant release of this particulate-bound light Mo in ocean margin settings would bring the

  3. Hydrogen Isotope Fractation Between Water and Algal Lipids of Three Strains of Botryococcus braunii Under Controlled Conidtions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Sachs, J. P.

    2004-12-01

    Understanding of precipitation anomaly variations is essential to the reconstruction of paleo-El Nino at the low latitudes. In enclosed lakes, where lake level is affected by the balance between precipitation and evaporation only, water δ D reflects precipitation patterns. Freshwater algae, which utilize lake water for photosynthesis, should incorporate such signal in the hydrogen isotopes of their tissues. However, a fundamental question still exits: do algal lipid biomarkers truly record lake water hydrogen isotopic ratios? We have measured hydrogen isotope fractionation by freshwater algae Botryococcus braunii (3 strains) grown under controlled conditions in the lab. In order to establish a good relationship between lipid δ D and water δ D, for each strain we set up cultures in five waters with different δ D. δ D of alkadienes and botryococcenes of Botryococcus brauni measured on GCIRMS showed strong positive linear relation with water δ D (R2=0.99). Hydrogen isotopic ratios in the algal hydrocarbons are about 165 ‰ more negative compared to the water at the start while they are 270 ‰ more negative compared to water δ D at harvest. Such linear relationships establish a foundation for reconstructing lake water level and thus precipitation anomaly by analyzing δ D of algal lipids preserved in lake sediments.

  4. Oxygen Isotope in Phosphate an Indicator of Phosphorous Cycling in the Ocean - Controls, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.; Roberts, K.; Defforey, D.; McLaughlin, K.; Lomas, M. W.; Church, M. J.; Mackey, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    In order to better constrain the parameters affecting oxygen isotope exchange between water and phosphate via biochemical reactions a set of culture experiments were conducted. Different species of phytoplankton were grown in seawater at various temperatures, light levels, and phosphate concentrations. The oxygen isotopic composition in the phosphate source, algal cells, and the isotopic composition oxygen in the dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) were measured. Results showing the effect of species, temperature, light and P availability on intracellular oxygen isotope exchange between phosphorus compounds and water will be presented. The effect of these parameters on the utility of the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate as a tracer of phosphate utilization rate in the ocean will be discussed. This information is fundamental to any application of isotopic composition of oxygen of dissolved inorganic or organic phosphate to quantify the dynamics of phosphorus cycling in aquatic systems. The data will be utilized to investigate seasonal changes in phosphate sources and cycling in the open ocean and how these relate to phytoplankton abundance, hydrography, and nutrient concentrations.

  5. ISOTOPE CONVERSION DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of tbe type utilizing a liquid fuel and designed to convert a non-thermally fissionable isotope to a thermally fissionable isotope by neutron absorption. A tank containing a reactive composition of a thermally fissionable isotope dispersed in a liquid moderator is disposed within an outer tank containing a slurry of a non-thermally fissionable isotope convertible to a thermally fissionable isotope by neutron absorption. A control rod is used to control the chain reaction in the reactive composition and means are provided for circulating and cooling the reactive composition and slurry in separate circuits.

  6. U and Sr Isotopic Distributions in Riverine Waters Collected From Taiwan Accretionary Prism: Tectonic or Climatic Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, C.; Nakamura, E.; Wong, R.; Lee, S.; Chiu, H.; Chung, S.

    2006-12-01

    Riverine U and Sr isotopic compositions are sensitive tracers for quantifying physical erosion and chemical weathering in small catchments, as well as the characteristic of lithological or hydrological source regions. More than 60 river waters collected from four major rivers and their tributaries, Danshui, Choshui, Erhjen and Kao-ping, surrounding the Taiwan orogenic belt were analyzed for Sr and U isotopes, as well as major ions and trace elements. There are large U-234/U-238 activity variations among river catchments in Taiwan. For instance, the Danshui river and the Kaoping river show similar U-234/U-238 activity ranges of 1.17-5.35 and 1.14-5.71 respectively, in contrast to much smaller variations observed in the Choshui and the Erhjen river, 1.22-2.95 and 1.22-2.48 respectively. The Sr isotopic ratio in river waters vary largely, Sr-87/Sr-86=0.709192- 0.715006, systematically become more radiogenic toward upper stream station in all catchments, except for samples affected by hot springs, mud volcano fluids and seawater mixing in estuary. Major ion ratios in river waters change dramatically in all drainage catchments, varying more than 50 and 200 times for Na/Cl and Ca/Na, respectively. Samples collected from wet and dry season display distinct variations in chemical and isotopic compositions, emphasizing shifted in weathering source regimes. It is interesting to note that the upper stream stations are characterized with large degree of U disequilibrium, as well as more radiogenic Sr isotopic signature, high Na/Cl and low Ca/Na ratios. These results were combined with available lithological, tectonic, climatic and hydrological information to decipher possible controls on chemical weathering and reaction mechanism in an active mountain building region.

  7. Riverine Li isotope fractionation in the Amazon River basin controlled by the weathering regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellinger, Mathieu; Gaillardet, Jerome; Bouchez, Julien; Calmels, Damien; Louvat, Pascale; Dosseto, Anthony; Gorge, Caroline; Alanoca, Lucia; Maurice, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    We report Li isotope composition (δ7Li) of river-borne dissolved and solid material in the largest River system on Earth, the Amazon River basin, to characterize Li isotope fractionation at a continental scale. The δ7Li in the dissolved load (+1.2‰ to +32‰) is fractionated toward heavy values compared to the inferred bedrock (-1‰ to 5‰) and the suspended sediments (-6.8‰ to -0.5‰) as a result of the preferential incorporation of 6Li into secondary minerals during weathering. Despite having very contrasted weathering and erosion regimes, both Andean headwaters and lowland rivers share similar ranges of dissolved δ7Li (+1.2‰ to +18‰). Correlations between dissolved δ7Li and Li/Na and Li/Mg ratios suggest that the proportion of Li incorporated in secondary minerals during weathering act as the main control on the δ7Lidiss across the entire Amazon basin. A "batch" steady-state fractionation model for Andean and lowland rivers satisfactorily reproduces these variations, with a fractionation factor between weathering products and dissolved load (αsec-dis) of 0.983 ± 0.002. Two types of supply-limited weathering regimes can be identified for the lowlands: "clearwaters" with dominant incorporation of Li in secondary minerals, and "black waters" (e.g., Rio Negro) where dissolution of secondary minerals enhanced by organic matter produces low δ7Li. Apart from the black waters, the δ7Li of Andean and lowland rivers is negatively correlated to the denudation rates with the lowest δ7Li corresponding to the rivers having the highest denudation rates. In contrast, the main tributaries draining both the Andes and the lowlands have higher δ7Li compared to other rivers. We propose that part of the dissolved Li derived from weathering in the Andes is re-incorporated in sediments during transfer of water and sediments in floodplains and that this results in an increase of the dissolved δ7Li along the course of these rivers. Unlike other rivers, the

  8. Study and validity of 13C stable carbon isotopic ratio analysis by mass spectrometry and 2H site-specific natural isotopic fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance isotopic measurements to characterize and control the authenticity of honey.

    PubMed

    Cotte, J F; Casabianca, H; Lhéritier, J; Perrucchietti, C; Sanglar, C; Waton, H; Grenier-Loustalot, M F

    2007-01-16

    Honey samples were analyzed by stable carbon isotopic ratio analysis by mass spectrometry (SCIRA-MS) and site-specific natural isotopic fractionation measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) to first determine their potentials for characterizing the substance and then to combat adulteration. Honey samples from several geographic and botanical origins were analyzed. The delta(13)C parameter was not significant for characterizing an origin, while the (D/H)(I) ratio could be used to differentiate certain single-flower varieties. Application of the official control method of adding a C(4) syrup (AOAC official method 998.12) to our authentic samples revealed anomalies resulting from SCIRA indices that were more negative than -1 per thousand (permil). A filtration step was added to the experimental procedure and provided results that were compliant with the natural origin of our honey samples. In addition, spiking with a C(4) syrup could be detected starting at 9-10%. The use of SNIF-NMR is limited by the detection of a syrup spike starting only at 20%, which is far from satisfying.

  9. Measurements of radioactive contaminants in semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Murray, Conal E.; McNally, Brendan D.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of alpha particles from materials used to manufacture semiconductors can contribute substantially to the single-event upset rate. The alpha particles originate from contamination in the materials, or from radioactive isotopes, themselves. In this review paper, we discuss the sources of the radioactivity and the measurement methods to detect the emitted particles.

  10. Southern Ocean control of silicon stable isotope distribution in the deep Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Gregory F.; Reynolds, Ben C.; Rickli, Jörg; Frank, Martin; Saito, Mak A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; Bourdon, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    The fractionation of silicon (Si) stable isotopes by biological activity in the surface ocean makes the stable isotope composition of silicon (δ30Si) dissolved in seawater a sensitive tracer of the oceanic biogeochemical Si cycle. We present a high-precision dataset that characterizes the δ30Si distribution in the deep Atlantic Ocean from Denmark Strait to Drake Passage, documenting strong meridional and smaller, but resolvable, vertical δ30Si gradients. We show that these gradients are related to the two sources of deep and bottom waters in the Atlantic Ocean: waters of North Atlantic and Nordic origin carry a high δ30Si signature of ≥+1.7‰ into the deep Atlantic, while Antarctic Bottom Water transports Si with a low δ30Si value of around +1.2‰. The deep Atlantic δ30Si distribution is thus governed by the quasi-conservative mixing of Si from these two isotopically distinct sources. This disparity in Si isotope composition between the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean is in marked contrast to the homogeneity of the stable nitrogen isotope composition of deep ocean nitrate (δ15N-NO3). We infer that the meridional δ30Si gradient derives from the transport of the high δ30Si signature of Southern Ocean intermediate/mode waters into the North Atlantic by the upper return path of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). The basin-scale deep Atlantic δ30Si gradient thus owes its existence to the interaction of the physical circulation with biological nutrient uptake at high southern latitudes, which fractionates Si isotopes between the abyssal and intermediate/mode waters formed in the Southern Ocean.

  11. Control of ambient pH on growth and stable isotopes in phytoplanktonic calcifying algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, Michaël.

    2015-08-01

    The present work examines the relationship between pH-induced changes in growth and stable isotopic composition of coccolith calcite in two coccolithophore species with a geological perspective. These species (Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Coccolithus pelagicus) with differing physiologies and vital effects possess a growth optimum corresponding to average pH of surface seawater in the geological period during their first known occurrence. The "ancestral" C. pelagicus has much wider pH tolerance in terms of growth rates than the more recently evolved G. oceanica. Diminished growth rates are explained by the challenge of proton translocation into the extracellular environment at low pH and enhanced aqueous CO2 limitation at high pH. Reducing the cell dynamics in this way leads to a lower degree of oxygen isotopic disequilibrium in G. oceanica. In contrast, the slower growing species C. pelagicus, which typically precipitates near-equilibrium calcite, does not show any modulation of oxygen isotope signals with changing pH. Overall, carbon and oxygen isotope compositions are best explained by the degree of utilization of the internal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool and the dynamics of isotopic reequilibration inside the cell. Thus, the "carbonate ion effect" may not apply to coccolithophores. This difference with foraminifera can be traced to different modes of DIC incorporation into these two distinct biomineralizing organisms. From a geological perspective, these findings have implications for refining the use of oxygen isotopes to infer more reliable sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from fossil carbonates and contribute to a better understanding of how climate-relevant parameters are recorded in the sedimentary archive.

  12. Flatband voltage control in p-metal gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor by insertion of TiO2 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, W. J.; Kim, Woo-Hee; Koo, Ja Hoon; Lim, S. J.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Taeyoon; Kim, Hyungjun

    2010-02-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) layer was used to control the flatband voltage (VFB) of p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors. TiO2 was deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) on hafnium oxide (HfO2) gate dielectrics. Comparative studies between TiO2 and Al2O3 as capping layer have shown that improved device properties with lower capacitance equivalent thickness (CET), interface state density (Dit), and flatband voltage (VFB) shift were achieved by PE-ALD TiO2 capping layer.

  13. Present Status and Future Prospects of Quantum Information Processing: With Special Focus on Optically Controlled Semiconductor Spins and Single-Photon Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2011-10-01

    The scheme of directly controlling electron spins trapped in semiconductor quantum dots or donor impurities as qubits using optical pulses has various advantages, such as the achievements of local excitation and fast operation, low power consumption, easy implementation of an interface with optical fiber communication networks, and the capability of transferring information to nuclear spins, which are expected to serve as quantum memories with a long coherence time. In this report, I introduce the present status of the research and development of this scheme and discuss its potential application to quantum information processing.

  14. Copper isotope fractionation during its interaction with soil and aquatic microorganisms and metal oxy(hydr)oxides: Possible structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Emnova, E. E.; Kompantseva, E. I.; Freydier, R.

    2008-04-01

    This work is aimed at quantifying the main environmental factors controlling isotope fractionation of Cu during its adsorption from aqueous solutions onto common organic (bacteria, algae) and inorganic (oxy(hydr)oxide) surfaces. Adsorption of Cu on aerobic rhizospheric ( Pseudomonas aureofaciens CNMN PsB-03) and phototrophic aquatic ( Rhodobacter sp. f-7bl, Gloeocapsa sp. f-6gl) bacteria, uptake of Cu by marine ( Skeletonema costatum) and freshwater ( Navicula minima, Achnanthidium minutissimum and Melosira varians) diatoms, and Cu adsorption onto goethite (FeOOH) and gibbsite (AlOOH) were studied using a batch reaction as a function of pH, copper concentration in solution and time of exposure. Stable isotopes of copper in selected filtrates were measured using Neptune multicollector ICP-MS. Irreversible incorporation of Cu in cultured diatom cells at pH 7.5-8.0 did not produce any isotopic shift between the cell and solution (Δ 65/63Cu(solid-solution)) within ±0.2‰. Accordingly, no systematic variation was observed during Cu adsorption on anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria ( Rhodobacter sp.), cyanobacteria ( Gloeocapsa sp.) or soil aerobic exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria ( P. aureofaciens) in circumneutral pH (4-6.5) and various exposure times (3 min to 48 h): Δ 65Cu(solid-solution) = 0.0 ± 0.4‰. In contrast, when Cu was adsorbed at pH 1.8-3.5 on the cell surface of soil the bacterium P. aureofacienshaving abundant or poor EPS depending on medium composition, yielded a significant enrichment of the cell surface in the light isotope (Δ 65Cu (solid-solution) = -1.2 ± 0.5‰). Inorganic reactions of Cu adsorption at pH 4-6 produced the opposite isotopic offset: enrichment of the oxy(hydr)oxide surface in the heavy isotope with Δ 65Cu(solid-solution) equals 1.0 ± 0.25‰ and 0.78 ± 0.2‰ for gibbsite and goethite, respectively. The last result corroborates the recent works of Mathur et al. [Mathur R., Ruiz J., Titley S., Liermann L., Buss H. and

  15. Diffusion-controlled magnesium isotopic fractionation of a single crystal forsterite evaporated from the solid state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianhua; Davis, Andrew M.; Hashimoto, Akihiko; Clayton, Robert N.

    1993-01-01

    Though the origin of calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI's) in carbonaceous chondrites is till a disputed issue, evaporation is no doubt one of the most important processes for the formation of CAI's in the early solar nebula. The mechanism for production of large isotopic mass fractionation effects in magnesium, silicon, oxygen, and chromium in CAI's can be better understood by examining isotopic fractionation during the evaporation of minerals. New evaporation experiments were performed on single-crystal forsterite. The magnesium isotopic distribution near the evaporating surfaces of the residues using a modified AEI IM-20 ion microprobe to obtain rastered beam depth profiles was measured. A theoretical model was used to explain the profiles and allowed determination of the diffusion coefficient of Mg(++) in forsterite at higher temperatures than previous measurements. The gas/solid isotopic fractionation factor for magnesium for evaporation from solid forsterite was also determined and found to be nearly the same as that for evaporation of liquid Mg2SiO4.

  16. Controls on the isotopic composition of surface water and precipitation in the Northern Andes, Colombian Eastern Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Joel E.; Mora, Andrés; Horton, Brian K.; Nie, Junsheng

    2009-12-01

    Empirical datasets provide the constraints on the variability and causes of variability in stable isotope compositions (δD or δ 18O) of surface water and precipitation that are essential not only for models of modern and past climate but also for investigations of paleoelevation. This study presents stable isotope data for 76 samples from four elevation transects and three IAEA GNIP stations in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the northern Andean foreland. These data are largely consistent with theories of stable isotope variability developed based on a global dataset. On a monthly basis, the precipitation-amount effect exerts the dominant control on δD p and δ 18O p values at the IAEA GNIP stations. At the Bogotá station (2547 m), the δD p and δ 18O p values vary seasonally, with isotopic minima correlating with maxima in precipitation-amount. Although surface water samples from Eastern Cordilleran streams and rivers fall on the Global Meteoric Water Line, samples from three of four lakes (2842-3459 m) have evaporatively elevated δD sw and δ 18O sw values. The IAEA GNIP station data averaged over multiple years, combined with stream and river water data, define vertical lapse rates of -1.8‰ km -1 for Δδ 18O and -14.6‰ km -1 for ΔδD, and are a close fit to a common thermodynamically based Rayleigh distillation model. Elevation uncertainties for these relationships are also evaluated. Comparison of this Colombian dataset with the elevation uncertainties generated by the thermodynamically based model shows that the model underestimates uncertainty at high Δδ 18O and ΔδD values while overestimating it for low Δδ 18O and ΔδD values. This study presents an independent, empirical assessment of stable isotope-based elevation uncertainties for the northern Andes based on a dataset of sufficient size to ensure statistical integrity. These vertical lapse rates and associated uncertainties form the basis for stable isotope paleoelevation studies

  17. Controls on the stable carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane produced in a tidal freshwater estaurine sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, G.B. Jr.; Martens, C.S.

    1999-04-01

    The {delta}{sup 13}C value of methane in sediments from a tidal freshwater site in the White Oak River Estuary, North Carolina, exhibited a relatively small, but consistent, seasonal variation ({approximately}3{per_thousand}) with isotopically heavier values occurring during the warmer months ({minus}66.1{per_thousand} summer, {minus}69.2{per_thousand} winter). These isotopic shifts could have resulted from changes in: (1) isotopic compositions of precursor molecules; (2) kinetic isotope effects associated with methane production; or (3) pathways of methane production. Methane production rate and isotopic data from sediment incubation experiments and field measurements were used to determine the relative contributions of these factors to the observed seasonal variations. Although changes in {delta}{sup 13}C values of biogenic methane are typically thought to result from changes in pathways of methane production, this study showed that a significant amount (36 {+-} 22%) of the seasonal variations between the {delta}{sup 13}C value of methane produced in sediment incubation experiments could be attributed to changes in the {delta}{sup 13}C value of the {Sigma}CO{sub 2} pool. This was due to increased methane production rates and removal of {sup 12}CO{sub 2} with increasing temperature, a prevalent feature of methanogenic systems that may account for some of the frequently observed {sup 13}C enrichment in methane during warmer months. Combining the change in the {delta}{sup 13}C value of the {Sigma}CO{sub 2} pool with temperature-controlled changes in fractionation ({alpha}) resulting from kinetic isotope effects accounted for (53 {+-} 22%) of the {sup 13}C enrichment observed during summer sediment incubation experiments. Although large pathway changes were not observed in sediment incubation experiments, the remaining differences in {delta}{sup 13}C values could have resulted from smaller, undetectable changes in the percentage of methane production from acetate

  18. Subduction Controls of Hf and Nd Isotopes in Lavas of the Aleutian Island Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Yogodzinski, Gene; Vervoort, Jeffery; Brown, Shaun Tyler; Gerseny, Megan

    2010-08-29

    The Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of 71 Quaternary lavas collected from locations along the full length of the Aleutian island arc are used to constrain the sources of Aleutian magmas and to provide insight into the geochemical behavior of Nd and Hf and related elements in the Aleutian subduction-magmatic system. Isotopic compositions of Aleutian lavas fall approximately at the center of, and form a trend parallel to, the terrestrial Hf-Nd isotopic array with {var_epsilon}{sub Hf} of +12.0 to +15.5 and {var_epsilon}{sub Nd} of +6.5 to +10.5. Basalts, andesites, and dacites within volcanic centers or in nearby volcanoes generally all have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that there is little measurable effect of crustal or other lithospheric assimilation within the volcanic plumbing systems of Aleutian volcanoes. Hafnium isotopic compositions have a clear pattern of along-arc increase that is continuous from the eastern-most locations near Cold Bay to Piip Seamount in the western-most part of the arc. This pattern is interpreted to reflect a westward decrease in the subducted sediment component present in Aleutian lavas, reflecting progressively lower rates of subduction westward as well as decreasing availability of trench sediment. Binary bulk mixing models (sediment + peridotite) demonstrate that 1-2% of the Hf in Aleutian lavas is derived from subducted sediment, indicating that Hf is mobilized out of the subducted sediment with an efficiency that is similar to that of Sr, Pb and Nd. Low published solubility for Hf and Nd in aqueous subduction fluids lead us to conclude that these elements are mobilized out of the subducted component and transferred to the mantle wedge as bulk sediment or as a silicate melt. Neodymium isotopes also generally increase from east to west, but the pattern is absent in the eastern third of the arc, where the sediment flux is high and increases from east to west, due to the presence of abundant terrigenous sediment in the

  19. Production of 35S for a Liquid Semiconductor Betavoltaic

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Garnov, A. Y.; Robertson, J. D.; Kwon, J. W.; Wacharasindhu, T.

    2009-10-01

    The specific energy density from radioactive decay is five to six orders of magnitude greater than the specific energy density in conventional chemical battery and fuel cell technologies. We are currently investigating the use of liquid semiconductor based betavoltaics as a way to directly convert the energy of radioactive decay into electrical power and potentially avoid the radiation damage that occurs in solid state semiconductor devices due to non-ionizing energy loss. Sulfur-35 was selected as the isotope for the liquid semiconductor demonstrations because it can be produced in high specific activity and it is chemically compatible with known liquid semiconductor media.

  20. Factors controlling shell carbon isotopic composition of land snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana estimated from laboratory culturing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, N.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-10-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate derives from three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested carbonate (limestone). However, their relative contributions remain unclear. Under various environmental conditions, we cultured one land snail subspecies, Acusta despecta sieboldiana, collected from Yokohama, Japan, and confirmed that all of these sources affect shell carbonate δ13C values. Herein, we consider the influences of metabolic rates and temperature on the carbon isotopic composition of the shell carbonate. Based on results obtained from previous works and this study, a simple but credible framework is presented to illustrate how each source and environmental parameter affects shell carbonate δ13C values. According to this framework and some reasonable assumptions, we estimated the contributions of different carbon sources for each snail individual: for cabbage-fed (C3 plant) groups, the contributions of diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested limestone vary in the ranges of 66-80, 16-24, and 0-13%, respectively. For corn-fed (C4 plant) groups, because of the possible food stress (less ability to consume C4 plants), the values vary in the ranges of 56-64, 18-20, and 16-26%, respectively. Moreover, according to the literature and our observations, the subspecies we cultured in this study show preferences towards different plant species for food. Therefore, we suggest that the potential food preference should be considered adequately for some species in paleoenvironment studies. Finally, we inferred that only the isotopic exchange of the calcite-HCO3--aragonite equilibrium during egg laying and hatching of our cultured snails controls carbon isotope fractionation.

  1. Factors controlling shell carbon isotopic composition of land snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana estimated from lab culturing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, N.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-05-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate derives from three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested carbonate (limestone). However, their relative contributions remain unclear. Under various environmental conditions, we cultured one land snail species, Acusta despecta sieboldiana collected from Yokohama, Japan, and confirmed that all of these sources affect shell carbonate δ13C values. Herein, we consider the influences of metabolic rates and temperature on the carbon isotopic composition of the shell carbonate. Based on previous works and on results obtained in this study, a simple but credible framework is presented for discussion of how each source and environmental parameter can affect shell carbonate δ13C values. According to this framework and some reasonable assumptions, we have estimated the contributions of different carbon sources for each snail individual: for cabbage (C3 plant) fed groups, the contributions of diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested limestone respectively vary as 66-80%, 16-24%, and 0-13%. For corn (C4 plant) fed groups, because of the possible food stress (lower consumption ability of C4 plant), the values vary respectively as 56-64%, 18-20%, and 16-26%. Moreover, we present new evidence that snails have discrimination to choose C3 and C4 plants as food. Therefore, we suggest that food preferences must be considered adequately when applying δ13C in paleo-environment studies. Finally, we inferred that, during egg laying and hatching of our cultured snails, carbon isotope fractionation is controlled only by the isotopic exchange of the calcite-HCO3--aragonite equilibrium.

  2. 75 FR 16507 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory... certain semiconductor chips having synchronous dynamic random access memory controllers and products... section 337 by importing certain semiconductor chips having synchronous dynamic random access...

  3. Novel, band-controlled metal oxide compositions for semiconductor-mediated photocatalytic splitting of water to produce H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Narendra M.

    2013-02-05

    Semiconductor-mediated photo-catalytic dissociation of water offers a unique opportunity for the production of H{sub 2}, a sustainable source of energy. More efficient and chemically stable photo-catalysts, however, remain a vital requirement for commercial viability of this process. The recent research in my group has focused on the synthesis of several new metal oxide (MO) photo-catalysts, such as: LaInO{sub 3}, GaFeO{sub 3}, InVO{sub 4}, In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and nanotubular TiO{sub 2}. These samples of controlled grain morphology have been synthesized by using different synthesis protocols and with and without coating of a noble metal co-catalyst. The doping of an impurity, either at cationic or at anionic lattice site, has helped in the tailoring of band structure and making these oxides visible-light-sensitive. Our study has revealed that the surface characteristics, grain morphology, band structure, and doping-induced lattice imperfections control the photo-physical properties and overall photo-catalytic water splitting activity of these metal/MO composites [1-6]. We have demonstrated that, besides promoting certain charge-transfer steps, metal-semiconductor interfaces influence the adsorption of water molecules and their subsequent interaction with photo-generated electron-hole pair at the catalyst surface. The role played by the above-mentioned micro-structural properties in photo-catalytic water splitting process will be discussed.

  4. Factors controlling the growth rate, carbon and oxygen isotope variation in modern calcite precipitation in a subtropical cave, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Junbing; Wang, Aoyu; Shen, Licheng; Yin, Jianjun; Yuan, Daoxian; Zhao, Heping

    2016-04-01

    A prerequisite for using cave speleothems to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions is an accurate understanding of specific factors controlling calcite growth, in particular the isotopic partitioning of oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) which are the most commonly used proxies. An in situ monitoring study from April 2008 to September 2009 at Xueyu Cave, Chongqing, SW China, provides insight into the controls on calcite growth rates, drip water composition, cave air parameters and δ18O and δ13C isotopic values of modern calcite precipitation. Both cave air PCO2 and drip water hydrochemical characteristics show obvious seasonality driven by seasonal changes in the external environment. Calcite growth rates also display clear intra-annual variation, with the lowest values occurring during wet season and peak values during the dry season. Seasonal variations of calcite growth rate are primarily controlled by variations of cave air PCO2 and drip water rate. Seasonal δ18O-VPDB and δ13C-VPDB in modern calcite precipitates vary, with more negative values in the wet season than in the dry season. Strong positive correlation of δ18O-VPDB vs. δ13C-VPDB is due to simultaneous enrichment of both isotopes in the calcite. This correlation indicates that kinetic fractionation occurs between parent drip water and depositing calcite, likely caused by the variations of cave air PCO2 and drip rate influenced by seasonal cave ventilation. Kinetic fractionation amplifies the equilibrium fractionation value of calcite δ18O (by ∼1.5‰) and δ13C (by ∼1.7‰), which quantitatively reflects surface conditions during the cave ventilation season. These results indicate that the cave monitoring of growth rate and δ18O and δ13C of modern calcite precipitation are necessary in order to use a speleothem to reconstruct palaeoenvironment.

  5. Inter-annual Controls on Oxygen Isotopes of Precipitaion in the Asian Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Johnson, K. R.; Griffiths, M. L.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-12-01

    The complex nature of speleothem δ18O from the Asian monsoon region is a result of the varying influences of monsoon strength, moisture source region, transport history, local cave hydrology and other effects on cave dripwater δ18O. In order to provide a more robust interpretation of speleothem δ18O data from the broader Asian monsoon region, we utilize existing simulations from the isotope-enabled GCM, IsoGSM (Yoshimura el al. 2008), to investigate the climatic controls on precipitation δ18O (δ18Op) at four cave locations: Dongge Cave, China (25°17' N, 108°5' E); Tham Mai Cave, Laos (20.75 N, 102.65 E); Mawmluh Cave, India (25°15'44''N, 91°52'54''E); and Qunf Cave, Oman (17°10' N, 54°18' E). Our composite speleothem records from Laos—a key site at the interface between the Indian and East Asian monsoon systems—will be used as a case study for interpreting speleothem δ18O in the South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM) region. Our results show that δ18Op extracted from the grid point closest to four cave sites from IsoGSM shows very low correlation between δ18Op and local precipitation. δ18Op at Dongge cave reveals a negative correlation (0.4 to 0.5) with precipitation in the Bay of Bengal, suggesting that δ18Op from the East Asian monsoon area reflects upstream distillation over the Indian monsoon region. δ18Op in Laos exhibits a negative correlation with precipitation over the broad Indo-Pacific warm pool region, indicating increased convection over this area leads to more negative δ18Op over SE Asia. Given the low correlation between local precipitation and δ18Op at all four cave sites, we interpret the δ18Op at these locales as reflective of regional changes in hydroclimate, rather than local precipitation amount. In addition, δ18Op from IsoGSM at all fours sites, especially Qunf, Mawnluh, and Tham Mai cave, show a positive correlation with Pacific SSTs over the NINO3.4 region and in the western and northern Indian Ocean, suggesting that the

  6. Who controls the monthly variations of NH4+ nitrogen isotope composition in precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Long, Ai-min; Wang, Yan-Li

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen isotopes of ammonium (δ15N-NH4+) in precipitation have been analyzed, to study their monthly variations, from Oct. 2008 to Sep. 2009 at Guiyang, Southwest China. δ15N-NH4+ values were higher in winter and lower in summer showing a strong sine curve. In summer (rainy season), raindrop may remove more light ammonia by washout process, because raindrop incorporated 15NH3 preferentially while left the 14N in the atmosphere. At the same time, longer sunshine times imply more hv for producing H2SO4 of SO2 to H2SO4, which accelerates gaseous to particle conversion of NH3 to (NH4)2SO4 by unidirectional reactions for isotopic enriched 14N. The above two aspects can somewhat cause the seasonal variation of nitrogen isotopic composition, but are not the main or direct reasons. The temperature has an opposite trend with seasonal variation of δ15N values. The temperature not only causes seasonal variation of δ15N values, but also increases the volatilization rate of NH3 and microbial activities. And there is a robust linear relationship between temperature and δ15N, showing that the temperature is the main factor to decide the monthly variation of δ15N-NH4+.

  7. Isotopic Investigation of Geologic and Anthropogenic Controls on Nutrient Loading in Malibu Creek Watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, M.; Hibbs, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The upper portion of the Malibu Creek Watershed exposes the Monterey-Modelo Formation, a Miocene marine mudstone. This formation has been thought to contribute high concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate to streams via groundwater leaching and baseflow. However, our recent studies suggest that high concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate may be dominated by dry weather runoff of imported water (tap and recycled water) from watering of urban landscapes. Our study investigates El Camino Real Creek, a tributary in the Malibu Creek Watershed that traverses Monterey-Modelo Formation strata and is fed predominantly by dry weather runoff. From an initial input at a storm drain where dry weather runoff flows consistently, hydrochemical parameters range from 1.86 to 4.66 mg/L NO3-N and 1.06 to 2.28 mg/L PO4 that decrease to concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 0.59 mg/L NO3-N and 0.40 to 0.87 mg/L PO4 where El Camino Real Creek converges with Las Virgenes Creek. The decrease in nutrient content downstream is due to the transformational processes denitrification, vegetation uptake, and mixing with groundwater baseflow containing lower nutrient content. The average water isotope values for the imported (tap and recycled) endmembers are -9.1‰ δ18O and -73‰ δD. The average water isotope values for the samples collected at the storm drain range from -6.0‰ to -8.0‰ δ18O and -56‰ to -68‰ δD while isotope values downstream range from -6.0‰ to -6.3‰ δ18O and -47‰ to -48‰ δD. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen show mixing of imported water with local groundwater downstream, which demonstrates that nutrients in this creek are not strictly dominated by geologic sources. To further understand the nutrient changes and mixing percentages of imported and local water sources, diurnal studies are being conducted with the integration of nitrate isotopes to help understand the nutrient dynamics in El Camino Real Creek.

  8. Geologically Controlled Isotope-Time Patterns Reveal Early Differentiation and Crust Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, V. C.; Nutman, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms of continental crust production and evolution in the early Earth remain controversial, as are questions of the relative roles of early differentiation versus subsequent tectonic procssing in creating Earth's chemical signatures. Here we present geologic observations integrated with whole rock major, trace element and Sm-Nd isotopic signatures and combined with U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic compositions of zircon populations from the same rocks, from the most extensive early rock record comprising the 3.9 Ga to 3.6 Ga terranes of southwest Greenland. These data reveal repeated patterns of formation of juvenile TTG crust and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in convergent margin settings followed by formation of more evolved granites [1]. Our new zircon Lu-Hf data from rare 3.6-3.7 Ga tonalites within the Itsaq Gneiss Complex, obtained from single component, non-migmatitic gneisses with simple zircon populations, limited within sample Hf isotopic variability and accurate U-Pb ages, now document extraction of juvenile tonalites from a near chondritic mantle source between 3.9 Ga and 3.6 Ga. The more evolved, granitic rocks in each area show slightly negative initial ɛHf in accord with crustal reworking of the older (3.8-3.9 Ga) gniesses. There is no evidence for Hadean material in the sources of the granitoids. The Hf isotope-time patterns are consistent with juvenile crust production from a mantle source that experienced only modest amounts of prior crustal extraction. They are distinct from those predicted by reprocessing of an enriched Hadean mafic crust, as has been proposed for this region [2] and for the source of the Hadean Jack Hills zircons [3]. The well-documented, time decreasing, positive 142Nd anomalies [e.g., 4] from these rocks are further evidence of crustal derivation from a convecting mantle source, rather than reworking of an enriched mafic lithosphere. The 143Nd isotopic -time patterns are more complex, reflecting the interplay

  9. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II-VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures.

  10. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N) of Lipids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete), as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰). Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE) was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰). The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰) than the TLE (-7 ‰), possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms. PMID:26731720

  11. Factors controlling precision and accuracy in isotope-ratio-monitoring mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, D. A.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of systems in which picomole quantities of sample are mixed with a carrier gas and passed through an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer system was examined experimentally and theoretically. Two different mass spectrometers were used, both having electron-impact ion sources and Faraday cup collector systems. One had an accelerating potential of 10kV and accepted 0.2 mL of He/min, producing, under those conditions, a maximum efficiency of 1 CO2 molecular ion collected per 700 molecules introduced. Comparable figures for the second instrument were 3 kV, 0.5 mL of He/min, and 14000 molecules/ion. Signal pathways were adjusted so that response times were <200 ms. Sample-related ion currents appeared as peaks with widths of 3-30 s. Isotope ratios were determined by comparison to signals produced by standard gases. In spite of rapid variations in signals, observed levels of performance were within a factor of 2 of shot-noise limits. For the 10-kV instrument, sample requirements for standard deviations of 0.1 and 0.5% were 45 and 1.7 pmol, respectively. Comparable requirements for the 3-kV instrument were 900 and 36 pmol. Drifts in instrumental characteristics were adequately neutralized when standards were observed at 20-min intervals. For the 10-kV instrument, computed isotopic compositions were independent of sample size and signal strength over the ranges examined. Nonlinearities of <0.04%/V were observed for the 3-kV system. Procedures for observation and subtraction of background ion currents were examined experimentally and theoretically. For sample/ background ratios varying from >10 to 0.3, precision is expected and observed to decrease approximately 2-fold and to depend only weakly on the precision with which background ion currents have been measured.

  12. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N) of Lipids in Marine Animals.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C; Middelburg, Jack J; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete), as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰). Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE) was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰). The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰) than the TLE (-7 ‰), possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms.

  13. Agile dry etching of compound semiconductors for science-based manufacturing using in-situ process control

    SciTech Connect

    ASHBY,CAROL I.; VAWTER,GREGORY A.; BREILAND,WILLIAM G.; BRUSKAS,LARRY A.; WOODWORTH,JOSEPH R.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.

    2000-02-01

    In-situ optical diagnostics and ion beam diagnostics for plasma-etch and reactive-ion-beam etch (RIBE) tools have been developed and implemented on etch tools in the Compound Semiconductor Research Laboratory (CSRL). The optical diagnostics provide real-time end-point detection during plasma etching of complex thin-film layered structures that require precision etching to stop on a particular layer in the structure. The Monoetch real-time display and analysis program developed with this LDRD displays raw and filtered reflectance signals that enable an etch system operator to stop an etch at the desired depth within the desired layer. The ion beam diagnostics developed with this LDRD will permit routine analysis of critical ion-beam profile characteristics that determine etch uniformity and reproducibility on the RIBE tool.

  14. Frequency-modulated, tunable, semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based fiber ring laser for linewidth and line shape control.

    PubMed

    Girard, Simon Lambert; Chen, Hongxin; Schinn, Gregory W; Piché, Michel

    2008-08-15

    We report how the linewidth and line shape of a tunable semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based fiber ring laser can be actively adjusted by applying an intracavity frequency modulation to the laser. Frequency-modulated laser operation is achieved by driving the phase modulator frequency close to the cavity axial-mode spacing, leading to a constant-amplitude laser output having a periodically varying instantaneous frequency. The resulting linewidth varies proportionally with the inverse of the frequency detuning, and it is adjustable from submegahertz to over more than 5 GHz. By appropriate selection of the modulating waveform we have synthesized a near-Gaussian output line shape; other line shapes can be produced by modifying the modulating waveform. Experimental observations are in good agreement with a simple model.

  15. Iron isotopic compositions of adakitic and non-adakitic granitic magmas: Magma compositional control and subtle residual garnet effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongsheng; Wu, Hongjie; Ke, Shan; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Here we present iron (Fe) isotopic compositions of 51 well-characterized adakitic and non-adakitic igneous rocks from the Dabie orogen, Central China and Panama/Costa Rica, Central America. Twelve I-type non-adakitic granitoid samples from the Dabie orogen yield δ56Fe ranging from -0.015‰ to 0.184‰. The good correlations between δ56Fe and indices of magma differentiation (e.g., SiO2, FeOt, Mg#, and Fe3+/ΣFe) suggest Fe2+-rich silicate and oxide minerals dominated fractional crystallization with Δ56Femelt-crystal ∼ 0.06‰ may account for the δ56Fe variation in these samples. One A-type granite sample from the Dabie orogen has δ56Fe as high as 0.447‰, likely indicating less magnetite crystallization and an increase in 103lnβmelt with magma (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg). Combined with the literature data, most high silica (SiO2 ⩾ 71 wt.%) granitic rocks define a good positive linear correlation between δ56Fe and (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg): δ56Fe = 0.0062‰ × (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg) + 0.130‰ (R2 = 0.66). Given that fractional crystallization also tends to increase δ56Fe with (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg), this correlation can serve as the maximum estimate of the magma compositional control on Fe isotope fractionation. Low-Mg adakitic samples (LMA) have δ56Fe ranging from 0.114‰ to 0.253‰. The melt compositional control on LMA δ56Fe could be insignificant due to their limited (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg) variation. Except for one sample that may be affected by late differentiation, 14 out of 15 LMA have δ56Fe increasing with (Dy/Yb)N, reflecting a subtle but significant effect of residual garnet proportion. This serves as evidence for that source mineralogy may play an important role in fractionating Fe isotopes during partial melting. Dabie and Central America high-Mg adakitic samples have homogeneous Fe isotopic compositions with mean δ56Fe of 0.098 ± 0.038‰ (2SD, N = 11) and 0.085 ± 0.045‰ (2SD, N = 11), respectively. These samples have undergone melt-mantle interaction

  16. Reverse Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Demonstrate That Surface Passivation Controls Thermal Transport at Semiconductor-Solvent Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Daniel C; Gezelter, J Daniel; Schaller, Richard D; Schatz, George C

    2015-06-23

    We examine the role played by surface structure and passivation in thermal transport at semiconductor/organic interfaces. Such interfaces dominate thermal transport in semiconductor nanomaterials owing to material dimensions much smaller than the bulk phonon mean free path. Utilizing reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we calculate the interfacial thermal conductance (G) between a hexane solvent and chemically passivated wurtzite CdSe surfaces. In particular, we examine the dependence of G on the CdSe slab thickness, the particular exposed crystal facet, and the extent of surface passivation. Our results indicate a nonmonotonic dependence of G on ligand-grafting density, with interfaces generally exhibiting higher thermal conductance for increasing surface coverage up to ∼0.08 ligands/Å(2) (75-100% of a monolayer, depending on the particular exposed facet) and decreasing for still higher coverages. By analyzing orientational ordering and solvent penetration into the ligand layer, we show that a balance of competing effects is responsible for this nonmonotonic dependence. Although the various unpassivated CdSe surfaces exhibit similar G values, the crystal structure of an exposed facet nevertheless plays an important role in determining the interfacial thermal conductance of passivated surfaces, as the density of binding sites on a surface determines the ligand-grafting densities that may ultimately be achieved. We demonstrate that surface passivation can increase G relative to a bare surface by roughly 1 order of magnitude and that, for a given extent of passivation, thermal conductance can vary by up to a factor of ∼2 between different surfaces, suggesting that appropriately tailored nanostructures may direct heat flow in an anisotropic fashion for interface-limited thermal transport.

  17. Crustal thickening and clay: Controls on O isotope variation in global magmatism and siliciclastic sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Justin L.; Hand, Martin; Pearson, Norman J.; Barovich, Karin M.; McInerney, David J.

    2015-02-01

    New compilations of global O isotope data from zircon and siliciclastic sedimentary rocks highlight an increasing range in δ18O values in both systems since the late Archean. This is consistent with an increased clay component in sedimentary rocks and subsequent incorporation into igneous rocks. Each of these factors can arguably be achieved by increased crustal thickening in the late Archean resulting in greater burial and melting of supracrustal rocks and increased chemical weathering and recycling of upper crustal rocks. Despite the suggested change in tectonic regimes in the late Archean, stochastic modelling in this study demonstrates that δ18O data do not provide evidence for a secular decrease in the proportion of mantle-derived magmas in granitoid rocks. Instead, best-fit models indicate that juvenile input and reworking of supracrustal material vary with respect to the short term (100-200 Myr) tectonic cycles preserved in the continental crust. Hence, major step changes in global tectonic regimes in the post-Hadean, such as the initiation of subduction in the mid- to late Archean, are not supported by global zircon O isotope datasets and instead minor, progressive changes are indicated for Earth's tectonic regimes.

  18. Isotopic Biogeochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is provided of the biogeochemical research. The funding, productivity, personnel and facilities are reviewed. Some of the technical areas covered are: carbon isotopic records; isotopic studies of banded iron formations; isotope effects in microbial systems; studies of organic compounds in ancient sediments; and development in isotopic geochemistry and analysis.

  19. Laboratory controls of precursor and temperature on the kinetics and isotopic fractionations of microbial methane for deep subsurface environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Y.; Lin, L.; Wang, P.; Sun, C.

    2009-12-01

    , methanogenic rates were rapid at all temperatures. Maximum methane production rates occurred at 40~50OC for incubations with methanol, 40~60OC for incubation with acetate, and 50OC for those with methylamine. The patterns of carbon isotopic compositions on methane were either consistent with the prediction of the Rayleigh fractionation in a closed system, trending toward more depleted through time or invariant through time, suggesting variable physiological responses and microbial assemblages to precursor additions. The obtained ɛ values were 0~-12‰ for incubations with acetate, -16~-45‰ for incubations with hydrogen, -50~-80‰ for incubations with methanol, and -87~-115‰ for incubations with methylamine. Acetoclastic methanogenesis appears to fractionate carbon isotopes at the smallest magnitude. This when combined with the results from positive controls and the field observation suggests that acetoclastic methanogenesis produced methane with isotopic signatures comparable with those with thermogenic in origin and contributed significantly to the total methane inventory in the Kuan-Tzu-Ling hotspring area.

  20. Closure of incision in cataract surgery in-vivo using a temperature controlled laser soldering system based on a 1.9μm semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, Ilan; Basov, Svetlana; Varssano, David; Barequet, Irina; Rosner, Mordechai; Rattunde, Marcel; Wagner, Joachim; Platkov, Max; Harlev, Mickey; Rossman, Uri; Katzir, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    In phacoemulsification-based cataract surgery, a corneal incision is made and is then closed by hydration of the wound lips, or by suturing. We developed a system for sealing such an incision by soldering with a semiconductor disk laser (λ=1.9μm), under close temperature control. The goal was to obtain stronger and more watertight adhesion. The system was tested on incisions in the corneas of 15 eyes of pigs, in-vivo. Optical Coherent Tomography (OCT) and histopathologic examination showed little thermal damage and good apposition. The measured average burst pressure was 1000+/-30mmHg. In the future, this method wound may replace suturing of corneal wounds, including in traumatic corneal laceration and corneal transplantation.

  1. Controlling the metal to semiconductor transition of MoS2 and WS2 in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Stanley Shihyao; Yi-Kai Huang; Kim, Jaemyung; Kaehr, Bryan James; Foley, Brian M.; Lu, Ping; Conner Dykstra; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Jiaxing Huang; David, Vinayak P.

    2015-01-22

    Lithiation-exfoliation produces single to few-layered MoS2 and WS2 sheets dispersible in water. However, the process transforms them from the pristine semiconducting 2H phase to a distorted metallic phase. Recovery of the semiconducting properties typically involves heating of the chemically exfoliated sheets at elevated temperatures. Therefore, it has been largely limited to sheets deposited on solid substrates. We report the dispersion of chemically exfoliated MoS2 sheets in high boiling point organic solvents enabled by surface functionalization and the controllable recovery of their semiconducting properties directly in solution. Ultimately, this process connects the scalability of chemical exfoliation with the simplicity of solution processing, enabling a facile method for tuning the metal to semiconductor transitions of MoS2 and WS2 within a liquid medium.

  2. Authenticity control of essential oils containing citronellal and citral by chiral and stable-isotope gas-chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nhu-Trang, Tran-Thi; Casabianca, Hervé; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence

    2006-12-01

    Enantioselective capillary GC on a Supelco beta-DEX 225 column (heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin SPB 20poly--20% diphenyl, 80% dimethylsiloxane) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, coupled online with capillary GC on an HP5 column have been used for origin-specific analysis and authenticity control of essential oils, for example lemon (Citrus limon), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon flexuosus), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.--Ceylon type and Cymbopogon winterianus--Java type), Litsea cubeba, Lippia citriodora, lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), lemon gum (Eucalyptus citriodora), and, especially, precious lemon balm oil (Melissa officinalis L.). Isotope data (delta13C(PDB) and delta2H(V-SMOW)) for citral (neral + geranial) and citronellal from on-line GC-C/Py-IRMS and chiral data for citronellal in these essential oils are reported. The possibility of using these data to determine the origin of these essential oils and to detect adulteration is discussed. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of specific compounds in two essential oils of lemongrass and Litsea cubeba was performed as a practical statistical method for distinguishing between these two types of oil.

  3. Climatic controls on the isotopic composition and availability of soil nitrogen in mountainous tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, S. R.; Cole, R. J.; Schmitt, C. G.; All, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests in mountainous regions are often assumed to be nitrogen (N) limited, yet N dynamics across rugged terrain can be complex due to gradients in climate and topography. Elucidating patterns of N availability and loss across such gradients is necessary to predict and manage tropical forest response to environmental changes such as increasing N deposition and rising temperatures. However, such data is currently lacking, particularly in remote locations that are of high conservation value. To address this gap, a research expedition organized by the American Climber Science Program recently made a coast-to-coast journey across a remote region of Costa Rica, travelling over the Cordillera Talamanca and through La Amistad International Park. Numerous biological, chemical and hydrologic measurements were made en-route across montane to premontane wet tropical forests, spanning nearly 2,000 m in elevation and 200 km. Surface soil samples collected at regular intervals along this transect illuminate environmental drivers of N dynamics across the region. The dataset reveals strong links between soil natural abundance N isotopic composition (δ15N) and elevation and temperature parameters, and weaker links to precipitation and topography. This is in general agreement with global scale observations, but divergence from some previously published works is apparent and will be discussed. δ15N mass balance models suggest that N isotope patterns reflect differences in forms of N loss and the relative importance of fractionating and non-fractionating pathways. When combined with data on several other edaphic properties, especially C:N stoichiometry, the results points toward notable variation in soil N availability and N constraints across the transect. This study illustrates large, but predictable, variation in key N cycle traits across the premontane to montane wet tropical forest transition. These findings have management-relevant implications for tropical regions.

  4. Do erosion rates control the long-term carbon isotope mass balance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields-Zhou, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term marine carbon isotope record responds to changes in the proportional burial rates of organic carbon relative to carbonate carbon on a global scale. For this reason, high δ13C values in marine carbonate rocks are normally interpreted to reflect faster rates of organic burial and increased atmospheric oxygenation. Geochemical redox tracers fail to support this paradigm for sustained deviations from the long-term δ13C mean, indicating perhaps that proportionally high organic burial may be associated with lower overall flux rates. Here I propose that ~107-108 year trends in average δ13C, as with seawater 87Sr/86Sr, are driven by changes in the balance between volcanism and denudation (~uplift). In other words, high proportional organic burial may be related to increases in the net CO2 flux (= organic carbon burial + Ca-Mg silicate weathering) relative to the carbonate weathering flux. According to this model, high baseline δ13C values will be associated with periods of heightened volcanic activity and/or diminished tectonic uplift. Conversely, lower baseline δ13C values can be related to times when the global carbon cycle was dominated by carbonate and oxidative weathering due to high rates of physical erosion. Shorter 105-106 year positive δ13C excursions have also been interpreted as the 'smoking gun' to extreme oxygenation events. However, large increases in organic burial are difficult to sustain under steady-state conditions without very high volcanic fluxes, indicating that some of these excursions might be better explained by transient changes to the isotopic composition of carbon sources and sinks.

  5. Hydrogen isotope fractionation and redox-controlled solution mechanisms in silicate-COH melt + fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    The behavior of volatiles in silicate-COH melts and fluids and hydrogen isotope fractionation between melt and fluid were determined experimentally to advance our understanding of the role of volatiles in magmatic processes. Experiments were conducted in situ while the samples were at the desired temperature and pressure to 825°C and ~1.6 GPa and with variable redox conditions. Under oxidizing conditions, melt and fluid comprised CO2, CO3, HCO3, OH, H2O, and silicate components, whereas under reducing conditions, the species were CH4, H2, H2O, and silicate components. Temperature-dependent hydrogen isotope exchange among structural entities within coexisting fluids and melts yields ΔH values near 14 and 24 kJ/mol and -5 and -1 kJ/mol under oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. This temperature (and probably pressure)-dependent D/H fractionation is because of interaction between D and H and silicate and C-bearing species in silicate-saturated fluids and in COH fluid-saturated melts. The temperature- and pressure-dependent D/H fractionation factors suggest that partial melts in the presence of COH volatiles in the upper mantle can have δD values 100% or more lighter relative to coexisting silicate-saturated fluid. This effect is greater under oxidizing than under reducing conditions. It is suggested that δD variations of upper mantle mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) sources, inferred from the δD of MORB magmatic rocks, can be explained by variations in redox conditions during melting. Lower δD values of the MORB magma reflect more reducing conditions in the mantle source.

  6. Controls on oxygen isotope variability in precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Tan, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Cave monitoring is important to fully understand the climatic significance of stalagmite δ18O records. Most previous studies focus on one cave, or several caves in one area. A large regional-scale investigation on the isotopic composition of precipitation and drip water is scarce. To investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation in the monsoon regions of China (MRC) and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites, a three-year-long (2011-2014) on-site rainfall and drip water monitoring program has been carried out with approximately monthly sampling at 37 drip sites in eight caves in the MRC. Neither rainfall amount nor air temperature are the predominant controls on the oxygen isotopic composition of monthly precipitation. The rain in the wet season (May to October), with relatively low δ18O values, is sourced from tropical air masses, whereas the rainfall in the dry season (November to April), with relatively high δ18O values, is mostly sourced from continental air masses. Additionally, the weighted summer rainwater δ18O values decrease from coastal southwest China to inland northeast China, which suggests that the moisture of monsoon rainfall in China originates mainly from Indian Ocean, and transports to the north along the southwest-northeast path. 28 of the 37 drip sites are constant drips with little discernable variation in drip water δ18O through the whole study period. For most of the constant drips, the mean value of each drip water δ18O is nearly identical to or slightly higher than the three-year weighted mean value of the corresponding local rainwater δ18O, indicating these drips may be mainly recharged by none-evaporated or slightly evaporated, well-mixed older water stored in the vadose zone. 7 of all the 37 drip sites are seasonal drips, for which, although the amplitude of drip water δ18O is narrower than that of rainfall, the monthly response of drip water δ18O to

  7. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Burger, Arnold; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2009-06-23

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  8. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Lin, P.T.

    1985-03-05

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

  9. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Peter T.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

  10. Semiconductor technology program: Progress briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, K. F.; Scace, R. I.; Walters, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices, is discussed. Silicon and silicon based devices are emphasized. Highlighted activities include semiinsulating GaAs characterization, an automatic scanning spectroscopic ellipsometer, linewidth measurement and coherence, bandgap narrowing effects in silicon, the evaluation of electrical linewidth uniformity, and arsenicomplanted profiles in silicon.

  11. Organismal versus Environmental Control of the Carbon Isotope Composition of Dicot Angiosperm Pollen: Implications for Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. P.; Schubert, B.; Foelber, K.; Jahren, H.

    2011-12-01

    The prevalence and diagenetic resilience of palynomorphs in Proterozoic and Phanerozoic sediments has led researchers to investigate its potential as an environmental proxy based on its stable isotope composition. Towards this, Loader and Hemming (2001), noted that the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of modern Pinus sylvestris pollen exine correlates with the developmental period temperature (°C) of the pollen (R2=0.68), implying that the δ13C of gymnosperm pollen could be quantitatively utilized as a paleotemperature proxy. However, the majority of pollen-producing organisms during the last ~120 million years have been angiosperms, which are subject to complex internal signaling for reproduction, in addition to environmental triggers. Because these internal signals control the relative proportion of lipids, long-chain fatty acids, and polysaccharides within pollen grains, we hypothesized that the δ13C variability in pollen (δ13Cpollen) from several plants subject to the same external environmental parameters is of the same magnitude as the amount attributed to the environment for gymnosperms. Within growth chambers, the test organism (Brassica rapa) was cultivated under constant light, water, pCO2, and nutrient supply, but exhibited average δ13Cpollen variability = 4.35% within any chamber (n = 6 to 8 plants per chamber). Field experiments were also conducted in which the pollen from the test organism (Hibiscus spp.) was sampled from several botanical gardens within the state of Hawaii. Pollen collected from any one botanical garden exhibited an average δ13Cpollen variability = 4.5% (up to 5 plants per garden). Upon comparing chambers operating at different temperatures (17°C to 32°C), we discovered no correlation (R2=0.01) between the developmental period temperature (°C) and the δ13C of B. rapa pollen; similarly, no correlation was found between the δ13C of Hibiscus pollen and its developmental period temperature (°C) (R2=0.12). This work

  12. Photoelectrosynthesis at semiconductor electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A. J.

    1980-12-01

    The general principles of photoelectrochemistry and photoelectrosynthesis are reviewed and some new developments in photoelectrosynthesis are discussed. Topics include energetics of semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces(band-edge unpinning); hot carrier injection at illuminated semiconductor-electrolyte junctions; derivatized semiconductor electrodes; particulate photoelectrochemical systems; layered compounds and other new materials; and dye sensitization. (WHK)

  13. Effective crustal permeability controls fault evolution: An integrated structural, mineralogical and isotopic study in granitic gneiss, Monte Rosa, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawther, Susan E. M.; Dempster, Tim J.; Shipton, Zoe K.; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2016-10-01

    Two dextral faults within granitic gneiss in the Monte Rosa nappe, northern Italy reveal key differences in their evolution controlled by evolving permeability and water/rock reactions. The comparison reveals that identical host rock lithologies develop radically different mineralogies within the fault zones, resulting in fundamentally different deformation histories. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses coupled to microstructural characterisation show that infiltration of meteoric water occurred into both fault zones. The smaller Virgin Fault shows evidence of periodic closed system behaviour, which promoted the growth of hydrothermal K-feldspar, whilst the more open system behaviour of the adjacent Ciao Ciao Fault generated a weaker muscovite-rich fault core, which promoted a step change in fault evolution. Effective crustal permeability is a vital control on fault evolution and, coupled to the temperature (i.e. depth) at which key mineral transformations occur, is probably a more significant factor than host rock strength in controlling fault development. The study suggests that whether a fault in granitic basement grows into a large structure may be largely controlled by the initial hydrological properties of the host rocks. Small faults exposed at the surface may therefore be evolutionary "dead-ends" that typically do not represent the early stages in the development of larger faults.

  14. 75 FR 44989 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and Products... chips having synchronous dynamic random access memory controllers and product containing the same by... importing certain semiconductor chips having synchronous dynamic random access memory controllers...

  15. Soil carbon dioxide emissions controlled by an extracellular oxidative metabolism identifiable by its isotope signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kéraval, Benoit; Lehours, Anne Catherine; Colombet, Jonathan; Amblard, Christian; Alvarez, Gaël; Fontaine, Sébastien

    2016-11-01

    Soil heterotrophic respiration is a major determinant of the carbon (C) cycle and its interactions with climate. Given the complexity of the respiratory machinery, it is traditionally considered that oxidation of organic C into carbon dioxide (CO2) strictly results from intracellular metabolic processes. Here we show that C mineralization can operate in soils deprived of all observable cellular forms. Moreover, the process responsible for CO2 emissions in sterilized soils induced a strong C isotope fractionation (up to 50 ‰) incompatible with respiration of cellular origin. The supply of 13C glucose in sterilized soil led to the release of 13CO2 suggesting the presence of respiratory-like metabolism (glycolysis, decarboxylation reaction, chain of electron transfer) carried out by soil-stabilized enzymes, and by soil mineral and metal catalysts. These findings indicate that CO2 emissions from soils can have two origins: (1) from the well-known respiration of soil heterotrophic microorganisms and (2) from an extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET) or, at least, catabolism. These two metabolisms should be considered separately when studying effects of environmental factors on the C cycle because the likelihood is that they do not obey the same laws and they respond differently to abiotic factors.

  16. Gate-control efficiency and interface state density evaluated from capacitance-frequency-temperature mapping for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hong-An; Kudo, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu

    2014-11-14

    We present an analysis method for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices by using capacitance-frequency-temperature (C-f-T) mapping to evaluate the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density, both exhibiting correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance. The effectiveness of the method was exemplified by application to AlN/AlGaN/GaN MIS devices to elucidate the properties of AlN-AlGaN interfaces depending on their formation processes. Using the C-f-T mapping, we extract the gate-bias-dependent activation energy with its derivative giving the gate-control efficiency, from which we evaluate the AlN-AlGaN interface state density through the Lehovec equivalent circuit in the DC limit. It is shown that the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density have correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance, all depending on the interface formation processes. In addition, we give characterization of the AlN-AlGaN interfaces by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in relation with the results of the analysis.

  17. Control of Subthreshold Characteristics of Narrow-Channel Silicon-on-Insulator n-Type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor with Additional Side Gate Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Koji; Sunami, Hideo

    2007-04-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor with additional side gate electrodes is fabricated and its subthreshold characteristics are discussed. Since its device structure provides independent biasing to gates, flexible device-characteristic control for the respective device is expected. The key fabrication process is the formation of transistor gates. Additional side gate electrodes are formed by reactive ion etching (RIE) with a SiO2-covered top gate as an etching mask. Subthreshold characteristics are improved by negative side-gate biasing. In addition, the side-gate voltage VSG required to decrease off-leakage current by one decade is around 100 mV. Since the sidewall oxide thickness is chosen to be 5 nm, which is the same as the top-oxide thickness, rather sensitive subthreshold-characteristic control compared with that of biasing through a thick buried-oxide layer is achieved in response to performance requirement. In the viewpoint of stand-by-power suppression, these provide a certain controllability to a circuit operation.

  18. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  19. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  20. Isotopic Methods for Determining the Relative Importance of Bioavailability Versus Trophic Position in Controlling Mercury Concentrations in Everglades Mosquitofish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, B. E.; Kendall, C.

    2007-12-01

    The concentration of mercury in fish tissues is widely used as an indicator of the magnitude of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrookii) is an important sentinel species used for this purpose in the varied environments of the Florida Everglades, because mosquitofish are abundant, have a short lifespan, and migrate little. Like other freshwater fish, the primary route of mercury uptake into mosquitofish tissues is through diet as bioavailable methylmercury. Yet, it is unclear whether variations in mosquitofish mercury observed across the Everglades are due primarily to differences in bioaccumulation (i.e., trophic position) or abundance of methylmercury available to the food web base. We use isotopic methods to investigate the importance of these two controls on mosquitofish mercury at the landscape scale. As part of the USEPA REMAP project, mosquitofish and periphyton were collected during September 1996 from over one hundred sites throughout the Everglades and analyzed for mercury concentration. The USGS analyzed splits of the samples for nitrogen (d15N), carbon (d13C), and sulfur (d34S) isotopic composition, to investigate the causes of mercury variations. The d15N value of tissues is often used to estimate the relative trophic positions of organisms in a food web, and should correlate positively with tissue mercury if bioaccumulation is an important control on mosquitofish mercury concentration. The d13C value can be useful for detecting differences in food web base (e.g., algal versus detrital), and thus the entry point of contaminants. Tissue d34S potentially indicates the extent of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in sediments, a process used by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) during conversion of inorganic Hg(II) to bioavailable methylmercury. Because this process increases the d34S value of remaining sulfate, which enters the food web base, mosquitofish sulfur isotopes should show positive correlations with SRB

  1. Control of a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process for improved composition and thickness precision in compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Monique Suzanne

    1998-11-01

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is a process used to manufacture electronic and optoelectronic devices that has traditionally lacked real-time growth monitoring and control. Controlling the growth rate and composition using the existing sensors, as well as advanced monitoring systems developed in-house, is shown to improve device quality. Specific MOCVD growth objectives are transformed into controller performance goals. Group III bubbler concentration variations, which perturb both growth rate and composition precision, are identified to be the primary disturbances. First a feed forward control system was investigated, which used an ultrasonic concentration monitor, located upstream in the process. This control strategy resulted in improved regulation of the gallium delivery rate by cancelling the sensed gallium bubbler concentration disturbances via the injection mass flow controller. The controller performance is investigated by growing GaInAs/InP superlattices. Results of growths performed under normal operating conditions and also under large perturbations include X-ray diffraction from the samples as well as real-time sensor signal data. High quality superlattices that display up to eight orders of satellite peaks are obtained under the feed forward compensation scheme, demonstrating improved layer-to-layer reproducibility of thickness and composition. The success of the feed forward control demonstration led to the development of a more complex downstream feedback control system. An ultraviolet absorption monitor was fabricated and retrofitted as a feedback control signal. A control-oriented model of the downstream process was developed for the feedback controller synthesis. Although challenged with both the photolysis and multi-gas detection issues common to UV absorption monitors, closed loop control with the UV sensor was performed and proved to be an effective method of disturbance rejection. An InP/GaInAs test structure was grown under

  2. Controlling factors of rainwater and water vapor isotopes at Bangalore, India: Constraints from observations in 2013 Indian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, P.; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Yoshimura, Kei

    2016-12-01

    Isotopic ratios of rainwaters are believed to decrease with the amount of rainfall. However, analyses of the isotopic composition of rainwater and water vapor samples collected from Bangalore during the monsoon period of 2013 fail to show any simple relationship with the local meteorological parameters whereas show good correlation with the regional integrated convective activity. The correlation is particularly high when the averaging is done over the preceding 8 to 15 days, showing the influence of mixing or residence time scale of atmospheric moisture. This observation emphasizes the role of regional atmospheric circulation driving the isotopic values. A comparison between observed isotope ratios in water vapor and rainwater with Isotope-enabled Global Spectral Model shows discrepancies between the two. The observed values are relatively enriched, indicating a systematic bias in the model values. The higher observed values suggest underestimation of the evaporation in the model, which we estimate to be about 28 ± 15% on average. Simultaneous analyses of rainwater and water vapor isotopic composition again show definitive presence of raindrop evaporation (31 ± 14%). We also documented a distinct pattern of isotopic variation in six samples collected at Bangalore due to mixing of vapor from a cyclonic system in close proximity that originated from the Bay of Bengal. It seems that large-scale isotopic depletion occurs during cyclones caused by Rayleigh fractionation due to massive rainout. These results demonstrate the power of rainwater and water vapor isotope monitoring to elucidate the genesis and dynamics of water recycling within synoptic-scale monsoon systems.

  3. Quality assurance and quality control in light stable isotope laboratories: A case study of Rio Grande, Texas, water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2009-01-01

    New isotope laboratories can achieve the goal of reporting the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty for the same material analysed decades apart by (1) writing their own acceptance testing procedures and putting them into their mass spectrometric or laser-based isotope-ratio equipment procurement contract, (2) requiring a manufacturer to demonstrate acceptable performance using all sample ports provided with the instrumentation, (3) for each medium to be analysed, prepare two local reference materials substantially different in isotopic composition to encompass the range in isotopic composition expected in the laboratory and calibrated them with isotopic reference materials available from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), (4) using the optimum storage containers (for water samples, sealing in glass ampoules that are sterilised after sealing is satisfactory), (5) interspersing among sample unknowns local laboratory isotopic reference materials daily (internationally distributed isotopic reference materials can be ordered at three-year intervals, and can be used for elemental analyser analyses and other analyses that consume less than 1 mg of material) - this process applies to H, C, N, O, and S isotope ratios, (6) calculating isotopic compositions of unknowns by normalising isotopic data to that of local reference materials, which have been calibrated to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials, (7) reporting results on scales normalised to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials (where they are available) and providing to sample submitters the isotopic compositions of internationally distributed isotopic reference materials of the same substance had they been analysed with unknowns, (8) providing an audit trail in the laboratory for analytical results - this trail commonly will be in electronic format and might include a laboratory

  4. Quality assurance and quality control in light stable isotope laboratories: a case study of Rio Grande, Texas, water samples.

    PubMed

    Coplen, Tyler B; Qi, Haiping

    2009-06-01

    New isotope laboratories can achieve the goal of reporting the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty for the same material analysed decades apart by (1) writing their own acceptance testing procedures and putting them into their mass spectrometric or laser-based isotope-ratio equipment procurement contract, (2) requiring a manufacturer to demonstrate acceptable performance using all sample ports provided with the instrumentation, (3) for each medium to be analysed, prepare two local reference materials substantially different in isotopic composition to encompass the range in isotopic composition expected in the laboratory and calibrated them with isotopic reference materials available from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), (4) using the optimum storage containers (for water samples, sealing in glass ampoules that are sterilised after sealing is satisfactory), (5) interspersing among sample unknowns local laboratory isotopic reference materials daily (internationally distributed isotopic reference materials can be ordered at three-year intervals, and can be used for elemental analyser analyses and other analyses that consume less than 1 mg of material) - this process applies to H, C, N, O, and S isotope ratios, (6) calculating isotopic compositions of unknowns by normalising isotopic data to that of local reference materials, which have been calibrated to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials, (7) reporting results on scales normalised to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials (where they are available) and providing to sample submitters the isotopic compositions of internationally distributed isotopic reference materials of the same substance had they been analysed with unknowns, (8) providing an audit trail in the laboratory for analytical results - this trail commonly will be in electronic format and might include a laboratory

  5. Elucidating the climate and topographic controls on stable isotope composition of meteoric waters in Morocco, using station-based and spatially-interpolated data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Brahim, Yassine; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Khodri, Myriam; Reichert, Barbara; Cruz, Francisco W.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the main controls on stable isotope variations in precipitation is fundamental for the interpretation of the hydrological cycle. However, spatio-temporal variations in δ18Op are poorly known in Morocco. Herein, we explore the relative influence of meteorological variables, spatial and orographic (altitudinal) effects, atmospheric circulation and moisture sources on precipitation stable isotopes in Morocco. Precipitation events and two-years-long monthly records from 17 rain-gauge stations in Morocco are investigated and compared in this study to global gridded records of monthly and annual stable isotopes in precipitation. We highlight that the main spatial controls on precipitation stable isotopes are the topography and the distance from marine source. The most depleted mean annual isotopes are located in the High Atlas Mountains (δ18Op = -9.56‰ and δ2Hp = -59.3‰), while the most enriched isotope ratios exist in southwestern Morocco (δ18Op = -2.35‰ and δ2Hp = -7.47‰). The well-constrained relationship between δ18Op and altitude describes a gradient of 0.11-0.18‰ per 100 m. The seasonal variation is expressed by a general enrichment that reaches -4.8‰ during the dry season, related to the recycled vapor contained within the summer precipitation. Notwithstanding the scarcity of temperature and precipitation measurements, the amount effect is observed in multiple stations during several rain events and precipitation seems to have more influence on δ18Op than temperature. Backward moisture trajectories indicate a distinct depletion in δ18Op in extreme events originating from the Atlantic Ocean. The presence of a rain shadow effect is also revealed on the lee side of High Atlas Mountains, southeastern Morocco.

  6. Hydrogen Isotopes From Tree Leaves: Evaluation of Environmental and Phenotypic Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, N.; Pagani, M.; McElwain, J.; Vitousek, P.; Chadwick, O.

    2005-12-01

    D/H composition of terrestrial plant lipids is a new tool that has the potential to provide information about paleoclimate. To assess the robustness of the link between D/H of leaf wax lipids and environmental parameters we analyzed n-alkanes from 150 Quercus kelloggii leaves in California and 70 Metrosideros polymorpha leaves from the Big Island of Hawaii. Samples were collected from trees throughout strong climatic gradients. The nC29-alkane isotopic data from Quercus kelloggii in California show two major trends. First, samples close to the coast are D-enriched relative to those in the Sierra Nevada, averaging minus 174 per mil and minus 185 per mil, respectively. Second, samples from northwestern California are D-depleted in comparison with those from the southeast, averaging minus 195 per mil and minus 170 per mil. In order to investigate the source of these differences we compared D/H of nC29 in Quercus kelloggii with D/H of precipitation and other environmental parameters. Principal Component Analysis shows that D/H composition of precipitation is linked to D/H of nC29 stronger than any other parameter. The D/H of nC29 alkanes along the coast - Sierra Nevada transect show a good correlation with D/H of precipitation: R2 = 0.54. However, the relationship between these two variables along the northwest - southeast transect is less robust: R2 = 0.33. Qualitative assessment of the relationship between D/H of nC29 and the relative humidity suggests a negligible effect of this parameter along the coast - Sierra Nevada transect, since the coastal sites with a high relative humidity are characterized by D-enrichment. The importance of relative humidity on the distribution of D/H values of nC29 along the northwest - southeast transect, however, is likely to be a major factor, since samples from the relatively wet northwestern California are generally D-depleted in comparison with those in the drier southeast. Preliminary data from Hawaii indicate that D/H values of n

  7. Deuterium Isotope Effects During HMX Combustion: Chemical Kinetic Burn Rate Control Mechanism Verified

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    propellant contain- controls the I-IMX burn rate in the pressure range cited. The ing a chemically modified double base ( CMDB ) high oxygen 1.41 KDIE...controlling the observed overall or global burn rate of the could expect from the deuterium labeled HMX methylene HMX/ CMDB composite propellant. It is...measured in the HMX/ CMDB system. A graphic representa- densed phase KDIE investigation of thermochemical decom- non of one cornposic HMX binder

  8. Controls on the Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition (δ 15N, δ 18O, δ 17O) of Atmospheric Nitrate in Princeton, NJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, M. G.; Malcolm, E.; Kaiser, J.; Sigman, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate reflects the oxidative mechanisms that convert NOx to HNO3, while the nitrogen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate may reflect different NOx source signatures and/or fractionations related to NOx chemistry [Michalski et al., 2003; Hastings et al., 2003; Freyer et al., 1993]. New analysis techniques are capable of determining the 15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O isotope ratios in samples at the nanomolar level [Sigman et al., 2001; Casciotti et al., 2002; see Kaiser et al., session H38]. This allows for the analysis of short-term variations in the isotopes of HNO3 with the potential to diagnose causal relationships by comparing the isotopic data with other features of atmospheric deposition. The 15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O of nitrate were analyzed from precipitation samples collected on an event-basis in Princeton, NJ between December 2002 and 2003. The nitrate concentration in Princeton rain ranges from 2.5 to 99.7 μ M (mean=21.1 μ M, n=61), similar to that found in other urban areas of New Jersey by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. The isotopes of nitrate fall in the wide range reported for various environments with the δ 15N ranging from -4.0 to 9.5‰ (vs. air), and the δ 18O and δ 17O ranging from 57.2 to 90.5‰ and 50.7 to 77.8‰ (vs. VSMOW), respectively. The correlation between nitrate and sulfate concentration (R2=0.66) and the lack of a relationship between these major ions and the isotopes of nitrate supports the conclusion that below cloud scavenging is not the dominant control on the isotopic variations observed. Seasonal variations are observed in both the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate. Overall the δ 15N is not correlated with either δ 18O or δ 17O, although both the δ 15N and δ 18O average lowest in the summer and highest in the winter. δ 18O is highly correlated with δ 17O of nitrate with anomalous enrichment in 17O relative to 18O (Δ 17O ranges from 19

  9. Fractionation of Fe isotopes during Fe(II) oxidation by a marine photoferrotroph is controlled by the formation of organic Fe-complexes and colloidal Fe fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Wu, Wenfang; Schoenberg, Ronny; Byrne, James; Michel, F. Marc; Pan, Yongxin; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Much interest exists in finding mineralogical, organic, morphological, or isotopic biosignatures for Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) that are retained in Fe-rich sediments, which could indicate the activity of these organisms in Fe-rich seawater, more common in the Precambrian Era. To date, the effort to establish a clear Fe isotopic signature in Fe minerals produced by Fe(II)-oxidizing metabolisms has been thwarted by the large kinetic fractionation incurred as freshly oxidized aqueous Fe(III) rapidly precipitates as Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide minerals at near neutral pH. The Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide minerals resulting from abiotic Fe(II) oxidation are isotopically heavy compared to the Fe(II) precursor and are not clearly distinguishable from minerals formed by FeOB isotopically. However, in marine hydrothermal systems and Fe(II)-rich springs the minerals formed are often isotopically lighter than expected considering the fraction of Fe(II) that has been oxidized and experimentally-determined fractionation factors. We measured the Fe isotopic composition of aqueous Fe (Feaq) and the final Fe mineral (Feppt) produced in batch experiment using the marine Fe(II)-oxidizing phototroph Rhodovulum iodosum. The δ56Feaq data are best described by a kinetic fractionation model, while the evolution of δ56Feppt appears to be controlled by a separate fractionation process. We propose that soluble Fe(III), and Fe(II) and Fe(III) extracted from the Feppt may act as intermediates between Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) precipitation. Based on 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and X-ray total scattering, we suggests these Fe phases, collectively Fe(II/III)interm, may consist of organic-ligand bound, sorbed, and/or colloidal Fe(II) and Fe(III) mineral phases that are isotopically lighter than the final Fe(III) mineral product. Similar intermediate phases, formed in response to organic carbon produced by FeOB and inorganic

  10. Magnesium retention on the soil exchange complex controlling Mg isotope variations in soils, soil solutions and vegetation in volcanic soils, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opfergelt, S.; Burton, K. W.; Georg, R. B.; West, A. J.; Guicharnaud, R. A.; Sigfusson, B.; Siebert, C.; Gislason, S. R.; Halliday, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical cycle of magnesium (Mg) is not only crucial for terrestrial ecology, as this element is a key nutrient for plants, but also for quantifying chemical weathering fluxes of Mg and associated atmospheric CO2 consumption, requiring distinction of biotic from abiotic contributions to Mg fluxes exported to the hydrosphere. Here, Mg isotope compositions are reported for parent basalt, bulk soils, clay fractions, exchangeable Mg, seasonal soil solutions, and vegetation for five types of volcanic soils in Iceland in order to improve the understanding of sources and processes controlling Mg supply to vegetation and export to the hydrosphere. Bulk soils (δ26Mg = -0.40 ± 0.11‰) are isotopically similar to the parent basalt (δ26Mg = -0.31‰), whereas clay fractions (δ26Mg = -0.62 ± 0.12‰), exchangeable Mg (δ26Mg = -0.75 ± 0.14‰), and soil solutions (δ26Mg = -0.89 ± 0.16‰) are all isotopically lighter than the basalt. These compositions can be explained by a combination of mixing and isotope fractionation processes on the soil exchange complex. Successive adsorption-desorption of heavy Mg isotopes leads to the preferential loss of heavy Mg from the soil profile, leaving soils with light Mg isotope compositions relative to the parent basalt. Additionally, external contributions from sea spray and organic matter decomposition result in a mixture of Mg sources on the soil exchange complex. Vegetation preferentially takes up heavy Mg from the soil exchange complex (Δ26Mgplant-exch = +0.50 ± 0.09‰), and changes in δ26Mg in vegetation reflect changes in bioavailable Mg sources in soils. This study highlights the major role of Mg retention on the soil exchange complex amongst the factors controlling Mg isotope variations in soils and soil solutions, and demonstrates that Mg isotopes provide a valuable tool for monitoring biotic and abiotic contributions of Mg that is bioavailable for plants and is exported to the hydrosphere.

  11. Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems using sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios: The example of oil reservoir souring control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope ratios in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had δ18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in δ18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that

  12. FOREWORD: Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshihiko

    2008-12-01

    Since the discovery of superconductivity in diamond, much attention has been given to the issue of superconductivity in semiconductors. Because diamond has a large band gap of 5.5 eV, it is called a wide-gap semiconductor. Upon heavy boron doping over 3×1020 cm-3, diamond becomes metallic and demonstrates superconductivity at temperatures below 11.4 K. This discovery implies that a semiconductor can become a superconductor upon carrier doping. Recently, superconductivity was also discovered in boron-doped silicon and SiC semiconductors. The number of superconducting semiconductors has increased. In 2008 an Fe-based superconductor was discovered in a research project on carrier doping in a LaCuSeO wide-gap semiconductor. This discovery enhanced research activities in the field of superconductivity, where many scientists place particular importance on superconductivity in semiconductors. This focus issue features a variety of topics on superconductivity in semiconductors selected from the 2nd International Workshop on Superconductivity in Diamond and Related Materials (IWSDRM2008), which was held at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan in July 2008. The 1st workshop was held in 2005 and was published as a special issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM) in 2006 (Takano 2006 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7 S1). The selection of papers describe many important experimental and theoretical studies on superconductivity in semiconductors. Topics on boron-doped diamond include isotope effects (Ekimov et al) and the detailed structure of boron sites, and the relation between superconductivity and disorder induced by boron doping. Regarding other semiconductors, the superconducting properties of silicon and SiC (Kriener et al, Muranaka et al and Yanase et al) are discussed, and In2O3 (Makise et al) is presented as a new superconducting semiconductor. Iron-based superconductors are presented as a new series of high

  13. STABLE ISOTOPE SIGNATURES OF MUCUS OF STEELHEAD TROUT IN A CONTROLLED DIET SWITCH EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our work has shown that fish mucus can serve as a very rapid indicator of diet switching in fish. We performed diet switching studies of steelhead trout in a controlled hatchery setting using specially formulated low delta 15N signature and high delta 15N signature diets. To ou...

  14. Vortex Laser based on III-V semiconductor metasurface: direct generation of coherent Laguerre-Gauss modes carrying controlled orbital angular momentum

    PubMed Central

    Seghilani, Mohamed S.; Myara, Mikhael; Sellahi, Mohamed; Legratiet, Luc; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Lalanne, Philippe; Garnache, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The generation of a coherent state, supporting a large photon number, with controlled orbital-angular-momentum L = ħl (of charge l per photon) presents both fundamental and technological challenges: we demonstrate a surface-emitting laser, based on III-V semiconductor technology with an integrated metasurface, generating vortex-like coherent state in the Laguerre-Gauss basis. We use a first order phase perturbation to lift orbital degeneracy of wavefunctions, by introducing a weak anisotropy called here “orbital birefringence”, based on a dielectric metasurface. The azimuthal symmetry breakdown and non-linear laser dynamics create “orbital gain dichroism” allowing selecting vortex handedness. This coherent photonic device was characterized and studied, experimentally and theoretically. It exhibits a low divergence (<1°) diffraction limited beam, emitting 49 mW output power in the near-IR at λ ≃ 1 μm, a charge l = ±1, … ±4 (>50 dB vortex purity), and single frequency operation in a stable low noise regime (0.1% rms). Such high performance laser opens the path to widespread new photonic applications. PMID:27917885

  15. Vortex Laser based on III-V semiconductor metasurface: direct generation of coherent Laguerre-Gauss modes carrying controlled orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghilani, Mohamed S.; Myara, Mikhael; Sellahi, Mohamed; Legratiet, Luc; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Lalanne, Philippe; Garnache, Arnaud

    2016-12-01

    The generation of a coherent state, supporting a large photon number, with controlled orbital-angular-momentum L = ħl (of charge l per photon) presents both fundamental and technological challenges: we demonstrate a surface-emitting laser, based on III-V semiconductor technology with an integrated metasurface, generating vortex-like coherent state in the Laguerre-Gauss basis. We use a first order phase perturbation to lift orbital degeneracy of wavefunctions, by introducing a weak anisotropy called here “orbital birefringence”, based on a dielectric metasurface. The azimuthal symmetry breakdown and non-linear laser dynamics create “orbital gain dichroism” allowing selecting vortex handedness. This coherent photonic device was characterized and studied, experimentally and theoretically. It exhibits a low divergence (<1°) diffraction limited beam, emitting 49 mW output power in the near-IR at λ ≃ 1 μm, a charge l = ±1, … ±4 (>50 dB vortex purity), and single frequency operation in a stable low noise regime (0.1% rms). Such high performance laser opens the path to widespread new photonic applications.

  16. Vortex Laser based on III-V semiconductor metasurface: direct generation of coherent Laguerre-Gauss modes carrying controlled orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Seghilani, Mohamed S; Myara, Mikhael; Sellahi, Mohamed; Legratiet, Luc; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Lalanne, Philippe; Garnache, Arnaud

    2016-12-05

    The generation of a coherent state, supporting a large photon number, with controlled orbital-angular-momentum L = ħl (of charge l per photon) presents both fundamental and technological challenges: we demonstrate a surface-emitting laser, based on III-V semiconductor technology with an integrated metasurface, generating vortex-like coherent state in the Laguerre-Gauss basis. We use a first order phase perturbation to lift orbital degeneracy of wavefunctions, by introducing a weak anisotropy called here "orbital birefringence", based on a dielectric metasurface. The azimuthal symmetry breakdown and non-linear laser dynamics create "orbital gain dichroism" allowing selecting vortex handedness. This coherent photonic device was characterized and studied, experimentally and theoretically. It exhibits a low divergence (<1°) diffraction limited beam, emitting 49 mW output power in the near-IR at λ ≃ 1 μm, a charge l = ±1, … ±4 (>50 dB vortex purity), and single frequency operation in a stable low noise regime (0.1% rms). Such high performance laser opens the path to widespread new photonic applications.

  17. Frequency modulation of semiconductor disk laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, O G

    2015-07-31

    A numerical model is constructed for a semiconductor disk laser mode-locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and the effect that the phase modulation caused by gain and absorption saturation in the semiconductor has on pulse generation is examined. The results demonstrate that, in a laser cavity with sufficient second-order dispersion, alternating-sign frequency modulation of pulses can be compensated for. We also examine a model for tuning the dispersion in the cavity of a disk laser using a Gires–Tournois interferometer with limited thirdorder dispersion. (control of radiation parameters)

  18. Colloquium: Persistent spin textures in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schliemann, John

    2017-01-01

    Device concepts in semiconductor spintronics make long spin lifetimes desirable, and the requirements put on spin control by proposals for quantum information processing are even more demanding. Unfortunately, due to spin-orbit coupling electron spins in semiconductors are generically subject to rather fast decoherence. In two-dimensional quantum wells made of zinc-blende semiconductors, however, the spin-orbit interaction can be engineered to produce persistent spin structures with extraordinarily long spin lifetimes even in the presence of disorder and imperfections. Experimental and theoretical developments on this subject for both n -doped and p -doped structures are reviewed and possible device applications are discussed.

  19. Coherent spectroscopy of semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Steven T

    2008-03-31

    The coherent optical response of semiconductors has been the subject of substantial research over the last couple of decades. The interest has been motivated by unique aspects of the interaction between light and semiconductors that are revealed by coherent techniques. The ability to probe the dynamics of charge carriers has been a significant driver. This paper presents a review of selected results in coherent optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  20. Semiconductor microcavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, P.L.; Wendt, J.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Warren, M.E.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1994-02-01

    New kinds of semiconductor microcavity lasers are being created by modern semiconductor technologies like molecular beam epitaxy and electron beam lithography. These new microcavities exploit 3-dimensional architectures possible with epitaxial layering and surface patterning. The physical properties of these microcavities are intimately related to the geometry imposed on the semiconductor materials. Among these microcavities are surface-emitting structures which have many useful properties for commercial purposes. This paper reviews the basic physics of these microstructured lasers.

  1. ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Kudravetz, M.K.; Greene, H.B.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to control systems for a calutron and, in particular, describes an electro-mechanical system for interrupting the collection of charged particles when the ratio between the two isotopes being receivcd deviates from a predetermined value. One embodiment of the invention includes means responsive to the ratio between two isotopes being received for opening a normally closed shutter over the receiver entrance when the isotope ratio is the desired value. In another form of the invention the collection operation is interrupted by changing the beam accelerating voltage to deflect the ion beam away from the receiver.

  2. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  3. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  4. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Grimmer, Derrick P.; Paulson, Kenneth R.; Gilbert, James R.

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  5. Size-controlled one-pot synthesis of fluorescent cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles in an apoferritin cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahori, K.; Yamashita, I.

    2008-12-01

    A simple size-controlled synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticle (NP) cores in the cavity of apoferritin from horse spleen (HsAFr) was performed by a slow chemical reaction synthesis and a two-step synthesis protocol. We found that the CdS NP core synthesis was slow and that premature CdS NP cores were formed in the apoferritin cavity when the concentration of ammonia water was low. It was proven that the control of the ammonia water concentration can govern the CdS NP core synthesis and successfully produce size-controlled CdS NP cores with diameters from 4.7 to 7.1 nm with narrow size dispersion. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) observation characterized the CdS NP cores obtained as cubic polycrystalline NPs, which showed photoluminescence with red shifts depending on their diameters. From the research of CdS NP core synthesis in the recombinant apoferritins, the zeta potential of apoferritin is important for the biomineralization of CdS NP cores in the apoferritin cavity. These synthesized CdS NPs with different photoluminescence properties will be applicable in a wide variety of nano-applications.

  6. Hydrogen in ferromagnetic semiconductors for planar spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farshchi, Rouin

    This dissertation documents the use of hydrogen for controlling electrical and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic semiconductors, particularly GaMnAs. With minimal structural perturbation, hydrogen forms complexes with Mn acceptors and renders them neutral, thereby substantially increasing electrical resistivity and removing ferromagnetism. A major finding presented herein is that laser annealing can be used to controllably dissociate the Mn-H complexes and restore ferromagnetism. Structural, electrical, and magnetic effects of the laser activation process are thoroughly explored through experiments and numerical modeling. Local laser activation with tightly-focused ultra-short laser pulses allows for high-resolution direct-writing of ferromagnetic patterns in semiconductors, introducing a new paradigm for device design. Prospects for laser formation of high-temperature phases in ferromagnetic semiconductors are investigated. Finally, several device concepts incorporating the laser activation process are discussed as building blocks towards planar all-semiconductor spintronics.

  7. Charge-controlled assembling of bacteriorhodopsin and semiconductor quantum dots for fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based nanophotonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchonville, Nicolas; Molinari, Michael; Sukhanova, Alyona; Artemyev, Mikhail; Oleinikov, Vladimir A.; Troyon, Michel; Nabiev, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and photochromic protein bacteriorhodopsin within its natural purple membrane (PM) is explored to monitor their assembling. It is shown that the efficiency of FRET may be controlled by variation of the surface charge and thickness of QD organic coating. Atomic force microscopy imaging revealed correlation between the surface charge of QDs and degree of their ordering on the surface of PM. The most FRET-efficient QD-PM complexes have the highest level of QDs ordering, and their assembling design may be further optimized to engineer hybrid materials with advanced biophotonic and photovoltaic properties.

  8. Electrically controlled Goos-Hänchen shift of a light beam reflected from the metal-insulator-semiconductor structure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Changyou; Guo, Jun; Wang, Qingkai; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Wen, Shuangchun

    2013-05-06

    We proposed a scheme to manipulate the Goos-Hänchen shift of a light beam reflected from the depletion-type device via external voltage bias. It is shown that the lateral shift of the reflected probe beam can be easily controlled by adjusting the reverse voltage bias and the incidence angle. Using this scheme, the lateral shift can be tuned from negative to positive, without changing the original structure of the depletion-type device. Numerical calculations further indicate that the influence of structure parameters and light wavelength can be reduced via readjustment of the reverse bias. The proposed structure has the potential application for the integrated electronic devices.

  9. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  10. Process for forming shaped group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  11. Spin-glass behaviors in carrier polarity controlled Fe{sub 3−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} semiconductor thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Yamahara, H.; Seki, M.; Adachi, M.; Takahashi, M.; Nasu, H.; Tabata, H.; Horiba, K.; Kumigashira, H.

    2015-08-14

    Carrier-type control of spin-glass (cluster spin-glass) is studied in order to engineer basic magnetic semiconductor elements using the memory functions of spin-glass. A key of carrier-polarity control in magnetite is the valence engineering between Fe(II) and Fe(III) that is achieved by Ti(IV) substitution. Single phases of (001)-oriented Fe{sub 3−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} thin films have been obtained on spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Thermoelectric power measurements reveal that Ti-rich films (x = 0.8) show p-type conduction, while Ti-poor films (x = 0.6–0.75) show n-type conduction. The systematic Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) followed by Ti(IV) substitution in the octahedral sublattice is confirmed by the X-ray absorption spectra. All of the Fe{sub 3−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} films (x = 0.6–0.8) exhibit ferrimagnetism above room temperature. Next, the spin-glass behaviors of Ti-rich Fe{sub 2.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 4} film are studied, since this magnetically diluted system is expected to exhibit the spin-glass behaviors. The DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements for the Ti-rich Fe{sub 2.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 4} film reveal the presence of the spin glass phase. Thermal- and magnetic-field-history memory effects are observed and are attributed to the long time-decay nature of remanent magnetization. The detailed analysis of the time-dependent thermoremanent magnetization reveals the presence of the cluster spin glass state.

  12. Lasing in subwavelength semiconductor nanopatches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhani, Amit M.; Yu, Kyoungsik; Wu, Ming C.

    2011-01-01

    Subwavelength semiconductor nanopatch lasers were analyzed, fabricated and characterized. Lasing was achieved in cylindrical and rectangular metallodielectric nanopatch geometries. The two smallest moderate quality factor modes of cylindrical cavities, the 'electric-' and 'magnetic-' dipole-like modes, successfully lased with physical volumes as small as 0.75 (λ0/n)3. Polarization control in nanopatch geometries is successfully demonstrated in anisotropic rectangular nanopatch structures.

  13. Controls, variation, and a record of climate change in detailed stable isotope record in a single bryozoan skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abigail M.; Key, Marcus M., Jr.

    2004-03-01

    The long-lived (about 20 yr) bryozoan Adeonellopsis sp. from Doubtful Sound, New Zealand, precipitates aragonite in isotopic equilibrium with seawater, exerting no metabolic or kinetic effects. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ 18O) in 61 subsamples (along three branches of a single unaltered colony) range from -0.09 to +0.68‰ PDB (mean = +0.36‰ PDB). Carbon isotope ratios (δ 13C) range from +0.84 to +2.18‰ PDB (mean = +1.69‰ PDB). Typical of cool-water carbonates, δ 18O-derived water temperatures range from 14.2 to 17.5 °C. Adeonellopsis has a minimum temperature growth threshold of 14 °C, recording only a partial record of environmental variation. By correlating seawater temperatures derived from δ 18O with the Southern Oscillation Index, however, we were able to detect major events such as the 1983 El Niño. Interannual climatic variation can be recorded in skeletal carbonate isotopes. The range of within-colony isotopic variability found in this study (0.77‰ in δ 18O and 1.34 in δ 13C) means that among-colony variation must be treated cautiously. Temperate bryozoan isotopes have been tested in less than 2% of described extant species — this highly variable phylum is not yet fully understood.

  14. Isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  15. Molecular Semiconductors: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, John; Halls, Jonathan James Michael

    2005-10-01

    Introducing the fundamental ideas and concepts behind organic semiconductors, this book provides a clear impression of the broad range of research activities currently underway. Aimed specifically at new entrant doctoral students from a wide variety of backgrounds, including chemistry, physics, electrical engineering and materials science, it also represents an ideal companion text to undergraduate courses in organic semiconductors.

  16. Spatially controlled Fe and Si isotope variations: an alternative view on the formation of the Torres del Paine pluton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, Norbert A.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Taylor, Alexander H.

    2016-11-01

    We present new Fe and Si isotope ratio data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of an approximately 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous 250-m-thick mafic gabbro suite. This first-of-its-kind spatially dependent Fe and Si isotope investigation of a convergent margin-related pluton aims to understand the nature of granite and silicic igneous rock formation. Results collected by MC-ICP-MS show a trend of increasing δ56Fe and δ30Si with increasing silica content as well as a systematic increase in δ56Fe away from the mafic base of the pluton. The marginal Torres del Paine granites have heavier Fe isotope signatures (δ56Fe = +0.25 ± 0.02 2se) compared to granites found in the interior pluton (δ56Fe = +0.17 ± 0.02 2se). Cerro Toro country rock values are isotopically light in both Fe and Si isotopic systems (δ56Fe = +0.05 ± 0.02 ‰; δ30Si = -0.38 ± 0.07 ‰). The variations in the Fe and Si isotopic data cannot be accounted for by local assimilation of the wall rocks, in situ fractional crystallization, late-stage fluid exsolution or some combination of these processes. Instead, we conclude that thermal diffusion or source magma variation is the most likely process producing Fe isotope ratio variations in the Torres del Paine pluton.

  17. Stable Isotope Values of the Mesoamerican Monsoon: δ18O and δ2H Values Reveal Climate Controls on Summer Rainfall Amount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, J. P.; Lachniet, M. S.; Rosales Lagarde, L.; Morales Puente, P.; Cienfuegos, E.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions using δ18O as a proxy for the isotopic composition of rainfall are based upon the mostly untested assumption that either rainfall amount or equilibration temperature are the main drivers modulating the isotopic composition of pluvial precipitation. Whilst a broad correlation between geographical location and driving mechanisms has been long recognized (i.e. amount effect is pervasive in tropical areas), further tests are required to determine the effect that different sources of moisture might impose on the isotopic composition of precipitation, particularly in areas where contributions from different ocean-basins might be significant, such as south Mexico. Here, we present the δ18O and δ2H composition of summer rainfall collected throughout south, central and western Mexico, particularly from Veracruz, Puebla, Guerrero, Morelos, Mexico City, Jalisco, Michoacán and Querétaro states. The geographical and temporal extent of our sampling (2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2011) results in a large dataset comprising more than 600 samples and represents the base data to understand the atmospheric mechanisms modulating the isotopic composition of rainfall in Mexico. Our data span a range of 30‰ in δ18O, from high values nearest the Gulf of Mexico coast and during weak rainfall events, to lowest values in high-altitude central Mexico and during heavy rainfall events associated with tropical cyclones. Values on the Pacific Coast are intermediate, and likely reflect a contribution of both Gulf of Mexico and Pacific sources. Our data define a meteoric water line of δ2H = 7.92 × δ18O + 9.48, which indicate that most precipitation values formed close to isotopic equilibrium with water vapor. The two primary physiographic variables controlling δ18O values are distance from the Gulf of Mexico and altitude, which together explain about 70% of the variation in spatial δ18O values.

  18. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew P.; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5-10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies.

  19. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Matthew P.; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5–10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies. PMID:27577091

  20. Understanding of anthropogenic controls on water chemistry and isotopic compositions of nitrate in the Geum River, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, D.; Shin, W.; Park, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations of dissolved ions and isotopic compositions of nitrate were determined for water samples collected along the main channel of the Geum River, South Korea to identify anthropogenic and natural controls on water chemistry. The catchment characteristics vary along the river encompassing relatively undisturbed forest areas in its upper reach, agricultural and populated urban areas in the middle, and dominantly agricultural areas in the lower reach. Compared to the undisturbed upper reach, the dissolved ion concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO42- and NO3-) slightly increased in agricultural areas. Abrupt increases in Na, Cl, SO42- and NO3- concentrations were observed in the river water after flowing through populated Daejeon metropolitan city. The effects of anthropogenic inputs were clearly represented in SO42- vs. Cl cross plot. Data from all locations were plotted along the assumed binary mixing line between rainwater and sewage with the data from the upper reach plotted close to the rainwater and the data from the urban areas close to the sewage end-member. δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 indicated that the dominant nitrate sources in the river were manure/sewage derived from agricultural and residential areas, except the dam discharge that contains a large proportion of soil nitrates. Notably, the anthropogenic disturbances in water chemistry were moderated in the lower reaches and dam discharges possibly due to the dilution effects and metabolic recycling. Our results suggest that water chemistry in the Geum River was closely related to the land use patterns in the catchment and therefore the management efforts for water quality should be devised according to the catchment characteristics.

  1. Semiconductor diode characterization for total skin electron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Madrid González, O A; Rivera Montalvo, T

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a semiconductor diode characterization was performed. The diode characterization was completed using an electron beam with 4 MeV of energy. The semiconductor diode calibration used irradiation with an electron beam in an ion chamber. "In vivo" dosimetry was also conducted. The dosimetry results revealed that the semiconductor diode was a good candidate for use in the total skin electron therapy (TSET) treatment control.

  2. Quantification of Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition to Environmental Surfaces using Mercury Stable Isotopes in a Controlled Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Olson, M.; Robinson, M.; Vanderveer, P.; Creswell, J. E.; Parman, A.; Mallek, J.; Gorski, P.

    2009-12-01

    Andrew P. Rutter (1) * *, James J, Schauer (1,2) *, Martin M. Shafer(1,2), Michael R. Olson (1), Michael Robinson (1), Peter Vanderveer (3), Joel Creswell (1), Justin L. Mallek (1), Andrew M. Parman (1) (1) Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 660 N. Park St, Madison, WI 53705. (2) Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 2601 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53718. (3) Biotron, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2115 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 * Correspond author(jjschauer@wisc.edu) * *Presenting author (aprutter@wisc.edu) Abstract Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the predominant component of atmospheric mercury outside of arctic depletion events, and locations where anthropogenic point sources are not influencing atmospheric concentrations. GEM constitutes greater than 99% of the mercury mass in most rural and remote locations. While dry and wet deposition of atmospheric mercury is thought to be dominated by oxidized mercury (a.k.a. reactive mercury), only small GEM uptake to environmental surfaces could impact the input of mercury to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Dry deposition and subsequent re-emission of gaseous elemental mercury is a pathway from the atmosphere that remains only partially understood from a mechanistic perspective. In order to properly model GEM dry deposition and re-emission an understanding of its dependence on irradiance, temperature, and relative humidity must be measured and parameterized for a broad spectrum of environmental surfaces colocated with surrogate deposition surfaces used to make field based dry deposition measurements. Measurements of isotopically enriched GEM dry deposition were made with a variety of environmental surfaces in a controlled environment room at the University of Wisconsin Biotron. The experimental set up allowed dry deposition components which are not easily separated in the field to be decoupled. We were able to isolate surface transfer processes from variabilities caused by

  3. 40Ar/39Ar ages in deformed potassium feldspar: evidence of microstructural control on Ar isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Steven M.; Potts, Graham J.; Kelley, Simon P.

    2001-05-01

    Detailed field and microstructural studies have been combined with high spatial resolution ultraviolet laser 40Ar/39Ar dating of naturally deformed K-feldspar to investigate the direct relationship between deformation-related microstructure and Ar isotope systematics. The sample studied is a ~1,000 Ma Torridonian arkose from Skye, Scotland, that contains detrital feldspars previously metamorphosed at amphibolite-facies conditions ~1,700 Ma. The sample was subsequently deformed ~430 Ma ago during Caledonian orogenesis. The form and distribution of deformation-induced microstructures within three different feldspar clasts has been mapped using atomic number contrast and orientation contrast imaging, at a range of scales, to identify intragrain variations in composition and lattice orientation. These variations have been related to thin section and regional structural data to provide a well-constrained deformation history for the feldspar clasts. One hundred and forty-three in-situ 40Ar/39Ar analyses measured using ultraviolet laser ablation record a range of apparent ages (317-1030 Ma). The K-feldspar showing the least strain records the greatest range of apparent ages from 420-1,030 Ma, with the oldest apparent ages being found close to the centre of the feldspar away from fractures and the detrital grain boundary. The most deformed K-feldspar yields the youngest apparent ages (317-453 Ma) but there is no spatial relationship between apparent age and the detrital grain boundary. Within this feldspar, the oldest apparent ages are recorded from orientation domain boundaries and fracture surfaces where an excess or trapped 40Ar component resides. Orientation contrast images at a similar scale to the Ar analyses illustrate a significant deformation-related microstructural difference between the feldspars and we conclude that deformation plays a significant role in controlling Ar systematics of feldspars at both the inter- and intragrain scales even at relatively low

  4. Droplets to Deluges: Combining Stable-Isotope and Meteorological Data to Resolve Climate Controls on Recharge and Runoff in Tropical Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Determining which rain-producing weather patterns contribute most to water supply is important in areas where climate change is expected to influence large-scale atmospheric parameters controlling precipitation. Tropical mountain watersheds receive high rainfall, but their resilience to drought conditions is not well understood. Their hydrology may include extremely frequent small precipitation events as well as infrequent events with extreme amounts. Isotope hydrology studies in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (LUQ) and the Hawaiian Islands compared rain, cloud water, stream and groundwater measurements to build understanding of the climate patterns that contribute to recharge and baseflow. Despite small annual fluctuation in land surface temperature, precipitation stable isotope composition varied seasonally, had a large range (δ 18O = -0.73 to -20.4‰, δ 2H = +12 to -154‰) and correlated with cloud altitude (atmospheric temperature) and storm history in both places. Permeability, storage capacity and antecedent moisture control how rainfall is partitioned into overland flow, plant-available soil moisture, and shallow and deep groundwater pathways on its way to the stream channel. In LUQ, orographic rain and cloud water were more important than convective rainfall in maintaining baseflow; a significant proportion of convective rainfall became runoff. In contrast, stream isotopic composition showed that a large storm supplied baseflow for 18 months in Hawaiian volcanic terrane. Over 3 years in LUQ, seasonal variation in deuterium excess indicated runoff in the 1780 ha Mameyes basin was about 25% quickflow (transit time < 7 days) and 75% groundwater. In a 1.5 ha headwater catchment, nightly cloud water deposition sustained stream water levels, and cloud water contribution to streamflow was evident in isotopic samples. Further research linking weather patterns, precipitation, and subsurface flow partitioning will help with water management in a changing

  5. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    SciTech Connect

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  6. Engineering optical properties of semiconductor metafilm superabsorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2016-04-01

    Light absorption in ultrathin layer of semiconductor has been considerable interests for many years due to its potential applications in various optical devices. In particular, there have been great efforts to engineer the optical properties of the film for the control of absorption spectrums. Whereas the isotropic thin films have intrinsic optical properties that are fixed by materials' properties, metafilm that are composed by deep subwavelength nano-building blocks provides significant flexibilities in controlling the optical properties of the designed effective layers. Here, we present the ultrathin semiconductor metafilm absorbers by arranging germanium (Ge) nanobeams in deep subwavelength scale. Resonant properties of high index semiconductor nanobeams play a key role in designing effective optical properties of the film. We demonstrate this in theory and experimental measurements to build a designing rule of efficient, controllable metafilm absorbers. The proposed strategy of engineering optical properties could open up wide range of applications from ultrathin photodetection and solar energy harvesting to the diverse flexible optoelectronics.

  7. Semiconductor Solar Superabsorbers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yiling; Huang, Lujun; Cao, Linyou

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the maximal enhancement of solar absorption in semiconductor materials by light trapping promises the development of affordable solar cells. However, the conventional Lambertian limit is only valid for idealized material systems with weak absorption, and cannot hold for the typical semiconductor materials used in solar cells due to the substantial absorption of these materials. Herein we theoretically demonstrate the maximal solar absorption enhancement for semiconductor materials and elucidate the general design principle for light trapping structures to approach the theoretical maximum. By following the principles, we design a practical light trapping structure that can enable an ultrathin layer of semiconductor materials, for instance, 10 nm thick a-Si, absorb > 90% sunlight above the bandgap. The design has active materials with one order of magnitude less volume than any of the existing solar light trapping designs in literature. This work points towards the development of ultimate solar light trapping techniques. PMID:24531211

  8. Nitrogen isotopic composition of coal-fired power plant NOx: influence of emission controls and implications for global emission inventories.

    PubMed

    Felix, J David; Elliott, Emily M; Shaw, Stephanie L

    2012-03-20

    Despite the potential use of δ(15)N as a tracer of NO(x) source contributions, prior documentation of δ(15)N of various NO(x) emission sources is exceedingly limited. This manuscript presents the first measurements of the nitrogen isotopic composition of NO(x) (δ(15)N-NO(x)) emitted from coal-fired power plants in the U.S. at typical operating conditions with and without the presence of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. To accomplish this, a novel method for collection and isotopic analysis of coal-fired stack NO(x) emission samples was developed based on modifications of a historic U.S. EPA stack sampling method. At the power plants included in this study, large differences exist in the isotopic composition of NO(x) emitted with and without SCRs and SNCRs; further the isotopic composition of power plant NO(x) is higher than that of other measured NO(x) emission sources confirming its use as an environmental tracer. These findings indicate that gradual implementation of SCRs at power plants will result in an industry-wide increase in δ(15)N values of NO(x) and NO(y) oxidation products from this emission source.

  9. Job/task analysis for I C (Instrumentation and Controls) instrument technicians at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, L.L.

    1989-09-01

    To comply with Department of Energy Order 5480.XX (Draft), a job/task analysis was initiated by the Maintenance Management Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis was applicable to instrument technicians working at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This document presents the procedures and results of that analysis. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Marine vs. local control on seawater Nd-isotope ratios at the northwest coast of Africa during the late Cretaceous-early Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, L.; Gheerbrant, E.; Mouflih, M.; Cappetta, H.; Ulianov, A.; Chiaradia, M.

    2013-12-01

    At the northwest corner of Africa excellent conditions existed for phosphate formation (i.e., stable upwelling system) during the late Cretaceous-early Eocene. This is probably in relation to stable tectonic evolution of shallow epicontinental basins at a passive continental margin and to their paleogeographic situation between the Atlantic and Tethys marine realms. To better comprehend paleoceanic conditions in this area, radiogenic isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd) and trace element compositions of fossil biogenic apatite are investigated from Maastrichtian to Ypresian shallow marine phosphorite deposits in Morocco (Ouled Abdoun and Ganntour Basins). Rare earth elements (REE) distributions in the fossils are compatible with early diagenetic marine pore fluid represented by negative Ce-anomaly and heavy REE enrichment. An overall shift in Ce-anomaly is apparent with gradually lower values in younger fossils along three distinct assemblages that correspond to Maastrichtian, Danian-Thanetian and Ypresian periods. The temporal change can be interpreted as presence of gradually more oxygenated seawater in the basins. Strontium isotopic ratios of the fossils follow the global Sr-evolution curve. However, the latest Cretaceous and the oldest Paleocene fossils yielded slightly higher ratios than the global ocean, which could reflect minor diagenetic alteration. Neodymium isotopic ratios are quite even along the phosphate series with ɛNd(t) values ranges from -6.8 to -5.8. These values are higher than those reported for average North Atlantic deep water and Tethyan seawater (e.g., Stille et al., 1996; Thomas et al., 2003). For the origin of the stable, high 143Nd/144Nd we propose three main hypotheses: (1) contribution of continental Nd-source, (2) locally controlled deep water Nd-isotope ratios near the coast from where upwelling originated in the area and (3) possible surface marine water contribution from the Pacific across the Atlantic. Stille, P., Steinmann

  11. Semiconductor Nanocrystal Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    D. Krauss, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, " Energy transfer between colloidal semiconductor quantum dots in an optical microcavity," (submitted, 2006...Phys. Lett. 82, 4032 (2003). J. J. Peterson and T. D. Krauss, "Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Single Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots ," Nano Lett. (in press...Guo, Xiaowei Teng, Hong Yang, Todd D. Krauss, Carl B. Poitras, and Michal Lipson, "Enhanced Energy Transfer between Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum

  12. SILICON CARBIDE FOR SEMICONDUCTORS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This state-of-the-art survey on silicon carbide for semiconductors includes a bibliography of the most important references published as of the end...of 1964. The various methods used for growing silicon carbide single crystals are reviewed, as well as their properties and devices fabricated from...them. The fact that the state of-the-art of silicon carbide semiconductors is not further advanced may be attributed to the difficulties of growing

  13. Transpiration flow controls Zn transport in Brassica napus and Lolium multiflorum under toxic levels as evidenced from isotopic fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couder, Eléonore; Mattielli, Nadine; Drouet, Thomas; Smolders, Erik; Delvaux, Bruno; Iserentant, Anne; Meeus, Coralie; Maerschalk, Claude; Opfergelt, Sophie; Houben, David

    2015-11-01

    Stable zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation between soil and plant has been used to suggest the mechanisms affecting Zn uptake under toxic conditions. Here, changes in Zn isotope composition in soil, soil solution, root and shoot were studied for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on three distinct metal-contaminated soils collected near Zn smelters (total Zn 0.7-7.5%, pH 4.8-7.3). The Zn concentrations in plants reflected a toxic Zn supply. The Zn isotopic fingerprint of total soil Zn varied from -0.05‰ to +0.26 ± 0.02‰ (δ66Zn values relative to the JMC 3-0749L standard) among soils, but the soil solution Zn was depleted in 66Zn, with a constant Zn isotope fractionation of about -0.1‰ δ66Zn unit compared to the bulk soil. Roots were enriched with 66Zn relative to soil solution (δ66Znroot - δ66Znsoil solution = Δ66Znroot-soil solution = +0.05 to +0.2 ‰) and shoots were strongly depleted in 66Zn relative to roots (Δ66Znshoot-root = -0.40 to -0.04 ‰). The overall δ66Zn values in shoots reflected that of the bulk soil, but were lowered by 0.1-0.3 ‰ units as compared to the latter. The isotope fractionation between root and shoot exhibited a markedly strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.83) with transpiration per unit of plant weight. Thus, the enrichment with light Zn isotopes in shoot progressed with increasing water flux per unit plant biomass dry weight, showing a passive mode of Zn transport by transpiration. Besides, the light isotope enrichment in shoots compared to roots was larger for rape than for rye grass, which may be related to the higher Zn retention in rape roots. This in turn may be related to the higher cation exchange capacity of rape roots. Our finding can be of use to trace the biogeochemical cycles of Zn and evidence the tolerance strategies developed by plants in Zn-excess conditions.

  14. Conductivity in transparent oxide semiconductors.

    PubMed

    King, P D C; Veal, T D

    2011-08-24

    Despite an extensive research effort for over 60 years, an understanding of the origins of conductivity in wide band gap transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors remains elusive. While TCOs have already found widespread use in device applications requiring a transparent contact, there are currently enormous efforts to (i) increase the conductivity of existing materials, (ii) identify suitable alternatives, and (iii) attempt to gain semiconductor-engineering levels of control over their carrier density, essential for the incorporation of TCOs into a new generation of multifunctional transparent electronic devices. These efforts, however, are dependent on a microscopic identification of the defects and impurities leading to the high unintentional carrier densities present in these materials. Here, we review recent developments towards such an understanding. While oxygen vacancies are commonly assumed to be the source of the conductivity, there is increasing evidence that this is not a sufficient mechanism to explain the total measured carrier concentrations. In fact, many studies suggest that oxygen vacancies are deep, rather than shallow, donors, and their abundance in as-grown material is also debated. We discuss other potential contributions to the conductivity in TCOs, including other native defects, their complexes, and in particular hydrogen impurities. Convincing theoretical and experimental evidence is presented for the donor nature of hydrogen across a range of TCO materials, and while its stability and the role of interstitial versus substitutional species are still somewhat open questions, it is one of the leading contenders for yielding unintentional conductivity in TCOs. We also review recent work indicating that the surfaces of TCOs can support very high carrier densities, opposite to the case for conventional semiconductors. In thin-film materials/devices and, in particular, nanostructures, the surface can have a large impact on the total

  15. LabData database sub-systems for post-processing and quality control of stable isotope and gas chromatography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckow, A. O.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements need post-processing to obtain results that are comparable between laboratories. Raw data may need to be corrected for blank, memory, drift (change of reference values with time), linearity (dependence of reference on signal height) and normalized to international reference materials. Post-processing parameters need to be stored for traceability of results. State of the art stable isotope correction schemes are available based on MS Excel (Geldern and Barth, 2012; Gröning, 2011) or MS Access (Coplen, 1998). These are specialized to stable isotope measurements only, often only to the post-processing of a special run. Embedding of algorithms into a multipurpose database system was missing. This is necessary to combine results of different tracers (3H, 3He, 2H, 18O, CFCs, SF6...) or geochronological tools (Sediment dating e.g. with 210Pb, 137Cs), to relate to attribute data (submitter, batch, project, geographical origin, depth in core, well information etc.) and for further interpretation tools (e.g. lumped parameter modelling). Database sub-systems to the LabData laboratory management system (Suckow and Dumke, 2001) are presented for stable isotopes and for gas chromatographic CFC and SF6 measurements. The sub-system for stable isotopes allows the following post-processing: 1. automated import from measurement software (Isodat, Picarro, LGR), 2. correction for sample-to sample memory, linearity, drift, and renormalization of the raw data. The sub-system for gas chromatography covers: 1. storage of all raw data 2. storage of peak integration parameters 3. correction for blank, efficiency and linearity The user interface allows interactive and graphical control of the post-processing and all corrections by export to and plot in MS Excel and is a valuable tool for quality control. The sub-databases are integrated into LabData, a multi-user client server architecture using MS SQL server as back-end and an MS Access front-end and installed in four

  16. Transuranium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1985-12-01

    The needs of the research community for the production of transuranium isotopes, the quantities required, the continuity of production desired, and what a new steady state neutron source would have to provide to satisfy these needs are discussed. Examples of past frontier research which need these isotopes as well as an outline of the proposed Large Einsteinium Activation Program, LEAP, which requires roughly ten times the current production of /sup 254/Es are given. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Isotopic chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Floss, H.G.

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  18. Physical understanding and technological control of carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials and devices: A critique of conceptual development, state of the art and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Vinod Kumar

    This paper surveys the current understanding of the diverse types of carrier lifetime in semiconductor physics, a fundamental physical parameter determining different terminal properties of semiconductor devices and a vital performance index of the degree of cleanliness of a semiconductor material or fabrication line. According as a recombination or generation mechanism is involved, two primary categories of carrier lifetime have been distinguished, namely, recombination and generation lifetimes. Depending on the recombination process, the recombination lifetime has been sub classified as phonon-assisted Shockley-Read-Hall recombination lifetime, photon-assisted radiative recombination lifetime and Auger recombination lifetime. Further from the viewpoint of injection level, lifetime has been divided into low-level and high-level types. Also, a demarcation has been made between lifetime in bulk semiconductor and lifetime in a region of semiconductor device. Both recombination and generation lifetimes or any of their classes, has been associated with a surface recombination/generation velocity and hence a surface lifetime; the measured lifetime value is the combined effect of the bulk and surface components. Quantum-mechanical theories of lifetime have been reviewed. After introduction of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) theory of recombination-generation statistics, the Dhariwal-Kothari-Jain modification, Dhariwal-Landsberg generalization and Landsberg's extension of SRH theory have been dealt with. Landsberg-Kousik model of dependence of carrier lifetime on doping concentration has been outlined. Beattie-Landsberg Auger recombination lifetime theory has been briefly treated followed by Auger recombination theory for non-interacting free-particle approximation and then Coulomb-enhanced Auger recombination theory based on the Hangleiter and Häcker quantum-mechanical approach. The correlation of lifetime with device properties such as the current gain of bipolar

  19. Development of UItra-Low Temperature Motor Controllers: Ultra Low Temperatures Evaluation and Characterization of Semiconductor Technologies For The Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.

    2003-01-01

    Electronics designed for low temperature operation will result in more efficient systems than room temperature. This improvement is a result of better electronic, electrical, and thermal properties of materials at low temperatures. In particular, the performance of certain semiconductor devices improves with decreasing temperature down to ultra-low temperature (-273 'C). The Low Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electrical components and systems suitable for applications in deep space missions. Research is being conducted on devices and systems for use down to liquid helium temperatures (-273 'C). Some of the components that are being characterized include semiconductor switching devices, resistors, magnetics, and capacitors. The work performed this summer has focused on the evaluation of silicon-, silicon-germanium- and gallium-Arsenide-based (GaAs) bipolar, MOS and CMOS discrete components and integrated circuits (ICs), from room temperature (23 'C) down to ultra low temperatures (-263 'C).

  20. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Instability of stationary lasing and self-starting mode locking in external-cavity semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetanin, Igor V.; Vasil'ev, Petr P.

    2009-01-01

    Parameters of external-cavity semiconductor lasers, when the stationary lasing becomes unstable, were analysed within the framework of a theoretical model of self-starting mode locking. In this case, a train of ultrashort pulses can be generated due to intrinsic nonlinearities of the laser medium. A decisive role of the transverse optical field nonuniformity, pump rate, and gain spectral bandwidth in the development of the instability of stationary lasing was demonstrated.

  1. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Study of the spectral width of intermode beats and optical spectrum of an actively mode-locked three-mirror semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharyash, Valerii F.; Kashirsky, Aleksandr V.; Klementyev, Vasilii M.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Pivtsov, V. S.

    2005-09-01

    Various oscillation regimes of an actively mode-locked semiconductor laser are studied experimentally. Two types of regimes are found in which the minimal spectral width (~3.5 kHz) of intermode beats is achieved. The width of the optical spectrum of modes is studied as a function of their locking and the feedback coefficients. The maximum width of the spectrum is ~3.7 THz.

  2. Semiconductor technology program. Progress briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The current status of NBS work on measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reported. Results of both in-house and contract research are covered. Highlighted activities include modeling of diffusion processes, analysis of model spreading resistance data, and studies of resonance ionization spectroscopy, resistivity-dopant density relationships in p-type silicon, deep level measurements, photoresist sensitometry, random fault measurements, power MOSFET thermal characteristics, power transistor switching characteristics, and gross leak testing. New and selected on-going projects are described. Compilations of recent publications and publications in press are included.

  3. Vapor phase exsolution as a controlling factor in hydrogen isotope variation in granitic rocks: the Notch Peak granitic stock, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nabelek, P.I.; O'Neil, J.R.; Papike, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Notch Peak granitic stock, western Utah, is comprised of three concentric sequentially intruded rock types, from granite at the rim, to quartz monzonite I, to quartz monzonite II at the core. The ??18O values of whole rocks vary about an average of 9.4 (SMOW), irrespective of the rock type and position relative to contact, suggesting that the three magmas had the same parent. The whole rock ??D values in the stock range from -100 to -55. ??D values increase toward the cores of both quartz monzonite I and quartz monzonite II, resulting in concentric contours. The ??D contours of quartz monzonite II cross-cut those of quartz monzonite I, suggesting little isotopic interaction between these bodies and the absence of a late pervasive fluid phase. There is a positive correlation between ??D values and water content of the samples, where samples from each body define a distinct field. The positive correlation is explained by isotopic fractionation attendant on vapor exsolution from the crystallizing magma. An observed increase in ??D with the degree of chloritization, a trend opposite to that observed in systems where participation of meteoric water has been demonstrated, is the result of subsolidus interaction with the exsolved fluids. These results show that large variations in the hydrogen isotope ratios of a granitoid can arise by exsolution of a vapor phase from the melt on crystallization. In general, magmas with larger modal amount of primary hydrous phases will tend to have higher ??D values than those with small amounts of hydrous phases. Furthermore, the relatively high ??D values of chlorites at Notch Peak confirm the applicability of classical concepts of closed-system deuteric alteration to some granitoid bodies. Thus, meteoric water interaction need not be always invoked to explain hydrogen isotope variation and deuteric alteration in granitoids. ?? 1983.

  4. Basin-scale controls on the molybdenum-isotope composition of seawater during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (Late Cretaceous)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Alexander J.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Porcelli, Donald; van den Boorn, Sander; Idiz, Erdem

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the burial of organic carbon in marine sediments increased dramatically at a global scale at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (Oceanic Anoxic Event 2: OAE-2, ∼94 Myr ago, Late Cretaceous). Many localities containing chemostratigraphic expressions of this event are not, however, enriched in organic carbon, and point to a heterogeneous set of oceanographic and environmental processes operating in different ocean basins. These processes are difficult to reconstruct because of the uneven geographical distribution of sites recording OAE-2, thus limiting our understanding of the causes and palaeoceanographic consequences of the environmental changes that occurred at this time. A new, highly resolved molybdenum-isotope dataset is presented from the Cape Verde Basin (southern proto-North Atlantic Ocean) and a lower resolution record from the Tarfaya Basin, Morocco. The new data reveal periodic oscillations in the Mo-isotope composition of proto-North Atlantic Ocean sediments, from which coupled changes in the dissolved sulphide concentration and Mo inventories of the basin seawater can be inferred. The cyclic variations in sedimentary Mo-isotope compositions can be hypothetically linked to regional changes in the depth of the chemocline, and in the rate of seawater exchange between basinal waters and global seawater. The new data suggest that a global seawater Mo-isotope composition of ∼1.2‰ was reached very soon after the onset of OAE-2, implying a rapid expansion of marine deoxygenation coeval with, or slightly preceding, enhanced global rates of organic-carbon burial. During OAE-2, the modelled flux of Mo into anoxic sediments is likely to have been ∼60-125 times greater than at the present day, although the spatial extent of anoxia is unlikely to have been greater than 10% of the total seafloor.

  5. Geodynamic investigation of the processes that control Lu-Hf isotopic differences between different mantle domains and the crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Rosie; van Keken, Peter; Hauri, Erik; Vervoort, Jeff; Ballentine, Chris J.

    2016-04-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of both the Earth's mantle and the continental crust are greatly influenced by subduction zone processes, such as the formation of continental crust through arc volcanism and the recycling of surface material into the deep mantle. Here we use a combined geodynamical-geochemical approach to investigate the long term role of subduction on the Lu-Hf isotopic evolution of the mantle and the continental crust. We apply the geodynamic model developed by Brandenburg et al., 2008. This model satisfies the geophysical constraints of oceanic heat flow and average plate velocities, as well as geochemical observations such as 40Ar in the atmosphere, and reproduces the geochemical distributions observed in multiple isotope systems which define the HIMU, MORB and EM1 mantle endmembers. We extend this application to investigate the detail of terrestrial Lu-Hf isotope distribution and evolution, and specifically to investigate the role of sediment recycling in the generation of EM2 mantle compositions. The model has been updated to produce higher resolution results and to include a self-consistent reorganisation of the plates with regions of up-/down-wellings. The model assumes that subduction is initiated at 4.5 Ga and that a transition from 'dry' to 'wet' subduction occurred at 2.5 Ga. The modelling suggests that the epsilon Hf evolution of the upper mantle can be generated through the extraction and recycling of the oceanic crust, and that the formation of continental crust plays a lesser role. Our future intention is to utilise the model presented here to investigate the differences observed in the noble gas compositions (e.g., 40Ar/36Ar, 3He/4He) of MORB and OIB. Brandenburg, J.P., Hauri, E.H., van Keken, P.E., Ballentine, C.J., 2008. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 276, 1-13.

  6. A program for mass spectrometer control and data processing analyses in isotope geology; written in BASIC for an 8K Nova 1120 computer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Hope, J.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described which uses a minicomputer to control a surface ionization mass spectrometer in the peak switching mode, with the object of computing isotopic abundance ratios of elements of geologic interest. The program uses the BASIC language and is sufficiently flexible to be used for multiblock analyses of any spectrum containing from two to five peaks. In the case of strontium analyses, ratios are corrected for rubidium content and normalized for mass spectrometer fractionation. Although almost any minicomputer would be suitable, the model used was the Data General Nova 1210 with 8K memory. Assembly language driver program and interface hardware-descriptions for the Nova 1210 are included.

  7. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation

  8. Uniform deposition of uranium hexafluoride (UF6): Standardized mass deposits and controlled isotopic ratios using a thermal fluorination method

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Bruce K.; O’Hara, Matthew J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Addleman, R. Shane; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2016-07-01

    Abstract: We report a convenient method for the generation of volatile uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from solid uranium oxides and other uranium compounds, followed by uniform deposition of low levels of UF6 onto sampling coupons. Under laminar flow conditions, UF6 is shown to interact with surfaces within the chamber to a highly predictable degree. We demonstrate the preparation of uranium deposits that range between ~0.01 and 470±34 ng∙cm-2. The data suggest the method can be extended to creating depositions at the sub-picogram∙cm-2 level. Additionally, the isotopic composition of the deposits can be customized by selection of the uranium source materials. We demonstrate a layering technique whereby two uranium solids, each with a different isotopic composition, are employed to form successive layers of UF6 on a surface. The result is an ultra-thin deposit of UF6 that bears an isotopic signature that is a composite of the two uranium sources. The reported deposition method has direct application to the development of unique analytical standards for nuclear safeguards and forensics.

  9. Characterisation of crude oils by carbon and sulphur isotope ratio measurements as a tool for pollution control.

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Hirner, A V

    1998-01-01

    The potential of carbon and sulphur isotope ratios to group crude oils with respect to their origin was investigated. Sample selection was based on the actual crude oil imports to Germany. Analysed crude oils from Algeria, the Community of Independent States (CIS), Middle East, Nigeria, the North Sea and Venezuela make up over 86% of the German crude oil imports. The oil as received was deasphalted and the maltene fraction was separated by MPLC into saturated, aromatic and polar fractions. Due to overlapping areas, it is not possible to group the crude oils by their delta 13C values alone. A complete grouping of the crude oils with respect to their origin can only be achieved by the combined use of delta 13C and delta 34S of crude oils, and isotope type-curves. In some cases isotope type-curves enable differentiation between different oil fields of the same geographical origin. In order to determine the post-spill changes of delta 13C values, an experimental spill of crude oil was studied over a period of seven weeks in an outdoor aquarium containing pond water. The delta 13C measurements of crude oil fractions showed changes up to 1.1/1000 during the oil spill simulation. The delta 13C values of the polar fraction exhibited the smallest change, with a variation of 0.3/1000, and are therefore especially useful for the characterisation of crude oil spills.

  10. Size-controllable synthesis of Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles using pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition and metal-semiconductor-heterojunction-assisted photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ranjit A.; Wei, Mao-Kuo; Yeh, P.-H.; Liang, Jyun-Bo; Gao, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Han; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2016-02-01

    We synthesized Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles at various substrate temperatures using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles consisted of Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers. The average diameter of the Bi nanoparticles and the thickness of the Bi2O3 surface layer are linearly proportional to the substrate temperature. The heterojunctions between the Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers, which are the metal-semiconductor heterojunctions, can strongly enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of the Bi/Bi2O3 nanoparticles, because the metallic Bi nanoparticles can provide massive free Fermi-level electrons for the electron transitions in the Bi2O3 surface layers. The enhancement of PL emission at room temperature by metal-semiconductor-heterojunctions make the Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles potential candidates for use in optoelectronic nanodevices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs).We synthesized Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles at various substrate temperatures using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles consisted of Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers. The average diameter of the Bi nanoparticles and the thickness of the Bi2O3 surface layer are linearly proportional to the substrate temperature. The heterojunctions between the Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers, which are the metal-semiconductor heterojunctions, can strongly enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of the Bi/Bi2O3 nanoparticles, because the metallic Bi nanoparticles can provide massive free Fermi-level electrons for the electron transitions in the Bi2O3 surface layers. The enhancement of PL emission at room temperature by metal-semiconductor-heterojunctions make the Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles potential candidates for use in optoelectronic nanodevices, such as light-emitting diodes

  11. Method of doping a semiconductor

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Chiang Y.; Rapp, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient.

  12. Self Organization in Compensated Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2004-03-01

    In partially compensated semiconductor (PCS) Fermi level is pinned to donor sub-band. Due to positional randomness and almost isoenergetic hoppings, donor-spanned electronic subsystem in PCS forms fluid-like highly mobile collective state. This makes PCS playground for pattern formation, self-organization, complexity emergence, electronic neural networks, and perhaps even for origins of life, bioevolution and consciousness. Through effects of impact and/or Auger ionization of donor sites, whole PCS may collapse (spinodal decomposition) into microblocks potentially capable of replication and protobiological activity (DNA analogue). Electronic screening effects may act in RNA fashion by introducing additional length scale(s) to system. Spontaneous quantum computing on charged/neutral sites becomes potential generator of informationally loaded microstructures akin to "Carl Sagan Effect" (hidden messages in Pi in his "Contact") or informational self-organization of "Library of Babel" of J.L. Borges. Even general relativity effects at Planck scale (R.Penrose) may affect the dynamics through (e.g.) isotopic variations of atomic mass and local density (A.A.Berezin, 1992). Thus, PCS can serve as toy model (experimental and computational) at interface of physics and life sciences.

  13. EDITORIAL: Oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, M.; Makino, T.

    2005-04-01

    Blue or ultraviolet semiconducting light-emitting diodes have the potential to revolutionize illumination systems in the near-future. Such industrial need has propelled the investigation of several wide-gap semiconducting materials in recent years. Commercial applications include blue lasers for DVD memory and laser printers, while military applications are also expected. Most of the material development has so far been focused on GaN (band gap 3.5 eV at 2 K), and ZnSe (2.9 eV) because these two representative direct transition semiconductors are known to be bright emitting sources. GaN and GaN-based alloys are emerging as the winners in this field because ZnSe is subject to defect formation under high current drive. On the other hand, another II-VI compound, ZnO, has also excited substantial interest in the optoelectronics-oriented research communities because it is the brightest emitter of all, owing to the fact that its excitons have a 60 meV binding energy. This is compared with 26 meV for GaN and 20 meV for ZnSe. The stable excitons could lead to laser action based on their recombination even at temperatures well above room temperature. ZnO has additional major properties that are more advantageous than other wide-gap materials: availability of large area substrates, higher energy radiation stability, environmentally-friendly ingredients, and amenability to wet chemical etching. However, ZnO is not new to the semiconductor field as exemplified by several studies made during the 1960s on structural, vibrational, optical and electrical properties (Mollwo E 1982 Landolt-Boernstein New Series vol 17 (Berlin: Springer) p 35). In terms of devices, the luminescence from light-emitting diode structures was demonstrated in which Cu2O was used as the p-type material (Drapak I T 1968 Semiconductors 2 624). The main obstacle to the development of ZnO has been the lack of reproducible p-type ZnO. The possibility of achieving epitaxial p-type layers with the aid of thermal

  14. Magnesium isotope fractionation during continental weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, F. Z.; Huang, K. J.; Li, W.; Liu, X. M.; Ma, L.

    2014-12-01

    Continental weathering links the atmosphere, hydrosphere and continents as it regulates the CO2 content of the atmosphere, shifts the composition of the continental crust from basaltic to andesitic, and ultimately controls the chemical composition of river waters and seawater. Magnesium is a water-soluble major element in the hydrosphere, continental crust and the mantle, and has three stable isotopes (24Mg, 25Mg and 26Mg). Studies of Mg isotopes during continental weathering may help to document the interactions between hydrosphere, crust and mantle. Previous studies have shown that the continental crust has a heterogeneous but on average heavier Mg isotopic composition than the mantle, whereas the hydrosphere is isotopically light. The complementary characteristics of Mg isotopic compositions between continental and hydrosphere have been attributed to continental weathering, with light Mg isotopes partitioned into water, leaving heavy Mg isotopes behind in the crustal residue. Here we summarize our studies of Mg isotope fractionation in four weathering profiles under various climate conditions. We show that large Mg isotope fractionation can occur during continental weathering. Although the weathered residue is usually enriched in heavier Mg isotopes than unaltered parent rocks, some heavily weathered products can be quite light in Mg isotopic composition. The complicated behaviors of Mg isotopes reflect different control factors during weathering such as parent rock lithology, primary mineral dissolution, secondary mineral formation, ion exchange, vegetation uptake etc. Though studies of natural samples can provide direct evidence on isotope fractionation, more well-controlled laboratory experiments on Mg isotope fractionation between fluids and minerals are needed in order to fully understand the behaviors of Mg isotopes during weathering, which ultimately lays the foundation for making Mg isotope geochemistry an important tool for studying different geological

  15. Semiconductor surface protection material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, R. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method and a product for protecting semiconductor surfaces is disclosed. The protective coating material is prepared by heating a suitable protective resin with an organic solvent which is solid at room temperature and converting the resulting solution into sheets by a conventional casting operation. Pieces of such sheets of suitable shape and thickness are placed on the semiconductor areas to be coated and heat and vacuum are then applied to melt the sheet and to drive off the solvent and cure the resin. A uniform adherent coating, free of bubbles and other defects, is thus obtained exactly where it is desired.

  16. Quantum Transport in Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    SRS i 91 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantum Transport in Semiconductors 5. FUNDING NUMBER söMtos-rizk-ooss 6. AUTHOR(S) D. K. Ferry ©fte ELECTE...OF ABSTRACT UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500 O 1 9 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Presented by ANSI Std «9-18 298-102 Final Report Quantum Transport in... Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Devices This final report describes a program of research investigating quantum effects which become important in

  17. GUARD RING SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTION

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, F.S.; Hansen, W.L.

    1963-12-01

    A semiconductor diode having a very low noise characteristic when used under reverse bias is described. Surface leakage currents, which in conventional diodes greatly contribute to noise, are prevented from mixing with the desired signal currents. A p-n junction is formed with a thin layer of heavily doped semiconductor material disposed on a lightly doped, physically thick base material. An annular groove cuts through the thin layer and into the base for a short distance, dividing the thin layer into a peripheral guard ring that encircles the central region. Noise signal currents are shunted through the guard ring, leaving the central region free from such currents. (AEC)

  18. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  19. Automated semiconductor diffusion and oxidation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A semiconductor diffusion and oxidation facility (totally automated) was developed. Wafers arrived on an air track, automatically loaded into a furnace tube, processed, returned to track, and sent on to the next process. The entire process was controlled by a computer.

  20. Light-Steered Isotropic Semiconductor Micromotors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanrui; Mou, Fangzhi; Xu, Leilei; Wang, Shaofei; Guan, Jianguo; Feng, Zunpeng; Wang, Quanwei; Kong, Lei; Li, Wei; Wang, Joseph; Zhang, Qingjie

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent photoresponsive isotropic semiconductor micromotors are developed by taking advantage of the limited penetration depth of light to induce asymmetrical surface chemical reactions. Independent of the Brownian motion of themselves, the as-proposed isotropic micromotors are able to continuously move with both motion direction and speed just controlled by light, as well as precisely manipulate particles for nanoengineering.

  1. Radiation-Hardness Data For Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Nichols, D. K.; Brown, S. F.; Gauthier, M. K.; Martin, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Document presents data on and analysis of radiation hardness of various semiconductor devices. Data specifies total-dose radiation tolerance of devices. Volume 1 of report covers diodes, bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, silicon controlled rectifiers and optical devices. Volume 2 covers integrated circuits. Volume 3 provides detailed analysis of data in volumes 1 and 2.

  2. Semiconductor diode with external field modulation

    DOEpatents

    Nasby, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    A non-destructive-readout nonvolatile semiconductor diode switching device that may be used as a memory element is disclosed. The diode switching device is formed with a ferroelectric material disposed above a rectifying junction to control the conduction characteristics therein by means of a remanent polarization. The invention may be used for the formation of integrated circuit memories for the storage of information.

  3. Automated semiconductor vacuum chemical vapor deposition facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A semiconductor vacuum chemical vapor deposition facility (totally automatic) was developed. Wafers arrived on an air track, automatically loaded into a furnace tube, processed, returned to the track, and sent on to the next operation. The entire process was controlled by a computer.

  4. Molybdenum Isotopes and Soil Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, C.; Pett-Ridge, J. C.; Halliday, A. N.; Burton, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygenation state of Earth's oceans is a driver of evolution and extinction events as well as climate change. In recent years stable isotope fractionation of redox sensitive elements such as molybdenum (Mo) have been used as quantitative tracers of past redox-conditions in a number of marine environments. However, little is known about the processes controlling the Mo isotope compositions of the riverine inputs to the oceans and their short- and long-term variations. Several recent studies [Archer & Vance, 2008; Pearce et al., 2010] have shown that many river waters have heavy Mo isotope compositions. In some terrestrial weathering environments dissolved Mo isotope compositions in rivers are controlled by the catchment lithology [Neubert et al., 2011]. However, many rivers show fractionation of Mo isotopes relative to their catchment lithology. Possible mechanisms causing this fractionation are chemical weathering and pedogenic processes. This study has investigated the behavior of Mo isotopes during weathering of basalt under different conditions. Results from oxic to reducing soil profiles in Hawaii show that redox conditions during soil formation can control Mo isotope compositions in soils. Reducing soil profiles have light isotope compositions whereas oxidizing profiles are heavy. This general isotope behavior is confirmed by results from soil profiles from Iceland. Here reducing layers within the profiles show marked negative isotope excursions. In oxic profiles a surprisingly strong interaction of Mo with organic matter can be observed producing significant Mo isotope fractionation. This behavior might explain long term retention of Mo in soils besides its high mobility in molybdate form. Mo associated with organic matter is bioavailable and essential for processes like nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observe that fractionation relative to the source rock is dependent on the degree of weathering, i.e. relatively un-weathered profiles do not show

  5. Sedimentary process control on carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter in an ancient shallow-water shelf succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, S. J.; Leng, M. J.; Macquaker, J. H. S.; Hawkins, K.

    2012-11-01

    Source and delivery mechanisms of organic matter are rarely considered when interpreting changing δ13C through sedimentary successions even though isotope excursions are widely used to identify and correlate global perturbations in the carbon cycle. Combining detailed sedimentology and geochemistry we demonstrate how organic carbon abundance and δ13C values from sedimentary organic matter from Carboniferous-aged mudstones are influenced by the proportion of terrestrial versus water column-derived organic matter. Silt-bearing clay-rich shelf mudstones that were deposited by erosive density flows are characterized by 1.8-2.4% organic carbon and highδ13C values (averaging -22.9 ± 0.3‰, n = 12). Typically these mudstones contain significant volumes of terrestrial plant-derived material. In contrast, clay-rich lenticular mudstones, with a marine macrofauna, are the products of the transport of mud fragments, eroded from pre-existing water-rich shelfal muds, when shorelines were distant and biological productivity in the water column was high. Higher organic carbon (2.1-5.2%) and lowerδ13C values (averaging -24.3 ± 0.5‰, n = 11) characterize these mudstones and are interpreted to reflect a greater contribution by (isotopically more negative) amorphous organic matter derived from marine algae. Differences in δ13C between terrestrial and marine organic matter allow the changing proportions from different sources to be tracked through this succession. Combining δ13C values with zirconium (measured from whole rock), here used as a proxy for detrital silt input, provides a novel approach to distinguishing mudstone provenance and ultimately using δ13C to identify oil-prone organic matter in potential source rocks. These results have important implications for using bulk organic matter to identify and characterize global C-isotope excursions.

  6. Climate controls on the carbon isotopic composition of soil organic matter and its regional variability in grasslands and savannas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, J. M.; Still, C. J.; Cerling, T. E.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    Future environmental changes driven by anthropogenic CO2 emissions are of increasing importance to human society. Among those changes, the balance between economically and ecologically important C3 and C4 vegetation is of particular significance. There is considerable disagreement in recent predictions of changing distribution of grasses due to anthropogenic climate change because increasing temperature and atmospheric pCO2 have opposing effects on the relative productivity of C3 vegetation. In order to forecast future changes to vegetation composition in grasslands, we must first better constrain the modern relationship between climate and the distribution of C3 and C4 grasses. Due to the isotopic differences between the two photosynthetic pathways, the carbon isotopic composition of soil organic matter (δ13Corg) is a proxy for the relative abundance and productivity of overlying C3 and C4 vegetation. Here, we have compiled an extensive dataset through literature review of δ13Corg to determine the relationships between the distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation in grasslands with climate. We find that the best predictor of δ13Corg variation is growing season average air temperature, and that there are unique relationships between growing season average temperature and δ13Corg for different regions of the world, including North America, South America and Australia. These results imply that the response of C4 grasses to anthropogenic climate warming may not be uniform across different species and grassland communities. We also use this dataset to create an 'isoscape', or a predictive spatial model for the isotopic composition of soil organic carbon for temperate grasslands and savannas worldwide.

  7. Charge transport in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Bässler, Heinz; Köhler, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Modern optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors and organic solar cells require well controlled motion of charges for their efficient operation. The understanding of the processes that determine charge transport is therefore of paramount importance for designing materials with improved structure-property relationships. Before discussing different regimes of charge transport in organic semiconductors, we present a brief introduction into the conceptual framework in which we interpret the relevant photophysical processes. That is, we compare a molecular picture of electronic excitations against the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger semiconductor band model. After a brief description of experimental techniques needed to measure charge mobilities, we then elaborate on the parameters controlling charge transport in technologically relevant materials. Thus, we consider the influences of electronic coupling between molecular units, disorder, polaronic effects and space charge. A particular focus is given to the recent progress made in understanding charge transport on short time scales and short length scales. The mechanism for charge injection is briefly addressed towards the end of this chapter.

  8. Growth factor controls on the distribution and carbon isotope composition of n-alkanes in leaf wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, C.; Xie, S.; Huang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Cuticular wax plays pivotal physiological and ecological roles in the interactions between plants and the environments in which they grow. Plant-derived long-chain alkanes are more resistant to decay than other biochemical polymers. n-Alkane distributions (Carbon Preference Index (CPI) values and Average Chain Length (ACL) values) and carbon isotopic values are used widely in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. However, there is little information available on how growth stages of the plant might influence the abundance of n-alkanes in the natural environment. In this study, we analyzed n-alkane distributions and carbon isotope data from two tree species (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. and Liquidambar formosana Hance) collected monthly from 2009 to 2011 in Nanwang Shan, Wuhan, Hubei Province. CPI values for n-alkanes from C. camphora remained stable in autumn and winter but fluctuated dramatically during spring and autumn each year. Positive correlations between CPI values and the relative content of (C27+C29) were observed in both sun and shade leaves of C. camphora from April to July. In L. formosana, CPI values decreased gradually from April to December. A similar trend was observed in all three years suggesting that growth stages rather than temperature or relative humidity affected the CPI values on a seasonal timescale. In the samples of L. formosana ACL values were negatively correlated with CPI values in the growing season (from April to July) and positively correlated with CPI values in the other seasons. The δ13C values of C29 and C31 n-alkanes displayed more negative carbon isotopic values in autumn and winter compared with leaves sampled at the start of the growing season from both trees. The δ13C values of C29 and C31 n-alkanes of L. formosana decreased from April to December. These results demonstrate the importance of elucidating the growing factors that influence the distribution and δ13C values of alkanes in modern leaves prior to using CPI

  9. Trace element and isotopic geochemistry of Cretaceous magmatism in NE Asia: Spatial zonation, temporal evolution, and tectonic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Petr L.; Kalinina, Elena A.; Moriguti, Takuya; Makishima, Akio; Kobayashi, Katsura; Nakamura, Eizo

    2016-11-01

    Results of a comprehensive geochemical study (major and trace elements, and isotopes of Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf) of Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Chukotka area in northeastern Russia are presented. Synthesis of available geological and geochronological data suggests diachronous onset of activity of the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt (OCVB), the largest magmatic province in the region. The OCVB consists of ca. 106 km3 of volcanic rocks. At 106-105 Ma, subduction-related magmatism initiated in the southern and central segments of the OCVB. In the Central and Northern Chukotka areas, where the northern OCVB is exposed, onset of arc magmatism occurred ca. 10 m.y. after extension-related magmatism of the Chaun igneous province at 109-104 Ma. Mafic rocks from the OCVB yield (87Sr/86Sr)80 Ma of 0.7033 to 0.7047, εNd80 Ma of 0.0 to 7.10, εHf80 Ma of 4.12 to 12.88, (206Pb/204Pb)80 Ma of 18.11 to 18.42, and (208Pb/204Pb)80 Ma of 37.96 to 38.21. Volcanic rocks from the Chaun province, as well as OCVB rocks from Northern Chukotka, originate from a relatively enriched source and have (87Sr/86Sr)80 Ma of 0.7088 to 0.7100, εNd80 Ma of - 5.81 to - 3.42, εHf80 Ma of - 3.40 to - 0.25, (206Pb/204Pb)80 Ma of 18.69 to 18.90, and (208Pb/204Pb)80 Ma of 38.65 to 38.86. No definitive across-arc elemental or isotopic zonation of the OCVB has been revealed, probably because of wide-scale crustal melting and subsequent contamination of mantle-derived melts. However, there is a clear along-arc isotopic zonation. In our interpretation, this results from heterogeneity of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, which likely was a major contributor to the magma source. The similar isotopic signatures of silicic (dominantly crust-derived) and mafic (mantle-derived) volcanic rocks in each OCVB segment imply that remelting of juvenile mafic underplated material was the main process responsible for the crust-derived magma generation. These data from the major Cretaceous magmatic provinces of northeast

  10. Mass-independent isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L

    2013-02-28

    Three fundamental properties of atomic nuclei-mass, spin (and related magnetic moment), and volume-are the source of isotope effects. The mostly deserved and popular, with almost hundred-year history, is the mass-dependent isotope effect. The first mass-independent isotope effect which chemically discriminates isotopes by their nuclear spins and nuclear magnetic moments rather than by their masses was detected in 1976. It was named as the magnetic isotope effect because it is controlled by magnetic interaction, i.e., electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling in the paramagnetic species, the reaction intermediates. The effect follows from the universal physical property of chemical reactions to conserve angular momentum (spin) of electrons and nuclei. It is now detected for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, germanium, tin, mercury, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and uranium in a great variety of chemical and biochemical reactions including those of medical and ecological importance. Another mass-independent isotope effect was detected in 1983 as a deviation of isotopic distribution in reaction products from that which would be expected from the mass-dependent isotope effect. On the physical basis, it is in fact a mass-dependent effect, but it surprisingly results in isotope fractionation which is incompatible with that predicted by traditional mass-dependent effects. It is supposed to be a function of dynamic parameters of reaction and energy relaxation in excited states of products. The third, nuclear volume mass-independent isotope effect is detected in the high-resolution atomic and molecular spectra and in the extraction processes, but there are no unambiguous indications of its importance as an isotope fractionation factor in chemical reactions.

  11. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  12. Chemically Derivatized Semiconductor Photoelectrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrighton, Mark S.

    1983-01-01

    Deliberate modification of semiconductor photoelectrodes to improve durability and enhance rate of desirable interfacial redox processes is discussed for a variety of systems. Modification with molecular-based systems or with metals/metal oxides yields results indicating an important role for surface modification in devices for fundamental study…

  13. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2004-05-01

    Organic semiconductors are of steadily growing interest as active components in electronics and optoelectronics. Due to their flexibility, low cost and ease-of-production they represent a valid alternative to conventional inorganic semiconductor technology in a number of applications, such as flat panel displays and illumination, plastic integrated circuits or solar energy conversion. Although first commercial applications of this technology are being realized nowadays, there is still the need for a deeper scientific understanding in order to achieve optimum device performance.This special issue of physica status solidi (a) tries to give an overview of our present-day knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 17 international research groups cover various aspects of this field ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in different devices like organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes.Putting together such a special issue one soon realizes that it is simply impossible to fully cover the whole area of organic semiconductors. Nevertheless, we hope that the reader will find the collection of topics in this issue useful for getting an up-to-date review of a field which is still developing very dynamically.

  14. Size-controllable synthesis of Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles using pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition and metal-semiconductor-heterojunction-assisted photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ranjit A; Wei, Mao-Kuo; Yeh, P-H; Liang, Jyun-Bo; Gao, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Han; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2016-02-14

    We synthesized Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles at various substrate temperatures using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles consisted of Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers. The average diameter of the Bi nanoparticles and the thickness of the Bi2O3 surface layer are linearly proportional to the substrate temperature. The heterojunctions between the Bi nanoparticles and Bi2O3 surface layers, which are the metal-semiconductor heterojunctions, can strongly enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of the Bi/Bi2O3 nanoparticles, because the metallic Bi nanoparticles can provide massive free Fermi-level electrons for the electron transitions in the Bi2O3 surface layers. The enhancement of PL emission at room temperature by metal-semiconductor-heterojunctions make the Bi/Bi2O3 heterojunction nanoparticles potential candidates for use in optoelectronic nanodevices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs).

  15. Effect of the pollution control measures on PM2.5 during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade: Implication from water-soluble ions and sulfur isotope.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaokun; Guo, Qingjun; Liu, Congqiang; Strauss, Harald; Yang, Junxing; Hu, Jian; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan; Kong, Jing; Peters, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is a serious problem in Beijing. Strict pollution control measures have been carried out in Beijing prior to and during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade in order to improve air quality. This distinct event provides an excellent opportunity for investigating the impact of such measures on the chemical properties of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5). The water-soluble ions as well as sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate in PM2.5 collected between August 19 and September 18, 2015 (n = 31) were analyzed in order to trace the sources and formation processes of PM2.5 in Beijing. The results exhibit a decrease in concentration of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 including aerosol sulfate. In contrast, the mean values of δ(34)Ssulfate (4.7 ± 0.8‰ vs. 5.0 ± 2.0‰) and δ(18)Osulfate (18.3 ± 2.3‰ vs. 17.2 ± 6.0) in PM2.5 during the air pollution control period and the non-source control period exhibit no significant differences, which suggests that despite a reduction in concentration, the sulfate source remains identical for the two periods. It is inferred that the decrease in concentration of sulfate in PM2.5 mainly results from variations in air mass transport. Notably, the air mass during the pollution control period originated mainly from north and northeast and changed to southerly directions thereafter. The sulfur and oxygen isotopes of the sulfate point to coal combustion as the major source of sulfate in PM2.5 from the Beijing area.

  16. Nondestructive determination of boron doses in semiconductor materials using neutron depth profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Uenlue, K.; Saglam, M.; Wehring, B.W.

    1996-12-31

    The physical and electrical properties of semiconductor materials are greatly effected by implantation of boron and other elements. The dose and depth distribution of boron in the near surface region and across interfacial boundaries determine the quality of semiconductor devices. Therefore, a number of analytical techniques has been developed in the last two decades to measure boron doses and depth profiles in semiconductor materials. Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) is one of the techniques which is capable of determining the boron dose as well as the concentration distribution in the near surface region of semiconductor materials. NDP is a nuclear technique which is based on the absorption reaction of thermal/cold neutrons by certain isotopes of low mass elements e.g., boron-10. In this study, boron doses in semiconductor materials were measured using NDP. The results will be used to complement the measurements done with other techniques and provide a basis for accurate dose calibration of commercial ion implant systems.

  17. Controls of evaporative irrigation return flows in comparison to seawater intrusion in coastal karstic aquifers in northern Sri Lanka: evidence from solutes and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Diyabalanage, Saranga; Premathilake, Mahinda; Hanke, Christian; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-04-01

    region occurs through anthropogenic pollution, and particularly so due to agricultural activities. Extensive groundwater use in the peninsula may also further add concerns of active seawater intrusion after intense abstraction. The area should remain under close monitoring for both quality and quantity in order to protect groundwater as a vulnerable resource. Reference Chandrajith, R., Diyabalanage, S., Premathilake, K.M., Hanke, C., van Geldern, R. and Barth, J.A.C. (2016): Controls of evaporative irrigation return flows in comparison to seawater intrusion in coastal karstic aquifers in northern Sri Lanka: evidence from solutes and stable isotopes. - Science of the Total Environment, in press, [doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.050].

  18. Anthropogenic versus natural control on trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope stratigraphy in peat sediments of southeast Florida (USA), ˜1500 AD to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenov, George D.; Brenner, Mark; Tucker, Jaimie L.

    2009-06-01

    Analysis of a well-dated peat core from Blue Cypress Marsh (BCM) provides a detailed record of natural and anthropogenic factors that controlled the geochemical cycles of a number of trace elements in Florida over the last five centuries. The trace elements were divided into "natural" and "anthropogenic" groups using concentration trends from the bottom to the top of the core. The "natural" group includes Li, Sc, Cr, Co, Ga, Ge, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, Hf, Y, Ta, Th, and REE (Rare Earth Elements). These elements show similar concentrations throughout the core, indicating that changes in human activities after European arrival in the "New World" did not affect their geochemical cycles. The "anthropogenic" group includes Pb, Cu, Zn, V, Sb, Sn, Bi, and Cd. Upcore enrichment of these elements indicates enhancement by anthropogenic activities. From the early 1500s to present, fluxes of the "anthropogenic" metals to the marsh increased significantly, with modern accumulation rates several-fold (e.g., V) to hundreds of times (e.g., Zn) greater than pre-colonial rates. The dominant input mechanism for trace elements from both groups to the marsh has been atmospheric deposition. Atmospheric input of a number of the elements, including the anthropogenic metals, was dominated by local sources during the last century. For several elements, long-distant transport may be important. For instance, REE and Nd isotopes provide evidence for long-range atmospheric transport dominated by Saharan dust. The greatest increase in flux of the "anthropogenic" metals occurred during the 20th century and was caused by changes in the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition entering the marsh. Increased atmospheric inputs were a consequence of several anthropogenic activities, including fossil fuel combustion (coal and oil), agricultural activities, and quarrying and mining operations. Pb and V exhibit similar trends, with peak accumulation rates in 1970. The principal anthropogenic source of V

  19. Thin-film semiconductor rectifier has improved properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Cadmium selenide-zinc selenide film is used as a thin film semiconductor rectifier. The film is vapor-deposited in a controlled concentration gradient into a glass substrate to form the required junctions between vapor-deposited gold electrodes.

  20. Hard gap in epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chang, W; Albrecht, S M; Jespersen, T S; Kuemmeth, F; Krogstrup, P; Nygård, J; Marcus, C M

    2015-03-01

    Many present and future applications of superconductivity would benefit from electrostatic control of carrier density and tunnelling rates, the hallmark of semiconductor devices. One particularly exciting application is the realization of topological superconductivity as a basis for quantum information processing. Proposals in this direction based on the proximity effect in semiconductor nanowires are appealing because the key ingredients are currently in hand. However, previous instances of proximitized semiconductors show significant tunnelling conductance below the superconducting gap, suggesting a continuum of subgap states--a situation that nullifies topological protection. Here, we report a hard superconducting gap induced by the proximity effect in a semiconductor, using epitaxial InAs-Al semiconductor-superconductor nanowires. The hard gap, together with favourable material properties and gate-tunability, makes this new hybrid system attractive for a number of applications, as well as fundamental studies of mesoscopic superconductivity.

  1. Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anthony J; Alekseyev, Leonid; Howard, Scott S; Franz, Kale J; Wasserman, Dan; Podolskiy, Viktor A; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Sivco, Deborah L; Gmachl, Claire

    2007-12-01

    An optical metamaterial is a composite in which subwavelength features, rather than the constituent materials, control the macroscopic electromagnetic properties of the material. Recently, properly designed metamaterials have garnered much interest because of their unusual interaction with electromagnetic waves. Whereas nature seems to have limits on the type of materials that exist, newly invented metamaterials are not bound by such constraints. These newly accessible electromagnetic properties make these materials an excellent platform for demonstrating unusual optical phenomena and unique applications such as subwavelength imaging and planar lens design. 'Negative-index materials', as first proposed, required the permittivity, epsilon, and permeability, mu, to be simultaneously less than zero, but such materials face limitations. Here, we demonstrate a comparatively low-loss, three-dimensional, all-semiconductor metamaterial that exhibits negative refraction for all incidence angles in the long-wave infrared region and requires only an anisotropic dielectric function with a single resonance. Using reflection and transmission measurements and a comprehensive model of the material, we demonstrate that our material exhibits negative refraction. This is furthermore confirmed through a straightforward beam optics experiment. This work will influence future metamaterial designs and their incorporation into optical semiconductor devices.

  2. Stream water age distributions controlled by storage dynamics and nonlinear hydrologic connectivity: Modeling with high‐resolution isotope data

    PubMed Central

    Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Dick, J.; Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To assess the influence of storage dynamics and nonlinearities in hydrological connectivity on time‐variant stream water ages, we used a new long‐term record of daily isotope measurements in precipitation and streamflow to calibrate and test a parsimonious tracer‐aided runoff model. This can track tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores in steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands, and deeper groundwater; these represent the main landscape units involved in runoff generation. Storage volumes are largest in groundwater and on the hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in the smaller stores in riparian peat. Both streamflow and isotope variations are generally well captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts that the average age of stream water is ∼1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies between ∼1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the hillslope and riparian peatland dominates, to around 4 years in dry periods when groundwater sustains flow. This variability reflects the integration of differently aged water fluxes from the main landscape units and their mixing in riparian wetlands. The connectivity between these spatial units varies in a nonlinear way with storage that depends upon precipitation characteristics and antecedent conditions. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting nonstationary ages. This approach is well suited for constraining process‐based modeling in a range of northern temperate and boreal environments. PMID:27478255

  3. Precipitation of smithsonite under controlled pCO2 between 25 and 60° C - Fractionation of oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füger, Anja; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Leis, Albrecht; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Owing to the large fractionation (i.e. Δ18Osolid-diss. ˜30) between carbonate minerals and aqueous fluids with respect to their 18O/16O composition, the oxygen isotope composition of carbonates has been a fundamental tool for the estimation of mineral formation temperature by the geoscience community. Indeed the last 6 decades, a wide number of experimental studies investigated the temperature relation of Δ18Osolid-diss. between divalent metal carbonates and aqueous fluids. To date however no experimental data exist for the temperature dependence of Δ18Osolid-diss. between smithsonite (ZnCO3) and fluid. This lack of data likely stems from a kinetic barrier effect, that of the dehydration of aqueous Zn2+ and the formation of hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6). Smithsonite is a secondary zinc mineral that is one of the components of zinc ore bodies. It is formed through oxidation of primary zinc ores by the reaction with a carbonate source or by precipitation of zinc salt solutions with a CO2-saturated and bicarbonate-rich solution. In this study we hydrothermally synthesized smithsonite at the temperature range between 25 and 60 ° C and report the temperature dependence of oxygen isotope distribution between smithsonite and aqueous fluid. In order to avoid the formation of hydrozincite our experiments were conducted in titanium batch reactors using Teflon-inlets where the CO2 pressure was adjusted to 10 bars. The low pH conditions provoked by the elevated pCO2 applied, lead to the dissolution of hydrozincite, which is initially formed by mixing of Na2HCO3 (0.1 M) and Zn(NO3)2.4 H2O (0.02 M) solutions, to yield - under the prevailing conditions - the thermodynamically stable mineral smithsonite.

  4. Land-use controls on sources and processing of nitrate in small watersheds: Insights from dual isotopic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, R.T.; Raymond, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have repeatedly shown that agricultural and urban areas export considerably more nitrogen to streams than forested counterparts, yet it is difficult to identify and quantify nitrogen sources to streams due to complications associated with terrestrial and in-stream biogeochemical processes. In this study, we used the isotopic composition of nitrate (??15N-NO3- and ??18O- NO3-) in conjunction with a simple numerical model to examine the spatial and temporal variability of nitrate (NO3-) export across a land-use gradient and how agricultural and urban development affects net removal mechanisms. In an effort to isolate the effects of land use, we chose small headwater systems in close proximity to each other, limiting the variation in geology, surficial materials, and climate between sites. The ??15N and ??18Oof stream NO 3- varied significantly between urban, agricultural, and forested watersheds, indicating that nitrogen sources are the primary determinant of the ??15N-NO3-, while the ??18O-NO3- was found to reflect biogeochemical processes. The greatest NO3- concentrations corresponded with the highest stream ??15N-NO3- values due to the enriched nature of two dominant anthropogenic sources, septic and manure, within the urban and agricultural watersheds, respectively. On average, net removal of the available NO3- pool within urban and agricultural catchments was estimated at 45%. The variation in the estimated net removal of NO3- from developed watersheds was related to both drainage area and the availability of organic carbon. The determination of differentiated isotopic land-use signatures and dominant seasonal mechanisms illustrates the usefulness of this approach in examining the sources and processing of excess nitrogen within headwater catchments. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Alkenone δD as an ecological indicator: A culture and field study of physiologically-controlled chemical and hydrogen-isotopic variation in C37 alkenones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolhowe, Matthew D.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; Langer, Gerald; Oviedo, Angela Maria; Ziveri, Patrizia

    2015-08-01

    A combined culture and field study was conducted in order to (1) more firmly identify the physiological controls on hydrogen isotopic composition of C37 alkenones produced by open-ocean coccolithophores and (2) determine the degree to which these controls are manifested in a natural water column. Nutrient-limitation experiments in culture, combined with previously published data, show that net fractionation between the growth medium and alkenones (αK37) varies with cellular alkenone content and production rate, and, by extension, growth phase. It is hypothesized that the relationship of αK37 with cellular alkenone content and production rate is due to increased use of anabolic NADPH in response to high rates of lipid synthesis. Euphotic zone profiles of δDK37, measured in suspended material from the Gulf of California and Eastern Tropical North Pacific, decreased with depth and light availability, and did not correlate in any expected way with previously-suggested controls on αK37. It is possible that the field data are driven by behavior in light-limited cells that is not represented by the available, nutrient-limited culture data. If true, δDK37 may have utility as an indicator of production depth in settings prone to subsurface production maxima. Relationships between αK37, cell density, and the carbon-isotopic fractionation term εp, however, suggest that αK37 acts an indicator of growth rate, which in this setting is only partially dependent on light, consistent with our interpretation of the culture data. If this latter interpretation proves correct, δDK37 may be a powerful ecological proxy specific to these climatically-important, calcifying, temperature-encoding species.

  6. An Analysis of Diet Quality, How It Controls Fatty Acid Profiles, Isotope Signatures and Stoichiometry in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca; Schwarzinger, Bettina; Schwarzinger, Clemens; Soliban, Sharon; Madakacherry, Odessa; Aigner, Martina; Watzka, Margarete; Gilles, Jeremie

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowing the underlying mechanisms of mosquito ecology will ensure effective vector management and contribute to the overall goal of malaria control. Mosquito populations show a high degree of population plasticity in response to environmental variability. However, the principle factors controlling population size and fecundity are for the most part unknown. Larval habitat and diet play a crucial role in subsequent mosquito fitness. Developing the most competitive insects for sterile insect technique programmes requires a “production” orientated perspective, to deduce the most effective larval diet formulation; the information gained from this process offers us some insight into the mechanisms and processes taking place in natural native mosquito habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings Fatty acid profiles and de-novo or direct assimilation pathways, of whole-individual mosquitoes reared on a range of larval diets were determined using pyrolysis gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. We used elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure individual-whole-body carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous values and to assess the impact of dietary quality on subsequent population stoichiometry, size, quality and isotopic signature. Diet had the greatest impact on fatty acid (FA) profiles of the mosquitoes, which exhibited a high degree of dietary routing, characteristic of generalist feeders. De-novo synthesis of a number of important FAs was observed. Mosquito C:N stoichiometry was fixed in the teneral stage. Dietary N content had significant influence on mosquito size, and P was shown to be a flexible pool which limited overall population size. Conclusions/Significance Direct routing of FAs was evident but there was ubiquitous de-novo synthesis suggesting mosquito larvae are competent generalist feeders capable of survival on diet with varying characteristics. It was concluded that nitrogen availability in the larval diet controlled teneral

  7. Chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the PRD region and implications for vehicle emission control policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, S.; Bi, X.; Chan, L. Y.; He, J.; Wang, B.; Wang, X.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2015-03-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major source of urban air pollution. In recent decade, the Chinese government has introduced a range of policies to reduce vehicle emissions. In order to understand the chemical characteristics of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and to evaluate the effectiveness of control policies on vehicle emissions, the emission factors of PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), metal elements, organic compounds and stable carbon isotopic composition were measured in the Zhujiang tunnel of Guangzhou, in the PRD region of China in 2013. Emission factors of PM2.5 mass, OC, EC and WSOC were 92.4, 16.7, 16.4 and 1.31 mg vehicle-1 km-1 respectively. Emission factors of WSII were 0.016 (F-) ~ 4.17 (Cl-) mg vehicle-1 km-1, contributing about 9.8% to the PM2.5 emissions. The sum of 27 measured metal elements accounted for 15.2% of PM2.5 emissions. Fe was the most abundant metal element, with an emission factor of 3.91 mg vehicle-1 km-1. Emission factors of organic compounds including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes were 91.9, 5.02, 32.0 and 7.59 μg vehicle-1 km-1, respectively. Stable carbon isotopic composition δ13C value was -25.0‰ on average. An isotopic fractionation of 3.2‰ was found during fuel combustion. Compared to a previous study in Zhujiang tunnel in 2004, emission factors of PM2.5mass, EC, OC, WSII except Cl- and organic compounds decreased by 16.0 ~ 93.4%, which could be attributed to emission control policy from 2004 to 2013. However, emission factors of most of the metal elements increased significantly, which could be partially attributed to the changes in motor oil additives and vehicle conditions. There are no mandatory national standards to limit metal content from vehicle emissions, which should be a concern of the government. A snapshot of the 2013 characteristic

  8. Isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A rash of new controversy has emerged around the subject of mass-independent isotope fractionation effects, particularly in the case of the oxygen isotopes. To be sure, the controversy has been around for awhile, but it has been given new impetus by the results of a recent study by Mark H. Thiemens and John E. Heidenreich III of the University of California, San Diego (Science, March 4, 1983).Gustav Arrhenius has been trying to convince the planetary science community that chemical effects in isotope fractionation processes could explain observations in meteorites that appear to be outside of the traditionally understood mass-dependent fractionations (G. Arrhenius, J . L. McCrumb, and N. F. Friedman, Astrophys. Space Sci, 65, 297, 1974). Robert Clayton had made the basic observations of oxygen in carbonaceous chondrites that the slope of the δ17 versus δ18 line was 1 instead of the slope of ½ characteristic of terrestrial rocks and lunar samples (Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci., 28, 501, 1978). The mass-independent effects were ascribed to the apparent contribution of an ancient presolar system component of O16.

  9. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Tull, Carolyn R.; Vilkelis, Gintas

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  10. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  11. Stretchable Organic Semiconductor Devices.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yan; Zhang, Xinwen; Xie, Linghai; Qi, Dianpeng; Chandran, Bevita K; Chen, Xiaodong; Huang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Stretchable electronics are essential for the development of intensely packed collapsible and portable electronics, wearable electronics, epidermal and bioimplanted electronics, 3D surface compliable devices, bionics, prosthesis, and robotics. However, most stretchable devices are currently based on inorganic electronics, whose high cost of fabrication and limited processing area make it difficult to produce inexpensive, large-area devices. Therefore, organic stretchable electronics are highly attractive due to many advantages over their inorganic counterparts, such as their light weight, flexibility, low cost and large-area solution-processing, the reproducible semiconductor resources, and the easy tuning of their properties via molecular tailoring. Among them, stretchable organic semiconductor devices have become a hot and fast-growing research field, in which great advances have been made in recent years. These fantastic advances are summarized here, focusing on stretchable organic field-effect transistors, light-emitting devices, solar cells, and memory devices.

  12. Metal Contacts in Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    surfaces, Pnotoelectron spe troscopy, Auger electron spectro- I scopy, Schottky barriers, ohmic contacts, Defects in semiconductors, Cadmium * telluride...Indium phosphide, Gallium arsenide, Gallium Selenide . j 20. ABSTR ACT (roothat ow rees esh " neceay and td..ity by block -. b*w) SThe application of...angstroms. Also, provided one eliminates the systems where cadmium outdiffusion into high work function metals occurs then good agreement between the

  13. Tunable semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable semiconductor lasers are disclosed requiring minimized coupling regions. Multiple laser embodiments employ ring resonators or ring resonator pairs using only a single coupling region with the gain medium are detailed. Tuning can be performed by changing the phase of the coupling coefficient between the gain medium and a ring resonator of the laser. Another embodiment provides a tunable laser including two Mach-Zehnder interferometers in series and a reflector coupled to a gain medium.

  14. Optically induced current in molecular conduction nanojunctions with semiconductor contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainberg, Boris D.; Seideman, Tamar

    2013-06-01

    We propose a new approach to coherent control of transport via molecular junctions, which bypasses several of the hurdles to experimental realization of optically manipulated nanoelectronics noted in the previous literature. The method is based on the application of intrinsic semiconductor contacts and optical frequencies below the semiconductor bandgap. To explore the coherently controlled electronic dynamics, we introduce a density matrix formalism that accounts for both the discrete molecular state and the semiconductor quasicontinua within a single master equation and offers analytically soluble limits for a single and two-site molecular bridge. Our analytical theory predicts a new phenomenon, referred to as coherent destruction of induced tunnelling, which extends the phenomenon of coherent destruction of tunnelling frequently discussed in the previous literature. Our results illustrate the potential of semiconductor contacts in coherent control of photocurrent.

  15. Composition-tunable alloyed semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Regulacio, Michelle D; Han, Ming-Yong

    2010-05-18

    The ability to engineer the band gap energy of semiconductor nanocrystals has led to the development of nanomaterials with many new exciting properties and applications. Band gap engineering has thus proven to be an effective tool in the design of new nanocrystal-based semiconductor devices. As reported in numerous publications over the last three decades, tuning the size of nanocrystalline semiconductors is one way of adjusting the band gap energy. On the other hand, research on band gap engineering via control of nanocrystal composition, which is achieved by adjusting the constituent stoichiometries of alloyed semiconductors, is still in its infancy. In this Account, we summarize recent research on colloidal alloyed semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit novel composition-tunable properties. Alloying of two semiconductors at the nanometer scale produces materials that display properties distinct not only from the properties of their bulk counterparts but also from those of their parent semiconductors. As a result, alloyed nanocrystals possess additional properties that are composition-dependent aside from the properties that emerge due to quantum confinement effects. For example, although the size-dependent emission wavelength of the widely studied CdSe nanocrystals can be continuously tuned to cover almost the entire visible spectrum, the near-infrared (NIR) region is far outside its spectral range. By contrast, certain alloy compositions of nanocrystalline CdSe(x)Te(1-x), an alloy of CdSe and CdTe, can efficiently emit light in the NIR spectral window. These NIR-emitting nanocrystals are potentially useful in several biomedical applications. In addition, highly stable nanocrystals formed by alloying CdSe with ZnSe (i.e., Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se) emit blue light with excellent efficiency, a property seldom achieved by the parent binary systems. As a result, these materials can be used in short-wavelength optoelectronic devices. In the future, we foresee new discoveries

  16. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at 7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at 6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing `only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around 2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  17. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  18. New Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestra, F.

    2008-11-01

    A review of recently emerging semiconductor devices for nanoelectronic applications is given. For the end of the international technology roadmap for semiconductors, very innovative materials, technologies and nanodevice architectures will be needed. Silicon on insulator-based devices seem to be the best candidates for the ultimate integration of integrated circuits on silicon. The flexibility of the silicon on insulator-based structure and the possibility to realize new device architectures allow to obtain optimum electrical properties for low power and high performance circuits. These transistors are also very interesting for high frequency and memory applications. The performance and physical mechanisms are addressed in single- and multi-gate thin film Si, SiGe and Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. The impact of tensile or compressive uniaxial and biaxial strains in the channel, of high k materials and metal gates as well as metallic Schottky source-drain architectures are discussed. Finally, the interest of advanced beyond-CMOS (complementary MOS) nanodevices for long term applications, based on nanowires, carbon electronics or small slope switch structures are presented.

  19. Measuring SNM Isotopic Distributions using FRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-02

    The first group of slides provides background information on the isotopic composition of plutonium. It is shown that 240Pu is the critical isotope in neutron coincidence/multiplicity counting. Next, response function analysis to determine isotopic composition is discussed. The isotopic composition can be determined by measuring the net peak counts from each isotope and then taking the ratio of the counts for each isotope relative to the total counts for the element. Then FRAM (Fixed energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) is explained. FRAM can control data acquisition, automatically analyze newly acquired data, analyze previously acquired data, provide information on the quality of the analysis, and facilitate analysis in unusual situations (non-standard energy calibrations, gamma rays from non-SNM isotopes, poor spectra (within limits)).

  20. Genetic control of water use efficiency and leaf carbon isotope discrimination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) subjected to two drought scenarios.

    PubMed

    Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif; Navaud, Olivier; Muños, Stephane; Langlade, Nicolas B; Lamaze, Thierry; Grieu, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    High water use efficiency (WUE) can be achieved by coordination of biomass accumulation and water consumption. WUE is physiologically and genetically linked to carbon isotope discrimination (CID) in leaves of plants. A population of 148 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower derived from a cross between XRQ and PSC8 lines was studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling WUE and CID, and to compare QTL associated with these traits in different drought scenarios. We conducted greenhouse experiments in 2011 and 2012 by using 100 balances which provided a daily measurement of water transpired, and we determined WUE, CID, biomass and cumulative water transpired by plants. Wide phenotypic variability, significant genotypic effects, and significant negative correlations between WUE and CID were observed in both experiments. A total of nine QTL controlling WUE and eight controlling CID were identified across the two experiments. A QTL for phenotypic response controlling WUE and CID was also significantly identified. The QTL for WUE were specific to the drought scenarios, whereas the QTL for CID were independent of the drought scenarios and could be found in all the experiments. Our results showed that the stable genomic regions controlling CID were located on the linkage groups 06 and 13 (LG06 and LG13). Three QTL for CID were co-localized with the QTL for WUE, biomass and cumulative water transpired. We found that CID and WUE are highly correlated and have common genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic control of these traits showed an interaction with the environment (between the two drought scenarios and control conditions). Our results open a way for breeding higher WUE by using CID and marker-assisted approaches and therefore help to maintain the stability of sunflower crop production.

  1. Nitrate isotopes illuminate the black box of paddy soil biogeochemistry: water and carbon management control nitrogen sources and sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, N. S.; Clough, T. J.; Johnson-Beebout, S. E.; Buresh, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate prediction of the available nitrogen (N) pool in submerged paddy soils is needed in order to produce rice, one of the world’s most essential crops, in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. By applying emerging nitrate dual-isotope (δ15N- δ18O- NO3-) techniques to paddy systems, we were able to obtain a unique process-level quantification of the synergistic impacts of carbon (C) and water management on N availability. Soil and water samples were collected from fallow experimental plots, with or without organic C amendments, that were maintained under 1 of 3 different hydrologic regimens: continuously submerged, water excluded, or alternate wetting and drying. In continuously submerged soils the δ15N-NO3- : δ18O-NO3- signal of denitrification was not present, indicating that there was no N attenuation. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was the dominant factor in defining the available N pool under these conditions, with δ15N-NO3- approaching atmospheric levels as size of the pool increased. Using an isotope-based pool-mixing model, it was calculated that 10±2 µg N g-1 soil were contributed by BNF during the fallow. A lack of BNF combined with removal via denitrification (δ15N-NO3- : δ18O-NO3- = 1) caused relatively lower available N levels in dried and alternate wetting-drying soils during this period. Magnitude and net impact of denitrification was defined by the extent of drying and C availability, with rice straw C additions driving tighter coupling of nitrification and denitrification (δ15N:δ18O <1). However, despite high rates of attenuation during wetting events, soils that had been completely dried and received straw amendments ultimately retained a significantly larger available N pool due to enhanced input from soil organic matter. These findings underline the necessity of, and validate a new means for, accurate quantification micro-scale biogeochemical interactions for developing farm-scale management practices that

  2. Environmental controls on the boron and strontium isotopic composition of aragonite shell material of cultured Arctica islandica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.-W.; Aciego, S. M.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.

    2015-06-01

    Ocean acidification, the decrease in ocean pH associated with increasing atmospheric CO2, is likely to impact marine organisms, particularly those that produce carbonate skeletons or shells. Therefore, it is important to investigate how environmental factors (seawater pH, temperature and salinity) influence the chemical compositions in biogenic carbonates. In this study we report the first high-resolution strontium (87Sr / 86Sr and δ88 / 86Sr) and boron (δ11B) isotopic values in the aragonite shell of cultured Arctica islandica (A. islandica). The 87Sr / 86Sr ratios from both tank water and shell samples show ratios nearly identical to the open ocean, which suggests that the shell material reflects ambient ocean chemistry without terrestrial influence. The 84Sr-87Sr double-spike-resolved shell δ88 / 86Sr and Sr concentration data show no resolvable change throughout the culture period and reflect no theoretical kinetic mass fractionation throughout the experiment despite a temperature change of more than 15 °C. The δ11B records from the experiment show at least a 5‰ increase through the 29-week culture season (January 2010-August 2010), with low values from the beginning to week 19 and higher values thereafter. The larger range in δ11B in this experiment compared to predictions based on other carbonate organisms (2-3‰) suggests that a species-specific fractionation factor may be required. A significant correlation between the ΔpH (pHshell - pHsw) and seawater pH (pHsw) was observed (R2 = 0.35), where the pHshell is the calcification pH of the shell calculated from boron isotopic composition. This negative correlation suggests that A. islandica partly regulates the pH of the extrapallial fluid. However, this proposed mechanism only explains approximately 35% of the variance in the δ11B data. Instead, a rapid rise in δ11B of the shell material after week 19, during the summer, suggests that the boron uptake changes when a thermal threshold of > 13 °C is

  3. TSOM method for semiconductor metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attota, Ravikiran; Dixson, Ronald G.; Kramar, John A.; Potzick, James E.; Vladár, András E.; Bunday, Benjamin; Novak, Erik; Rudack, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) is a new metrology method that achieves 3D nanoscale measurement sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes; measurement sensitivities are comparable to what is typical when using scatterometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TSOM can be used in both reflection and transmission modes and is applicable to a variety of target materials and shapes. Nanometrology applications that have been demonstrated by experiments or simulations include defect analysis, inspection and process control; critical dimension, photomask, overlay, nanoparticle, thin film, and 3D interconnect metrologies; line-edge roughness measurements; and nanoscale movements of parts in MEMS/NEMS. Industries that could benefit include semiconductor, data storage, photonics, biotechnology, and nanomanufacturing. TSOM is relatively simple and inexpensive, has a high throughput, and provides nanoscale sensitivity for 3D measurements with potentially significant savings and yield improvements in manufacturing.

  4. Semiconductor processing with excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.T.; Narayan, J.; Christie, W.H.; van der Leeden, G.A.; Rothe, D.E.; Cheng, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of pulsed excimer lasers for semiconductor processing are reviewed. Extensive comparisons of the quality of annealing of ion-implanted Si obtained with XeCl and ruby lasers have been made. The results indicate that irrespective of the large differences in the optical properties of Si at uv and visible wavelengths, the efficiency of usage of the incident energy for annealing is comparable for the two lasers. However, because of the excellent optical beam quality, the XeCl laser can provide superior control of the surface melting and the resulting junction depth. Furthermore, the concentrations of electrically active point defects in the XeCl laser annealed region are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from ruby or Nd:YAG lasers. All these results seem to suggest that XeCl lasers should be suitable for fabricating not only solar cells but also the more advanced device structures required for VLSI or VHSIC applications.

  5. North Atlantic Oscillation controls on oxygen and hydrogen isotope gradients in winter precipitation across Europe; implications for palaeoclimate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deininger, Michael; Werner, Martin; McDermott, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Winter (October to March) precipitation δ18OP and δDP values in central Europe correlate with the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index (wNAOi), but the causal mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we analyse the relationships between precipitation-weighted δ18OP and δDP datasets (δ18Opw and δDpw) from European GNIP and ANIP stations and the wNAOi, with a focus on isotope gradients. We demonstrate that longitudinal δ18Opw and δDpw gradients across Europe ("continental effect") depend on the wNAOi state, with steeper gradients associated with more negative wNAOi states. Changing gradients reflect a combination of air temperature and variable amounts of precipitable water as a function of the wNAOi. The relationships between the wNAOi, δ18Opw and δDpw can provide additional information from palaeoclimate archives such as European speleothems that primarily record winter δ18Opw. Comparisons between present-day and past European longitudinal δ18O gradients inferred from Holocene speleothems suggest that atmospheric pressure configurations akin to negative wNAO modes dominated the early Holocene, whereas patterns resembling positive wNAO modes were more common in the late Holocene, possibly caused by persistent shifts in the relative locations of the Azores High and the Icelandic Low.

  6. Factors controlling Li concentration and isotopic composition in formation waters and host rocks of Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phan, Thai T.; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W.; Macpherson, Gwen; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hammack, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    In Greene Co., southwest Pennsylvania, the Upper Devonian sandstone formation waters have δ7Li values of + 14.6 ± 1.2 (2SD, n = 25), and are distinct from Marcellus Shale formation waters which have δ7Li of + 10.0 ± 0.8 (2SD, n = 12). These two formation waters also maintain distinctive 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggesting hydrologic separation between these units. Applying temperature-dependent illitilization model to Marcellus Shale, we found that Li concentration in clay minerals increased with Li concentration in pore fluid during diagenetic illite-smectite transition. Samples from north central PA show a much smaller range in both δ7Li and 87Sr/86Sr than in southwest Pennsylvania. Spatial variations in Li and δ7Li values show that Marcellus formation waters are not homogeneous across the Appalachian Basin. Marcellus formation waters in the northeastern Pennsylvania portion of the basin show a much smaller range in both δ7Li and 87Sr/86Sr, suggesting long term, cross-formational fluid migration in this region. Assessing the impact of potential mixing of fresh water with deep formation water requires establishment of a geochemical and isotopic baseline in the shallow, fresh water aquifers, and site specific characterization of formation water, followed by long-term monitoring, particularly in regions of future shale gas development.

  7. Electrical Characterization of Semiconductor Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, M.; Pascal, Fabien

    Semiconductor materials and devices continue to occupy a preeminent technological position due to their importance when building integrated electronic systems used in a wide range of applications from computers, cell-phones, personal digital assistants, digital cameras and electronic entertainment systems, to electronic instrumentation for medical diagnositics and environmental monitoring. Key ingredients of this technological dominance have been the rapid advances made in the quality and processing of materials - semiconductors, conductors and dielectrics - which have given metal oxide semiconductor device technology its important characteristics of negligible standby power dissipation, good input-output isolation, surface potential control and reliable operation. However, when assessing material quality and device reliability, it is important to have fast, nondestructive, accurate and easy-to-use electrical characterization techniques available, so that important parameters such as carrier doping density, type and mobility of carriers, interface quality, oxide trap density, semiconductor bulk defect density, contact and other parasitic resistances and oxide electrical integrity can be determined. This chapter describes some of the more widely employed and popular techniques that are used to determine these important parameters. The techniques presented in this chapter range in both complexity and test structure requirements from simple current-voltage measurements to more sophisticated low-frequency noise, charge pumping and deep-level transient spectroscopy techniques.

  8. Tunable High Brightness Semiconductor Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2015-0066 TUNABLE HIGH BRIGHTNESS SEMICONDUCTOR SOURCES Robert Bedford, Saima Husaini, Charles Reyner, and Tuoc Dang...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2015 Final 5 November 2010 – 1 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TUNABLE HIGH BRIGHTNESS SEMICONDUCTOR SOURCES 5a...included within the Tunable High Brightness Semiconductor Sources work unit includes several technology advancements. First, theoretical advances in mid

  9. Controlling the interface charge density in GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures by plasma oxidation of metal layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Herwig Kalisch, Holger; Vescan, Andrei; Pécz, Béla; Kovács, András; Heuken, Michael

    2015-06-07

    In recent years, investigating and engineering the oxide-semiconductor interface in GaN-based devices has come into focus. This has been driven by a large effort to increase the gate robustness and to obtain enhancement mode transistors. Since it has been shown that deep interface states act as fixed interface charge in the typical transistor operating regime, it appears desirable to intentionally incorporate negative interface charge, and thus, to allow for a positive shift in threshold voltage of transistors to realise enhancement mode behaviour. A rather new approach to obtain such negative charge is the plasma-oxidation of thin metal layers. In this study, we present transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis as well as electrical data for Al-, Ti-, and Zr-based thin oxide films on a GaN-based heterostructure. It is shown that the plasma-oxidised layers have a polycrystalline morphology. An interfacial amorphous oxide layer is only detectable in the case of Zr. In addition, all films exhibit net negative charge with varying densities. The Zr layer is providing a negative interface charge density of more than 1 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup –2} allowing to considerably shift the threshold voltage to more positive values.

  10. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  11. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-03-25

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode-semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode-semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect.

  12. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  13. Environmental controls on the boron and strontium isotopic composition of aragonite shell material of cultured Arctica islandica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.-W.; Aciego, S. M.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.

    2015-02-01

    Ocean acidification, the decrease in ocean pH associated with increasing atmospheric CO2, is likely to impact marine organisms, particularly those that produce carbonate skeletons or shells. Therefore it is important to investigate how environmental factors (seawater pH, temperature and salinity) influence the chemical compositions in biogenic carbonates. In this study we report the first high-resolution strontium (87Sr / 86Sr and δ88 / 86Sr) and boron (δ11B) isotopic values in the aragonite shell of cultured Arctica islandica (A. islandica). The 87Sr / 86Sr ratios from both tank water and shell samples show ratios nearly identical to the open ocean, which suggests that the shell material reflects ambient ocean chemistry without terrestrial influence. The 84Sr-87Sr double spike resolved shell δ 88 / 86Sr and Sr concentration data show no resolvable change throughout the culture period and reflect no theoretical kinetic mass fractionation throughout the experiment despite a temperature change of more than 15 °C. The δ11B records from the experiment show at least a 5‰ increase through the culture season (January 2010-August 2010), with low values from beginning to week 19 and higher values hereafter. The larger range in δ11B in this experiment compared to predictions based on other carbonate organisms (2-3‰) suggests that a species-specific fractionation factor may be required. A relatively strong correlation between the Δ pH (pHshell-pHsw) and seawater pH (pHsw) was observed (R2 = 0.34), which suggests that A. islandica partly regulates the pH of the extrapallial fluid. However, this proposed mechanism only explains approximately 34% of the variance in the δ11B data. Instead, a rapid rise in δ11B after week 19 suggests that the boron uptake of the shell changes when a temperature threshold of 13 °C is reached.

  14. Trophic discrimination factor of nitrogen isotopes within amino acids in the dobsonfly Protohermes grandis (Megaloptera: Corydalidae) larvae in a controlled feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Hayashi, Fumio; Sasaki, Yoko; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2017-03-01

    The trophic discrimination factor (TDF) of nitrogen isotopes ((15)N/(14)N) within amino acids, between a stream-dwelling dobsonfly larva (Protohermes grandis: Megaloptera; Corydalidae) and its diet (chironomid larvae), was determined in controlled feeding experiments. Last-instar larvae of P. grandis were collected from the Yozawa-gawa River, central Japan, and reared in the laboratory. After fed to satiation for 1 month, one group of larvae was each fed one living chironomid larva per day for 4 weeks, while a second group was starved for 8 weeks. The larvae were harvested at intervals and the nitrogen isotopic composition of glutamic acid (δ(15)NGlu) and phenylalanine (δ(15)NPhe) were determined to calculate TDF. The mean TDF of satiated and starved larvae were 7.1‰ ± 0.5‰ (n = 3) and 7.3‰ ± 0.5‰ (n = 5), respectively. Thus, the TDF for P. grandis larvae in this study was similar to that reported for other arthropods (approximately 7‰) and was independent of satiation or starvation. A previous study of wild P. grandis larvae, based on the δ(15)NGlu and δ(15)NPhe values, estimated its trophic position (TP) as approximately 2.0 ± 0.1 (n = 5), a low value close to that of algivores, although they are generally characterized as carnivores (usually accepted as TP ≥ 3). The TDF for P. grandis larvae suggests that their low TPs in nature were caused by incorporation of vascular plant-derived amino acids (with a different δ(15)N profile from that of algae) and not by an unusually low TDF or by the effects of the satiation/starvation on amino acid metabolism.

  15. Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, and a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic and Edaphic Conditions-Isotopic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2004-11-04

    During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.

  16. Hydrograph separation using stable isotopes: Review and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, J.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2013-11-01

    We reviewed isotope hydrograph separation studies.We examine methods, applications, and limitations.We summarize factors that control the event/pre-event water contributions.We outline new possible research avenues in isotope hydrograph separation.

  17. Nanoscale Semiconductor Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-25

    MONITOR’S REPORT Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 NUMBER(S) AFRL -RV-PS-TR-2014-0202 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release...Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVSE/Jesse Mee 1 cy ... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2014-0202 TR-2014-0202 NANOSCALE SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS Steven R. J. Brueck and Ganesh Balakrishnan University of New

  18. Electrowetting on semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Cesar; Deegan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Applying a voltage difference between a conductor and a sessile droplet sitting on a thin dielectric film separating it from the conductor will cause the drop to spread. When the conductor is a good metal, the change of the drop's contact angle due to the voltage is given by the Young-Lippmann (YL) equation. Here, we report experiments with lightly doped, single crystal silicon as the conductive electrode. We derive a modified YL equation that includes effects due to the semiconductor and contact line pinning. We show that light induces a non-reversible wetting transition, and that our model agrees well with our experimental results.

  19. Semiconductor cooling apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Gaier, James R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Gas derived graphite fibers generated by the decomposition of an organic gas are joined with a suitable binder. This produces a high thermal conductivity composite material which passively conducts heat from a source, such as a semiconductor, to a heat sink. The fibers may be intercalated. The intercalate can be halogen or halide salt, alkaline metal, or any other species which contributes to the electrical conductivity improvement of the graphite fiber. The fibers are bundled and joined with a suitable binder to form a high thermal conductivity composite material device. The heat transfer device may also be made of intercalated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and machined, rather than made of fibers.

  20. Microwave semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitch, J. E.

    1985-03-01

    The state of the art of microwave semiconductor design is reviewed, with emphasis on developments of the past 10-12 years. Consideration is given to: varistor diodes; varactor diodes; and transit time negative diodes. The design principles of bipolar and unipolar transistors are discussed, with reference to power FETs, traveling-wave FETs, and camel or planar-doped barrier transistors. Recent innovations in the field of fabrication technology are also considered, including: crystal growth; doping; and packaging. Several schematic drawings and photographs of the different devices are provided.

  1. Semiconductor Terahertz Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-15

    COVERED (From - To) 15-June-2009 Final Report 12 Apr 07 - 15 Apr 09 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8718-07-C-0030 Semiconductor Terahertz ...and the other for the phononic waveguides. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Quantum cascade laser, gennanium, gennanium-tin, terahertz 16. SECURITY CLASStFICATION OF...7 Figure 7 lllustration of a GaAs-based active region waveguide with either Ga or Au as cladding operating in the Restrahlen band of GaN . 10 Figure 8

  2. Chemically Derivatized Semiconductor Photoelectrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-04

    as Si, Ge, and GaAs derivatized with reagents based on ferrocene such as those represented by I and II. Work with p-type semiconductor photoelectrode...Concerning n-type Si it was found that EtOH/0.1 M En-Bu4N)C104 solutions containing A = ferrocene and A+ = ferri-- cinium result in a constant output of...electrical energy from an illuminated photoelectrochemical device configured as in Scheme II.(20) The ferrocene captures the photogenerated h+ at a rate -4

  3. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  4. High Current, Multi-Filament Photoconductive Semiconductor Switching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    linear PCSS triggered with a 100 fs laser pulse . Figure 1. A generic photoconductive semiconductor switch rapidly discharges a charged capacitor...switching is the most critical challenge remaining for photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) applications in Pulsed Power. Many authors have...isolation and control, pulsed or DC charging, and long device lifetime, provided the current per filament is limited to 20-30A for short pulse (10

  5. Exciton-polariton wakefields in semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terças, H.; Mendonça, J. T.

    2016-02-01

    We consider the excitation of polariton wakefields due to a propagating light pulse in a semiconductor microcavity. We show that two kinds of wakes are possible, depending on the constituents fraction (either exciton or photon) of the polariton wavefunction. The nature of the wakefields (pure excitonic or polaritonic) can be controlled by changing the speed of propagation of the external pump. This process could be used as a diagnostic for the internal parameters of the microcavity.

  6. Resonant pairing of excitons in semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, S. V.

    2016-10-01

    We suggest indirect excitons in two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures as a platform for the realization of a bosonic analog of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor. The quantum phase transition to a biexcitonic gapped state can be controlled in situ by tuning the electric field applied to the structure in the growth direction. The proposed playground should allow one to go to strongly correlated and high-temperature regimes, unattainable with Feshbach resonant atomic gases.

  7. Molecular engineering of semiconductor surfaces and devices.

    PubMed

    Ashkenasy, Gonen; Cahen, David; Cohen, Rami; Shanzer, Abraham; Vilan, Ayelet

    2002-02-01

    Grafting organic molecules onto solid surfaces can transfer molecular properties to the solid. We describe how modifications of semiconductor or metal surfaces by molecules with systematically varying properties can lead to corresponding trends in the (electronic) properties of the resulting hybrid (molecule + solid) materials and devices made with them. Examples include molecule-controlled diodes and sensors, where the electrons need not to go through the molecules (action at a distance), suggesting a new approach to molecule-based electronics.

  8. Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, R.M.; Drummond, T.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-08-31

    A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration. 8 figs.

  9. Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Drummond, Timothy J.; Gourley, Paul L.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration.

  10. Molecular Chemistry to the Fore: New Insights into the Fascinating World of Photoactive Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Vela-Becerra, Javier

    2013-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals possess unique properties that are unmatched by other chromophores such as organic dyes or transition-metal complexes. These versatile building blocks have generated much scientific interest and found applications in bioimaging, tracking, lighting, lasing, photovoltaics, photocatalysis, thermoelectrics, and spintronics. Despite these advances, important challenges remain, notably how to produce semiconductor nanostructures with predetermined architecture, how to produce metastable semiconductor nanostructures that are hard to isolate by conventional syntheses, and how to control the degree of surface loading or valence per nanocrystal. Molecular chemists are very familiar with these issues and can use their expertise to help solve these challenges. In this Perspective, we present our group’s recent work on bottom-up molecular control of nanoscale composition and morphology, low-temperature photochemical routes to semiconductor heterostructures and metastable phases, solar-to-chemical energy conversion with semiconductor-based photocatalysts, and controlled surface modification of colloidal semiconductors that bypasses ligand exchange.

  11. Nonlinear Burn Control in Tokamaks using Heating, Non-axisymmetric Magnetic Fields, Isotopic fueling and Impurity injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajares, Andres; Schuster, Eugenio

    2016-10-01

    Plasma density and temperature regulation in future tokamaks such as ITER is arising as one of the main problems in nuclear-fusion control research. The problem, known as burn control, is to regulate the amount of fusion power produced by the burning plasma while avoiding thermal instabilities. Prior work in the area of burn control considered different actuators, such as modulation of the auxiliary power, modulation of the fueling rate, and controlled impurity injection. More recently, the in-vessel coil system was suggested as a feasible actuator since it has the capability of modifying the plasma confinement by generating non-axisymmetric magnetic fields. In this work, a comprehensive, model-based, nonlinear burn control strategy is proposed to integrate all the previously mentioned actuators. A model to take into account the influence of the in-vessel coils on the plasma confinement is proposed based on the plasma collisionality and the density. A simulation study is carried out to show the capability of the controller to drive the system between different operating points while rejecting perturbations. Supported by the US DOE under DE-SC0010661.

  12. Stable Carbon Isotope Discrimination Is under Genetic Control in the C4 Species Maize with Several Genomic Regions Influencing Trait Expression1[W

    PubMed Central

    Gresset, Sebastian; Westermeier, Peter; Rademacher, Svenja; Ouzunova, Milena; Presterl, Thomas; Westhoff, Peter; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2014-01-01

    In plants with C4 photosynthesis, physiological mechanisms underlying variation in stable carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) are largely unknown, and genetic components influencing Δ13C have not been described. We analyzed a maize (Zea mays) introgression library derived from two elite parents to investigate whether Δ13C is under genetic control in this C4 species. High-density genotyping with the Illumina MaizeSNP50 Bead Chip was used for a detailed structural characterization of 89 introgression lines. Phenotypic analyses were conducted in the field and in the greenhouse for kernel Δ13C as well as plant developmental and photosynthesis-related traits. Highly heritable significant genetic variation for Δ13C was detected under field and greenhouse conditions. For several introgression library lines, Δ13C values consistently differed from the recurrent parent within and across the two phenotyping platforms. Δ13C was significantly associated with 22 out of 164 analyzed genomic regions, indicating a complex genetic architecture of Δ13C. The five genomic regions with the largest effects were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, and 9 and explained 55% of the phenotypic variation for Δ13C. Plant development stage had no effect on Δ13C expression, as phenotypic as well as genotypic correlations between Δ13C, flowering time, and plant height were not significant. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating Δ13C to be under polygenic control in the C4 species maize. PMID:24280436

  13. Fibre ring cavity semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Duraev, V P; Medvedev, S V

    2013-10-31

    This paper presents a study of semiconductor lasers having a polarisation maintaining fibre ring cavity. We examine the operating principle and report main characteristics of a semiconductor ring laser, in particular in single- and multiple-frequency regimes, and discuss its application areas. (lasers)

  14. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Noufi, Rommel; Chen, Yih-Wen

    1987-01-01

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  15. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  16. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  17. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  18. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sanpietro, M.; Kemmer, J.; Dietl, H.; Holl, P.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements.

  19. Phase-Locked Semiconductor Lasers With Separate Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Yariv, Amnon; Margalit, Shlomo

    1988-01-01

    Individual current feeds enable better uniformity and flexible control. Separate contacts for lasers in array enable control of output radiation pattern and compensation of manufacturing nonuniformities among lasers. Concept of separate current control described for two-laser array in "Semiconductor Laser Phased Array" (NPO-15963).

  20. Advanced Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Michael S.; Maki, Paul A.; Kolodzey, James

    2007-06-01

    I. Wide band gap devices. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor devices for automotive applications / M. Sugimoto ... [et al.]. A GaN on SiC HFET device technology for wireless infrastructure applications / B. Green ... [et al.]. Drift velocity limitation in GaN HEMT channels / A. Matulionis. Simulations of field-plated and recessed gate gallium nitride-based heterojunction field-effect transistors / V. O. Turin, M. S. Shur and D. B. Veksler. Low temperature electroluminescence of green and deep green GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / Y. Li ... [et al.]. Spatial spectral analysis in high brightness GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / T. Detchprohm ... [et al.]. Self-induced surface texturing of Al2O3 by means of inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in Cl2 chemistry / P. Batoni ... [et al.]. Field and termionic field transport in aluminium gallium arsenide heterojunction barriers / D. V. Morgan and A. Porch. Electrical characteristics and carrier lifetime measurements in high voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes / P. A. Losee ... [et al.]. Geometry and short channel effects on enhancement-mode n-Channel GaN MOSFETs on p and n- GaN/sapphire substrates / W. Huang, T. Khan and T. P. Chow. 4H-SiC Vertical RESURF Schottky Rectifiers and MOSFETs / Y. Wang, P. A. Losee and T. P. Chow. Present status and future Directions of SiGe HBT technology / M. H. Khater ... [et al.]Optical properties of GaInN/GaN multi-quantum Wells structure and light emitting diode grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy / J. Senawiratne ... [et al.]. Electrical comparison of Ta/Ti/Al/Mo/Au and Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic contacts on undoped GaN HEMTs structure with AlN interlayer / Y. Sun and L. F. Eastman. Above 2 A/mm drain current density of GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire / F. Medjdoub ... [et al.]. Focused thermal beam direct patterning on InGaN during molecular beam epitaxy / X. Chen, W. J. Schaff and L. F. Eastman -- II. Terahertz and millimeter wave devices. Temperature-dependent microwave performance of

  1. Clumped isotope thermometry and catagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiler, J. M.; Clog, M. D.; Dallas, B.; Douglas, P. M.; Piasecki, A.; Sessions, A. L.; Stolper, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Clumped- and site-specific isotopic compositions of organic compounds can constrain their formation temperatures, sources, and chemical reaction histories. The large number of isotopologues of organic molecules may allow for the isotopic composition of a single compound to illuminate many processes. For example, it is possible that clumping or site specific effects in different parts of the same molecule will differ in blocking temperature, such that a molecule's full isotopic structure could simultaneously constrain conditions of biosynthesis, catagenic 'cracking', and storage in the crust. Recent innovations in high-resolution mass spectrometry and methods of IR and NMR spectroscopy make it possible to explore these questions. Methane is the first organic molecule to have its clumped isotope geochemistry analyzed in a variety of natural environments and controlled experiments. Methane generated through catagenic cracking of kerogen and other organic matter forms in equilibrium with respect to isotopic clumping, and preserves that state through later storage or migration, up to temperatures of ~250 ˚C. This kinetic behavior permits a variety of useful geological applications. But it is unexpected because the bulk stable isotope composition of thermogenic methane is thought to reflect kinetic isotope effects on irreversible reactions. Our observations imply a new interpretation of the chemical physics of catagenic methane formation. Additional instrument and methods developments are currently extending the measurement of isotopic clumping and position specific effects to larger alkanes, other hydrocarbon compounds, and amino acids. These measurements will ultimately expand our capacity to understand the formational conditions and fates of organic molecules in high- and low-temperature environments through geological time.

  2. Method for separating isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-10-21

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether.

  3. Thiophene polymer semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Ong, Beng S; Wu, Yiliang; Li, Yuning; Liu, Ping; Pan, Hualong

    2008-01-01

    Printed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have received great interests as potentially low-cost alternative to silicon technology for application in large-area, flexible, and ultra-low-cost electronics. One of the critical materials for TFTs is semiconductor, which has a dominant impact on the transistor properties. We review here the structural studies and design of thiophene-based polymer semiconductors with respect to solution processability, ambient stability, molecular self-organization, and field-effect transistor properties for OTFT applications. We show that through judicial monomer design, delicately controlled pi-conjugation, and strategically positioned pendant side-chain distribution, novel solution-processable thiophene polymer semiconductors with excellent self-organization ability to form extended lamellar pi-stacking orders can be developed. OTFTs using semiconductors of this nature processed in ambient conditions have provided excellent field-effect transistor properties.

  4. Conductivity-limiting bipolar thermal conductivity in semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanyu; Yang, Jiong; Toll, Trevor; Yang, Jihui; Zhang, Wenqing; Tang, Xinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Intriguing experimental results raised the question about the fundamental mechanisms governing the electron-hole coupling induced bipolar thermal conduction in semiconductors. Our combined theoretical analysis and experimental measurements show that in semiconductors bipolar thermal transport is in general a “conductivity-limiting” phenomenon, and it is thus controlled by the carrier mobility ratio and by the minority carrier partial electrical conductivity for the intrinsic and extrinsic cases, respectively. Our numerical method quantifies the role of electronic band structure and carrier scattering mechanisms. We have successfully demonstrated bipolar thermal conductivity reduction in doped semiconductors via electronic band structure modulation and/or preferential minority carrier scatterings. We expect this study to be beneficial to the current interests in optimizing thermoelectric properties of narrow gap semiconductors. PMID:25970560

  5. Comparative isotope ecology of African great apes.

    PubMed

    Oelze, Vicky M; Fahy, Geraldine; Hohmann, Gottfried; Robbins, Martha M; Leinert, Vera; Lee, Kevin; Eshuis, Henk; Seiler, Nicole; Wessling, Erin G; Head, Josephine; Boesch, Christophe; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2016-12-01

    The isotope ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes live in C3-dominated habitats, variation in isotope signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, isotopic differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp.). First, we explore differences in isotope baselines across different habitats and whether isotopic signatures in apes can be related to feeding niches (faunivory and folivory). Secondly, we illustrate how stable isotopic variations within African ape populations compare to other extant and extinct primates and discuss possible implications for dietary flexibility. Using 701 carbon and nitrogen isotope data points resulting from 148 sectioned hair samples and an additional collection of 189 fruit samples, we compare six different great ape sites. We investigate the relationship between vegetation baselines and climatic variables, and subsequently correct great ape isotope data to a standardized plant baseline from the respective sites. We obtained temporal isotopic profiles of individual animals by sectioning hair along its growth trajectory. Isotopic signatures of great apes differed between sites, mainly as vegetation isotope baselines were correlated with site-specific climatic conditions. We show that controlling for plant isotopic characteristics at a given site is essential for faunal data interpretation. While accounting for plant baseline effects, we found distinct isotopic profiles for each great ape population. Based on evidence from habituated groups and sympatric great ape species, these differences could possibly be related to faunivory and folivory. Dietary flexibility in apes varied, but temporal variation was overall

  6. Manipulating Spin-Orbit Interaction in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohda, Makoto; Bergsten, Tobias; Nitta, Junsaku

    2008-03-01

    Spin-orbit interaction (SOI), where the orbital motion of electrons is coupled with the orientation of electron spins, originates from a relativistic effect. Generally, in nonrelativistic momentum, p = \\hbar k≪ m0c, the SOI is negligible. However, in a semiconductor heterostructure, the small energy-band gap (Eg ≪ m0c2) and the electron wave modulated by the atomic core potential markedly enhance the SOI. Since the SOI acts as an effective magnetic field, it may offer novel functionalities for controlling the spin degree of freedom such as the electrical spin generation and the electrical control of the spin precession in a semiconductor heterojunction. Here, we review recent experimental studies on the manipulation of the SOI in a semiconductor two-dimensional electron gas. We first present a theoretical overview of the Rashba SOI, which lifts the spin degeneracy due to structural inversion asymmetry. We then present experimental results on the quantum well (QW) thickness dependences of the Rashba SOI in InP/InGaAs/InAlAs asymmetric QWs by analyzing the weak antilocalization. Finally, we show quantum interference effects due to the spin precession in a small array of mesoscopic InGaAs rings, which is an experimental demonstration of the time-reversal Aharonov-Casher effect and the electromagnetic dual to the Al’tshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect.

  7. Exploring the structural controls on helium, nitrogen and carbon isotope signatures in hydrothermal fluids along an intra-arc fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardani, Daniele; Reich, Martin; Roulleau, Emilie; Takahata, Naoto; Sano, Yuji; Pérez-Flores, Pamela; Sánchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Cembrano, José; Arancibia, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    There is a general agreement that fault-fracture meshes exert a primary control on fluid flow in both volcanic/magmatic and geothermal/hydrothermal systems. For example, in geothermal systems and epithermal gold deposits, optimally oriented faults and fractures play a key role in promoting fluid flow through high vertical permeability pathways. In the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of the Chilean Andes, both volcanism and hydrothermal activity are strongly controlled by the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS), an intra-arc, strike-slip fault, and by the Arc-oblique Long-lived Basement Fault System (ALFS), a set of transpressive NW-striking faults. However, the role that principal and subsidiary fault systems exert on magma degassing, hydrothermal fluid flow and fluid compositions remains poorly constrained. In this study we report new helium, carbon and nitrogen isotope data (3He/4He, δ13C-CO2 and δ15N) of a suite of fumarole and hot spring gas samples from 23 volcanic/geothermal localities that are spatially associated with either the LOFS or the ALFS in the central part of the SVZ. The dataset is characterized by a wide range of 3He/4He ratios (3.39 Ra to 7.53 Ra, where Ra = (3He/4He)air), δ13C-CO2 values (-7.44‰ to -49.41‰) and δ15N values (0.02‰ to 4.93‰). The regional variations in 3He/4He, δ13C-CO2 and δ15N values are remarkably consistent with those reported for 87Sr/86Sr in lavas along the studied segment, which are strongly controlled by the regional spatial distribution of faults. Two fumaroles gas samples associated with the northern "horsetail" transtensional termination of the LOFS are the only datapoints showing uncontaminated MORB-like 3He/4He signatures. In contrast, the dominant mechanism controlling helium isotope ratios of hydrothermal systems towards the south appears to be the mixing between mantle-derived helium and a radiogenic component derived from, e.g., magmatic assimilation of 4He-rich country rocks or contamination during the

  8. A novel methodology to investigate isotopic biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B. Y.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2012-04-01

    An enduring goal of trace metal isotopic studies of Earth History is to find isotopic 'fingerprints' of life or of life's individual physiochemical processes. Generally, such signatures are sought by relating an isotopic effect observed in controlled laboratory conditions or a well-characterized environment to a more complex system or the geological record. However, such an approach is ultimately limited because life exerts numerous isotopic fractionations on any one element so it is hard to dissect the resultant net fractionation into its individual components. Further, different organisms, often with the same apparent cellular function, can express different isotopic fractionation factors. We have used a novel method to investigate the isotopic fractionation associated with a single physiological process-enzyme specific isotopic fractionation. We selected Cd isotopes since only one biological use of Cd is known, CdCA (a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase from the coastal diatom T. Weissflogii). Thus, our investigation can also inform the long standing mystery as to why this generally toxic element appears to have a nutrient-like dissolved isotopic and concentration profile in the oceans. We used the pET-15b plasmid to insert the CdCA gene into the E. coli genome. There is no known biochemical function for Cd in E. coli, making it an ideal vector for studying distinct physiological processes within a single organism. The uptake of Cd and associated isotopic fractionation was determined for both normal cells and those expressing CdCA. It was found that whole cells always exhibited a preference for the light isotopes of Cd, regardless of the expression of CdCA; adsorption of Cd to cell surfaces was not seen to cause isotopic fractionation. However, the cleaning procedure employed exerted a strong control on the observed isotopic composition of cells. Using existing protein purification techniques, we measured the Cd isotopic composition of different subcellular fractions of E

  9. Semiconductor nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Wong, Andrew B.; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Yang, Peidong

    2016-06-01

    The discovery and continued development of the laser has revolutionized both science and industry. The advent of miniaturized, semiconductor lasers has made this technology an integral part of everyday life. Exciting research continues with a new focus on nanowire lasers because of their great potential in the field of optoelectronics. In this Review, we explore the latest advancements in the development of nanowire lasers and offer our perspective on future improvements and trends. We discuss fundamental material considerations and the latest, most effective materials for nanowire lasers. A discussion of novel cavity designs and amplification methods is followed by some of the latest work on surface plasmon polariton nanowire lasers. Finally, exciting new reports of electrically pumped nanowire lasers with the potential for integrated optoelectronic applications are described.

  10. Photocatalysis Using Semiconductor Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, T.R.; Wilcoxon,J.P.

    1999-01-21

    We report on experiments using nanosize MoS{sub 2} to photo-oxidize organic pollutants in water using visible light as the energy source. We have demonstrated that we can vary the redox potentials and absorbance characteristics of these small semiconductors by adjusting their size, and our studies of the photooxidation of organic molecules have revealed that the rate of oxidation increases with increasing bandgap (i.e. more positive valence band and more negative conduction band potentials). Because these photocatalysis reactions can be performed with the nanoclusters fully dispersed and stable in solution, liquid chromatography can be used to determine both the intermediate reaction products and the state of the nanoclusters during the reaction. We have demonstrated that the MoS{sub 2} nanoclusters remain unchanged during the photooxidation process by this technique. We also report on studies of MoS{sub 2} nanoclusters deposited on TiO{sub 2} powder.

  11. Semiconductor adiabatic qubits

    DOEpatents

    Carroll, Malcolm S.; Witzel, Wayne; Jacobson, Noah Tobias; Ganti, Anand; Landahl, Andrew J.; Lilly, Michael; Nguyen, Khoi Thi; Bishop, Nathaniel; Carr, Stephen M.; Bussmann, Ezra; Nielsen, Erik; Levy, James Ewers; Blume-Kohout, Robin J.; Rahman, Rajib

    2016-12-27

    A quantum computing device that includes a plurality of semiconductor adiabatic qubits is described herein. The qubits are programmed with local biases and coupling terms between qubits that represent a problem of interest. The qubits are initialized by way of a tuneable parameter, a local tunnel coupling within each qubit, such that the qubits remain in a ground energy state, and that initial state is represented by the qubits being in a superposition of |0> and |1> states. The parameter is altered over time adiabatically or such that relaxation mechanisms maintain a large fraction of ground state occupation through decreasing the tunnel coupling barrier within each qubit with the appropriate schedule. The final state when tunnel coupling is effectively zero represents the solution state to the problem represented in the |0> and |1> basis, which can be accurately read at each qubit location.

  12. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  13. Band-Gap Engineering at a Semiconductor-Crystalline Oxide Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Jahangir-Moghadam, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Shen, Xuan; Droubay, Timothy; Bowden, Mark; Chrysler, Matthew; Su, Dong; Chambers, Scott A.; Ngai, Joseph H.

    2015-02-09

    The epitaxial growth of crystalline oxides on semiconductors provides a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor devices. Key to integrating the functionalities of oxides onto semiconductors is controlling the band alignment at interfaces between the two materials. Here we apply principles of band gap engineering traditionally used at heterojunctions between conventional semiconductors to control the band offset between a single crystalline oxide and a semiconductor. Reactive molecular beam epitaxy is used to realize atomically abrupt and structurally coherent interfaces between SrZrxTi1-xO₃ and Ge, in which the band gap of the former is enhanced with Zr content x. We present structural and electrical characterization of SrZrxTi1-xO₃-Ge heterojunctions and demonstrate a type-I band offset can be achieved. These results demonstrate that band gap engineering can be exploited to realize functional semiconductor crystalline oxide heterojunctions.

  14. Band-Gap Engineering at a Semiconductor-Crystalline Oxide Interface

    DOE PAGES

    Jahangir-Moghadam, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Shen, Xuan; ...

    2015-02-09

    The epitaxial growth of crystalline oxides on semiconductors provides a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor devices. Key to integrating the functionalities of oxides onto semiconductors is controlling the band alignment at interfaces between the two materials. Here we apply principles of band gap engineering traditionally used at heterojunctions between conventional semiconductors to control the band offset between a single crystalline oxide and a semiconductor. Reactive molecular beam epitaxy is used to realize atomically abrupt and structurally coherent interfaces between SrZrxTi1-xO₃ and Ge, in which the band gap of the former is enhanced with Zr content x. We presentmore » structural and electrical characterization of SrZrxTi1-xO₃-Ge heterojunctions and demonstrate a type-I band offset can be achieved. These results demonstrate that band gap engineering can be exploited to realize functional semiconductor crystalline oxide heterojunctions.« less

  15. Isotope separation by photochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Suslick, K.S.

    1975-10-03

    A photochromatographic method for isotope separation is described. An isotopically mixed molecular species is adsorbed on an adsorptive surface, and the adsorbed molecules are irradiated with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thus separate them from the undesired isotopic species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes. (BLM)

  16. Isotope separation by photochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    1977-01-01

    An isotope separation method which comprises physically adsorbing an isotopically mixed molecular species on an adsorptive surface and irradiating the adsorbed molecules with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite a desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thereby separate them from the unexcited undesired isotopic species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes.

  17. Cyanocarbon acids: direct evidence that their ionization is not an encounter-controlled process and rationalization of the unusual solvent isotope effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hojatti, M.; Kresge, A.J.; Wang, W.H.

    1987-06-24

    The rate of exchange of the acidic hydrogen of tert-butylmalononitrile was examined by using tritium as a tracer, and the process was found not to be inhibited by hydronium ions in dilute aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions. This rules out the Swain-Grunwald mechanism for this reaction under these conditions. The bromination of malononitrile was investigated under conditions where reprotonation of the dicyanomethyl carbanion and its reaction with bromine occur at comparable rates, and the bromination reaction was found to have a specific rate twice that for reprotonation. Reprotonation therefore cannot be a diffusion-controlled process, and malononitrile is not a normal acid. The unusually large solvent kinetic isotope effects found for these cyanocarbon acid ionization reactions are explained by postulating that the transferring hydrogen and its positive charge are becoming associated with a solvent cluster rather than with a single water molecule. The thermodynamic acidity constant of malononitrile was determined to be 11.41 in aqueous solution at 25 C.

  18. Preparation of a sewage sludge laboratory quality control material for butyltin compounds and their determination by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Tea; Milačič, Radmila; Ščančar, Janez

    2012-05-01

    The characterisation of a laboratory quality control material (QCM) for dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT) in sewage sludge is described. The reference values were determined by the use of two different types of isotope-dilution mass spectrometry: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To avoid possible analytical errors such as non-quantitative extraction and species degradation during sample preparation, different extraction methods were tested (microwave- and ultrasound-assisted extraction and mechanical stirring). The reference values were based on the unweighted means of results from the homogenisation and characterisation studies. The reference values obtained were 1,553 ± 87 and 534 ± 38 ng Sn g(-1) for DBT and TBT, respectively. In the uncertainty budget estimation, the sample inhomogeneity and between-method imprecision were taken into account. The concentrations of DBT and TBT in QCM are similar to those in the harbour sediment certified reference material PACS-2. Likewise, the levels of DBT and TBT are in the range of these compounds normally present in sewage sludge worldwide. In the future, the QCM will be used for an intercomparison study on DBT and TBT in sewage sludge, and as a day-to-day QCM during studies concerning the application of sewage sludge as an additive to artificial soil or as a raw material in civil engineering construction.

  19. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  20. Geodynamic controls on the contamination of Cenozoic arc magmas in the southern Central Andes: Insights from the O and Hf isotopic composition of zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Rosemary E.; Kirstein, Linda A.; Kasemann, Simone A.; Dhuime, Bruno; Elliott, Tim; Litvak, Vanesa D.; Alonso, Ricardo; Hinton, Richard

    2015-09-01

    ))), obtained for the Late Oligocene (∼23 Ma) to Late Miocene (∼9 Ma) magmatic rocks located in the Argentinean Precordillera, and the Late Miocene (∼6 Ma) volcanic rocks present in the Frontal Cordillera. The observed isotopic variability demonstrates that the assimilation of pre-existing continental crust, which varies in both age and composition over the Andean Cordillera, plays a dominant role in modifying the isotopic composition of Late Eocene to Late Miocene mantle-derived magmas, implying significant crustal recycling. The interaction of arc magmas with distinct basement terranes is controlled by the migration of the magmatic arc due to the changing geodynamic setting, as well as by the tectonic shortening and thickening of the Central Andean crust over the latter part of the Cenozoic.

  1. Semiconductor device PN junction fabrication using optical processing of amorphous semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rangappan, Anikara

    2014-11-25

    Systems and methods for semiconductor device PN junction fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical device having a P-N junction comprises: depositing a layer of amorphous semiconductor material onto a crystalline semiconductor base, wherein the crystalline semiconductor base comprises a crystalline phase of a same semiconductor as the amorphous layer; and growing the layer of amorphous semiconductor material into a layer of crystalline semiconductor material that is epitaxially matched to the lattice structure of the crystalline semiconductor base by applying an optical energy that penetrates at least the amorphous semiconductor material.

  2. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P. ); Gatti, E. )

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Climate and cave control on Pleistocene/Holocene calcite-to-aragonite transitions in speleothems from Morocco: Elemental and isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Immenhauser, Adrian; Richter, Detlev K.; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Fietzke, Jan; Deininger, Michael; Goos, Manuela; Scholz, Denis; Sabaoui, Abdellah

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence of aragonite in speleothems has commonly been related to high dripwater Mg/Ca ratios, because Mg is known to be a growth inhibitor for calcite. Laboratory aragonite precipitation experiments, however, suggested a more complex array of controlling factors. Here, we present data from Pleistocene to Holocene speleothems collected from both a dolostone and a limestone cave in northern Morocco. These stalagmites exhibit both lateral and stratigraphic calcite-to-aragonite transitions. Aragonite fabrics are well-preserved and represent primary features. In order to shed light on the factors that control alternating calcite and aragonite precipitation, elemental (Mg, Sr, Ba, U, P, Y, Pb, Al, Ti and Th) abundances were measured using LA-ICP-MS, and analysed with Principal Component Analysis. Samples were analyzed at 100-200 μm resolution across stratigraphic and lateral transitions. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were analysed at 100 μm resolution covering stratigraphic calcite-to-aragonite transitions. Results show that the precipitation of aragonite was driven by a decrease in effective rainfall, which enhanced prior calcite precipitation. Different geochemical patterns are observed between calcite and aragonite when comparing data from the Grotte de Piste and Grotte Prison de Chien. This may be explained by the increased dripwater Mg/Ca ratio and enhanced prior aragonite precipitation in the dolostone cave versus lower dripwater Mg/Ca ratio and prior calcite precipitation in the limestone cave. A full understanding for the presence of lateral calcite-to-aragonite transitions is not reached. Trace elemental analysis, however, does suggest that different crystallographic parameters (ionic radius, amount of crystal defect sites, adsorption potential) may have a direct effect on the incorporation of Sr, Mg, Ba, Al, Ti, Th and possibly Y and P.

  4. Wurtzite-derived ternary I-III-O2 semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Omata, Takahisa; Nagatani, Hiraku; Suzuki, Issei; Kita, Masao

    2015-04-01

    Ternary zincblende-derived I-III-VI2 chalcogenide and II-IV-V2 pnictide semiconductors have been widely studied and some have been put to practical use. In contrast to the extensive research on these semiconductors, previous studies into ternary I-III-O2 oxide semiconductors with a wurtzite-derived β-NaFeO2 structure are limited. Wurtzite-derived β-LiGaO2 and β-AgGaO2 form alloys with ZnO and the band gap of ZnO can be controlled to include the visible and ultraviolet regions. β-CuGaO2, which has a direct band gap of 1.47 eV, has been proposed for use as a light absorber in thin film solar cells. These ternary oxides may thus allow new applications for oxide semiconductors. However, information about wurtzite-derived ternary I-III-O2 semiconductors is still limited. In this paper we review previous studies on β-LiGaO2, β-AgGaO2 and β-CuGaO2 to determine guiding principles for the development of wurtzite-derived I-III-O2 semiconductors.

  5. Emission factors of air toxics from semiconductor manufacturing in Korea.

    PubMed

    Eom, Yun-Sung; Hong, Ji-Hyung; Lee, Suk-Jo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Cha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Dae-Gyun; Bang, Sun-Ae

    2006-11-01

    The development of local, accurate emission factors is very important for the estimation of reliable national emissions and air quality management. For that, this study is performed for pollutants released to the atmosphere with source-specific emission tests from the semiconductor manufacturing industry. The semiconductor manufacturing industry is one of the major sources of air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); thus, understanding the emission characteristics of the emission source is a very important factor in the development of a control strategy. However, in Korea, there is a general lack of information available on air emissions from the semiconductor industry. The major emission sources of air toxics examined from the semiconductor manufacturing industry were wet chemical stations, coating applications, gaseous operations, photolithography, and miscellaneous devices in the wafer fabrication and semiconductor packaging processes. In this study, analyses of emission characteristics, and the estimations of emission data and factors for air toxics, such as acids, bases, heavy metals, and volatile organic compounds from the semiconductor manufacturing process have been performed. The concentration of hydrogen chloride from the packaging process was the highest among all of the processes. In addition, the emission factor of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) for the packaging process was higher than that of the wafer fabrication process. Emission factors estimated in this study were compared with those of Taiwan for evaluation, and they were found to be of similar level in the case of TVOCs and fluorine compounds.

  6. Wurtzite-derived ternary I–III–O2 semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Nagatani, Hiraku; Suzuki, Issei; Kita, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Ternary zincblende-derived I–III–VI2 chalcogenide and II–IV–V2 pnictide semiconductors have been widely studied and some have been put to practical use. In contrast to the extensive research on these semiconductors, previous studies into ternary I–III–O2 oxide semiconductors with a wurtzite-derived β-NaFeO2 structure are limited. Wurtzite-derived β-LiGaO2 and β-AgGaO2 form alloys with ZnO and the band gap of ZnO can be controlled to include the visible and ultraviolet regions. β-CuGaO2, which has a direct band gap of 1.47 eV, has been proposed for use as a light absorber in thin film solar cells. These ternary oxides may thus allow new applications for oxide semiconductors. However, information about wurtzite-derived ternary I–III–O2 semiconductors is still limited. In this paper we review previous studies on β-LiGaO2, β-AgGaO2 and β-CuGaO2 to determine guiding principles for the development of wurtzite-derived I–III–O2 semiconductors. PMID:27877769

  7. "Dip-Pen" nanolithography on semiconductor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ivanisevic, A; Mirkin, C A

    2001-08-15

    Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) uses an AFM tip to deposit organic molecules through a meniscus onto an underlying substrate under ambient conditions. Thus far, the methodology has been developed exclusively for gold using alkyl or aryl thiols as inks. This study describes the first application of DPN to write organic patterns with sub-100 nm dimensions directly onto two different semiconductor surfaces: silicon and gallium arsenide. Using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as the ink in the DPN procedure, we were able to utilize lateral force microscopy (LFM) images to differentiate between oxidized semiconductor surfaces and patterned areas with deposited monolayers of HMDS. The choice of the silazane ink is a critical component of the process since adsorbates such as trichlorosilanes are incompatible with the water meniscus and polymerize during ink deposition. This work provides insight into additional factors, such as temperature and adsorbate reactivity, that control the rate of the DPN process and paves the way for researchers to interface organic and biological structures generated via DPN with electronically important semiconductor substrates.

  8. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal based fluorescent cellular imaging probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Palmal, Sharbari; Basiruddin, Sk; Karan, Niladri Sekhar; Sarkar, Suresh; Pradhan, Narayan; Jana, Nikhil R.

    2013-05-01

    Doped semiconductor nanocrystals such as Mn doped ZnS, Mn doped ZnSe and Cu doped InZnS, are considered as new classes of fluorescent biological probes with low toxicity. Although the synthesis in high quality of such nanomaterials is now well established, transforming them into functional fluorescent probes remains a challenge. Here we report a fluorescent cellular imaging probe made of high quality doped semiconductor nanocrystals. We have identified two different coating approaches suitable for transforming the as synthesized hydrophobic doped semiconductor nanocrystals into water-soluble functional nanoparticles. Following these approaches we have synthesized TAT-peptide- and folate-functionalized nanoparticles of 10-80 nm hydrodynamic diameter and used them as a fluorescent cell label. The results shows that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can be an attractive alternative for conventional cadmium based quantum dots with low toxicity.Doped semiconductor nanocrystals such as Mn doped ZnS, Mn doped ZnSe and Cu doped InZnS, are considered as new classes of fluorescent biological probes with low toxicity. Although the synthesis in high quality of such nanomaterials is now well established, transforming them into functional fluorescent probes remains a challenge. Here we report a fluorescent cellular imaging probe made of high quality doped semiconductor nanocrystals. We have identified two different coating approaches suitable for transforming the as synthesized hydrophobic doped semiconductor nanocrystals into water-soluble functional nanoparticles. Following these approaches we have synthesized TAT-peptide- and folate-functionalized nanoparticles of 10-80 nm hydrodynamic diameter and used them as a fluorescent cell label. The results shows that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can be an attractive alternative for conventional cadmium based quantum dots with low toxicity. Electronic supplementary information available: Characterization details of coating and

  9. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III–V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows. PMID:22163382

  10. Signal processing for semiconductor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1982-02-01

    A balanced perspective is provided on the processing of signals produced by semiconductor detectors. The general problems of pulse shaping to optimize resolution with constraints imposed by noise, counting rate and rise time fluctuations are discussed.

  11. Optical properties of semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Joong-Kon

    Thanks to the difference in energy gap between two semiconductors and to their different indices of refraction, semiconductor heterostructures can confine electrons as well as photons. This property makes it possible to build semiconductor-based optical resonators (microcavities) with a radiation dipole (a quantum well) in its midst to investigate the coupling between the optical modes of the microcavity with the exciton modes of the quantum well. Such an interaction, besides its intrinsic interest, is relevant to vertically-emitting semiconductor lasers, based on the quantum well- microcavity system. In this thesis, we will present experimental evidence of temperature and electric-field dependent exciton-cavity coupling in GaAs-GaAlAs microcavities.

  12. Integrated semiconductor-magnetic random access memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present disclosure describes a non-volatile magnetic random access memory (RAM) system having a semiconductor control circuit and a magnetic array element. The integrated magnetic RAM system uses CMOS control circuit to read and write data magnetoresistively. The system provides a fast access, non-volatile, radiation hard, high density RAM for high speed computing.

  13. Predictive simulations of semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Giulia

    2005-03-01

    Ab-initio simulations are playing an increasingly important role in understanding matter at the nanoscale and in predicting with controllable, quantitative accuracy the novel and complex properties of nanomaterials. A microscopic, fundamental understanding of nanoscale phenomena is very much in demand, as experimental investigations are sometimes controversial and usually they cannot be explained on the basis of simple models. In this talk, ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations and quantum monte carlo calculations of semiconductor nanoparticles will be presented, with focus on electronic and optical properties and on the microscopic structure of surfaces at the nanoscale. The characterization of nanoscale surfaces and interfaces is of paramount importance to predict the function of nanomaterials, and eventually their assembly into macroscopic solids, and it is still very challenging from an experimental standpoint, due to the lack of appropriate imaging techniques. The presentation will focus on Si, Ge, SiC nanoparticles and nanodiamond, and in addition we will discuss several results for II-VI dots and rods. (*) Work done in collaboration with G.Cicero, E.Draeger, J.Grossman, F.Gygi, D.Prendergast, A.Puzder, J.-Y.Raty, F.Reboredo, E.Schwegler, A.Williamson This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by the University of California at the LLNL under contract no W-7405-Eng-48

  14. Dye Sensitization of Semiconductor Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hartland, G. V.

    2003-01-13

    In this project electron transfer at semiconductor liquid interfaces was examined by ultrafast time-resolved and steady-state optical techniques. The experiments primarily yielded information about the electron transfer from titanium dioxide semiconductor particles to absorbed molecules. The results show that the rate of electron transfer depends on the structure of the molecule, and the crystalline phase of the particle. These results can be qualitatively explained by Marcus theory for electron transfer.

  15. Semiconductor crystal high resolution imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Craig S. (Inventor); Matteson, James (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A radiation imaging device (10). The radiation image device (10) comprises a subject radiation station (12) producing photon emissions (14), and at least one semiconductor crystal detector (16) arranged in an edge-on orientation with respect to the emitted photons (14) to directly receive the emitted photons (14) and produce a signal. The semiconductor crystal detector (16) comprises at least one anode and at least one cathode that produces the signal in response to the emitted photons (14).

  16. Laser Assisted Semiconductor Device Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-30

    In strongly absorbing semiconductors, the dominant absorption mechanism at frequencies higher than the bandgap frequency is interband transitions. The...current). The solution for miconductors. In strongly absorbing semiconductors, the n(x,t ) is a closed-form expression consisting of complemen- dominant 0...representative profles are shown in Fis. $-12. o -- For Nd: YAG in silicon. E, _0.99hv and the profiks are therefore and-gap recombination dominated

  17. Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

  18. Stable isotopes in tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, Danny; Loader, Neil J.

    2004-04-01

    Stable isotopes in tree rings could provide palaeoclimate reconstructions with perfect annual resolution and statistically defined confidence limits. Recent advances make the approach viable for non-specialist laboratories. The relevant literature is, however, spread across several disciplines, with common problems approached in different ways. Here we provide the first overview of isotope dendroclimatology, explaining the underlying theory and describing the steps taken in building and interpreting isotope chronologies. Stable carbon isotopes record the balance between stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate, dominated at dry sites by relative humidity and soil water status and at moist sites by summer irradiance and temperature. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios record source water, which contains a temperature signal, and leaf transpiration, controlled dominantly by vapour pressure deficit. Variable exchange with xylem (source) water during wood synthesis determines the relative strength of the source water and leaf enrichment signals. Producing long Holocene chronologies will require a change in emphasis towards processing very large numbers of samples efficiently, whilst retaining analytical precision. A variety of sample preparation and data treatment protocols have been used, some of which have a deleterious effect on the palaeoclimate signal. These are reviewed and suggestions made for a more standardised approach.

  19. Isotopic Randomness and Maxwell's Demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2005-03-01

    Isotopic disorder in crystals can lead to suppression of thermal conductivity, mobility variations and (weak) Anderson localization on isotopic fluctuations. The latter (AAB, J.ChemPhys.1984) is akin to polaron effect (self-localization due polarization). Possibility of isotopic patterning (IP) increases near melting point (thermally activated isotopic hopping swaps). Crystal near melting threshold become “informationally sensitive” as if its IP is operated by some external Maxwell’s Demon, MD (AAB, URAM J, 2002). At this state short range (e.g. electrostatic inverse square) forces evolve into long-range interactions (due to divergence of order parameter) and information sensitivity can be further amplified by (say) a single fast electron (e.g. beta-particle from decay of 14-C or other radioactive isotope) which may result in cascade of impact ionization events and (short time-scale) enhancement of screening by impact-generated non-equilibrium (non-thermal) electrons. In this state informationally driven (MD-controlled) IP (Eccles effect) can result in decrease of positional entropy signifying emergence of physical complexity out of pure information, similar to peculiar “jinni effect” on closed time loops in relativistic cosmology (R.J.Gott, 2001) or Wheeler’s “it from bit” metaphor. By selecting special IP, MD modifies ergodicity principle in favor of info rich states.

  20. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C. for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal.

  1. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device is disclosed. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500 C to about 700 C for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal. 1 fig.

  2. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of tree-ring cellulose for riparian trees grown long-term under hydroponically controlled environments.

    PubMed

    Roden, J S; Ehleringer, James R

    1999-12-01

    Saplings of three riparian tree species (alder, birch and cottonwood) were grown for over 5 months in a hydroponics system that maintained the isotopic composition of source water in six treatments, ranging from -120 to +180‰δD and -15 to +10‰δ(18)O. The trees were grown in two greenhouses maintained at 25°C and at either 40 or 75% relative humidity, creating differences in transpiration rates and leaf water isotopic evaporative enrichment. The cellulose produced in the annual growth ring was linearly related to source water with differences in both slope and offset associated with greenhouse humidity. The slope of the isotopic composition of source water versus tree-ring cellulose was less than 1 for both δD and δ(18)O indicating incomplete isotopic exchange of carbohydrate substrate with xylem water during cellulose synthesis. Tests using the outer portion of the tree-ring and new roots were similar and showed that the tree-ring values were representative of the cellulose laid down under the imposed environmental conditions. The fraction of H and O in carbohydrate substrate that isotopically exchange with medium water was calculated to be 0.36 and 0.42 respectively, and biochemical mechanisms for these observed fractions are discussed. A mechanistic model of the biochemical fractionation events for both δD and δ(18)O leading to cellulose synthesis was robust over the wide range of cellulose stable isotope ratios. The experimental results indicate that both water source and humidity information are indeed recorded in tree-ring cellulose. These results help to resolve some of the disparate observations regarding the interpretation of stable isotope ratios in tree-rings found in the literature.

  3. Method and apparatus for use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors in optical communications

    DOEpatents

    Hui, Rongqing; Jiang,Hong-Xing; Lin, Jing-Yu

    2008-03-18

    The present disclosure relates to the use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductor materials for optical communications. In one embodiment, an optical device includes an optical waveguide device fabricated using a III-nitride semiconductor material. The III-nitride semiconductor material provides for an electrically controllable refractive index. The optical waveguide device provides for high speed optical communications in an infrared wavelength region. In one embodiment, an optical amplifier is provided using optical coatings at the facet ends of a waveguide formed of erbium-doped III-nitride semiconductor materials.

  4. Generic process for preparing a crystalline oxide upon a group IV semiconductor substrate

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2000-01-01

    A process for growing a crystalline oxide epitaxially upon the surface of a Group IV semiconductor, as well as a structure constructed by the process, is described. The semiconductor can be germanium or silicon, and the crystalline oxide can generally be represented by the formula (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m in which "n" and "m" are non-negative integer repeats of planes of the alkaline earth oxides or the alkaline earth-containing perovskite oxides. With atomic level control of interfacial thermodynamics in a multicomponent semiconductor/oxide system, a highly perfect interface between a semiconductor and a crystalline oxide can be obtained.

  5. Changes in Natural Abundance Carbon Stable isotopes of Human Blood and Saliva After 24 Days of Controlled Carbohydrate Supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, R. A.; Jahren, A. H.; Baer, D. J.; Caballero, B.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of corporate agriculture, large-scale economic decisions have given rise to unique global environmental effects. Emphasis on corn production results in dramatic changes in nitrogen and water cycling via the intensive cultivation practices necessary to support Zea mays (Tilman, 1998). In particular, consumption of corn derived food additive high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased more than 1000% since 1970 and may be associated with the epidemics of obesity and diabetes (Bray et al., 2004). Plausible mechanisms for an adverse effect of fructose load on glucose homeostasis have been proposed (Havel, 2005). The unusually heavy 13C signature of corn, as compared to other plants, offers the opportunity to develop a biomarker for sugar consumption. Among the many experiments that are needed to establish such a technique, the demonstration of change in 13C signature of human tissues with known change in carbohydrate consumption is foremost. Here we report on a controlled feeding study performed in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to test the effect of supplementation of human diet with carbohydrate of known δ13C value. During this study, 13 individuals were fed a typical American diet (32% calories from fat, 15% calories from protein, 53% carbohydrate) for ~six months. Each participant was fed a random sequence of carbohydrate supplements (50 grams of supplement per day): 1. resistant maltodextrin (δ13C = -10.59‰); 2. maltodextrin (δ13C = -23.95‰); 3. a 50-50 mixture of the two (δ13C = -15.94‰). After 24 days of feeding, subjects showed enrichment in blood serum that was significantly correlated (p = 0.0038) with the δ13C value of the supplement. However, blood clot and saliva showed no such correlation, suggesting that the half-lives of these substrates may render them unsuitable for carbohydrate dietary reconstruction over day-to-month timescales. All subjects of the study showed a net enrichment in

  6. 75 FR 49526 - Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Tempe, AZ; Freescale Semiconductor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Tempe, AZ; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Woburn, MA; Amended Certification Regarding... Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Tempe, Arizona. The notice was published in the...

  7. Soluble maize fibre affects short-term calcium absorption in adolescent boys and girls: a randomised controlled trial using dual stable isotopic tracers.

    PubMed

    Whisner, Corrie M; Martin, Berdine R; Nakatsu, Cindy H; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda D; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2014-08-14

    Soluble maize fibre (SCF) has been found to significantly improve bone mineral density and strength in growing rats compared with several other novel prebiotic fibres. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of SCF on Ca absorption and retention in pubertal children by studying the potential absorption mechanisms of the intestinal microbiota. A total of twenty-four adolescent boys and girls (12-15 years) participated in two 3-week metabolic balance studies testing 0 g/d SCF (control (CON) treatment) and 12 g/d SCF (SCF treatment) in a random order by inclusion in a low-Ca diet (600 mg/d). Fractional Ca absorption was measured at the end of the two intervention periods using a dual-stable isotope method. Diet composites and faecal and urine samples were collected daily and analysed for Ca content. Ca retention was calculated as dietary Ca intake minus Ca excretion in faeces and urine over the last 2 weeks. Microbial community composition in the faecal samples collected at the beginning and end of each session was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Fractional Ca absorption was 12 % higher (41 mg/d) after the SCF treatment compared with that after the CON treatment (0·664 (sd 0·129) and 0·595 (sd 0·142), respectively; P= 0·02), but Ca retention was unaffected. The average proportion of bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly greater in the participants after the SCF treatment than after the CON treatment. These results suggest that moderate daily intake of SCF, a well-tolerated prebiotic fibre, increases short-term Ca absorption in adolescents consuming less than the recommended amounts of Ca.

  8. Control of Origin of Sesame Oil from Various Countries by Stable Isotope Analysis and DNA Based Markers—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Horacek, Micha; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Burg, Kornel; Soja, Gerhard; Okello-Anyanga, Walter; Fluch, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The indication of origin of sesame seeds and sesame oil is one of the important factors influencing its price, as it is produced in many regions worldwide and certain provenances are especially sought after. We joined stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis with DNA based molecular marker analysis to study their combined potential for the discrimination of different origins of sesame seeds. For the stable carbon and hydrogen isotope data a positive correlation between both isotope parameters was observed, indicating a dominant combined influence of climate and water availability. This enabled discrimination between sesame samples from tropical and subtropical/moderate climatic provenances. Carbon isotope values also showed differences between oil from black and white sesame seeds from identical locations, indicating higher water use efficiency of plants producing black seeds. DNA based markers gave independent evidence for geographic variation as well as provided information on the genetic relatedness of the investigated samples. Depending on the differences in ambient environmental conditions and in the genotypic fingerprint, a combination of both analytical methods is a very powerful tool to assess the declared geographic origin. To our knowledge this is the first paper on food authenticity combining the stable isotope analysis of bio-elements with DNA based markers and their combined statistical analysis. PMID:25831054

  9. Control of origin of sesame oil from various countries by stable isotope analysis and DNA based markers--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Horacek, Micha; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Burg, Kornel; Soja, Gerhard; Okello-Anyanga, Walter; Fluch, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The indication of origin of sesame seeds and sesame oil is one of the important factors influencing its price, as it is produced in many regions worldwide and certain provenances are especially sought after. We joined stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis with DNA based molecular marker analysis to study their combined potential for the discrimination of different origins of sesame seeds. For the stable carbon and hydrogen isotope data a positive correlation between both isotope parameters was observed, indicating a dominant combined influence of climate and water availability. This enabled discrimination between sesame samples from tropical and subtropical/moderate climatic provenances. Carbon isotope values also showed differences between oil from black and white sesame seeds from identical locations, indicating higher water use efficiency of plants producing black seeds. DNA based markers gave independent evidence for geographic variation as well as provided information on the genetic relatedness of the investigated samples. Depending on the differences in ambient environmental conditions and in the genotypic fingerprint, a combination of both analytical methods is a very powerful tool to assess the declared geographic origin. To our knowledge this is the first paper on food authenticity combining the stable isotope analysis of bio-elements with DNA based markers and their combined statistical analysis.

  10. Isotope effects on desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into stainless steel by glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, M.; Kondo, M.; Noda, N.; Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K.

    2015-03-15

    In a fusion device the control of fuel particles implies to know the desorption rate of hydrogen isotopes by the plasma-facing materials. In this paper desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into type 316L stainless steel by glow discharge have been studied by experiment and numerical calculation. The temperature of a maximum desorption rate depends on glow discharge time and heating rate. Desorption spectra observed under various experimental conditions have been successfully reproduced by numerical simulations that are based on a diffusion-limited process. It is suggested, therefore, that desorption rate of a hydrogen isotope implanted into the stainless steel is limited by a diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms in bulk. Furthermore, small isotope effects were observed for the diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms. (authors)

  11. METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION

    DOEpatents

    Spevack, J.S.

    1957-04-01

    An isotope concentration process is described which consists of exchanging, at two or more different temperature stages, two isotopes of an element between substances that are physically separate from each other and each of which is capable of containing either of the isotopes, and withdrawing from a point between at least two of the temperatare stages one of the substances containing an increased concentration of the desired isotope.

  12. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters

  13. Semiconductor technology for reducing emissions and increasing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Duffin, B.; Frank, R.

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation and support of all industries are required to significantly impact a worldwide reduction in gaseous emissions that may contribute to climate change. Each industry also is striving to more efficiently utilize the resources that it consumes since this is both conservation for good citizenship and an intelligent approach to business. The semiconductor industry is also extremely concerned with these issues. However, semiconductor manufacturer`s products provide solutions for reduced emissions and increased efficiency in their industry, other industries and areas that can realize significant improvements through control technology. This paper will focus on semiconductor technologies of digital control, power switching and sensing to improve efficiency and reduce emissions in automotive, industrial, and office/home applications. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Efficient semiconductor light-emitting device and method

    DOEpatents

    Choquette, Kent D.; Lear, Kevin L.; Schneider, Jr., Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    A semiconductor light-emitting device and method. The semiconductor light-emitting device is provided with at least one control layer or control region which includes an annular oxidized portion thereof to channel an injection current into the active region, and to provide a lateral refractive index profile for index guiding the light generated within the device. A periodic composition grading of at least one of the mirror stacks in the device provides a reduced operating voltage of the device. The semiconductor light-emitting device has a high efficiency for light generation, and may be formed either as a resonant-cavity light-emitting diode (RCLED) or as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL).

  15. Efficient semiconductor light-emitting device and method

    DOEpatents

    Choquette, K.D.; Lear, K.L.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1996-02-20

    A semiconductor light-emitting device and method are disclosed. The semiconductor light-emitting device is provided with at least one control layer or control region which includes an annular oxidized portion thereof to channel an injection current into the active region, and to provide a lateral refractive index profile for index guiding the light generated within the device. A periodic composition grading of at least one of the mirror stacks in the device provides a reduced operating voltage of the device. The semiconductor light-emitting device has a high efficiency for light generation, and may be formed either as a resonant-cavity light-emitting diode (RCLED) or as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). 12 figs.

  16. Dielectric screening in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Walter A.; Klepeis, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Intra-atomic and interatomic Coulomb interactions are incorporated into bond-orbital theory, based upon universal tight-binding parameters, in order to treat the effects of charge redistribution in semiconductor bonds. The dielectric function ɛ(q) is obtained for wave numbers in a [100] direction. The screening of differences in average hybrid energy across a heterojunction is calculated in detail, indicating that the decay length for the potential depends upon the relative values of Madelung and intra-atomic Coulomb terms. The parameters used here predict an imaginary decay length and thus an oscillating potential near the interface. The same theory is applied to point defects by imbedding a cluster in a matrix lattice, taking charges in that lattice to be consistent with continuum theory. Illustrating the theory with a phosphorus impurity in silicon, it is seen that the impurity and its neighboring atoms have charges on the order of only one-tenth of an electronic charge, alternating in sign from neighbor to neighbor as for planar defects. Although there are shifts in the term values on the order of a volt, the difference in these shifts for neighboring atoms is much smaller so that the effect on the bonds is quite small. This behavior is analogous to the response of a dielectric continuum to a point charge: The medium is locally neutral except at the center of the cluster and there are slowly varying potentials e2/ɛr. Because of this slow variation, free-atom term values should ordinarily suffice for the calculation of bond properties and bond lengths at impurities. Corrections are larger for homovalent substitutions such as carbon in silicon.

  17. Cosmic ray isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    The isotopic composition of cosmic rays is studied in order to develop the relationship between cosmic rays and stellar processes. Cross section and model calculations are reported on isotopes of H, He, Be, Al and Fe. Satellite instrument measuring techniques separate only the isotopes of the lighter elements.

  18. Isotope reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic reference materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.

  19. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    PubMed Central

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.; Krol, M. C.; Hofmann, M. E. G.

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a molecule, which is the conventional reference. When multiple indistinguishable atoms of the same element are present in a molecule, this reference is calculated from the bulk (≈average) isotopic composition of the involved atoms. We show here that this referencing convention leads to apparent negative clumped isotope anomalies (anti-clumping) when the indistinguishable atoms originate from isotopically different populations. Such statistical clumped isotope anomalies must occur in any system where two or more indistinguishable atoms of the same element, but with different isotopic composition, combine in a molecule. The size of the anti-clumping signal is closely related to the difference of the initial isotope ratios of the indistinguishable atoms that have combined. Therefore, a measured statistical clumped isotope anomaly, relative to an expected (e.g. thermodynamical) clumped isotope composition, may allow assessment of the heterogeneity of the isotopic pools of atoms that are the substrate for formation of molecules. PMID:27535168

  20. Interactions between semiconductor nanowires and living cells.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Christelle N

    2015-06-17

    Semiconductor nanowires are increasingly used for biological applications and their small dimensions make them a promising tool for sensing and manipulating cells with minimal perturbation. In order to interface cells with nanowires in a controlled fashion, it is essential to understand the interactions between nanowires and living cells. The present paper reviews current progress in the understanding of these interactions, with knowledge gathered from studies where living cells were interfaced with vertical nanowire arrays. The effect of nanowires on cells is reported in terms of viability, cell-nanowire interface morphology, cell behavior, changes in gene expression as well as cellular stress markers. Unexplored issues and unanswered questions are discussed.