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Sample records for isotopically controlled semiconductors

  1. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    2004-11-15

    A review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors is presented. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, can be considered the most important one for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples. Manuel Cardona, the longtime editor-in-chief of Solid State Communications has been and continues to be one of the major contributors to this field of solid state physics and it is a great pleasure to dedicate this review to him.

  2. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  3. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E. E.

    2010-07-15

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  4. Diffusion in isotopically controlled semiconductor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracht, H.

    1999-12-01

    Isotopically controlled heterostructures of 28Si/natSi and Al71GaAs/Al69GaAs/71GaAs have been used to study the self-diffusion process in this elemental and compound semiconductor material. The directly measured Si self-diffusion coefficient is compared with the self-interstitial and vacancy contribution to self-diffusion which were deduced from metal diffusion experiments. The remarkable agreement between the Si self-diffusion coefficients and the individual contributions to self-diffusion shows that both self-interstitials and vacancies mediate Si self-diffusion. The Ga self-diffusion in undoped AlGaAs was found to decrease with increasing Al concentration. The activation enthalpy of Ga and Al diffusion in GaAs and of Ga diffusion in AlGaAs all lie in the range of (3.6±0.1) eV, but with different pre-exponential factors. The doping dependence of Ga self-diffusion reveals a retardation (enhancement) of Ga diffusion under p-type (n-type) doping compared to intrinsic conditions. All experimental results on the group-III atom diffusion are accurately described if vacancies on the group-III sublattice are assumed to mediate the Ga self- and Al-Ga interdiffusion in undoped AlGaAs and the Ga self-diffusion in Be- and Si-doped GaAs with an active dopant concentration of 3×1018 cm-3. The doping dependence of Ga self-diffusion in GaAs provides strong evidence that neutral, singly and doubly charged Ga vacancies govern the self-diffusion process.

  5. Physics with chemically and isotopically pure semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Chemically and isotopically pure semiconductors offer a wealth of interesting physics. We review a number of impurity complexes which were discovered in ultrapure Germanium. The have led the way to the widely pursued studies of hydrogen in numerous semiconductors. Isotope related effects and processes include neutron transmutation doping, a technique used for a number of silicon and germanium devices. Isotopically pure and deliberately mixed crystals of germanium have been grown recently and have been used to study the dependence of the indirect bandgap and phonon properties on the mass and mass disorder of the nuclei. The large number of stable isotopes of the various semiconductors present a great potential for basic and applied studies. Semi-conductor isotope engineering may become a reality because of the new economic and political world order.

  6. Physics with chemically and isotopically pure semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, E. E.

    1993-05-01

    Chemically and isotopically pure semiconductors offer a wealth of interesting physics. We review a number of impurity complexes which were discovered in ultrapure Germanium. They have led the way to the widely pursued studies of hydrogen in numerous semiconductors. Isotope related effects and processes include neutron transmutation doping, a technique used for a number of silicon and germanium devices. Isotopically pure and deliberately mixed crystals of germanium have been grown recently and have been used to study the dependence of the indirect bandgap and phonon properties on the mass and mass disorder of the nuclei. The large number of stable isotopes of the various semiconductors present a great potential for basic and applied studies. Semi-conductor isotope engineering may become a reality because of the new economic and political world order.

  7. Power semiconductor controlled drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Gopal K.

    This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.

  8. Isotope effects on the optical spectra of semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Manuel; Thewalt, M. L. W.

    2005-10-01

    Since the end of the cold war, macroscopic amounts of separated stable isotopes of most elements have been available “off the shelf” at affordable prices. Using these materials, single crystals of many semiconductors have been grown and the dependence of their physical properties on isotopic composition has been investigated. The most conspicuous effects observed have to do with the dependence of phonon frequencies and linewidths on isotopic composition. These affect the electronic properties of solids through the mechanism of electron-phonon interaction, in particular, in the corresponding optical excitation spectra and energy gaps. This review contains a brief introduction to the history, availability, and characterization of stable isotopes, including their many applications in science and technology. It is followed by a concise discussion of the effects of isotopic composition on the vibrational spectra, including the influence of average isotopic masses and isotopic disorder on the phonons. The final sections deal with the effects of electron-phonon interaction on energy gaps, the concomitant effects on the luminescence spectra of free and bound excitons, with particular emphasis on silicon, and the effects of isotopic composition of the host material on the optical transitions between the bound states of hydrogenic impurities.

  9. Cameras for semiconductor process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, W. A.; Parker, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The application of X-ray topography to semiconductor process control is described, considering the novel features of the high speed camera and the difficulties associated with this technique. The most significant results on the effects of material defects on device performance are presented, including results obtained using wafers processed entirely within this institute. Defects were identified using the X-ray camera and correlations made with probe data. Also included are temperature dependent effects of material defects. Recent applications and improvements of X-ray topographs of silicon-on-sapphire and gallium arsenide are presented with a description of a real time TV system prototype and of the most recent vacuum chuck design. Discussion is included of our promotion of the use of the camera by various semiconductor manufacturers.

  10. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  11. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  12. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  13. ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-08-25

    An improved isotope separating apparatus of the electromagnetic type, commonly referred to as a calutron, is described. Improvements in detecting and maintaining optimum position and focus of the ion beam are given. The calutron collector is provided with an additional electrode insulated from and positioned between the collecting pockets. The ion beams are properly positioned and focused until the deionizing current which flows from ground to this additional electrode ts a minimum.

  14. Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark

    2013-02-07

    Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.

  15. Microeconomics of process control in semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.

    2003-06-01

    Process window control enables accelerated design-rule shrinks for both logic and memory manufacturers, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of process window control to maximum profitability are rare. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the maximum rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We show that the ability of process window control to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process variation at the lot, wafer, x-wafer, x-field, and x-chip levels. We conclude that x-wafer and x-field CD control strategies will be critical enablers of density, performance and optimum profitability at the 90 and 65nm technology nodes. These analyses correlate well with actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential incremental revenue and cost savings. As an example, we show that a scatterometry-based CD Process Window Monitor is an economically justified, enabling technology for the 65nm node.

  16. Disorder-induced phonon self-energy of semiconductors with binary isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widulle, F.; Serrano, J.; Cardona, M.

    2002-02-01

    Self-energy effects of Raman phonons in isotopically disordered semiconductors are deduced by perturbation theory and compared to experimental data. In contrast to the acoustic frequency region, higher-order terms contribute significantly to the self-energy at optical phonon frequencies. The asymmetric dependence of the self-energy of a binary isotope system m1-xMx on the concentration of the heavier isotope mass x can be explained by taking into account second- and third-order perturbation terms. For elemental semiconductors, the maximum of the self-energy occurs at concentrations with 0.5

  17. Semiconductor nanowires: Controlled growth and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiying

    This dissertation presents an experimental study of the controlled growth of semiconductor nanowires and their thermophysical properties. The synthesis of nanowires was based on the well-known Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism in which the growth of nanowire is initiated by a nanosized liquid droplet. The prepared nanowires are single-crystalline with certain preferred growth direction. Nanowires with different compositions have been synthesized, including Si, Ge, boron and MgB2. The control of nanowire composition, diameter and orientation has also been achieved. In addition, a Pulsed Laser Ablation-Chemical Vapor Deposition (PLA-CVD) hybrid process was developed to synthesize Si/SiGe longitudinally superlattice nanowires. The thermal conductivity of individual pure Si nanowire and Si/SiGe nanowire was measured using a microfabricated suspended device over a temperature range of 20--320 K. The thermal conductivities of individual 22, 37, 56, and 115 nm diameter single crystalline intrinsic Si nanowires were much lower than the bulk value due to the strong phonon boundary scattering. Except for the 22 nm diameter nanowire, theoretical predictions using a modified Callaway model fit the experimental data very well. The data for the 22 nm diameter wire suggest that changes in phonon dispersion due to confinement can cause additional thermal conductivity reduction. The Si/SiGe superlattice nanowires with diameters of 83 run and 58 nm were also measured. Their thermal conductivities are smaller than pure Si nanowire with similar diameter, as well as Si/SiGe superlattice thin film with comparable period. Both the alloying scattering and the boundary scattering are believed to contribute to this reduction. Size dependent melting-recrystallization study of the carbon-sheathed semiconductor Ge nanowires was carried out in in-situ high temperature transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant depression in melting temperature with decreasing size of the nanowires as

  18. Two beam coherent control in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Král, P.; Sipe, J. E.

    1998-03-01

    Recently, DC current has been generated in superlatices and bulk semiconductors [1] by a simultaneous excitations with two laser beams, giving one-photon and two-photon transitions with frequencies 2ω, ω. In these experiments directionality of the current can be controlled by the relative phase of the two fields. We develop a methodology, based on nonequilibrium Green functions, describing this phenomenon in the presence of many-particle scattering. In the mean-field level of this approach, simultaneous action of the two fields can be reduced to an effective field with a tunable relative excitation strength for different wave vectors of the Brillouine zone. We derive transport equations for a `quasi'-linear, nonlinear and pulse-like excitations in this effective field. In the weak scattering limit, they agree with the Boltzmann equation with generation rates obtained from the Fermi's Golden Rule [2]. We apply the steady-state `quasi'-linear equations to a model 1D quantum wire in the presence of LA phonons, which serves as a reference system for future calculations in realistic 3D systems. Numerical results for the induced dc current are presented in many details. [1] E. Dupont et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596 (1995); A. Haché et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306 (1997). [2] R. Atanasov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703 (1996).

  19. Temperature control of power semiconductor devices in traction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugachev, A. A.; Strekalov, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    The peculiarity of thermal management of traction frequency converters of a railway rolling stock is highlighted. The topology and the operation principle of the automatic temperature control system of power semiconductor modules of the traction frequency converter are designed and discussed. The features of semiconductors as an object of temperature control are considered; the equivalent circuit of thermal processes in the semiconductors is suggested, the power losses in the two-level voltage source inverters are evaluated and analyzed. The dynamic properties and characteristics of the cooling fan induction motor electric drive with the scalar control are presented. The results of simulation in Matlab are shown for the steady state of thermal processes.

  20. Electron-Beam Controlled Semiconductor Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-02

    34 Proceedings of the 7th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference (1989) 348- 351. Thomas, B, et al., "Investigation of Surface Flashover in Silicon...Phbs- trolled semiconductor switch. In 1990 he joined the Naval Surface Warfare ical Electronics Research Institute His current research interests...field of 17 depletion region over the entire zone I1. In addition to this kV/cm. At this point, problems with surface flashover prevented depletion

  1. Controlled Chemical Doping of Semiconductor Nanocrystals Using Redox Buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Jesse H.; Surendranath, Yogesh; Alivisatos, Paul

    2013-07-20

    Semiconductor nanocrystal solids are attractive materials for active layers in next-generation optoelectronic devices; however, their efficient implementation has been impeded by the lack of precise control over dopant concentrations. Herein we demonstrate a chemical strategy for the controlled doping of nanocrystal solids under equilibrium conditions. Exposing lead selenide nanocrystal thin films to solutions containing varying proportions of decamethylferrocene and decamethylferrocenium incrementally and reversibly increased the carrier concentration in the solid by 2 orders of magnitude from their native values. This application of redox buffers for controlled doping provides a new method for the precise control of the majority carrier concentration in porous semiconductor thin films.

  2. Quality Control On Strained Semiconductor Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dommann, Alex; Neels, Antonia

    2010-11-24

    New semiconductor devices are based very often on strained silicon which promises to squeeze more device performance out of current devices. With strained silicon it is possible to get the same device performance using less power. The technique is using strain as a 'design element' for silicon to improve the device performance and has become a hot topic in semiconductor research in the past years. However in the same time topics like 'System in Package'(SiP) on thin wafers are getting more and more important. The chips of thin wafers in advanced packaging are extremely sensitive to induced stresses due to packaging issues. If we are using now strain as a design element for improving device performance we increase the sensitivity again and therefore also the risk of aging of such SiP's. High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) techniques such as Rocking Curves (RC's) and Reciprocal Space Mapping (RSM) are therefore very powerful tools to study the stresses in packaged devices.

  3. Carbon isotope controlled molecular switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Brian K.

    Single molecules represent one fundamental limit to the downscaling of electronics. As a prototype element for carbon-based nanoscale science and technology, the detailed behavior of carbon monoxide (CO) on the copper surface Cu(111) has been investigated. These investigations span from individual carbon isotope resolution, to single molecules, to compact clusters assembled by molecular manipulation via a homemade scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Sub-nanoscale devices, composed of only a few molecules, which exploit both lone CO properties and molecule-molecule interaction, have been designed and assembled. The devices function as bi-stable switches and can serve as classical bits with densities > 50 Tbits/cm2. Operated in the nuclear mass sensitive regime, each switch can also function as a molecular "centrifuge" capable of identifying the isotope of a single carbon atom in real-time. A model, based on electron-vibron couping and inelastic tunneling, has been developed and explains the dynamic behavior of the switch. The interaction between pairs of switches was also explored and it was found that their behavior ranges from completely independent to strongly coupled. Larger nanostructures, which were composed of many sub-switches organized to leverage the fully coupled interaction, link two spatially separated "bits" on the surface. Such a linked system can set or read a state non-locally, which is equivalent to bidirectional information transfer. The linked system has also exhibited logic functionality. These experiments demonstrate scalable molecular cells for information storage, and for information processing through cellular automata logic schemes.

  4. Methods of Measurement for Semiconductor Materials, Process Control, and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reported. Significant accomplishments include: (1) Completion of an initial identification of the more important problems in process control for integrated circuit fabrication and assembly; (2) preparations for making silicon bulk resistivity wafer standards available to the industry; and (3) establishment of the relationship between carrier mobility and impurity density in silicon. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; characterization of generation-recombination-trapping centers, including gold, in silicon; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; study of scanning electron microscopy for wafer inspection and test; measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices; determination of S-parameters and delay time in junction devices; and characterization of noise and conversion loss of microwave detector diodes.

  5. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    This progress report describes NBS activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices. Significant accomplishments during this reporting period include design of a plan to provide standard silicon wafers for four-probe resistivity measurements for the industry, publication of a summary report on the photoconductive decay method for measuring carrier lifetime, publication of a comprehensive review of the field of wire bond fabrication and testing, and successful completion of organizational activity leading to the establishment of a new group on quality and hardness assurance in ASTM Committee F-1 on Electronics. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; characterization of generation-recombination-trapping centers in silicon; study of gold-doped silicon; development of the infrared response technique; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; and measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices, delay time and related carrier transport properties in junction devices, and noise properties of microwave diodes.

  6. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices are described. Accomplishments include the determination of the reasons for differences in measurements of transistor delay time, identification of an energy level model for gold-doped silicon, and the finding of evidence that it does not appear to be necessary for an ultrasonic bonding tool to grip the wire and move it across the substrate metallization to make the bond. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; study of gold-doped silicon; development of the infrared response technique; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices, delay time, and related carrier transport properties in junction devices, and noise properties of microwave diodes; and characterization of silicon nuclear radiation detectors.

  7. Controlling Carrier Dynamics using Quantum-Confined Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Matthew C.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2016-06-01

    The articles included in this special issue of Chemical Physics explore the use of quantum-confined semiconductor nanocrystals to control the flow of energy and/or charge. Colloidal quantum-confined semiconductor nanostructures are an emerging class of functional materials being developed for novel opto-electronic applications. In the last few years numerous examples in the literature have emerged where novel nanostructures have been tailored such as to achieve a specific function thus moving the field from the stage of discovery of novel behaviors to that of control of nanostructure properties. In addition to the internal structure of the NCs their assemblies can be tailored to achieve emergent properties and add additional control parameters that determine the final opto-electronic properties. These principles are explored via variations in shape, size, surface ligands, heterostructuring, morphology, composition, and assemblies and are demonstrated through measurements of excited state processes, such as Auger recombination; photoluminescence; charge separation and charge transport.

  8. Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chitraleema; Kinnischtzke, Laura; Goodfellow, Kenneth M; Beams, Ryan; Vamivakas, A Nick

    2015-06-01

    Although semiconductor defects can often be detrimental to device performance, they are also responsible for the breadth of functionality exhibited by modern optoelectronic devices. Artificially engineered defects (so-called quantum dots) or naturally occurring defects in solids are currently being investigated for applications ranging from quantum information science and optoelectronics to high-resolution metrology. In parallel, the quantum confinement exhibited by atomically thin materials (semi-metals, semiconductors and insulators) has ushered in an era of flatland optoelectronics whose full potential is still being articulated. In this Letter we demonstrate the possibility of leveraging the atomically thin semiconductor tungsten diselenide (WSe2) as a host for quantum dot-like defects. We report that this previously unexplored solid-state quantum emitter in WSe2 generates single photons with emission properties that can be controlled via the application of external d.c. electric and magnetic fields. These new optically active quantum dots exhibit excited-state lifetimes on the order of 1 ns and remarkably large excitonic g-factors of 10. It is anticipated that WSe2 quantum dots will provide a novel platform for integrated solid-state quantum photonics and quantum information processing, as well as a rich condensed-matter physics playground with which to explore the coupling of quantum dots and atomically thin semiconductors.

  9. Microscopic Control of Semiconductor Interface Reactivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-10

    St. Louis, MO). Enhanced Control of Interface Reactivity for Mercury- Cadmium -Telluride. - "Purdue University, Department of Physics (Professors R...Te interfaces with simple and noble metals. Mercury- cadmium -telluride is probably the most studied 5 X 10- " Torr with coverage 0 monitored by a...were grown at McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories using a modified Bridgman method. The bulk crystals exhibited a band gap of 0. 175 ± 0.01 eV nI

  10. Investigations of semiconductor devices using SIMS; diffusion, contamination, process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Cheol; Won, Jeongyeon; Chung, Youngsu; Lee, Hyungik; Lee, Eunha; Kang, Donghun; Kim, Changjung; Choi, Jinhak; Kim, Jeomsik

    2008-12-01

    We have surveyed 22,155 analyses issues to know the portion of surface analysis at the total analyses activities. According to the survey result, the contribution of SIMS in the total analyses issues was about 7%. The portions of semiconductor process control, composition and contamination in the SIMS analyses issues are 25%, 29% and 16%, respectively. In this article, some examples of the semiconductor device process control, identification of contaminants, and failure analyses have been reviewed. The behavior of H, O, and Ti at the Pt/Ti/GaInZnO interfaces and their influences on the electrical property of thin film transistor are demonstrated. Also discolor issues including organic material contamination problem on Au pad are discussed in detail.

  11. Controllable quantum scars in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Kaplan, L.; Heller, E. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2017-09-01

    Quantum scars are enhancements of quantum probability density along classical periodic orbits. We study the recently discovered phenomenon of strong perturbation-induced quantum scarring in the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator exposed to a homogeneous magnetic field. We demonstrate that both the geometry and the orientation of the scars are fully controllable with a magnetic field and a focused perturbative potential, respectively. These properties may open a path into an experimental scheme to manipulate electric currents in nanostructures fabricated in a two-dimensional electron gas.

  12. Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical etching of semiconductor nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Wang, George T.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical (QSC-PEC) etching provides a new route to the precision fabrication of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures in the sub-10-nm size regime. For example, quantum dots (QDs) can be QSC-PEC-etched from epitaxial InGaN thin films using narrowband laser photoexcitation, and the QD sizes (and hence bandgaps and photoluminescence wavelengths) are determined by the photoexcitation wavelength.

  13. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1960-01-26

    A method is described for controlling the position of the ion beams in a calutron used for isotope separation. The U/sup 238/ beams is centered over the U/sup 235/ receiving pocket, the operator monitoring the beam until a maximum reading is achieved on the meter connected to that pocket. Then both beams are simultaneously shifted by a preselected amount to move the U/sup 235/ beam over the U/sup 235/ pocket. A slotted door is placed over the entrance to that pocket during the U/sup 238/ beam centering to reduce the contamination to the pocket, while allowing enough beam to pass for monitoring purposes.

  14. Controlling the stoichiometry and doping of semiconductor materials

    DOEpatents

    Albin, David; Burst, James; Metzger, Wyatt; Duenow, Joel; Farrell, Stuart; Colegrove, Eric

    2016-08-16

    Methods for treating a semiconductor material are provided. According to an aspect of the invention, the method includes annealing the semiconductor material in the presence of a compound that includes a first element and a second element. The first element provides an overpressure to achieve a desired stoichiometry of the semiconductor material, and the second element provides a dopant to the semiconductor material.

  15. Low temperature carrier transport properties in isotopically controlled germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kohei

    1994-12-01

    Investigations of electronic and optical properties of semiconductors often require specimens with extremely homogeneous dopant distributions and precisely controlled net-carrier concentrations and compensation ratios. The previous difficulties in fabricating such samples are overcome as reported in this thesis by growing high-purity Ge single crystals of controlled 75Ge and 70Ge isotopic compositions, and doping these crystals by the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique. The resulting net-impurity concentrations and the compensation ratios are precisely determined by the thermal neutron fluence and the [74Ge]/[70Ge] ratios of the starting Ge materials, respectively. This method also guarantees unprecedented doping uniformity. Using such samples the authors have conducted four types of electron (hole) transport studies probing the nature of (1) free carrier scattering by neutral impurities, (2) free carrier scattering by ionized impurities, (3) low temperature hopping conduction, and (4) free carrier transport in samples close to the metal-insulator transition.

  16. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices are described. Topics investigated include: measurements of transistor delay time; application of the infrared response technique to the study of radiation-damaged, lithium-drifted silicon detectors; and identification of a condition that minimizes wire flexure and reduces the failure rate of wire bonds in transistors and integrated circuits under slow thermal cycling conditions. Supplementary data concerning staff, standards committee activities, technical services, and publications are included as appendixes.

  17. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1971-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is discussed. The following subjects are also presented: (1) demonstration of the high sensitivity of the infrared response technique by the identification of gold in a germanium diode, (2) verification that transient thermal response is significantly more sensitive to the presence of voids in die attachment than steady-state thermal resistance, and (3) development of equipment for determining susceptibility of transistors to hot spot formation by the current-gain technique.

  18. Semiconductor CMP Process Control Predicting Degradation Effect of Consumed Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Kenji; Kaneko, Shun'ichi

    This paper describes a methodology to build a virtual metrology (VM) model for semiconductor chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process control. The VM model predicts the polishing rate based on equipment-derived data as soon as allowed, and immediately applies the results to advanced process control (APC). The proposed methodology uses Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to build an analytical model with many parameters for individual consumed materials from historical data in small quantities. The mutual interference of two kinds of consumed materials: dresser and pad are modeled in a form of multilevel predictive model. The methodology uses MCMC methods again to identify the multilevel predictive model taking into account the assumed operation of an actual manufacturing line, for instance, using preliminary test result, learning a model parameter online, and being affected by metrology lag as disturbance. The simulation results show the APC with the proposed VM model is low sensitivity to metrology lag and high precision on polishing amount control.

  19. Plasmas for controlling the synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Recently, nonthermal plasma synthesis of opto-electronically active semiconductor nanomaterials has attracted interest. The plasma reactor is especially attractive for synthesis of some earth-abundant and nontoxic semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), such as silicon and gallium nitride. These materials, with high melting temperatures, are more challenging to grow using the liquid-phase techniques that are successful for other materials, such as II-VI NCs. Here, plasma synthesis of high-quality NCs from these materials will be discussed, including investigations on controlling the NCs' light emission properties via physical changes in the NCs brought about by altering the plasma parameters. For example, nanoparticle crystallinity may be controlled by altering the power supplied to the plasma reactor, which has been revealed to influence both the density of atomic hydrogen and the ion density in the plasma. In addition, the surfaces of NCs (which have been shown to be crucial in determining NC luminescence properties) can be altered utilizing reactions that take place in the plasma after NC growth is finished. The features of the plasma reactor provide unique and selective control over the properties of NCs, and also allow for deposition of dense films of NCs directly from the gas-phase, in complete avoidance of liquid-phase methods. These features - crystallization of environmentally benign materials, capacity to control NC surfaces via plasma-intiated reactions, and direct deposition of these materials onto device substrates - unite in a method for ``green'' processing of nanomaterials. Future directions for utilizing plasma reactors for nanomaterials synthesis and processing will also be discussed.

  20. Active RF Pulse Compression Using An Electrically Controlled Semiconductor Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jiquan; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    First we review the theory of active pulse compression systems using resonant delay lines. Then we describe the design of an electrically controlled semiconductor active switch. The switch comprises an active window and an overmoded waveguide three-port network. The active window is based on a four-inch silicon wafer which has 960 PIN diodes. These are spatially combined in an overmoded waveguide. We describe the philosophy and design methodology for the three-port network and the active window. We then present the results of using this device to compress 11.4 GHz RF signals with high compression ratios. We show how the system can be used with amplifier like sources, in which one can change the phase of the source by manipulating the input to the source. We also show how the active switch can be used to compress a pulse from an oscillator like sources, which is not possible with passive pulse compression systems.

  1. Active RF pulse compression using an electrically controlled semiconductor switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiquan; Tantawi, Sami

    2006-11-01

    First we review the theory of active pulse compression systems using resonant delay lines. Then we describe the design of an electrically controlled semiconductor active switch. The switch comprises an active window and an overmoded waveguide three-port network. The active window is based on a four-inch silicon wafer which has 960 PIN diodes. These are spatially combined in an overmoded waveguide. We describe the philosophy and design methodology for the three-port network and the active window. We then present the results of using this device to compress 11.4 GHz RF signals with high compression ratios. We show how the system can be used with amplifier-like sources, in which one can change the phase of the source by manipulating the input to the source. We also show how the active switch can be used to compress a pulse from an oscillator-like source, which is not possible with passive pulse compression systems.

  2. Modeling Clumped Isotope Composition of Speleothems: Controls on Disequilibrium Effects and Implications for Clumped Isotope Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W.; Zhou, C.

    2016-12-01

    Speleothems represent one of the best archives of terrestrial climate, and have been important in advancing our understanding of the Earth's climate system. However, quantitative reconstruction of paleoclimate signals, e.g., temperature and precipitation, based on speleothems remains challenging, because geochemical proxies in speleothems are often affected by kinetic effects associated with speleothem formation. Recent applications of carbonate clumped isotope thermometer to speleothems are also complicated by these kinetic effects, yielding significant over-estimations of speleothem formation temperatures. Evidence suggests that these temperature overestimations are related to the kinetic isotope effects associated with degassing of CO2 from drip water, which cause deviations of clumped isotope composition of speloethems from their expected equilibrium values. Our current understanding about the controls on the exact magnitudes of these disequilibrium effects is however very limited. This hinders paleotemperature reconstruction based on clumped isotope composition of speleothems. Here we present a numerical model simulating evolution of the clumped isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in drip water and thus the clumped isotope composition of speleothems. This model, coupling models of speleothem growth in thin water films with estimates of the kinetic isotope fractionations associated with CO2 degassing, enables us to quantitatively evaluate the effects of various environmental factors (e.g., temperature, cave air pCO2, water film thickness, drip rate) on the clumped isotope composition of speleothems. Our model also simulates carbon isotope and oxygen isotope composition of speleothems. These results will also be discussed at the meeting, in relation to the clumped isotope results.

  3. Flexible distributed architecture for semiconductor process control and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gower, Aaron E.; Boning, Duane S.; McIlrath, Michael B.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductor fabrication requires an increasingly expensive and integrated set of tightly controlled processes, driving the need for a fabrication facility with fully computerized, networked processing equipment. We describe an integrated, open system architecture enabling distributed experimentation and process control for plasma etching. The system was developed at MIT's Microsystems Technology Laboratories and employs in-situ CCD interferometry based analysis in the sensor-feedback control of an Applied Materials Precision 5000 Plasma Etcher (AME5000). Our system supports accelerated, advanced research involving feedback control algorithms, and includes a distributed interface that utilizes the internet to make these fabrication capabilities available to remote users. The system architecture is both distributed and modular: specific implementation of any one task does not restrict the implementation of another. The low level architectural components include a host controller that communicates with the AME5000 equipment via SECS-II, and a host controller for the acquisition and analysis of the CCD sensor images. A cell controller (CC) manages communications between these equipment and sensor controllers. The CC is also responsible for process control decisions; algorithmic controllers may be integrated locally or via remote communications. Finally, a system server images connections from internet/intranet (web) based clients and uses a direct link with the CC to access the system. Each component communicates via a predefined set of TCP/IP socket based messages. This flexible architecture makes integration easier and more robust, and enables separate software components to run on the same or different computers independent of hardware or software platform.

  4. Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy and control of collective modes in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seletskiy, Denis V.

    In this dissertation we applied methods of ultrafast terahertz (THz) spectroscopy to study several aspects of semiconductor physics and in particular of collective mode excitations in semiconductors. We detect and analyze THz radiation emitted by these collective modes to reveal the underlying physics of many-body interactions. We review a design, implementation and characterization of our ultrafast terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy setup, with additional features of mid-infrared tunability and coherent as well as incoherent detection capabilities. Temperature characterization of the collective plasmon excitation in indium antimonide (InSb) is presented to reveal the importance of non-parabolicity corrections in quantitative description. We also obtain electronic mobility from the radiation signals, which, once corrected for ultrafast scattering mechanisms, is in good agreement with DC Hall mobility measurements. Exhibited sensitivity to non-parabolicity and electronic mobility is applicable to non-contact characterization of electronic transport in nanostructures. As a first goal of this work, we have addressed the possibility of an all-optical control of the electronic properties of condensed matter systems on an ultrafast time scale. Using femtosecond pulses we have demonstrated an ability to impose a nearly 20% blue-shift of the plasma frequency in InSb. Preliminary investigations of coherent control of the electron dynamics using third-order nonlinearity were also carried out in solid state and gaseous media. In particular, we have experimentally verified the THz coherent control in air-breakdown plasmas and have demonstrated the ability to induce quantum-interference current control in indium arsenide crystals. As a second focus of this dissertation, we have addressed manipulation of the plasmon modes in condensed matter systems. After development of the analytical model of radiation from spatially extended longitudinal modes, we have applied it to

  5. 77 FR 64143 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope..., Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application by renewal to the... registration of Cambridge Isotope Lab to manufacture the listed basic class of controlled substance...

  6. Dual Isotope SPECT Study With Epilepsy Patients Using Semiconductor SPECT System.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Tohru; Suzuki, Atsuro; Sakurai, Kotarou; Kurita, Tsugiko; Takeuchi, Wataru; Toyonaga, Takuya; Hirata, Kenji; Kobashi, Keiji; Katoh, Chietsugu; Kubo, Naoki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype CdTe SPECT system with 4-pixel matched collimator for brain study. This system provides high-energy-resolution (6.6%), high-sensitivity (220 cps/MBq/head), and high-spatial-resolution images. The aim of this study was to evaluate dual-isotope study of CBF and central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) images using Tc-ECD and I-IMZ with the new SPECT system in patients with epilepsy comparing with single-isotope study using the conventional scintillation gamma camera. This study included 13 patients with partial epilepsy. The BZR images were acquired at 3 hours after I-IMZ injection for 20 minutes. The images of IMZ were acquired with a conventional 3-head scintillation gamma camera. After BZR image acquisition with the conventional camera, Tc-ECD was injected, and CBF and BZR images were acquired simultaneously 5 minutes after ECD injection with the new SPECT system. The CBF images were also acquired with the conventional camera on separate days. The findings were visually analyzed, and 3D-SSP maximum Z scores of lesions were compared between the 2 studies. There were 47 abnormal lesions on BZR images and 60 abnormal lesions on CBF images in the single-isotope study with the conventional camera. Dual-isotope study with the new system showed concordant abnormal findings of 46 of 47 lesions on BZR and 54 of 60 lesions on CBF images with the single-isotope study with the conventional camera. There was high agreement between the 2 studies in both BZR and CBF findings (Cohen κ values = 0.96 for BZR and 0.78 for CBF). In semiquantitative analysis, maximum Z scores of dual-isotope study with the new system strongly correlated with those of single-isotope study with the conventional camera (BZR: r = 0.82, P < 0.05, CBF: r = 0.87, P < 0.05). Our new SPECT system permits dual-isotope study for pixel-by-pixel analysis of CBF and BZR information with the same pathophysiological condition in patients with epilepsy.

  7. Semiconductor diode laser having an intracavity spatial phase controller for beam control and switching

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    A high-power broad-area semiconductor laser having a intracavity spatial phase controller is disclosed. The integrated intracavity spatial phase controller is easily formed by patterning an electrical contact metallization layer when fabricating the semiconductor laser. This spatial phase controller changes the normally broad far-field emission beam of such a laser into a single-lobed near-diffraction-limited beam at pulsed output powers of over 400 mW. Two operating modes, a thermal and a gain operating mode, exist for the phase controller, allowing for steering and switching the beam as the modes of operation are switched, and the emission beam may be scanned, for example, over a range of 1.4 degrees or switched by 8 degrees. More than one spatial phase controller may be integrated into the laser structure.

  8. Semiconductor diode laser having an intracavity spatial phase controller for beam control and switching

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, J.P.

    1994-06-07

    A high-power broad-area semiconductor laser having a intracavity spatial phase controller is disclosed. The integrated intracavity spatial phase controller is easily formed by patterning an electrical contact metallization layer when fabricating the semiconductor laser. This spatial phase controller changes the normally broad far-field emission beam of such a laser into a single-lobed near-diffraction-limited beam at pulsed output powers of over 400 mW. Two operating modes, a thermal and a gain operating mode, exist for the phase controller, allowing for steering and switching the beam as the modes of operation are switched, and the emission beam may be scanned, for example, over a range of 1.4 degrees or switched by 8 degrees. More than one spatial phase controller may be integrated into the laser structure. 6 figs.

  9. Direct digital simulation of power semiconductor-controlled electrical machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahnassy, H. M.

    1981-06-01

    Generalized computer programming techniques for simulating power semiconductor-controlled electric machines in coil-variable representation are presented. These techniques are developed primarily for implementation in large scale general purpose computer-aided design and analysis (CADA) circuit programs. To demonstrate the validity of the developed techniques, a coil-variable model of a brushless synchronous generator with an ac exciter and rotating rectifiers was constructed. The performance of the control system (thyristor voltage regulator) is represented by a transfer function block diagram model. The CADA circuit program used is the recently developed SUPER SCEPTRE program. The model is validated using the design data and test results of a 60 kVA brushless generator. Numerous computer simulation cases are presented including the steady state and transient conditions. Brushless generator performance under diode failure faults (opened-diode, shorted-diode) is simulated. The effects of the external faults, at the main generator terminals, on the main generator, as well as its excitation system currents, are simulated.

  10. Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers: Design, fabrication, and directional control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongjun

    Monolithic semiconductor ring lasers (SRLs) are attractive light sources for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) due to their convenience in monolithic integration: neither cleaved facets nor gratings are required for optical feedback. They are promising candidates for wavelength filtering, multiplexing-demultiplexing applications, electrical or all-optical switching, gating, and memories, and particularly, optical inertial rotation sensors or ring laser gyros. As the major part of a NASA-supported project "Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring laser gyro for space applications," this dissertation research was focused on design, fabrication, and directional control of monolithically integrated SRLs with relatively large size and sophisticated OEIC structures. The main potential application is the next-generation monolithic ring laser gyros. Specifically, monolithic SRLs with the longest reported cavity of 10.28 mm have been demonstrated. In device characterization, differential I-V analysis has been used for the first time in SRLs for purely electrical identification of lasing threshold and directional switching. Sophisticated device structures have been devised, including optically independent novel ring laser pairs, from which frequency beating between monolithically integrated SRLs was reported for the first time. In addition, no frequency lock-in was observed in the beating spectra, indicating an important progress for proposed gyro applications. Functional OEIC components including photodetectors, passive and active waveguides, and novel Joule heaters have been integrated on-chip along with the ring lasers. Mode competition, directional switching, bistability, and bidirectional and unidirectional operation in SRLs have been investigated. Directional control techniques with asymmetric mechanisms including spiral and S-section waveguides have been implemented. The S-section was investigated and analyzed in great detail for its suppression of

  11. Active optical control of the terahertz reflectivity of high-resistivity semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Fekete, L; Hlinka, J Y; Kadlec, E; Kuzel, P; Mounaix, P

    2005-08-01

    We study theoretically and demonstrate experimentally light-controllable terahertz reflectivity of high-resistivity semiconductor wafers. Photocarriers created by interband light absorption form a thin conducting layer at the semiconductor surface, which allows the terahertz reflectivity of the element to be tuned between antireflective (R <3%) and highly reflective (R >85%) limits by means of the intensity and wavelength of the optical illumination.

  12. A Computer-Automated Temperature Control System for Semiconductor Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    D -A079 055 ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN DEPT OF ELECTRICAL -ETC F/ 14NC/UE2UOAE EPRAUECNRL YTMFRSMIOOC T INOV 79 RN SWITZER ,PC CHAN ’ C T SAH...of semiconductor devices and Materials . Temperature is monitored by a type T thermocouple embedded in a heat sink surrounding the sample. Liquid...semiconductor materials are dependent in some manner on temperature. One example is the rate of thermal emission of trapped holes or electrons from

  13. Continuing progress toward controlled intracellular delivery of semiconductor quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Breger, Joyce; Delehanty, James B; Medintz, Igor L

    2015-01-01

    The biological applications of luminescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) continue to grow at a nearly unabated pace. This growth is driven, in part, by their unique photophysical and physicochemical properties which have allowed them to be used in many different roles in cellular biology including: as superior fluorophores for a wide variety of cellular labeling applications; as active platforms for assembly of nanoscale sensors; and, more recently, as a powerful tool to understand the mechanisms of nanoparticle mediated drug delivery. Given that controlled cellular delivery is at the intersection of all these applications, the latest progress in delivering QDs to cells is examined here. A brief discussion of relevant considerations including the importance of materials preparation and bioconjugation along with the continuing issue of endosomal sequestration is initially provided for context. Methods for the cellular delivery of QDs are then highlighted including those based on passive exposure, facilitated strategies that utilize peptides or polymers and fully active modalities such as electroporation and other mechanically based methods. Following on this, the exciting advent of QD cellular delivery using multiple or combined mechanisms is then previewed. Several recent methods reporting endosomal escape of QD materials in cells are also examined in detail with a focus on the mechanisms by which access to the cytosol is achieved. The ongoing debate over QD cytotoxicity is also discussed along with a perspective on how this field will continue to evolve in the future. PMID:25154379

  14. Probing and controlling fluorescence blinking of single semiconductor nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hsien-Chen; Yuan, Chi-Tsu; Tang, Jau

    2011-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the experimental and theoretical development on fluorescence intermittency (blinking) and the roles of electron transfer in semiconductor crystalline nanoparticles. Blinking is a very interesting phenomenon commonly observed in single molecule/particle experiments. Under continuous laser illumination, the fluorescence time trace of these single nanoparticles exhibit random light and dark periods. Since its first observation in the mid-1990s, this intriguing phenomenon has attracted wide attention among researchers from many disciplines. We will first present the historical background of the discovery and the observation of unusual inverse power-law dependence for the waiting time distributions of light and dark periods. Then, we will describe our theoretical modeling efforts to elucidate the causes for the power-law behavior, to probe the roles of electron transfer in blinking, and eventually to control blinking and to achieve complete suppression of the blinking, which is an annoying feature in many applications of quantum dots as light sources and fluorescence labels for biomedical imaging. PMID:22110871

  15. Optimal doping control of magnetic semiconductors via subsurfactant epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Changgan; Zhang, Zhenyu; van Benthem, Klaus; Chisholm, Matthew F; Weitering, Harm H

    2008-02-01

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) with high ferromagnetic ordering temperatures (T{sub c}) have vast potential for advancing spin-based electronics or 'spintronics'. To date, achieving high-T{sub c} DMS typically required doping levels of order 5%. Such high doping levels inevitably compromise the structural homogeneity and carrier mobility of the DMS. Here, we establish 'subsurfactant epitaxy' as a novel kinetic pathway for synthesizing Mn-doped germanium with T{sub c} much higher than room temperature, at dramatically reduced doping levels. This is accomplished by optimal control of the diffusion kinetics of the dopant atoms near the growth front in two separate deposition steps. The first involves a submonolayer dose of Mn on Ge(100) at low temperature, which populates subsurface interstitial sites with Mn while suppressing lateral Mn diffusion and clustering. The second step involves epitaxial growth of Ge at elevated temperature, taking advantage of the strong floating ability of the interstitial Mn dopants towards the newly defined subsurface sites at the growth front. Most remarkably, the Mn dopants trapped inside the film are uniformly distributed at substitutional sites, and the resulting film exhibits ferromagnetism above 400 K at the nominal doping level of only 0.2%.

  16. Electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Myers, David R.; Vook, Frederick L.

    1989-01-01

    An electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process for carrying out patterning and selective removing of material in semiconductor device fabrication includes the steps of selective ion implanting, photochemical dry etching, and thermal annealing, in that order. In the selective ion implanting step, regions of the semiconductor material in a desired pattern are damaged and the remainder of the regions of the material not implanted are left undamaged. The rate of recombination of electrons and holes is increased in the damaged regions of the pattern compared to undamaged regions. In the photochemical dry etching step which follows ion implanting step, the material in the undamaged regions of the semiconductor are removed substantially faster than in the damaged regions representing the pattern, leaving the ion-implanted, damaged regions as raised surface structures on the semiconductor material. After completion of photochemical dry etching step, the thermal annealing step is used to restore the electrical conductivity of the damaged regions of the semiconductor material.

  17. Electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.; Vook, F.L.

    1988-06-16

    An electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process for carrying out patterning and selective removing of material in semiconductor device fabrication includes the steps of selective ion implanting, photochemical dry etching, and thermal annealing, in that order. In the selective ion implanting step, regions of the semiconductor material in a desired pattern are damaged and the remainder of the regions of the material not implanted are left undamaged. The rate of recombination of electrons and holes is increased in the damaged regions of the pattern compared to undamaged regions. In the photochemical dry etching step which follows ion implanting step, the material in the undamaged regions of the semiconductor are removed substantially faster than in the damaged regions representing the pattern, leaving the ion-implanted, damaged regions as raised surface structures on the semiconductor material. After completion of photochemical dry etching step, the thermal annealing step is used to restore the electrical conductivity of the damaged regions of the semiconductor material.

  18. Control of lasing from a highly photoexcited semiconductor microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Feng-Kuo

    optically induced confinement, multiple-lasing modes were produced, with sequential lasing time depending on energies. These phenomena are attributed to the spin-dependent stimulated emission from correlated e-h pairs. We further performed a non-degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy to investigate dynamic carrier relaxation. We find transient resonances with significant changes in differential reflectivity that can last more than 1 ns. The resonance exhibits a polarization-dependent splitting in about 1 meV under circularly polarized pumping. All the aforementioned phenomena can be explained by the combination effect of carrier-induced refractive index change and the light-induced e-h correlation. Our research enriches the studies of coupled e-h-gamma systems at room temperature and a high-density regime; however, further experiments and theoretical works are required to claim and clarify the formation of such correlated e-h pairs in a highly photoexcited microcavity. Nonetheless, we have demonstrated that many-body effects can be harnessed to control lasing dynamics and energies in highly photoexcited semiconductor microcavities. We expect an improved understanding of the many-body effect resulted from e-h pairing to help the development of polarization-controlled and wavelength-tunable lasers.

  19. 77 FR 26789 - Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and Products Containing Same; Determination Rescinding the Exclusion Order and Cease and Desist Orders AGENCY...

  20. Laser isotope purification of lead for use in semiconductor chip interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibner, K.; Haynam, C.; Worden, E.; Esser, B.

    1996-03-19

    Lead, used throughout the electronics industries, typically contains small amounts of radioactive {sup 210}Pb (a daughter product of the planets ubiquitous {sup 238}U) whose {sup 210}Po daughter emits an {alpha}-particle that is known to cause soft errors in electronic circuits. The {sup 210}Pb is not separable by chemical means. This paper describes the generic Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) over the last 20 years, with particular emphasis on recent efforts to develop the process physics and component technologies required to remove the offending {sup 210}Pb using lasers. We have constructed a developmental facility that includes a process laser development area and a test bed for the vaporizer and ion and product collectors. We will be testing much of the equipment and demonstrating pilot scale AVLIS on a surrogate material later this year. Detection of the very low alpha emission even from commercially available low-alpha lead is challenging. LLNL`s detection capabilities will be described. The goal of the development of lead purification technology is to demonstrate the capability in FY97, and to deploy a production machine capable of up to several MT/y of isotopically purified material, possible beginning in FY98.

  1. Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayral, B.

    Spontaneous emission of light can be controlled, cavity quantum electrodynamics tells us, and many experiments in atomic physics demonstrated this fact. In particular, coupling an emitter to a resonant photon mode of a cavity can enhance its spontaneous emission rate: this is the so-called Purcell effect. Though appealing it might seem to implement these concepts for the benefit of light-emitting semiconductor devices, great care has to be taken as to which emitter/cavity system should be used. Semiconductor quantum boxes prove to be good candidates for witnessing the Purcell effect. Also, low volume cavities having a high optical quality in other words a long photon storage time are required. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of such cavities are presented and discussed.We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement for InAs/GaAs quantum boxes in time-resolved and continuous-wave photoluminescence experiments. This is done for two kinds of cavities, namely GaAs/AlAs micropillars (global enhancement by a factor of 5), and GaAs microdisks (global enhancement by a factor of 20). Prospects for lasers, light-emitting diodes and single photon sources based on the Purcell effect are discussed. L'émission spontanée de lumière peut être contrôlée, ainsi que nous l'enseigne l'électrodynamique quantique en cavité, ce fait a été démontré expérimentalement en physique atomique. En particulier, coupler un émetteur à un mode photonique résonnant d'une cavité peut exalter son taux d'émission spontanée : c'est l'effet Purcell. Bien qu'il semble très prometteur de mettre en pratique ces concepts pour améliorer les dispositifs semi-conducteurs émetteurs de lumière, le choix du système émetteur/cavité est crucial. Nous montrons que les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des bons candidats pour observer l'effet Purcell. Il faut par ailleurs des cavités de faible volume ayant une grande qualité optique en d'autres mots un long temps de

  2. Zn isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle: A melting control?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucet, Luc S.; Mattielli, Nadine; Ionov, Dmitri A.; Debouge, Wendy; Golovin, Alexander V.

    2016-10-01

    We present new Zn elemental and isotope data on seventeen fertile and refractory mantle peridotite xenoliths. Eleven fertile peridotites are garnet and spinel lherzolites from Vitim and Tariat (Siberia and Mongolia) and represent some of the most pristine fertile peridotites available. Six refractory peridotites are spinel harzburgites from the Udachnaya kimberlite (Siberian craton) that are nearly pristine residues of high-degree polybaric melting at high pressure (7-4 GPa). Geochemical data suggest that Zn isotopic compositions in the peridotites have not been affected by post-melting processes such as metasomatism, contamination by the host-magmas or alteration. The fertile peridotites have uniform Zn concentrations (59 ± 2 ppm) and Zn isotopic compositions with δ66Zn (relative to JMC-Lyon-03-0749l) = +0.30 ± 0.03‰ consistent with the Bulk Silicate Earth estimates of δ66Zn = +0.28 ± 0.05‰ (Chen et al., 2013). The refractory peridotites have Zn concentrations ranging from 30 to 48 ppm and δ66Zn from + 0.10 ± 0.01 ‰ to + 0.18 ± 0.01 ‰ with an average of + 0.14 ± 0.03 ‰. Our data suggest that the lithospheric mantle has a heterogeneous Zn isotopic composition. Modeling of Zn isotope partitioning during partial melting of fertile mantle suggests that high degrees of melt extraction (>30%) may significantly fractionate Zn isotopes (up to 0.16‰) and that during mantle melting, Zn concentrations and isotopic compositions are mainly controlled by the stability of clinopyroxene and garnet within the melting residue. Because the stability of clinopyroxene and garnet is mainly pressure dependent we suggest that both the depth and the degrees of melt extraction may control Zn isotope fractionation during mantle melting.

  3. Controlling the interaction of light with polymer semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Christoph; Paquin, Francis; Treat, Neil D; Bruno, Annalisa; Reynolds, Luke X; Haque, Saif A; Stavrinou, Paul N; Silva, Carlos; Stingelin, Natalie

    2013-09-20

    In this study, a generally applicable strategy is described to manipulate the optical properties of a wide range of polymer semiconductors in the solid state. Blending these materials with a non-conjugated, polar polymer matrix is found to be the processing key to a drastic change and red-shift of the absorption characteristics.

  4. Phase control and beam steering of semiconductor laser arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1982-01-01

    The operational principles and a possible device configuration of one dimensional monolithically integrated semiconductor laser arrays are described. The output beam of the array can be electronically steered. Devices of the type can find applications in optical communication systems where the power levels needed are above the capability of a single laser device.

  5. Kinetic control on Zn isotope signatures recorded in marine diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köbberich, Michael; Vance, Derek

    2017-08-01

    Marine diatoms dominate the oceanic cycle of the essential micronutrient zinc (Zn). The stable isotopes of zinc and other metals are increasingly used to understand trace metal micronutrient cycling in the oceans. One clear feature of the early isotope data is the heavy Zn isotope signature of the average oceanic dissolved pool relative to the inputs, potentially driven by uptake of light isotopes into phytoplankton cells and export to sediments. However, despite the fact that diatoms strip Zn from surface waters across the Antarctic polar front in the Southern Ocean, the local upper ocean is not isotopically heavy. Here we use culturing experiments to quantify the extent of Zn isotope fractionation by diatoms and to elucidate the mechanisms driving it. We have cultured two different open-ocean diatom species (T. oceanica and Chaetoceros sp.) in a series of experiments at constant medium Zn concentration but at bioavailable medium Fe ranging from limiting to replete. We find that T. oceanica can maintain high growth rates and Zn uptake rates over the full range of bioavailable iron (Fe) investigated, and that the Zn taken up has a δ66Zn that is unfractionated relative to that of the bioavailable free Zn in the medium. The studied representative of the genus Chaetoceros, on the other hand, shows more significantly reduced Zn uptake rates at low Fe and records more variable biomass δ66Zn signatures, of up to 0.85‰ heavier than the medium. We interpret the preferential uptake of heavy isotopes at extremely low Zn uptake rates as potentially due to either of the following two mechanisms. First, the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), at low Fe levels, may preferentially scavenge heavy Zn isotopes. Second, the Zn uptake rate may be slow enough to establish pseudo-equilibrium conditions at the transporter site, with heavy Zn isotopes forming more stable surface complexes. Thus we find that, in our experiments, Fe-limitation exerts a key control that

  6. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Significant accomplishments include development of a procedure to correct for the substantial differences of transistor delay time as measured with different instruments or with the same instrument at different frequencies; association of infrared response spectra of poor quality germanium gamma ray detectors with spectra of detectors fabricated from portions of a good crystal that had been degraded in known ways; and confirmation of the excellent quality and cosmetic appearance of ultrasonic bonds made with aluminum ribbon wire. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; study of gold-doped silicon, development of the infrared response technique; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; and measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices, delay time and related carrier transport properties in junction devices, and noise properties of microwave diodes.

  7. Controls over the strontium isotope composition of river water

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.R. ); Edmond, J.M. )

    1992-05-01

    Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios have been measured in river and ground waters from the Granges, Orinoco, and Amazon river basins. When compared with major element concentrations, the data set has allowed a detailed examination of the controls over the strontium isotope systematics of riverine input to the oceans in the following environments: (1) typical drainage basins containing limestones, evaporites, shales, and alumino-silicate metamorphic and igneous rocks; (2) shield terrains containing no chemical or biogenic sediments; and (3) the flood plains that constitute the largest areas of many large rivers. The strontium concentration and isotope compositions of river waters are largely defined by mixing of strontium derived from limestones and evaporites with strontium derived from silicate rocks. The strontium isotope composition of the limestone end member generally lies within the Phanerozoic seawater range, which buffers the [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios of major rivers. A major exception is provided by the rivers draining the Himalayas, where widescale regional metamorphism appears to have led to an enrichment in limestones of radiogenic strontium derived from coexisting silicate rocks. The strontium isotope systematics of rivers draining shield areas are controlled by the intense, transport-limited, nature of the weathering reactions, and thereby limits variations in the strontium flux from these terrains. Flood plains are only a minor source of dissolved strontium to river waters, and precipitation of soil salts in some flood plains can reduce the riverine flux of dissolved strontium to the oceans.

  8. Controls on Calcium Isotope Fractionation in Cultured Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisakurek, B.; Boehm, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Hathorne, E.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.; Erez, J.

    2008-12-01

    Calcium isotopes have recently emerged as an important tool to study the biomineralization pathways and processes in foraminifera. We analyzed calcium isotopes in planktonic and benthic foraminifera grown under controlled laboratory conditions at different salinity, temperature and pH values. Our results indicate that calcium isotope fractionation in foraminifera is controlled by more than one environmental parameter, requiring a common mechanism to explain the observed trends. There is a significant negative correlation between calcium isotope fractionation and the distribution coefficient of strontium in planktonic foraminifera, which has the same slope (within error) as that in inorganic calcite (Tang et al, 2008). In analogy to these inorganic experiments, calcium isotopic fractionation and Sr/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera appear to be mainly controlled by the precipitation rate. However, the two regressions (inorganic vs. foraminiferal) have a small but constant offset from each other by about 0.2 permil in delta(44Ca/40Ca) for a given D(Sr). This offset is presumably due to a vital effect that can be modeled via Rayleigh distillation from an internal biomineralization reservoir (Elderfield et al., 1996). Our preliminary results suggest that such a reservoir behaves as a semi-open system, wherein only less than 25 percent of the calcium taken up from seawater is being utilized for calcification. Elderfield, H., Bertram, C.J., Erez, J. 1996. A biomineralization model for the incorporation of trace elements into foraminiferal calcium carbonate. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 142:409-423. Tang J., Dietzel M., Boehm F., Koehler S.J., Eisenhauer A. 2008. Sr2+/Ca2+ and 44Ca/40Ca fractionation during inorganic calcite formation: II. Ca isotopes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72:3733-3745.

  9. Coper Isotope Fractionation in Porphyry Copper Deposits: A Controlled Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, J.; Mathur, R.; Uhrie, J. L.; Hiskey, B.

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that copper is fractionated in the environment. However, the mechanisms for isotope fractionation and the role of organic and inorganic processes in the fractionation are not well understood. Here we used the well controlled experiments used by Phelps Dodge Corporation aimed at leaching copper from their ore deposits to constrain the mechanism of copper isotope fractionation in natural systems. The isotope data were collected on a Micromass Isoprobe. High temperature copper sulfides from ore deposits in Chile and Arizona yield delta 65Cu near 0 permil. The reproducibility of the data is better that 0.1 permil. Controlled experiments consisting of large columns of rocks were fed solutions containing bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Leptospirrilium ferroxidan. Solutions fom the columns were sampled for sixty days and analyzed for copper concentrations, oxidation potential, ferrous/ferric ratios and pH. The results indicate that the bacterially aided dissolution of copper fractionated copper. Preliminary experiments of copper dissolution not using bacteria show no isotope fractionation The original rock in the experiment has a delta 65Cu of -2.1. The first solutions that were collected from the columns had a delta 65Cu of -5.0 per mil. The liquid changed its isotopic composition from -50 to -10 during the sixty days of sampling. The greatest shift in the isotope ratios occurred the first 30 days when the copper recovered was less than 40% and the ferrous/ferric ratios were somewhat constant. At approximately 35 days after the start of the experiments, the copper recovery increases the ferrousferric ratio decreased and the copper isotope ratio of the fluids remained fairly constant. The data suggest that the bacteria are required to effectively fractionate copper isotopes in natural systems and that the mechanisms of bacterial aided copper dissolution may include a direct dissolution of the sulfides by the bacteria. Experiments

  10. Domain control of carrier density at a semiconductor-ferroelectric interface

    PubMed Central

    Misirlioglu, I. B.; Yildiz, M.; Sendur, K.

    2015-01-01

    Control of charge carrier distribution in a gated channel via a dielectric layer is currently the state of the art in the design of integrated circuits such as field effect transistors. Replacing linear dielectrics with ferroelectrics would ultimately lead to more energy efficient devices as well as the added advantage of the memory function of the gate. Here, we report that the channel-off/channel-on states in a metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor stack are actually transitions from a multi domain state to a single domain state of the ferroelectric under bias. In our approach, there is no a priori assumption on the single or multi-domain nature of the ferroelectric layer that is often neglected in works discussing the ferroelectric-gate effect on channel conductivity interfacing a ferroelectric. We also predict that semiconductor/ferroelectric/semiconductor stacks can function at even lower gate voltages than metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor stacks when an n-type semiconductor is placed between the ferroelectric and the gate metal. Our results suggest the ultimate stability of the multidomain state whenever it interfaces a semiconductor electrode and that a switchable single domain state may not be necessary to achieve effective control of conductivity in a p-type channel. Finally, we discuss some experimental results in the literature in light of our findings. PMID:26477394

  11. Optical control of semiconductor closing and opening switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi H.

    1990-12-01

    Recent progress in the research of high-power photoconductive semiconductor switches is reviewed. Material issues and switch design considerations are discussed. High-power ultra-wide-band microwave generation using these switches and a pulse-forming network is presented. The application of the photoconductive switch both as a closing and as an opening switch in an inductive energy storage system has been demonstrated. Electric pulse compression with a peak power gain of 30 has been observed. Future prospects in this area of research are discussed.

  12. Controls over the strontium isotope composition of river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M. R.; Edmond, J. M.

    1992-05-01

    Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios have been measured in river and ground waters from the Ganges, Orinoco, and Amazon river basins. When compared with major element concentrations, the data set has allowed a detailed examination of the controls over the strontium isotope systematics of riverine input to the oceans in the following environments: (1) "typical" drainage basins containing limestones, evaporites, shales, and alumino-silicate metamorphic and igneous rocks; (2) shield terrains containing no chemical or biogenic sediments; and (3) the floodplains that constitute the largest areas of many large rivers. The strontium concentration and isotope composition of river waters are largely defined by mixing of strontium derived from limestones and evaporites with strontium derived from silicate rocks. The strontium isotope composition of the limestone endmember generally lies within the Phanerozoic seawater range, which buffers the 87Sr /86Sr ratios of major rivers. A major exception is provided by the rivers draining the Himalayas, where widescale regional metamorphism appears to have led to an enrichment in limestones of radiogenic strontium derived from coexisting silicate rocks. The strontium isotope systematics of rivers draining shield areas are controlled by the intense, transportlimited, nature of the weathering reactions, and thereby limits variations in the strontium flux from these terrains. Floodplains are only a minor source of dissolved strontium to river waters, and precipitation of soil salts in some floodplains can reduce the riverine flux of dissolved strontium to the oceans. The most effective mechanisms for altering the isotope ratio and flux of riverine strontium to the oceans are increased glaciation and large-scale regional metamorphism of the type produced during continental collision. Both mechanisms provide a means for increasing the 87Sr /86Sr ratio of the global riverine flux.

  13. Controlled Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films Using Liquid Crystal Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufkin, Kevin; Ohlson, Brooks; Hillman, Ben; Johnson, Brad; Patrick, David

    2008-05-01

    Interest in using organic semiconductors in applications such as large area displays, photovoltaic devices, and RFID tags stems in part from their prospects for enabling significantly reduced manufacturing costs compared to traditional inorganic semiconductors. However many of the best performing prototype devices produced so far have involved expensive or time-consuming fabrication methods, such as the use of single crystals or thin films deposited under high vacuum conditions. We present a new approach for growing low molecular weight organic crystalline films at ambient conditions based on a vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using thermotropic nematic liquid crystal (LC) solvents. Tetracene is deposited via atmospheric-pressure sublimation onto substrates coated by a LC layer oriented using rubbed polyimide, producing films that are highly crystalline, with large grain sizes, and possessing macroscopic uniaxial orientation. This poster will describe the growth mechanism, discuss the effects of processing conditions such as LC layer thickness, substrate temperature and flux rate, and compare the results to a model of deposition-diffusion aggregation accounting for the finite thickness of the solvent layer.

  14. Controlled Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films Using Liquid Crystal Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufkin, Kevin; Ohlson, Brooks; Hillman, Ben; Johnson, Brad; Patrick, David

    2008-03-01

    Interest in using organic semiconductors in applications such as large area displays, photovoltaic devices, and RFID tags stems in part from their prospects for enabling significantly reduced manufacturing costs compared to traditional inorganic semiconductors. However many of the best performing prototype devices produced so far have involved expensive or time-consuming fabrication methods, such as the use of single crystals or thin films deposited under high vacuum conditions. We present a new approach for growing low molecular weight organic crystalline films at ambient conditions based on a vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using thermotropic nematic liquid crystal (LC) solvents. Tetracene is deposited via atmospheric-pressure sublimation onto substrates coated by a LC layer oriented using rubbed polyimide, producing films that are highly crystalline, with large grain sizes, and possessing macroscopic uniaxial orientation. This poster will describe the growth mechanism, discuss the effects of processing conditions such as LC layer thickness, substrate temperature and flux rate, and compare the results to a model of diffusion limited aggregation accounting for the finite thickness of the solvent layer.

  15. Microeconomics of yield learning and process control in semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.

    2003-06-01

    Simple microeconomic models that directly link yield learning to profitability in semiconductor manufacturing have been rare or non-existent. In this work, we review such a model and provide links to inspection capability and cost. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300mm factories, including the impact of technology transitions to 130nm design rules and below. We show that the dramatic increase in value per wafer at the 300mm transition becomes a driver for increasing metrology and inspection capability and sampling. These analyses correlate well wtih actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential cost savings. We demonstrate this using the example of grating-based overlay metrology for the 65nm node.

  16. Period-control and chaos-anti-control of a semiconductor laser using the twisted fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Sen-Lin

    2016-09-01

    A novel semiconductor laser system is presented based on a twisted fiber. To study the period-control and chaos-anti-control of the laser system, we design a type of optic path as a control setup using the combination of the twisted fiber and the polarization controller while we present a physical dynamics model of the delayed dual-feedback laser containing the twisted fiber effect. We give an analysis of the effect of the twisted fiber on the laser. We use the effects of the delayed phase and the rotation angle of the twisted fiber and the characteristics of the system to achieve control of the laser. The laser is deduced to a stable state, a double-periodic state, a period-6 state, a period-8 state, a period-9 state, a multi-period state, beat phenomenon, and so on. The periodic laser can be anti-controlled to chaos. Some chaos-anti-control area is found. The laser system is very useful for the study of chaos-control of the laser setup and the applications of some physics effects.

  17. Quantum correlation control for two semiconductor microcavities connected by an optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A.-B. A.; Eleuch, H.

    2017-06-01

    We explore the quantum correlations for two coupled quantum wells. Each quantum well is inside a semiconductor microcavity. The two cavities are connected by an optical fiber. The study of quantum correlations, namely the geometric quantum discord, measurement-induced non-locality and negativity, reveals sudden death and sudden birth phenomena. These effects depend not only on the initial states, coupling strengths of the cavity-fiber and cavity-exciton constants, but also on the dissipation rates of the semiconductor microcavities. We show that the coupling constants control the quantum correlations.

  18. Control of excitonic population inversion in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Evangelou, Sofia; Terzis, Andreas F.

    2013-06-01

    We study the potential for controlled population inversion in a coupled system comprised of a semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanoparticle. We show that the widely used method of population inversion by a π pulse can be modified for small interparticle distances. This modification depends strongly on the pulse duration. We also present analytical solutions of the nonlinear density matrix equations, for specific pulse envelopes, which lead to efficient excitonic population inversion in the quantum dot for several distances between the semiconductor quantum dot and the metal nanoparticle.

  19. Real time quantitative imaging for semiconductor crystal growth, control and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative real time image processing system has been developed which can be software-reconfigured for semiconductor processing and characterization tasks. In thermal imager mode, 2D temperature distributions of semiconductor melt surfaces (900-1600 C) can be obtained with temperature and spatial resolutions better than 0.5 C and 0.5 mm, respectively, as demonstrated by analysis of melt surface thermal distributions. Temporal and spatial image processing techniques and multitasking computational capabilities convert such thermal imaging into a multimode sensor for crystal growth control. A second configuration of the image processing engine in conjunction with bright and dark field transmission optics is used to nonintrusively determine the microdistribution of free charge carriers and submicron sized crystalline defects in semiconductors. The IR absorption characteristics of wafers are determined with 10-micron spatial resolution and, after calibration, are converted into charge carrier density.

  20. Real time quantitative imaging for semiconductor crystal growth, control and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative real time image processing system has been developed which can be software-reconfigured for semiconductor processing and characterization tasks. In thermal imager mode, 2D temperature distributions of semiconductor melt surfaces (900-1600 C) can be obtained with temperature and spatial resolutions better than 0.5 C and 0.5 mm, respectively, as demonstrated by analysis of melt surface thermal distributions. Temporal and spatial image processing techniques and multitasking computational capabilities convert such thermal imaging into a multimode sensor for crystal growth control. A second configuration of the image processing engine in conjunction with bright and dark field transmission optics is used to nonintrusively determine the microdistribution of free charge carriers and submicron sized crystalline defects in semiconductors. The IR absorption characteristics of wafers are determined with 10-micron spatial resolution and, after calibration, are converted into charge carrier density.

  1. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab... 7, 2012, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  2. 78 FR 52802 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab... 01, 2013, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  3. Nonlinear burn condition control in tokamaks using isotopic fuel tailoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Mark D.; Schuster, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    One of the fundamental problems in tokamak fusion reactors is how to control the plasma density and temperature in order to regulate the amount of fusion power produced by the device. Control of these parameters will be critical to the success of burning plasma experiments like ITER. The most previous burn condition control efforts use either non-model based control designs or techniques based on models linearized around particular operating points. Such strategies limit the potential operational space and must be carefully retuned or redesigned to accommodate changes in operating points or plasma parameters. In this work, a nonlinear dynamic model of the spatial averages of energy and ion species densities is used to synthesize a nonlinear feedback controller for stabilizing the burn condition. The nonlinear model-based control strategy guarantees a much larger operational space than previous linear controllers. Because it is not designed around a particular operating point, the controller can be used to move from one burn condition to another. The proposed scheme first attempts to use regulation of the auxiliary heating power to reject temperature perturbations, then, if necessary, uses isotopic fuel tailoring as a way to reduce fusion heating during positive temperature perturbations. A global model of hydrogen recycling is incorporated into the model used for design and simulation, and the proposed control scheme is tested for a range of recycling model parameters. As we find the possibility of changing the isotopic mix can be limited for certain unfavorable recycling conditions, we also consider impurity injection as a back-up method for controlling the system. A simple supervisory control strategy is proposed to switch between the primary and back-up control schemes based on stability and performance criteria. A zero-dimensional simulation study is used to study the performance of the control scheme for several scenarios and model parameters. Finally, a one

  4. The TR13 control system for automatic isotope production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. J.; Ewert, T.; Harrison, D.; Lam, J.; Keitel, R.

    1994-12-01

    The TR13 is a 13 MeV H cyclotron which produces short-lived isotopes for use in PET scanners. Machines of this type are usually installed in hospitals and call for automatic operation with a minimum of operator intervention and maintenance. The control system implementation follows the approach of the TR30 line of cyclotrons, using commercial software and hardware wherever possible. The two-processor system uses an Allen Bradley PLC for control and an IBM PC as console computer. Aspects of automatic operation are discussed in detail.

  5. Compound semi-conductors and controlled doping thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, David J. (Inventor); Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor); Matus, Lawrence G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method of controlling the amount of impurity incorporation in a crystal grown by a chemical vapor deposition process. Conducted in a growth chamber, the method includes the controlling of the concentration of the crystal growing components in the growth chamber to affect the demand of particular growth sites within the growing crystal thereby controlling impurity incorporation into the growth sites.

  6. Light element controlled iron isotope fractionation in planetary cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, A.; Hillgren, V. J.; Horan, M. F.; Duke, L.; Mock, T. D.

    2013-12-01

    Using iron isotope fractionations measured in planetary and meteorite samples to trace planetary differentiation or formation has yielded contradictory results. Iron from high-Ti lunar basalts is more enriched in 57Fe/54Fe than mantle-derived terrestrial samples, in contrast to the isotopic similarity for almost every other element between the Earth and Moon. SNC (Shergottite, Nakhlite, Chassigny) and HED (Howardite, Eucrite, Diogenite) meteorites, which are thought to be derived from the mantles of Mars and Vesta, respectively, show no isotopic fractionation relative to chondrites. While the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) value is debated, recent work has shown effectively that basalts (mid-ocean ridge basalts, terrestrial basalts, and ocean island basalts) are enriched in 57Fe/54Fe relative to chondrites, but the causes of that fractionation are unclear (Craddock et al. 2013). Angrites, basaltic achondrite meteorites, also show enrichment in δ57Fe (Wang et al. 2012). Possible mechanisms include high-pressure core formation, oxidation during perovskite disproportionation, evaporation during the giant impact, and mantle melting. It is important to reconcile why the Earth's basalts are enriched in 57Fe/54Fe but the meteorites from Mars and Vesta are not. One possible explanation is that Mars and Vesta are smaller and the lower pressure attenuated the potential Fe fractionation during core formation. A second possibility is that the intrinsic oxidation states of the planets are causing the differences. However, another option is that the light elements (e.g. S, C, O, H, Si) in the cores of differentiated bodies control the iron isotope fractionation during differentiation. We have conducted experiments at 1 GPa and 1650-1800°C in a piston cylinder apparatus to address how sulfur, carbon and silicon alloyed with iron affect the iron isotopic fractionation between metallic alloy and silicate melt. We find that sulfur has the greatest effect on the iron isotopic

  7. Robust control of lithographic process in semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wei; Mao, John

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a stability analysis is conducted for several feedback controllers of photolithography processes. We emphasize the stability of process controllers in the presence of model mismatch, and other uncertainties such as system drift and unknown noise. Real data of critical dimension (CD) in shallow trench isolation area from an Intel manufacturing fab is used for model analysis. The feedbacks studied in this paper include a controller based on an adaptive model, and several controllers based on existing estimation methods such as EWMA, extended EWMA, and d-EWMA. Both theoretical analysis and computer simulations are presented to show the stability of the controlled process under these feedbacks.

  8. Controlled assembly and electronics in semiconductor nanocrystal-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndic, Marija

    2006-03-01

    I will discuss the assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals (CdSe and PbSe) into electronic devices and the basic mechanisms of charge transport in nanocrystal arrays [1-4]. Spherical CdSe nanocrystals show robust memory effects that can be exploited for memory applications [1]. Nanocrystal memory can be erased electrically or optically and is rewritable. In PbSe nanocrystal arrays, as the interdot coupling is increased, the system evolves from an insulating regime dominated by Coulomb blockade to a semiconducting regime, where hopping conduction is the dominant transport mechanism [2]. Two-dimensional CdSe nanorod arrays show striking and anomalous transport properties, including strong and reproducible non-linearities and current oscillations with dc-voltage [4]. I will also discuss imaging of the charge transport in nanocrystal-based electronic devices. Nanocrystal arrays were investigated using electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) [3]. Changes in lattice and transport properties upon annealing in vacuum were revealed. Local charge transport was directly imaged by EFM and correlated to nanopatterns observed with TEM. This work shows how charge transport in complex nanocrystal networks can be identified with nm resolution [3]. This work was supported by the ONR grant N000140410489, the NSF grants DMR-0449553 and MRSEC DMR00-79909, and the ACS PRF grant 41256-G10. References:1) Fischbein M. D. and Drndic M., ``CdSe nanocrystal quantum-dot memory,'' Applied Physics Letters, 86 (19), 193106, 2005.2) H. E. Romero and Drndic M., ``Coulomb blockade and hopping conduction in PbSe quantum dots,'' Physical Review Letters 95, 156801, 2005.3) Hu Z., Fischbein M. D. and Drndic M., ``Local charge transport in two-dimensional PbSe nanocrystal arrays studied by electrostatic force microscopy",'' Nano Letters 5 (7), 1463, 2005.4) Romero H.E., Calusine G. and Drndic M., ``Current oscillations, switching and hysteresis in CdSe nanorod

  9. Water evaporation characterization by its isotopic signature in controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biron, Philippe; Richard, Patricia; Delay, Frederick; Ackerer, Philippe; Durand, Jean-Louis; Bariac, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Water balance closure remains a critical problem in studies of the continental hydrological cycle. This is especially emphasized regarding the various components of evapotranspiration, that are difficult to measure all the more they concern evaporation fluxes from open water bodies. The natural isotopic tracing of water is increasingly used to better understand the water balance and to measure the signatures of the different vapour sources. However, this approach needs for a sharp characterization of the source signatures and of the products in the vapour-liquid exchanges. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the isotopic composition of the vapour from open water reservoirs before it exchanges and mixes its own components with the ambient atmosphere. In our work, we conducted the characterization of water vapour above open water tanks for different experiments under controlled conditions in a biogeochemical reactor, the aim being to validate an isotopic evaporation-condensation model coupled with mass balance equations. This work should be further extended to the other components of the evapotranspiration flux as the soil evaporation and plant transpiration.

  10. All-optical noninvasive chaos control of a semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Schikora, S; Wünsche, H-J; Henneberger, F

    2008-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally control of a chaotic system on time scales much shorter than in any previous study. Combining a multisection laser with an external Fabry-Perot etalon, the chaotic output transforms into a regular intensity self-pulsation with a frequency in the 10-GHz range. The control is noninvasive as the feedback from the etalon is minimum when the target state is reached. The optical phase is identified as a crucial control parameter. Numerical simulations agree well with the experimental data and uncover global control properties.

  11. Gate-controlled energy barrier at a graphene/molecular semiconductor junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parui, S.; Pietrobon, L.; Ciudad, D.; Velez, S.; Sun, X.; Stoliar, P.; Casanova, F.; Hueso, L. E.

    The formation of an energy barrier at a metal/molecular semiconductor junction is both a ubiquitous phenomenon as well as the subject of intense research in order to improve the performance of molecular semiconductor-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. For these devices, a junction with a large energy barrier provides rectification, leading to a diode behavior, whereas a relatively small energy barrier provides nearly-ohmic behavior, resulting in efficient carrier injection (extraction) into the molecular semiconductor. Typically, a specific metal/molecular semiconductor combination leads to a fixed energy barrier; therefore, the possibility of a gate-controlled energy barrier is very appealing for advanced applications. Here, we present a graphene/C60 junction-based vertical field-effect transistor in which we demonstrate control of the interfacial energy-barrier such that the junction switches from a highly rectifying diode at negative gate voltages to a nearly-ohmic behavior at positive gate voltages and at room temperature. We extract an energy-barrier modulation of up to 660 meV, a transconductance of up to five orders of magnitude and a gate-modulated photocurrent.

  12. Controlling ferromagnetism of (In,Fe)As semiconductors by electron doping

    SciTech Connect

    Dang Vu, Nguyen; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori

    2014-02-21

    Based on experimental results, using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) method and Monte Carlo simulation, we study the mechanism of ferromagnetic behavior of (In,Fe)As. We show that with doped Be atoms occupying in interstitial sites, chemical pair interactions between atoms and magnetic exchange interactions between Fe atoms change due to electron concentration. Therefore, by controlling the doping process, magnetic behavior of (In,Fe)As is controlled and ferromagnetism is observed in this semiconductor.

  13. Protection of semiconductor converters for controlled bypass reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgopolov, A. G.; Akhmetzhanov, N. G.; Karmanov, V. F.

    2010-05-15

    Possible ways of protecting thyristor converters in systems for magnetizing 110 - 500 kV controlled bypass reactors during switching and automatic reclosing are examined based on experience with the development of equipment, line tests, and mathematical modelling.

  14. Automatic control in multidrive electrotechnical complexes with semiconductor converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilev, B. U.; Mardashov, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency convertor and the automatic control system, which can be used in the multi-drive electromechanical system with a few induction motions, are considered. The paper presents the structure of existing modern multi-drive electric drives inverters, namely, electric drives with a total frequency converter and few electric motions, and an electric drive, in which the converter is used for power supply and control of the independent frequency. It was shown that such technical solutions of frequency converters possess a number of drawbacks. The drawbacks are given. It was shown that the control of technological processes using the electric drive of this structure may be provided under very limited conditions, as the energy efficiency and the level of electromagnetic compatibility of electric drives is low. The authors proposed using a multi-inverter structure with an active rectifier in multidrive electric drives with induction motors frequency converters. The application of such frequency converter may solve the problem of electromagnetic compatibility, namely, consumption of sinusoidal currents from the network and the maintenance of a sinusoidal voltage and energy compatibility, namely, consumption of practically active energy from the network. Also, the paper proposes the use of the automatic control system, which by means of a multi-inverter frequency converter provides separate control of drive machines and flexible regulation of technological processes. The authors present oscillograms, which confirm the described characteristics of the developed electrical drive. The possible subsequent ways to improve the multi-motor drives are also described.

  15. Generalization of the theory of coherent control of photocurrent generation in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L. P. Hughes, James; Sipe, J. E.; Shkrebtii, A. I.

    1998-03-01

    The theoretical prediction of the coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors [1] has recently been experimentally confirmed for GaAs [2]. When two monochromatic beams of frequency ω and 2ω are incident on an intrinsic semiconductor, a photocurrent is generated whose direction and magnitude can be controlled by simply adjusting the relative phase between the two pulses. Such a process is very interesting from a technological and scientific point of view. The aims of this presentation are twofold. First, the theoretical approach of [1] is generalized for nondegenerate frequencies, and second, we examine the physics behind the coherent control effect in more detail as a means of gaining more insight into the process. We analyze the origin of the coherent photocurrent in terms of contributing regions in separate parts of the Brillouin zone, fine details of the electronic band structure, the dependence on contributions from various real and virtual bands, and the velocity distribution of electrons and holes for various energies and relative phases. The possibility of observing coherently controlled photocurrent for a wider class of semiconductors will be discussed, and in this regard, we present results for this current in Germanium. [1] R. Atanasov, et. al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 1703 (1996). [2] A. Hache, et. al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 306 (1997).

  16. Active RF Pulse Compression using Electrically Controlled Semiconductor Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

    2008-01-30

    In this paper, we will present our recent results on the research of the ultra-fast high power RF switches based on silicon. We have developed a switch module at X-band which can use a silicon window as the switch. The switching is realized by generation of carriers in the bulk silicon. The carriers can be generated electrically or/and optically. The electrically controlled switches use PIN diodes to inject carrier. We have built the PIN diode switches at X-band, with <300ns switching time. The optically controlled switches use powerful lasers to excite carriers. By combining the laser excitation and electrical carrier generation, significant reduction in the required power of both the laser and the electrical driver is expected. High power test is under going.

  17. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization

    PubMed Central

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P.; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by “fishbone” gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed. PMID:25512515

  18. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A; Linfield, Edmund H; Capasso, Federico

    2014-12-30

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by "fishbone" gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed.

  19. Voltage controlled optics of a monolayer semiconductor quantum emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Chitraleema; Goodfellow, Kenneth; Kinnischtzke, Laura; Vamivakas, Nick; University of Rochester Team

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional atomically thin materials are being actively investigated for next generation optoelectronic devices. Particularly exciting are transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) since these materials exhibit a band gap, and support valley specific exciton mediated optical transitions. In this work we report the observation of single photon emission in the TMDC tungsten diselenide. We present magneto-optical spectroscopy results and demonstrate voltage controlled photoluminescence of these localized quantum emitters.

  20. Control over hysteresis curves and thresholds of optical bistability in different semiconductor double quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, R. Hamedi; M, R. Mehmannavaz; Hadi, Afshari

    2015-08-01

    The effects of optical field on the phenomenon of optical bistability (OB) are investigated in a K-type semiconductor double quantum well (SDQW) under various parametric conditions. It is shown that the OB threshold can be manipulated by increasing the intensity of coupling field. The dependence of the shift of OB hysteresis curve on probe wavelength detuning is then explored. In order to demonstrate controllability of the OB in this SDQW, we compare the OB features of three different configurations which could arise in this SDQW scheme, i.e., K-type, Y-type, and inverted Y-type systems. The controllability of this semiconductor nanostructure medium makes the presented OB scheme more valuable for applications in all-optical switches, information storage, and logic circuits of all optical information processing. Project supported by the Lithuanian Research Council (Grant No. VP1-3.1-ŠM-01-V-03-001).

  1. [A semiconductor photostimulator for electroencephalography with USB control].

    PubMed

    Marageĭ, R A; Okhritskiĭ, A A; Prilutskiĭ, D A

    2004-01-01

    The paper contains a description of electroencephalography (EEG) photostimulator for examining the induced cerebral potentials. The device was designed to function within the EEG computer complexes; a high-intensity irradiation LED matrix is used as the light source. The 1.1 USB control bus serves as the communication interface; there is an extra external synchronization bus. It is possible to preset the frequency, brightness, on-off time ratio and pattern of light stimuli. A library of application programmer is supplied to monitor the photostimulation.

  2. Metal ions to control the morphology of semiconductor nanoparticles: copper selenide nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhua; Zamani, Reza; Ibáñez, Maria; Cadavid, Doris; Shavel, Alexey; Morante, Joan Ramon; Arbiol, Jordi; Cabot, Andreu

    2013-03-27

    Morphology is a key parameter in the design of novel nanocrystals and nanomaterials with controlled functional properties. Here, we demonstrate the potential of foreign metal ions to tune the morphology of colloidal semiconductor nanoparticles. We illustrate the underlying mechanism by preparing copper selenide nanocubes in the presence of Al ions. We further characterize the plasmonic properties of the obtained nanocrystals and demonstrate their potential as a platform to produce cubic nanoparticles with different composition by cation exchange.

  3. Ultrathin film organic transistors: precise control of semiconductor thickness via spin-coating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Di, Chong-an; Berdunov, Nikolai; Hu, Yuanyuan; Hu, Yunbin; Gao, Xike; Meng, Qing; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhu, Daoben

    2013-03-13

    Construction of ultrathin film organic transistors is an important challenge towards deeper understanding of the charge transport mechanism and multifunctional applications. We report on precise thickness control of ultrathin films of several organic semiconductors by using a simple spin-coating approach. Ultrathin film, n-channel organic transistors with mobilities well over 1.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been realized and their potential in high-sensitivity gas sensing and other applications is demonstrated.

  4. Synchronization and control of chaos in semiconductor laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethel, Shawn Dwayne

    2000-08-01

    Diode lasers are miniature, highly efficient, reliable sources of low-power coherent light. For high-power applications diode lasers can be fabricated into arrays. Although beam power can be easily increased this way, it is at the expense of beam quality. The in-phase state is inherently unstable in diode laser arrays and for many parameters these devices display spatio-temporal chaos in the near field. This dissertation uses a coupled-mode model to study the dynamics of a weakly-coupled array of diode lasers. A stability analysis is done to investigate the effect of the coupling parameter on various phase- locked states. Possible control techniques are discussed and analyzed. It is found that a knowledge of relative phase across the array along with the ability to rapidly modulate the injection current can lead to a very robust method of phase control. In addition to the power- combining in-phase mode it is shown that other phase states can be stabilized with applications to beam steering.

  5. Continuously controlled optical band gap in oxide semiconductor thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Herklotz, Andreas; Rus, Stefania Florina; Ward, Thomas Zac

    2016-02-02

    The optical band gap of the prototypical semiconducting oxide SnO2 is shown to be continuously controlled through single axis lattice expansion of nanometric films induced by low-energy helium implantation. While traditional epitaxy-induced strain results in Poisson driven multidirectional lattice changes shown to only allow discrete increases in bandgap, we find that a downward shift in the band gap can be linearly dictated as a function of out-of-plane lattice expansion. Our experimental observations closely match density functional theory that demonstrates that uniaxial strain provides a fundamentally different effect on the band structure than traditional epitaxy-induced multiaxes strain effects. In conclusion, chargemore » density calculations further support these findings and provide evidence that uniaxial strain can be used to drive orbital hybridization inaccessible with traditional strain engineering techniques.« less

  6. Continuously controlled optical band gap in oxide semiconductor thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Herklotz, Andreas; Rus, Stefania Florina; Ward, Thomas Zac

    2016-02-02

    The optical band gap of the prototypical semiconducting oxide SnO2 is shown to be continuously controlled through single axis lattice expansion of nanometric films induced by low-energy helium implantation. While traditional epitaxy-induced strain results in Poisson driven multidirectional lattice changes shown to only allow discrete increases in bandgap, we find that a downward shift in the band gap can be linearly dictated as a function of out-of-plane lattice expansion. Our experimental observations closely match density functional theory that demonstrates that uniaxial strain provides a fundamentally different effect on the band structure than traditional epitaxy-induced multiaxes strain effects. In conclusion, charge density calculations further support these findings and provide evidence that uniaxial strain can be used to drive orbital hybridization inaccessible with traditional strain engineering techniques.

  7. Fast Optical Control of Spin in Semiconductor Interfacial Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nádvorník, L.; Surýnek, M.; Olejník, K.; Novák, V.; Wunderlich, J.; Trojánek, F.; Jungwirth, T.; Němec, P.

    2017-09-01

    We report on a picosecond-fast optical removal of spin polarization from a self-confined photocarrier system at an undoped GaAs /(Al ,Ga )As interface possessing superior long-range and high-speed spin-transport properties. We employ a modified resonant-spin-amplification technique with unequal intensities of subsequent pump pulses to experimentally distinguish the evolution of spin populations originating from different excitation laser pulses. We demonstrate that the density of spins, which is injected into the system by means of the optical orientation, can be controlled by reducing the electrostatic confinement of the system using an additional generation of photocarriers. It is also shown that the disturbed confinement recovers within hundreds of picoseconds after which spins can be again photoinjected into the system.

  8. The control of stoichiometry in Epitaxial semiconductor structures. Interfacial Chemistry: Property relations. A workshop review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Klaus J.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on the control of stoichiometry in epitaxial semiconductor structures was held on August 21-26, 1995 in the hotel Stutenhaus at Vesser in Germany. The secluded location of the workshop in the forest of Thuringia and its informal style stimulated extensive private discussions among the participants and promoted new contacts between young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe and the USA. Topics addressed by the presentations were interactions of precursors to heteroepitaxy and doping with the substrate surface, the control of interfacial properties under the conditions of heteroepitaxy for selected materials systems, methods of characterization of interfaces and native point defects in semiconductor heterostructures and an in depth evaluation of the present status of the control and characterization of the point defect chemistry for one specific semiconductor (ZnGeP2), including studies of both heterostructures and bulk single crystals. The selected examples of presentations and comments given here represent individual choices - made by the author to highlight major points of the discussions.

  9. Effect of semiconductor-controlled voltage injection by UPFC and ULTC on power system stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavian Mehr, Alireza

    Commercial availability of various power semiconductor switches indicates proliferation of power electronic based apparatus in utility power systems. Furthermore, existing power system apparatus, e.g. mechanical phase shifters and mechanical tap changing transformers, will be retrofitted to utilize higher switching speed of semiconductor switches. A group of these apparatus, i.e., unified power flow controller (UPFC), static phase shifter (SPS), under-load tap-changing (ULTC) transformer and static series capacitor (SSC), perform their respective functions by means of injecting series controlled voltages in power systems. This thesis demonstrates that fast series voltage injection, for dynamic power flow regulation, can result in voltage dynamics and even voltage instability. This indicates that fast voltage injection by means of power electronic based apparatus can couple voltage stability and angle stability phenomena. To investigate this coupling phenomena, the voltage dependency of the load must be adequately represented in the load model. The reported studies in this work are based on representing the load by a combination of static and dynamic loads. This thesis primarily investigates impacts of UPFC and semiconductor-controlled ULTC on voltage stability and angle stability phenomena. An eigen analysis approach is used for the studies. The eigen analysis results are validated by digital time-domain simulations using a transient stability software. Both the eigen analysis and the transient stability software tools are tailored to account for angle and voltage stability phenomena.

  10. Fabrication of reliable semiconductor nanowires by controlling crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangdan; Lim, Taekyung; Ju, Sanghyun

    2011-07-29

    One-dimensional SnO(2) nanomaterials with wide bandgap characteristics are attractive for flexible and/or transparent displays and high-performance nano-electronics. In this study, the crystallinity of SnO(2) nanowires was regulated by controlling their growth temperatures. Moreover, the correlation of the crystallinity of nanowires with optical and electrical characteristics was analyzed. When SnO(2) nanowires were grown at temperatures below 900 °C, they showed various growth directions and abnormal discontinuity in their crystal structures. On the other hand, most nanowires grown at 950 °C exhibited a regular growth trend in the direction of [100]. In addition, the low temperature photoluminescence measurement revealed that the higher growth temperatures of nanowires gradually decreased the 500 nm peak rather than the 620 nm peak. The former peak is derived from the surface defect related to the shallow energy level and affects nanowire surface states. Owing to crystallinity and defects, the threshold voltage range (maximum-minimum) of SnO(2) nanowire transistors was 1.5 V at 850 °C, 1.1 V at 900 °C, and 0.5 V at 950 °C, with dispersion characteristics dramatically decreased. This study successfully demonstrated the effects of nanowire crystallinity on optical and electrical characteristics. It also suggested that the optical and electrical characteristics of nanowire transistors could be regulated by controlling their growth temperatures in the course of producing SnO(2) nanowires.

  11. Fabrication of control rods for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a research-type nuclear reactor that was designed and built in the early 1960s and has been in continuous operation since its initial criticality in 1965. Under current plans, the HFIR is expected to continue in operation until 2035. This report updates ORNL/TM-9365, Fabrication Procedure for HFIR Control Plates, which was mainly prepared in the early 1970's but was not issued until 1984, and reflects process changes, lessons learned in the latest control rod fabrication campaign, and suggested process improvements to be considered in future campaigns. Most of the personnel involved with the initial development of the processes and in part campaigns have retired or will retire soon. Because their unlikely availability in future campaigns, emphasis has been placed on providing some explanation of why the processes were selected and some discussions about the importance of controlling critical process parameters. Contained in this report is a description of the function of control rods in the reactor, the brief history of the development of control rod fabrication processes, and a description of procedures used in the fabrication of control rods. A listing of the controlled documents and procedures used in the last fabrication campaigns is referenced in Appendix A.

  12. Control of the spin geometric phase in semiconductor quantum rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Fumiya; Frustaglia, Diego; Saarikoski, Henri; Richter, Klaus; Nitta, Junsaku

    2013-09-01

    Since the formulation of the geometric phase by Berry, its relevance has been demonstrated in a large variety of physical systems. However, a geometric phase of the most fundamental spin-1/2 system, the electron spin, has not been observed directly and controlled independently from dynamical phases. Here we report experimental evidence on the manipulation of an electron spin through a purely geometric effect in an InGaAs-based quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. By applying an in-plane magnetic field, a phase shift of the Aharonov-Casher interference pattern towards the small spin-orbit-coupling regions is observed. A perturbation theory for a one-dimensional Rashba ring under small in-plane fields reveals that the phase shift originates exclusively from the modulation of a pure geometric-phase component of the electron spin beyond the adiabatic limit, independently from dynamical phases. The phase shift is well reproduced by implementing two independent approaches, that is, perturbation theory and non-perturbative transport simulations.

  13. Control of the spin geometric phase in semiconductor quantum rings

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Fumiya; Frustaglia, Diego; Saarikoski, Henri; Richter, Klaus; Nitta, Junsaku

    2013-01-01

    Since the formulation of the geometric phase by Berry, its relevance has been demonstrated in a large variety of physical systems. However, a geometric phase of the most fundamental spin-1/2 system, the electron spin, has not been observed directly and controlled independently from dynamical phases. Here we report experimental evidence on the manipulation of an electron spin through a purely geometric effect in an InGaAs-based quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. By applying an in-plane magnetic field, a phase shift of the Aharonov–Casher interference pattern towards the small spin-orbit-coupling regions is observed. A perturbation theory for a one-dimensional Rashba ring under small in-plane fields reveals that the phase shift originates exclusively from the modulation of a pure geometric-phase component of the electron spin beyond the adiabatic limit, independently from dynamical phases. The phase shift is well reproduced by implementing two independent approaches, that is, perturbation theory and non-perturbative transport simulations. PMID:24067870

  14. Control of the spin geometric phase in semiconductor quantum rings.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Fumiya; Frustaglia, Diego; Saarikoski, Henri; Richter, Klaus; Nitta, Junsaku

    2013-01-01

    Since the formulation of the geometric phase by Berry, its relevance has been demonstrated in a large variety of physical systems. However, a geometric phase of the most fundamental spin-1/2 system, the electron spin, has not been observed directly and controlled independently from dynamical phases. Here we report experimental evidence on the manipulation of an electron spin through a purely geometric effect in an InGaAs-based quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. By applying an in-plane magnetic field, a phase shift of the Aharonov-Casher interference pattern towards the small spin-orbit-coupling regions is observed. A perturbation theory for a one-dimensional Rashba ring under small in-plane fields reveals that the phase shift originates exclusively from the modulation of a pure geometric-phase component of the electron spin beyond the adiabatic limit, independently from dynamical phases. The phase shift is well reproduced by implementing two independent approaches, that is, perturbation theory and non-perturbative transport simulations.

  15. Chaos synchronization based on a continuous chaos control method in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Ohtsubo, J

    2001-06-01

    Chaos synchronization using a continuous chaos control method was studied in two identical chaotic laser systems consisting of semiconductor lasers and optical feedback from an external mirror. Numerical calculations for rate equations indicate that the stability of chaos synchronization depends significantly on the external mirror position. We performed a linear stability analysis for the rate equations. Our results show that the stability of the synchronization is much influenced by the mode interaction between the relaxation oscillation frequency of the semiconductor laser and the external cavity frequency. Due to this interaction, an intensive mode competition between the two frequencies destroys the synchronization, but stable synchronization can be achieved when the mode competition is very weak.

  16. In situ reflectance and virtual interface analysis for compound semiconductor process control

    SciTech Connect

    Breiland, W.G.; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The authors review the use of in-situ normal incidence reflectance, combined with a virtual interface model, to monitor and control the growth of complex compound semiconductor devices. The technique is being used routinely on both commercial and research metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactors and in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to measure growth rates and high temperature optical constants of compound semiconductor alloys. The virtual interface approach allows one to extract the calibration information in an automated way without having to estimate the thickness or optical constants of the alloy, and without having to model underlying thin film layers. The method has been used in a variety of data analysis applications collectively referred to as ADVISOR (Analysis of Deposition using Virtual Interfaces and Spectroscopic Optical Reflectance). This very simple and robust monitor and ADVISOR method provides one with the equivalent of a real-time reflection high energy electron reflectance (RHEED) tool for both MBE and MOCVD applications.

  17. The control of purity and stoichiometry of compound semiconductors by high vapor pressure transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Klaus J.; Ito, Kazufumi; Scroggs, Jeffery S.; Tran, Hien T.

    1995-01-01

    In this report we summarize the results of a three year research program on high pressure vapor transport (HPVT) of compound semiconductors. Most of our work focused onto pnictides, in particular ZnGeP2, as a model system. Access to single crystals of well controlled composition of this material is desired for advancing the understanding and control of its point defect chemistry in the contest of remote, real-time sensing of trace impurities, e.g., greenhouse gases, in the atmosphere by ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillators (OPO's).

  18. Controlled deposition or organic semiconductor single crystals and its application in field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuhong

    single crystals are selectively nucleated on patterned templates of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. Several organic semiconductor materials are successfully patterned, including p-type pentacene, tetracene, sexiphenylene, and sexithiophene, as well as n-type tetracyanoquinodimethane. This study suggests that the selective growth of crystals onto patterned carbon nanotubes is most likely due to the coarse topography of the CNT bundles. Moreover, I observe that the crystals nucleate from CNT bundles and grow onto CNT bundles in a conformal fashion. The crystal growth can be directly applied onto transistor source-drain electrodes and arrays of organic single-crystal field effect transistors are demonstrated. To investigate the impact of CNTs on device performance, CNT bundles are incorporated into thin-film FETs and a mobility enhancement of organic semiconductors is observed. In the third approach, organic single crystals with well controlled sizes and shapes are successfully grown using patterned Au films as templates. It is observed that sexithiophene crystals nucleate from the edge or the top surface of Au films and then grow two dimensionally on SiO2 surface. The sizes and shapes of sexithiophene crystals are precisely determined by that of the Au patterns. After removing Au templates, large arrays of sexithiophene crystals with controlled sizes and various shapes such as stripes, squares, hexagons, etc. are achieved. Top-contact FETs made of sexithiophene ribbons are demonstrated. Besides organic single crystals, Au templates can also act as templates to pattern vapor- and solution-deposited organic semiconductor thin films. Patterned organic thin-film FETs exhibit superior performance compared to unpatterned devices. Finally, oriented growth of organic semiconductor single crystals on templates with various features is studied. On substrates with aligned features, such as friction-transferred poly(tetrafluoroethylene) thin films, organic semiconductor thin films

  19. Controls on the stable isotope compositions of travertine from hyperalkaline springs in Oman: Insights from clumped isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, E. S.; Guo, W.; Paukert, A. N.; Matter, J. M.; Mervine, E. M.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2016-11-01

    Carbonate formation at hyperalkaline springs is typical of serpentinization in peridotite massifs worldwide. These travertines have long been known to exhibit large variations in their carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, extending from apparent equilibrium values to highly depleted values. However, the exact causes of these variations are not well constrained. We analyzed a suite of well-characterized fresh carbonate precipitates and travertines associated with hyperalkaline springs in the peridotite section of the Samail ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman, and found their clumped isotope compositions vary systematically with formation environments. Based on these findings, we identified four main processes controlling the stable isotope compositions of these carbonates. These include hydroxylation of CO2, partial isotope equilibration of dissolved inorganic carbon, mixing between isotopically distinct carbonate end-members, and post-depositional recrystallization. Most notably, in fresh crystalline films on the surface of hyperalkaline springs and in some fresh carbonate precipitates from the bottom of hyperalkaline pools, we observed large enrichments in Δ47 (up to ∼0.2‰ above expected equilibrium values) which accompany depletions in δ18O and δ13C, yielding about 0.01‰ increase in Δ47 and 1.1‰ decrease in δ13C for every 1‰ decrease in δ18O, relative to expected equilibrium values. This disequilibrium trend, also reflected in preserved travertines ranging in age from modern to ∼40,000 years old, is interpreted to arise mainly from the isotope effects associated with the hydroxylation of CO2 in high-pH fluids and agrees with our first-order theoretical estimation. In addition, in some fresh carbonate precipitates from the bottom of hyperalkaline pools and in subsamples of one preserved travertine terrace, we observed additional enrichments in Δ47 at intermediate δ13C and δ18O, consistent with mixing between isotopically distinct carbonate end

  20. Model Predictive Controlled Active NPC Inverter for Voltage Stress Balancing Among the Semiconductor Power Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvez Akter, Md.; Dah-Chuan Lu, Dylan

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a model predictive controlled three-level three-phase active neutral-point-clamped (ANPC) inverter for distributing the voltage stress among the semiconductor power switches as well as balancing the neutral-point voltage. The model predictive control (MPC) concept uses the discrete variables and effectively operates the ANPC inverter by avoiding any linear controller or modulation techniques. A 4.0 kW three-level three-phase ANPC inverter is developed in the MATLAB/Simulink environment to verify the effectiveness of the proposed MPC scheme. The results confirm that the proposed model predictive controlled ANPC inverter equally distributes the voltage across all the semiconductor power switches and provides lowest THD (0.99%) compared with the traditional NPC inverter. Moreover, the neutral-point voltage balancing is accurately maintained by the proposed MPC algorithm. Furthermore, this MPC concept shows the robustness capability against the parameter uncertainties of the system which is also analyzed by MATLAB/Simulink.

  1. Computer Controlled Magnetotransport Setup for the Characterization of Semiconductor Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ducoudray, G. O.; Collazo, R.; Martinez, A.

    1997-01-01

    We have considered a computer controlled magnetotransport setup using LabWindows environment. It allows for measurements of resistivity, Hall resistance, carrier concentration and charge mobility in semiconductor thin films using a van der Pauw configuration. The setup features an electromagnet (B = 0.7 Tesla) a 80486-DX 33 computer with a National Instrument AT-MIO 16 AD/DA and a GPIB interface board. A Keithely 224 current source and a Keithley 196 digital voltmeter were also used in the setup. Plans for the addition of capabilities to allow for magnetic field sweeping and the performance of measurements as a function of temperature will be presented.

  2. First-principles calculations reveal controlling principles for carrier mobilities in semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yu -Ning; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; ...

    2016-10-11

    It has long been believed that carrier mobilities in semiconductors can be calculated by Fermi s golden rule (Born approximation). Phenomenological models for scattering amplitudes are typically used for engineering- level device modeling. Here we introduce a parameter-free, first-principles approach based on complex- wavevector energy bands that does not invoke the Born approximation. We show that phonon-limited mobility is controlled by low-resistivity percolation paths and that in ionized-impurity scattering one must account for the effect of the screening charge, which cancels most of the Coulomb tail.Finally, calculated electron mobilities in silicon are in agreement with experimental data.

  3. Large-signal coherent control of normal modes in quantum-well semiconductor microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-S.; Norris, T. B.; Maslov, A.; Citrin, D. S.; Prineas, J.; Khitrova, G.; Gibbs, H. M.

    2001-06-18

    We demonstrate coherent control of the cavity-polariton modes of a quantum-well semiconductor microcavity in a two-color scheme. The cavity enhancement of the excitonic nonlinearity gives rise to a large signal; modulating the relative phase of the excitation pulses between zero and {pi} produces a differential reflectivity ({Delta}R/R) of up to 20%. The maximum nonlinear signal is obtained for cocircular pump and probe polarization. Excitation-induced dephasing is responsible for the incoherent nonlinear response, and limits the contrast ratio of the optical switching. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Origin and control of ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors and oxides (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Tomasz

    2008-04-01

    The author reviews the present understanding of the hole-mediated ferromagnetism in magnetically doped semiconductors and oxides as well as the origin of high temperature ferromagnetism in materials containing no valence band holes. It is argued that in these systems spinodal decomposition into regions with a large and a small concentration of magnetic component takes place. This self-organized assembling of magnetic nanocrystals can be controlled by codoping and growth conditions. Functionalities of these multicomponent systems are described together with prospects for their applications in spintronics, nanoelectronics, photonics, plasmonics, and thermoelectrics.

  5. Computer Controlled Magnetotransport Setup for the Characterization of Semiconductor Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ducoudray, G. O.; Collazo, R.; Martinez, A.

    1997-01-01

    We have considered a computer controlled magnetotransport setup using LabWindows environment. It allows for measurements of resistivity, Hall resistance, carrier concentration and charge mobility in semiconductor thin films using a van der Pauw configuration. The setup features an electromagnet (B = 0.7 Tesla) a 80486-DX 33 computer with a National Instrument AT-MIO 16 AD/DA and a GPIB interface board. A Keithely 224 current source and a Keithley 196 digital voltmeter were also used in the setup. Plans for the addition of capabilities to allow for magnetic field sweeping and the performance of measurements as a function of temperature will be presented.

  6. Emission polarization control in semiconductor quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal microcavity.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, E; Martínez, L J; Nowak, A K; van der Meulen, H P; Calleja, J M; Tejedor, C; Prieto, I; Granados, D; Taboada, A G; García, J M; Postigo, P A

    2010-06-07

    We study the optical emission of single semiconductor quantum dots weakly coupled to a photonic-crystal micro-cavity. The linearly polarized emission of a selected quantum dot changes continuously its polarization angle, from nearly perpendicular to the cavity mode polarization at large detuning, to parallel at zero detuning, and reversing sign for negative detuning. The linear polarization rotation is qualitatively interpreted in terms of the detuning dependent mixing of the quantum dot and cavity states. The present result is relevant to achieve continuous control of the linear polarization in single photon emitters.

  7. Stable isotopic signature of Australian monsoon controlled by regional convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwart, C.; Munksgaard, N. C.; Kurita, N.; Bird, M. I.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main meteorological drivers of rainfall isotopic variation in north Australia in order to improve the interpretation of isotopic proxy records in this region. An intense monitoring program was conducted during two monsoonal events that showed significant and systematic isotopic change over time. The results showed a close link between isotopic variation in precipitation and variability in monsoon conditions, associated with the presence of large convective envelopes propagating through the study site. The largest negative amplitudes in the isotopic signal were observed when eastward and westward moving precipitation systems within the convective envelope merged over the measurement site. This suggests that the amplitude of the isotopic signal is related to the size and activity of the convective envelope. The strong correlation between rainfall isotopic variation, regional outgoing longwave radiation and regional rainfall amount supports this conclusion. This is further strengthened by the strong relationship between isotopic variation and the integrated rainfall history of air masses prior to arriving at the measurement locations. A local amount effect was not significant and these findings support the interpretation of δ18O as proxy for regional climatic conditions rather than local rainfall amount. Meteorological parameters that characterize intra-seasonal variability of monsoon conditions were also found to be strongly linked to inter-seasonal variability of the monthly based δ18O values in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database. This leads to the conclusion that information about the Australian monsoon variability can likely be inferred from the isotopic proxy record in North Australia on short (intra seasonal) and long (inter seasonal or longer) timescales.

  8. Two-Color Coherent Control of Optical Bistability in Asymmetric Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia-Hua; Hao, Xiang-Ying

    We investigate optical bistability in intersubband transitions of an asymmetric semiconductor quantum well structure that has equidistant transitions between three subbands of the system and is placed in a unidirectional cavity. The system is simultaneously coupled by a fundamental field and its second harmonic. The second harmonic field acts as a control field and significantly influences the optical bistability. In addition, the two-color coherent control of optical bistability by the relative phase of the fundamental and the second harmonic fields is shown. The influence of the electronic cooperation parameter on the OB behavior is also discussed. This investigation may be used for optimizing and controlling the optical switching process in the SQW solid-state system, which is much more practical than that in the atomic system because of its flexible design and the controllable interference strength.

  9. Solution speciation controls mercury isotope fractionation of Hg(II) sorption to goethite.

    PubMed

    Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2012-06-19

    The application of Hg isotope signatures as tracers for environmental Hg cycling requires the determination of isotope fractionation factors and mechanisms for individual processes. Here, we investigated Hg isotope fractionation of Hg(II) sorption to goethite in batch systems under different experimental conditions. We observed a mass-dependent enrichment of light Hg isotopes on the goethite surface relative to dissolved Hg (ε(202)Hg of -0.30‰ to -0.44‰) which was independent of the pH, chloride and sulfate concentration, type of surface complex, and equilibration time. Based on previous theoretical equilibrium fractionation factors, we propose that Hg isotope fractionation of Hg(II) sorption to goethite is controlled by an equilibrium isotope effect between Hg(II) solution species, expressed on the mineral surface by the adsorption of the cationic solution species. In contrast, the formation of outer-sphere complexes and subsequent conformation changes to different inner-sphere complexes appeared to have insignificant effects on the observed isotope fractionation. Our findings emphasize the importance of solution speciation in metal isotope sorption studies and suggest that the dissolved Hg(II) pool in soils and sediments, which is the most mobile and bioavailable, should be isotopically heavy, as light Hg isotopes are preferentially sequestered during binding to both mineral phases and natural organic matter.

  10. Environmental controls on stable isotope ratios in New Zealand Podocarpaceae: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, Marianne J.; Baldini, James U. L.; Gröcke, Darren R.

    2014-09-01

    Stable isotope ratios of various proxies are widely used for palaeoclimate reconstruction, and it is often assumed that isotope ratios reflect vegetation abundance or type. However, very little research exists on the isotopic equilibration of extant biomes under variable environmental conditions. In this study, carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from leaves of various Podocarpaceae genera, endemic to New Zealand, are linked to environmental parameters from the Land Environments New Zealand model. The dominant influence on stable isotope ratios within the majority of Podocarpaceae studied here is vapour pressure deficit (VPD). A simple latitudinal trend does not exist, and neither temperature nor rainfall (decoupled from VPD) controls the stable isotope ratios. The results suggest that modern spatial heterogeneity in VPD affects the stable isotope values of vegetation, and that historic VPD variability would change the stable isotope ratios of Podocarpaceae without necessitating a change in vegetation type, density, or productivity. This represents an alternative model for temporal isotope change within geochemical proxies and reinforces the need for increased stable isotopic research in modern plant ecosystems to better understand modern, and eventually palaeoclimatic processes affecting the terrestrial biosphere.

  11. Isotopic effect in deuterium-induced semiconductor surface metallization: D /3C-SiC(100) 3×2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J.; Aristov, V. Yu.; Radtke, C.; Jaffrennou, P.; Enriquez, H.; Soukiassian, P.; Moras, P.; Spezzani, C.; Crotti, C.; Perfetti, P.

    2006-07-01

    Atomic deuterium (D) interaction with the polar 3C-SiC(100) 3×2 surface is investigated by synchrotron radiation-based valence band and core level photoemission. D is found to induce metallization of the surface. The D atoms lead to a charge transfer into the topmost Si and C planes, with D atoms terminating top surface dangling bond and an asymmetric attack in the third Si plane. However, a significant isotopic effect is observed when compared to the H-induced metallization with amazingly smaller charge transfer suggesting dynamical effects.

  12. Controlled growth of semiconductor nanofilms within TiO₂ nanotubes for nanofilm sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaojia; Yu, Dongqi; Xiong, Feng-Qiang; Li, Mingrun; Yang, Zhou; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Li, Can

    2014-04-28

    Anodized TiO2 nanotubes were decorated by II-VI semiconductor nanofilms via atomic layer deposition (ALD) and further employed as photoanodes of semiconductor nanofilm sensitized solar cells (NFSCs) exhibiting superior photovoltaic performance.

  13. Control study on Evapotranspiration partitioning for grassland through on-situ isotopic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Wilcox, B. P.; Zou, C.; Stebler, E.; West, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Isotopic composition of water varies in different pools and fluxes along the hydrologic flow. This variation between evaporation and transpiration also enable isotope as indispensable tracer to partition these two different evapotranspiration components. Our control experiment was applied to two grassland sites, of which herbicide (roundup) was carried out as control. We took continuous In-situ measurement of deuterium and oxygen-18 at high-temporal resolution with a cavity ring-down spectroscopy water vapor isotope analyzer. Root and leaf was sampled at sub-daily level under non-steady theory for transpiration. Soil water was also taken to obtain isotopic value for soil evaporation with Craig-Gordon model. The relative contribution of transpiration to evaporation will cross-checked by isotopic partitioning and control site. So the robustness of current theory of evapotranspiration partitioning under natural ecosystems will be examined and improved.

  14. Quantum control and process tomography of a semiconductor quantum dot hybrid qubit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohun; Shi, Zhan; Simmons, C B; Ward, D R; Prance, J R; Koh, Teck Seng; Gamble, John King; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, Mark A

    2014-07-03

    The similarities between gated quantum dots and the transistors in modern microelectronics--in fabrication methods, physical structure and voltage scales for manipulation--have led to great interest in the development of quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor quantum dots. Although quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications, such as factoring. Furthermore, scalability and manufacturability are enhanced when qubits are as simple as possible. Previous work has increased the speed of spin qubit rotations by making use of integrated micromagnets, dynamic pumping of nuclear spins or the addition of a third quantum dot. Here we demonstrate a qubit that is a hybrid of spin and charge. It is simple, requiring neither nuclear-state preparation nor micromagnets. Unlike previous double-dot qubits, the hybrid qubit enables fast rotations about two axes of the Bloch sphere. We demonstrate full control on the Bloch sphere with π-rotation times of less than 100 picoseconds in two orthogonal directions, which is more than an order of magnitude faster than any other double-dot qubit. The speed arises from the qubit's charge-like characteristics, and its spin-like features result in resistance to decoherence over a wide range of gate voltages. We achieve full process tomography in our electrically controlled semiconductor quantum dot qubit, extracting high fidelities of 85 per cent for X rotations (transitions between qubit states) and 94 per cent for Z rotations (phase accumulation between qubit states).

  15. Development of a novel microfluidic reactor for highly controlled synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterton, Jeffrey D.

    Despite numerous advancements in the understanding of the unique properties of semiconductor nanocrystals, challenges associated with current production strategies have prevented these materials from finding widespread application. Current batch-wise synthesis methods offer only limited ability to probe the processes occurring during the formation of individual nanocrystals and no synthesis method yet exists that is capable of achieving widespread production of nanocrystals. Microfluidic reaction systems present an attractive alternative to conventional synthesis techniques because they afford greater control over local reaction environments than is possible in conventional batch-wise methods, and could ultimately increase production capabilities through massive parallelization. Here, the unique challenges associated with microfluidic synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals are discussed, along with a presentation of an innovative microfluidic reactor concept that directly addresses the limitations of conventional microfluidic reaction systems for this purpose. The reactor discussed here features a droplet-based two-phase flow design that eliminates the dispersion-induced broadening of the particle size distribution that is characteristic of other microfluidic designs. The flow channels in the design are arranged to spiral in and out of novel reaction coin structures that are designed to allow the thermal profile of the reactor to be tailored to the specific requirements of nanocrystal synthesis operations. A simplified prototype reactor has been constructed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the reactor concept. Broader impacts of the design concept with respect to the ability to permit unprecedented control over the size distribution of the particles are discussed.

  16. Chemical and thermodynamic control of the surface of semiconductor nanocrystals for designer white light emitters.

    PubMed

    Krause, Michael M; Mooney, Jonathan; Kambhampati, Patanjali

    2013-07-23

    Small CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals with diameters below 2 nm are thought to emit white light due to random surface defects which result in a broad distribution of midgap emitting states, thereby preventing rational design of small nanocrystal white light emitters. We perform temperature dependent photoluminescence experiments before and after ligand exchange and electron transfer simulations to reveal a very simple microscopic picture of the origin of the white light. These experiments and simulations reveal that these small nanocrystals can be physically modeled in precisely the same way as normal-sized semiconductor nanocrystals; differences in their emission spectra arise from their surface thermodynamics. The white light emission is thus a consequence of the thermodynamic relationship between a core excitonic state and an optically bright surface state with good quantum yield. By virtue of this understanding of the surface and the manner in which it is coupled to the core excitonic states of these nanocrystals, we show both chemical and thermodynamic control of the photoluminescence spectra. We find that using both temperature and appropriate choice in ligands, one can rationally control the spectra so as to engineer the surface to target color rendering coordinates for displays and white light emitters.

  17. Plasmon-assisted local temperature control to pattern individual semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Linyou; Barsic, David N; Guichard, Alex R; Brongersma, Mark L

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate a new versatile strategy to rapidly heat and cool subdiffraction-limited volumes of material with a focused light beam. The local temperature rise is obtained by exploiting the unique optical properties of metallic nanostructures that facilitate efficient light-to-heat conversion through the excitation of surface plasmons (collective electron oscillations). By locally heating nanoscale metallic catalysts, growth of semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes can be initiated and controlled at arbitrarily prespecified locations and down to the single nanostructure level in a room-temperature chamber. This local heating strategy can be orders of magnitude (>10(5)) more energy efficient than conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tools in which an entire chamber/substrate is heated. For these reasons, it has great potential for use in process- and energy-efficient assembly of nanowires into complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible device architectures. In general, the high degree of spatial and temporal control over nanoscale thermal environments afforded by this method inspires new pathways for manipulating a range of important thermally stimulated processes and the development of novel photothermal devices.

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW A review of the coherent optical control of the exciton and spin states of semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, A. J.

    2010-10-01

    The spin of a carrier trapped in a self-assembled quantum dot has the potential to be a robust optically active qubit that is compatible with existing III-V semiconductor device technology. A key requirement for building a quantum processor is the ability to dynamically prepare, control and detect single quantum states. Here, experimental progress in the coherent optical control of single semiconductor quantum dots over the past decade is reviewed, alongside an introductory discussion of the basic principles of coherent control.

  19. East Asian Monsoon controls on the inter-annual variability in precipitation isotope ratio in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, N.; Fujiyoshi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Matsumi, Y.; Kitagawa, H.

    2015-02-01

    To elucidate the mechanism for how the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) variability have influenced the isotope proxy records in Japan, we explore the primary driver of variations of precipitation isotopes at multiple temporal scales (event, seasonal and inter-annual scales). Using a new 1-year record of the isotopic composition of event-based precipitation and continuous near-surface water vapor at Nagoya in central Japan, we identify the key atmospheric processes controlling the storm-to-storm isotopic variations through an analysis of air mass sources and rainout history during the transport of moisture to the site, and then apply the identified processes to explain the inter-annual isotopic variability related to the EAM variability in the historical 17-year long Tokyo station record in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). In the summer, southerly flows transport moisture with higher isotopic values from subtropical marine regions and bring warm rainfall enriched with heavy isotopes. The weak monsoon summer corresponds to enriched isotopic values in precipitation, reflecting higher contribution of warm rainfall to the total summer precipitation. In the strong monsoon summer, the sustaining Baiu rainband along the southern coast of Japan prevents moisture transport across Japan, so that the contribution of warm rainfall is reduced. In the winter, storm tracks are the dominant driver of storm-to-storm isotopic variation and relatively low isotopic values occur when a cold frontal rainband associated with extratropical cyclones passes off to the south of the Japan coast. The weak monsoon winter is characterized by lower isotopes in precipitation, due to the distribution of the cyclone tracks away from the southern coast of Japan. In contrast, the northward shift of the cyclone tracks and stronger development of cyclones during the strong monsoon winters decrease the contribution of cold frontal precipitation, resulting in higher isotopic values in

  20. Weathering and vegetation controls on nickel isotope fractionation in surface ultramafic environments (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrade, Nicolas; Cloquet, Christophe; Echevarria, Guillaume; Sterckeman, Thibault; Deng, Tenghaobo; Tang, YeTao; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2015-08-01

    The dissolved nickel (Ni) isotopic composition of rivers and oceans presents an apparent paradox. Even though rivers represent a major source of Ni in the oceans, seawater is more enriched in the heavier isotopes than river-water. Additional sources or processes must therefore be invoked to account for the isotopic budget of dissolved Ni in seawater. Weathering of continental rocks is thought to play a major role in determining the magnitude and sign of isotopic fractionation of metals between a rock and the dissolved product. We present a study of Ni isotopes in the rock-soil-plant systems of several ultramafic environments. The results reveal key insights into the magnitude and the control of isotopic fractionation during the weathering of continental ultramafic rocks. This study introduces new constraints on the influence of vegetation during the weathering process, which should be taken into account in interpretations of the variability of Ni isotopes in rivers. The study area is located in a temperate climate zone within the ophiolitic belt area of Albania. The serpentinized peridotites sampled present a narrow range of heavy Ni isotopic compositions (δ60Ni = 0.25 ± 0.16 ‰, 2SD n = 2). At two locations, horizons within two soil profiles affected by different degrees of weathering all presented light isotopic compositions compared to the parent rock (Δ60Nisoil-rock up to - 0.63 ‰). This suggests that the soil pool takes up the light isotopes, while the heavier isotopes remain in the dissolved phase. By combining elemental and mineralogical analyses with the isotope compositions determined for the soils, the extent of fractionation was found to be controlled by the secondary minerals formed in the soil. The types of vegetation growing on ultramafic-derived soils are highly adapted and include both Ni-hyperaccumulating species, which can accumulate several percent per weight of Ni, and non-accumulating species. Whole-plant isotopic compositions were found

  1. Voltage control of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in ferromagnetic-semiconductor-piezoelectric hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushforth, A. W.; de Ranieri, E.; Zemen, J.; Wunderlich, J.; Edmonds, K. W.; King, C. S.; Ahmad, E.; Campion, R. P.; Foxon, C. T.; Gallagher, B. L.; Výborný, K.; Kučera, J.; Jungwirth, T.

    2008-08-01

    We demonstrate voltage control of the magnetic anisotropy of a (Ga,Mn)As device bonded to a piezoelectric transducer. The application of a uniaxial strain leads to a large reorientation of the magnetic easy axis, which is detected by anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements. Calculations based on the mean-field kinetic-exchange model of (Ga,Mn)As provide a microscopic understanding of the measured effect. The reported smooth voltage control of the uniaxial in-plane anisotropy, electrically induced magnetization switching, and detection of unconventional crystalline components of the anisotropic magnetoresistance illustrate the generic utility of our multiferroic system in providing device functionalities and in the research of micromagnetic and magnetotransport phenomena in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  2. Spatially Controlled Fe Isotope Variations at Torres del Paine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, N.; Lundstrom, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in mass-spectrometry have identified systematic trends of non-traditional stable isotope variation in igneous rocks with differentiation index. We present new Fe isotope data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of a 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous and possibly cogenetic 0.5 km mafic gabbro suite. Whereas previous isotopic investigations do little to address variations across important magmatic contacts, this study focuses on a first-of-its-kind spatially dependent non-traditional stable isotope investigation of an igneous pluton. Samples were collected at Torres del Paine in spatially significant transects, focusing on major contacts between country rock, granite and mafic units. Results collected by bracketed double spike MC-ICP-MS (2s precision of ×0.03) show an increase in δ56Fe towards the high silica margins of the pluton with values as high as δ56Fe 0.36. Additionally, the data show a decrease in δ56Fe toward the mafic center of the pluton with δ56Fe values ranging from δ56Fe -0.05 to 0.18. Samples collected on the contact between the granite and mafic complex show intermediate values of δ56Fe= 0.18(×) 0.03. Country rock samples in contact with granite show an isotopically light signature of δ56Fe=0.04 (×) 0.03. Analysis of 50 samples in total show a trend of increasing δ56Fe with SiO2 content. The process responsible for Fe isotope variations remains debated but is suggested to reflect four mechanisms: (1) crustal assimilation, (2) fractional crystallization, (3) late stage fluid exsolution [1] and (4) thermal migration [3]. Preliminary results show that mechanisms #1 and #2 would produce isotopic signatures opposite of those seen at Torres del Paine and other plutonic rocks. Isotopically light Torres country rock samples reveal that assimilation of rocks would not produce the isotopically heavy granites seen at Torres. Based on

  3. What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Hirabayashi, M.; Winkler, R.; Satow, K.; Prié, F.; Bayou, N.; Brun, E.; Cuffey, K. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Dumont, M.; Guillevic, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Landais, A.; Popp, T.; Risi, C.; Steffen, K.; Stenni, B.; Sveinbjörnsdottír, A. E.

    2014-02-01

    Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation isotopic composition simulated by isotopically enabled atmospheric models. However, post-depositional processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, monitoring of the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD) of near-surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of the top (0.5 cm) snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011-2012) at NEEM, NW Greenland. The samples also include a subset of 17O-excess measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a strong correlation between near-surface vapor δ18O and air temperature (0.85 ± 0.11‰ °C-1 (R = 0.76) for 2012). The correlation with air temperature is not observed in precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess) is strongly anti-correlated with δ18O with a stronger slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During nine 1-5-day periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and near-surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or deposition. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in near-surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic variations and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in near-surface vapor

  4. What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Hirabayashi, M.; Winkler, R.; Satow, K.; Prié, F.; Bayou, N.; Brun, E.; Cuffey, K. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Dumont, M.; Guillevic, M.; Kipfstuhl, J.; Landais, A.; Popp, T.; Risi, C.; Steffen, K.; Stenni, B.; Sveinbjörnsdottír, A.

    2013-10-01

    Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation isotopic composition simulated by isotopically-enabled atmospheric models. However, post-deposition processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, a monitoring of the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD) of surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of top (0.5 cm) snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011-2012) at NEEM, NW Greenland. The measurements also include a subset of 17O-excess measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a strong correlation between surface vapor δ18O and air temperature (0.85 ± 0.11 ‰ °C-1 (R = 0.76) for 2012). The correlation with air temperature is not observed in precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess) is strongly anti-correlated with δ18O with a stronger slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During nine 1-5 days periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere using the CROCUS snow model. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or condensation. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic weather and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in-between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in surface vapor isotopic composition. This

  5. Control of spin defects in wide-bandgap semiconductors for quantum technologies

    DOE PAGES

    Heremans, F. Joseph; Yale, Christopher G.; Awschalom, David D.

    2016-05-24

    Deep-level defects are usually considered undesirable in semiconductors as they typically interfere with the performance of present-day electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the electronic spin states of certain atomic-scale defects have recently been shown to be promising quantum bits for quantum information processing as well as exquisite nanoscale sensors due to their local environmental sensitivity. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in quantum control protocols of several of these spin defects, the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) center in diamond and a variety of forms of the neutral divacancy (VV0) complex in silicon carbide (SiC). These defects exhibit amore » spin-triplet ground state that can be controlled through a variety of techniques, several of which allow for room temperature operation. Microwave control has enabled sophisticated decoupling schemes to extend coherence times as well as nanoscale sensing of temperature along with magnetic and electric fields. On the other hand, photonic control of these spin states has provided initial steps toward integration into quantum networks, including entanglement, quantum state teleportation, and all-optical control. Electrical and mechanical control also suggest pathways to develop quantum transducers and quantum hybrid systems. In conclusion, the versatility of the control mechanisms demonstrated should facilitate the development of quantum technologies based on these spin defects.« less

  6. Control of spin defects in wide-bandgap semiconductors for quantum technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heremans, F. Joseph; Yale, Christopher G.; Awschalom, David D.

    2016-05-24

    Deep-level defects are usually considered undesirable in semiconductors as they typically interfere with the performance of present-day electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the electronic spin states of certain atomic-scale defects have recently been shown to be promising quantum bits for quantum information processing as well as exquisite nanoscale sensors due to their local environmental sensitivity. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in quantum control protocols of several of these spin defects, the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) center in diamond and a variety of forms of the neutral divacancy (VV0) complex in silicon carbide (SiC). These defects exhibit a spin-triplet ground state that can be controlled through a variety of techniques, several of which allow for room temperature operation. Microwave control has enabled sophisticated decoupling schemes to extend coherence times as well as nanoscale sensing of temperature along with magnetic and electric fields. On the other hand, photonic control of these spin states has provided initial steps toward integration into quantum networks, including entanglement, quantum state teleportation, and all-optical control. Electrical and mechanical control also suggest pathways to develop quantum transducers and quantum hybrid systems. In conclusion, the versatility of the control mechanisms demonstrated should facilitate the development of quantum technologies based on these spin defects.

  7. Coherent control of optical bistability and multistability in a triple semiconductor quantum well nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheli, A.; Afshari, H.; Hamedi, H. R.

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) behaviors for a triple semiconductor quantum well (SQW) structure driven coherently with two control fields, confined in a unidirectional ring cavity. The effect of different system parameters on OB and OM is explored. It is found that the threshold of onset of the OB can be controlled by manipulating the Rabi frequency of control fields. In this case, OB can be converted to OM. Then we investigate the effect of probe and control field detunings on OB behaviors. We found that the frequency detuning of probe field affects only the upper-lower branches of the OB curves but has no specific impact on OB threshold. By manipulating the first control field detuning, neither the OB threshold intensity nor upper-lower branches change. Finally, it is found that increasing the second control field detuning can reduce merely the OB threshold intensity, while no change happens in upper-lower OB branches. The results may be applicable in real experiments for realizing an all-optical switching or coding element in a solid-state platform.

  8. Interface symmetry and spin control in topological-insulator-semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, Mahmoud M.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Vekhter, Ilya

    2017-06-01

    Heterostructures combining topological and nontopological materials constitute the next frontier in the effort to incorporate topological insulators (TIs) into electronic devices. We show that the properties of the interface states appearing at the boundary between a topologically trivial semiconductor (SE) and a TI are controlled by the lowering of the interface symmetry due to the presence of the SE. For the [111]-grown heterostructure, SE-TI interface states exhibit elliptical contours of constant energy and complex spin textures with broken helicity, in contrast to the well-studied helical Dirac surface states. We derive a general effective Hamiltonian for SE-TI junctions, and propose experimental signatures such as an out of plane spin accumulation under a transport current and the opening of a spectral gap that depends on the direction of an applied in-plane magnetic field.

  9. Leveraging Nanocavity Harmonics for Control of Optical Processes in 2D Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Akselrod, Gleb M; Ming, Tian; Argyropoulos, Christos; Hoang, Thang B; Lin, Yuxuan; Ling, Xi; Smith, David R; Kong, Jing; Mikkelsen, Maiken H

    2015-05-13

    Optical cavities with multiple tunable resonances have the potential to provide unique electromagnetic environments at two or more distinct wavelengths--critical for control of optical processes such as nonlinear generation, entangled photon generation, or photoluminescence (PL) enhancement. Here, we show a plasmonic nanocavity based on a nanopatch antenna design that has two tunable resonant modes in the visible spectrum separated by 350 nm and with line widths of ∼60 nm. The importance of utilizing two resonances simultaneously is demonstrated by integrating monolayer MoS2, a two-dimensional semiconductor, into the colloidally synthesized nanocavities. We observe a 2000-fold enhancement in the PL intensity of MoS2--which has intrinsically low absorption and small quantum yield--at room temperature, enabled by the combination of tailored absorption enhancement at the first harmonic and PL quantum-yield enhancement at the fundamental resonance.

  10. A novel continuous microfluidic reactor design for the controlled production of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterton, Jeffrey D.; Myers, David R.; Lippmann, Julian M.; Pisano, Albert P.; Doyle, Fiona M.

    2008-08-01

    An innovative microfluidic reactor concept for the production of high quality semiconductor nanocrystals is presented. The reactor features a droplet-based, two phase flow design that eliminates the dispersion-induced broadening of the particle size distribution that is characteristic of other microfluidic designs. The flow channels in the design are arranged to spiral in and out of novel reaction coin structures that are designed to allow the thermal profile of the reactor to be tailored to the requirements of specific nanocrystal synthesis operations. A simplified prototype reactor has been constructed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the reactor concept. Broader impacts of the design concept with respect to the ability to permit unprecedented control over the size distribution of the particles are discussed.

  11. Electric field control of spin splitting in III-V semiconductor quantum dots without magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick

    2015-10-01

    We provide an alternative means of electric field control for spin manipulation in the absence of magnetic fields by transporting quantum dots adiabatically in the plane of two-dimensional electron gas. We show that the spin splitting energy of moving quantum dots is possible due to the presence of quasi-Hamiltonian that might be implemented to make the next generation spintronic devices of post CMOS technology. Such spin splitting energy is highly dependent on the material properties of semiconductor. It turns out that this energy is in the range of meV and can be further enhanced with increasing pulse frequency. In particular, we show that quantum oscillations in phonon mediated spin-flip behaviors can be observed. We also confirm that no oscillations in spin-flip behaviors can be observed for the pure Rashba or pure Dresselhaus cases.

  12. Controlling the metal to semiconductor transition of MoS2 and WS2 in solution

    DOE PAGES

    Chou, Stanley Shihyao; Yi-Kai Huang; Kim, Jaemyung; ...

    2015-01-22

    Lithiation-exfoliation produces single to few-layered MoS2 and WS2 sheets dispersible in water. However, the process transforms them from the pristine semiconducting 2H phase to a distorted metallic phase. Recovery of the semiconducting properties typically involves heating of the chemically exfoliated sheets at elevated temperatures. Therefore, it has been largely limited to sheets deposited on solid substrates. We report the dispersion of chemically exfoliated MoS2 sheets in high boiling point organic solvents enabled by surface functionalization and the controllable recovery of their semiconducting properties directly in solution. Ultimately, this process connects the scalability of chemical exfoliation with the simplicity of solutionmore » processing, enabling a facile method for tuning the metal to semiconductor transitions of MoS2 and WS2 within a liquid medium.« less

  13. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Harmonic modulation of radiation of an external-feedback semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, Aleksandr G.; Napartovich, A. P.

    2007-02-01

    The appearance of the harmonic modulation regime at the Hopf bifurcation point is described analytically for a delayed-feedback semiconductor laser. The second-order delay differential equation with complex coefficients is derived. The frequency of oscillations appearing at the Hopf bifurcation point is determined by the solution of two relatively simple transcendental equations, from which the bifurcation point itself is found. These equations contain dependences on all the control parameters of the problem. The exact upper and lower limits of the oscillation frequency are found. A comparison with numerical results shows that the modulation frequency is preserved almost constant in a broad range of feedback phases. A procedure is proposed for determining the parameters of the laser providing the presence of bifurcations with a passage to oscillations with the specified frequency. The results obtained in the paper are of interest for WDM communication systems.

  14. Frequency response control of semiconductor laser by using hybrid modulation scheme.

    PubMed

    Mieda, Shigeru; Yokota, Nobuhide; Isshiki, Ryuto; Kobayashi, Wataru; Yasaka, Hiroshi

    2016-10-31

    A hybrid modulation scheme that simultaneously applies the direct current modulation and intra-cavity loss modulation to a semiconductor laser is proposed. Both numerical calculations using rate equations and experiments using a fabricated laser show that the hybrid modulation scheme can control the frequency response of the laser by changing a modulation ratio and time delay between the two modulations. The modulation ratio and time delay provide the degree of signal mixing of the two modulations and an optimum condition is found when a non-flat frequency response for the intra-cavity loss modulation is compensated by that for the direct current modulation. We experimentally confirm a 8.64-dB improvement of the modulation sensitivity at 20 GHz compared with the pure direct current modulation with a 0.7-dB relaxation oscillation peak.

  15. Controlling the metal to semiconductor transition of MoS2 and WS2 in solution.

    PubMed

    Chou, Stanley S; Huang, Yi-Kai; Kim, Jaemyung; Kaehr, Bryan; Foley, Brian M; Lu, Ping; Dykstra, Conner; Hopkins, Patrick E; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Huang, Jiaxing; Dravid, Vinayak P

    2015-02-11

    Lithiation-exfoliation produces single to few-layered MoS2 and WS2 sheets dispersible in water. However, the process transforms them from the pristine semiconducting 2H phase to a distorted metallic phase. Recovery of the semiconducting properties typically involves heating of the chemically exfoliated sheets at elevated temperatures. Therefore, it has been largely limited to sheets deposited on solid substrates. Here, we report the dispersion of chemically exfoliated MoS2 sheets in high boiling point organic solvents enabled by surface functionalization and the controllable recovery of their semiconducting properties directly in solution. This process connects the scalability of chemical exfoliation with the simplicity of solution processing, ultimately enabling a facile method for tuning the metal to semiconductor transitions of MoS2 and WS2 within a liquid medium.

  16. Carrier-lifetime-controlled selective etching process for semiconductors using photochemical etching

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Myers, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The minority carrier lifetime is significantly much shorter in semiconductor materials with very high impurity concentrations than it is in semiconductor materials with lower impurity concentration levels. This phenomenon of reduced minority carrier lifetime in semiconductor materials having high impurity concentration is utilized to advantage for permitting highly selective semiconductor material etching to be achieved using a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. Various means may be employed for increasing the local impurity concentration level in specific near-surface regions of a semiconductor prior to subjecting the semiconductor material to a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. The regions having the localized increased impurity concentration form a self-aligned mask inhibiting photochemical etching at such localized regions while the adjacent regions not having increased impurity concentrations are selectively photochemically etched. Liquid- or gas-phase etching may be performed.

  17. Energetics and Control of Ultracold Isotope-Exchange Reactions between Heteronuclear Dimers in External Fields.

    PubMed

    Tomza, Michał

    2015-08-07

    We show that isotope-exchange reactions between ground-state alkali-metal, alkaline-earth-metal, and lanthanide heteronuclear dimers consisting of two isotopes of the same atom are exothermic with an energy change in the range of 1-8000 MHz, thus resulting in cold or ultracold products. For these chemical reactions, there are only one rovibrational and at most several hyperfine possible product states. The number and energetics of open and closed reactive channels can be controlled by the laser and magnetic fields. We suggest a laser-induced isotope- and state-selective Stark shift control to tune the exothermic isotope-exchange reactions to become endothermic, thus providing the ground for testing models of the chemical reactivity. The present proposal opens the way for studying the state-to-state dynamics of ultracold chemical reactions beyond the universal limit with a meaningful control over the quantum states of both reactants and products.

  18. Controls of Isotopic Patterns in Saprotrophic and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) in ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi contain important information about ecological functioning, but the complexity of physiological and ecosystem processes contributing to fungal carbon and nitrogen dynamics has limited our abil...

  19. Controls of Isotopic Patterns in Saprotrophic and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) in ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi contain important information about ecological functioning, but the complexity of physiological and ecosystem processes contributing to fungal carbon and nitrogen dynamics has limited our abil...

  20. Semiconductor heterostructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold John (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry MacPherson (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  1. Semiconductor structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold J. (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  2. Pulse propagation and optically controllable switch in coupled semiconductor-double-quantum-dot nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Hamedi, H. R. E-mail: hamid.hamedi@tfai.vu.lt

    2016-05-14

    The problem of pulse propagation is theoretically investigated through a coupled semiconductor-double-quantum-dot (SDQD) nanostructure. Solving the coupled Maxwell–Bloch equations for the SDQD and field simultaneously, the dynamic control of pulse propagation through the medium is numerically explored. It is found that when all the control fields are in exact resonance with their corresponding transitions, a weak Gaussian-shaped probe pulse is transmitted through the medium nearly without any significant absorption and losses so that it can preserve its shape for quite a long propagation distance. In contrast, when one of the control fields is not in resonance with its corresponding transition, the probe pulse will be absorbed by the QD medium after a short distance. Then we consider the probe pulses with higher intensities. It is realized that an intense probe pulse experiences remarkable absorption and broadening during propagation. Finally, we demonstrate that this SDQD system can be employed as an optically controllable switch for the wave propagation to transit from an absorbing phase to a perfect transparency for the probe field. The required time for such switch is also estimated through realistic values.

  3. Unveiling and controlling the electronic structure of oxidized semiconductor surfaces: Crystalline oxidized InSb(100)(1 Ã-- 2)-O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lâng, J. J. K.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Tuominen, M.; Hedman, H.-P.; Vähä-Heikkilä, M.; Polojärvi, V.; Salmi, J.; Korpijärvi, V.-M.; Schulte, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Punkkinen, R.; Laukkanen, P.; Guina, M.; Kokko, K.

    2014-07-01

    The exothermic nature of oxidation causes nearly all semiconductor applications in various fields like electronics, medicine, photonics, and sensor technology to acquire an oxidized semiconductor surface part during the application manufacturing. The significance of understanding and controlling the atomic scale properties of oxidized semiconductor surfaces is expected to increase even further with the development of nanoscale semiconductor crystals. The nature of oxidized semiconductor layers is, however, hard to predict and characterize as they are usually buried and amorphous. To shed light on these issues, we pursue a different approach based on oxidized III-V semiconductor layers that are crystalline. We present a comprehensive characterization of oxidized crystalline InSb(100)(1×2)-O layers by ab initio calculations, photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and spectroscopy, and demonstrate the electronic band structures of different oxidized phases of the semiconductor, which elucidate the previous contradictory semiconductor-oxidation effects. At 0.5 monolayer (ML) oxidation, oxygen atoms tend to occupy subsurface Sb sites, leading to metallic states in the semiconductor band gap, which arise from top dimers. When the oxidation is increased to the 1.0-2.0 ML concentration, oxygen occupies also interstitial sites, and the insulating band structure without gap states is stabilized with unusual occupied In dangling bonds. In contrast, the 2.5-3.0 ML oxide phases undergo significant changes toward a less ordered structure. The findings suggest a methodology for manipulating the electronic structure of oxidized semiconductor layers.

  4. Controlling Photon Echo in a Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifier Using Shaped Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A. K.; Karni, O.; Khanonkin, I.; Eisenstein, G.

    2017-05-01

    Two-pulse photon-echo-based quantum-memory applications require a precise control over the echo strength and appearance time. We describe a numerical investigation of observation and control of photon echo in a room-temperature InAs /InP -based quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). We address an important case where the spectral excitation is narrower than the inhomogeneous broadening of the SOA. It is revealed that, in such a QD SOA, the amplitude of the echo pulse depends not only on the excitation-to-rephasing pulse temporal separation but also on the interference among the rephrasing pulse and the echo pulses generated during the propagation along the amplifier. More importantly, the appearance time and amplitude of the echo pulse can be precisely controlled by shaping the first (excitation) pulse. We also assert that deviations in the echo pulse stemming from the SOA gain inhomogeneity can be compensated for so as to be utilized in quantum coherent information processing.

  5. Randomized controlled trial of a TiO2 Semiconductor toothbrush on mild-to-moderate periodontitis..

    PubMed

    Quest, Dale W

    2015-02-01

    The Soladey toothbrush (Shiken Corp., Osaka, Japan) is based on the principle that electrical induction will cause a wetted titanium dioxide semiconductor to emit electrons. The manufacturer claims that in addition to the established mechanical benefits of brushing, the flow of electrons from the brush head may disrupt ionic bonding of plaque, neutralize bacterial organic acids, and thus confer an advantage over a conventional toothbrush. Determine whether a TiO2 semiconductor-containing toothbrush confers an advantage over a conventional toothbrush in adult patients with mild-to-moderate gingivitis/periodontitis. MATERIALS and Seventy-one patients with mild-to-moderate gingivitis/periodontitis were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled modified crossover trial that compared the Soladey-3 titanium dioxide semiconductor toothbrush (Shiken Corp., Osaka, Japan) to an otherwise identical toothbrush containing an inert resin core in place of the semiconductor. Changes in indices of gingivitis and periodontitis were the primary outcomes. Sixty-six patients completed the study. Relative to baseline, an almost two-fold increased gingival crevice fluid flow followed both active and control treatments was statistically significant. Relative to the inactive control device, the active Soladey-3 toothbrush had no clinically meaningful effects on selected markers of gingivitis/periodontitis. The active Soladey-3 toothbrush did not substantially impact selected markers of gingivitis/periodontitis by the end of a two-week treatment period in adult patients with mild-to-moderate disease. Both inactive (control) and active (TiO2 semi-conductor) versions of the Soladey toothbrushes significantly increased crevice fluid flow.

  6. Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. H.; Sherman, D. M.; Vance, D.; Hein, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    The isotopic systems of the transition metals are increasingly being developed as oceanic tracers, due to their tendency to be fractionated by biological and/or redox-related processes. However, for many of these promising isotope systems the molecular level controls on their isotopic fractionations are only just beginning to be explored. Here we investigate the relative roles of abiotic and biotic fractionation processes in controlling modern seawater Cu and Zn isotopic compositions. Scavenging to Fe-Mn oxides represents the principal output for Cu and Zn to sediments deposited under normal marine (oxic) conditions. Using Fe-Mn crusts as an analogue for these dispersed phases, we investigate the phase association and crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in such sediments. We present the results of an EXAFS study that demonstrate unequivocally that Cu and Zn are predominantly associated with the birnessite (δ-MnO2) phase in Fe-Mn crusts, as previously predicted from sequential leaching experiments (e.g., Koschinsky and Hein, 2003). The crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in the crusts implies a reduction in coordination number in the sorbed phase relative to the free metal ion in seawater. Thus, theory would predict equilibrium fractionations that enrich the heavy isotope in the sorbed phase (e.g., Schauble, 2004). In natural samples, Fe-Mn crusts and nodules are indeed isotopically heavy in Zn isotopes (at ∼1‰) compared to deep seawater (at ∼0.5‰), consistent with the predicted direction of equilibrium isotopic fractionation based on our observations of the coordination environment of sorbed Zn. Further, ∼50% of inorganic Zn‧ is chloro-complexed (the other ∼50% is present as the free Zn2+ ion), and complexation by Cl- is also predicted to favour equilibrium partitioning of light Zn isotopes into the dissolved phase. The heavy Zn isotopic composition of Fe-Mn crusts and nodules relative to seawater can therefore be explained by an inorganic fractionation during

  7. Formation and all-optical control of optical patterns in semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, R.; Tsang, C. Y.; Tse, Y. C.; Luk, M. H.; Kwong, N. H.; Chan, Chris K. P.; Leung, P. T.; Lewandowski, P.; Schumacher, Stefan; Lafont, O.; Baudin, E.; Tignon, J.

    2016-05-01

    Semiconductor microcavities offer a unique way to combine transient all-optical manipulation of GaAs quantum wells with the benefits of structural advantages of microcavities. In these systems, exciton-polaritons have dispersion relations with very small effective masses. This has enabled prominent effects, for example polaritonic Bose condensation, but it can also be exploited for the design of all-optical communication devices. The latter involves non-equilibrium phase transitions in the spatial arrangement of exciton-polaritons. We consider the case of optical pumping with normal incidence, yielding a spatially homogeneous distribution of exciton-polaritons in optical cavities containing the quantum wells. Exciton-exciton interactions can trigger instabilities if certain threshold behavior requirements are met. Such instabilities can lead, for example, to the spontaneous formation of hexagonal polariton lattices (corresponding to six-spot patterns in the far field), or to rolls (corresponding to two-spot far field patterns). The competition among these patterns can be controlled to a certain degree by applying control beams. In this paper, we summarize the theory of pattern formation and election in microcavities and illustrate the switching between patterns via simulation results.

  8. Control of single photon emitters in semiconductor nanowires by surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazić, S.; Hernández-Mínguez, A.; Santos, P. V.

    2017-08-01

    We report on an experimental study into the effects of surface acoustic waves on the optical emission of dot-in-a-nanowire heterostructures in III-V material systems. Under direct optical excitation, the excitonic energy levels in III-nitride dot-in-a-nanowire heterostructures oscillate at the acoustic frequency, producing a characteristic splitting of the emission lines in the time-integrated photoluminescence spectra. This acoustically induced periodic tuning of the excitonic transition energies is combined with spectral detection filtering and employed as a tool to regulate the temporal output of anti-bunched photons emitted from these nanowire quantum dots. In addition, the acoustic transport of electrons and holes along a III-arsenide nanowire injects the electric charges into an ensemble of quantum dot-like recombination centers that are spatially separated from the optical excitation area. The acoustic population and depopulation mechanism determines the number of carrier recombination events taking place simultaneously in the ensemble, thus allowing control of the anti-bunching degree of the emitted photons. The results presented are relevant for the dynamic control of single photon emission in III-V semiconductor heterostructures.

  9. The read-out and control system For the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandaker, H.

    2005-04-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) in the ATLAS experiment has entered the stage of system assembly. Around 35% of the 4088 silicon modules are already produced, tested and will soon be mounted on the four barrel cylinders and 18 end-cap disks which make up the SCT. A new Data Acquisition System (DAQ) will provide binary readout, via front-end ASICs, of 16,000 silicon wafers and 6.3 million read-out channels using optical links. A new Detector Control System (DCS) will control up to 500 V bias voltage and the 30 kW low voltage power to the modules, as well as monitor the C3F8 evaporative cooling system, humidity and temperatures. Recently, several macro-assembly sites have mounted modules on both end-cap and barrel prototype structures and gained first experience with system-operation of the SCT. This presentation will give an overview of the full system required to operate and read-out a large-scale silicon detector. A description of both off-detector systems, DAQ and DCS, and their interactions will be presented, as well as the macro-assembly status.

  10. Holocene climate controls on water isotopic variations on thenortheastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; He, Y.; Liu, Z.; Wang, H.; Liu, W.; Yu, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Ito, E.

    2016-12-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes derived from geological archives have been widely used to reconstruct past climate change. On the Tibetan Plateau, however, applications of stable-isotope proxies in paleoclimate studies tend to be complicated due to multiple processes influencing isotopic compositions in paleoclimatic archives. In this study, we systematically analyze isotopic compositions of modern waters in the eastern Qaidam Basin on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, and hydrogen isotope values of n-fatty acids (n-FA δD) from a sediment core at Hurleg Lake to infer hydroclimate controls during the Holocene. The modern water isotopic results show a major contribution of snowmelt water originating from high-elevation mountains to the north of the Qaidam Basin via river and groundwater discharge, and the importance of evaporation in affecting lake hydrology in this region. n-C26 FA δD values tend to be more negative at millennial-scale warm-dry periods during the Holocene, and vice versa, opposite to what is commonly expected. Assisted with modern water isotopic results, we infer amplified contribution of snowmelt water to the soil water around this open lake system at warm-dry periods. Meanwhile, changes in n-C16 FA δD values at Hurleg Lake reflect the evolution of isotopic compositions of lake water, thus we use the isotopic difference between n-C26 and n-C16 FA (ΔDC16-C26) to infer hydroclimate and evaporation variations in this region. Based on our data, relatively low n-C26 FA δD and n-C16 FA δD values at 10-6 cal ka BP probably indicate large contribution of snowmelt water input into the lake under the Holocene climate optimum. After 6 cal ka BP, evaporation became the major control on lake hydrology changes, probably resulting from intensified millennial-scale climate variability after the mid-Holocene, caused by an increase in climate sensitivity of the Qaidam Basin. Our study highlights the importance of systematic analysis before using stable isotopes

  11. Atmospheric controls on the precipitation isotopes over the Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, S.; Sinha, N.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Sengupta, S.; Mohan, P. M.; Datye, A.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic analysis of precipitation over the Andaman Island, Bay of Bengal was carried out for the year 2012 and 2013 in order to study the atmospheric controls on rainwater isotopic variations. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions are typical of the tropical marine sites but show significant variations depending on the ocean-atmosphere conditions; maximum depletion was observed during the tropical cyclones. The isotopic composition of rainwater seems to be controlled by the dynamical nature of the moisture rather than the individual rain events. Precipitation isotopes undergo systematic depletions in response to the organized convection occurring over a large area and are modulated by the integrated effect of convective activities. Precipitation isotopes appear to be linked with the monsoon intraseasonal variability in addition to synoptic scale fluctuations. During the early to mid monsoon the amount effect arose primarily due to rain re-evaporation but in the later phase it was driven by moisture convergence rather than evaporation. Amount effect had distinct characteristics in these two years, which appeared to be modulated by the intraseasonal variability of monsoon. It is shown that the variable nature of amount effect limits our ability to reconstruct the past-monsoon rainfall variability on annual to sub-annual time scale. PMID:26806683

  12. Atmospheric controls on the precipitation isotopes over the Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Sinha, N.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Sengupta, S.; Mohan, P. M.; Datye, A.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic analysis of precipitation over the Andaman Island, Bay of Bengal was carried out for the year 2012 and 2013 in order to study the atmospheric controls on rainwater isotopic variations. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions are typical of the tropical marine sites but show significant variations depending on the ocean-atmosphere conditions; maximum depletion was observed during the tropical cyclones. The isotopic composition of rainwater seems to be controlled by the dynamical nature of the moisture rather than the individual rain events. Precipitation isotopes undergo systematic depletions in response to the organized convection occurring over a large area and are modulated by the integrated effect of convective activities. Precipitation isotopes appear to be linked with the monsoon intraseasonal variability in addition to synoptic scale fluctuations. During the early to mid monsoon the amount effect arose primarily due to rain re-evaporation but in the later phase it was driven by moisture convergence rather than evaporation. Amount effect had distinct characteristics in these two years, which appeared to be modulated by the intraseasonal variability of monsoon. It is shown that the variable nature of amount effect limits our ability to reconstruct the past-monsoon rainfall variability on annual to sub-annual time scale.

  13. Quantifying the climatic and topographic controls of precipitation isotopes in continental interiors: applications to unraveling isotopic records of climate in Cenozoic Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnick, M. J.; Chamberlain, C. P.; Caves, J. K.; Welker, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Since the establishment of the IAEA-WMO precipitation-monitoring network in 1961, it has been observed that isotope ratios in precipitation (δ2H and δ18O) generally decrease from coastal to inland locations, an observation described as the continental effect. While discussed frequently in the literature, there have been few attempts to quantify the variables controlling this effect despite the fact that isotopic gradients over continents vary by orders of magnitude. In a number of studies, traditional Rayleigh fractionation has proven inadequate in describing the global variability of isotopic gradients due to its simplified treatment of moisture transport and its lack of moisture recycling through evapotranspiration (ET). We use a one-dimensional idealized model of water vapor transport along a storm track to investigate the dominant variables controlling isotopic gradients in precipitation across terrestrial environments. We find that the sensitivity of these gradients to progressive rainout is controlled primarily by ET with secondary controls exerted by eddy transport. A comparison of modern isotopic gradients within high elevation continental interior regions shows that the effects of seasonal changes in ET are of the same order of magnitude as the effects of rainout due to orographic precipitation. This implies that changing climate and associated changes in ET rates may amplify or completely negate isotopic signals of uplift. We further apply the model to a spatial compilation of Cenozoic isotopic records throughout Central Asia. Over the past 50 Ma, extensive recycling of water via ET has likely masked isotopic signals of the uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau, Tian Shan, Altai, and Hangay ranges as revealed by complimentary methods of measuring uplift timing and rates. Our results highlight the importance of the coupling between topography, atmospheric circulation, and biological processes in controlling isotopic records of past climate.

  14. Controlled buckling structures in semiconductor interconnects and nanomembranes for stretchable electronics

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A; Meitl, Matthew; Sun, Yugang; Ko, Heung Cho; Carlson, Andrew; Choi, Won Mook; Stoykovich, Mark; Jiang, Hanqing; Huang, Yonggang; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Zhu, Zhengtao; Menard, Etienne; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2014-05-20

    In an aspect, the present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, components such as semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed, and related methods of making or tuning such stretchable components. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention are adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  15. Controlled buckling structures in semiconductor interconnects and nanomembranes for stretchable electronics

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A [Champaign, IL; Meitl, Matthew [Raleigh, NC; Sun, Yugang [Naperville, IL; Ko, Heung Cho [Urbana, IL; Carlson, Andrew [Urbana, IL; Choi, Won Mook [Champaign, IL; Stoykovich, Mark [Dover, NH; Jiang, Hanqing [Urbana, IL; Huang, Yonggang [Glencoe, IL; Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Lee, Keon Jae [Tokyo, JP; Zhu, Zhengtao [Rapid City, SD; Menard, Etienne [Durham, NC; Khang, Dahl-Young [Seoul, KR; Kan, Seong Jun [Daejeon, KR; Ahn, Jong Hyun [Suwon, KR; Kim, Hoon-sik [Champaign, IL

    2012-07-10

    In an aspect, the present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, components such as semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed, and related methods of making or tuning such stretchable components. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention are adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  16. Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alperin, M. J.; Blair, Neal E.; Albert, D. B.; Hoehler, T. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in anoxic marine sediment is controlled by four factors: (1) the pathway of methane formation, (2) the isotopic composition of the methanogenic precursors, (3) the isotope fractionation factors for methane production, and (4) the isotope fractionation associated with methane oxidation. The importance of each factor was evaluated by monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios in methane produced by a sediment microcosm. Methane did not accumulate during the initial 42-day period when sediment contained sulfate, indicating little methane production from 'noncompetitive' substrates. Following sulfate depletion, methane accumulation proceeded in three distinct phases. First, CO2 reduction was the dominant methanogenic pathway and the isotopic composition of the methane produced ranged from -80 to -94 per thousand. The acetate concentration increased during this phase, suggesting that acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria were unable to keep pace with acetate production. Second, acetate fermentation became the dominant methanogenic pathway as bacteria responded to elevated acetate concentrations. The methane produced during this phase was progressively enriched in C-13, reaching a maximum delta(C-13) value of -42 per thousand. Third, the acetate pool experienced a precipitous decline from greater than 5 mM to less than 20 micro-M and methane production was again dominated by CO2 reduction. The delta(C-13) of methane produced during this final phase ranged from -46 to -58 per thousand. Methane oxidation concurrent with methane production was detected throughout the period of methane accumulation, at rates equivalent to 1 to 8 percent of the gross methane production rate. Thus methane oxidation was too slow to have significantly modified the isotopic signature of methane. A comparison of microcosm and field data suggests that similar microbial interactions may control seasonal variability in the isotopic composition of methane

  17. Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alperin, M. J.; Blair, N. E.; Albert, D. B.; Hoehler, T. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1992-09-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in anoxic marine sediment is controlled by four factors: (1) the pathway of methane formation, (2) the isotopic composition of the methanogenic precursors, (3) the isotope fractionation factors for methane production, and (4) the isotope fractionation associated with methane oxidation. The importance of each factor was evaluated by monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios in methane produced by a sediment microcosm. Methane did not accumulate during the initial 42-day period when sediment contained sulfate, indicating little methane production from "noncompetitive" substrates. Following sulfate depletion, methane accumulation proceeded in three distinct phases. First, CO2 reduction was the dominant methanogenic pathway and the isotopic composition of the methane produced ranged from -80 to -94‰. The acetate concentration increased during this phase, suggesting that acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria were unable to keep pace with acetate production. Second, acetate fermentation became the dominant methanogenic pathway as bacteria responded to elevated acetate concentrations. The methane produced during this phase was progressively enriched in 13C, reaching a maximum δ13C value of -42‰. Third, the acetate pool experienced a precipitous decline from >5 mM to <20 μM and methane production was again dominated by CO2 reduction. The δ13C of methane produced during this final phase ranged from -46 to -58‰. Methane oxidation concurrent with methane production was detected throughout the period of methane accumulation, at rates equivalent to 1 to 8% of the gross methane production rate. Thus methane oxidation was too slow to have significantly modified the isotopic signature of methane. A comparison of microcosm and field data suggests that similar microbial interactions may control seasonal variability in the isotopic composition of methane emitted from undisturbed Cape Lookout Bight sediment.

  18. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Palaniappan, Kumaranand; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Dickerson, Robert M.; Casson, Joanna L.; Baldwin, Jon K.

    2012-06-07

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth rates as a

  19. Improvement of process control using wafer geometry for enhanced manufacturability of advanced semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Honggoo; Lee, Jongsu; Kim, Sang Min; Lee, Changhwan; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kwon, Wontaik; Park, Sung-Ki; Vukkadala, Pradeep; Awasthi, Amartya; Kim, J. H.; Veeraraghavan, Sathish; Choi, DongSub; Huang, Kevin; Dighe, Prasanna; Lee, Cheouljung; Byeon, Jungho; Dey, Soham; Sinha, Jaydeep

    2015-03-01

    Aggressive advancements in semiconductor technology have resulted in integrated chip (IC) manufacturing capability at sub-20nm half-pitch nodes. With this, lithography overlay error budgets are becoming increasingly stringent. The delay in EUV lithography readiness for high volume manufacturing (HVM) and the need for multiple-patterning lithography with 193i technology has further amplified the overlay issue. Thus there exists a need for technologies that can improve overlay errors in HVM. The traditional method for reducing overlay errors predominantly focused on improving lithography scanner printability performance. However, processes outside of the lithography sector known as processinduced overlay errors can contribute significantly to the total overlay at the current requirements. Monitoring and characterizing process-induced overlay has become critical for advanced node patterning. Recently a relatively new technique for overlay control that uses high-resolution wafer geometry measurements has gained significance. In this work we present the implementation of this technique in an IC fabrication environment to monitor wafer geometry changes induced across several points in the process flow, of multiple product layers with critical overlay performance requirement. Several production wafer lots were measured and analyzed on a patterned wafer geometry tool. Changes induced in wafer geometry as a result of wafer processing were related to down-stream overlay error contribution using the analytical in-plane distortion (IPD) calculation model. Through this segmentation, process steps that are major contributors to down-stream overlay were identified. Subsequent process optimization was then isolated to those process steps where maximum benefit might be realized. Root-cause for the within-wafer, wafer-to-wafer, tool-to-tool, and station-to-station variations observed were further investigated using local shape curvature changes - which is directly related to

  20. Modeling of optically controlled reflective bistability in a vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, L.

    2015-05-01

    Bistability switching between two optical signals has been studied theoretically utilizing the concept of cross absorption modulation in a vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber (VCSSA). The probe beam is fixed at a wavelength other than the low power cavity resonance wavelength, which exhibits bistable characteristic by controlling the power of a pump beam (λpump≠λprobe). The cavity nonlinear effects that arises simultaneously from the excitonic absorption bleaching, and the carrier induced nonlinear index change has been considered in the model. The high power absorption in the active region introduces thermal effects within the nonlinear cavity due to which the effective cavity length changes. This leads to a red-shift of the cavity resonance wavelength, which results a change in phase of the optical fields within the cavity. In the simulation, the phase-change due to this resonance shifting is considered to be constant over time, and it assumes the value corresponding to the maximum input power. Further, an initial phase detuning of the probe beam has been considered to investigate its effect on switching. It is observed from the simulated results that, the output of the probe beam exhibits either clockwise or counter-clockwise bistability, depending on its initial phase detuning.

  1. DNA-templated semiconductor nanocrystal growth for controlled DNA packing and gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Ma, Nan

    2012-01-24

    DNA-templated semiconductor nanocrystal (SNC) growth represents a facile means to generate bioactive hybrid nanostructures by directly integrating DNA molecules and luminescent SNCs together via a one-step synthesis, which has been applied to biosensing and cell imaging. In this study we for the first time demonstrated that DNA-templated CdS SNC growth could also be used to rationally tune the structures and activities of large DNA molecules. We explored the synergistic effects of nanocrystal growth on the sizes and charges of DNA molecules and demonstrate that the CdS growth-induced DNA packing could be used as a smart gene delivery system. Herein we used DNA plasmids encoding intact enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) genes as templates to grow CdS SNCs and found that the stepwise growth of CdS nanocrystals can spontaneously induce DNA condensation and negative charge shielding in a synergistic manner. The condensed DNA plasmids exhibited efficient cellular uptake and a relative gene transfection efficiency of 32%. The transfection efficiency can be further doubled in the presence of chloroquine. We elucidated that the gene transfection and expression is controlled by reversible DNA packing, where ligand exchange of DNA with intracellular glutathione molecules plays a critical role in the recovery of DNA plasmids for gene expression. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Optical Control of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Spin Qubits with Microcavity Exciton-Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puri, Shruti; McMahon, Peter L.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-03-01

    Topological surface codes demand the least stringent threshold conditions and are most promising for implementing large quantum algorithms. Based on the resource requirements to reach fault tolerance, we develop a hardware platform for large scale quantum computation with semiconductor quantum dot (QD) electron spin qubits. The current proposals for implementation of two-qubit gates and quantum non demolition (QND) readout in a QuDOS (Quantum Dots with Optically Controlled Spins) architecture suffer from large error rates. In our scheme, the optical manipulation of the QD spin qubits is carried out using their Coulomb exchange interaction with optically excited, spin-polarized, laterally confined quantum well (LcQW) exciton-polaritons. The small mass of polaritons protects them from interaction with their solid-state environment (phonons) and enables strong coupling between spin qubits separated by a few microns. Furthermore, the excitation manifold of the QD is well separated from that of the LcQW polaritons, preventing a spin-flip event during readout. We will outline schemes for implementing fast, high-fidelity, single qubit gate, two-qubit geometric phase gate and single-shot QND measurement and analyze important decoherence mechanisms. The work being presented was carried out at Stanford University. Currently the author is at University of Sherbrooke, Canada.

  3. Preliminary survey report: control technology for gallium arsenide processing at Microwave Semiconductor Corporation, Somerset, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, K.L.; Sheehy, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The technology available to control hazardous substances in gallium arsenide applications is reviewed and evaluated in light of findings from a visit to the Microwave Semiconductor Corporation in Somerset, New Jersey. The facility has 500 employees, 64 in the gallium arsenide technical staff. Direct ion implantation or epitaxial growth, photolithography, plasma etching, and backside wafer processing are used at the facility to fabricate a gallium-arsenide wafer. Hazards exist primarily in the numerous solvents, acids, and gases employed in wafer production. These include chlorobenzene, methanol, methyl-ethyl-ketone, methyl-isobutyl-ketone, ammonia, and silane. The use of arsine gas will soon begin at the facility, which will also be hazardous to employees due to its extremely toxic properties. An environmental engineer tests for 70 hazardous chemicals in the work area, including hydrogen-fluoride, cyanide, phosgene, ammonia, formaldehyde, arsine, and phenol. The authors recommend the establishment of a program for air sampling to monitor arsenic levels and wipe sampling for arsenic surface contamination.

  4. Semiconductor Nanomembrane Tubes: Three-Dimensional Confinement for Controlled Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Minrui; Huang, Yu; Ballweg, Jason; Shin, Hyuncheol; Huang, Minghuang; Savage, Donald E.; Lagally, Max G.; Dent, Erik W.; Blick, Robert H.; Williams, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    In many neural culture studies, neurite migration on a flat, open surface does not reflect the three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in vivo. With that in mind, we fabricated arrays of semiconductor tubes using strained silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) nanomembranes and employed them as a cell culture substrate for primary cortical neurons. Our experiments show that the SiGe substrate and the tube fabrication process are biologically viable for neuron cells. We also observe that neurons are attracted by the tube topography, even in the absence of adhesion factors, and can be guided to pass through the tubes during outgrowth. Coupled with selective seeding of individual neurons close to the tube opening, growth within a tube can be limited to a single axon. Furthermore, the tube feature resembles the natural myelin, both physically and electrically, and it is possible to control the tube diameter to be close to that of an axon, providing a confined 3D contact with the axon membrane and potentially insulating it from the extracellular solution. PMID:21366271

  5. Particle contamination control in plasma processing: Building-in reliability for semiconductor fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma processing is used for {approximately}35% of the process steps required for semiconductor manufacturing. Recent studies have shown that plasma processes create the greatest amount of contaminant dust of all the manufacturing steps required for device fabrication. Often, the level of dust in a plasma process tool exceeds the cleanroom by several orders of magnitude. Particulate contamination generated in a plasma tool can result in reliability problems as well as device failure. Inter-level wiring shorts different levels of metallization on a device is a common result of plasma particulate contamination. We have conducted a thorough study of the physics and chemistry involved in particulate formation and transport in plasma tools. In-situ laser light scattering (LLS) is used for real-time detection of the contaminant dust. The results of this work are highly surprising: all plasmas create dust; the dust can be formed by homogeneous as well as heterogeneous chemistry; this dust is charged and suspended in the plasma; additionally, it is transported to favored regions of the plasma, such as those regions immediately above wafers. Fortunately, this work has also led to a novel means of controlling and eliminating these unwanted contaminants: electrostatic {open_quotes}drainpipes{close_quotes} engineered into the electrode by means of specially designed grooves. These channel the suspended particles out of the plasma and into the pump port before they can fall onto the wafer.

  6. Chaos and noise control by current modulation in semiconductor lasers subject to optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M.; El-Sayed, N. Z.; Ibrahim, H.

    2012-05-01

    This paper introduces comprehensive large-signal analyses of modulation dynamics and noise of a chaotic semiconductor laser. The chaos is induced by operating the laser under optical feedback (OFB). Control of the chaotic dynamics and possibility of suppressing the associated noise by sinusoidal modulation are investigated. The studies are based on numerical solutions of a time-delay rate equation model. The deterministic modulation dynamics of the laser are classified into seven regular and irregular dynamic types. Variations of chaotic dynamics and noise with sinusoidal modulation are examined in both time and frequency domains over wide ranges of the modulation depth and frequency. The results showed that chaotic dynamics can be converted into five distinct dynamic types; namely, continuous periodic signal (CPS), continuous periodic signal with relaxation oscillations (CPSRO), periodic pulse (PP), periodic pulse with relaxation oscillations (PPRO) and periodic pulse with period doubling (PPPD). The relative intensity noise (RIN) of these types is characterized when the modulation frequencies are much lower, comparable to, and higher than the resonance frequency. Suppression of RIN to a level 8 dB/Hz higher than the quantum limit was predicted under the CPS type when the modulation frequency is 0.9 times the resonance frequency and the modulation depth is 0.14.

  7. Investigating controls on boron isotope ratios in shallow marine carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang; Henehan, Michael J.; Hull, Pincelli M.; Reid, R. Pamela; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Hood, Ashleigh v. S.; Planavsky, Noah J.

    2017-01-01

    The boron isotope-pH proxy has been widely used to reconstruct past ocean pH values. In both planktic foraminifera and corals, species-specific calibrations are required in order to reconstruct absolute values of pH, due to the prevalence of so-called vital effects - physiological modification of the primary environmental signals by the calcifying organisms. Shallow marine abiotic carbonate (e.g. ooids and cements) could conceivably avoid any such calibration requirement, and therefore provide a potentially useful archive for reconstructions in deep (pre-Cenozoic) time. However, shallow marine abiotic carbonates could also be affected by local shifts in pH caused by microbial photosynthesis and respiration, something that has up to now not been fully tested. In this study, we present boron isotope measurements from shallow modern marine carbonates, from the Bahama Bank and Belize to investigate the potential of using shallow water carbonates as pH archives, and to explore the role of microbial processes in driving nominally 'abiogenic' carbonate deposition. For Bahama bank samples, our boron-based pH estimates derived from a range of carbonate types (i.e. ooids, peloids, hardground cements, carbonate mud, stromatolitic micrite and calcified filament micrite) are higher than the estimated modern mean-annual seawater pH values for this region. Furthermore, the majority (73%) of our marine carbonate-based pH estimates fall out of the range of the estimated pre-industrial seawater pH values for this region. In shallow sediment cores, we did not observe a correlation between measured pore water pH and boron-derived pH estimates, suggesting boron isotope variability is a depositional rather than early diagenetic signal. For Belize reef cements, conversely, the pH estimates are lower than likely in situ seawater pH at the time of cement formation. This study indicates the potential for complications when using shallow marine non-skeletal carbonates as marine pH archives

  8. Image segmentation for uranium isotopic analysis by SIMS: Combined adaptive thresholding and marker controlled watershed approach

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, David G.; Naes, Benjamin E.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Zimmer, Mindy M.; Barrett, Christopher A.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2016-05-31

    A novel approach to particle identification and particle isotope ratio determination has been developed for nuclear safeguard applications. This particle search approach combines an adaptive thresholding algorithm and marker-controlled watershed segmentation (MCWS) transform, which improves the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) isotopic analysis of uranium containing particle populations for nuclear safeguards applications. The Niblack assisted MCWS approach (a.k.a. SEEKER) developed for this work has improved the identification of isotopically unique uranium particles under conditions that have historically presented significant challenges for SIMS image data processing techniques. Particles obtained from five NIST uranium certified reference materials (CRM U129A, U015, U150, U500 and U850) were successfully identified in regions of SIMS image data 1) where a high variability in image intensity existed, 2) where particles were touching or were in close proximity to one another and/or 3) where the magnitude of ion signal for a given region was count limited. Analysis of the isotopic distributions of uranium containing particles identified by SEEKER showed four distinct, accurately identified 235U enrichment distributions, corresponding to the NIST certified 235U/238U isotope ratios for CRM U129A/U015 (not statistically differentiated), U150, U500 and U850. Additionally, comparison of the minor uranium isotope (234U, 235U and 236U) atom percent values verified that, even in the absence of high precision isotope ratio measurements, SEEKER could be used to segment isotopically unique uranium particles from SIMS image data. Although demonstrated specifically for SIMS analysis of uranium containing particles for nuclear safeguards, SEEKER has application in addressing a broad set of image processing challenges.

  9. Precise in situ etch depth control of multilayered III−V semiconductor samples with reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) equipment

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschmidt, Ann-Kathrin; Barzen, Lars; Strassner, Johannes; Doering, Christoph; Bock, Wolfgang; Wahl, Michael; Kopnarski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) equipment is applied to monitor dry-etch processes (here specifically reactive ion etching (RIE)) of monocrystalline multilayered III–V semiconductors in situ. The related accuracy of etch depth control is better than 16 nm. Comparison with results of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) reveals a deviation of only about 4 nm in optimal cases. To illustrate the applicability of the reported method in every day settings for the first time the highly etch depth sensitive lithographic process to form a film lens on the waveguide ridge of a broad area laser (BAL) is presented. This example elucidates the benefits of the method in semiconductor device fabrication and also suggests how to fulfill design requirements for the sample in order to make RAS control possible. PMID:28144528

  10. Controlling the Photophysical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Arrays by Strategically Altering Their Surface Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Ashley R.

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are interesting materials that, after less than 40 years of research, are used in commercial products. QDs are now found in displays, such as Samsung televisions and the Kindle Fire, and have applications in lighting, bio-imaging, quantum computing, and photovoltaics. They offer a large range of desirable properties: a controllable band gap, solution processability, controlled energy levels, and are currently the best materials for multiple exciton generation. The tunable optoelectronic properties of QDs can be controlled using size, shape, composition, and surface treatments--as shown here. Due to the quasi-spherical shape of QDs the surface to volume ratio is high, i.e. many of the constituent atoms are found on the QD surface. This makes QDs highly sensitive to surface chemistry modifications. This thesis encompasses the effects of surface treatments for QDs of two semiconducting materials: lead chalcogenides and CsPbI3. Our group developed a new synthetic technique for lead chalcogenide QDs via the cation exchange of cadmium chalcogenides. An in-depth chemical analysis is paired with optical and electrical studies and we find that metal halide residue contributes to the oxidative stability and decreased trap state density in cation-exchanged PbS QDs. We exploit these properties to make air-stable QD photovoltaic devices from both PbS and PbSe QD materials. Beyond the effects of residual atoms left from the synthetic technique, I investigated how to controllably add atoms onto the surface of QDs. I found that by introducing metal halides as a post-treatment in an electronically coupled array I am able to control the performance parameters in QD photovoltaic devices. These treatments fully infiltrate the assembled film, even under short exposure times and allow me to add controlled quantities of surface atoms to study their effects on film properties and photovoltaic device performance. Finally, I sought to apply the knowledge of

  11. Controlling factors of Ca isotope fractionation in scleractinian corals evaluated by temperature, pH and light controlled culture experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Mayuri; Gussone, Nikolaus; Koga, Yasuko; Iwase, Akihiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the 44Ca/40Ca ratios of Porites australiensis grown under three different culture experiments composed of temperature, pH and light controlled culture experiments are measured. The temperature dependent isotope fractionation of 0.02‰/°C deduced from this study is similar to inorganic aragonite, but the degree of isotope fractionation is about +0.4‰ offset in corals. These observations agree with earlier results on different coral species, suggesting Ca isotope fractionation during Ca transmembrane transport in corals. While in cultured corals a significant temperature dependence of δ44Ca is observed, the relationships between calcium isotope fractionation and pH as well as light intensity are negligible. Therefore variation of δ44Ca in Porites corals is mainly controlled by temperature. A combination of δ44Ca and Sr/Ca of corals in temperature controlled experiments cannot be explained by Rayleigh type fractionation directly from a fluid, which is seawater-like in terms of δ44Ca and Sr/Ca. Through coral-specific biomineralization processes, overall mean δ44Ca of scleractinian corals including previous studies are different from biogenic aragonites secreted by sclerosponges and pteropods, but are comparable with those of bivalves as well as calcitic coccolithophores and foraminifers. These findings are important for better understanding biomineralization in corals and in order to constrain the Ca isotopic composition of oceanic Ca sinks in response to climate changes and associated with shifts of calcite and aragonite seas.

  12. Experimental identification of mechanisms controlling calcium isotopic fractionations by the vegetation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobert, Florian; Schimtt, Anne-Désirée.; Bourgeade, Pascale; Stille, Peter; Chabaux, François; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Jaegler, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to better understand the role of vegetation on the Ca cycle at the level of the critical zone of the Earth, in order to specify the mechanisms controlling the Ca absorption by plants at the rock/plant interface. To do this, we performed experiments using hydroponic plant cultures in a way that we could control the co-occuring geochemical and physiological process and determine the impact of the nutritive solution on the Ca cycle within plants. A dicotyledon and calcicole plant with rapid growth, the French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), has been chosen to have access to one complete growth cycle. Several experiments have been conducted with two Ca concentrations, 6 (L) and 60 (H) ppm and two pH values (4 and 6) in the nutritive solution, for which the Ca concentration was maintained constant, so its Ca content is considered as infinite. A second experiment (non infinite L6) allowed Ca depletion in the solution through time; therefore, response effects on the Ca isotopic signatures in the plant organs and in the nutritive solution were observed. We determined Ca concentrations and isotopic ratios in the nutritive solution and in different organs (main roots, secondary roots, old and young stems, old and young leaves and fruits) at two different growth stages (10 days and 6 weeks). Preliminary results show that: (1) the roots (main and secondary) were enriched in the light isotope (40Ca) compared to the nutritive solution, and leaves were enriched in the heavy isotope (44Ca) compared to stems. These results are in accord with previously published field studies (Wigand et al., 2005; Page et al., 2008; Cenki-Tok et al., 2009; Holmden and Bélanger, 2010). Leaves and secondary roots were however enriched in the heavy isotope (44Ca) compared to bean pods, stems and main roots. These results could be related to kinetic fractionation processes occurring either during the Ca root uptake, or during the Ca transport within the plant, or physiological mechanisms

  13. Intercolony variability of skeletal oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of corals: temperature-controlled tank experiment and field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Omata, T.; Kawahata, H.

    2005-12-01

    We conducted tank experiments in which we grew Porites spp. colonies in thermostated seawater at five temperature settings under moderate light intensity. A skeletal isotope microprofiling technique applied along the major growth axis of each colony revealed that the oxygen isotope ratios of newly deposited skeleton in most colonies remained almost constant during tank incubation. However, the oxygen isotope ratios displayed a surprisingly large intercolony variability (~1‰ at each temperature setting) although the mean slope obtained for the temperature - skeletal oxygen isotope ratio relationship was close to previous results. The variations in the oxygen isotope ratios were apparently caused by kinetic isotope effects related to variations in the skeletal growth rate rather than by species-specific variability or genetic differences within species. Carbon isotope ratios showed significantly inverse correlation with linear growth rates, suggesting a kinetic isotope control at low growth rates. We also examined oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of Porites corals collected from coral reefs of southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. In shallow faster-growing corals, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios showed out-of-phase annual fluctuations. In contrast, in deep slower growing corals (mean annual linear extension < 4.8 mm yr1), oxygen and carbon isotope fluctuations were in phase, which has been identified as a pattern influenced by kinetic isotope effects. The slower growing corals were strongly influenced, and the faster growing corals weakly influenced, by kinetic isotope effects over metabolic isotope effects. Growth-rate-related kinetic isotope effects found in both the cultured corals and the deep slower-growing corals may be, at least partly, attributed to low light condition.

  14. Phonon-assisted coherent control of injected carriers in indirect bandgap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Julien; Nastos, Fred; Sipe, John E.

    2007-03-01

    Charge and spin currents can be generated in direct semiconductors by quantum interference between one- and two-photon absorption. For semiconductors such as Si and Ge, optical injection of carriers over the indirect bandgap must be assisted by momentum transfer from phonon scattering. We consider the optical properties for such 1+2 photon processes in the presence of the electron-phonon interaction. The latter is modelled by acoustic deformation potential. Indirect transitions involve double Brillouin zone integrations, which are computed by a linearized tetrahedron method. We compare our results to those for bulk GaAs. M.J. Stevens, R.D.R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, H.M. van Driel, J.E. Sipe and A.L. Smirl, in Optics of Semiconductors and Their Nanostructures, edited by H. Kalt and M. Hetterich (Springer, Berlin, 2004), vol. 146 of Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences, p. 209.

  15. Organic semiconductor density of states controls the energy level alignment at electrode interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Oehzelt, Martin; Koch, Norbert; Heimel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing charge carrier injection barriers and extraction losses at interfaces between organic semiconductors and metallic electrodes is critical for optimizing the performance of organic (opto-) electronic devices. Here, we implement a detailed electrostatic model, capable of reproducing the alignment between the electrode Fermi energy and the transport states in the organic semiconductor both qualitatively and quantitatively. Covering the full phenomenological range of interfacial energy level alignment regimes within a single, consistent framework and continuously connecting the limiting cases described by previously proposed models allows us to resolve conflicting views in the literature. Our results highlight the density of states in the organic semiconductor as a key factor. Its shape and, in particular, the energy distribution of electronic states tailing into the fundamental gap is found to determine both the minimum value of practically achievable injection barriers as well as their spatial profile, ranging from abrupt interface dipoles to extended band-bending regions. PMID:24938867

  16. Origin and control of ferromagnetism in magnetically doped semiconductors. The case of (Ga,Fe)N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanni, Alberta

    2009-03-01

    The comprehensive search for materials exhibiting spintronic functionalities has resulted in the discovery of a number of magnetically doped or nominally undoped wide-band gap semiconductors and oxides showing ferromagnetic features persisting up to high temperatures. In order to shed light on the origin of the high-TC ferromagnetism in these materials systems, we have undertaken studies of MOVPE-grown (Ga,Fe)N, either undoped or co-doped with Si or Mg, combining the magnetic (SQUID and EPR), magnetooptical, and XANES investigation with a thorough structural and chemical characterization (SIMS, TEM, EDS, synchrotron XRD), that provides information on the Fe distribution at the nanoscale. In this talk, we first discuss our quantitative study of the exchange coupling between the spins S = 5/2 localized on the Fe ions and of the effective mass electrons. Our results point to an anomalous p-d exchange splitting of the valence band [1], that we explain in terms of a renormalization of extended states occurring if the impurities perturb strongly the crystal potential. We then show that the Fe ions are incorporated in the nitride matrix in a way giving rise either to a diluted random alloy or to ferromagnetic nanocrystals that aggregate by precipitation or by spinodal decomposition into regions more or less rich in the magnetic component, and that can be controlled by the growth parameters and co-doping with shallow donors and acceptors [2].[4pt] [1] W. Pacuski, P. Kossacki, D. Ferrand, A. Golnik, J. Cibert, M. Wegscheider, A. Navarro-Quezada, A. Bonanni, M. Kiecana, M. Sawicki, T. Dietl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 037204 (2008).[0pt] [2] A. Bonanni, A. Navarro-Quezada, Tian Li, M. Wegscheider, R.T. Lechner, G. Bauer, Z. Matej, V. Holy, M. Rovezzi, F. D'Acapito, M. Kiecana, M. Sawicki, and T. Dietl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 135502 (2008).

  17. Semiconductor TiO2 Gas Sensor for Controlling Nitrocarburizing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klümper-Westkamp, H.; Beling, S.; Mehner, A.; Hoffmann, F.; Mayr, P.

    2004-07-01

    TiO2 films can serve as oxygen sensors for controlling the nitrogen potential in the process of nitrocarburizing. In contrast to conventional semiconductor-base oxygen sensors that lose stability under extreme thermal and chemical conditions in nitriding and carburizing atmospheres, TiO2 films obtained by the sol-gel method offer a promising alternative. In the present work TiO2 films with a density of about 80% and a grain size of 30 - 50 nm are deposited by the sol-gel technology. Steel substrates and commercial substrates from Al2O3 aluminum oxide with platinum electrodes are coated and calcinated. In order to preserve the sensitive element of the sensor a special casing is constructed for operation under conditions very close to the atmosphere of nitrocarburizing. The sensitive element consists of an Al2O3 substrate with built-in Pt-electrodes, which is coated by a thin sol-gel TiO2 film. The direct current in the furnace is measured for nitrocarburizing in various mixtures (N2, O2, H2, and NH3) at a temperature of 500 - 600°C. A linear dependence log[ R] - log[ p O2], where R is the electrical resistivity, is obtained for the films in the studied range of partial pressure of oxygen independently p O2 of the presence of NH3 or H2 in the atmosphere. The dependence log[ R] - log[ p O2] for a nitriding furnace with a capacity of 90 liters is shown to be stable with 3% scattering per month.

  18. Controls on Fe Isotope Fractionation During Organic Complexation: the Importance of Covalent Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Kubicki, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Fe isotopes have been proposed as a tracer of changes to the redox state of the oceans (Rouxel et al., 2005), and for use as a biosignature (e.g., Johnson et al., 1999). Previous modeling work supports this, as they suggest redox fractionations are likely the main control over Fe isotopes.Fe isotopes have been proposed as a tracer of changes to the redox state of the oceans (Rouxel et al., 2005), and for use as a biosignature (e.g., Beard et al., 1999). Previous modeling work (Domagal-Goldman and Kubicki, submitted) that predicts greater equilibrium fractionations for redox reactions than for complexation reactions supports the former application. In this study, we try to ascertain the first-principles chemical drivers of fractionation of Fe isotopes. We do this by using Natural Bond Order (NBO) analyses and isotope fractionation predictions of Fe bound to various organic ligands at different Fe oxidation states and Fe:ligand ratios.NBO analysis re-assigns electrons in molecular orbitals to bond orbitals within a complex; this allows for the examination of the presence and strength of covalent bonding in a complex. By comparing the presence and strength of covalent Fe-O bonds in the studied complexes to other predicted variables such as bond lengths and predicted fractionation factors, we can assess the importance of these bonds to Fe isotope fractionation in nature. Byexamining the effect controlled variables such as Fe oxidation state and the number of Fe-ligand bonds have on the formation of covalent bonds, we will begin to understand what controls bonding for these types of complexes. Ultimately, this work is geared towards driving future research questions related to the isotopicfractionations of Fe and other transition metals.

  19. Evaluation of carbon isotope flux partitioning theory under simplified and controlled environmental conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Separation of the photosynthetic (Fp) and respiratory (Fr) fluxes of net CO2 exchange (Fn)remains a necessary step toward understanding the biological and physical controls on carbon cycling between the soil, biomass, and atmosphere. Despite recent advancements in stable carbon isotope partitioning ...

  20. Stable isotope analysis of fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  1. Analysis of stable isotopes in fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  2. Stable isotope analysis of fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  3. Analysis of stable isotopes in fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  4. Near-field thermal radiation transfer between semiconductors based on thickness control and introduction of photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takuya; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu

    2017-03-01

    We numerically investigate the spectral control of near-field thermal radiation transfer using interband absorption in semiconductors and the band-folding effect in photonic crystals (PCs) for highly efficient thermophotovoltaics. We reveal that the near-field coupling between two semiconductors (Si and GaSb) realizes frequency-selective thermal radiation transfer concentrated above their bandgap energy when their thicknesses are optimized considering their absorption coefficient spectra. Moreover, we elucidate the role of PC structures in the near-field thermal radiation transfer and demonstrate that the band-folding effect in PCs can further increase both the radiation power and frequency selectivity of the near-field thermal radiation transfer.

  5. What processes control the oxygen isotopes of soil bio-available phosphate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Avner; Angert, Alon

    2015-06-01

    The biological availability of phosphorus (P) is considered to be the limiting factor for plant growth in many natural and agricultural soils. Recent studies demonstrated that valuable information on soil P dynamics can be gained from the stable oxygen isotopes of soil phosphate (δ18OP). However, to interpret this information correctly, our understanding of the processes that controls soil phosphate δ18OP values needs to be improved since most of the current data is based primarily on laboratory studies of pure microbial cultures and enzymatic assays and may not be relevant to soils. Here we designed a series of controlled soil incubation experiments to study the actual isotopic effects induced by abiotic reactions, biological uptake, microbial turnover and organic-P mineralization on soil phosphate δ18OP values. We used this data to estimate the role of these processes in mediating soil P availability. Our study was conducted on Mediterranean soils sampled from the same site during winter, spring and summer. The soils were incubated with various mineral and organic-P compounds and their bioavailable phosphate concentrations and δ18OP values were measured. We confirmed that the role of abiotic reactions on phosphate δ18OP values was negligible and that the δ18OP values of the added phosphate were rapidly driven towards isotopic equilibrium with soil water. We suggest this process was mediated by rapid microbial phosphate turnover. Yet, we did not detect the expected isotopic enrichment effect associated with phosphate biological uptake. In another set of incubation experiments we demonstrated that mineralization of phosphate from organic compounds, such as phospho-mono-ester (PME) and phosphor-di-ester (PDE), produced an offset from isotopic equilibrium, as a result of the strong isotopic fractionation associated with the mineralization process. However, the δ18OP values recorded by the mineralized phosphate were gradually driven back towards isotopic

  6. Isotopic Controls of Rainwater and Water Vapor on Mangrove Leaf Water and Lipid Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, N.; Wolfshorndl, M.; Sachs, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (2H/1H or δ2H) of sedimentary mangrove lipid biomarkers can be used as a proxy of past salinity and water isotopes. This approach is based on the observation that apparent 2H/1H fractionation between surface water and mangrove lipids increases with surface water salinity in six species of mangroves with different salt management strategies growing at sites spanning a range of relative humidities throughout Australia and Micronesia. In order to more robustly apply mangrove lipid δ2H as a paleoclimate proxy, we investigated the cause of the correlation between apparent 2H fractionation and salinity. We present results from two related experiments that assessed controls on isotopes of mangrove leaf water, the direct source of hydrogen in lipids: (1) Measurements of natural δ2H in precipitation, surface water, and mangrove tissue water from a series of lakes with varying salinity and water isotope composition in Palau, and (2) measurements of mangrove tissue water and treatment water from a controlled simulation in which mangroves were treated with artificial rain of varying isotopic composition. Rainwater 2H/1H fluctuations of 30‰ over a one-month period explain up to 65% of the variance in leaf water δ2H for Bruguiera gymnorhiza mangroves from Palau despite lake water isotope differences among sites of up to 35‰. This indicates that in humid tropical settings, leaf water isotopes are more closely related to those of precipitation and water vapor than to those of lake surface water, explaining the observed change in apparent fractionation in B. gymnorhiza lipids with salinity. The relationship between leaf water and rainwater isotopes may be due to either equilibration of leaf water with water vapor in the nearly saturated air or direct foliar uptake of rain and/or dew. Foliar uptake is an important water source for many plants, but has not been documented in mangroves. We tested the capacity for mangroves to perform this function by

  7. Exceptional Isotopic Variability in Stream Waters of the Central Andes: Large-Scale or Local Controls?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorella, R. P.; Poulsen, C. J.; Ehlers, T. A.; Jeffery, M. L.; Pillco Zola, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Modern precipitation on the Altiplano in central South America shows large seasonal and interannual variability and is dominated by seasonal convection during austral summer. The stable isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation and surface waters may be useful in diagnosing atmospheric processes over the Altiplano as they reflect the atmospheric history of the water vapor forming precipitation. Few data exist about the spatial and temporal isotopic variability of precipitation or surface water in the region, however, and therefore, the controls governing isotope distribution over the Altiplano are poorly understood. Samples of stream water were collected from small catchments on the Altiplano and along two elevation transects on the eastern cordillera of the Andes (at 17°30' and 21°15'S) between April 2009 and April 2012. As precipitation over the Altiplano is highly seasonal and the environment is otherwise arid, the isotopic signature of these streams is thought integrate the composition of rainy season precipitation. We limit our analysis to ephemeral streams with no groundwater component. Sampled waters show high spatial and interannual isotopic variability. As expected, stream water becomes increasingly depleted with increased elevation along a transect, but the isotopic lapse rates along the two transects are different and show high interannual variability. The average isotopic lapse rate for the northern transect was 1.09‰/km, but varied from 0.79‰/km in 2010 to 1.36‰/km in 2011 (only collected 2010-2012), while the average isotopic lapse rate for the southern transect was 1.74‰/km and varied between 1.50‰/km in 2010 and 1.92‰/km in 2009. Across the Altiplano itself, stream water varies by over 10‰ (δ18O) within a single season (2011), and by over 13‰ across the entire collection period. The high spatial variability of the stream water isotopic composition on the Altiplano suggests that simple Rayleigh fractionation is

  8. Controls on the distribution and isotopic composition of helium in deep ground-water flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, X.; Fritzel, T.L.B.; Quinodoz, H.A.M.; Bethke, C.M.; Torgersen, T.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution and isotopic composition of helium in sedimentary basins can be used to interpret the ages of very old ground waters. The piston-flow model commonly used in such interpretation, how ever, does not account for several important factors and as such works well only in very simple flow regimes. In this study of helium transport in a hypothetical sedimentary basin, we develop a numerical model that accounts for the magnitude and distribution of the basal helium flux, hydrodynamic dispersion, and complexities in flow regimes such as subregional flow cells. The modeling shows that these factors exert strong controls on the helium distribution and isotopic composition. The simulations may provide a basis for more accurate interpretations of observed helium concentrations and isotopic ratios in sedimentary basins.

  9. The colloidal chemistry synthesis and electron microscopy characterization of shape-controlled metal and semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biacchi, Adam J.

    Solution methods of materials synthesis have found application in a variety of fields due to the diversity of products accessible, facility of process scalability, and the ease of tuning their properties through prudent selection of reaction conditions. Control of experimental variables during the formation of colloidally stable nanoscale solids within a liquid matrix allows for tailoring of the particles' characteristics, including shape, size, composition, and surface chemistry. In this dissertation, I will discuss how the manipulation of reaction chemistries can be used to synthesize shape-controlled metal and semiconductor colloidal nanocrystals. Further, I will elaborate on the mechanisms by which these particles form from molecular precursors and describe how their properties can differ from their bulk analogues through extensive characterization, especially using transmission electron microscopy. These studies contribute to the continued development of chemical routes to nanocrystals and their application as functional materials. First, I will review recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of shape-controlled nanocrystals, as well as highlight their promising applicability in a number of emerging technologies. These principles will then be leveraged to the specific case of catalytically-active rhodium nanocrystals, which can be synthesized with morphological and dimensional control using a polyol solution-mediated strategy. I describe an innovative shape-controlled synthesis to monodisperse colloidal rhodium icosahedra, cubes, triangular plates, and octahedra using this route. Additionally, new insights into the important role of the polyol reducing solvent on the synthesis of these nanocrystals are revealed, and how these might be exploited to engender superior reaction control and novel products. Next, I will describe how a crystallization mechanism was established for the synthesis of numerous morphologies of noble metal nanocrystals. I

  10. Environmental controls on stable isotopes of precipitation in Lanzhou, China: An enhanced network at city scale.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenli; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Qiu, Xue; Du, Mingxia

    2017-12-31

    Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation are very sensitive to environmental changes, and can record evolution of water cycle. The Lanzhou city in northwestern China is jointly influenced by the monsoon and westerlies, which is considered as a vital platform to investigate the moisture regime for this region. Since 2011, an observation network of stable isotopes in precipitation was established across the city, and four stations were included in the network. In 2013, six more sampling stations were added, and the enhanced network might provide more meaningful information on spatial incoherence and synoptic process. This study focused on the variations of stable isotopes (δ(18)O and δD) in precipitation and the environmental controls based on the 1432 samples in this enhanced network from April 2011 to October 2014. The results showed that the precipitation isotopes had great spatial diversity, and the neighboring stations may present large difference in δD and δ(18)O. Based on the observation at ten sampling sites, an isoscape in precipitation was calculated, and the method is useful to produce isoscape for small domains. The temperature effect and amount effect was reconsidered based on the dataset. Taking meteorological parameters (temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, water vapor pressure and dew point temperature) as variables in a multi-linear regression, the result of coefficients for these meteorological parameters were calculated. Some cases were also involved in this study, and the isotopic characteristics during one event or continuous days were used to understand the environmental controls on precipitation isotopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Opposing authigenic controls on the isotopic signature of dissolved iron in hydrothermal plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, A. J. M.; Klar, J. K.; Homoky, W. B.; Comer-Warner, S. A.; Milton, J. A.; Connelly, D. P.; James, R. H.; Mills, R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Iron is a scarce but essential micronutrient in the oceans that limits primary productivity in many regions of the surface ocean. The mechanisms and rates of Fe supply to the ocean interior are still poorly understood and quantified. Iron isotope ratios of different Fe pools can potentially be used to trace sources and sinks of the global Fe biogeochemical cycle if these boundary fluxes have distinct signatures. Seafloor hydrothermal vents emit metal rich fluids from mid-ocean ridges into the deep ocean. Iron isotope ratios have the potential to be used to trace the input of hydrothermal dissolved iron to the oceans if the local controls on the fractionation of Fe isotopes during plume dispersal in the deep ocean are understood. In this study we assess the behaviour of Fe isotopes in a Southern Ocean hydrothermal plume using a sampling program of Total Dissolvable Fe (TDFe), and dissolved Fe (dFe). We demonstrate that δ56Fe values of dFe (δ56dFe) within the hydrothermal plume change dramatically during early plume dispersal, ranging from -2.39 ± 0.05‰ to -0.13 ± 0.06‰ (2 SD). The isotopic composition of TDFe (δ56TDFe) was consistently heavier than dFe values, ranging from -0.31 ± 0.03‰ to 0.78 ± 0.05‰, consistent with Fe oxyhydroxide precipitation as the plume samples age. The dFe present in the hydrothermal plume includes stabilised dFe species with potential to be transported to the deep ocean. We estimate that stable dFe exported from the plume will have a δ56Fe of -0.28 ± 0.17‰. Further, we show that the proportion of authigenic iron-sulfide and iron-oxyhydroxide minerals precipitating in the buoyant plume exert opposing controls on the resultant isotope composition of dissolved Fe passed into the neutrally buoyant plume. We show that such controls yield variable dissolved Fe isotope signatures under the authigenic conditions reported from modern vent sites elsewhere, and so ought to be considered during iron isotope reconstructions of past

  12. Theory of quantum control of spin-photon dynamics and spin decoherence in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wang

    Single electron spin in a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) and single photon wavepacket propagating in an optical waveguide are investigated as carriers of quantum bit (qubit) for information processing. Cavity quantum electrodynamics of the coupled system composed of charged QD, microcavity and waveguide provides a quantum interface for the interplay of stationary spin qubits and flying photon qubits via cavity assisted optical control. This interface forms the basis for a wide range of essential functions of a quantum network, including transferring, swapping, and entangling qubits at distributed quantum nodes as well as a deterministic source and an efficient detector of a single photon wavepacket with arbitrarily specified shape. The cavity assisted optical process also made possible ultrafast initialization and QND readout of the spin qubit in QD. In addition, the strong optical nonlinearity of dot-cavity-waveguide coupled system enables phase gate and entanglement operation for flying single photon qubits in waveguides. The coherence of the electron spin is the wellspring of these quantum applications being investigated. At low temperature and strong magnetic field, the dominant cause of electron spin decoherence is the coupling with the interacting lattice nuclear spins. We present a quantum solution to the coupled dynamics of the electron with the nuclear spin bath. The decoherence is treated in terms of quantum entanglement of the electron with the nuclear pair-flip excitations driven by the various nuclear interactions. A novel nuclear interaction, mediated by virtue spin-flips of the single electron, plays an important role in single spin free-induction decay (FID). The spin echo not only refocuses the dephasing by inhomogeneous broadening in ensemble dynamics but also eliminates the decoherence by electron-mediated nuclear interaction. Thus, the decoherence times for single spin FID and ensemble spin echo are significantly different. The quantum theory of

  13. Coherent control and detection of spin qubits in semiconductor with magnetic field engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Electrical control and detection of the spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are among the major rapidly progressing fields for possible implementation of scalable quantum information processing. Coherent control of one-[1-3] and two-[4,5] spin qubits by electrical means had been demonstrated with various approaches. We have used an engineered magnetic field structure realized with proximal micro-magnets to transduce the spin and charge degrees of freedom and to selectively address one of the two spins [3]. We have demonstrated an all-electrical two-qubit gate consisting of single-spin rotations and interdot spin exchange in double QDs. A partially entangled output state is obtained by the application of the two-qubit gate to an initial, uncorrelated state. Our calculations taking into account of the nuclear spin fluctuation show the degree of entanglement. Non-uniform magnetic field also enables spin selective photon-assisted tunneling in double QDs, which then constitutes non-demolition spin read-out system in combination with a near-by charge detector [6]. [4pt] In collaboration with R. Brunner, Inst. of Phys., Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700, Austria, M. Pioro-Ladrière, D'ep. de Phys., Universit'e de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Qu'ebec, J1K-2R1, Canada, T. Kubo, Y. -S. Shin, T. Obata, and S. Tarucha, ICORP-JST and Dep. of Appl. Phys., Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.[4pt] [1] F. H. Koppens, et al., Nature 442, 766 (2006).[0pt] [2] K. C. Nowack, et al., Science 318, 1430 (2007).[0pt] [3] M. Pioro-Ladrière, et al., Nature Physics 4, 776 (2008).[0pt] [4] J. R. Petta, et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005).[0pt] [5] R. Brunner, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146801 (2011).[0pt] [6] Y. -S. Shin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046802 (2010).

  14. Modelling aspects regarding the control in 13C isotope separation column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    Carbon represents the fourth most abundant chemical element in the world, having two stable and one radioactive isotope. The 13Carbon isotopes, with a natural abundance of 1.1%, plays an important role in numerous applications, such as the study of human metabolism changes, molecular structure studies, non-invasive respiratory tests, Alzheimer tests, air pollution and global warming effects on plants [9] A manufacturing control system manages the internal logistics in a production system and determines the routings of product instances, the assignment of workers and components, the starting of the processes on not-yet-finished product instances. Manufacturing control does not control the manufacturing processes themselves, but has to cope with the consequences of the processing results (e.g. the routing of products to a repair station). In this research it was fulfilled some UML (Unified Modelling Language) diagrams for modelling the C13 Isotope Separation column, implement in STARUML program. Being a critical process and needing a good control and supervising, the critical parameters in the column, temperature and pressure was control using some PLC (Programmable logic controller) and it was made some graphic analyze for this to observe some critical situation than can affect the separation process. The main parameters that need to be control are: -The liquid nitrogen (N2) level in the condenser. -The electrical power supplied to the boiler. -The vacuum pressure.

  15. Controlling for anthropogenically induced atmospheric variation in stable carbon isotope studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Sweitzer, R.A.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Ben-David, M.

    2005-01-01

    Increased use of stable isotope analysis to examine food-web dynamics, migration, transfer of nutrients, and behavior will likely result in expansion of stable isotope studies investigating human-induced global changes. Recent elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration, related primarily to fossil fuel combustion, has reduced atmospheric CO2 ??13C (13C/12C), and this change in isotopic baseline has, in turn, reduced plant and animal tissue ??13C of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Such depletion in CO2 ??13C and its effects on tissue ??13C may introduce bias into ??13C investigations, and if this variation is not controlled, may confound interpretation of results obtained from tissue samples collected over a temporal span. To control for this source of variation, we used a high-precision record of atmospheric CO2 ??13C from ice cores and direct atmospheric measurements to model modern change in CO2 ??13C. From this model, we estimated a correction factor that controls for atmospheric change; this correction reduces bias associated with changes in atmospheric isotopic baseline and facilitates comparison of tissue ??13C collected over multiple years. To exemplify the importance of accounting for atmospheric CO2 ??13C depletion, we applied the correction to a dataset of collagen ??13C obtained from mountain lion (Puma concolor) bone samples collected in California between 1893 and 1995. Before correction, in three of four ecoregions collagen ??13C decreased significantly concurrent with depletion of atmospheric CO2 ??13C (n ??? 32, P ??? 0.01). Application of the correction to collagen ??13C data removed trends from regions demonstrating significant declines, and measurement error associated with the correction did not add substantial variation to adjusted estimates. Controlling for long-term atmospheric variation and correcting tissue samples for changes in isotopic baseline facilitate analysis of samples that span a large temporal range. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  16. Controlling for anthropogenically induced atmospheric variation in stable carbon isotope studies.

    PubMed

    Long, Eric S; Sweitzer, Richard A; Diefenbach, Duane R; Ben-David, Merav

    2005-11-01

    Increased use of stable isotope analysis to examine food-web dynamics, migration, transfer of nutrients, and behavior will likely result in expansion of stable isotope studies investigating human-induced global changes. Recent elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration, related primarily to fossil fuel combustion, has reduced atmospheric CO2 delta13C (13C/12C), and this change in isotopic baseline has, in turn, reduced plant and animal tissue delta13C of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Such depletion in CO2 delta13C and its effects on tissue delta13C may introduce bias into delta13C investigations, and if this variation is not controlled, may confound interpretation of results obtained from tissue samples collected over a temporal span. To control for this source of variation, we used a high-precision record of atmospheric CO2 delta13C from ice cores and direct atmospheric measurements to model modern change in CO2 delta13C. From this model, we estimated a correction factor that controls for atmospheric change; this correction reduces bias associated with changes in atmospheric isotopic baseline and facilitates comparison of tissue delta13C collected over multiple years. To exemplify the importance of accounting for atmospheric CO2 delta13C depletion, we applied the correction to a dataset of collagen delta13C obtained from mountain lion (Puma concolor) bone samples collected in California between 1893 and 1995. Before correction, in three of four ecoregions collagen delta13C decreased significantly concurrent with depletion of atmospheric CO2 delta13C (n > or = 32, P < or = 0.01). Application of the correction to collagen delta13C data removed trends from regions demonstrating significant declines, and measurement error associated with the correction did not add substantial variation to adjusted estimates. Controlling for long-term atmospheric variation and correcting tissue samples for changes in isotopic baseline facilitate analysis of samples that span a

  17. Magma redox and structural controls on iron isotope variations in Earth's mantle and crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphas, N.; Roskosz, M.; Alp, E. E.; Neuville, D. R.; Hu, M. Y.; Sio, C. K.; Tissot, F. L. H.; Zhao, J.; Tissandier, L.; Médard, E.; Cordier, C.

    2014-07-01

    The heavy iron isotopic composition of Earth's crust relative to chondrites has been explained by vaporization during the Moon-forming impact, equilibrium partitioning between metal and silicate at core-mantle-boundary conditions, or partial melting and magma differentiation. The latter view is supported by the observed difference in the iron isotopic compositions of MORBS and peridotites. However, the precise controls on iron isotope variations in igneous rocks remain unknown. Here, we show that equilibrium iron isotope fractionation is mainly controlled by redox (Fe3+/Fetot ratio) and structural (e.g., polymerization) conditions in magmas. We measured, for the first time, the mean force constants of iron bonds in silicate glasses by synchrotron Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (NRIXS, also known as Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy - NRVS, or Nuclear Inelastic Scattering - NIS). The same samples were studied by conventional Mössbauer and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The NRIXS results reveal a +0.2 to +0.4‰ equilibrium fractionation on 56Fe/54Fe ratio between Fe2+ and Fe3+ end-members in basalt, andesite, and dacite glasses at magmatic temperatures. These first measurements can already explain ∼1/3 of the iron isotopic shift measured in MORBs relative to their source. Further work will be required to investigate how pressure, temperature, and structural differences between melts and glasses affect equilibrium fractionation factors. In addition, large fractionation is also found between rhyolitic glass and commonly occurring oxide and silicate minerals. This fractionation reflects mainly changes in the coordination environment of Fe2+ in rhyolites relative to less silicic magmas and mantle minerals, as also seen by XANES. We provide a new calibration of XANES features vs. Fe3+/Fetot ratio determinations by Mössbauer to estimate Fe3+/Fetot ratio in situ in glasses of basaltic, andesitic, dacitic, and rhyolitic

  18. Quantum control study of multilevel effect on ultrafast isotope-selective vibrational excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2009-10-01

    Quantum optimal control calculations have been carried out for isotope-selective vibrational excitations of the cesium iodide (CsI) molecule on the ground-state potential energy curve. Considering a gaseous isotopic mixture of C133sI and C135sI, the initial state is set to the condition that both C133sI and C135sI are in the vibrational ground level (v =0) and the target state is that C133sI is in the v =0 level while C135sI in the first-excited level (v =1). We find that, using the density-matrix formalism, perfect isotope-selective excitations for multilevel systems including more than ten lowest vibrational states can be completed in much shorter time scales than those for two-level systems. It is likely that this multilevel effect comes from the large isotope shifts in the vibrational levels of v >1. To check the reliability of the calculation we also carry out optimal control calculations based on the conventional wave-packet formalism, where the wave-function amplitude is temporally propagated on the grid points in real space, and obtain almost the same results as those with the density-matrix formalism.

  19. The diet-body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: A controlled dietary study

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, TC; Kneale, CJ; Tasevska, N; Kuhnle, GGC

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The "trophic level enrichment" between diet and body results in an overall increase in nitrogen isotopic values as the food chain is ascended. Quantifying the diet–body Δ15N spacing has proved difficult, particularly for humans. The value is usually assumed to be +3–5‰ in the archaeological literature. We report here the first (to our knowledge) data from humans on isotopically known diets, comparing dietary intake and a body tissue sample, that of red blood cells. Samples were taken from 11 subjects on controlled diets for a 30-day period, where the controlled diets were designed to match each individual's habitual diet, thus reducing problems with short-term changes in diet causing isotopic changes in the body pool. The Δ15Ndiet-RBC was measured as +3.5‰. Using measured offsets from other studies, we estimate the human Δ15Ndiet-keratin as +5.0–5.3‰, which is in good agreement with values derived from the two other studies using individual diet records. We also estimate a value for Δ15Ndiet-collagen of ≍6‰, again in combination with measured offsets from other studies. This value is larger than usually assumed in palaeodietary studies, which suggests that the proportion of animal protein in prehistoric human diet may have often been overestimated in isotopic studies of palaeodiet. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23042579

  20. The diet-body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: a controlled dietary study.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, T C; Kneale, C J; Tasevska, N; Kuhnle, G G C

    2012-11-01

    The "trophic level enrichment" between diet and body results in an overall increase in nitrogen isotopic values as the food chain is ascended. Quantifying the diet-body Δ(15) N spacing has proved difficult, particularly for humans. The value is usually assumed to be +3-5‰ in the archaeological literature. We report here the first (to our knowledge) data from humans on isotopically known diets, comparing dietary intake and a body tissue sample, that of red blood cells. Samples were taken from 11 subjects on controlled diets for a 30-day period, where the controlled diets were designed to match each individual's habitual diet, thus reducing problems with short-term changes in diet causing isotopic changes in the body pool. The Δ(15) N(diet-RBC) was measured as +3.5‰. Using measured offsets from other studies, we estimate the human Δ(15) N(diet-keratin) as +5.0-5.3‰, which is in good agreement with values derived from the two other studies using individual diet records. We also estimate a value for Δ(15) N(diet-collagen) of ≈6‰, again in combination with measured offsets from other studies. This value is larger than usually assumed in palaeodietary studies, which suggests that the proportion of animal protein in prehistoric human diet may have often been overestimated in isotopic studies of palaeodiet.

  1. Hydrodynamic and Environmental Controls on the Nitrogen Isotope Effect of Benthic N2 Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooze, J.; Meile, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    Isotopic signatures of nitrogen (N) pools, together with knowledge on fractionation during the conversion between different forms of N, can be used to constrain marine N budgets. However, the reported extent of N isotope fractionation during benthic N2 production has differed substantially between studies, leading to uncertainty in the estimate of the global benthic N2 production rate. To assess the range and identify mechanisms underlying such observations, we developed a reactive transport model and ran simulations evaluating the impact of nitrification, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation on the isotopic composition of in-situ N/2 production. Different hydrodynamic regimes were taken into account, including advective flow induced by bioirrigation and purely diffusive transport. The effects of the benthic mineralization rate and the composition of the overlying water were also quantified. The benthic redox conditions were found to control the N isotope effect, which under reducing conditions is driven by fractionation during nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation and under oxidizing conditions by fractionation during denitrification. The mineralization rate, the bioirrigation intensity, and chemical composition of the overlying water affect the benthic redox zonation and therefore also the benthic N isotope effect. With increasing water-depth the mineralization rate and the advective nitrate supply to the sediment both decrease, constraining most benthic N cycling to the continental shelf. Simulations that reproduce observed trends of sediment O2 uptake and N2 fluxes with water depth, combined with ocean bathymetry yield an average benthic N isotope effect of -3‰, in line with independent estimates from global circulation models coupled to N cycle models (Somes et al., 2013. Biogeosciences 10, 5889-5910).

  2. Methodologies for Controlled Conjugated Polymer Synthesis and Characterization of Small Molecule Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakus, Ronald C., II

    Conjugated polymers can broadly be described as materials which have a structure composed of repeating monomeric units that show extended electronic communication along the backbone. The extended pi-conjugated nature of these materials gives them a set of unique electronic and optical properties, and has lead to their application in a multitude of various technologies. Of specific interest is the application of these materials in various organic electronics applications, such as solution processed plastic solar cells, light emitting diodes, and field effect transistors. Herein is described the synthesis of a class of well-defined, highly active organometallic initiators for use in controlled polymer synthesis. The polymers prepared using the nickel based initiators in Grignard metathesis polymerization posses the following characteristics: rapid generation of high molecular weight polymers, low polydispersity, linear relation between monomer conversion and molecular weight growth, and the selective transfer of an initiating moiety from the organometallic initiator to one polymer chain end. This initiator was then used to prepare a new class of biosensor materials wherein the polymer had a well defined biosensing end group. Additionally, a series of small molecule donors have been developed that have shown promise in a wide variety of organic electronic applications. These materials can broadly be described as having a D'ADAD' type structure where D, D', and A correspond to electron rich and electron deficient aromatic heterocycles, respectively. By tuning the identity of these groups and the side-chains attached to them, one can subtly influence the optical, electronic, and physical properties of the materials. These materials were investigated via single crystal x-ray diffraction studies to gain insight into how changes to the molecule structure such as heteroatom regioisomerism and isoelectronic substitutions effected the molecular structure. These changes in

  3. Redox-variability and controls in subduction zones from an iron-isotope perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, O.; Sossi, P. A.; Bénard, A.; Wille, M.; Vroon, P. Z.; Arculus, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    An ongoing controversy in mantle geochemistry concerns the oxidation state of the sources of island arc lavas (IAL). Three key factors control oxidation-reduction (redox) of IAL sources: (i) metasomatism of the mantle wedge by fluids and/or melts, liberated from the underlying subducted slab; (ii) the oxidation state of the wedge prior to melting and metasomatism; and (iii) the loss of melt from IAL sources. Subsequently, magmatic differentiation by fractional crystallisation, possible crustal contamination and degassing of melts en route to and at the surface can further modify the redox states of IAL. The remote nature of sub-arc processes and the complex interplay between them render direct investigations difficult. However, a possible gauge for redox-controlled, high-temperature pre-eruptive differentiation conditions is variations in stable Fe isotope compositions (expressed here as δ57Fe) in erupting IAL because Fe isotopes can preserve a record of sub-surface mass transfer reactions involving the major element Fe. Here we report Fe isotope compositions of bulk IAL along the active Banda arc, Indonesia, which is well known for a prominent subducted sediment input. In conjunction with other arc rocks, δ57Fe in erupted Banda IAL indicates that fractional crystallisation and possibly crustal contamination primarily control their Fe isotope signatures. When corrected for fractional crystallisation and filtered for contamination, arc magmas that had variable sediment melt contributions in their sources show no resolvable co-variation of δ57Fe with radiogenic isotope tracers. This indicates that crustal recycling in the form of subducted sediment does not alter the Fe isotope character of arc lavas, in agreement with mass balance estimates. Primitive sources of IAL, however, are clearly isotopically lighter than those sourced beneath mid-ocean ridges, indicating either preferential Fe3+-depletion in the mantle wedge by prior, δ57Fe-heavy melt extraction, and

  4. Strain-based control of crystal anisotropy for perovskite oxides on semiconductor-based material

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A crystalline structure and a semiconductor device includes a substrate of a semiconductor-based material and a thin film of an anisotropic crystalline material epitaxially arranged upon the surface of the substrate so that the thin film couples to the underlying substrate and so that the geometries of substantially all of the unit cells of the thin film are arranged in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate surface. The predisposition of the geometries of the unit cells of the thin film is responsible for a predisposed orientation of a directional-dependent quality, such as the dipole moment, of the unit cells. The predisposed orientation of the unit cell geometries are influenced by either a stressed or strained condition of the lattice at the interface between the thin film material and the substrate surface.

  5. Using a Semiconductor-to-Metal Transition to Control Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Donev, E. U.; Suh, J. Y.; Lopez, R.; ...

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple configuration in which the extraordinary optical transmission effect through subwavelength hole arrays in noble-metal films can be switched by the semiconductor-to-metal transition in an underlying thin film of vanadium dioxide. In these experiments, the transition is brought about by thermal heating of the bilayer film. The surprising reverse hysteretic behavior of the transmission through the subwavelength holes in the vanadium oxide suggest that this modulation is accomplished by a dielectric-matching condition rather than plasmon coupling through the bilayer film. The results of this switching, including the wavelength dependence, are qualitatively reproduced by a transfer matrix model.more » The prospects for effecting a similar modulation on a much faster time scale by using ultrafast laser pulses to trigger the semiconductor-to-metal transition are also discussed.« less

  6. Coherent Optical Control of Electronic Excitations in Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductor Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    ABSTRACT The main objective of this research is to study coherent quantum effects , such as Rabi oscillations in optical spectra of wide- band-gap...DRI) Research Objectives 1 2. Temperature Effects in the Kinetics of Photoexcited Carriers in Wide- Band-Gap Semiconductors 2 2.1 Theoretical...3 Fig. 2 Calculated polar optical scattering rate for the nonparabolic conduction band in GaN including the screening effect

  7. 3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content.

    PubMed

    Lesnyak, Vladimir; Wolf, André; Dubavik, Aliaksei; Borchardt, Lars; Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Gaponik, Nikolai; Kaskel, Stefan; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2011-08-31

    A 3D metal ion assisted assembly of nanoparticles has been developed. The approach relies on the efficient complexation of cadmium ions and 5-mercaptomethyltetrazole employed as the stabilizer of both colloidal CdTe and Au nanoparticles. It enables in a facile way the formation of hybrid metal-semiconductor 3D structures with controllable and tunable composition in aqueous media. By means of critical point drying, these assemblies form highly porous aerogels. The hybrid architectures obtained are characterized by electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and optical spectroscopy methods.

  8. Quantum optimal control of the isotope-selective rovibrational excitation of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi

    2017-08-01

    We carry out optimal control theory calculations for isotope-selective pure rotational and vibrational-rotational excitations of diatomic molecules. The fifty-fifty mixture of diatomic isotopologues, 7Li37Cl and 7Li35Cl, is considered and the molecules are irradiated with a control pulse. In the wave packet propagation we employ the method quantum mechanically rigorous for the two-dimensional system including both the radial and angular motions. We investigate quantum controls of the isotope-selective pure rotational excitation for two total times 1280000 and 2560000 a.u. (31.0 and 61.9 ps) and the vibrational-rotational excitation for three total times, 640000, 1280000, and 2560000 a.u. (15.5, 31.0, and 61.9 ps) The initial state is set to the situation that both the isotopologues are in the ground vibrational and rotational levels, v = 0 and J = 0. The target state for pure rotational excitation is set to 7Li37Cl (v = 0, J = 1) and 7Li35Cl (v = 0, J = 0); that for vibrational-rotational excitation is set to 7Li37Cl (v = 1, J = 1) and 7Li35Cl (v = 0, J = 0). The obtained final yields are quite high and those for the longest total time are calculated to be nearly 1.0. When total time is 1280000 a.u., the final yields for the pure rotational excitation are slightly smaller than those for the vibrational-rotational excitation. This is because the isotope shift (difference in transition energy between the two isotopologues) for the pure rotational transition between low-lying levels is much smaller than that for the vibrational-rotational transition. We thus theoretically succeed in controlling the isotope-selective excitations of diatomic molecules using the method including both radial and angular motions quantum mechanically.

  9. Aspects regarding at 13C isotope separation column control using Petri nets system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, M. L.; Ciortea, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is intended to show that Petri nets can be also applicable in the chemical industry. It used linear programming, modeling underlying Petri nets, especially discrete event systems for isotopic separation, the purpose of considering and control events in real-time through graphical representations. In this paper it is simulate the control of 13C Isotope Separation column using Petri nets. The major problem with 13C comes from the difficulty of obtaining it and raising its natural fraction. Carbon isotopes can be obtained using many methods, one of them being the cryogenic distillation of carbon monoxide. Some few aspects regarding operating conditions and the construction of such cryogenic plants are known today, and even less information are available as far as the separation process modeling and control are concerned. In fact, the efficient control of the carbon monoxide distillation process represents a necessity for large-scale 13C production. Referring to a classic distillation process, some models for carbon isotope separation have been proposed, some based on mass, component and energy balance equations, some on the nonlinear wave theory or the Cohen equations. For modeling the system it was used Petri nets because in this case it is deal with discrete event systems. In use of the non-timed and with auxiliary times Petri model, the transport stream was divided into sections and these sections will be analyzed successively. Because of the complexity of the system and the large amount of calculations required it was not possible to analyze the system as a unitary whole. A first attempt to model the system as a unitary whole led to the blocking of the model during simulation, because of the large processing times.

  10. Numerical simulation of isotope fractionation in steady-state bioreactive transport controlled by transverse mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Dominik; Rolle, Massimo; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2012-10-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has increasingly been used as a tool to assess intrinsic biodegradation at contaminated field sites. Typically, the Rayleigh equation is used to estimate the extent of biodegradation from measured isotope ratios of the contaminant. However, if the rate-limiting step in overall degradation is not the microbial reaction itself, the Rayleigh equation may no more be applicable. In this study we simulate biodegradation of continuously emitted petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater systems. These contaminants are effectively degraded at the plume fringe where transverse dispersion makes them mix with dissolved electron acceptors present in the ambient groundwater. We simulate reactive transport to study the coupled effects of transverse mixing and biodegradation on the spatial patterns of carbon isotope signatures and their interpretation based on depth-integrated sampling which represents the most common setup in the assessment of contaminated sites. We present scenarios mimicking a hydraulically uniform laboratory experiment and a field-scale application considering heterogeneous conductivity fields. We compare cases in which isotopologue-specific transverse dispersion is considered to those where this additional fractionation process is neglected. We show that these effects cause significant shifts in the isotopic signals and may lead to overestimation of biodegradation. Moreover, our results provide evidence that the rate-limiting effect of transverse mixing on the overall degradation spatially varies along the length of a steady-state contaminant plume. The control of biodegradation by transverse dispersion and the fractionating effect of dispersion modulate the fractionation caused by the microbial reaction alone. As a consequence, significantly nonlinear isotopic patterns are observed in a Rayleigh plot. Simulations in heterogeneous flow domains show that these effects persist at larger field scales and are sensitive

  11. Asynchronous, self-controlled, all-optical label and payload separator using nonlinear polarization rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegas Olmos, J. J.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Liu, Y.; Garcia Larrode, M.; Turkiewicz, J.; Dorren, H. J. S.; Koonen, A. M. J.

    2004-09-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical label and payload separator based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The proposed scheme uses a packet format composed of a label and payload information signal combined with a control signal by using polarization division multiplexing. The control signal is employed to separate the label from the payload signal by exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation in a SOA. Experimental results show a label from payload suppression factor of 22 dB. This scheme operates asynchronously and does not need external control signal. Clean and wide open eye diagrams are obtained for both the payload and the label signal operating at bit-rates of 10 Gbit/s and 625 Mbit/s, respectively.

  12. Asynchronous, self-controlled, all-optical label and payload separator using nonlinear polarization rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier.

    PubMed

    Vegas Olmos, J; Monroy, I; Liu, Y; Garcia Larrode, M; Turkiewicz, J; Dorren, H; Koonen, A

    2004-09-06

    We demonstrate an all-optical label and payload separator based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The proposed scheme uses a packet format composed of a label and payload information signal combined with a control signal by using polarization division multiplexing. The control signal is employed to separate the label from the payload signal by exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation in a SOA. Experimental results show a label from payload suppression factor of 22 dB. This scheme operates asynchronously and does not need external control signal. Clean and wide open eye diagrams are obtained for both the payload and the label signal operating at bit-rates of 10 Gbit/s and 625 Mbit/s, respectively.

  13. Liquid-crystal composites with controlled photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, V. V.; Artem'ev, M. V.; Baranov, A. V.; Orlova, A. O.; Mukhina, M. V.; Khrebtov, A. I.

    2011-06-01

    Liquid-crystal (LC) composites based on a combination of different acrylates and pentylcyanobiphenyl and containing CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum nanorods have been investigated. Samples of electro-optical cells with planar or homeotropic structures (depending on the acrylate type) have been obtained. The morphology of LC composite formation has been studied using luminescence techniques. It is shown that these composites are gel-like LC media, where the formation of dispersed and network structures in the cells plays a stabilizing role. The role of the electron transfer reactions during polymerization and the features of the kinetics of the Freedericksz effect (reorientation in an electric field) are discussed.

  14. Novel, band-controlled metal oxide compositions for semiconductor-mediated photocatalytic splitting of water to produce H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Narendra M.

    2013-02-01

    Semiconductor-mediated photo-catalytic dissociation of water offers a unique opportunity for the production of H2, a sustainable source of energy. More efficient and chemically stable photo-catalysts, however, remain a vital requirement for commercial viability of this process. The recent research in my group has focused on the synthesis of several new metal oxide (MO) photo-catalysts, such as: LaInO3, GaFeO3, InVO4, In2TiO5 and nanotubular TiO2. These samples of controlled grain morphology have been synthesized by using different synthesis protocols and with and without coating of a noble metal co-catalyst. The doping of an impurity, either at cationic or at anionic lattice site, has helped in the tailoring of band structure and making these oxides visible-light-sensitive. Our study has revealed that the surface characteristics, grain morphology, band structure, and doping-induced lattice imperfections control the photo-physical properties and overall photo-catalytic water splitting activity of these metal/MO composites [1-6]. We have demonstrated that, besides promoting certain charge-transfer steps, metal-semiconductor interfaces influence the adsorption of water molecules and their subsequent interaction with photo-generated electron-hole pair at the catalyst surface. The role played by the above-mentioned micro-structural properties in photo-catalytic water splitting process will be discussed.

  15. Nanoimprinted Hybrid Metal-Semiconductor Plasmonic Multilayers with Controlled Surface Nano Architecture for Applications in NIR Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Khosroabadi, Akram A.; Gangopadhyay, Palash; Hernandez, Steven; Kim, Kyungjo; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Norwood, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a proof of concept for tunable plasmon resonance frequencies in a core shell nano-architectured hybrid metal-semiconductor multilayer structure, with Ag as the active shell and ITO as the dielectric modulation media. Our method relies on the collective change in the dielectric function within the metal semiconductor interface to control the surface. Here we report fabrication and optical spectroscopy studies of large-area, nanostructured, hybrid silver and indium tin oxide (ITO) structures, with feature sizes below 100 nm and a controlled surface architecture. The optical and electrical properties of these core shell electrodes, including the surface plasmon frequency, can be tuned by suitably changing the order and thickness of the dielectric layers. By varying the dimensions of the nanopillars, the surface plasmon wavelength of the nanopillar Ag can be tuned from 650 to 690 nm. Adding layers of ITO to the structure further shifts the resonance wavelength toward the IR region and, depending on the sequence and thickness of the layers within the structure, we show that such structures can be applied in sensing devices including enhancing silicon as a photodetection material. PMID:28793489

  16. A controllable mechanism of forming extremely low-resistance nonalloyed ohmic contacts to group III-V compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stareev, G.; Künzel, H.; Dortmann, G.

    1993-12-01

    . It was possible to achieve an absolute control over the contact formation mechanism without crucial adjustment of annealing parameters. Closer examination of the temperature dependence of the contact resistances reveals a good agreement with the theoretical approach based on the tunneling model. Metallurgical studies of the contacts confirm their unreacted, abrupt metal-semiconductor configurations if optimal annealing temperatures are used. Experimental evidence manifests a definite relationship between electrical properties and interfacial compositional modifications affected by different forming conditions. The trend for structural changes occuring at annealing temperatures above the optimal ones was found to be in correlation with the chemical reactivity of III-V compounds. The observed thermal stability of the contacts can be fully explained in this way. In contrast to chemical precleaning the controllable elimination of interface inhomogeneities during ion etching results in contacts with improved homogeneity and uniformity. The demonstrated universality and reliability make the fabrication technique suitable to meet specific needs of modern semiconductor devices.

  17. Atmospheric control on isotopic composition and d-excess in water vapor over ocean surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Naixin

    For decades, stable isotopes of water have been used as proxies to infer the variation of the hydrological cycle. However, it is still not clear how various atmospheric processes quantitatively control kinetic fractionation during evaporation over the ocean. Understanding kinetic fractionation is important in that the interpretation of the isotopic composition record preserved in ice cores and precipitation relies in part on the isotopic information at the moisture source. In addition, the isotopic composition of vapor contains information about variation of atmospheric processes such as turbulence and change in moisture source region which is useful for studying meteorological processes and climate change. In this study the isotopic composition of water vapor in the marine boundary layer (MBL) over the ocean was investigated using a combination of a newly developed marine boundary layer (MBL) model and observational data. The new model has a more realistic MBL structure than previous models and includes new features such as vertical advection of air and diffusion coefficients that vary continuously in the vertical direction. A robust linear relationship between deltaD and delta18O was found in observational oceanic water vapor data and the model can well capture the characteristics of this relationship. The individual role of atmospheric processes or variables on deltaD, delta18O and d-excess was quantitatively investigated and an overview of the combined effect of all the meteorological processes is provided. In particular, we emphasize that the properties of subsiding air (such as its mixing ratio and isotopic values) are crucial to the isotopic composition of surface water vapor. Relative humidity has been used to represent the moisture deficit that drives evaporative isotopic fluxes, however, we argue that it has serious limitations in explaining d-excess variation as latitude varies. We introduce a new quantity Gd=SST-Td, the difference between the sea

  18. Controlling of the optical properties of the solutions of the PTCDI-C8 organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdoğan, Erman; Gündüz, Bayram

    2016-09-01

    N,N'-Dioctyl-3,4,9,10 perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8) organic semiconductor have vast applications in solar cells, thermoelectric generators, thin film photovoltaics and many other optoelectronic devices. These applications of the materials are based on their spectral and optical properties. The solutions of the PTCDI-C8 for different molarities were prepared and the spectral and optical mesaurements were analyzed. Effects of the molarities on optical properties were investigated. Vibronic structure has been observed based on the absorption bands of PTCDI-C8 semiconductor with seven peaks at 2.292, 2.451, 2.616, 3.212, 3.851, 4.477 and 4.733 eV. The important spectral parameteres such as molar/mass extinction coefficients, absorption coefficient of the PTCDI-C8 molecule were calculated. Optical properties such as angle of incidence/refraction, optical band gap, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant, loss factor and electrical susceptibility of the the PTCDI-C8 were obtained. Finally, we discussed these parameters for optoelectronic applications and compared with related parameters in literature.

  19. Controlled Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films Using Electrospray Vapor-Liquid-Solid Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Daniel; Bufkin, Kevin; Johnson, Brad; Patrick, David

    2010-03-01

    Interest in low molecular weight organic semiconductors (OS) for applications such as light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, and other technologies stems in part from their prospects for enabling significantly reduced manufacturing costs compared to traditional inorganic semiconductors. However many of the best performing prototype devices produced so far have involved expensive or time-consuming fabrication methods, such as the use of single crystals or thin films deposited under high vacuum conditions. New methods are needed capable of rapidly and inexpensively producing high quality polycrystalline films, preferably involving near-ambient conditions. This poster will present studies of one such approach based on an electrospray vapor-liquid-solid growth technique. The method produces polycrystalline OS films deposited via atmospheric-pressure sublimation from a carrier gas (argon) which is partially ionized by a corona discharge. Vapor-phase molecules are then attracted to a charged substrate coated with a thin liquid solvent layer, in which they dissolve and grow as crystals, producing films with large grain sizes. This poster will describe the electrostatic and hydrodynamic features of the deposition mechanism, and the growth kinetics of the resulting polycrystalline films.

  20. Controlled far-field pattern selection in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, J.Z.; Jansen, M.; Silver, A.H.; Yang, J.J.J.; Simmons, W.W.

    1988-08-16

    A diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser array is described capable of being switched between essentially in-phase and essentially out-of-phase supermodes of operation. The array consists of: a waveguide section having an array of semiconductor lasers coupled together by evanescent coupling, and having one at least partially reflective optical emission element; a diffraction section connected to the waveguide section, and having an at least partially reflective optical emission element that cooperates with the optical emission element in the waveguide section, to produce lasing of the array; wherein the dimensions of the waveguide section and the diffraction section are selected to encourage in-phase lasing of the array; and wherein the diffraction section and the waveguide section have electrically isolated contact layers to switch the array, by independent current injection, between two different operating states, one of which promotes lasing in the in-phase supermode and the other of which promotes lasing in the out-of-phase supermode.

  1. Factors controlling the temporal variability of ecosystem respiration and its carbon isotope composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbinder, J.; Griffis, T. J.; Baker, J. M.; Erickson, M.; Billmark, K.; Smith, J.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem respiration (FR ) is the major pathway for carbon loss from terrestrial ecosystems. Stable carbon isotope analyses have been used to improve our understanding of the processes controlling ecosystem respiration. In particular, 13CO2 has been used to partition the autotrophic (Fa) and heterotrophic (Fh) contributions to FR. Further, there has been some concern in the literature regarding the temporal variability of the isotopic composition of ecosystem respiration (δR) and its potential influence on ecosystem flux partitioning based on isotope methods. In this study, we used an automated chamber and tunable diode laser system to measure soil respiration (FRs) and its isotopic composition (δRs) in an agricultural ecosystem under a C3/C4 crop rotation. Further, we used the same chamber-TDL system in a climate controlled greenhouse facility with C3/C4 treatments to examine the main factors causing variability in δRs and δR. The chamber data revealed strong diurnal patterns in the isotopic composition of Fh in the agricultural soil plots before crop emergence and in the greenhouse experiments involving bare soils. The diurnal pattern consisted of a sharp enrichment of up to 6‰ from 0700 to 1200 hr followed by a gradual depletion throughout the afternoon and evening. The diurnal signals of FR and soil temperature closely resembled the diurnal signal of δh, but consistently lagged δh by 3 to 4 hours. During peak corn growth, diurnal variation in δRs was strongly influenced by the isotopic composition of root respiration (δas), which enriched nighttime δRs by as much as 7‰ and daytime δRs by as much as 3‰. Chamber and flux-gradient data also indicated considerable seasonal variation in δR during corn growing seasons, ranging from -25‰ at the time of planting to -11‰ during peak growth. Less variation in δR was observed during soybean seasons, with values ranging from -26 to -21‰. Major shifts in δR during corn seasons were consistently

  2. Electromagnetic malfunction of semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters caused by access control systems for radiation facilities.

    PubMed

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Ariga, Eiji; Mori, Kazuyuki; Hirota, Masahiro; Saze, Takuya; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2006-08-01

    High frequency electromagnetic fields in the 120 kHz band emitted from card readers for access control systems in radiation control areas cause abnormally high and erroneous indicated dose readings on semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters (SEPDs). All SEPDs malfunctioned but recovered their normal performance by resetting after the exposure ceased. The minimum distances required to prevent electromagnetic interference varied from 5.0 to 38.0 cm. The electric and magnetic immunity levels ranged from 35.1 to 267.6 V m(-1) and from 1.0 to 16.6 A m(-1), respectively. Electromagnetic immunity levels of SEPDs should be strengthened from the standpoint of radiation protection.

  3. Nanosheets by design: The controllable synthesis of group IV-VI layered semiconductor chalcogenide nanostructures using colloidal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Dimitri D., II

    Nanosheets, a class of nanomaterials with two-dimensional structure and atomic or molecular scale thickness, have attracted a great deal of interest from the scientific community due to excellent physical properties and several promising applications in optoelectronics, energy conversion and storage, and catalysis. While advances in the synthesis of 2D nanostructures using top-down. chemical and physical strategies such as exfoliation and mechanical cleavage have been achieved, improved synthesis may be realized by applying bottom-up. colloidal strategies where nanosheets are built. directly from solution in an atomic layer-by-layer fashion. In this dissertation, I will discuss recent advances in the synthesis of semiconductor nanosheets with controllable lateral dimension, thickness, hierarchical structure, and porosity, specifically focusing on a class of group IV-VI layered semiconductor chalcogenides (GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe) as a model system. Finally, I will highlight my efforts for expanding the synthetic framework mentioned above to access other materials, including the colloidal synthesis of germanium and Ge-based nanostructures.

  4. Ultrafast Control of Magnetism in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors via Photoexcited Transient Carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Cotoros, Ingrid A.

    2008-12-01

    The field of spintronics offers perspectives for seamless integration of coupled and inter-tunable electrical and magnetic properties in a single device. For integration of the spin degree of freedom with current electronic technology, new semiconductors are needed that show electrically-tunable magnetic properties at room temperature and above. Dilute magnetic semiconductors derived from III-V compounds, like GaMnAs and InMnAs, show coupled and tunable magnetic, transport, and optical properties, due to the fact that their ferromagnetism is hole-mediated. These unconventional materials are ideal systems for manipulating the magnetic order by changing the carrier polarization, population density, and energy band distribution of the complementary subsystem of holes. This is the main theme we cover in this thesis. In particular, we develop a unique setup by use of ultraviolet pump, near-infrared probe femtosecond laser pulses, that allows for magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy experiments. We photo-excite transient carriers in our samples, and measure the induced transient magnetization dynamics. One set of experiments performed allowed us to observe for the first time enhancement of the ferromagnetic order in GaMnAs, on an ultrafast time scale of hundreds of picoseconds. The corresponding transient increase of Curie temperature (Tc, the temperature above which a ferromagnetic material loses its permanent magnetism) of about 1 K for our experimental conditions is a very promising result for potential spintronics applications, especially since it is seconded by observation of an ultrafast ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition above Tc. In a different set of experiments, we "write" the magnetization in a particular orientation in the sample plane. Using an ultrafast scheme, we alter the distribution of holes in the system and detect signatures of the particular memory state in the subsequent magnetization dynamics, with unprecedented hundreds of

  5. Non-Rayleigh control of upper-ocean Cd isotope fractionation in the western South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ruifang C.; Galer, Stephen J. G.; Abouchami, Wafa; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.; De Jong, Jeroen; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2017-08-01

    of NADW and either AABW or AAIW depending on the depth. Overall, the SW Atlantic Cd isotope dataset demonstrates that the large-scale ocean circulation exerts the primary control on ε 112 / 110Cd cycling in the global deep ocean.

  6. Control of Spin Helix Symmetry in Semiconductor Quantum Wells by Crystal Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammermeier, Michael; Wenk, Paul; Schliemann, John

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the possibility of spin-preserving symmetries due to the interplay of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in n -doped zinc-blende semiconductor quantum wells of general crystal orientation. It is shown that a conserved spin operator can be realized if and only if at least two growth direction Miller indices agree in modulus. The according spin-orbit field has in general both in-plane and out-of-plane components and is always perpendicular to the shift vector of the corresponding persistent spin helix. We also analyze higher-order effects arising from the Dresselhaus term, and the impact of our results on weak (anti)localization corrections.

  7. Carrier-controlled anomalous Hall effect in an intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trodahl, H. J.; Natali, F.; Ruck, B. J.; Lambrecht, W. R. L.

    2017-09-01

    The intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor GdN offers a unique opportunity to separate the anomalous and ordinary contributions to the Hall effect, and to investigate the strength of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) as a function of carrier concentration and relaxation time. The data show an AHE that is inversely proportional to the carrier concentration n in a single spin channel. There is no dependence at all on the relaxation time τ , rather than the usual τ1 or τ2 dependencies predicted by conventional mechanisms. However, the n and τ dependencies are identical to those of the ordinary Hall effect, which suggests a semiclassical wave-packet description of an intrinsic AHE contribution that ultimately provides a quantitative agreement with the data.

  8. Using the Semiconductors Materials of InSb-ZnTe System in Sensors for Gas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubenkova, E. G.

    2017-04-01

    The samples of thin film semiconductor compounds InSb, ZnTe and solid solutions based on them were obtained by vapor deposition of components on a dielectric substrate in a vacuum, followed by annealing and their surface properties in CO, O2 and NH3 gas atmospheres were investigated. Identification of the samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction techniques. In the temperature range 253 ÷ 403 K and a pressure range of 1÷12 Pa the gas adsorption was measured by piezoelectric microbalance technique. In order to establish the basic regularities of processes flowing on samples surface in addition to the electrophisical were used Infrared and Raman spectroscopic measurements. The resulting addiction “surface property - composition” is extreme and have allowed to determine solid solution InSb0,95-ZnTe0,05 as the most sensitive to the presence of ammonia, selective and this sample exhibits a negligible oxidation of surface.

  9. Magnetism in alkali-metal-doped wurtzite semiconductor materials controlled by strain engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. H.; Li, T. H.; Liu, L. Z.; Hu, F. R.

    2016-09-01

    The study of the magnetism and optical properties of semiconductor materials by defect engineering has attracted much attention because of their potential uses in spintronic and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, first-principle calculations discloses that cationic vacancy formation energy of the doped wurtzite materials can be sharply decreased due to alkali metal dopants and shows that their magnetic properties strongly depend on defect and doping concentration. This effect can be ascribed to the volume change induced by foreign elements doped into the host system and atomic population's difference. The symmetric deformation induced by biaxial strain can further regulate this behavior. Our results suggest that the formation of cationic vacancy can be tailored by strain engineering and dopants incorporation.

  10. Ferromagnetic Control of Spin-Dependent Electron Currents in a Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sham, L. J.

    2005-03-01

    It is well known that electrons or neutrons scattered against a polarized target become polarized. This talk will show how this principle can be used in variety of ways to generate and to change a spin polarization in a current flowing in a semiconductor interfaced with one or more ferromagnets. In theory it is possible to generate a 100% polarized current or a pure spin current without charge current. The relative merits of the various configurations will be assessed. Experiment tests will be described. Possible device applications provide illustrations of the theory.Work done in collaboration with J.P. McGuire, C. Ciuti, Eric Yang, Yuchang Chen, Thomas Grange, and Ed Yu, and supported by NSF DMR 0099572, DARPA/ONR N0014-99-1-1096 and University of California Campus- Laboratories Cooperation project.

  11. Ion-beam induced atomic mixing in isotopically controlled silicon multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radek, M.; Bracht, H.; Liedke, B.; Böttger, R.; Posselt, M.

    2016-11-01

    Implantation of germanium (Ge), gallium (Ga), and arsenic (As) into crystalline and preamorphized isotopically controlled silicon (Si) multilayer structures at temperatures between 153 K and 973 K was performed to study the mechanisms mediating ion-beam induced atomic mixing. Secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry was applied to determine concentration-depth profiles of the stable isotopes before and after ion implantation. The intermixing is analytically described by a depth-dependent displacement function. The maximum displacement is found to depend not only on temperature and microstructure but also on the doping type of the implanted ion. Molecular dynamics calculations evaluate the contribution of cascade mixing, i.e., thermal-spike mixing, to the overall observed atomic mixing. Calculated and experimental results on the temperature dependence of ion-beam mixing in the amorphous and crystalline structures provide strong evidence for ion-beam induced enhanced crystallization and enhanced self-diffusion, respectively. On the other hand, the former process is confirmed by channeling Rutherford backscattering analyses of the amorphous layer thickness remaining after implantation, the latter process is consistently attributed to the formation of highly mobile Si di-interstitials formed under irradiation and in the course of damage annealing. The observed ion-beam mixing in Si is compared to recent results on ion-beam mixing of Ge isotope multilayers that, in contrast to Si, are fully described by thermal-spike mixing only.

  12. {Stable isotope probing of the physical and biological controls that influence the fate and isotopic composition of carbon derived from the terrestrial methane sink }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxfield, P. J.; Hornibrook, E. R. C.; Dildar, N.; Evershed, R. P.

    2009-04-01

    Methane oxidizing bacteria (Methanotrophs) occur in every soil order, and are an important sink for atmospheric CH4 in well aerated soils. The quantity of C cycled via methanotrophic bacteria in soils is globally significant (Le Mer et al., 2001) yet the fate of methane derived carbon remains largely unknown and unquantified. There is generally good agreement regarding the magnitude of the soil CH4 sink determined by methane flux measurements and process modeling. More poorly characterised aspects of the soil CH4 sink include: (i) the physical and biological controls that influence the mechanism of CH4 oxidation in soils; (ii) the fate of oxidized CH4 carbon; (iii) the proportion of C from CH4 oxidation that is sequestered as organic C or released as CO2 (iv) the magnitude of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) associated with high affinity methanotrophy in soils and the potential influence on the stable carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CH4. This research combines multiple stable isotope analytical approaches to investigate the magnitude, mechanism and pathways of the terrestrial methane sink. Principally 13CH4 stable isotope labeling techniques (Stable isotope probing; SIP) have been used to characterize and quantify methanotrophic populations in a range of different soils (Maxfield et al., 2006). Following 13CH4-incubations soil cores were removed for compound-specific C isotope analyses. Identification and quantification of methanotrophs was effectively achieved via the analysis of 13C-labelled phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to link bacterial structure and function. It was also possible to identify the predominant controls influencing the active methanotrophic populations in both grassland and woodland soils (Maxfield et al., 2008). SIP can be combined with further isotopic analyses to facilitate a broader study of methanotroph C uptake and CH4 derived C sequestration. As SIP facilitates taxonomic assignments of the soil microorganisms involved in CH4 C

  13. Semiconductor-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide nanostructures on silicon substrate: Applications for thermal control of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahu, G. L.; Li Voti, R.; Larciprete, M. C.; Belardini, A.; Mura, F.; Fratoddi, I.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide (VO2) film deposited on silicon wafer. The VO2 phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The temperature behaviour of the emissivity during the SMT put into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in VO2 which has been explained by applying the Maxwell Garnett effective medium approximation theory, together with a strong hysteresis phenomenon, both useful to design tunable thermal devices to be applied for the thermal control of spacecraft. We have also applied the photothermal radiometry in order to study the changes in the modulated emissivity induced by laser. Experimental results show how the use of these techniques represent a good tool for a quantitative measurement of the optothermal properties of vanadium dioxide based structures.

  14. Adhesiveless Transfer Printing of Ultrathin Microscale Semiconductor Materials by Controlling the Bending Radius of an Elastomeric Stamp.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungbum; Kim, Namyun; Song, Kwangsun; Lee, Jongho

    2016-08-09

    High-performance electronic devices integrated onto unconventional substrates provide opportunities for use in diverse applications, such as wearable or implantable forms of electronic devices. However, the interlayer adhesives between the electronic devices and substrates often limit processing temperature or cause electrical or thermal resistance at the interface. This paper introduces a very simple but effective transfer printing method that does not require an interlayer adhesive. Controlling the bending radius of a simple flat stamp enables picking up or printing of microscale semiconductor materials onto rigid, curvilinear, or flexible surfaces without the aid of a liquid adhesive. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal the underlying mechanism of the suggested approach. Adhesiveless printing of thin Si plates onto diverse substrates demonstrates the capability of this method.

  15. Semiconductor-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide nanostructures on silicon substrate: Applications for thermal control of spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Leahu, G. L. Li Voti, R. Larciprete, M. C. Belardini, A. Mura, F. Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Fratoddi, I.

    2014-06-19

    We present a detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide (VO2) film deposited on silicon wafer. The VO2 phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The temperature behaviour of the emissivity during the SMT put into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in VO2 which has been explained by applying the Maxwell Garnett effective medium approximation theory, together with a strong hysteresis phenomenon, both useful to design tunable thermal devices to be applied for the thermal control of spacecraft. We have also applied the photothermal radiometry in order to study the changes in the modulated emissivity induced by laser. Experimental results show how the use of these techniques represent a good tool for a quantitative measurement of the optothermal properties of vanadium dioxide based structures.

  16. Effective control on flat band voltage of epitaxial lanthanide oxide based metal oxide semiconductor capacitors by interfacial carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Apurba; Fissel, A.; Osten, H. J.

    2013-05-01

    Present work addresses the issue of flat band voltage instability engendered by the presence of large number of fixed charges and interface traps at and close to the interface of metal oxide semiconductor capacitors. We show that submonolayer of C incorporation onto Si surface prior to epitaxial lanthanide oxides (Ln2O3: Gd2O3, Nd2O3) deposition can significantly improve their electrical properties. Ultraviolet photoelectric spectroscopy shows that most of the intrinsic surface states that stem from the dangling bonds on Si surface disappear after passivation with C. The flat band voltage of Pt/Gd2O3/Si MOS capacitors can be tuned in a controlled manner by systematic incorporation of C onto Si surface, effectively at Gd2O3-Si interface.

  17. Semiconductor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C. (Inventor); Lagowski, Jacek (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor sensor adapted to detect with a high degree of sensitivity small magnitudes of a mechanical force, presence of traces of a gas or light. The sensor includes a high energy gap (i.e., .about. 1.0 electron volts) semiconductor wafer. Mechanical force is measured by employing a non-centrosymmetric material for the semiconductor. Distortion of the semiconductor by the force creates a contact potential difference (cpd) at the semiconductor surface, and this cpd is determined to give a measure of the force. When such a semiconductor is subjected to illumination with an energy less than the energy gap of the semiconductors, such illumination also creates a cpd at the surface. Detection of this cpd is employed to sense the illumination itself or, in a variation of the system, to detect a gas. When either a gas or light is to be detected and a crystal of a non-centrosymmetric material is employed, the presence of gas or light, in appropriate circumstances, results in a strain within the crystal which distorts the same and the distortion provides a mechanism for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the gas or the light, as the case may be.

  18. Semiconductor photoelectrochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Semiconductor photoelectrochemical reactions are investigated. A model of the charge transport processes in the semiconductor, based on semiconductor device theory, is presented. It incorporates the nonlinear processes characterizing the diffusion and reaction of charge carriers in the semiconductor. The model is used to study conditions limiting useful energy conversion, specifically the saturation of current flow due to high light intensity. Numerical results describing charge distributions in the semiconductor and its effects on the electrolyte are obtained. Experimental results include: an estimate rate at which a semiconductor photoelectrode is capable of converting electromagnetic energy into chemical energy; the effect of cell temperature on the efficiency; a method for determining the point of zero zeta potential for macroscopic semiconductor samples; a technique using platinized titanium dioxide powders and ultraviolet radiation to produce chlorine, bromine, and iodine from solutions containing their respective ions; the photoelectrochemical properties of a class of layered compounds called transition metal thiophosphates; and a technique used to produce high conversion efficiency from laser radiation to chemical energy.

  19. Dominant controls on catchment hydrological functions: what can we learn from biological and isotopic tracers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, L.; Klaus, J.; Wetzel, C. E.; Stewart, M. K.; McDonnell, J.; Martinez Carreras, N.

    2014-12-01

    One emerging and important control on catchment hydrological functions of water storage, mixing and release is bedrock geology. Until today, catchment-based work has been limited by small ranges of rock types in adjacent basins. Moreover, conventional hydrological tracer approaches suffer from limitations inherent to the large storages related to certain bedrock types (e.g. the damping of stable isotope tracer signatures in deep storage catchments and obliteration of output signals at larger spatial scales). Here, we show how a multi-tracer approach, based on terrestrial diatoms and different stable and radioactive isotopic tracers can help refining our understanding of the dominant controls on catchment hydrological functions, especially the role of bedrock geology. We present new data and results from a nested catchment set-up, located in the Alzette River basin in Luxembourg (Europe). These 16 catchments (with sizes ranging from 0.47 to 285 km2) are characterized by clean and mixed assemblages of geology and land use. We have monitored these systems since 2002, including meteorological variables (precipitation, air temperature, etc.), as well as 15 minute discharge. Additional parameters have been monitored bi-weekly and at the event time scale, including geochemical and isotopic (3H, D, 18O) tracers, as well as terrestrial diatom communities in streamwater. Our results show that water balance derived dynamic storage significantly differs across the 16 catchments and scales. Catchment mixing potential inferred from standard deviations in stream baseflow ∂D (as a proxy for the damping of isotopic signatures in precipitation), as well as tritium-derived baseflow transit times, both exhibit a significant spatial variability, but strong correlation to bedrock pemeability. Terrestrial diatom assemblages in streamwater, as a proxy for rapid flow pathway connectedness to the stream network, are highly variable across the study catchments but also show strong

  20. Stable isotope laser spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. F.; Yaldaei, Ramil; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor laser technology have produced a reliable lightweight device ideally suited for a spacecraft high resolution molecular spectrometer. Lead-salt tunable diode lasers (TDL) emit in several spectral modes, each with a very narrow linewidth of -0.0003/cm. This spectral resolution is much narrower than typical Doppler broadened molecular linewidths in the mid-IR range. Thus it is possible to detect individual rotational lines within the vibrational band and measure their intensity, which can be used to determine gas concentration. The narrow spectral lines of any impurity gas tend to lie between the narrow lines of the gas of interest. This represents a major advantage over the accepted gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) technique for measuring gas concentrations and isotope ratios. The careful and extensive gas purification procedures required to remove impurities for reliable GCMS measurements will not be required for an IR laser gas analysis. The infrared laser gas analysis technique is being developed to measure stable isotopic ratios of gases such as CO2, CH4, N2O, and NH3. This will eventually lead to development of instruments capable of in situ istopic measurements on planets such as Mars. The carbon (C-12, C-13) isotope ratio is indicative of the type of carbon fixation mechanisms (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration) in operation on a planet, while the nitrogen (N-14, N-15) isotope ratio can probably be used to date nitrogen-bearing Martian samples. The absorbance ratio of two adjacent lines of CO2 in the 2300/cm (4.3 micron) region of the spectrum was measured. The precision of the measurement is presently better than 1 percent and significant improvement is anticipated as rapid sweep-integration techniques and computer controlled data acquistion capabilities are incorporated.

  1. Extraction of gadolinium from high flux isotope reactor control plates. [Alternative method

    SciTech Connect

    Kohring, M.W.

    1987-04-01

    Gadolinium-153 is an important radioisotope used in the diagnosis of various bone disorders. Recent medical and technical developments in the detection and cure of osteoporosis, a bone disease affecting an estimated 50 million people, have greatly increased the demand for this isotope. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has produced /sup 153/Gd since 1980 primarily through the irradiation of a natural europium-oxide powder followed by the chemical separation of the gadolinium fraction from the europium material. Due to the higher demand for /sup 153/Gd, an alternative production method to supplement this process has been investigated. This process involves the extraction of gadolinium from the europium-bearing region of highly radioactive, spent control plates used at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) with a subsequent re-irradiation of the extracted material for the production of the /sup 153/Gd. Based on the results of experimental and calculational analyses, up to 25 grams of valuable gadolinium (greater than or equal to60% enriched in /sup 152/Gd) resides in the europium-bearing region of the HFIR control components of which 70% is recoverable. At a specific activity yield of 40 curies of /sup 153/Gd for each gram of gadolinium re-irradiated, 700 one-curie sources can be produced from each control plate assayed.

  2. Mineral composition control on inter-mineral iron isotopic fractionation in granitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongjie; He, Yongsheng; Bao, Leier; Zhu, Chuanwei; Li, Shuguang

    2017-02-01

    This study reports elemental and iron isotopic compositions of feldspar and its coexisting minerals from four Dabie I-type granitoids to evaluate the factors that control inter-mineral Fe isotopic fractionation in granitoids. The order of heavy iron isotope enrichment is feldspar > pyrite > magnetite > biotite ≈ hornblende. Feldspar has heavier iron isotopic compositions than its co-existing magnetite (Δ56Feplagioclase-magnetite = +0.376‰ to +1.084‰, Δ56Fealkali-feldspar-magnetite = +0.516‰ to +0.846‰), which can be attributed to its high Fe3+/Fetot ratio and low coordination number (tetrahedrally-coordinated) of Fe3+. Δ56Femagnetite-biotite of coexisting magnetite and biotite ranges from 0.090‰ to 0.246‰. Based on homogeneous major and iron isotopic compositions of mineral replicates, the inter-mineral fractionation in this study should reflect equilibrium fractionation. The large variations of inter-mineral fractionation among feldspar, magnetite and biotite cannot be simply explained by temperature variation, but strongly depend on mineral compositions. The Δ56Feplagioclase-magnetite and Δ56Fealkali-feldspar-magnetite are positively correlated with albite mode in plagioclase and orthoclase mode in alkali-feldspar, respectively. This could be explained by different Fe-O bond strength in feldspar due to different Fe3+/∑Fe or different crystal parameters. The Δ56Femagnetite-biotite increases with decreasing Fe3+/∑Febiotite and increasing mole (Na + K)/Mgbiotite, indicating a decrease of β factor in low Fe3+/∑Fe and high (Na + K)/Mg biotite. High-silica leucosomes from Dabie migmatites with a feldspar accumulation petrogenesis have higher δ56Fe values (δ56Fe = 0.42-0.567‰) than leucosome that represents pristine partial melt (δ56Fe = 0.117 ± 0.016‰), indicating that accumulation of feldspar could account for high δ56Fe values of these rocks. High δ56Fe values are also predicted for other igneous rocks that are mainly composed of

  3. pH control on oxygen isotopic composition of symbiotic corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollion-Bard, Claire; Chaussidon, Marc; France-Lanord, Christian

    2003-10-01

    Boron, carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions were determined at the micrometre scale by high-resolution ion microprobe in a sample of modern coral (massive hermatypic coral, Porites lutea). The ion probe data show for B and O much larger isotopic variations at the micrometre scale than those measured at the millimetre scale by conventional techniques: δ18OPDB values range from -10.6±0.9‰ to -0.2±0.5‰ and δ11B values range from +18.6±1.5‰ to +30.6±1.6‰. By contrast, δ13C values show the same range of variations, from -4.6±0.65‰ to -2.2±0.67‰ at the micrometre and millimetre scales. The range of δ11B values indicates that significant pH variations, from ≈7.1 to ≈9.0, are present at the sites of calcification. The largest δ18O variations correspond to the highest δ11B values, i.e. to the highest pHs. This measurement of pH allows modelling the oxygen isotopic fractionation occurring during aragonite precipitation. Taking into account the rate of O isotopic equilibrium between dissolved carbonate species (H2CO3, HCO3- and CO32-) and water via the two reactions of hydration and hydroxylation, the full range of δ18O values measured at the micrometre scale can be modelled for residence times of dissolved carbonates in the calcifying fluid ranging between ≈1 h and at maximum ≈12 h. The pH controls the δ18O of the growing carbonate through the relative fractions of dissolved carbonate species and through the kinetics of their isotopic equilibration with water via hydration and hydroxylation. The so-called 'vital effect' systematically observed for δ18O in corals can thus be understood as representing an average of rapid pH variations due to coral biology during coral growth. Selectively measuring δ18O values in the zones of coral skeletons that have low δ11B values (i.e. formed at low pH) should significantly improve the quality of palaeoclimatic reconstructions based on δ18O values.

  4. Elemental and Isotopic Incorporation into the Aragonitic Shells of Arctica Islandica: Insights from Temperature Controlled Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanamaker, A. D.; Gillikin, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The long-lived ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, is a fairly well developed and tested marine proxy archive, however, the utility of elemental ratios in A. islandica shell material as environmental proxies remains questionable. To further evaluate the influence of seawater temperature on elemental and isotopic incorporation during biomineralization, A. islandica shells were grown at constant temperatures under two regimes during a 16-week period from March 27 to July 21, 2011. Seawater from the Darling Marine Center in Walpole, Maine was pumped into temperature and flow controlled tanks that were exposed to ambient food and salinity conditions. A total of 20 individual juvenile clams with an average shell height of 36 mm were stained with calcein (a commonly used biomarker) and cultured at 10.3 ± 0.3 °C for six weeks. After this, shell heights were measured and the clams were again stained with calcein and cultured at 15.0 ± 0.4 °C for an additional 9.5 weeks. The average shell growth during the first phase of the experiment was 2.4 mm with a linear extension rate of 0.40 mm/week. The average shell growth during the second phase of the experiment was 3.2 mm with an extension rate of 0.34 mm/week. Average salinity values were 30.2 ± 0.7 and 30.7 ±0.7 in the first and second phases of the experiment, respectively. Oxygen isotopes from the cultured seawater were collected throughout the experiment and provide the basis for establishing if shells grew in oxygen isotopic equilibrium. Elemental ratios (primarily Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) in the aragonitic shells were determined via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), while stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Continuous sampling within and across the temperature conditions (from 10 °C to 15 °C) coupled with the calcein markings provides the ability to place each sample into a precise temporal framework. The

  5. Density Functional Theory Study of Controls on Equilibrium Fe Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Kubicki, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Previous molecular orbital/density functional theory (MO/DFT) calculations of Fe(III) and Fe(II) complexed with oxalate and catechol was used to predict and compare the equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation factors associated with changes to ligands bound to Fe and those associated with changes to the oxidation state of Fe. The predicted fractionation factors between Fe bound by different ligands was < 1.7‰ in vacuo and < 1.2‰ in solution. These values were consistently and significantly smaller than those for equilibrium between different oxidation states of Fe, predicted to be > 2.8‰ in vacuo and > 2.2‰ in solution. Curiously, a trend was originally found where 56Fe is partitioned into smaller ligands with lower Fe affinities and presumably weaker Fe-O bonds. This was the case for the ligands water, oxalate, and catechol, which show respectively increasing Fe affinities yet decreasing predicted 56Fe/^{54}Fe. Current research is using a model of a full siderophore to calculate the Fe isotope fractionation associated with organic complexation. Fractionation is more complicated upon the inclusion of the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB). The high affinity of DFOB for Fe(III) results in the highest predicted fractionation for 56Fe of all the complexes studied, reversing the unexpected fractionation trend mentioned above. We present the results of a detailed analysis of the bonding between Fe(III) and the ligands bound to it. We use natural bond order (NBO) analysis to show why the smaller ligands result in a larger partitioning of 56Fe to smaller ligands, and why DFOB has the highest 56Fe partitioning. This study will help elucidate the molecular controls on Fe isotope fractionation, and as such will be useful in placing experimental work in theoretical context and in helping drive future research questions. Accordingly, the implications of our results for the use of Fe isotopes as a biomarker and as a tracer of ocean redox history will be discussed, as

  6. Evaluating climate controls on isotopic shifts in high-altitude forests during the Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insel, N.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Sturm, C.; Karimova, G.

    2016-12-01

    Forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle, and influence climate through their effect on albedo and latent heat flux. Predicting the response of these ecosystems to climate change is complicated by competing influences between rising CO2, warming, and shifts in hydrology such as timing, rate, and type of precipitation. A key to detection and prediction of future regional and global changes of modern ecosystems lies in understanding the causes and characteristics of historical variations at the ecosystem level. The Last Interglacial (LIG: 130 to 116 ka) is the most recent period in Earth's history when growing season temperature exceeded those of today. In this study, we are using isotope-enabled regional climate model (REMOiso) simulations under LIG (115ka, 125 ka and 135 ka) and modern forcings to evaluate climate controls on boreal forest in the western US. In particular, we investigate (1) changes in moisture sources and moisture transport, (2) changes in the annual and seasonal extent and duration of precipitation, and (3) temperature variations to explore how ecosystem carbon and water fluxes change under coupled temperature and precipitation variability. Eemian wood samples from the Rocky Mountains in Colorado show a progressive increase in the 18O seasonal cycle that may be related to trees utilizing isotopically enriched monsoonal moisture. However, Eemian climate simulations (125ka) incorporate orbital forcings that result in stronger seasonal changes in temperature, precipitation, and snow cover in comparison to today, while annual anomalies are small. The seasonal shift in climate affects the water availability and the length of growing season for Eemian plants. Model results indicate only a very slight increase in monsoonal moisture transport from the south, resulting in slightly wetter conditions in western Colorado, but slightly drier conditions in the eastern part. Preliminary results suggest that changes in the North American

  7. Single longitudinal mode control of semiconductor lasers by rectangular conical diffractor system for wavelength-division-multiplexing transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Suzuki, N.; Itoh, K.; Fukai, M.

    1982-03-01

    A new external feedback system named the rectangular conical diffractor (RCD), which is composed of a diffraction grating and a mirror, is designed. This system has advantages for wavelength-division-multiplexing transmission systems. By using this system in both single and multimode semiconductor lasers: 1) the oscillation wavelength of a semiconductor laser can be selected freely; 2) some semiconductor lasers oscillate at different wavelengths from one another simultaneously, and no interference exists between the oscillation wavelengths under the condition that each semiconductor laser is operated independently; and 3) the selected wavelength is stable against temperature variation of the lasers.

  8. Identifying Controls on the Stable Water Isotope Composition of Precipitation in the Southwestern Yukon Using GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, R.; Moore, K.

    2007-12-01

    The goal of our work is to better understand what controls the stable water isotope (SWI) composition of precipitation in the southwestern Yukon, and in particular, to better-interpret the SWI signal from the Mount Logan ice core. To this end, we are conducting experiments with the GISS ModelE general circulation model, which is equipped with SWI diagnostics. One feature of interest in the Mt. Logan ice core record is a significant drop in d18O in the 1850's towards more depleted values. The current explanation for this shift is a transition in the North Pacific circulation towards a deeper Aleutian Low, with the stronger meridional flow bringing moisture from more southerly sources. Because of their greater arrival times, these air masses would have undergone a greater isotopic depletion than moisture from closer, colder sources under a more zonal flow regime. Although physically plausible, it is possible that the d18O drop caused by this proposed shift in circulation might be offset by warmer source evaporation conditions and integrated air mass trajectories, both of which would be associated with less depleted precipitation. To test the physical plausibility of the meridional hypothesis, we conducted numerical experiments with the NASA GISS ModelE isotopically-equipped general circulation model. In the Yukon, SWI variability is influenced, via the regional temperature, by the Pacific North America pattern and ENSO. We found that positive d18O anomalies in the SW Yukon region were in fact associated with a deeper Aleutian Low; it would appear that the effect of a longer transit time is offset by a warmer moisture transport pathway, in disagreement with the current moisture shift explanation. Our results are in agreement, however, with recent tree-ring reconstructions of the North Pacific Index, which suggest an 1850's shift towards a weaker Aleutian Low. We also found that the degree of Pacific control on the SW Yukon isotope signal is highly dependant on

  9. Photosynthetic Carbon Isotope Fractionation of the Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense: A Chemostat Investigation of Taxonomic and Physiological Controls on the Stable Carbon Isotope Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, E.; Carter, S. J.; Pearson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Interpretations of stable carbon isotope excursions in the sedimentary record are strengthened by laboratory culture studies investigating the photosynthetic carbon isotope fractionation (ɛp) of marine phytoplankton taxa with long geological records. These studies are essential for understanding organic matter δ13C signals in terms of environmental changes (e.g., atmospheric pCO2 and nutrient availability) or taxonomic changes (e.g., algal species succession and community composition). Dinoflagellates are among the most widespread and ecologically dominant primary producers in modern oceans and throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Compared to more recently evolved phytoplankton taxa, however, dinoflagellate carbon isotope fractionation has received relatively little mechanistic study. Several dilute batch culture experiments with dinoflagellates have investigated ɛp as a function of CO2 availability, but the influences of changing growth rates, nutrient limitation, pH, and irradiance require further systematic exploration. We investigated stable carbon isotope fractionation in the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense under nitrate-limited conditions in a chemostat culture system in which full DIC system parameters, including the concentration and δ13C value of CO2, were determined. Growth rates were varied between experiments, and cells were grown under continuous light. Previously reported ɛp values for seven dinoflagellate species including A. tamarense ranged from approximately -1 to 14‰ in nutrient-replete batch culture studies ([CO2] = 0-50 µmol kg-1). In contrast, in chemostat conditions we measured ɛp values on the order of 20‰ ([CO2] = 20-30 µmol kg-1). These experiments provide an initial step toward understanding the physiological controls on ɛp in dinoflagellates and illuminating the role of algal taxonomy in shaping the Phanerozoic stable carbon isotope record.

  10. Maintaining population diversity in a genetic algorithm: an example in developing control schemes for semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietman, Edward A.

    1997-10-01

    Genetic algorithms are a computational paradigm modeled after biological genetics. They allow one to efficiently search a very large optimization-space for good solutions. In this paper we report on two methods of maintaining genetic diversity in a population of organisms being acted on by a genetic algorithm. In both cases the organisms are on a square grid and only interact with their nearest neighbors. The number of interactions is based on the fitness. One method results in ecological niches in sizes from a few organisms to several dozen. In the second method almost every organism in the population remains in a unique ecological niche searching the fitness landscape. The two methods can be used in finding multiple solutions. These methods have been applied to a semiconductor manufacturing process in developing robust plasma etch recipes that reduce the variance about a target mean and allow the dc bias to drift within 15% of a nominal value. The tapered via etch process in our production environment results in an oxide film with a mean value of about 7093 angstroms and a standard deviation of 730 angstroms. In simulations using real production data and a neural network model of the process our new recipes have reduced the standard deviation below 200 angstroms. These results indicate that significant improvement in the proces can be realized by applying these techniques.

  11. Plasma instability and wave propagation in gate-controlled semiconductor conduction channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg

    2013-03-01

    The plasma wave in the conduction channel of a semiconductor heterostructure high electron mobility transistor is an electron density excitation, possible at frequencies significantly higher than the cut-off frequency in a short channel device. When the electron-electron collision limited mean free path is much smaller than the wavelength of the density variations, the electron gas in the channel can be treated as a two-dimensional fluid. The flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equation and the heat conduction equation. The quality of the plasma resonance is limited by the electron mobility and the viscosity of the electron fluid. We use the hydrodynamic model derived as the balance equations from the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation, starting with a drifted Fermi-Dirac distribution as a zero order term in the expansion of the distribution function in orders of the Knudsen number. The charge flow can become unstable because of plasma wave amplification at the boundaries. The device then can be used as a tunable source of terahertz range radiation. We show that in such configuration the charge flow also develops shock waves due to hydrodynamic nonlinearities.

  12. Silver Nanoshell Plasmonically Controlled Emission of Semiconductor Quantum Dots in the Strong Coupling Regime.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ning; Yuan, Meng; Gao, Yuhan; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2016-04-26

    Strong coupling between semiconductor excitons and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) giving rise to hybridized plexciton states in which energy is coherently and reversibly exchanged between the components is vital, especially in the area of quantum information processing from fundamental and practical points of view. Here, in photoluminescence spectra, rather than from common extinction or reflection measurements, we report on the direct observation of Rabi splitting of approximately 160 meV as an indication of strong coupling between excited states of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and LSP modes of silver nanoshells under nonresonant nanosecond pulsed laser excitation at room temperature. The strong coupling manifests itself as an anticrossing-like behavior of the two newly formed polaritons when tuning the silver nanoshell plasmon energies across the exciton line of the QDs. Further analysis substantiates the essentiality of high pump energy and collective strong coupling of many QDs with the radiative dipole mode of the metallic nanoparticles for the realization of strong coupling. Our finding opens up interesting directions for the investigation of strong coupling between LSPs and excitons from the perspective of radiative recombination under easily accessible experimental conditions.

  13. Optical control of capacitance in a metal-insulator-semiconductor diode with embedded metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Ankonina, G.; Kauffmann, Y.; Atiya, G.; Kaplan, W. D.; Padmanabhan, R.; Eisenstein, G.

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor with flat capacitance voltage characteristics and a small quadratic voltage capacitance coefficient. The device characteristics resemble a metal-insulator-metal diode except that here the capacitance depends on illumination and exhibits a strong frequency dispersion. The device incorporates Fe nanoparticles (NPs), mixed with SrF2, which are embedded in an insulator stack of SiO2 and HfO2. Positively charged Fe ions induce dipole type traps with an electronic polarization that is enhanced by photogenerated carriers injected from the substrate and/or by inter nanoparticle exchange of carriers. The obtained characteristics are compared with those of five other MIS structures: two based on Fe NPs, one with and the other without SrF2 sublayers. Additionally, devices contain Co NPs embedded in SrF2 sublayers, and finally, two structures have no NPs, with one based on a stack of SiO2 and HfO2 and the other which also includes SrF2. Only structures containing Fe NPs, which are incorporated into SrF2, yield a voltage independent capacitance, the level of which can be changed by illumination. These properties are essential in radio frequency/analog mixed signal applications.

  14. Optical control of capacitance in a metal-insulator-semiconductor diode with embedded metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mikhelashvili, V; Ankonina, G; Kauffmann, Y; Atiya, G; Kaplan, W D; Padmanabhan, R; Eisenstein, G

    2017-06-07

    This paper describes a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor with flat capacitance voltage characteristics and a small quadratic voltage capacitance coefficient. The device characteristics resemble a metal-insulator-metal diode except that here the capacitance depends on illumination and exhibits a strong frequency dispersion. The device incorporates Fe nanoparticles (NPs), mixed with SrF2, which are embedded in an insulator stack of SiO2 and HfO2. Positively charged Fe ions induce dipole type traps with an electronic polarization that is enhanced by photogenerated carriers injected from the substrate and/or by inter nanoparticle exchange of carriers. The obtained characteristics are compared with those of five other MIS structures: two based on Fe NPs, one with and the other without SrF2 sublayers. Additionally, devices contain Co NPs embedded in SrF2 sublayers, and finally, two structures have no NPs, with one based on a stack of SiO2 and HfO2 and the other which also includes SrF2. Only structures containing Fe NPs, which are incorporated into SrF2, yield a voltage independent capacitance, the level of which can be changed by illumination. These properties are essential in radio frequency/analog mixed signal applications.

  15. Controlled metal-semiconductor sintering/alloying by one-directional reverse illumination

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1993-01-01

    Metal strips deposited on a top surface of a semiconductor substrate are sintered at one temperature simultaneously with alloying a metal layer on the bottom surface at a second, higher temperature. This simultaneous sintering of metal strips and alloying a metal layer on opposite surfaces of the substrate at different temperatures is accomplished by directing infrared radiation through the top surface to the interface of the bottom surface with the metal layer where the radiation is absorbed to create a primary hot zone with a temperature high enough to melt and alloy the metal layer with the bottom surface of the substrate. Secondary heat effects, including heat conducted through the substrate from the primary hot zone and heat created by infrared radiation reflected from the metal layer to the metal strips, as well as heat created from some primary absorption by the metal strips, combine to create secondary hot zones at the interfaces of the metal strips with the top surface of the substrate. These secondary hot zones are not as hot as the primary hot zone, but they are hot enough to sinter the metal strips to the substrate.

  16. Improved defectivity and particle control for nanoimprint lithography high-volume semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Takahiro; Yonekawa, Masami; Matsuoka, Yoichi; Azuma, Hisanobu; Takabayashi, Yukio; Aghili, Ali; Mizuno, Makoto; Choi, Jin; Jones, Chris E.

    2017-03-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is cross-linked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Criteria specific to any lithographic process for the semiconductor industry include overlay, throughput and defectivity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology advancements made in the reduction of particle adders in an imprint tool. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of creating a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, test stand results demonstrate the potential for extending mask life to better than 1000 wafers.

  17. New developments in power semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper represents an overview of some recent power semiconductor developments and spotlights new technologies that may have significant impact for aircraft electric secondary power. Primary emphasis will be on NASA-Lewis-supported developments in transistors, diodes, a new family of semiconductors, and solid-state remote power controllers. Several semiconductor companies that are moving into the power arena with devices rated at 400 V and 50 A and above are listed, with a brief look at a few devices.

  18. Isotopically enhanced triple-quantum-dot qubit.

    PubMed

    Eng, Kevin; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Smith, Aaron; Borselli, Matthew G; Kiselev, Andrey A; Fong, Bryan H; Holabird, Kevin S; Hazard, Thomas M; Huang, Biqin; Deelman, Peter W; Milosavljevic, Ivan; Schmitz, Adele E; Ross, Richard S; Gyure, Mark F; Hunter, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Like modern microprocessors today, future processors of quantum information may be implemented using all-electrical control of silicon-based devices. A semiconductor spin qubit may be controlled without the use of magnetic fields by using three electrons in three tunnel-coupled quantum dots. Triple dots have previously been implemented in GaAs, but this material suffers from intrinsic nuclear magnetic noise. Reduction of this noise is possible by fabricating devices using isotopically purified silicon. We demonstrate universal coherent control of a triple-quantum-dot qubit implemented in an isotopically enhanced Si/SiGe heterostructure. Composite pulses are used to implement spin-echo type sequences, and differential charge sensing enables single-shot state readout. These experiments demonstrate sufficient control with sufficiently low noise to enable the long pulse sequences required for exchange-only two-qubit logic and randomized benchmarking.

  19. Macroporous Semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Föll, Helmut; Leisner, Malte; Cojocaru, Ala; Carstensen, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Pores in single crystalline semiconductors come in many forms (e.g., pore sizes from 2 nm to > 10 µm; morphologies from perfect pore crystal to fractal) and exhibit many unique properties directly or as nanocompounds if the pores are filled. The various kinds of pores obtained in semiconductors like Ge, Si, III-V, and II-VI compound semiconductors are systematically reviewed, emphasizing macropores. Essentials of pore formation mechanisms will be discussed, focusing on differences and some open questions but in particular on common properties. Possible applications of porous semiconductors, including for example high explosives, high efficiency electrodes for Li ion batteries, drug delivery systems, solar cells, thermoelectric elements and many novel electronic, optical or sensor devices, will be introduced and discussed.

  20. Identifying Hydrological Controls in the Lower Nelson River Basin utilizing Stable Water Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavau, C. J.; Smith, A. A.; Stadnyk, T.; Koenig, K.

    2012-12-01

    period. Conversely, the main stem of the Burntwood River system shows increased variability relative to the Nelson River and overall is more depleted (average δ18O of -12.9‰ and a standard deviation of 0.75‰). Many of the headwater tributaries to the Nelson and Burntwood River systems such as Birchtree Brook, and the Minago, Gunisao, Grass, Odei, Footprint and Sapochi Rivers show large temporal and spatial variability due to relatively smaller drainage areas and differences in typology and connectivity. For this reason, further investigation into the correlation of land cover with isotopic composition is assessed for the aforementioned tributaries to better establish the hydrological controls (i.e., sources and sinks) for each sub-basin at the mesoscale. Results signify a strong relationship between percent wetland coverage and the slope of the Local Evaporation Line (SLEL) for headwater sub-basins (R2=0.99), indicating the likelihood of enhanced evaporative enrichment for sub-basins with increased wetland coverage. The collection of SWI's within the LNRB will help to develop a comprehensive understanding of water sources and cycling in this basin with the end goal of improving hydrological forecasting tools to predict, with improved certainty, future water availability for hydroelectric power production.

  1. Enhanced coherent control of carrier and spin density in a zinc-blende semiconductor by cascaded second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Martin J.; Bhat, R. D. R.; Pan, X. Y.; van Driel, H. M.; Sipe, J. E.; Smirl, Arthur L.

    2005-05-01

    Phase- and polarization-dependent optical processes involving pulses with frequencies ω and 2ω can be used to independently control electron and spin density in zinc-blende semiconductors such as GaAs. One such process is quantum interference control (QUIC) where interference between transition amplitudes associated with one- and two-photon absorption alters the carrier/spin generation rate. A second process, which has been acknowledged but not utilized, is cascaded second-harmonic (CASH) generation in which phase-dependent upconversion/downconversion between the two pulses modulates the 2ω pulse intensity and/or polarization and hence modulates the carrier or spin generation rate by single-photon absorption at 2ω. Here we report the use of (110)-oriented GaAs /AlGaAs quantum wells with a 500-nmAlGaAs buffer layer to enhance CASH and to allow independent control of spin and carrier densities. Experiments conducted with 100-fs pulses at 775 and 1550nm or at 715 and 1430nm, with different polarization states and with different sample orientations, show how QUIC and CASH processes vary with excitation frequency and demonstrate the dominant role played by CASH. We point the way to achieving nearly 100% control through CASH.

  2. Dynamic nuclear polarization of {sup 29}Si nuclei in isotopically controlled phosphorus doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiroshi; Itahashi, Tatsumasa; Itoh, Kohei M.; Vlasenko, Leonid S.; Vlasenko, Marina P.

    2009-07-15

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of {sup 29}Si nuclei in isotopically controlled silicon single crystals with the {sup 29}Si isotope abundance f{sub 29Si} varied from 1.2% to 99.2% is reported. It was found that both the DNP enhancement and {sup 29}Si nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time under saturation of the electron paramagnetic resonance transitions of phosphorus donors increase with the decrease in the {sup 29}Si abundance. A remarkably large steady-state DNP enhancement, E{sup ss}=2680 which is comparable to the theoretical upper limit of 3310, has been achieved through the ''resolved'' solid effect that has been identified clearly in the f{sub 29Si}=1.2% sample. The DNP enhancement depends not only on the {sup 29}Si abundance but also on the electron spin-lattice relaxation time that can be controlled by temperature and/or illumination. The linewidth of {sup 29}Si NMR spectra after DNP shows a linear dependence on f{sub 29Si} for f{sub 29Si}{<=}10% and changes to a square-root dependence for f{sub 29Si}{>=}50%. Comparison of experimentally determined nuclear polarization time with nuclear spin diffusion coefficients indicates that the rate of DNP is limited by the polarization transfer rather than by spin diffusion.

  3. Edge-Controlled Mechanical Failure of Si and SiC Semiconductor Chips

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Jadaan, Osama M.; Kirkland, Timothy Philip

    2010-01-01

    Silicon (Si) and silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor chips are subjected to thermal gradients during service, have coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches with the constituents they are attached to, and are therefore subjected to thermomechanical tensile stresses that can initiate their fracture. Because of inherent brittleness, their probabilistic (Weibull) tensile failure strength was examined to understand sustainable tensile stresses and any exhibition of strength-size-scaling. Failure stress testing of entire (10-mm-square) chips was conducted using uniaxial flexure (3-point-bending) and biaxial flexure (anticlastic bending). The advantage of the anticlastic bend test is all eight primary edges are subjected to identical sinusoidal stress distribution so tensile failure stress is concurrently sensitive to edge-state quality, surface-state quality, crystallographic orientation, and any strength anisotropies of any of those. Tensile stress tolerance of both Si and SiC chips was limited by extrinsic strength-limiting flaws located at their edges and on lapped surfaces too in the case of the Si. Both materials exhibited strength-size scaling; namely, a larger chip is likely to fail at a lower tensile stress. The anticlastic bend test method was effective for evaluating edge failure stress provided surface-type strength-limiting flaws were not dominant. Edge-strength anisotropy (i.e., crystallographic orientation dependence) was observed with both the Si and SiC chips. Surface-strength anisotropy also occurred with Si chips because one side was lapped and the other polished. Lastly, the SiC chips failed at much higher tensile stresses than Si chips; however, that strength difference could be a ramification of differences in edge-slicing quality and not necessarily from intrinsic material differences.

  4. Elucidating the controls on the Mg isotopic composition of marine pore fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, P.; Fantle, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Sr and Mg isotopic composition of pore fluids and carbonates from the Neogene section of Ocean Drilling Project Site 806B are reported (87Sr/86Sr and δ26Mg, measured using a Thermo Scientific Neptune Plus multi-collector ICP-MS). Site 806B, located on the northern margin of the Ontong Java Plateau, hosts a thick (776 m cored, depth to basement ~ 1200 m), relatively continuous, carbonate-rich section (between 83 and 96% CaCO3). Our goal in the current study is to use the Sr and Mg isotope data of pore fluids and carbonates to address open questions regarding (1) the extent to which the pore fluid chemistry is overprinted by calcite recrystallization, (2) the effects of diagenesis on bulk carbonate chemistry, and (3) the likelihood of preserving secular seawater δ26Mg trends in pore fluids. Accordingly, the current study compares and contrasts the isotopic and elemental data between adjacent ODP Sites 806B and 807A, which have similar depositional histories, carbonate contents, and pore fluid chemistries. The measured 87Sr/86Sr ratios of pore fluids at 806B range smoothly from 0.70914 at 4.45 mbsf to 0.70851 at 509.3 mbsf, similar (though offset relative) to the bulk carbonate trend (0.70918 to 0.70877 between 1.11 and 501.94 mbsf). The δ26MgDSM3 of 806B pore fluids generally increases from -0.86‰ at 4.45 mbsf to -0.17‰ at 679.0 mbsf. The overall trend is consistent with previously collected δ26Mg data at 807A [1]; there is, however, a significant difference in pore fluid δ26Mg between the two sites at depths of 300 to 600 mbsf. At these depths, 806B pore fluid δ26Mg values are +0.2 to 0.3‰ relative to 807A at similar depths [1]. The application of a depositional reactive transport model to the Sr isotope data suggests that bulk carbonate recrystallization rates at 806B are similar to those at 807A (<2%/Ma) [2]. An iterative model construct is employed to evaluate the dominant controls on the δ26Mg of marine pore fluids; specifically the relative

  5. Prospects of lithium enrichment on 7Li isotope by method of controlled ions electro-migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martoyan, G. A.; Kalugin, M. M.; Gabrielyan, A. V.; Martoyan, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a new electro-membrane method of enrichment of 7Li isotope. The data are presented on the importance and application fields regarding the use of 7Li isotopes. Existing methods and criteria of separation of lithium isotopes are discussed. The principle of new technology, regimes of enrichment experiments, and analysis details of obtained products are briefly described.

  6. Importance of Electrokinetic Phenomena in Contamination Control during Semiconductor Wet Processing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Der-E.

    The adsorption of metanil yellow (3- {{4-(phenylamino) phenyl }azo} benzene sulfonate) and colloidal silica on a commercially available, positively charge-modified nylon 66 membrane (N66 Posidyne) with an isoelectric point (IEP) of 7.6 was investigated. Challenge testing of N66 Posidyne with a 2.3 ppm colloidal silica dispersion has shown that the membrane adsorbed 0.015 mug of colloidal silica per cm ^2. At a pH of 5.1, the adsorption of metanil yellow was found to increase with its solution concentration and reached a saturation value of 2.2 times 10^{14} ions/cm ^2 at a solution concentration of 1.49 times 10^{ -5}M. A technique to incorporate positively charged groups onto the surface of microporous polypropylene and polyvinylidene fluoride membrane filters for the filtration of liquids used in the semiconductor industry has been developed using gamma-irradiation. The electrical characteristics of prepared membranes were measured by streaming potential and dye challenge tests. The compatibility of these charge-modified membranes with ultrapure water was investigated. Results show that these charge-modified membranes are characterized by a positive zeta potential in the pH range from 4 to 9.3. From the dye challenge tests at a pH of 5.0, the density of positively charged sites on charge-modified membranes was calculated to be approximately five times larger than that of unmodified membranes. The modified membranes released less than 1 ppb of total organic carbon (TOC) into ultrapure water and thus appear to have potential for use in DI water system. The electrokinetic characteristics of silicon, silicon dioxide and silicon nitride wafers subjected to different cleaning procedures were measured using a streaming potential technique. A streaming potential cell for handling 5^{''} wafers was designed and fabricated to make these measurements. The isoelectric point of silicon, silicon dioxide and silicon nitride was dependent on the cleaning method. Polystyrene

  7. Controls on the stable isotopes in precipitation and surface waters across the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wei; Yao, Tandong; Xie, Shiyou; He, You

    2017-02-01

    Constraining temporal and spatial variability in water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) is requested for interpreting proxy records of paleoclimate/paleoaltimetry. The southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) receives large amounts of precipitation in both summer (JJAS) and spring (MAM) and this makes it different from most other parts of the TP where annual precipitation concentrates only in summer. However, our knowledge of controls on precipitation and surface runoff generation in this region is still far from sufficient. In this study, the δ18O and δD of precipitation and stream waters across the southeastern TP were analyzed to investigate moisture sources and empirical isotope-elevation relationships. Herein, seasonal precipitation patterns, moisture trajectories and precipitation isotopes suggest this region is seasonally dominated by the monsoon in summer and the southerlies (from the Bay of Bengal) or a mix of southerlies and westerlies in spring. Spatially, vertical variations in precipitation seasonality exert profound influences on isotopic variability for stream waters. Larger contributions of spring precipitation (with higher δ18O and d-excess (d-excess = δD-8δ18O) compared to summer precipitation) vs. summer precipitation in the surface runoff generation at lower elevations account for the uncommon altitudinal decrease in streamwater d-excess. Such a cause also contributes to the slightly greater vertical lapse rates of streamwater δ18O (-0.28 to -0.48‰/100 m) relative to the Himalayan front. In addition, although a robust δ18O-elevation relationship is demonstrated based upon our measured and other published data on a broad spatial scale (over a 5200 m elevation range), this relationship is found to deviate from the empirical/theoretical pattern in the Himalayan front, which is also caused by the substantial spring precipitation in the southeastern TP. It is suggested that long-term changes in δ18O or δD of paleowater in this region actually

  8. Quantum memory node based on a semiconductor double quantum dot in a laser-controlled optical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukanov, A. V.; Kateev, I. Yu

    2017-08-01

    The concept of a quantum node consisting of a memory qubit and a frequency convertor is proposed and analysed. The memory qubit is presented by a semiconductor four-level double quantum dot (DQD) placed in an optical microresonator (MR). The DQD contains an electron in the quantised part of the conduction band and the MR can be populated by a certain number of photons. The DQD and MR states are controlled be applying the laser and electrostatic fields. The difference between the telecommunication frequency of the photon (transport qubit) supplied to the system through a waveguide and the frequency of the electronic transition in the DQD is compensated for using an auxiliary element, i.e. a frequency convertor based on a single quantum dot (QD). This design allows the electron – photon state of the hybrid system to be controlled by an appropriate variation of the field parameters and the switching between resonance and nonresonance DQD and MR interaction regimes. As an example, a GaAs DQD placed in a microdisk MR is studied. A numerical technique for modelling an optical spectrum of a microdisk MR with an additional layer (AL) deposited on its surface is developed. Using this technique, the effect of the AL on the MR eigenmode properties is investigated and the possibility of tuning its frequency to the QD electronic transition frequency by depositing an AL on the disk surface is demonstrated.

  9. Adsorption-controlled growth of BiFeO3 by MBE and integration with wide band gap semiconductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Uecker, Reinhard , Germany); Doolittle, W. Alan; Reiche, P. , Germany); Liu, Zi-Kui; Bernhagen, Margitta , Germany); Tian, Wei; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2008-08-01

    BiFeO3 thin films have been deposited on (101) DyScO3, (0001) AlGaN/GaN, and (0001) SiC single crystal substrates by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy in an adsorption-controlled growth regime. This is achieved by supplying a bismuth over-pressure and utilizing the differential vapor pressures between bismuth oxides and BiFeO3 to control stoichiometry. Four-circle x-ray diffraction reveals phase-pure, epitaxial films with rocking curve full width at half maximum values as narrow as 7.2 arc seconds. Epitaxial growth of (0001)-oriented BiFeO3 thin films on (0001) GaN, including AlGaN HEMT structures, and (0001) SiC has been realized utilizing intervening epitaxial (111) SrTiO3/(100) TiO2 buffer layers. The epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films have two in-plane orientations: [1120] BiFeO3 [1120] GaN (SiC) plus a twin variant related by a 180{sup o} in-plane rotation. This epitaxial integration of the ferroelectric with the highest known polarization, BiFeO3, with wide band gap semiconductors is an important step toward novel field-effect devices.

  10. Lithium isotopes in speleothems: Temperature-controlled variation in silicate weathering during glacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Vaks, Anton; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Ayalon, Avner; Jacob, Ezekiel; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2017-07-01

    Terrestrial chemical weathering of silicate minerals is a fundamental component of the global cycle of carbon and other elements. Past changes in temperature, rainfall, ice cover, sea-level and physical erosion are thought to affect weathering but the relative impact of these controls through time remains poorly constrained. This problem could be addressed if the nature of past weathering could be constrained at individual sites. In this study, we investigate the use of speleothems as local recorders of the silicate weathering proxy, Li isotopes. We analysed δ7 Li and [Li] in speleothems that formed during the past 200 ka in two well-studied Israeli caves (Soreq and Tzavoa), as well as in the overlying soils and rocks. Leaching and mass balance of these soils and rocks show that Li is dominantly sourced from weathering of the overlying aeolian silicate soils. Speleothem δ7 Li values are ubiquitously higher during glacials (∼23‰) than during interglacials (∼10‰), implying more congruent silicate weathering during interglacials (where ;congruent; means a high ratio of primary mineral dissolution to secondary mineral formation). These records provide information on the processes controlling weathering in Israel. Consideration of possible processes causing this change of weathering congruency indicates a primary role for temperature, with higher temperatures causing more congruent weathering (lower δ7Lispeleo). The strong relationship observed between speleothem δ7 Li and climate at these locations suggests that Li isotopes may be a powerful tool with which to understand the local controls on weathering at other sites, and could be used to assess the distribution of weathering changes accompanying climate change, such as that of Pleistocene glacial cycles.

  11. Tropical West Pacific moisture dynamics and climate controls on rainfall isotopic ratios in southern Papua, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Donaldi S.; Thompson, Lonnie G.; Setyadi, Gesang

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the controls on stable isotopologues of tropical rainfall is critical for paleoclimatic reconstruction from tropical ice core records. The southern Papua region, Indonesia, has a unique climate regime that allows for the evaluation of the influence of precipitation and convective activity on seasonal rainfall δ18O. The influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on interannual rainfall δ18O variation is also important for paleoclimate reconstruction. Here we present stable isotope analyses of 1332 rain samples collected daily during the period from January 2013 to February 2014 (ENSO-normal) and December 2014 to September 2015 (El Niño) at various elevation stations (9 to 3945 m above sea level) on the southern slope of the central mountain ranges in Papua. The results suggest an altitude effect with an isotopic lapse rate for δ18O (δD) of -2.4‰/km (-18.2‰/km). The temporal δ18O variability (daily to interannual) is controlled mostly by regional convective activity rather than local/regional precipitation amount. The intraseasonal δ18O variation resembles the Madden-Julian Oscillation cycle with major δ18O depletion events associated with active (wet) phases. Moisture origins, transport pathways, moisture convergence, and raindrop evaporation appear to have no significant seasonal effects on δ18O, leading to the conclusion that condensation temperature controls δ18O depletion associated with convective activity. Seasonal δ18O variation is likely associated with atmospheric temperature at the mean condensation level as indicated by the altitude of latent heat release in the troposphere. Rainfall δ18O (δD) is generally enriched by 1.6‰-2‰ (11‰-15‰) during El Niño than during ENSO-normal periods.

  12. Atmospheric pCO2 control on speleothem stable carbon isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breecker, Daniel O.

    2017-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope compositions of C3 plants are controlled by the carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Ca) and by the stomatal response to water stress. These relationships permit the reconstruction of ancient environments and assessment of the water use efficiency of forests. It is currently debated whether the δ13C values of C3 plants are also controlled by atmospheric pCO2. Here I show that globally-averaged speleothem δ13C values closely track atmospheric pCO2 over the past 90 kyr. After accounting for other possible effects, this coupling is best explained by a C3 plant δ13C sensitivity of - 1.6 ± 0.3 ‰ / 100 ppmV CO2 during the Quaternary. This is consistent with 20th century European forest tree ring δ13C records, providing confidence in the result and suggesting that the modest pCO2-driven increase in water use efficiency determined for those ecosystems and simulated by land surface models accurately approximates the global average response. The δ13C signal from C3 plants is transferred to speleothems relatively rapidly. Thus, the effect of atmospheric pCO2 should be subtracted from new and existing speleothem δ13C records so that residual δ13C shifts can be interpreted in light of the other factors known to control spleleothem δ13C values. Furthermore, global average speleothem δ13C shifts may be used to develop a continuous radiometric chronology for Pleistocene atmospheric pCO2 fluctuations and, by correlation, ice core climate records.

  13. Processes controlling the chromium isotopic composition of river water: Constraints from basaltic river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, Joan; Babechuk, Michael G.; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report chromium (Cr) isotope compositions and concentrations (and additional geochemical and physicochemical data) of bedrock, soils and river waters from two geographically distinct basaltic river catchments, the Uruguay River catchment (Uruguay) and the Glenariff River catchment (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom), to investigate the processes that control Cr mobilisation and fractionation during weathering and riverine transport to the sea. Our results show that the Cr isotope compositions of soils are a function of the modal abundance and weathering rates of Cr-bearing minerals. The accumulation of weathering resistant Cr-spinels in the soils of Northern Ireland results in soils which are enriched in Cr and have δ53Cr values within the range of local bedrock (δ53Cr value of -0.21 ± 0.12‰, 2σ, n = 4). By contrast, the more easily weathered Cr-silicates in the bedrock of Uruguay results in greater Cr loss from the soil and a depletion in the heavy isotopes of Cr (with average δ53Cr value of -0.32 ± 0.04‰, 2σ, n = 4) relative to the local bedrock (δ53Cr value of -0.22 ± 0.08‰, 2σ, n = 4). The river waters in both catchments are predominantly enriched in the heavy 53Cr isotope relative to bedrock, although the range and average river water δ53Cr values differ significantly between each. The Uruguay rivers exhibit a restricted range in δ53Cr values, with a mean of +0.08 ± 0.06‰ (2σ, n = 5) that represents a positive fractionation of +0.2‰ relative to bedrock, and is best explained by the unidirectional formation of Cr(VI) during weathering that has not been significantly modified by back-reduction to Cr(III). By contrast, the Glenariff stream and river waters (Northern Ireland) exhibit a wide range in δ53Cr values from -0.17 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 4) to +1.68 ± 0.3‰ (n = 1) that appears to reflect the variable redox conditions of the catchment. In general, the values with the lowest 53Cr enrichment have higher Cr concentrations, the lowest

  14. Two-dimensional ferromagnet/semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenide contacts: p-type Schottky barrier and spin-injection control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Li-Yong; Zhang, Qingyun; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2013-12-01

    We study the ferromagnet/semiconductor contacts formed by transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, focusing on semiconducting MoS2 and WS2 and ferromagnetic VS2. We investigate the degree of p-type doping and demonstrate tuning of the Schottky barrier height by vertical compressive pressure. An analytical model is presented for the barrier heights that accurately describes the numerical findings and is expected to be of general validity for all transition metal dichalcogenide metal/semiconductor contacts. Furthermore, magnetic proximity effects induce a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level in the semiconductor where the spin splitting increases up to 0.70 eV for increasing pressure.

  15. Isotopic Clues on Factors Controlling Geochemical Fluxes From Large Watersheds in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, E.; Helie, J.; Ghaleb, B.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Gaillardet, J.

    2008-12-01

    A monitoring and monthly sampling program of the Nelson, Ottawa, St. Lawrence, La Grande and Great Whale rivers was started in September 2007. It provides information on the seasonality and sources of geochemical fluxes into the Hudson Bay and the North Atlantic from watersheds covering more than 2.6 106 km2 of the eastern Canadian boreal domain. Measurements of pH and alkalinity, analyses of major ions, strontium and dissolved silica, 2H and 18O of water, concentrations and isotopic properties of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (13C) and uranium (234U/238U) were performed. Lithology more than latitudinal climatic gradients controls the river geochemistry. Rivers draining silicate terrains show lower dissolved U concentrations but greater 234U/238U disequilibria than rivers draining carbonates (average of 1.38 vs. 1.23). Groundwater supplies might exert some control on these U- isotope signatures. No clear seasonality is observed in 234U/238U ratios, but U concentrations are correlated to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in most rivers. Rivers draining carbonates present higher total dissolved carbon concentrations and higher 13C-contents in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in response to the dissolution of soil carbonates. DOC/DIC ratios above 2.4 are observed in rivers draining silicates; their lower 13C-DIC content directly reflects the organic matter oxidation in soils. Total dissolved solids are one order of magnitude or more greater in rivers draining carbonates, showing the strong difference in chemical weathering rates according to the geological setting. The stability in chemical fluxes and water isotopic compositions in the La Grande River, which hosts hydroelectric reservoirs covering more than 12 000 km2, indicates that it is the most buffered hydrological system among the investigated watersheds. Seasonal fluctuations are observed elsewhere, with maximum geochemical fluxes during the spring snowmelt. 2H-18O content of river water

  16. Crystallographic control on the boron isotope paleo-pH proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noireaux, J.; Mavromatis, V.; Gaillardet, J.; Schott, J.; Montouillout, V.; Louvat, P.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Neuville, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    When using the boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of marine carbonates as a seawater pH proxy, it is assumed that only the tetrahedral borate ion is incorporated into the growing carbonate crystals and that no boron isotope fractionation occurs during uptake. However, the δ11B of the calcium carbonate from most modern foraminifera shells or corals skeletons is not the same as the δ11B of seawater borate, which depends on pH, an observation commonly attributed to vital effects. In this study, we combined previously published high-field 11B MAS NMR and new δ11B measurements on the same synthetic calcite and aragonite samples precipitated inorganically under controlled environments to avoid vital effects. Our results indicate that the main controlling factors of δ11B are the solution pH and the mineralogy of the precipitated carbonate mineral, whereas the aqueous boron concentration of the solution, CaCO3 precipitation rate and the presence or absence of growth seeds all appear to have negligible influence. In aragonite, the NMR data show that boron coordination is tetrahedral (BO4), in addition, its δ11B is equal to that of aqueous borate, thus confirming the paleo-pH hypothesis. In contrast, both trigonal BO3 and tetrahedral BO4 are present in calcite, and its δ11B values are higher than that of aqueous borate and are less sensitive to solution pH variations compared to δ11B in aragonite. These observations are interpreted in calcite as a reflection of the incorporation of decreasing amounts of boric acid with increasing pH. Moreover, the fraction of BO3 measured by NMR in calcite is higher than that inferred from δ11B which indicates a coordination change from BO4 to BO3 upon boron incorporation in the solid. Overall, this study shows that although the observed differences in δ11B between inorganic and biological aragonite are compatible with a pH increase at calcification sites, the B speciation and isotope composition of biological calcites call for a

  17. Controls over spatial and seasonal variations on isotopic composition of the precipitation along the central and eastern portion of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gastmans, Didier; Santos, Vinícius; Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; Gromboni, João Felipe; Batista, Ludmila Vianna; Miotlinski, Konrad; Chang, Hung Kiang; Govone, José Silvio

    2017-10-01

    Based on Global Network Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) isotopic data set, a review of the spatial and temporal variability of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in precipitation was conducted throughout central and eastern Brazil, indicating that dynamic interactions between Intertropical and South Atlantic Convergence Zones, Amazon rainforest, and Atlantic Ocean determine the variations on the isotopic composition of precipitation over this area. Despite the seasonality and latitude effects observed, a fair correlation with precipitation amount was found. In addition, Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) air mass back trajectories were used to quantify the factors controlling daily variability in stable isotopes in precipitation. Through a linear multiple regression analysis, it was observed that temporal variations were consistent with the meteorological parameters derived from HYSPLIT, particularly precipitation amount along the trajectory and mix depth, but are not dependent on vapour residence time in the atmosphere. These findings also indicate the importance of convective systems to control the isotopic composition of precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions.

  18. Point defect reduction in wide bandgap semiconductors by defect quasi Fermi level control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P.; Hoffmann, M. P.; Kaess, F.; Bryan, Z.; Bryan, I.; Bobea, M.; Klump, A.; Tweedie, J.; Kirste, R.; Mita, S.; Gerhold, M.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical framework for a general approach to reduce point defect density in materials via control of defect quasi Fermi level (dQFL) is presented. The control of dQFL is achieved via excess minority carrier generation. General guidelines for controlling dQFL that lead to a significant reduction in compensating point defects in any doped material is proposed. The framework introduces and incorporates the effects of various factors that control the efficacy of the defect reduction process such as defect level, defect formation energy, bandgap, and excess minority carrier density. Modified formation energy diagrams are proposed, which illustrate the effect of the quasi Fermi level control on the defect formation energies. These formation energy diagrams provide powerful tools to determine the feasibility and requirements to produce the desired reduction in specified point defects. An experimental study of the effect of excess minority carriers on point defect incorporation in GaN and AlGaN shows an excellent quantitative agreement with the theoretical predictions. Illumination at energies larger than the bandgap is employed as a means to generate excess minority carriers. The case studies with CN in Si doped GaN, H and VN in Mg doped GaN and VM-2ON in Si doped Al0.65Ga0.35N revealed a significant reduction in impurities in agreement with the proposed theory. Since compensating point defects control the material performance (this is particularly challenging in wide and ultra wide bandgap materials), dQFL control is a highly promising technique with wide scope and may be utilized to improve the properties of various materials systems and performance of devices based upon them.

  19. New unorthodox semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Board, K.

    1985-12-01

    A range of new semiconductor devices, including a number of structures which rely entirely upon new phenomena, are discussed. Unipolar two-terminal devices, including impurity-controlled barriers and graded composition barriers, are considered, as are new transistor structures, including the hot-electron camel transistor, the planar-doped barrier transistor, the thermionic emission transistor, and the permeable base transistor. Regenerative switching devices are addressed, including the metal-tunnel insulator-semiconductor switch, the polysilicon switch, MIS, and MISIM switching structures, and the triangular-barrier switch. Heterostructure devices are covered, including the heterojunction bipolar transistor, the selectively doped heterojunction transistor, heterojunction lasers, and quantum-well structures.

  20. Inductive equation of motion approach for a semiconductor QD-QED: coherence induced control of photon statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kabuss, Julia; Carmele, A.; Richter, M.; Chow, Weng W.; Knorr, A.

    2011-01-10

    This paper presents an inductive method for the microscopic description of quantum dot (QD) QED. Our description reproduces known effects up to an arbitrary accuracy, and is extendable to typical semiconductor effects, like many electron- and phonon-interactions. As an application, this method is used to theoretically examine quantum coherence phenomena and their impact on photon statistics for a Λ-type semiconductor QD strongly coupled to a single mode cavity and simultaneously excited with an external laser.

  1. Quantum control study of ultrafast optical responses in semiconductor quantum dot devices.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jung Y; Lin, Chien Y; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Chyi, Jen-Inn

    2014-12-15

    Two quantum control spectroscopic techniques were applied to study InAs quantum dot (QD) devices, which contain different strain-reducing layers. By adaptively control light matter interaction, a delayed resonant response from the InAs QDs was found to be encoded into the optimal phase profile of ultrafast optical pulse used. We verified the delayed resonant response to originate from excitons coupled to acoustic phonons of InAs QDs with two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy. Our study yields valuable dynamical information that can deepen our understanding of the coherent coupling process of exciton in the quantum-confined systems.

  2. Controlling the onset of OB/OM in a semiconductor quantum well system in an inverted Y-type configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheli, Ali; Hamedi, H. R.; Sahrai, M.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) is numerically investigated in a four-level inverted Y-type semiconductor quantum well (SQW) structure immersed in a unidirectional ring cavity. In the four-level SQW system under consideration, a closed loop configuration is coupled to the upper level through a tunable probe field. We show that the OB threshold intensity can be controlled via the intensity of coupling fields which gives rise to the absorption variation of the probe field. In addition, due to the existence of the closed-loop configuration, the OB and OM behaviors of the proposed SQW medium are dependent on the relative phase of the applied fields. It is found that the OB can be switched to OM or vice versa by properly adjusting the relative phase of the applied fields. The results may provide new possibilities in real experiments for realizing an all-optical switching or coding element in a solid-state platform.

  3. Structure and method for controlling band offset and alignment at a crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor interface

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2003-11-25

    A crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor structure and a process for constructing the structure involves a substrate of silicon, germanium or a silicon-germanium alloy and an epitaxial thin film overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the thin film consists of a first epitaxial stratum of single atomic plane layers of an alkaline earth oxide designated generally as (AO).sub.n and a second stratum of single unit cell layers of an oxide material designated as (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m so that the multilayer film arranged upon the substrate surface is designated (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m wherein n is an integer repeat of single atomic plane layers of the alkaline earth oxide AO and m is an integer repeat of single unit cell layers of the A'BO.sub.3 oxide material. Within the multilayer film, the values of n and m have been selected to provide the structure with a desired electrical structure at the substrate/thin film interface that can be optimized to control band offset and alignment.

  4. Theory of controlling band-width broadening in terahertz sideband generation in semiconductors by a direct current electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Houquan; Zhang, Xingchu

    2017-03-01

    In a semiconductor, optically excited electron-hole pairs, driven by a strong terahertz (THz) field, can recombine to create THz sidebands in the optical spectrum. The sideband spectrum exhibits a "plateau" up to a cutoff frequency of 3.17Up, where Up is the ponderomotive energy. In this letter, we predict that the bandwidth of this sideband spectrum plateau can be broadened by applying an additional direct-current (DC) electric field. We find that if applying a DC field of EDC=0.2ETHz (where EDC and ETHz are the amplitudes of the DC field and THz field, respectively), the sideband spectrum presents three plateaus with 5.8Up, 10.05Up and 16Up being the cutoff frequencies of the first, second and third plateaus, respectively. This bandwidth broadening occurs because the DC field can increase the kinetic energy that an electron-hole pair can gain from the THz field. This effect means that the bandwidth of the sideband spectrum can be controlled flexibly by changing the DC field, thereby facilitating the ultrafast electro-optical applications of THz sideband generation.

  5. Magnetoresistance control in granular Zn 1 - x - y CdxMnyGeAs2 nanocomposite ferromagnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilanski, L.; Fedorchenko, I. V.; Górska, M.; Ślawska-Waniewska, A.; Nedelko, N.; Podgórni, A.; Avdonin, A.; Lähderanta, E.; Dobrowolski, W.; Aronov, A. N.; Marenkin, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    We present studies of structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Zn 1 - x - y CdxMnyGeAs2 nanocomposite ferromagnetic semiconductor samples with changeable chemical composition. The presence of MnAs clusters induces the studied alloy room temperature ferromagnetism with the Curie temperature, TC, around 305 K. The chemical composition of the chalcopyrite matrix controls the geometrical parameters of the clusters, inducing different magnetoresistance effects in the crystals. The presence of ferromagnetic clusters in the alloy induces either negative or positive magnetoresistance with different values. The Cd-content allows a change of magnetoresistance sign in our samples from negative (for x ≈ 0.85 ) to positive (for x ≈ 0.12 ). The negative magnetoresistance present in the samples with x ≈ 0.85 is observed at temperatures T < 25 K with maximum values of about -32% at T = 1.4 K and B = 13 T, strongly depending on the Mn content, y. The positive magnetoresistance present in the samples with x ≈ 0.12 is observed with maximum values not exceeding 50% at B = 13 T and T = 4.3 K, changing with the Mn content, y.

  6. Controlling Axial p-n Heterojunction Abruptness Through Catalyst Alloying in Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown Semiconductor Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Perea, Daniel E.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Devaraj, Arun; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, Samuel T.

    2012-07-30

    The p-n junction can be regarded as the most important electronic structure that is responsible for the ubiquity of semiconductor microelectronics today. Efforts to continually scale down the size of electronic components is guiding research to explore the use of nanomaterials synthesized from a bottom-up approach - group-IV semiconductor nanowires being one such material. However, Au-catalyzed synthesis of Si/Si1-x-Gex semiconductor nanowire heterojunctions using the commonly-used vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth technique results in diffuse heterojunction interfaces [1], leading to doubts of producing compositionally-sharp p-n junctions using this approach. However, we have recently reported the ability to increase Ge-Si nanowire heterojunction abruptness by VLS synthesis from a Au(1-x)Ga(x) catalyst alloy as shown by EDX analysis in an SEM [2]. In this work, we have extended the use of a AuGa catalyst alloy to produce more compositionally abrupt p-n junction interfaces compared to using pure Au as directly measured by atom probe tomography. As shown in Figure 1(a-b), individual Ge-Si heterostructured nanowires were grown vertically atop Ge(111) microposts. Direct growth on the microposts provides a facile approach to nanowire analysis which circumvents the need to use FIB-based sample preparation techniques. Both nanowires grown from pure Au and a AuGa catalyst alloy were analyzed. The corresponding 3D APT reconstruction of an individual heterostructured nanowire is shown in Figure 1(c) with the corresponding materials labeled. A 1-dimensional composition profile along the analysis direction in Figure 1(d) confirms an increase in heterojunction abruptness for nanowires grown from AuGa (~10nm) compared to nanowires grown from pure Au (~65nm). Analysis of the P distribution within the Si region (Figure 1(e)) indicates that P reaches a constant distribution over approximately 10nm when incorporated through the AuGa catalyst, whereas it continually increases over 100

  7. Controlled Growth of Ultrathin Film of Organic Semiconductors by Balancing the Competitive Processes in Dip-Coating for Organic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kunjie; Li, Hongwei; Li, Liqiang; Zhang, Suna; Chen, Xiaosong; Xu, Zeyang; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Wenping; Chi, Lifeng; Gao, Xike; Meng, Yancheng

    2016-06-28

    Ultrathin film with thickness below 15 nm of organic semiconductors provides excellent platform for some fundamental research and practical applications in the field of organic electronics. However, it is quite challenging to develop a general principle for the growth of uniform and continuous ultrathin film over large area. Dip-coating is a useful technique to prepare diverse structures of organic semiconductors, but the assembly of organic semiconductors in dip-coating is quite complicated, and there are no reports about the core rules for the growth of ultrathin film via dip-coating until now. In this work, we develop a general strategy for the growth of ultrathin film of organic semiconductor via dip-coating, which provides a relatively facile model to analyze the growth behavior. The balance between the three direct factors (nucleation rate, assembly rate, and recession rate) is the key to determine the growth of ultrathin film. Under the direction of this rule, ultrathin films of four organic semiconductors are obtained. The field-effect transistors constructed on the ultrathin film show good field-effect property. This work provides a general principle and systematic guideline to prepare ultrathin film of organic semiconductors via dip-coating, which would be highly meaningful for organic electronics as well as for the assembly of other materials via solution processes.

  8. Thermodynamic Control of the Isotope Composition of Divalent Metal Cations in Aqueous Solutions and in Carbonate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, J.; Mavromatis, V.; Pearce, C. R.; Fujii, T.; Oelkers, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    The very contrasting steric and electronic properties of divalent metals dramatically affect the reactivity and composition of their aqueous species and their partitioning between fluids and minerals. These contrasting properties result also in very distinct kinetic and thermodynamic trends of their isotopic composition in aqueous fluids and carbonate minerals. For example, if alkaline earths in calcite are all enriched in light isotopes, only Mg exhibits a decrease of its isotope fractionation with increasing calcite growth rate. Moreover, the Mg2+ aquo ion is the only alkaline earth ion whose isotopic composition is markedly affected by the presence in solution of inorganic ligands like bicarbonate, carbonate or sulfate. The distinct behavior of Mg stems from the reduced lability of water molecules in its coordination sphere and from the reduction of its aquo ion coordination sphere when it coordinates to HCO3- and CO32-. Ab initio calculations show that the preferred four hydration number of Mg in stable Mg bicarbonate and Mg carbonate monomers results in a strong enrichment in 26Mg of these species compared to Mg(H2O)62+ (i.e. 1000lnβ26/24MgCO3°-1000lnβ26/24Mg2+ = 5.16 ‰; Fujii, personal communication). The analysis of recent experiments on Mg isotope fractionation between carbonate crystals and solution using density functionnal theory estimation of lnβ values from Fujii i) confirm the marked impact of carbonate and bicarbonate ligands on the isotope composition of Mg in calcite and magnesite and ii) allow to reconcile First-principles and experimental estimates of equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation in carbonate crystals. Recent experiments also confirm that the strong affinity of Zn2+ or Cu2+ for RO- ligands results in a marked impact of fluid pH, ΣCO2(aq) and/or carboxylic ligands concentrations on the isotope composition of these metals in carbonate minerals. These observations provide new insights into the parameters controlling the isotope

  9. Geological and hydrogeochemical controls on radium isotopes in groundwater of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Mahmoud I; Lin, Jiajia; Poghosyan, Armen; Abouelmagd, Abdou; Sultan, Mohamed I; Sturchio, Neil C

    2017-09-20

    Radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) were analyzed in 18 groundwater samples from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) and the shallow alluvial aquifers overlying the basement complex of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Groundwater samples from deep Nubian aquifer wells (total depths 747 to 1250m) have (226)Ra and (228)Ra activities ranging from 0.168 to 0.802 and 0.056 to 1.032Bq/L, respectively. The shallower Nubian aquifer wells (63 to 366m) have (226)Ra and (228)Ra activities ranging from 0.033 to 0.191 and 0.029 to 0.312Bq/L, respectively. The basement shallow alluvial aquifers have (226)Ra and (228)Ra activities ranging from 0.014 to 0.038 and 0.007 to 0.051Bq/L, respectively. Combined Ra activities in most wells were generally in excess of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the European Union (EU), and the World Health Organization (WHO) maximum contaminant levels (MCL) for drinking water. Radium in groundwater is produced mainly by decay of parent nuclides in the aquifer solids, and observed activities of dissolved Ra isotopes result from a combination of alpha-recoil, adsorption/desorption, co-precipitation/dissolution processes. The observed correlation between Ra activities and salinity indicates that adsorption/desorption processes may be the dominant factor controlling Ra mobility in Sinai groundwater. Radium activities in central and northern Sinai are generally higher than those in southern Sinai, consistent with a gradual increase in salinity and water-rock interaction with increasing groundwater age. Barite is approximately saturated in the groundwater and may limit maximum dissolved Ra concentration. The results of this study indicate that Sinai groundwater should be used with caution, possibly requiring Ra removal from water produced for domestic and agricultural consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Isotopic Yttrium-90-Labeled Rare Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals for Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paik, Taejong; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Mikitsh, John L; Friedberg, Joseph S; Pryma, Daniel A; Murray, Christopher B

    2015-09-22

    Isotopically labeled nanomaterials have recently attracted much attention in biomedical research, environmental health studies, and clinical medicine because radioactive probes allow the elucidation of in vitro and in vivo cellular transport mechanisms, as well as the unambiguous distribution and localization of nanomaterials in vivo. In addition, nanocrystal-based inorganic materials have a unique capability of customizing size, shape, and composition; with the potential to be designed as multimodal imaging probes. Size and shape of nanocrystals can directly influence interactions with biological systems, hence it is important to develop synthetic methods to design radiolabeled nanocrystals with precise control of size and shape. Here, we report size- and shape-controlled synthesis of rare earth fluoride nanocrystals doped with the β-emitting radioisotope yttrium-90 ((90)Y). Size and shape of nanocrystals are tailored via tight control of reaction parameters and the type of rare earth hosts (e.g., Gd or Y) employed. Radiolabeled nanocrystals are synthesized in high radiochemical yield and purity as well as excellent radiolabel stability in the face of surface modification with different polymeric ligands. We demonstrate the Cerenkov radioluminescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging capabilities of (90)Y-doped GdF3 nanoplates, which offer unique opportunities as a promising platform for multimodal imaging and targeted therapy.

  11. Climate controls on forest soil C isotope ratios in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Cooper, L.W.; Post, W.M. III; Hanson, P.J.

    2000-04-01

    A large portion of terrestrial carbon (C) resides in soil organic carbon (SOC). The dynamics of this large reservoir depend on many factors, including climate. Measurements of {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C ratios, C concentrations, and C:N ratios at six forest sites in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA) were used to explore several hypotheses concerning the relative importance of factors that control soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and SOC turnover. Mean {delta}{sup 13}C values increased with soil depth and decreasing C concentrations along a continuum from fresh litter inputs to more decomposed soil constituents. Data from the six forest sites, in combination with data from a literature review, indicate that the extent of change in {delta}{sup 13}C values from forest litter inputs to mineral soil is significantly associated with mean annual temperature. The findings support a conceptual model of vertical changes in forest soil {delta}{sup 13}C values, C concentrations, and C:N ratios that are interrelated through climate controls on decomposition. The authors hypothesize that, if other environmental factors are not limiting, then temperature and litter quality indirectly control the extent of isotopic fractionation during SOM decomposition in temperate forest ecosystems.

  12. Climate controls on forest soil C isotope ratios in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Cooper, Lee W; Post, Wilfred M; Hanson, Paul J

    2000-04-01

    A large portion of terrestrial carbon (C) resides in soil organic carbon (SOC). The dynamics of this large reservoir depend on many factors, including climate. Measurements of {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C ratios, C concentrations, and C:N ratios at six forest sites in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA) were used to explore several hypotheses concerning the relative importance of factors that control soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and SOC turnover. Mean {delta}{sup 13}C values increased with soil depth and decreasing C concentrations along a continuum from fresh litter inputs to more decomposed soil constituents. Data from the six forest sites, in combination with data from a literature review, indicate that the extent of change in {delta}{sup 13}C values from forest litter inputs to mineral soil (20 cm deep) is significantly associated with mean annual temperature. The findings support a conceptual model of vertical changes in forest soil {delta}{sup 13}C values, C concentrations, and C:N ratios that are interrelated through climate controls on decomposition. We hypothesize that, if other environmental factors (like soil moisture) are not limiting, then temperature and litter quality indirectly control the extent of isotopic fractionation during SOM decomposition in temperate forest ecosystems.

  13. A two-dimensional semiconductor transistor with boosted gate control and sensing ability

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Chen, Lin; Dai, Ya-Wei; Cao, Qian; Sun, Qing-Qing; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhu, Hao; Zhang, David Wei

    2017-01-01

    Transistors with exfoliated two-dimensional (2D) materials on a SiO2/Si substrate have been applied and have been proven effective in a wide range of applications, such as circuits, memory, photodetectors, gas sensors, optical modulators, valleytronics, and spintronics. However, these devices usually suffer from limited gate control because of the thick SiO2 gate dielectric and the lack of reliable transfer method. We introduce a new back-gate transistor scheme fabricated on a novel Al2O3/ITO (indium tin oxide)/SiO2/Si “stack” substrate, which was engineered with distinguishable optical identification of exfoliated 2D materials. High-quality exfoliated 2D materials could be easily obtained and recognized on this stack. Two typical 2D materials, MoS2 and ReS2, were implemented to demonstrate the enhancement of gate controllability. Both transistors show excellent electrical characteristics, including steep subthreshold swing (62 mV dec−1 for MoS2 and 83 mV dec−1 for ReS2), high mobility (61.79 cm2 V−1 s−1 for MoS2 and 7.32 cm2 V−1 s−1 for ReS2), large on/off ratio (~107), and reasonable working gate bias (below 3 V). Moreover, MoS2 and ReS2 photodetectors fabricated on the basis of the scheme have impressively leading photoresponsivities of 4000 and 760 A W−1 in the depletion area, respectively, and both have exceeded 106 A W−1 in the accumulation area, which is the best ever obtained. This opens up a suite of applications of this novel platform in 2D materials research with increasing needs of enhanced gate control. PMID:28560330

  14. Spin-glass behaviors in carrier polarity controlled Fe3-xTixO4 semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamahara, H.; Seki, M.; Adachi, M.; Takahashi, M.; Nasu, H.; Horiba, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Tabata, H.

    2015-08-01

    Carrier-type control of spin-glass (cluster spin-glass) is studied in order to engineer basic magnetic semiconductor elements using the memory functions of spin-glass. A key of carrier-polarity control in magnetite is the valence engineering between Fe(II) and Fe(III) that is achieved by Ti(IV) substitution. Single phases of (001)-oriented Fe3-xTixO4 thin films have been obtained on spinel MgAl2O4 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Thermoelectric power measurements reveal that Ti-rich films (x = 0.8) show p-type conduction, while Ti-poor films (x = 0.6-0.75) show n-type conduction. The systematic Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) followed by Ti(IV) substitution in the octahedral sublattice is confirmed by the X-ray absorption spectra. All of the Fe3-xTixO4 films (x = 0.6-0.8) exhibit ferrimagnetism above room temperature. Next, the spin-glass behaviors of Ti-rich Fe2.2Ti0.8O4 film are studied, since this magnetically diluted system is expected to exhibit the spin-glass behaviors. The DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements for the Ti-rich Fe2.2Ti0.8O4 film reveal the presence of the spin glass phase. Thermal- and magnetic-field-history memory effects are observed and are attributed to the long time-decay nature of remanent magnetization. The detailed analysis of the time-dependent thermoremanent magnetization reveals the presence of the cluster spin glass state.

  15. Position-controlled III-V compound semiconductor nanowire solar cells by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Takashi; Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Nakai, Eiji; Tomioka, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate position-controlled III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) by using selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and their application to solar cells. Efficiency of 4.23% is achieved for InP core-shell NW solar cells. We form a 'flexible NW array' without a substrate, which has the advantage of saving natural resources over conventional thin film photovoltaic devices. Four junction NW solar cells with over 50% efficiency are proposed and discussed.

  16. Occupational hazards control of hazardous substances in clean room of semiconductor manufacturing plant using CFD analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ya-Fei

    2015-02-01

    The manufacturing processes in chip industries are complex, and many kinds of raw materials and solvents of different nature are used, most of which are highly toxic and dangerous. During the machine preventive maintenance period, these toxic and harmful substances will escape from the sealed reaction chamber to the clean workshop environment and endanger the health of the workers on-site, resulting in occupational diseases. From the perspective of prevention, the spread and prediction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) that escaped from the metal-etching chamber during maintenance were studied in this article. The computational fluid dynamics technology was used for a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the indoor air velocity field and the HCl concentration field, and the simulation results were then compared with the on-site monitoring data to verify the correctness and feasibility. The occupational hazards and control measures were analyzed based on the numerical simulation, and the optimal control measure was obtained. In this article, using the method of ambient air to analyze the occupational exposure can provide a new idea to the field of occupational health research in the integrated circuit industry and had theoretical and practical significance.

  17. First-principles calculations reveal controlling principles for carrier mobilities in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Ning; Zhang, X.-G.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2016-11-01

    Carrier mobilities remain a key qualifying factor for materials competing for next-generation electronics. It has long been believed that carrier mobilities can be calculated using the Born approximation. Here, we introduce a parameter-free, first-principles approach based on complex-wavevector energy bands which does not invoke the Born expansion. We demonstrate that phonon-limited mobility is controlled by low-resistivity percolation paths, which arise from fluctuations that are beyond the Born approximation. We further demonstrate that, in ionized-impurity scattering, one must account for the effect of the screening charge, which cancels most of the Coulomb tail. Calculated electron mobilities in silicon are in agreement with experimental data. The method is easy to use and can provide guidance in the search for high-mobility device designs.

  18. Fine-pitch control in EB lithography for semiconductor laser grating formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisa, Yoshihiro; Minami, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Kimitaka; Takemoto, Akira; Sato, Kazuhiko; Nagahama, Kouki; Otsubo, Mutuyuki; Aiga, Masao

    1996-05-01

    Grating-pitch accuracy is studied from minimum pitch variation point of view. The pitches of the gratings delineated at the focus range from -50micrometers to +50micrometers and stitching errors between subfields are evaluated using an EB machine which features a long distance between the deflector and the wafer stage. The grating pitch variation is realized by using a deflection amplitude control. It is confirmed that errors of the pitches due to defocus are less than 0.05 nm, and the deviations from nominal setting of the pitch are also less than 0.1 nm when the pitches are varied from -6 percent to +6 percent at 0.1 percent step.

  19. Local Intermolecular Order Controls Photoinduced Charge Separation at Donor/Acceptor Interfaces in Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Feier, Hilary M.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Pace, Natalie A.; Park, Jaehong; Bergkamp, Jesse J.; Sellinger, Alan; Gust, Devens; Rumbles, Garry

    2016-03-23

    How free charge is generated at organic donor-acceptor interfaces is an important question, as the binding energy of the lowest energy (localized) charge transfer states should be too high for the electron and hole to escape each other. Recently, it has been proposed that delocalization of the electronic states participating in charge transfer is crucial, and aggregated or otherwise locally ordered structures of the donor or the acceptor are the precondition for this electronic characteristic. The effect of intermolecular aggregation of both the polymer donor and fullerene acceptor on charge separation is studied. In the first case, the dilute electron acceptor triethylsilylhydroxy-1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxyphthalocyaninatosilicon(IV) (SiPc) is used to eliminate the influence of acceptor aggregation, and control polymer order through side-chain regioregularity, comparing charge generation in 96% regioregular (RR-) poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with its regiorandom (RRa-) counterpart. In the second case, ordered phases in the polymer are eliminated by using RRa-P3HT, and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) is used as the acceptor, varying its concentration to control aggregation. Time-resolved microwave conductivity, time-resolved photoluminescence, and transient absorption spectroscopy measurements show that while ultrafast charge transfer occurs in all samples, long-lived charge carriers are only produced in films with intermolecular aggregates of either RR-P3HT or PC61BM, and that polymer aggregates are just as effective in this regard as those of fullerenes.

  20. Semiconductor technology program. Progress briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reviewed. Activities include: optical linewidth and thermal resistance measurements; device modeling; dopant density profiles; resonance ionization spectroscopy; and deep level measurements. Standardized oxide charge terminology is also described.

  1. Factors controlling carbon isotopic composition of land snail shells estimated from lab culturing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Naizhong; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2014-05-01

    Carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate is widely applied in reconstructing the C3/C4 vegetation distribution of paleo-environment, which is considered to reflect variations of some environmental parameters [1][2][3]. Land snail shell carbon has three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested carbonate (limestone) [4]. However, their relative contributions to shell carbonate have not been understood well yet [4][5][6][7][8]. More researches are necessary before we could apply this tool in paleo-environment reconstruction, especially inter-lab culturing experiment. A kind of land snail species, Acusta despecta sieboldiana, was collected at Yokohama, Japan and cultured under suitable environment to lay eggs. The second generations were growing up from eggs to adults around 6-12 months at the temperature of 20°, 25° and 30°, respectively. All of the snails at 25° and 30° and most of those at 20° were fed by cabbage (C3 plant) during their life span while others were fed by corn (C4 plant). To investigate the effect of ingested carbonate, some of them were fed by Ca3(PO4)2 powder while others were fed by CaCO3 powder. δ13C of shells were analyzed by an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Thermo Finnigan MAT 253); δ13C of food and snail tissue were measured by a Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (Picarro G1121-i). At the same time, δ13C of eggshell and new born snails were analyzed by a Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GasBench II). We confirmed that diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested limestone could be important sources controlling shell δ13C values. And the temperature could affect shell carbonate δ13C values, too. A simple but credible frame was raised to discuss the mechanism of how each possible source and environmental parameter could affect shell carbonate δ13C values based on previous works [4][6][8] and this study. According to this frame and some reasonable assumptions, we have estimated the

  2. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of stable isotopes in meteoric waters on the Tibetan Plateau: Implications for paleoelevation reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Garzione, Carmala N.

    2017-02-01

    Debates persist about the interpretations of stable isotope based proxies for the surface uplift of the central-northern Tibetan Plateau. These disputes arise from the uncertain relationship between elevation and the δ18 O values of meteoric waters, based on modern patterns of isotopes in precipitation and surface waters. We present a large river water data set (1,340 samples) covering most parts of the Tibetan Plateau to characterize the spatial variability and controlling factors of their isotopic compositions. Compared with the amount-weighted mean annual oxygen isotopic values of precipitation, we conclude that river water is a good substitute for isotopic studies of precipitation in the high flat (e.g., elevation >3,300 m) interior of the Tibetan Plateau in the mean annual timescale. We construct, for the first time based on field data, contour maps of isotopic variations of meteoric waters (δ18 O, δD and d-excess) on the Tibetan Plateau. In the marginal mountainous regions of the Plateau, especially the southern through eastern margins, the δ18 O and δD values of river waters decrease with increasing mean catchment elevation, which can be modeled as a Rayleigh distillation process. However, in the interior of the Plateau, northward increasing trends in δ18 O and δD values are pronounced and present robust linear relations; d-excess values are lower than the marginal regions and exhibit distinct contrasts between the eastern (8 ‰- 12 ‰) and western (<8‰) Plateau. We suggest that these isotopic features of river waters in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau result from the combined effects of: 1) mixing of different moisture sources transported by the South Asian monsoon and Westerly winds; 2) contribution of moisture from recycled surface water; and 3) sub-cloud evaporation. We further provide a sub-cloud evaporation modified Rayleigh distillation and mixing model to simulate the isotopic variations in the western Plateau. Results of this work

  3. Polarization Control via He-Ion Beam Induced Nanofabrication in Layered Ferroelectric Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, Alex; Iberi, Vighter; Tselev, Alexander; Susner, Michael A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Joy, David; Jesse, Stephen; Rondinone, Adam J.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-02-23

    Rapid advanced in nanoscience rely on continuous improvements of matter manipulation at near atomic scales. Currently, well characterized, robust, resist-based lithography carries the brunt of the nanofabrication process. However, use of local electron, ion and physical probe methods is also expanding, driven largely by their ability to fabricate without the multi-step preparation processes that can result in contamination from resists and solvents. Furthermore, probe based methods extend beyond nanofabrication to nanomanipulation and imaging, vital ingredients to rapid transition to prototyping and testing of layered 2D heterostructured devices. In this work we demonstrate that helium ion interaction, in a Helium Ion Microscope (HIM), with the surface of bulk copper indium thiophosphate CuMIIIP2X6 (M = Cr, In; X= S, Se), (CITP) results in the control of ferroelectric domains, and growth of cylindrical nanostructures with enhanced conductivity; with material volumes scaling with the dosage of the beam. The nanostructures are oxygen rich, sulfur poor, and with the copper concentration virtually unchanged as confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging contrast as well as Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM) measurements suggest enhanced conductivity in the formed particle, whereas Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements indicate that the produced structures have lower dissipation and a lower Young s modulus.

  4. Polarization Control via He-Ion Beam Induced Nanofabrication in Layered Ferroelectric Semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Belianinov, Alex; Iberi, Vighter; Tselev, Alexander; ...

    2016-02-23

    Rapid advanced in nanoscience rely on continuous improvements of matter manipulation at near atomic scales. Currently, well characterized, robust, resist-based lithography carries the brunt of the nanofabrication process. However, use of local electron, ion and physical probe methods is also expanding, driven largely by their ability to fabricate without the multi-step preparation processes that can result in contamination from resists and solvents. Furthermore, probe based methods extend beyond nanofabrication to nanomanipulation and imaging, vital ingredients to rapid transition to prototyping and testing of layered 2D heterostructured devices. In this work we demonstrate that helium ion interaction, in a Helium Ionmore » Microscope (HIM), with the surface of bulk copper indium thiophosphate CuMIIIP2X6 (M = Cr, In; X= S, Se), (CITP) results in the control of ferroelectric domains, and growth of cylindrical nanostructures with enhanced conductivity; with material volumes scaling with the dosage of the beam. The nanostructures are oxygen rich, sulfur poor, and with the copper concentration virtually unchanged as confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging contrast as well as Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM) measurements suggest enhanced conductivity in the formed particle, whereas Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements indicate that the produced structures have lower dissipation and a lower Young s modulus.« less

  5. Isotope selective photoionization of NaK by optimal control: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Bung, Boris; Bonacić-Koutecký, Vlasta; Sauer, Franziska; Weber, Stefan M; Wöste, Ludger; Lindinger, Albrecht

    2006-12-07

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental study of the maximization of the isotopomer ratio (23)Na(39)K(23)Na(41)K using tailored phase-only as well as amplitude and phase modulated femtosecond laser fields obtained in the framework of optimal control theory and closed loop learning (CLL) technique. A good agreement between theoretically and experimentally optimized pulse shapes is achieved which allows to assign the optimized processes directly to the pulse shapes obtained by the experimental isotopomer selective CLL approach. By analyzing the dynamics induced by the optimized pulses we show that the mechanism involving the dephasing of the wave packets between the isotopomers (23)Na (39)K and (23)Na (41)K on the first excited state is responsible for high isotope selective ionization. Amplitude and phase modulated pulses, moreover, allow to establish the connection between the spectral components of the pulse and corresponding occupied vibronic states. It will be also shown that the leading features of the theoretically shaped pulses are independent from the initial conditions. Since the underlying processes can be assigned to the individual features of the shaped pulses, we show that optimal control can be used as a tool for analysis.

  6. Optical Control of Intersubband Absorption in a Multiple Quantum Well-Embedded Semiconductor Microcravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ansheng; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Optical intersubband response of a multiple quantum well (MQW)-embedded microcavity driven by a coherent pump field is studied theoretically. The n-type doped MQW structure with three subbands in the conduction band is sandwiched between a semi-infinite medium and a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). A strong pump field couples the two upper subbands and a weak field probes the two lower subbands. To describe the optical response of the MQW-embedded microcavity, we adopt a semi-classical nonlocal response theory. Taking into account the pump-probe interaction, we derive the probe-induced current density associated with intersubband transitions from the single-particle density-matrix formalism. By incorporating the current density into the Maxwell equation, we solve the probe local field exactly by means of Green's function technique and the transfer-matrix method. We obtain an exact expression for the probe absorption coefficient of the microcavity. For a GaAs/Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)As MQW structure sandwiched between a GaAs/AlAs DBR and vacuum, we performed numerical calculations of the probe absorption spectra for different parameters such as pump intensity, pump detuning, and cavity length. We find that the probe spectrum is strongly dependent on these parameters. In particular, we find that the combination of the cavity effect and the Autler-Townes effect results in a triplet in the optical spectrum of the MQW system. The optical absorption peak value and its location can be feasibly controlled by varying the pump intensity and detuning.

  7. Ultrafast optical coherent control of individual electron and hole spins in a semiconductor quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Greve, Kristiaan

    2012-02-01

    We report on the complete optical coherent control of individual electron and hole spin qubits in InAs quantum dots. With a magnetic field in Voigt geometry, broadband, detuned optical pulses couple the spin-split ground states, resulting in Rabi flopping. In combination with the Larmor precession around the external magnetic field, this allows an arbitrary single-qubit operation to be realized in less than 20 picoseconds [1,2]. Slow fluctuations in the spin's environment lead to shot-to-shot variations in the Larmor precession frequency. In a time-ensemble measurement, these would prevent a measurement of the true decoherence of the qubit, and instead give rise to ensemble dephasing. This effect was overcome by implementing a spin echo measurement scheme for both electron and hole spins, where an optical π-pulse refocuses the spin coherence and filters out the slow variations in Larmor precession frequency. We measured coherence times up to 3 microseconds [2,3]. Finally, our optical pulse manipulation scheme allows us to probe the hyperfine interaction between the single spin and the nuclei in the quantum dot. Interesting non-Markovian dynamics could be observed in the free-induction decay of a single electron spin, whereas the complete absence of such effects illustrates the reduction of the hyperfine interaction for hole spin qubits. We measured and modeled these effects, and explain the non-Markovian electron spin dynamics as involving a feedback effect resulting from both the strong Overhauser shift of the electron spin and spin dependent nuclear relaxation [2,4]. [4pt] [1] D. Press, T. D. Ladd, B. Zhang and Y. Yamamoto, Nature 456, 218 (2008)[0pt] [2] K. De Greve, P. McMahon, D. Press et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 872 (2011)[0pt] [3] D. Press, K. De Greve, P. McMahon et al., Nat. Phot. 4, 367 (2010)[0pt] [4] T. D. Ladd, D. Press, K. De Greve et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 107401 (2010)

  8. Sulfur-controlled iron isotope fractionation experiments of core formation in planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, A.; Hillgren, V. J.; Horan, M. F.; Mesa-Garcia, J.; Kaufman, L. A.; Mock, T. D.

    2015-02-01

    A series of high pressure and temperature experiments were conducted to better constrain the Fe isotope fractionation during core-mantle differentiation in planetesimal and planetary bodies. Synthetic mixtures of oxides and metal having varying amounts of sulfur, approximating terrestrial and Martian compositions, were melted at 1-2 GPa and 1650 °C. Iron isotopic equilibrium between the resulting metal and glass run products was verified for all experiments using the three-isotope technique. Purified Fe from metal and glass was analyzed by multiple-collector ICP-MS in high resolution mode. Iron alloy and silicate glass show a well-resolved Δ57Femetal-silicate of +0.12 ± 0.04‰ in a sulfur-free system. Isotope fractionation increases with sulfur content to +0.43 ± 0.03‰ at 18 wt.% sulfur in the metal. These results cannot be easily interpreted within the context of known Fe isotope ratios in most natural samples of planetary and asteroidal mantles and therefore suggest more complex processes affected the Fe isotope fractionation therein. However, to reconcile Martian meteorite iron isotopic signatures with geophysical models using this new experimental data requires a smaller amount of sulfur in the Martian core than previous estimates, with an upper limit of ∼8 wt.%.

  9. Soils and Springs - Controls on the Isotope Hydrology of 3 Appalachian Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, M. A.; Dewalle, D. R.; McGuire, K. J.; Gburek, W. J.

    2003-12-01

    Environmental isotopes, such as O-18 and D, have been used to study hydrological processes in a variety of settings. The seasonal variations of stream baseflow isotopic composition at a catchment outlet are often used to estimate the residence time of groundwater within a catchment. Residence time models can be improved with information related to the spatial variability of baseflow isotopic composition within a catchment. This study aimed to quantify the annual variations in O-18 composition of waters within several Appalachian watersheds representative of 3 common landscape types in central Pennsylvania: the Valley and Ridge-shale (Mahantango Creek); Valley and Ridge-carbonate (Buffalo Run); and Appalachian Plateau-sandstone (Benner Run). Bi-weekly precipitation, snowmelt, soil water, and baseflow isotopic composition data were collected for the 3 catchments over one year (May 1999-May 2000). Preliminary results suggest that soils at these sites can effectively damp seasonal precipitation O-18 signals by the time they reach depths of 1.62-2.85 meters in the subsurface. This suggests that seasonal isotopic composition variations in baseflow are due to waters that drain the shallower soils within these catchments. The presence of springs was found to exert an influence on baseflow isotopic composition within each of the catchments. Two watersheds contained diffuse-fed springs, which resulted in a damping of seasonal variability of baseflow isotopic composition downstream. The remaining watershed contained a conduit spring, draining carbonate bedrock. This spring discharge resulted in an increase in seasonal variability of baseflow isotopic composition downstream. The seasonal variability of baseflow isotopic composition observed at the catchment outlets was a result of the combination of several distinct water sources: slow-draining groundwater; fast-draining near-channel groundwater; and spring discharges. An improvement in modeling of residence times of these

  10. Self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Ian D.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Nicols, Samuel P.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, John L.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Haller, Eugene E.

    2002-04-01

    Isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures were used to measure the enhancement of self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped silicon. {sup 30}Si was used as a tracer through a multilayer structure of alternating natural Si and enriched {sup 28}Si layers. Low energy, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allowed for simultaneous measurement of self- and dopant diffusion profiles of samples annealed at temperatures between 850 C and 1100 C. A specially designed ion- implanted amorphous Si surface layer was used as a dopant source to suppress excess defects in the multilayer structure, thereby eliminating transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior. Self- and dopant diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, and native defect charge states were determined from computer-aided modeling, based on differential equations describing the diffusion processes. We present a quantitative description of B diffusion enhanced self-diffusion in silicon and conclude that the diffusion of both B and Si is mainly mediated by neutral and singly positively charged self-interstitials under p-type doping. No significant contribution of vacancies to either B or Si diffusion is observed.

  11. Measurements of radioactive contaminants in semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Murray, Conal E.; McNally, Brendan D.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of alpha particles from materials used to manufacture semiconductors can contribute substantially to the single-event upset rate. The alpha particles originate from contamination in the materials, or from radioactive isotopes, themselves. In this review paper, we discuss the sources of the radioactivity and the measurement methods to detect the emitted particles.

  12. ISOTOPE CONVERSION DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of tbe type utilizing a liquid fuel and designed to convert a non-thermally fissionable isotope to a thermally fissionable isotope by neutron absorption. A tank containing a reactive composition of a thermally fissionable isotope dispersed in a liquid moderator is disposed within an outer tank containing a slurry of a non-thermally fissionable isotope convertible to a thermally fissionable isotope by neutron absorption. A control rod is used to control the chain reaction in the reactive composition and means are provided for circulating and cooling the reactive composition and slurry in separate circuits.

  13. Key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily precipitation of Costa Rica: Caribbean Sea versus Eastern Pacific Ocean moisture sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Murillo, R.; Birkel, C.; Welsh, K.; Esquivel-Hernández, G.; Corrales-Salazar, J.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Roupsard, O.; Sáenz-Rosales, O.; Katchan, I.; Arce-Mesén, R.; Soulsby, C.; Araguás-Araguás, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives moisture inputs directly from the Caribbean Sea and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This location includes unique mountainous and lowland microclimates, but only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition. Therefore, the main scope of this project is to identify the key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily-scale precipitation of Costa Rica. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ to -0.9‰ δ18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ δ18O). HYSPLIT air mass back trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of three main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet, the Colombian Low Level Jet, and localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that lifted condensation level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to a) enhance groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management, b) improve the re-construction of paleoclimatic records in the Central American land bridge, c) calibrate and validate regional circulation models.

  14. The Mo isotope oceanic redox tool: understanding the controls on the input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, D.

    2011-12-01

    Secular records of the molybdenum (Mo) isotopic composition of the oceans potentially hold information on the redox state of the past global ocean. But the full realisation of this potential requires a quantitative understanding of the nature and magnitude of the inputs to the ocean, which are dominated by rivers. Mo in the dissolved load of rivers is isotopically heavy1. Though a study of small Alpine catchments2 suggests a role for the congruent weathering of evaporites in generating heavy riverine Mo isotopes, the minor contribution of evaporites to global solute fluxes as well as their low Mo concentration means that their global role must be trivial. Moreover, a study of other small catchments in Iceland3 clearly show that Mo isotopes in the dissolved load of their rivers is isotopically heavy relative to the rocks which the rivers drain. Thus, it is clear that the Mo delivered to the oceans by rivers in the dissolved state is isotopically heavy relative to likely average continental crust1. This feature presents several problems, discussed here, for understanding global Mo isotope budgets. Firstly, the heavy dissolved load of rivers makes it very difficult to simultaneously balance both Mo abundances and isotopes in the modern oceans. Secondly, the precise processes producing heavy riverine dissolved Mo are not fully understood. Though fractionation processes in soils, and the retention of light Mo adsorbed onto secondary phases like Fe-Mn oxides is the most likely explanation, the global soil inventory is equivalent to the dissolved flux to the oceans over only a few thousand years. Thus, the ultimate repository of the complementary light Mo must be elsewhere, presumably the suspended material that is washed out of the weathering environment and deposited on ocean margins. If this is so then the third uncertainty concerns the fate of the Mo in this material. Significant release of this particulate-bound light Mo in ocean margin settings would bring the

  15. Hydrogen Isotope Fractation Between Water and Algal Lipids of Three Strains of Botryococcus braunii Under Controlled Conidtions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Sachs, J. P.

    2004-12-01

    Understanding of precipitation anomaly variations is essential to the reconstruction of paleo-El Nino at the low latitudes. In enclosed lakes, where lake level is affected by the balance between precipitation and evaporation only, water δ D reflects precipitation patterns. Freshwater algae, which utilize lake water for photosynthesis, should incorporate such signal in the hydrogen isotopes of their tissues. However, a fundamental question still exits: do algal lipid biomarkers truly record lake water hydrogen isotopic ratios? We have measured hydrogen isotope fractionation by freshwater algae Botryococcus braunii (3 strains) grown under controlled conditions in the lab. In order to establish a good relationship between lipid δ D and water δ D, for each strain we set up cultures in five waters with different δ D. δ D of alkadienes and botryococcenes of Botryococcus brauni measured on GCIRMS showed strong positive linear relation with water δ D (R2=0.99). Hydrogen isotopic ratios in the algal hydrocarbons are about 165 ‰ more negative compared to the water at the start while they are 270 ‰ more negative compared to water δ D at harvest. Such linear relationships establish a foundation for reconstructing lake water level and thus precipitation anomaly by analyzing δ D of algal lipids preserved in lake sediments.

  16. Oxygen Isotope in Phosphate an Indicator of Phosphorous Cycling in the Ocean - Controls, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.; Roberts, K.; Defforey, D.; McLaughlin, K.; Lomas, M. W.; Church, M. J.; Mackey, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    In order to better constrain the parameters affecting oxygen isotope exchange between water and phosphate via biochemical reactions a set of culture experiments were conducted. Different species of phytoplankton were grown in seawater at various temperatures, light levels, and phosphate concentrations. The oxygen isotopic composition in the phosphate source, algal cells, and the isotopic composition oxygen in the dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) were measured. Results showing the effect of species, temperature, light and P availability on intracellular oxygen isotope exchange between phosphorus compounds and water will be presented. The effect of these parameters on the utility of the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate as a tracer of phosphate utilization rate in the ocean will be discussed. This information is fundamental to any application of isotopic composition of oxygen of dissolved inorganic or organic phosphate to quantify the dynamics of phosphorus cycling in aquatic systems. The data will be utilized to investigate seasonal changes in phosphate sources and cycling in the open ocean and how these relate to phytoplankton abundance, hydrography, and nutrient concentrations.

  17. U and Sr Isotopic Distributions in Riverine Waters Collected From Taiwan Accretionary Prism: Tectonic or Climatic Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, C.; Nakamura, E.; Wong, R.; Lee, S.; Chiu, H.; Chung, S.

    2006-12-01

    Riverine U and Sr isotopic compositions are sensitive tracers for quantifying physical erosion and chemical weathering in small catchments, as well as the characteristic of lithological or hydrological source regions. More than 60 river waters collected from four major rivers and their tributaries, Danshui, Choshui, Erhjen and Kao-ping, surrounding the Taiwan orogenic belt were analyzed for Sr and U isotopes, as well as major ions and trace elements. There are large U-234/U-238 activity variations among river catchments in Taiwan. For instance, the Danshui river and the Kaoping river show similar U-234/U-238 activity ranges of 1.17-5.35 and 1.14-5.71 respectively, in contrast to much smaller variations observed in the Choshui and the Erhjen river, 1.22-2.95 and 1.22-2.48 respectively. The Sr isotopic ratio in river waters vary largely, Sr-87/Sr-86=0.709192- 0.715006, systematically become more radiogenic toward upper stream station in all catchments, except for samples affected by hot springs, mud volcano fluids and seawater mixing in estuary. Major ion ratios in river waters change dramatically in all drainage catchments, varying more than 50 and 200 times for Na/Cl and Ca/Na, respectively. Samples collected from wet and dry season display distinct variations in chemical and isotopic compositions, emphasizing shifted in weathering source regimes. It is interesting to note that the upper stream stations are characterized with large degree of U disequilibrium, as well as more radiogenic Sr isotopic signature, high Na/Cl and low Ca/Na ratios. These results were combined with available lithological, tectonic, climatic and hydrological information to decipher possible controls on chemical weathering and reaction mechanism in an active mountain building region.

  18. Study and validity of 13C stable carbon isotopic ratio analysis by mass spectrometry and 2H site-specific natural isotopic fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance isotopic measurements to characterize and control the authenticity of honey.

    PubMed

    Cotte, J F; Casabianca, H; Lhéritier, J; Perrucchietti, C; Sanglar, C; Waton, H; Grenier-Loustalot, M F

    2007-01-16

    Honey samples were analyzed by stable carbon isotopic ratio analysis by mass spectrometry (SCIRA-MS) and site-specific natural isotopic fractionation measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) to first determine their potentials for characterizing the substance and then to combat adulteration. Honey samples from several geographic and botanical origins were analyzed. The delta(13)C parameter was not significant for characterizing an origin, while the (D/H)(I) ratio could be used to differentiate certain single-flower varieties. Application of the official control method of adding a C(4) syrup (AOAC official method 998.12) to our authentic samples revealed anomalies resulting from SCIRA indices that were more negative than -1 per thousand (permil). A filtration step was added to the experimental procedure and provided results that were compliant with the natural origin of our honey samples. In addition, spiking with a C(4) syrup could be detected starting at 9-10%. The use of SNIF-NMR is limited by the detection of a syrup spike starting only at 20%, which is far from satisfying.

  19. Riverine Li isotope fractionation in the Amazon River basin controlled by the weathering regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellinger, Mathieu; Gaillardet, Jerome; Bouchez, Julien; Calmels, Damien; Louvat, Pascale; Dosseto, Anthony; Gorge, Caroline; Alanoca, Lucia; Maurice, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    We report Li isotope composition (δ7Li) of river-borne dissolved and solid material in the largest River system on Earth, the Amazon River basin, to characterize Li isotope fractionation at a continental scale. The δ7Li in the dissolved load (+1.2‰ to +32‰) is fractionated toward heavy values compared to the inferred bedrock (-1‰ to 5‰) and the suspended sediments (-6.8‰ to -0.5‰) as a result of the preferential incorporation of 6Li into secondary minerals during weathering. Despite having very contrasted weathering and erosion regimes, both Andean headwaters and lowland rivers share similar ranges of dissolved δ7Li (+1.2‰ to +18‰). Correlations between dissolved δ7Li and Li/Na and Li/Mg ratios suggest that the proportion of Li incorporated in secondary minerals during weathering act as the main control on the δ7Lidiss across the entire Amazon basin. A "batch" steady-state fractionation model for Andean and lowland rivers satisfactorily reproduces these variations, with a fractionation factor between weathering products and dissolved load (αsec-dis) of 0.983 ± 0.002. Two types of supply-limited weathering regimes can be identified for the lowlands: "clearwaters" with dominant incorporation of Li in secondary minerals, and "black waters" (e.g., Rio Negro) where dissolution of secondary minerals enhanced by organic matter produces low δ7Li. Apart from the black waters, the δ7Li of Andean and lowland rivers is negatively correlated to the denudation rates with the lowest δ7Li corresponding to the rivers having the highest denudation rates. In contrast, the main tributaries draining both the Andes and the lowlands have higher δ7Li compared to other rivers. We propose that part of the dissolved Li derived from weathering in the Andes is re-incorporated in sediments during transfer of water and sediments in floodplains and that this results in an increase of the dissolved δ7Li along the course of these rivers. Unlike other rivers, the

  20. Production of 35S for a Liquid Semiconductor Betavoltaic

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Garnov, A. Y.; Robertson, J. D.; Kwon, J. W.; Wacharasindhu, T.

    2009-10-01

    The specific energy density from radioactive decay is five to six orders of magnitude greater than the specific energy density in conventional chemical battery and fuel cell technologies. We are currently investigating the use of liquid semiconductor based betavoltaics as a way to directly convert the energy of radioactive decay into electrical power and potentially avoid the radiation damage that occurs in solid state semiconductor devices due to non-ionizing energy loss. Sulfur-35 was selected as the isotope for the liquid semiconductor demonstrations because it can be produced in high specific activity and it is chemically compatible with known liquid semiconductor media.

  1. Flatband voltage control in p-metal gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor by insertion of TiO2 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, W. J.; Kim, Woo-Hee; Koo, Ja Hoon; Lim, S. J.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Taeyoon; Kim, Hyungjun

    2010-02-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) layer was used to control the flatband voltage (VFB) of p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors. TiO2 was deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) on hafnium oxide (HfO2) gate dielectrics. Comparative studies between TiO2 and Al2O3 as capping layer have shown that improved device properties with lower capacitance equivalent thickness (CET), interface state density (Dit), and flatband voltage (VFB) shift were achieved by PE-ALD TiO2 capping layer.

  2. Present Status and Future Prospects of Quantum Information Processing: With Special Focus on Optically Controlled Semiconductor Spins and Single-Photon Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2011-10-01

    The scheme of directly controlling electron spins trapped in semiconductor quantum dots or donor impurities as qubits using optical pulses has various advantages, such as the achievements of local excitation and fast operation, low power consumption, easy implementation of an interface with optical fiber communication networks, and the capability of transferring information to nuclear spins, which are expected to serve as quantum memories with a long coherence time. In this report, I introduce the present status of the research and development of this scheme and discuss its potential application to quantum information processing.

  3. Southern Ocean control of silicon stable isotope distribution in the deep Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Gregory F.; Reynolds, Ben C.; Rickli, Jörg; Frank, Martin; Saito, Mak A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; Bourdon, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    The fractionation of silicon (Si) stable isotopes by biological activity in the surface ocean makes the stable isotope composition of silicon (δ30Si) dissolved in seawater a sensitive tracer of the oceanic biogeochemical Si cycle. We present a high-precision dataset that characterizes the δ30Si distribution in the deep Atlantic Ocean from Denmark Strait to Drake Passage, documenting strong meridional and smaller, but resolvable, vertical δ30Si gradients. We show that these gradients are related to the two sources of deep and bottom waters in the Atlantic Ocean: waters of North Atlantic and Nordic origin carry a high δ30Si signature of ≥+1.7‰ into the deep Atlantic, while Antarctic Bottom Water transports Si with a low δ30Si value of around +1.2‰. The deep Atlantic δ30Si distribution is thus governed by the quasi-conservative mixing of Si from these two isotopically distinct sources. This disparity in Si isotope composition between the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean is in marked contrast to the homogeneity of the stable nitrogen isotope composition of deep ocean nitrate (δ15N-NO3). We infer that the meridional δ30Si gradient derives from the transport of the high δ30Si signature of Southern Ocean intermediate/mode waters into the North Atlantic by the upper return path of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). The basin-scale deep Atlantic δ30Si gradient thus owes its existence to the interaction of the physical circulation with biological nutrient uptake at high southern latitudes, which fractionates Si isotopes between the abyssal and intermediate/mode waters formed in the Southern Ocean.

  4. Control of ambient pH on growth and stable isotopes in phytoplanktonic calcifying algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, Michaël.

    2015-08-01

    The present work examines the relationship between pH-induced changes in growth and stable isotopic composition of coccolith calcite in two coccolithophore species with a geological perspective. These species (Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Coccolithus pelagicus) with differing physiologies and vital effects possess a growth optimum corresponding to average pH of surface seawater in the geological period during their first known occurrence. The "ancestral" C. pelagicus has much wider pH tolerance in terms of growth rates than the more recently evolved G. oceanica. Diminished growth rates are explained by the challenge of proton translocation into the extracellular environment at low pH and enhanced aqueous CO2 limitation at high pH. Reducing the cell dynamics in this way leads to a lower degree of oxygen isotopic disequilibrium in G. oceanica. In contrast, the slower growing species C. pelagicus, which typically precipitates near-equilibrium calcite, does not show any modulation of oxygen isotope signals with changing pH. Overall, carbon and oxygen isotope compositions are best explained by the degree of utilization of the internal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool and the dynamics of isotopic reequilibration inside the cell. Thus, the "carbonate ion effect" may not apply to coccolithophores. This difference with foraminifera can be traced to different modes of DIC incorporation into these two distinct biomineralizing organisms. From a geological perspective, these findings have implications for refining the use of oxygen isotopes to infer more reliable sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from fossil carbonates and contribute to a better understanding of how climate-relevant parameters are recorded in the sedimentary archive.

  5. Copper isotope fractionation during its interaction with soil and aquatic microorganisms and metal oxy(hydr)oxides: Possible structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Emnova, E. E.; Kompantseva, E. I.; Freydier, R.

    2008-04-01

    This work is aimed at quantifying the main environmental factors controlling isotope fractionation of Cu during its adsorption from aqueous solutions onto common organic (bacteria, algae) and inorganic (oxy(hydr)oxide) surfaces. Adsorption of Cu on aerobic rhizospheric ( Pseudomonas aureofaciens CNMN PsB-03) and phototrophic aquatic ( Rhodobacter sp. f-7bl, Gloeocapsa sp. f-6gl) bacteria, uptake of Cu by marine ( Skeletonema costatum) and freshwater ( Navicula minima, Achnanthidium minutissimum and Melosira varians) diatoms, and Cu adsorption onto goethite (FeOOH) and gibbsite (AlOOH) were studied using a batch reaction as a function of pH, copper concentration in solution and time of exposure. Stable isotopes of copper in selected filtrates were measured using Neptune multicollector ICP-MS. Irreversible incorporation of Cu in cultured diatom cells at pH 7.5-8.0 did not produce any isotopic shift between the cell and solution (Δ 65/63Cu(solid-solution)) within ±0.2‰. Accordingly, no systematic variation was observed during Cu adsorption on anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria ( Rhodobacter sp.), cyanobacteria ( Gloeocapsa sp.) or soil aerobic exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria ( P. aureofaciens) in circumneutral pH (4-6.5) and various exposure times (3 min to 48 h): Δ 65Cu(solid-solution) = 0.0 ± 0.4‰. In contrast, when Cu was adsorbed at pH 1.8-3.5 on the cell surface of soil the bacterium P. aureofacienshaving abundant or poor EPS depending on medium composition, yielded a significant enrichment of the cell surface in the light isotope (Δ 65Cu (solid-solution) = -1.2 ± 0.5‰). Inorganic reactions of Cu adsorption at pH 4-6 produced the opposite isotopic offset: enrichment of the oxy(hydr)oxide surface in the heavy isotope with Δ 65Cu(solid-solution) equals 1.0 ± 0.25‰ and 0.78 ± 0.2‰ for gibbsite and goethite, respectively. The last result corroborates the recent works of Mathur et al. [Mathur R., Ruiz J., Titley S., Liermann L., Buss H. and

  6. Controls on the isotopic composition of surface water and precipitation in the Northern Andes, Colombian Eastern Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Joel E.; Mora, Andrés; Horton, Brian K.; Nie, Junsheng

    2009-12-01

    Empirical datasets provide the constraints on the variability and causes of variability in stable isotope compositions (δD or δ 18O) of surface water and precipitation that are essential not only for models of modern and past climate but also for investigations of paleoelevation. This study presents stable isotope data for 76 samples from four elevation transects and three IAEA GNIP stations in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the northern Andean foreland. These data are largely consistent with theories of stable isotope variability developed based on a global dataset. On a monthly basis, the precipitation-amount effect exerts the dominant control on δD p and δ 18O p values at the IAEA GNIP stations. At the Bogotá station (2547 m), the δD p and δ 18O p values vary seasonally, with isotopic minima correlating with maxima in precipitation-amount. Although surface water samples from Eastern Cordilleran streams and rivers fall on the Global Meteoric Water Line, samples from three of four lakes (2842-3459 m) have evaporatively elevated δD sw and δ 18O sw values. The IAEA GNIP station data averaged over multiple years, combined with stream and river water data, define vertical lapse rates of -1.8‰ km -1 for Δδ 18O and -14.6‰ km -1 for ΔδD, and are a close fit to a common thermodynamically based Rayleigh distillation model. Elevation uncertainties for these relationships are also evaluated. Comparison of this Colombian dataset with the elevation uncertainties generated by the thermodynamically based model shows that the model underestimates uncertainty at high Δδ 18O and ΔδD values while overestimating it for low Δδ 18O and ΔδD values. This study presents an independent, empirical assessment of stable isotope-based elevation uncertainties for the northern Andes based on a dataset of sufficient size to ensure statistical integrity. These vertical lapse rates and associated uncertainties form the basis for stable isotope paleoelevation studies

  7. Controls on the stable carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane produced in a tidal freshwater estaurine sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, G.B. Jr.; Martens, C.S.

    1999-04-01

    The {delta}{sup 13}C value of methane in sediments from a tidal freshwater site in the White Oak River Estuary, North Carolina, exhibited a relatively small, but consistent, seasonal variation ({approximately}3{per_thousand}) with isotopically heavier values occurring during the warmer months ({minus}66.1{per_thousand} summer, {minus}69.2{per_thousand} winter). These isotopic shifts could have resulted from changes in: (1) isotopic compositions of precursor molecules; (2) kinetic isotope effects associated with methane production; or (3) pathways of methane production. Methane production rate and isotopic data from sediment incubation experiments and field measurements were used to determine the relative contributions of these factors to the observed seasonal variations. Although changes in {delta}{sup 13}C values of biogenic methane are typically thought to result from changes in pathways of methane production, this study showed that a significant amount (36 {+-} 22%) of the seasonal variations between the {delta}{sup 13}C value of methane produced in sediment incubation experiments could be attributed to changes in the {delta}{sup 13}C value of the {Sigma}CO{sub 2} pool. This was due to increased methane production rates and removal of {sup 12}CO{sub 2} with increasing temperature, a prevalent feature of methanogenic systems that may account for some of the frequently observed {sup 13}C enrichment in methane during warmer months. Combining the change in the {delta}{sup 13}C value of the {Sigma}CO{sub 2} pool with temperature-controlled changes in fractionation ({alpha}) resulting from kinetic isotope effects accounted for (53 {+-} 22%) of the {sup 13}C enrichment observed during summer sediment incubation experiments. Although large pathway changes were not observed in sediment incubation experiments, the remaining differences in {delta}{sup 13}C values could have resulted from smaller, undetectable changes in the percentage of methane production from acetate

  8. Diffusion-controlled magnesium isotopic fractionation of a single crystal forsterite evaporated from the solid state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianhua; Davis, Andrew M.; Hashimoto, Akihiko; Clayton, Robert N.

    1993-01-01

    Though the origin of calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI's) in carbonaceous chondrites is till a disputed issue, evaporation is no doubt one of the most important processes for the formation of CAI's in the early solar nebula. The mechanism for production of large isotopic mass fractionation effects in magnesium, silicon, oxygen, and chromium in CAI's can be better understood by examining isotopic fractionation during the evaporation of minerals. New evaporation experiments were performed on single-crystal forsterite. The magnesium isotopic distribution near the evaporating surfaces of the residues using a modified AEI IM-20 ion microprobe to obtain rastered beam depth profiles was measured. A theoretical model was used to explain the profiles and allowed determination of the diffusion coefficient of Mg(++) in forsterite at higher temperatures than previous measurements. The gas/solid isotopic fractionation factor for magnesium for evaporation from solid forsterite was also determined and found to be nearly the same as that for evaporation of liquid Mg2SiO4.

  9. Tectonic controls on the long-term carbon isotope mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Graham A.; Mills, Benjamin J. W.

    2017-04-01

    The long-term, steady-state marine carbon isotope record reflects changes to the proportional burial rate of organic carbon relative to total carbon on a global scale. For this reason, times of high δ13C are conventionally interpreted to be oxygenation events caused by excess organic burial. Here we show that the carbon isotope mass balance is also significantly affected by tectonic uplift and erosion via changes to the inorganic carbon cycle that are independent of changes to the isotopic composition of carbon input. This view is supported by inverse covariance between δ13C and a range of uplift proxies, including seawater 87Sr/86Sr, which demonstrates how erosional forcing of carbonate weathering outweighs that of organic burial on geological timescales. A model of the long-term carbon cycle shows that increases in δ13C need not be associated with increased organic burial and that alternative tectonic drivers (erosion, outgassing) provide testable and plausible explanations for sustained deviations from the long-term δ13C mean. Our approach emphasizes the commonly overlooked difference between how net and gross carbon fluxes affect the long-term carbon isotope mass balance, and may lead to reassessment of the role that the δ13C record plays in reconstructing the oxygenation of earth’s surface environment.

  10. Tectonic controls on the long-term carbon isotope mass balance.

    PubMed

    Shields, Graham A; Mills, Benjamin J W

    2017-04-25

    The long-term, steady-state marine carbon isotope record reflects changes to the proportional burial rate of organic carbon relative to total carbon on a global scale. For this reason, times of high δ(13)C are conventionally interpreted to be oxygenation events caused by excess organic burial. Here we show that the carbon isotope mass balance is also significantly affected by tectonic uplift and erosion via changes to the inorganic carbon cycle that are independent of changes to the isotopic composition of carbon input. This view is supported by inverse covariance between δ(13)C and a range of uplift proxies, including seawater (87)Sr/(86)Sr, which demonstrates how erosional forcing of carbonate weathering outweighs that of organic burial on geological timescales. A model of the long-term carbon cycle shows that increases in δ(13)C need not be associated with increased organic burial and that alternative tectonic drivers (erosion, outgassing) provide testable and plausible explanations for sustained deviations from the long-term δ(13)C mean. Our approach emphasizes the commonly overlooked difference between how net and gross carbon fluxes affect the long-term carbon isotope mass balance, and may lead to reassessment of the role that the δ(13)C record plays in reconstructing the oxygenation of earth's surface environment.

  11. Diffusion-controlled magnesium isotopic fractionation of a single crystal forsterite evaporated from the solid state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianhua; Davis, Andrew M.; Hashimoto, Akihiko; Clayton, Robert N.

    1993-01-01

    Though the origin of calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI's) in carbonaceous chondrites is till a disputed issue, evaporation is no doubt one of the most important processes for the formation of CAI's in the early solar nebula. The mechanism for production of large isotopic mass fractionation effects in magnesium, silicon, oxygen, and chromium in CAI's can be better understood by examining isotopic fractionation during the evaporation of minerals. New evaporation experiments were performed on single-crystal forsterite. The magnesium isotopic distribution near the evaporating surfaces of the residues using a modified AEI IM-20 ion microprobe to obtain rastered beam depth profiles was measured. A theoretical model was used to explain the profiles and allowed determination of the diffusion coefficient of Mg(++) in forsterite at higher temperatures than previous measurements. The gas/solid isotopic fractionation factor for magnesium for evaporation from solid forsterite was also determined and found to be nearly the same as that for evaporation of liquid Mg2SiO4.

  12. Subduction Controls of Hf and Nd Isotopes in Lavas of the Aleutian Island Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Yogodzinski, Gene; Vervoort, Jeffery; Brown, Shaun Tyler; Gerseny, Megan

    2010-08-29

    The Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of 71 Quaternary lavas collected from locations along the full length of the Aleutian island arc are used to constrain the sources of Aleutian magmas and to provide insight into the geochemical behavior of Nd and Hf and related elements in the Aleutian subduction-magmatic system. Isotopic compositions of Aleutian lavas fall approximately at the center of, and form a trend parallel to, the terrestrial Hf-Nd isotopic array with {var_epsilon}{sub Hf} of +12.0 to +15.5 and {var_epsilon}{sub Nd} of +6.5 to +10.5. Basalts, andesites, and dacites within volcanic centers or in nearby volcanoes generally all have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that there is little measurable effect of crustal or other lithospheric assimilation within the volcanic plumbing systems of Aleutian volcanoes. Hafnium isotopic compositions have a clear pattern of along-arc increase that is continuous from the eastern-most locations near Cold Bay to Piip Seamount in the western-most part of the arc. This pattern is interpreted to reflect a westward decrease in the subducted sediment component present in Aleutian lavas, reflecting progressively lower rates of subduction westward as well as decreasing availability of trench sediment. Binary bulk mixing models (sediment + peridotite) demonstrate that 1-2% of the Hf in Aleutian lavas is derived from subducted sediment, indicating that Hf is mobilized out of the subducted sediment with an efficiency that is similar to that of Sr, Pb and Nd. Low published solubility for Hf and Nd in aqueous subduction fluids lead us to conclude that these elements are mobilized out of the subducted component and transferred to the mantle wedge as bulk sediment or as a silicate melt. Neodymium isotopes also generally increase from east to west, but the pattern is absent in the eastern third of the arc, where the sediment flux is high and increases from east to west, due to the presence of abundant terrigenous sediment in the

  13. Novel, band-controlled metal oxide compositions for semiconductor-mediated photocatalytic splitting of water to produce H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Narendra M.

    2013-02-05

    Semiconductor-mediated photo-catalytic dissociation of water offers a unique opportunity for the production of H{sub 2}, a sustainable source of energy. More efficient and chemically stable photo-catalysts, however, remain a vital requirement for commercial viability of this process. The recent research in my group has focused on the synthesis of several new metal oxide (MO) photo-catalysts, such as: LaInO{sub 3}, GaFeO{sub 3}, InVO{sub 4}, In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and nanotubular TiO{sub 2}. These samples of controlled grain morphology have been synthesized by using different synthesis protocols and with and without coating of a noble metal co-catalyst. The doping of an impurity, either at cationic or at anionic lattice site, has helped in the tailoring of band structure and making these oxides visible-light-sensitive. Our study has revealed that the surface characteristics, grain morphology, band structure, and doping-induced lattice imperfections control the photo-physical properties and overall photo-catalytic water splitting activity of these metal/MO composites [1-6]. We have demonstrated that, besides promoting certain charge-transfer steps, metal-semiconductor interfaces influence the adsorption of water molecules and their subsequent interaction with photo-generated electron-hole pair at the catalyst surface. The role played by the above-mentioned micro-structural properties in photo-catalytic water splitting process will be discussed.

  14. Factors controlling shell carbon isotopic composition of land snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana estimated from laboratory culturing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, N.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-10-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate derives from three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested carbonate (limestone). However, their relative contributions remain unclear. Under various environmental conditions, we cultured one land snail subspecies, Acusta despecta sieboldiana, collected from Yokohama, Japan, and confirmed that all of these sources affect shell carbonate δ13C values. Herein, we consider the influences of metabolic rates and temperature on the carbon isotopic composition of the shell carbonate. Based on results obtained from previous works and this study, a simple but credible framework is presented to illustrate how each source and environmental parameter affects shell carbonate δ13C values. According to this framework and some reasonable assumptions, we estimated the contributions of different carbon sources for each snail individual: for cabbage-fed (C3 plant) groups, the contributions of diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested limestone vary in the ranges of 66-80, 16-24, and 0-13%, respectively. For corn-fed (C4 plant) groups, because of the possible food stress (less ability to consume C4 plants), the values vary in the ranges of 56-64, 18-20, and 16-26%, respectively. Moreover, according to the literature and our observations, the subspecies we cultured in this study show preferences towards different plant species for food. Therefore, we suggest that the potential food preference should be considered adequately for some species in paleoenvironment studies. Finally, we inferred that only the isotopic exchange of the calcite-HCO3--aragonite equilibrium during egg laying and hatching of our cultured snails controls carbon isotope fractionation.

  15. Factors controlling shell carbon isotopic composition of land snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana estimated from lab culturing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, N.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-05-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate derives from three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested carbonate (limestone). However, their relative contributions remain unclear. Under various environmental conditions, we cultured one land snail species, Acusta despecta sieboldiana collected from Yokohama, Japan, and confirmed that all of these sources affect shell carbonate δ13C values. Herein, we consider the influences of metabolic rates and temperature on the carbon isotopic composition of the shell carbonate. Based on previous works and on results obtained in this study, a simple but credible framework is presented for discussion of how each source and environmental parameter can affect shell carbonate δ13C values. According to this framework and some reasonable assumptions, we have estimated the contributions of different carbon sources for each snail individual: for cabbage (C3 plant) fed groups, the contributions of diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested limestone respectively vary as 66-80%, 16-24%, and 0-13%. For corn (C4 plant) fed groups, because of the possible food stress (lower consumption ability of C4 plant), the values vary respectively as 56-64%, 18-20%, and 16-26%. Moreover, we present new evidence that snails have discrimination to choose C3 and C4 plants as food. Therefore, we suggest that food preferences must be considered adequately when applying δ13C in paleo-environment studies. Finally, we inferred that, during egg laying and hatching of our cultured snails, carbon isotope fractionation is controlled only by the isotopic exchange of the calcite-HCO3--aragonite equilibrium.

  16. Sulfur Isotopic Inferences of the Controls on Porewater Sulfate Profiles in the Northern Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, T.; Pohlman, J.; Lapham, L.; Riedel, M.; Wing, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    The flux of methane from gas hydrate bearing seeps in the marine environment is partially mitigated by the anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled with sulfate reduction. Sedimentary porewater sulfate profiles above gas hydrate deposits are frequently used to estimate the efficacy of this important microbial biofilter. However, to differentiate how other processes (e.g., sulfate reduction coupled to organic matter oxidation, sulfide re-oxidation and sulfur disproportionation) affect sulfate profiles, a complete accounting of the sulfur cycle is necessary. To this end, we have obtained the first ever measurements of minor sulfur isotopic ratios (33S/32S, 36S/32S), in conjunction with the more commonly measured 34S -32S ratio, from porewater sulfate above a gas hydrate-bearing seep. Characteristic minor isotopic fractionations, even when major isotopic fractionations are similar in magnitude, help to quantify the contributions of different microbial processes to the overall sulfur cycling in the system. Down to sediment depths of 1.5 to 4 meters, the δ34S values of porewater sulfate generally increased in association with a decrease in sulfate concentrations as would be expected for active sulfate reduction. Of greater interest, covariance between the δ34S values and measured minor isotopic fractionation suggests sulfide reoxidation and sulfur disproportionation are important components of the local sulfur cycle. We hypothesize that sulfide reoxidation is coupled to redox processes involving Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction and that the reoxidized forms of sulfur are available for additional methane oxidation. Recognizing that sulfate reduction is only one of several microbial processes controlling sulfate profiles challenges current paradigms for interpreting sulfate profiles and may alter our understanding of methane oxidation at gas hydrate-bearing seeps.

  17. The parent body controls on cosmic spherule texture: Evidence from the oxygen isotopic compositions of large micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Sonzogni, C.; Alexandre, A.; Vidal, V.; Genge, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    High-precision oxygen isotopic compositions of eighteen large cosmic spherules (>500 μm diameter) from the Atacama Desert, Chile, were determined using IR-laser fluorination - Isotope Ratio Mass spectrometry. The four discrete isotopic groups defined in a previous study on cosmic spherules from the Transantarctic Mountains (Suavet et al., 2010) were identified, confirming their global distribution. Approximately 50% of the studied cosmic spherules are related to carbonaceous chondrites, 38% to ordinary chondrites and 12% to unknown parent bodies. Approximately 90% of barred olivine (BO) cosmic spherules show oxygen isotopic compositions suggesting they are related to carbonaceous chondrites. Similarly, ∼90% porphyritic olivine (Po) cosmic spherules are related to ordinary chondrites and none can be unambiguously related to carbonaceous chondrites. Other textures are related to all potential parent bodies. The data suggests that the textures of cosmic spherules are mainly controlled by the nature of the precursor rather than by the atmospheric entry parameters. We propose that the Po texture may essentially be formed from a coarse-grained precursor having an ordinary chondritic mineralogy and chemistry. Coarse-grained precursors related to carbonaceous chondrites (i.e. chondrules) are likely to either survive atmospheric entry heating or form V-type cosmic spherules. Due to the limited number of submicron nucleation sites after total melting, ordinary chondrite-related coarse-grained precursors that suffer higher peak temperatures will preferentially form cryptocrystalline (Cc) textures instead of BO textures. Conversely, the BO textures would be mostly related to the fine-grained matrices of carbonaceous chondrites due to the wide range of melting temperatures of their constituent mineral phases, allowing the preservation of submicron nucleation sites. Independently of the nature of the precursors, increasing peak temperatures form glassy textures.

  18. Factors controlling the growth rate, carbon and oxygen isotope variation in modern calcite precipitation in a subtropical cave, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Junbing; Wang, Aoyu; Shen, Licheng; Yin, Jianjun; Yuan, Daoxian; Zhao, Heping

    2016-04-01

    A prerequisite for using cave speleothems to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions is an accurate understanding of specific factors controlling calcite growth, in particular the isotopic partitioning of oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) which are the most commonly used proxies. An in situ monitoring study from April 2008 to September 2009 at Xueyu Cave, Chongqing, SW China, provides insight into the controls on calcite growth rates, drip water composition, cave air parameters and δ18O and δ13C isotopic values of modern calcite precipitation. Both cave air PCO2 and drip water hydrochemical characteristics show obvious seasonality driven by seasonal changes in the external environment. Calcite growth rates also display clear intra-annual variation, with the lowest values occurring during wet season and peak values during the dry season. Seasonal variations of calcite growth rate are primarily controlled by variations of cave air PCO2 and drip water rate. Seasonal δ18O-VPDB and δ13C-VPDB in modern calcite precipitates vary, with more negative values in the wet season than in the dry season. Strong positive correlation of δ18O-VPDB vs. δ13C-VPDB is due to simultaneous enrichment of both isotopes in the calcite. This correlation indicates that kinetic fractionation occurs between parent drip water and depositing calcite, likely caused by the variations of cave air PCO2 and drip rate influenced by seasonal cave ventilation. Kinetic fractionation amplifies the equilibrium fractionation value of calcite δ18O (by ∼1.5‰) and δ13C (by ∼1.7‰), which quantitatively reflects surface conditions during the cave ventilation season. These results indicate that the cave monitoring of growth rate and δ18O and δ13C of modern calcite precipitation are necessary in order to use a speleothem to reconstruct palaeoenvironment.

  19. Preparation of Graphene with Graphane Areas of Controlled Hydrogen Isotope Composition on Opposite Sides.

    PubMed

    Balgar, Thorsten; Kim, Hyunil; Hasselbrink, Eckart

    2013-06-20

    Monolayer graphene was prepared on an Ir(111) substrate where it exhibits a 25 × 25 Å(2) moiré pattern. Molecular hydrogen was dosed first, allowing it to dissociate on open areas of the Ir substrate. The generated H atoms formed an intercalated reservoir that can bind to the graphene subsequently. Next, atomic hydrogen was dosed, which binds to the graphene sheet and also initiates the transfer of H from the Ir substrate to the graphene sheet. The opposite sides of the sheet can be hydrogenated with isotope selectivity, as a sequence of difference isotopes, H or D, can be chosen at will in the preparation procedure. Sum-frequency generation spectra prove that as consequence of the dosing sequence, C-H bonds are predominantly pointing toward the Ir substrate side when H2 is dosed first and alternatively toward the vacuum side when D2 is dosed first.

  20. Coherence protection by the quantum Zeno effect and nonholonomic control in a Rydberg rubidium isotope

    SciTech Connect

    Brion, E.; Akulin, V. M.; Comparat, D.; Kebaili, N.; Pillet, P.; Dumer, I.; Harel, G.; Kurizki, G.; Mazets, I.

    2005-05-15

    The protection of the coherence of open quantum systems against the influence of their environment is a very topical issue. A scheme is proposed here which protects a general quantum system from the action of a set of arbitrary uncontrolled unitary evolutions. This method draws its inspiration from ideas of standard error correction (ancilla adding, coding and decoding) and the quantum Zeno effect. A demonstration of our method on a simple atomic system--namely, a rubidium isotope--is proposed.

  1. Inter-annual Controls on Oxygen Isotopes of Precipitaion in the Asian Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Johnson, K. R.; Griffiths, M. L.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-12-01

    The complex nature of speleothem δ18O from the Asian monsoon region is a result of the varying influences of monsoon strength, moisture source region, transport history, local cave hydrology and other effects on cave dripwater δ18O. In order to provide a more robust interpretation of speleothem δ18O data from the broader Asian monsoon region, we utilize existing simulations from the isotope-enabled GCM, IsoGSM (Yoshimura el al. 2008), to investigate the climatic controls on precipitation δ18O (δ18Op) at four cave locations: Dongge Cave, China (25°17' N, 108°5' E); Tham Mai Cave, Laos (20.75 N, 102.65 E); Mawmluh Cave, India (25°15'44''N, 91°52'54''E); and Qunf Cave, Oman (17°10' N, 54°18' E). Our composite speleothem records from Laos—a key site at the interface between the Indian and East Asian monsoon systems—will be used as a case study for interpreting speleothem δ18O in the South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM) region. Our results show that δ18Op extracted from the grid point closest to four cave sites from IsoGSM shows very low correlation between δ18Op and local precipitation. δ18Op at Dongge cave reveals a negative correlation (0.4 to 0.5) with precipitation in the Bay of Bengal, suggesting that δ18Op from the East Asian monsoon area reflects upstream distillation over the Indian monsoon region. δ18Op in Laos exhibits a negative correlation with precipitation over the broad Indo-Pacific warm pool region, indicating increased convection over this area leads to more negative δ18Op over SE Asia. Given the low correlation between local precipitation and δ18Op at all four cave sites, we interpret the δ18Op at these locales as reflective of regional changes in hydroclimate, rather than local precipitation amount. In addition, δ18Op from IsoGSM at all fours sites, especially Qunf, Mawnluh, and Tham Mai cave, show a positive correlation with Pacific SSTs over the NINO3.4 region and in the western and northern Indian Ocean, suggesting that the

  2. Who controls the monthly variations of NH4+ nitrogen isotope composition in precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Long, Ai-min; Wang, Yan-Li

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen isotopes of ammonium (δ15N-NH4+) in precipitation have been analyzed, to study their monthly variations, from Oct. 2008 to Sep. 2009 at Guiyang, Southwest China. δ15N-NH4+ values were higher in winter and lower in summer showing a strong sine curve. In summer (rainy season), raindrop may remove more light ammonia by washout process, because raindrop incorporated 15NH3 preferentially while left the 14N in the atmosphere. At the same time, longer sunshine times imply more hv for producing H2SO4 of SO2 to H2SO4, which accelerates gaseous to particle conversion of NH3 to (NH4)2SO4 by unidirectional reactions for isotopic enriched 14N. The above two aspects can somewhat cause the seasonal variation of nitrogen isotopic composition, but are not the main or direct reasons. The temperature has an opposite trend with seasonal variation of δ15N values. The temperature not only causes seasonal variation of δ15N values, but also increases the volatilization rate of NH3 and microbial activities. And there is a robust linear relationship between temperature and δ15N, showing that the temperature is the main factor to decide the monthly variation of δ15N-NH4+.

  3. High performance polarization-independent Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifier with 22 dB fiber to fiber gain using Mode Propagation Tuning without additional polarization controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmani, Ali; Farhang, Mahmoud; Sheikhi, Mohammad H.

    2017-08-01

    A detailed numerical investigation of polarization-independent quantum dot InAs/GaAs semiconductor optical amplifier (PIQS) based on a technique called mode propagation tuning (MPT) without the need for the polarization controller (PC) is reported, which can solve the limitation caused by polarization sensitivity in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Our calculations show that by a suitable tuning of the thickness of the active layer, only the TE0 and TM0 modes can propagate. Moreover, the gain saturation behavior of this SOA was measured at 1.55 μ m and found to be polarization-independent (PI). At active layer thickness of 1.7 μ m, the confinement factor was 0.75 and 0.7 for TE0 and TM0 modes, respectively, which leads to a gain difference up to 0.1 dB. The rate equations of the QD-SOA were also solved and a fiber to fiber gain of 22 dB was obtained. Additionally, a numerical simulation is presented which shows that the residual gain ripple and polarization sensitivity are sufficiently reduced when residual facet reflectivities of the SOA are in the range below 10-4 . In addition, the full-width at half-maximum of the horizontal and vertical far-field patterns (FFPs) are measured as 30° × 30°. The proposed structure can be used for logical applications.

  4. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II-VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures.

  5. Geologically Controlled Isotope-Time Patterns Reveal Early Differentiation and Crust Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, V. C.; Nutman, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms of continental crust production and evolution in the early Earth remain controversial, as are questions of the relative roles of early differentiation versus subsequent tectonic procssing in creating Earth's chemical signatures. Here we present geologic observations integrated with whole rock major, trace element and Sm-Nd isotopic signatures and combined with U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic compositions of zircon populations from the same rocks, from the most extensive early rock record comprising the 3.9 Ga to 3.6 Ga terranes of southwest Greenland. These data reveal repeated patterns of formation of juvenile TTG crust and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in convergent margin settings followed by formation of more evolved granites [1]. Our new zircon Lu-Hf data from rare 3.6-3.7 Ga tonalites within the Itsaq Gneiss Complex, obtained from single component, non-migmatitic gneisses with simple zircon populations, limited within sample Hf isotopic variability and accurate U-Pb ages, now document extraction of juvenile tonalites from a near chondritic mantle source between 3.9 Ga and 3.6 Ga. The more evolved, granitic rocks in each area show slightly negative initial ɛHf in accord with crustal reworking of the older (3.8-3.9 Ga) gniesses. There is no evidence for Hadean material in the sources of the granitoids. The Hf isotope-time patterns are consistent with juvenile crust production from a mantle source that experienced only modest amounts of prior crustal extraction. They are distinct from those predicted by reprocessing of an enriched Hadean mafic crust, as has been proposed for this region [2] and for the source of the Hadean Jack Hills zircons [3]. The well-documented, time decreasing, positive 142Nd anomalies [e.g., 4] from these rocks are further evidence of crustal derivation from a convecting mantle source, rather than reworking of an enriched mafic lithosphere. The 143Nd isotopic -time patterns are more complex, reflecting the interplay

  6. Isotopic Investigation of Geologic and Anthropogenic Controls on Nutrient Loading in Malibu Creek Watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, M.; Hibbs, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The upper portion of the Malibu Creek Watershed exposes the Monterey-Modelo Formation, a Miocene marine mudstone. This formation has been thought to contribute high concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate to streams via groundwater leaching and baseflow. However, our recent studies suggest that high concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate may be dominated by dry weather runoff of imported water (tap and recycled water) from watering of urban landscapes. Our study investigates El Camino Real Creek, a tributary in the Malibu Creek Watershed that traverses Monterey-Modelo Formation strata and is fed predominantly by dry weather runoff. From an initial input at a storm drain where dry weather runoff flows consistently, hydrochemical parameters range from 1.86 to 4.66 mg/L NO3-N and 1.06 to 2.28 mg/L PO4 that decrease to concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 0.59 mg/L NO3-N and 0.40 to 0.87 mg/L PO4 where El Camino Real Creek converges with Las Virgenes Creek. The decrease in nutrient content downstream is due to the transformational processes denitrification, vegetation uptake, and mixing with groundwater baseflow containing lower nutrient content. The average water isotope values for the imported (tap and recycled) endmembers are -9.1‰ δ18O and -73‰ δD. The average water isotope values for the samples collected at the storm drain range from -6.0‰ to -8.0‰ δ18O and -56‰ to -68‰ δD while isotope values downstream range from -6.0‰ to -6.3‰ δ18O and -47‰ to -48‰ δD. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen show mixing of imported water with local groundwater downstream, which demonstrates that nutrients in this creek are not strictly dominated by geologic sources. To further understand the nutrient changes and mixing percentages of imported and local water sources, diurnal studies are being conducted with the integration of nitrate isotopes to help understand the nutrient dynamics in El Camino Real Creek.

  7. Frequency-modulated, tunable, semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based fiber ring laser for linewidth and line shape control.

    PubMed

    Girard, Simon Lambert; Chen, Hongxin; Schinn, Gregory W; Piché, Michel

    2008-08-15

    We report how the linewidth and line shape of a tunable semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based fiber ring laser can be actively adjusted by applying an intracavity frequency modulation to the laser. Frequency-modulated laser operation is achieved by driving the phase modulator frequency close to the cavity axial-mode spacing, leading to a constant-amplitude laser output having a periodically varying instantaneous frequency. The resulting linewidth varies proportionally with the inverse of the frequency detuning, and it is adjustable from submegahertz to over more than 5 GHz. By appropriate selection of the modulating waveform we have synthesized a near-Gaussian output line shape; other line shapes can be produced by modifying the modulating waveform. Experimental observations are in good agreement with a simple model.

  8. Agile dry etching of compound semiconductors for science-based manufacturing using in-situ process control

    SciTech Connect

    ASHBY,CAROL I.; VAWTER,GREGORY A.; BREILAND,WILLIAM G.; BRUSKAS,LARRY A.; WOODWORTH,JOSEPH R.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.

    2000-02-01

    In-situ optical diagnostics and ion beam diagnostics for plasma-etch and reactive-ion-beam etch (RIBE) tools have been developed and implemented on etch tools in the Compound Semiconductor Research Laboratory (CSRL). The optical diagnostics provide real-time end-point detection during plasma etching of complex thin-film layered structures that require precision etching to stop on a particular layer in the structure. The Monoetch real-time display and analysis program developed with this LDRD displays raw and filtered reflectance signals that enable an etch system operator to stop an etch at the desired depth within the desired layer. The ion beam diagnostics developed with this LDRD will permit routine analysis of critical ion-beam profile characteristics that determine etch uniformity and reproducibility on the RIBE tool.

  9. Biological and land use controls on the isotopic composition of aquatic carbon in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Britta; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Aiken, George R.; Striegl, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Riverine ecosystems receive organic matter (OM) from terrestrial sources, internally produce new OM, and biogeochemically cycle and modify organic and inorganic carbon. Major gaps remain in the understanding of the relationships between carbon sources and processing in river systems. Here we synthesize isotopic, elemental, and molecular properties of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) system above Wabasha, MN, including the main stem Mississippi River and its four major tributaries (Minnesota, upper Mississippi, St. Croix, and Chippewa Rivers). Our goal was to elucidate how biological processing modifies the chemical and isotopic composition of aquatic carbon pools during transport downstream in a large river system with natural and man-made impoundments. Relationships between land cover and DOC carbon-isotope composition, absorbance, and hydrophobic acid content indicate that DOC retains terrestrial carbon source information, while the terrestrial POC signal is largely replaced by autochthonous organic matter, and DIC integrates the influence of in-stream photosynthesis and respiration of organic matter. The UMR is slightly heterotrophic throughout the year, but pools formed by low-head navigation dams and natural impoundments promote a shift towards autotrophic conditions, altering aquatic ecosystem dynamics and POC and DIC composition. Such changes likely occur in all major river systems affected by low-head dams and need to be incorporated into our understanding of inland water carbon dynamics and processes controlling CO2 emissions from rivers, as new navigation and flood control systems are planned for future river and water resources management.

  10. Reverse Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Demonstrate That Surface Passivation Controls Thermal Transport at Semiconductor-Solvent Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Daniel C; Gezelter, J Daniel; Schaller, Richard D; Schatz, George C

    2015-06-23

    We examine the role played by surface structure and passivation in thermal transport at semiconductor/organic interfaces. Such interfaces dominate thermal transport in semiconductor nanomaterials owing to material dimensions much smaller than the bulk phonon mean free path. Utilizing reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we calculate the interfacial thermal conductance (G) between a hexane solvent and chemically passivated wurtzite CdSe surfaces. In particular, we examine the dependence of G on the CdSe slab thickness, the particular exposed crystal facet, and the extent of surface passivation. Our results indicate a nonmonotonic dependence of G on ligand-grafting density, with interfaces generally exhibiting higher thermal conductance for increasing surface coverage up to ∼0.08 ligands/Å(2) (75-100% of a monolayer, depending on the particular exposed facet) and decreasing for still higher coverages. By analyzing orientational ordering and solvent penetration into the ligand layer, we show that a balance of competing effects is responsible for this nonmonotonic dependence. Although the various unpassivated CdSe surfaces exhibit similar G values, the crystal structure of an exposed facet nevertheless plays an important role in determining the interfacial thermal conductance of passivated surfaces, as the density of binding sites on a surface determines the ligand-grafting densities that may ultimately be achieved. We demonstrate that surface passivation can increase G relative to a bare surface by roughly 1 order of magnitude and that, for a given extent of passivation, thermal conductance can vary by up to a factor of ∼2 between different surfaces, suggesting that appropriately tailored nanostructures may direct heat flow in an anisotropic fashion for interface-limited thermal transport.

  11. Temperature effect on leaf water deuterium enrichment and isotopic fractionation during leaf lipid biosynthesis: results from controlled growth of C3 and C4 land plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youping; Grice, Kliti; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Farquhar, Graham D; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2011-02-01

    The hydrogen isotopic ratios ((2)H/(1)H) of land plant leaf water and the carbon-bound hydrogen of leaf wax lipids are valuable indicators for climatic, physiological, metabolic and geochemical studies. Temperature will exert a profound effect on the stable isotopic composition of leaf water and leaf lipids as it directly influences the isotopic equilibrium (IE) during leaf water evaporation and cellular water dissociation. It is also expected to affect the kinetics of enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, and therefore the balance of hydrogen inputs along different biochemical routes. We conducted a controlled growth experiment to examine the effect of temperature on the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf water and the biological and biochemical isotopic fractionations during lipid biosynthesis. We find that leaf water (2)H enrichment at 20°C is lower than that at 30°C. This is contrary to the expectation that at lower temperatures leaf water should be more enriched in (2)H due to a larger equilibrium isotope effect associated with evapotranspiration from the leaf if all other variables are held constant. A hypothesis is presented to explain the apparent discrepancy whereby lower temperature-induced down-regulation of available aquaporin water channels and/or partial closure of transmembrane water channel forces water flow to "detour" to a more convoluted apoplastic pathway, effectively increasing the length over which diffusion acts against advection as described by the Péclet effect (Farquhar and Lloyd, 1993) and decreasing the average leaf water enrichment. The impact of temperature on leaf water enrichment is not reflected in the biological isotopic fractionation or the biochemical isotopic fractionation during lipid biosynthesis. Neither the biological nor biochemical fractionations at 20°C are significantly different from that at 30°C, implying that temperature has a negligible effect on the isotopic fractionation during lipid biosynthesis

  12. Isotope fractionation in phase-transfer processes under thermodynamic and kinetic control - Implications for diffusive fractionation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Georgi, Anett; Roland, Ulf

    2017-08-15

    Diffusive isotope fractionation of organic compounds in aqueous solution was investigated by means of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas partitioning experiments under kinetic control. The two-film model was used to describe phase-transfer kinetics. It assumes the diffusion of solutes across a stagnant water boundary layer as the rate-controlling step. For all investigated solutes (benzene-D0 and -D6, toluene-D0, -D5, and -D8, cyclohexane-D0 and -D12), there was no significant observable fractionation effect between nondeuterated and perdeuterated isotopologues, resulting in a ratio of diffusion coefficients Dlight: Dheavy=1.00±0.01. In addition, isotope fractionation due to equilibrium partitioning of solutes between water and n-octane or gas phase was measured. The deuterated compounds are more hydrophilic than their light isotopologues in all cases, giving rise to fractionation coefficients αHpart=Koctane/water,H: Koctane/water,D=1.085 to 1.15. Thus, thermodynamic fractionation effects are much larger than diffusion fractionation effects. Methodical and environmental implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N) of Lipids in Marine Animals.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C; Middelburg, Jack J; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete), as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰). Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE) was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰). The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰) than the TLE (-7 ‰), possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms.

  14. Factors controlling precision and accuracy in isotope-ratio-monitoring mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, D. A.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of systems in which picomole quantities of sample are mixed with a carrier gas and passed through an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer system was examined experimentally and theoretically. Two different mass spectrometers were used, both having electron-impact ion sources and Faraday cup collector systems. One had an accelerating potential of 10kV and accepted 0.2 mL of He/min, producing, under those conditions, a maximum efficiency of 1 CO2 molecular ion collected per 700 molecules introduced. Comparable figures for the second instrument were 3 kV, 0.5 mL of He/min, and 14000 molecules/ion. Signal pathways were adjusted so that response times were <200 ms. Sample-related ion currents appeared as peaks with widths of 3-30 s. Isotope ratios were determined by comparison to signals produced by standard gases. In spite of rapid variations in signals, observed levels of performance were within a factor of 2 of shot-noise limits. For the 10-kV instrument, sample requirements for standard deviations of 0.1 and 0.5% were 45 and 1.7 pmol, respectively. Comparable requirements for the 3-kV instrument were 900 and 36 pmol. Drifts in instrumental characteristics were adequately neutralized when standards were observed at 20-min intervals. For the 10-kV instrument, computed isotopic compositions were independent of sample size and signal strength over the ranges examined. Nonlinearities of <0.04%/V were observed for the 3-kV system. Procedures for observation and subtraction of background ion currents were examined experimentally and theoretically. For sample/ background ratios varying from >10 to 0.3, precision is expected and observed to decrease approximately 2-fold and to depend only weakly on the precision with which background ion currents have been measured.

  15. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N) of Lipids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete), as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰). Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE) was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰). The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰) than the TLE (-7 ‰), possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms. PMID:26731720

  16. Iron isotopic compositions of adakitic and non-adakitic granitic magmas: Magma compositional control and subtle residual garnet effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongsheng; Wu, Hongjie; Ke, Shan; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Here we present iron (Fe) isotopic compositions of 51 well-characterized adakitic and non-adakitic igneous rocks from the Dabie orogen, Central China and Panama/Costa Rica, Central America. Twelve I-type non-adakitic granitoid samples from the Dabie orogen yield δ56Fe ranging from -0.015‰ to 0.184‰. The good correlations between δ56Fe and indices of magma differentiation (e.g., SiO2, FeOt, Mg#, and Fe3+/ΣFe) suggest Fe2+-rich silicate and oxide minerals dominated fractional crystallization with Δ56Femelt-crystal ∼ 0.06‰ may account for the δ56Fe variation in these samples. One A-type granite sample from the Dabie orogen has δ56Fe as high as 0.447‰, likely indicating less magnetite crystallization and an increase in 103lnβmelt with magma (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg). Combined with the literature data, most high silica (SiO2 ⩾ 71 wt.%) granitic rocks define a good positive linear correlation between δ56Fe and (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg): δ56Fe = 0.0062‰ × (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg) + 0.130‰ (R2 = 0.66). Given that fractional crystallization also tends to increase δ56Fe with (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg), this correlation can serve as the maximum estimate of the magma compositional control on Fe isotope fractionation. Low-Mg adakitic samples (LMA) have δ56Fe ranging from 0.114‰ to 0.253‰. The melt compositional control on LMA δ56Fe could be insignificant due to their limited (Na + K)/(Ca + Mg) variation. Except for one sample that may be affected by late differentiation, 14 out of 15 LMA have δ56Fe increasing with (Dy/Yb)N, reflecting a subtle but significant effect of residual garnet proportion. This serves as evidence for that source mineralogy may play an important role in fractionating Fe isotopes during partial melting. Dabie and Central America high-Mg adakitic samples have homogeneous Fe isotopic compositions with mean δ56Fe of 0.098 ± 0.038‰ (2SD, N = 11) and 0.085 ± 0.045‰ (2SD, N = 11), respectively. These samples have undergone melt-mantle interaction

  17. Isotopic Biogeochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is provided of the biogeochemical research. The funding, productivity, personnel and facilities are reviewed. Some of the technical areas covered are: carbon isotopic records; isotopic studies of banded iron formations; isotope effects in microbial systems; studies of organic compounds in ancient sediments; and development in isotopic geochemistry and analysis.

  18. Closure of incision in cataract surgery in-vivo using a temperature controlled laser soldering system based on a 1.9μm semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, Ilan; Basov, Svetlana; Varssano, David; Barequet, Irina; Rosner, Mordechai; Rattunde, Marcel; Wagner, Joachim; Platkov, Max; Harlev, Mickey; Rossman, Uri; Katzir, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    In phacoemulsification-based cataract surgery, a corneal incision is made and is then closed by hydration of the wound lips, or by suturing. We developed a system for sealing such an incision by soldering with a semiconductor disk laser (λ=1.9μm), under close temperature control. The goal was to obtain stronger and more watertight adhesion. The system was tested on incisions in the corneas of 15 eyes of pigs, in-vivo. Optical Coherent Tomography (OCT) and histopathologic examination showed little thermal damage and good apposition. The measured average burst pressure was 1000+/-30mmHg. In the future, this method wound may replace suturing of corneal wounds, including in traumatic corneal laceration and corneal transplantation.

  19. Controlling the metal to semiconductor transition of MoS2 and WS2 in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Stanley Shihyao; Yi-Kai Huang; Kim, Jaemyung; Kaehr, Bryan James; Foley, Brian M.; Lu, Ping; Conner Dykstra; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Jiaxing Huang; David, Vinayak P.

    2015-01-22

    Lithiation-exfoliation produces single to few-layered MoS2 and WS2 sheets dispersible in water. However, the process transforms them from the pristine semiconducting 2H phase to a distorted metallic phase. Recovery of the semiconducting properties typically involves heating of the chemically exfoliated sheets at elevated temperatures. Therefore, it has been largely limited to sheets deposited on solid substrates. We report the dispersion of chemically exfoliated MoS2 sheets in high boiling point organic solvents enabled by surface functionalization and the controllable recovery of their semiconducting properties directly in solution. Ultimately, this process connects the scalability of chemical exfoliation with the simplicity of solution processing, enabling a facile method for tuning the metal to semiconductor transitions of MoS2 and WS2 within a liquid medium.

  20. Isotopic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.

    1981-03-10

    Method and apparatus for separating isotopes in an isotopic mixture of atoms or molecules by increasing the mass differential among isotopic species. The mixture containing a particular isotope is selectively irradiated so as to selectively excite the isotope. This preferentially excited species is then reacted rapidly with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product containing the specific isotope, but having a mass different than the original species initially containing the particular isotope. The product and the remaining balance of the mixture is then caused to flow through a device which separates the product from the mixture based upon the increased mass differential.

  1. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Burger, Arnold [Nashville, TN; Mandal, Krishna C [Ashland, MA

    2009-06-23

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  2. Carbon isotope ratio analysis of endogenous glucocorticoid urinary metabolites after cortisone acetate and adrenosterone administration for doping control.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Lance; Cawley, Adam; Kazlauskas, Ray; Goebel, Catrin; George, Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Glucocorticoids are listed on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List of substances. The detection of the administration of hydrocortisone and cortisone is complicated by the fact that the human body also produces these steroids naturally. Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry can be utilized to determine the use of endogenous glucocorticoids by measuring the carbon isotope ratio (CIR) of their resulting metabolites in human urine samples. A comprehensive sample preparation protocol for the analysis of endogenous glucocorticoid urinary metabolites was developed and validated, incorporating the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for purification and chemical oxidation for derivatisation. Target compounds were tetrahydrocortisol and tetrahydrocortisone, and 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone, 11-oxoetiocholanolone and 11β-hydroxyandrosterone, while pregnanediol functioned as the endogenous reference compound. Urine samples from a population of 50 volunteers were analyzed to determine CIR reference limits. Excretion studies of the endogenous glucocorticoid preparation cortisone acetate (25 mg oral) and the dietary supplement adrenosterone (75 mg oral) were conducted with six male individuals. Variable changes in steroid metabolite isotopic composition were found across subjects after administration. The study also revealed that CIR analysis of the major glucocorticoid metabolites tetrahydrocortisol and tetrahydrocortisone is necessary to unambiguously distinguish administration of cortisone and adrenosterone, the former officially restricted to out-of-competition use by athletes, the latter not being restricted at the current time. Moreover, this study reaffirms that CIR methods for the doping control of endogenous steroids should not rely upon a single ERC, as the administration of an appropriate precursor to that ERC could cause complications during analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Crustal thickening and clay: Controls on O isotope variation in global magmatism and siliciclastic sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Justin L.; Hand, Martin; Pearson, Norman J.; Barovich, Karin M.; McInerney, David J.

    2015-02-01

    New compilations of global O isotope data from zircon and siliciclastic sedimentary rocks highlight an increasing range in δ18O values in both systems since the late Archean. This is consistent with an increased clay component in sedimentary rocks and subsequent incorporation into igneous rocks. Each of these factors can arguably be achieved by increased crustal thickening in the late Archean resulting in greater burial and melting of supracrustal rocks and increased chemical weathering and recycling of upper crustal rocks. Despite the suggested change in tectonic regimes in the late Archean, stochastic modelling in this study demonstrates that δ18O data do not provide evidence for a secular decrease in the proportion of mantle-derived magmas in granitoid rocks. Instead, best-fit models indicate that juvenile input and reworking of supracrustal material vary with respect to the short term (100-200 Myr) tectonic cycles preserved in the continental crust. Hence, major step changes in global tectonic regimes in the post-Hadean, such as the initiation of subduction in the mid- to late Archean, are not supported by global zircon O isotope datasets and instead minor, progressive changes are indicated for Earth's tectonic regimes.

  4. Phonon-assisted control of the single-photon spectral characteristics in a semiconductor quantum dot using a single laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parvendra; Vedeshwar, Agnikumar G.

    2017-09-01

    We theoretically demonstrate the phonon-assisted control of the single-photon spectral characteristics such as central frequency and linewidth in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a pillar microcavity using a single laser pulse as both excitation and control. We derive the relevant optical Bloch equations from the suitable polaron master equation for taking into account the effects of phonons accurately. We show that with the appropriately chosen parameters of the exciting laser pulse (pump pulse) and cavity, the central frequency and linewidth of the single photon can be controlled simply by controlling the frequency and pulse width of the exciting laser pulse, respectively. Subsequently, we show that these are essentially the phonon-induced processes which ensure that the probability of single-photon emission does not change significantly with the variation of the frequency and pulse width of the exciting laser pulse. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the polarization of the single photon can also be controlled by adjusting the polarization of the pump pulse.

  5. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Lin, P.T.

    1985-03-05

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

  6. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Peter T.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

  7. Semiconductor technology program: Progress briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, K. F.; Scace, R. I.; Walters, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices, is discussed. Silicon and silicon based devices are emphasized. Highlighted activities include semiinsulating GaAs characterization, an automatic scanning spectroscopic ellipsometer, linewidth measurement and coherence, bandgap narrowing effects in silicon, the evaluation of electrical linewidth uniformity, and arsenicomplanted profiles in silicon.

  8. Photoelectrosynthesis at semiconductor electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A. J.

    1980-12-01

    The general principles of photoelectrochemistry and photoelectrosynthesis are reviewed and some new developments in photoelectrosynthesis are discussed. Topics include energetics of semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces(band-edge unpinning); hot carrier injection at illuminated semiconductor-electrolyte junctions; derivatized semiconductor electrodes; particulate photoelectrochemical systems; layered compounds and other new materials; and dye sensitization. (WHK)

  9. Semiconductor ohmic contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawrylo, F. Z.; Kressel, H.

    1977-01-01

    Contact formed on p-type surface of semiconductor laser has several advantages: highly conductive degenerate region and narrow band gap provides surface for good metal-to-semiconductor contact; lattice parameter of GaAs is 5.6533 A; improved lattice match eases interface strain which reduces interface cracking of semiconductor material.

  10. Laboratory controls of precursor and temperature on the kinetics and isotopic fractionations of microbial methane for deep subsurface environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Y.; Lin, L.; Wang, P.; Sun, C.

    2009-12-01

    , methanogenic rates were rapid at all temperatures. Maximum methane production rates occurred at 40~50OC for incubations with methanol, 40~60OC for incubation with acetate, and 50OC for those with methylamine. The patterns of carbon isotopic compositions on methane were either consistent with the prediction of the Rayleigh fractionation in a closed system, trending toward more depleted through time or invariant through time, suggesting variable physiological responses and microbial assemblages to precursor additions. The obtained ɛ values were 0~-12‰ for incubations with acetate, -16~-45‰ for incubations with hydrogen, -50~-80‰ for incubations with methanol, and -87~-115‰ for incubations with methylamine. Acetoclastic methanogenesis appears to fractionate carbon isotopes at the smallest magnitude. This when combined with the results from positive controls and the field observation suggests that acetoclastic methanogenesis produced methane with isotopic signatures comparable with those with thermogenic in origin and contributed significantly to the total methane inventory in the Kuan-Tzu-Ling hotspring area.

  11. Cooperation between bound waters and hydroxyls in controlling isotope-exchange rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasci, Adele F.; McAlpin, J. Gregory; Ohlin, C. André; Christensen, Shauna; Fettinger, James C.; Britt, R. David; Rustad, James R.; Casey, William H.

    2012-02-01

    Mineral oxides differ from aqueous ions in that the bound water molecules are usually attached to different metal centers, or vicinal, and thus separated from one another. In contrast, for most monomeric ions used to establish kinetic reactivity trends, such as octahedral aquo ions (e.g., Al(H 2O) 63+), the bound waters are closely packed, or geminal. Because of this structural difference, the existing literature about ligand substitution in monomer ions may be a poor guide to the reactions of geochemical interest. To understand how coordination of the reactive functional groups might affect the rates of simple water-exchange reactions, we synthesized two structurally similar Rh(III) complexes, [Rh(phen) 2(H 2O) 2] 3+ [ 1] and [Rh(phen) 2(H 2O)Cl] 2+ [ 2] where (phen) = 1,10-phenanthroline. Complex [ 1] has two adjacent, geminal, bound waters in the inner-coordination sphere and [ 2] has a single bound water adjacent to a bound chloride ion. We employed Rh(III) as a trivalent metal rather than a more geochemically relevant metal like Fe(III) or Al(III) to slow the rate of reaction, which makes possible measurement of the rates of isotopic substitution by simple mass spectrometry. We prepared isotopically pure versions of the molecules, dissolved them into isotopically dissimilar water, and measured the rates of exchange from the extents of 18O and 16O exchange at the bound waters. The pH dependency of rates differ enormously between the two complexes. Pseudo-first-order rate coefficients at 298 K for water exchanges from the fully protonated molecules are close: k0298 = 5 × 10 -8(±0.5 × 10 -8) s -1 for [ 1] and k0298 = 2.5 × 10 -9(±1 × 10 -9) for [ 2]. Enthalpy and entropy activation parameters (Δ H‡ and Δ S‡) were measured to be 119(±3) kJ mol -1, and 14(±1) J mol -1 K -1, respectively for [ 1]. The corresponding parameters for the mono-aquo complex, [ 2], are 132(±3) kJ mol -1 and 41.5(±2) J mol -1 K -1. Rates increase by many orders of magnitude

  12. Authenticity control of essential oils containing citronellal and citral by chiral and stable-isotope gas-chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nhu-Trang, Tran-Thi; Casabianca, Hervé; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence

    2006-12-01

    Enantioselective capillary GC on a Supelco beta-DEX 225 column (heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin SPB 20poly--20% diphenyl, 80% dimethylsiloxane) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, coupled online with capillary GC on an HP5 column have been used for origin-specific analysis and authenticity control of essential oils, for example lemon (Citrus limon), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon flexuosus), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.--Ceylon type and Cymbopogon winterianus--Java type), Litsea cubeba, Lippia citriodora, lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), lemon gum (Eucalyptus citriodora), and, especially, precious lemon balm oil (Melissa officinalis L.). Isotope data (delta13C(PDB) and delta2H(V-SMOW)) for citral (neral + geranial) and citronellal from on-line GC-C/Py-IRMS and chiral data for citronellal in these essential oils are reported. The possibility of using these data to determine the origin of these essential oils and to detect adulteration is discussed. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of specific compounds in two essential oils of lemongrass and Litsea cubeba was performed as a practical statistical method for distinguishing between these two types of oil.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance linewidth and spin diffusion in {sup 29}Si isotopically controlled silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiroshi; Itoh, Kohei M.; Vlasenko, Leonid S.

    2008-10-15

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study was performed with n-type silicon single crystals containing {sup 29}Si isotope abundance f ranges from 1.2% to 99.2%. The nuclear spin diffusion coefficient D has been determined from the linewidth of significantly enhanced {sup 29}Si NMR signals utilizing a developed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) method. The {sup 29}Si NMR linewidth depends linearly on f, at least when f<10%, and approaches {proportional_to}f{sup 1/2} dependence when f>50%. The estimated {sup 29}Si nuclear spin diffusion time T{sub sd} between phosphorus atoms used for DNP is more than ten times shorter than the nuclear polarization time T{sub 1}{sup p} of {sup 29}Si nuclei around phosphorus. Therefore, the regime of 'rapid spin diffusion' is realized in the DNP experiments.

  14. Do erosion rates control the long-term carbon isotope mass balance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields-Zhou, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term marine carbon isotope record responds to changes in the proportional burial rates of organic carbon relative to carbonate carbon on a global scale. For this reason, high δ13C values in marine carbonate rocks are normally interpreted to reflect faster rates of organic burial and increased atmospheric oxygenation. Geochemical redox tracers fail to support this paradigm for sustained deviations from the long-term δ13C mean, indicating perhaps that proportionally high organic burial may be associated with lower overall flux rates. Here I propose that ~107-108 year trends in average δ13C, as with seawater 87Sr/86Sr, are driven by changes in the balance between volcanism and denudation (~uplift). In other words, high proportional organic burial may be related to increases in the net CO2 flux (= organic carbon burial + Ca-Mg silicate weathering) relative to the carbonate weathering flux. According to this model, high baseline δ13C values will be associated with periods of heightened volcanic activity and/or diminished tectonic uplift. Conversely, lower baseline δ13C values can be related to times when the global carbon cycle was dominated by carbonate and oxidative weathering due to high rates of physical erosion. Shorter 105-106 year positive δ13C excursions have also been interpreted as the 'smoking gun' to extreme oxygenation events. However, large increases in organic burial are difficult to sustain under steady-state conditions without very high volcanic fluxes, indicating that some of these excursions might be better explained by transient changes to the isotopic composition of carbon sources and sinks.

  15. Climatic controls on the isotopic composition and availability of soil nitrogen in mountainous tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, S. R.; Cole, R. J.; Schmitt, C. G.; All, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests in mountainous regions are often assumed to be nitrogen (N) limited, yet N dynamics across rugged terrain can be complex due to gradients in climate and topography. Elucidating patterns of N availability and loss across such gradients is necessary to predict and manage tropical forest response to environmental changes such as increasing N deposition and rising temperatures. However, such data is currently lacking, particularly in remote locations that are of high conservation value. To address this gap, a research expedition organized by the American Climber Science Program recently made a coast-to-coast journey across a remote region of Costa Rica, travelling over the Cordillera Talamanca and through La Amistad International Park. Numerous biological, chemical and hydrologic measurements were made en-route across montane to premontane wet tropical forests, spanning nearly 2,000 m in elevation and 200 km. Surface soil samples collected at regular intervals along this transect illuminate environmental drivers of N dynamics across the region. The dataset reveals strong links between soil natural abundance N isotopic composition (δ15N) and elevation and temperature parameters, and weaker links to precipitation and topography. This is in general agreement with global scale observations, but divergence from some previously published works is apparent and will be discussed. δ15N mass balance models suggest that N isotope patterns reflect differences in forms of N loss and the relative importance of fractionating and non-fractionating pathways. When combined with data on several other edaphic properties, especially C:N stoichiometry, the results points toward notable variation in soil N availability and N constraints across the transect. This study illustrates large, but predictable, variation in key N cycle traits across the premontane to montane wet tropical forest transition. These findings have management-relevant implications for tropical regions.

  16. Hydrogen isotope fractionation and redox-controlled solution mechanisms in silicate-COH melt + fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    The behavior of volatiles in silicate-COH melts and fluids and hydrogen isotope fractionation between melt and fluid were determined experimentally to advance our understanding of the role of volatiles in magmatic processes. Experiments were conducted in situ while the samples were at the desired temperature and pressure to 825°C and ~1.6 GPa and with variable redox conditions. Under oxidizing conditions, melt and fluid comprised CO2, CO3, HCO3, OH, H2O, and silicate components, whereas under reducing conditions, the species were CH4, H2, H2O, and silicate components. Temperature-dependent hydrogen isotope exchange among structural entities within coexisting fluids and melts yields ΔH values near 14 and 24 kJ/mol and -5 and -1 kJ/mol under oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. This temperature (and probably pressure)-dependent D/H fractionation is because of interaction between D and H and silicate and C-bearing species in silicate-saturated fluids and in COH fluid-saturated melts. The temperature- and pressure-dependent D/H fractionation factors suggest that partial melts in the presence of COH volatiles in the upper mantle can have δD values 100% or more lighter relative to coexisting silicate-saturated fluid. This effect is greater under oxidizing than under reducing conditions. It is suggested that δD variations of upper mantle mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) sources, inferred from the δD of MORB magmatic rocks, can be explained by variations in redox conditions during melting. Lower δD values of the MORB magma reflect more reducing conditions in the mantle source.

  17. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  18. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  19. Controls on oxygen isotope variability in precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Tan, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Cave monitoring is important to fully understand the climatic significance of stalagmite δ18O records. Most previous studies focus on one cave, or several caves in one area. A large regional-scale investigation on the isotopic composition of precipitation and drip water is scarce. To investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation in the monsoon regions of China (MRC) and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites, a three-year-long (2011-2014) on-site rainfall and drip water monitoring program has been carried out with approximately monthly sampling at 37 drip sites in eight caves in the MRC. Neither rainfall amount nor air temperature are the predominant controls on the oxygen isotopic composition of monthly precipitation. The rain in the wet season (May to October), with relatively low δ18O values, is sourced from tropical air masses, whereas the rainfall in the dry season (November to April), with relatively high δ18O values, is mostly sourced from continental air masses. Additionally, the weighted summer rainwater δ18O values decrease from coastal southwest China to inland northeast China, which suggests that the moisture of monsoon rainfall in China originates mainly from Indian Ocean, and transports to the north along the southwest-northeast path. 28 of the 37 drip sites are constant drips with little discernable variation in drip water δ18O through the whole study period. For most of the constant drips, the mean value of each drip water δ18O is nearly identical to or slightly higher than the three-year weighted mean value of the corresponding local rainwater δ18O, indicating these drips may be mainly recharged by none-evaporated or slightly evaporated, well-mixed older water stored in the vadose zone. 7 of all the 37 drip sites are seasonal drips, for which, although the amplitude of drip water δ18O is narrower than that of rainfall, the monthly response of drip water δ18O to

  20. Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Ca isotope ratios in benthonic foraminifers related to test structure, mineralogy and environmental controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gussone, Nikolaus; Filipsson, Helena L.; Kuhnert, Henning

    2016-01-01

    We analysed Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Ca isotope ratios of benthonic foraminifers from sediment core tops retrieved during several research cruises in the Atlantic Ocean, in order to improve the understanding of isotope fractionation and element partitioning resulting from biomineralisation processes and changes in ambient conditions. Species include foraminifers secreting tests composed of hyaline low magnesium calcite, porcelaneous high magnesium calcite as well as aragonite. Our results demonstrate systematic isotope fractionation and element partitioning patterns specific for these foraminiferal groups. Calcium isotope fractionation is similar in porcelaneous and hyaline calcite tests and both groups demonstrate the previously described anomaly with enrichment of heavy isotopes around 3-4 °C (Gussone and Filipsson, 2010). Calcium isotope ratios of the aragonitic species Hoeglundina elegans, on the other hand, are about 0.4‰ lighter compared to the calcitic species, which is in general agreement with stronger fractionation in inorganic aragonite compared to calcite. However, the low and strongly variable Sr content suggests additional processes during test formation, and we propose that transmembrane ion transport or a precursor phase to aragonite may be involved. Porcelaneous tests, composed of high Mg calcite, incorporate higher amounts of Sr compared to hyaline low Mg calcite, in agreement with inorganic calcite systematics, but also porcelaneous tests with reduced Mg/Ca show high Sr/Ca. While calcium isotopes, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca in benthonic foraminifers primarily appear to fractionate and partition with a dominant inorganic control, δ44/40Ca temperature and growth rate dependencies of benthonic foraminifer tests favour a dominant contribution of light Ca by transmembrane transport relative to unfractionated seawater Ca to the calcifying fluid, thus controlling the formation of foraminiferal δ44/40Ca and Sr/Ca proxy signals.

  1. Isotopic exchange in mineral-fluid systems. IV. The crystal chemical controls on oxygen isotope exchange rates in carbonate-H 2O and layer silicate-H 2O systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, David R.

    2000-03-01

    Oxygen isotope exchange between minerals and water in systems far from chemical equilibrium is controlled largely by surface reactions such as dissolution-precipitation. In many cases, this behavior can be modeled adequately by a simple pseudo-first order rate model that accounts for changes in surface area of the solid. Previous modeling of high temperature isotope exchange data for carbonates, sulfates, and silicates indicated that within a given mineral group there appears to be a systematic relationship between rate and mineral chemistry. We tested this idea by conducting oxygen isotope exchange experiments in the systems, carbonate-H 2O and layer silicate-H 2O at 300 and 350°C, respectively. Witherite (BaCO 3), strontianite (SrCO 3) and calcite (CaCO 3) were reacted with pure H 2O for different lengths of time (271-1390 h) at 300°C and 100 bars. The layer silicates, chlorite, biotite and muscovite were reacted with H 2O for durations ranging from 132 to 3282 h at 350°C and 250 bars. A detailed survey of grain sizes and grain habits using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that grain regrowth occurred in all experiments to varying extents. Changes in the mean grain diameters were particularly significant in experiments involving withertite, strontianite and biotite. The variations in the extent of oxygen isotope exchange were measured as a function of time, and fit to a pseudo-first order rate model that accounted for the change in surface area of the solid during reaction. The isotopic rates (ln r) for the carbonate-H 2O system are -20.75 ± 0.44, -18.95 ± 0.62 and -18.51 ± 0.48 mol O m -2 s -1 for calcite, strontianite and witherite, respectively. The oxygen isotope exchange rates for layer silicate-H 2O systems are -23.99 ± 0.89, -23.14 ± 0.74 and -22.40 ± 0.66 mol O m -2 s -1 for muscovite, biotite and chlorite, respectively. The rates for the carbonate-H 2O systems increase in order from calcite to strontianite to witherite. This order

  2. Control of Subthreshold Characteristics of Narrow-Channel Silicon-on-Insulator n-Type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor with Additional Side Gate Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Koji; Sunami, Hideo

    2007-04-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor with additional side gate electrodes is fabricated and its subthreshold characteristics are discussed. Since its device structure provides independent biasing to gates, flexible device-characteristic control for the respective device is expected. The key fabrication process is the formation of transistor gates. Additional side gate electrodes are formed by reactive ion etching (RIE) with a SiO2-covered top gate as an etching mask. Subthreshold characteristics are improved by negative side-gate biasing. In addition, the side-gate voltage VSG required to decrease off-leakage current by one decade is around 100 mV. Since the sidewall oxide thickness is chosen to be 5 nm, which is the same as the top-oxide thickness, rather sensitive subthreshold-characteristic control compared with that of biasing through a thick buried-oxide layer is achieved in response to performance requirement. In the viewpoint of stand-by-power suppression, these provide a certain controllability to a circuit operation.

  3. Gate-control efficiency and interface state density evaluated from capacitance-frequency-temperature mapping for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hong-An; Kudo, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu

    2014-11-14

    We present an analysis method for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices by using capacitance-frequency-temperature (C-f-T) mapping to evaluate the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density, both exhibiting correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance. The effectiveness of the method was exemplified by application to AlN/AlGaN/GaN MIS devices to elucidate the properties of AlN-AlGaN interfaces depending on their formation processes. Using the C-f-T mapping, we extract the gate-bias-dependent activation energy with its derivative giving the gate-control efficiency, from which we evaluate the AlN-AlGaN interface state density through the Lehovec equivalent circuit in the DC limit. It is shown that the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density have correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance, all depending on the interface formation processes. In addition, we give characterization of the AlN-AlGaN interfaces by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in relation with the results of the analysis.

  4. Organismal versus Environmental Control of the Carbon Isotope Composition of Dicot Angiosperm Pollen: Implications for Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. P.; Schubert, B.; Foelber, K.; Jahren, H.

    2011-12-01

    The prevalence and diagenetic resilience of palynomorphs in Proterozoic and Phanerozoic sediments has led researchers to investigate its potential as an environmental proxy based on its stable isotope composition. Towards this, Loader and Hemming (2001), noted that the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of modern Pinus sylvestris pollen exine correlates with the developmental period temperature (°C) of the pollen (R2=0.68), implying that the δ13C of gymnosperm pollen could be quantitatively utilized as a paleotemperature proxy. However, the majority of pollen-producing organisms during the last ~120 million years have been angiosperms, which are subject to complex internal signaling for reproduction, in addition to environmental triggers. Because these internal signals control the relative proportion of lipids, long-chain fatty acids, and polysaccharides within pollen grains, we hypothesized that the δ13C variability in pollen (δ13Cpollen) from several plants subject to the same external environmental parameters is of the same magnitude as the amount attributed to the environment for gymnosperms. Within growth chambers, the test organism (Brassica rapa) was cultivated under constant light, water, pCO2, and nutrient supply, but exhibited average δ13Cpollen variability = 4.35% within any chamber (n = 6 to 8 plants per chamber). Field experiments were also conducted in which the pollen from the test organism (Hibiscus spp.) was sampled from several botanical gardens within the state of Hawaii. Pollen collected from any one botanical garden exhibited an average δ13Cpollen variability = 4.5% (up to 5 plants per garden). Upon comparing chambers operating at different temperatures (17°C to 32°C), we discovered no correlation (R2=0.01) between the developmental period temperature (°C) and the δ13C of B. rapa pollen; similarly, no correlation was found between the δ13C of Hibiscus pollen and its developmental period temperature (°C) (R2=0.12). This work

  5. Ca isotopes reveal weak control of tectonic uplift on long-term climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J.; Jacobson, A. D.; Holmden, C. E.; Craw, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ca-Mg silicate weathering consumes atmospheric CO2 over geological timescales (≥106 yr) whereas carbonate weathering has no effect. High Ca fluxes from active orogens have been used to argue that mountain uplift is a disproportionately large CO2 sink. To test this hypothesis, it is essential to determine proportions of Ca from silicate versus carbonate weathering. High precision measurement of Ca isotopes (δ44/40Ca) provides a novel method to directly quantify Ca sources. To this end, we examined δ44/40Ca in rivers draining the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The Southern Alps have large tectonic and climatic gradients but nearly constant bedrock chemistry. West of the main topographic divide, uplift and precipitation rates are high, and steep, fast-flowing rivers drain schist. East of the divide, uplift and precipitation rates are low, and low-gradient, braided rivers drain either schist or greywacke. Both schist and greywacke contain up to 3% hydrothermal and metamorphic calcite. Glaciers feed several schist and greywacke catchments. Examined as δ44/40Ca versus Sr/Ca, values measured for carbonate and silicate end-members define two-component mixing envelopes. Rivers west of the divide plot within the envelope, ruling out isotopic fractionation as a factor for these streams. Several rivers east of the divide are 40Ca enriched relative to the envelope. In-situ fractionation of stream water Ca cannot explain this pattern because fractionation is expected to preferentially remove 40Ca. We measured δ42/44Ca ratios to test if chemical weathering preferentially releases 40Ca. When examined as δ40/44Ca versus δ42/44Ca, the data only display mass-dependent isotope effects. Ca in grass and the exchangeable pool of shallow soils is enriched in 40Ca relative to waters and bedrock. This Ca defines a third mixing end-member that contributes 15-30% of the Ca in rivers east of the divide. Evidence of the plant-fractionated signal likely reflects water residence times

  6. Environmental Controls on the Stable Isotopic Composition of Ecosystem Respiration in a High Elevation Subalpine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Hu, J.; Bowling, D. R.; Monson, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    An important approach that has contributed to our understanding of environmental influences on carbon cycling has been analysis of the 13C/12C ratio (δ13C) in atmospheric CO2 as influenced by plant and soil processes. We examined the effects of inter-annual climate variation on the δ13C isotope composition of ecosystem respiration (δ13CR) in a high elevation subalpine forest ecosystem across three growing seasons. Additionally, we analyzed the δ13C of needle sugars (δ13CNS) of the three main tree species at the site during two of the growing seasons. Our results showed large intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability in the correlation of soil water content (θ), air temperature (TAIR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) with δ13CR. In some years and in some hydrologic phases of the year, we observed patterns of correlation of these climate variables and δ13CR that opposed those expected by conventional wisdom derived from past studies of individual leaves. These non-conventional patterns were also observed in our seasonal and inter-annual observations of δ13CNS, thus independently validating the observed trends in respired CO2. Because of these trends, we were not able to transfer past conventional knowledge about climate and biophysical patterns of 13C discrimination at the scale of leaves and small soil plots to the ecosystem. This failure in scaling is due principally to 1) the effect of cold nighttime temperatures in the late growing season on 13CO2 discrimination, 2) the weakening of the coupling between moisture and 13CO2 discrimination during relatively wet years compared to relatively dry years, and 3) potential effects of emergent properties that arise when comparing processes occurring at different scales. Our results suggest that our ability to accurately interpret δ13CR depends greatly on improved understanding of the effect and magnitude of interacting environmental variables on isotopic exchange from

  7. Effective crustal permeability controls fault evolution: An integrated structural, mineralogical and isotopic study in granitic gneiss, Monte Rosa, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawther, Susan E. M.; Dempster, Tim J.; Shipton, Zoe K.; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2016-10-01

    Two dextral faults within granitic gneiss in the Monte Rosa nappe, northern Italy reveal key differences in their evolution controlled by evolving permeability and water/rock reactions. The comparison reveals that identical host rock lithologies develop radically different mineralogies within the fault zones, resulting in fundamentally different deformation histories. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses coupled to microstructural characterisation show that infiltration of meteoric water occurred into both fault zones. The smaller Virgin Fault shows evidence of periodic closed system behaviour, which promoted the growth of hydrothermal K-feldspar, whilst the more open system behaviour of the adjacent Ciao Ciao Fault generated a weaker muscovite-rich fault core, which promoted a step change in fault evolution. Effective crustal permeability is a vital control on fault evolution and, coupled to the temperature (i.e. depth) at which key mineral transformations occur, is probably a more significant factor than host rock strength in controlling fault development. The study suggests that whether a fault in granitic basement grows into a large structure may be largely controlled by the initial hydrological properties of the host rocks. Small faults exposed at the surface may therefore be evolutionary "dead-ends" that typically do not represent the early stages in the development of larger faults.

  8. Soil carbon dioxide emissions controlled by an extracellular oxidative metabolism identifiable by its isotope signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kéraval, Benoit; Lehours, Anne Catherine; Colombet, Jonathan; Amblard, Christian; Alvarez, Gaël; Fontaine, Sébastien

    2016-11-01

    Soil heterotrophic respiration is a major determinant of the carbon (C) cycle and its interactions with climate. Given the complexity of the respiratory machinery, it is traditionally considered that oxidation of organic C into carbon dioxide (CO2) strictly results from intracellular metabolic processes. Here we show that C mineralization can operate in soils deprived of all observable cellular forms. Moreover, the process responsible for CO2 emissions in sterilized soils induced a strong C isotope fractionation (up to 50 ‰) incompatible with respiration of cellular origin. The supply of 13C glucose in sterilized soil led to the release of 13CO2 suggesting the presence of respiratory-like metabolism (glycolysis, decarboxylation reaction, chain of electron transfer) carried out by soil-stabilized enzymes, and by soil mineral and metal catalysts. These findings indicate that CO2 emissions from soils can have two origins: (1) from the well-known respiration of soil heterotrophic microorganisms and (2) from an extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET) or, at least, catabolism. These two metabolisms should be considered separately when studying effects of environmental factors on the C cycle because the likelihood is that they do not obey the same laws and they respond differently to abiotic factors.

  9. Control of a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process for improved composition and thickness precision in compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Monique Suzanne

    1998-11-01

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is a process used to manufacture electronic and optoelectronic devices that has traditionally lacked real-time growth monitoring and control. Controlling the growth rate and composition using the existing sensors, as well as advanced monitoring systems developed in-house, is shown to improve device quality. Specific MOCVD growth objectives are transformed into controller performance goals. Group III bubbler concentration variations, which perturb both growth rate and composition precision, are identified to be the primary disturbances. First a feed forward control system was investigated, which used an ultrasonic concentration monitor, located upstream in the process. This control strategy resulted in improved regulation of the gallium delivery rate by cancelling the sensed gallium bubbler concentration disturbances via the injection mass flow controller. The controller performance is investigated by growing GaInAs/InP superlattices. Results of growths performed under normal operating conditions and also under large perturbations include X-ray diffraction from the samples as well as real-time sensor signal data. High quality superlattices that display up to eight orders of satellite peaks are obtained under the feed forward compensation scheme, demonstrating improved layer-to-layer reproducibility of thickness and composition. The success of the feed forward control demonstration led to the development of a more complex downstream feedback control system. An ultraviolet absorption monitor was fabricated and retrofitted as a feedback control signal. A control-oriented model of the downstream process was developed for the feedback controller synthesis. Although challenged with both the photolysis and multi-gas detection issues common to UV absorption monitors, closed loop control with the UV sensor was performed and proved to be an effective method of disturbance rejection. An InP/GaInAs test structure was grown under

  10. An updated investigation of cancer incidence and mortality at a Scottish semiconductor manufacturing facility with case-control and case-only studies of selected cancers.

    PubMed

    Darnton, Andrew; Miller, Brian G; Maccalman, Laura; Galea, Karen S; Wilkinson, Sam; Cherrie, John W; Shafrir, Amy; McElvenny, Damien; Osman, John

    2012-10-01

    An earlier investigation raised concern that some cancer cases might be linked to work at a semiconductor manufacturing plant. The aim of this study was to describe an update of the cancer incidence and mortality of these workers and assess whether workplace exposures contributed to any increased risk of selected cancers. Standardised mortality ratios and standardised incidence ratios were calculated for cancer site groups of a priori interest in a cohort previously flagged against the National Health Service Central Register, with follow-up extended to the 2007 for deaths and 2006 for cancer registrations. Cases of female breast cancer, lung and stomach cancer, and male brain cancer, and a random sample of control subjects individually age-matched to the breast cancer cases, were identified from within the cohort dataset and invited to participate via general practitioners. Exposures were estimated using a job exposure matrix developed from a historical hygiene assessment and assigned to job histories obtained from personal interview of subjects (or proxies). Though the findings were uncertain, there were no excesses of mortality or cancer incidence, either overall or for specific cancer sites, suggestive of a workplace effect. Logistic regression analyses comparing 20 cases of breast cancer with 83 matched controls showed no consistent evidence of any relationship with occupational exposures. Assessment of commonalities of workplace exposures among case sets for other cancer types was limited by the small numbers. These results do not support earlier concerns about occupational cancer risks among this cohort.

  11. Controlling factors of rainwater and water vapor isotopes at Bangalore, India: Constraints from observations in 2013 Indian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, P.; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Yoshimura, Kei

    2016-12-01

    Isotopic ratios of rainwaters are believed to decrease with the amount of rainfall. However, analyses of the isotopic composition of rainwater and water vapor samples collected from Bangalore during the monsoon period of 2013 fail to show any simple relationship with the local meteorological parameters whereas show good correlation with the regional integrated convective activity. The correlation is particularly high when the averaging is done over the preceding 8 to 15 days, showing the influence of mixing or residence time scale of atmospheric moisture. This observation emphasizes the role of regional atmospheric circulation driving the isotopic values. A comparison between observed isotope ratios in water vapor and rainwater with Isotope-enabled Global Spectral Model shows discrepancies between the two. The observed values are relatively enriched, indicating a systematic bias in the model values. The higher observed values suggest underestimation of the evaporation in the model, which we estimate to be about 28 ± 15% on average. Simultaneous analyses of rainwater and water vapor isotopic composition again show definitive presence of raindrop evaporation (31 ± 14%). We also documented a distinct pattern of isotopic variation in six samples collected at Bangalore due to mixing of vapor from a cyclonic system in close proximity that originated from the Bay of Bengal. It seems that large-scale isotopic depletion occurs during cyclones caused by Rayleigh fractionation due to massive rainout. These results demonstrate the power of rainwater and water vapor isotope monitoring to elucidate the genesis and dynamics of water recycling within synoptic-scale monsoon systems.

  12. Isotopic Methods for Determining the Relative Importance of Bioavailability Versus Trophic Position in Controlling Mercury Concentrations in Everglades Mosquitofish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, B. E.; Kendall, C.

    2007-12-01

    The concentration of mercury in fish tissues is widely used as an indicator of the magnitude of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrookii) is an important sentinel species used for this purpose in the varied environments of the Florida Everglades, because mosquitofish are abundant, have a short lifespan, and migrate little. Like other freshwater fish, the primary route of mercury uptake into mosquitofish tissues is through diet as bioavailable methylmercury. Yet, it is unclear whether variations in mosquitofish mercury observed across the Everglades are due primarily to differences in bioaccumulation (i.e., trophic position) or abundance of methylmercury available to the food web base. We use isotopic methods to investigate the importance of these two controls on mosquitofish mercury at the landscape scale. As part of the USEPA REMAP project, mosquitofish and periphyton were collected during September 1996 from over one hundred sites throughout the Everglades and analyzed for mercury concentration. The USGS analyzed splits of the samples for nitrogen (d15N), carbon (d13C), and sulfur (d34S) isotopic composition, to investigate the causes of mercury variations. The d15N value of tissues is often used to estimate the relative trophic positions of organisms in a food web, and should correlate positively with tissue mercury if bioaccumulation is an important control on mosquitofish mercury concentration. The d13C value can be useful for detecting differences in food web base (e.g., algal versus detrital), and thus the entry point of contaminants. Tissue d34S potentially indicates the extent of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in sediments, a process used by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) during conversion of inorganic Hg(II) to bioavailable methylmercury. Because this process increases the d34S value of remaining sulfate, which enters the food web base, mosquitofish sulfur isotopes should show positive correlations with SRB

  13. FOREWORD: Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshihiko

    2008-12-01

    Since the discovery of superconductivity in diamond, much attention has been given to the issue of superconductivity in semiconductors. Because diamond has a large band gap of 5.5 eV, it is called a wide-gap semiconductor. Upon heavy boron doping over 3×1020 cm-3, diamond becomes metallic and demonstrates superconductivity at temperatures below 11.4 K. This discovery implies that a semiconductor can become a superconductor upon carrier doping. Recently, superconductivity was also discovered in boron-doped silicon and SiC semiconductors. The number of superconducting semiconductors has increased. In 2008 an Fe-based superconductor was discovered in a research project on carrier doping in a LaCuSeO wide-gap semiconductor. This discovery enhanced research activities in the field of superconductivity, where many scientists place particular importance on superconductivity in semiconductors. This focus issue features a variety of topics on superconductivity in semiconductors selected from the 2nd International Workshop on Superconductivity in Diamond and Related Materials (IWSDRM2008), which was held at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan in July 2008. The 1st workshop was held in 2005 and was published as a special issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM) in 2006 (Takano 2006 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7 S1). The selection of papers describe many important experimental and theoretical studies on superconductivity in semiconductors. Topics on boron-doped diamond include isotope effects (Ekimov et al) and the detailed structure of boron sites, and the relation between superconductivity and disorder induced by boron doping. Regarding other semiconductors, the superconducting properties of silicon and SiC (Kriener et al, Muranaka et al and Yanase et al) are discussed, and In2O3 (Makise et al) is presented as a new superconducting semiconductor. Iron-based superconductors are presented as a new series of high

  14. Nonmagnetic semiconductor spin transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, K. C.; Lau, Wayne H.; Gündoǧdu, K.; Flatté, Michael E.; Boggess, Thomas F.

    2003-10-01

    We propose a spin transistor using only nonmagnetic materials that exploits the characteristics of bulk inversion asymmetry (BIA) in (110) symmetric quantum wells. We show that extremely large spin splittings due to BIA are possible in (110) InAs/GaSb/AlSb heterostructures, which together with the enhanced spin decay times in (110) quantum wells demonstrates the potential for exploitation of BIA effects in semiconductor spintronics devices. Spin injection and detection is achieved using spin-dependent resonant interband tunneling and spin transistor action is realized through control of the electron spin lifetime in an InAs lateral transport channel using an applied electric field (Rashba effect). This device may also be used as a spin valve, or a magnetic field sensor.

  15. Microbial ecology of arsenic-mobilizing Cambodian sediments: lithological controls uncovered by stable-isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Héry, Marina; Rizoulis, Athanasios; Sanguin, Hervé; Cooke, David A; Pancost, Richard D; Polya, David A; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-06-01

    Microbially mediated arsenic release from Holocene and Pleistocene Cambodian aquifer sediments was investigated using microcosm experiments and substrate amendments. In the Holocene sediment, the metabolically active bacteria, including arsenate-respiring bacteria, were determined by DNA stable-isotope probing. After incubation with (13) C-acetate and (13) C-lactate, active bacterial community in the Holocene sediment was dominated by different Geobacter spp.-related 16S rRNA sequences. Substrate addition also resulted in the enrichment of sequences related to the arsenate-respiring Sulfurospirillum spp. (13) C-acetate selected for ArrA related to Geobacter spp. whereas (13) C-lactate selected for ArrA which were not closely related to any cultivated organism. Incubation of the Pleistocene sediment with lactate favoured a 16S rRNA-phylotype related to the sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrio oxamicus DSM1925, whereas the ArrA sequences clustered with environmental sequences distinct from those identified in the Holocene sediment. Whereas limited As(III) release was observed in Pleistocene sediment after lactate addition, no arsenic mobilization occurred from Holocene sediments, probably because of the initial reduced state of As, as determined by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure. Our findings demonstrate that in the presence of reactive organic carbon, As(III) mobilization can occur in Pleistocene sediments, having implications for future strategies that aim to reduce arsenic contamination in drinking waters by using aquifers containing Pleistocene sediments. © 2014 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Spin relaxation in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbert, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Intriguing magnetic field effects in organic semiconductor devices have been reported: anomalous magnetoresistance in organic spin valves and large effects of small magnetic fields on the current and luminescence of organic light-emitting diodes. Influences of isotopic substitution on these effects points at the role of hyperfine coupling. We performed studies of spin relaxation in organic semiconductors based on (i) coherent spin precession of the electron spin in an effective magnetic field consisting of a random hyperfine field and an applied magnetic field and (ii) incoherent hopping of charges. These ingredients are incorporated in a stochastic Liouville equation for the dynamics of the spin density matrix of single charges as well as pairs of charges. For single charges we find a spin diffusion length that depends on the magnetic field, explaining anomalous magnetoresistance in organic spin valves. For pairs of charges we show that the magnetic field influences formation of singlet bipolarons, in the case of like charges, and singlet and triplet excitons, in the case of opposite charges. We can reproduce different line shapes of reported magnetic field effects, including recently found effects at ultra-small fields.

  17. Coherent spectroscopy of semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Steven T

    2008-03-31

    The coherent optical response of semiconductors has been the subject of substantial research over the last couple of decades. The interest has been motivated by unique aspects of the interaction between light and semiconductors that are revealed by coherent techniques. The ability to probe the dynamics of charge carriers has been a significant driver. This paper presents a review of selected results in coherent optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  18. Semiconductor microcavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, P.L.; Wendt, J.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Warren, M.E.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1994-02-01

    New kinds of semiconductor microcavity lasers are being created by modern semiconductor technologies like molecular beam epitaxy and electron beam lithography. These new microcavities exploit 3-dimensional architectures possible with epitaxial layering and surface patterning. The physical properties of these microcavities are intimately related to the geometry imposed on the semiconductor materials. Among these microcavities are surface-emitting structures which have many useful properties for commercial purposes. This paper reviews the basic physics of these microstructured lasers.

  19. 2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC

    SciTech Connect

    Shengbai Zhang

    2011-01-06

    Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

  20. Quality assurance and quality control in light stable isotope laboratories: a case study of Rio Grande, Texas, water samples.

    PubMed

    Coplen, Tyler B; Qi, Haiping

    2009-06-01

    New isotope laboratories can achieve the goal of reporting the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty for the same material analysed decades apart by (1) writing their own acceptance testing procedures and putting them into their mass spectrometric or laser-based isotope-ratio equipment procurement contract, (2) requiring a manufacturer to demonstrate acceptable performance using all sample ports provided with the instrumentation, (3) for each medium to be analysed, prepare two local reference materials substantially different in isotopic composition to encompass the range in isotopic composition expected in the laboratory and calibrated them with isotopic reference materials available from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), (4) using the optimum storage containers (for water samples, sealing in glass ampoules that are sterilised after sealing is satisfactory), (5) interspersing among sample unknowns local laboratory isotopic reference materials daily (internationally distributed isotopic reference materials can be ordered at three-year intervals, and can be used for elemental analyser analyses and other analyses that consume less than 1 mg of material) - this process applies to H, C, N, O, and S isotope ratios, (6) calculating isotopic compositions of unknowns by normalising isotopic data to that of local reference materials, which have been calibrated to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials, (7) reporting results on scales normalised to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials (where they are available) and providing to sample submitters the isotopic compositions of internationally distributed isotopic reference materials of the same substance had they been analysed with unknowns, (8) providing an audit trail in the laboratory for analytical results - this trail commonly will be in electronic format and might include a laboratory

  1. Quality assurance and quality control in light stable isotope laboratories: A case study of Rio Grande, Texas, water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2009-01-01

    New isotope laboratories can achieve the goal of reporting the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty for the same material analysed decades apart by (1) writing their own acceptance testing procedures and putting them into their mass spectrometric or laser-based isotope-ratio equipment procurement contract, (2) requiring a manufacturer to demonstrate acceptable performance using all sample ports provided with the instrumentation, (3) for each medium to be analysed, prepare two local reference materials substantially different in isotopic composition to encompass the range in isotopic composition expected in the laboratory and calibrated them with isotopic reference materials available from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), (4) using the optimum storage containers (for water samples, sealing in glass ampoules that are sterilised after sealing is satisfactory), (5) interspersing among sample unknowns local laboratory isotopic reference materials daily (internationally distributed isotopic reference materials can be ordered at three-year intervals, and can be used for elemental analyser analyses and other analyses that consume less than 1 mg of material) - this process applies to H, C, N, O, and S isotope ratios, (6) calculating isotopic compositions of unknowns by normalising isotopic data to that of local reference materials, which have been calibrated to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials, (7) reporting results on scales normalised to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials (where they are available) and providing to sample submitters the isotopic compositions of internationally distributed isotopic reference materials of the same substance had they been analysed with unknowns, (8) providing an audit trail in the laboratory for analytical results - this trail commonly will be in electronic format and might include a laboratory

  2. Colloquium: Persistent spin textures in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schliemann, John

    2017-01-01

    Device concepts in semiconductor spintronics make long spin lifetimes desirable, and the requirements put on spin control by proposals for quantum information processing are even more demanding. Unfortunately, due to spin-orbit coupling electron spins in semiconductors are generically subject to rather fast decoherence. In two-dimensional quantum wells made of zinc-blende semiconductors, however, the spin-orbit interaction can be engineered to produce persistent spin structures with extraordinarily long spin lifetimes even in the presence of disorder and imperfections. Experimental and theoretical developments on this subject for both n -doped and p -doped structures are reviewed and possible device applications are discussed.

  3. Frequency modulation of semiconductor disk laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, O G

    2015-07-31

    A numerical model is constructed for a semiconductor disk laser mode-locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and the effect that the phase modulation caused by gain and absorption saturation in the semiconductor has on pulse generation is examined. The results demonstrate that, in a laser cavity with sufficient second-order dispersion, alternating-sign frequency modulation of pulses can be compensated for. We also examine a model for tuning the dispersion in the cavity of a disk laser using a Gires–Tournois interferometer with limited thirdorder dispersion. (control of radiation parameters)

  4. Elucidating the climate and topographic controls on stable isotope composition of meteoric waters in Morocco, using station-based and spatially-interpolated data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Brahim, Yassine; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Khodri, Myriam; Reichert, Barbara; Cruz, Francisco W.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the main controls on stable isotope variations in precipitation is fundamental for the interpretation of the hydrological cycle. However, spatio-temporal variations in δ18Op are poorly known in Morocco. Herein, we explore the relative influence of meteorological variables, spatial and orographic (altitudinal) effects, atmospheric circulation and moisture sources on precipitation stable isotopes in Morocco. Precipitation events and two-years-long monthly records from 17 rain-gauge stations in Morocco are investigated and compared in this study to global gridded records of monthly and annual stable isotopes in precipitation. We highlight that the main spatial controls on precipitation stable isotopes are the topography and the distance from marine source. The most depleted mean annual isotopes are located in the High Atlas Mountains (δ18Op = -9.56‰ and δ2Hp = -59.3‰), while the most enriched isotope ratios exist in southwestern Morocco (δ18Op = -2.35‰ and δ2Hp = -7.47‰). The well-constrained relationship between δ18Op and altitude describes a gradient of 0.11-0.18‰ per 100 m. The seasonal variation is expressed by a general enrichment that reaches -4.8‰ during the dry season, related to the recycled vapor contained within the summer precipitation. Notwithstanding the scarcity of temperature and precipitation measurements, the amount effect is observed in multiple stations during several rain events and precipitation seems to have more influence on δ18Op than temperature. Backward moisture trajectories indicate a distinct depletion in δ18Op in extreme events originating from the Atlantic Ocean. The presence of a rain shadow effect is also revealed on the lee side of High Atlas Mountains, southeastern Morocco.

  5. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  6. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  7. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Grimmer, Derrick P.; Paulson, Kenneth R.; Gilbert, James R.

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  8. Hydrogen Isotopes From Tree Leaves: Evaluation of Environmental and Phenotypic Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, N.; Pagani, M.; McElwain, J.; Vitousek, P.; Chadwick, O.

    2005-12-01

    D/H composition of terrestrial plant lipids is a new tool that has the potential to provide information about paleoclimate. To assess the robustness of the link between D/H of leaf wax lipids and environmental parameters we analyzed n-alkanes from 150 Quercus kelloggii leaves in California and 70 Metrosideros polymorpha leaves from the Big Island of Hawaii. Samples were collected from trees throughout strong climatic gradients. The nC29-alkane isotopic data from Quercus kelloggii in California show two major trends. First, samples close to the coast are D-enriched relative to those in the Sierra Nevada, averaging minus 174 per mil and minus 185 per mil, respectively. Second, samples from northwestern California are D-depleted in comparison with those from the southeast, averaging minus 195 per mil and minus 170 per mil. In order to investigate the source of these differences we compared D/H of nC29 in Quercus kelloggii with D/H of precipitation and other environmental parameters. Principal Component Analysis shows that D/H composition of precipitation is linked to D/H of nC29 stronger than any other parameter. The D/H of nC29 alkanes along the coast - Sierra Nevada transect show a good correlation with D/H of precipitation: R2 = 0.54. However, the relationship between these two variables along the northwest - southeast transect is less robust: R2 = 0.33. Qualitative assessment of the relationship between D/H of nC29 and the relative humidity suggests a negligible effect of this parameter along the coast - Sierra Nevada transect, since the coastal sites with a high relative humidity are characterized by D-enrichment. The importance of relative humidity on the distribution of D/H values of nC29 along the northwest - southeast transect, however, is likely to be a major factor, since samples from the relatively wet northwestern California are generally D-depleted in comparison with those in the drier southeast. Preliminary data from Hawaii indicate that D/H values of n

  9. Hydrogen in ferromagnetic semiconductors for planar spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farshchi, Rouin

    This dissertation documents the use of hydrogen for controlling electrical and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic semiconductors, particularly GaMnAs. With minimal structural perturbation, hydrogen forms complexes with Mn acceptors and renders them neutral, thereby substantially increasing electrical resistivity and removing ferromagnetism. A major finding presented herein is that laser annealing can be used to controllably dissociate the Mn-H complexes and restore ferromagnetism. Structural, electrical, and magnetic effects of the laser activation process are thoroughly explored through experiments and numerical modeling. Local laser activation with tightly-focused ultra-short laser pulses allows for high-resolution direct-writing of ferromagnetic patterns in semiconductors, introducing a new paradigm for device design. Prospects for laser formation of high-temperature phases in ferromagnetic semiconductors are investigated. Finally, several device concepts incorporating the laser activation process are discussed as building blocks towards planar all-semiconductor spintronics.

  10. Vortex Laser based on III-V semiconductor metasurface: direct generation of coherent Laguerre-Gauss modes carrying controlled orbital angular momentum

    PubMed Central

    Seghilani, Mohamed S.; Myara, Mikhael; Sellahi, Mohamed; Legratiet, Luc; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Lalanne, Philippe; Garnache, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The generation of a coherent state, supporting a large photon number, with controlled orbital-angular-momentum L = ħl (of charge l per photon) presents both fundamental and technological challenges: we demonstrate a surface-emitting laser, based on III-V semiconductor technology with an integrated metasurface, generating vortex-like coherent state in the Laguerre-Gauss basis. We use a first order phase perturbation to lift orbital degeneracy of wavefunctions, by introducing a weak anisotropy called here “orbital birefringence”, based on a dielectric metasurface. The azimuthal symmetry breakdown and non-linear laser dynamics create “orbital gain dichroism” allowing selecting vortex handedness. This coherent photonic device was characterized and studied, experimentally and theoretically. It exhibits a low divergence (<1°) diffraction limited beam, emitting 49 mW output power in the near-IR at λ ≃ 1 μm, a charge l = ±1, … ±4 (>50 dB vortex purity), and single frequency operation in a stable low noise regime (0.1% rms). Such high performance laser opens the path to widespread new photonic applications. PMID:27917885

  11. Vortex Laser based on III-V semiconductor metasurface: direct generation of coherent Laguerre-Gauss modes carrying controlled orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghilani, Mohamed S.; Myara, Mikhael; Sellahi, Mohamed; Legratiet, Luc; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Lalanne, Philippe; Garnache, Arnaud

    2016-12-01

    The generation of a coherent state, supporting a large photon number, with controlled orbital-angular-momentum L = ħl (of charge l per photon) presents both fundamental and technological challenges: we demonstrate a surface-emitting laser, based on III-V semiconductor technology with an integrated metasurface, generating vortex-like coherent state in the Laguerre-Gauss basis. We use a first order phase perturbation to lift orbital degeneracy of wavefunctions, by introducing a weak anisotropy called here “orbital birefringence”, based on a dielectric metasurface. The azimuthal symmetry breakdown and non-linear laser dynamics create “orbital gain dichroism” allowing selecting vortex handedness. This coherent photonic device was characterized and studied, experimentally and theoretically. It exhibits a low divergence (<1°) diffraction limited beam, emitting 49 mW output power in the near-IR at λ ≃ 1 μm, a charge l = ±1, … ±4 (>50 dB vortex purity), and single frequency operation in a stable low noise regime (0.1% rms). Such high performance laser opens the path to widespread new photonic applications.

  12. Controlled reactive HiPIMS—effective technique for low-temperature (300 °C) synthesis of VO2 films with semiconductor-to-metal transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlček, J.; Kolenatý, D.; Houška, J.; Kozák, T.; Čerstvý, R.

    2017-09-01

    Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed O2 flow control and to-substrate O2 injection into a high-density plasma in front of the sputtered vanadium target was used for low-temperature (300 °C) deposition of VO2 films with a pronounced semiconductor-to-metal transition onto conventional soda-lime glass substrates without any substrate bias voltage and without any interlayer. The depositions were performed using an unbalanced magnetron with a planar target of 50.8 mm diameter in argon-oxygen gas mixtures at the argon pressure of 1 Pa. The deposition-averaged target power density was close to 13 W cm-2 at a fixed duty cycle of 1% with a peak target power density up to 5 kW cm-2 during voltage pulses ranged from 40 µs to 100 µs. A high modulation of the transmittance at 2500 nm (between 51% and 8% at the film thickness of 88 nm) and the electrical resistivity (changed 350 times) at the transition temperature of 56-57 °C was achieved for the VO2 films synthesized using 50 µs voltage pulses when the crystallization of the thermochromic VO2(M1) phase was supported by the high-energy (up to 50 eV relative to ground potential) ions. Principles of this effective low-temperature deposition technique with a high application potential are presented.

  13. Vortex Laser based on III-V semiconductor metasurface: direct generation of coherent Laguerre-Gauss modes carrying controlled orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Seghilani, Mohamed S; Myara, Mikhael; Sellahi, Mohamed; Legratiet, Luc; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Lalanne, Philippe; Garnache, Arnaud

    2016-12-05

    The generation of a coherent state, supporting a large photon number, with controlled orbital-angular-momentum L = ħl (of charge l per photon) presents both fundamental and technological challenges: we demonstrate a surface-emitting laser, based on III-V semiconductor technology with an integrated metasurface, generating vortex-like coherent state in the Laguerre-Gauss basis. We use a first order phase perturbation to lift orbital degeneracy of wavefunctions, by introducing a weak anisotropy called here "orbital birefringence", based on a dielectric metasurface. The azimuthal symmetry breakdown and non-linear laser dynamics create "orbital gain dichroism" allowing selecting vortex handedness. This coherent photonic device was characterized and studied, experimentally and theoretically. It exhibits a low divergence (<1°) diffraction limited beam, emitting 49 mW output power in the near-IR at λ ≃ 1 μm, a charge l = ±1, … ±4 (>50 dB vortex purity), and single frequency operation in a stable low noise regime (0.1% rms). Such high performance laser opens the path to widespread new photonic applications.

  14. Controls on the Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition (δ 15N, δ 18O, δ 17O) of Atmospheric Nitrate in Princeton, NJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, M. G.; Malcolm, E.; Kaiser, J.; Sigman, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate reflects the oxidative mechanisms that convert NOx to HNO3, while the nitrogen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate may reflect different NOx source signatures and/or fractionations related to NOx chemistry [Michalski et al., 2003; Hastings et al., 2003; Freyer et al., 1993]. New analysis techniques are capable of determining the 15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O isotope ratios in samples at the nanomolar level [Sigman et al., 2001; Casciotti et al., 2002; see Kaiser et al., session H38]. This allows for the analysis of short-term variations in the isotopes of HNO3 with the potential to diagnose causal relationships by comparing the isotopic data with other features of atmospheric deposition. The 15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O of nitrate were analyzed from precipitation samples collected on an event-basis in Princeton, NJ between December 2002 and 2003. The nitrate concentration in Princeton rain ranges from 2.5 to 99.7 μ M (mean=21.1 μ M, n=61), similar to that found in other urban areas of New Jersey by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. The isotopes of nitrate fall in the wide range reported for various environments with the δ 15N ranging from -4.0 to 9.5‰ (vs. air), and the δ 18O and δ 17O ranging from 57.2 to 90.5‰ and 50.7 to 77.8‰ (vs. VSMOW), respectively. The correlation between nitrate and sulfate concentration (R2=0.66) and the lack of a relationship between these major ions and the isotopes of nitrate supports the conclusion that below cloud scavenging is not the dominant control on the isotopic variations observed. Seasonal variations are observed in both the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate. Overall the δ 15N is not correlated with either δ 18O or δ 17O, although both the δ 15N and δ 18O average lowest in the summer and highest in the winter. δ 18O is highly correlated with δ 17O of nitrate with anomalous enrichment in 17O relative to 18O (Δ 17O ranges from 19

  15. Deuterium Isotope Effects During HMX Combustion: Chemical Kinetic Burn Rate Control Mechanism Verified

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    propellant contain- controls the I-IMX burn rate in the pressure range cited. The ing a chemically modified double base ( CMDB ) high oxygen 1.41 KDIE...controlling the observed overall or global burn rate of the could expect from the deuterium labeled HMX methylene HMX/ CMDB composite propellant. It is...measured in the HMX/ CMDB system. A graphic representa- densed phase KDIE investigation of thermochemical decom- non of one cornposic HMX binder

  16. Optically and electrically controlled circularly polarized emission from cholesteric liquid crystal materials doped with semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Bobrovsky, Alexey; Mochalov, Konstantin; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Sukhanova, Alyona; Prudnikau, Anatol; Artemyev, Mikhail; Shibaev, Valery; Nabiev, Igor

    2012-12-04

    Novel types of electro- and photoactive quantum dot-doped cholesteric materials have been engineered. UV-irradiation or electric field application allows one to control the degree of circular polarization and intensity of fluorescence emission by prepared quantum dot-doped liquid crystal films. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Process for forming shaped group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  18. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  19. ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Kudravetz, M.K.; Greene, H.B.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to control systems for a calutron and, in particular, describes an electro-mechanical system for interrupting the collection of charged particles when the ratio between the two isotopes being receivcd deviates from a predetermined value. One embodiment of the invention includes means responsive to the ratio between two isotopes being received for opening a normally closed shutter over the receiver entrance when the isotope ratio is the desired value. In another form of the invention the collection operation is interrupted by changing the beam accelerating voltage to deflect the ion beam away from the receiver.

  20. Magnesium retention on the soil exchange complex controlling Mg isotope variations in soils, soil solutions and vegetation in volcanic soils, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opfergelt, S.; Burton, K. W.; Georg, R. B.; West, A. J.; Guicharnaud, R. A.; Sigfusson, B.; Siebert, C.; Gislason, S. R.; Halliday, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical cycle of magnesium (Mg) is not only crucial for terrestrial ecology, as this element is a key nutrient for plants, but also for quantifying chemical weathering fluxes of Mg and associated atmospheric CO2 consumption, requiring distinction of biotic from abiotic contributions to Mg fluxes exported to the hydrosphere. Here, Mg isotope compositions are reported for parent basalt, bulk soils, clay fractions, exchangeable Mg, seasonal soil solutions, and vegetation for five types of volcanic soils in Iceland in order to improve the understanding of sources and processes controlling Mg supply to vegetation and export to the hydrosphere. Bulk soils (δ26Mg = -0.40 ± 0.11‰) are isotopically similar to the parent basalt (δ26Mg = -0.31‰), whereas clay fractions (δ26Mg = -0.62 ± 0.12‰), exchangeable Mg (δ26Mg = -0.75 ± 0.14‰), and soil solutions (δ26Mg = -0.89 ± 0.16‰) are all isotopically lighter than the basalt. These compositions can be explained by a combination of mixing and isotope fractionation processes on the soil exchange complex. Successive adsorption-desorption of heavy Mg isotopes leads to the preferential loss of heavy Mg from the soil profile, leaving soils with light Mg isotope compositions relative to the parent basalt. Additionally, external contributions from sea spray and organic matter decomposition result in a mixture of Mg sources on the soil exchange complex. Vegetation preferentially takes up heavy Mg from the soil exchange complex (Δ26Mgplant-exch = +0.50 ± 0.09‰), and changes in δ26Mg in vegetation reflect changes in bioavailable Mg sources in soils. This study highlights the major role of Mg retention on the soil exchange complex amongst the factors controlling Mg isotope variations in soils and soil solutions, and demonstrates that Mg isotopes provide a valuable tool for monitoring biotic and abiotic contributions of Mg that is bioavailable for plants and is exported to the hydrosphere.

  1. Fractionation of Fe isotopes during Fe(II) oxidation by a marine photoferrotroph is controlled by the formation of organic Fe-complexes and colloidal Fe fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Wu, Wenfang; Schoenberg, Ronny; Byrne, James; Michel, F. Marc; Pan, Yongxin; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Much interest exists in finding mineralogical, organic, morphological, or isotopic biosignatures for Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) that are retained in Fe-rich sediments, which could indicate the activity of these organisms in Fe-rich seawater, more common in the Precambrian Era. To date, the effort to establish a clear Fe isotopic signature in Fe minerals produced by Fe(II)-oxidizing metabolisms has been thwarted by the large kinetic fractionation incurred as freshly oxidized aqueous Fe(III) rapidly precipitates as Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide minerals at near neutral pH. The Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide minerals resulting from abiotic Fe(II) oxidation are isotopically heavy compared to the Fe(II) precursor and are not clearly distinguishable from minerals formed by FeOB isotopically. However, in marine hydrothermal systems and Fe(II)-rich springs the minerals formed are often isotopically lighter than expected considering the fraction of Fe(II) that has been oxidized and experimentally-determined fractionation factors. We measured the Fe isotopic composition of aqueous Fe (Feaq) and the final Fe mineral (Feppt) produced in batch experiment using the marine Fe(II)-oxidizing phototroph Rhodovulum iodosum. The δ56Feaq data are best described by a kinetic fractionation model, while the evolution of δ56Feppt appears to be controlled by a separate fractionation process. We propose that soluble Fe(III), and Fe(II) and Fe(III) extracted from the Feppt may act as intermediates between Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) precipitation. Based on 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and X-ray total scattering, we suggests these Fe phases, collectively Fe(II/III)interm, may consist of organic-ligand bound, sorbed, and/or colloidal Fe(II) and Fe(III) mineral phases that are isotopically lighter than the final Fe(III) mineral product. Similar intermediate phases, formed in response to organic carbon produced by FeOB and inorganic

  2. Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems using sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios: The example of oil reservoir souring control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope ratios in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had δ18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in δ18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that

  3. Lasing in subwavelength semiconductor nanopatches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhani, Amit M.; Yu, Kyoungsik; Wu, Ming C.

    2011-01-01

    Subwavelength semiconductor nanopatch lasers were analyzed, fabricated and characterized. Lasing was achieved in cylindrical and rectangular metallodielectric nanopatch geometries. The two smallest moderate quality factor modes of cylindrical cavities, the 'electric-' and 'magnetic-' dipole-like modes, successfully lased with physical volumes as small as 0.75 (λ0/n)3. Polarization control in nanopatch geometries is successfully demonstrated in anisotropic rectangular nanopatch structures.

  4. Scalable high-fidelity growth of semiconductor nanorod arrays with controlled geometry for photovoltaic devices using block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Pelligra, Candice I; Huang, Su; Singer, Jonathan P; Mayo, Anthony T; Mu, Richard R; Osuji, Chinedum O

    2014-11-12

    Controlled density semiconducting oxide arrays are highly desirable for matching nanometer length scales specific to emerging applications. This work demonstrates a facile one-step method for templating hydrothermal growth which provides arrays with high-fidelity tuning of nanorod spacing and diameter. This solution-based method leverages the selective swelling of block copolymer micelle templates, which can be rationally designed by tuning molecular weight and volume fraction. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Size-controlled one-pot synthesis of fluorescent cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles in an apoferritin cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahori, K.; Yamashita, I.

    2008-12-01

    A simple size-controlled synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticle (NP) cores in the cavity of apoferritin from horse spleen (HsAFr) was performed by a slow chemical reaction synthesis and a two-step synthesis protocol. We found that the CdS NP core synthesis was slow and that premature CdS NP cores were formed in the apoferritin cavity when the concentration of ammonia water was low. It was proven that the control of the ammonia water concentration can govern the CdS NP core synthesis and successfully produce size-controlled CdS NP cores with diameters from 4.7 to 7.1 nm with narrow size dispersion. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) observation characterized the CdS NP cores obtained as cubic polycrystalline NPs, which showed photoluminescence with red shifts depending on their diameters. From the research of CdS NP core synthesis in the recombinant apoferritins, the zeta potential of apoferritin is important for the biomineralization of CdS NP cores in the apoferritin cavity. These synthesized CdS NPs with different photoluminescence properties will be applicable in a wide variety of nano-applications.

  6. Molecular Semiconductors: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, John; Halls, Jonathan James Michael

    2005-10-01

    Introducing the fundamental ideas and concepts behind organic semiconductors, this book provides a clear impression of the broad range of research activities currently underway. Aimed specifically at new entrant doctoral students from a wide variety of backgrounds, including chemistry, physics, electrical engineering and materials science, it also represents an ideal companion text to undergraduate courses in organic semiconductors.

  7. STABLE ISOTOPE SIGNATURES OF MUCUS OF STEELHEAD TROUT IN A CONTROLLED DIET SWITCH EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our work has shown that fish mucus can serve as a very rapid indicator of diet switching in fish. We performed diet switching studies of steelhead trout in a controlled hatchery setting using specially formulated low delta 15N signature and high delta 15N signature diets. To ou...

  8. STABLE ISOTOPE SIGNATURES OF MUCUS OF STEELHEAD TROUT IN A CONTROLLED DIET SWITCH EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our work has shown that fish mucus can serve as a very rapid indicator of diet switching in fish. We performed diet switching studies of steelhead trout in a controlled hatchery setting using specially formulated low delta 15N signature and high delta 15N signature diets. To ou...

  9. Charge-controlled assembling of bacteriorhodopsin and semiconductor quantum dots for fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based nanophotonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchonville, Nicolas; Molinari, Michael; Sukhanova, Alyona; Artemyev, Mikhail; Oleinikov, Vladimir A.; Troyon, Michel; Nabiev, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and photochromic protein bacteriorhodopsin within its natural purple membrane (PM) is explored to monitor their assembling. It is shown that the efficiency of FRET may be controlled by variation of the surface charge and thickness of QD organic coating. Atomic force microscopy imaging revealed correlation between the surface charge of QDs and degree of their ordering on the surface of PM. The most FRET-efficient QD-PM complexes have the highest level of QDs ordering, and their assembling design may be further optimized to engineer hybrid materials with advanced biophotonic and photovoltaic properties.

  10. Electrically controlled Goos-Hänchen shift of a light beam reflected from the metal-insulator-semiconductor structure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Changyou; Guo, Jun; Wang, Qingkai; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Wen, Shuangchun

    2013-05-06

    We proposed a scheme to manipulate the Goos-Hänchen shift of a light beam reflected from the depletion-type device via external voltage bias. It is shown that the lateral shift of the reflected probe beam can be easily controlled by adjusting the reverse voltage bias and the incidence angle. Using this scheme, the lateral shift can be tuned from negative to positive, without changing the original structure of the depletion-type device. Numerical calculations further indicate that the influence of structure parameters and light wavelength can be reduced via readjustment of the reverse bias. The proposed structure has the potential application for the integrated electronic devices.

  11. Spin-glass behaviors in carrier polarity controlled Fe{sub 3−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} semiconductor thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Yamahara, H.; Seki, M.; Adachi, M.; Takahashi, M.; Nasu, H.; Tabata, H.; Horiba, K.; Kumigashira, H.

    2015-08-14

    Carrier-type control of spin-glass (cluster spin-glass) is studied in order to engineer basic magnetic semiconductor elements using the memory functions of spin-glass. A key of carrier-polarity control in magnetite is the valence engineering between Fe(II) and Fe(III) that is achieved by Ti(IV) substitution. Single phases of (001)-oriented Fe{sub 3−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} thin films have been obtained on spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Thermoelectric power measurements reveal that Ti-rich films (x = 0.8) show p-type conduction, while Ti-poor films (x = 0.6–0.75) show n-type conduction. The systematic Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) followed by Ti(IV) substitution in the octahedral sublattice is confirmed by the X-ray absorption spectra. All of the Fe{sub 3−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} films (x = 0.6–0.8) exhibit ferrimagnetism above room temperature. Next, the spin-glass behaviors of Ti-rich Fe{sub 2.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 4} film are studied, since this magnetically diluted system is expected to exhibit the spin-glass behaviors. The DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements for the Ti-rich Fe{sub 2.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 4} film reveal the presence of the spin glass phase. Thermal- and magnetic-field-history memory effects are observed and are attributed to the long time-decay nature of remanent magnetization. The detailed analysis of the time-dependent thermoremanent magnetization reveals the presence of the cluster spin glass state.

  12. Isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  13. Mode Hopping in Semiconductor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heumier, Timothy Alan

    Semiconductor lasers have found widespread use in fiberoptic communications, merchandising (bar-code scanners), entertainment (videodisc and compact disc players), and in scientific inquiry (spectroscopy, laser cooling). Some uses require a minimum degree of stability of wavelength which is not met by these lasers: Under some conditions, semiconductor lasers can discontinuously switch wavelengths in a back-and-forth manner. This is called mode hopping. We show that mode hopping is directly correlated to noise in the total intensity, and that this noise is easily detected by a photodiode. We also show that there are combinations of laser case temperature and injection current which lead to mode hopping. Conversely, there are other combinations for which the laser is stable. These results are shown to have implications for controlling mode hopping.

  14. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew P.; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5-10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies.

  15. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Matthew P.; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5–10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies. PMID:27577091

  16. A semiconductor photon-sorter.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A J; Lee, J P; Ellis, D J P; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2016-10-01

    Obtaining substantial nonlinear effects at the single-photon level is a considerable challenge that holds great potential for quantum optical measurements and information processing. Of the progress that has been made in recent years one of the most promising methods is to scatter coherent light from quantum emitters, imprinting quantum correlations onto the photons. We report effective interactions between photons, controlled by a single semiconductor quantum dot that is weakly coupled to a monolithic cavity. We show that the nonlinearity of a transition modifies the counting statistics of a Poissonian beam, sorting the photons in number. This is used to create strong correlations between detection events and to create polarization-correlated photons from an uncorrelated stream using a single spin. These results pave the way for semiconductor optical switches operated by single quanta of light.

  17. Limitations and opportunities for Permian-Triassic carbonate-carbon isotope stratigraphy posed by microbial-controlled diagenetic mineral additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schobben, Martin; van de Velde, Sebastiaan; Suchocka, Jana; Leda, Lucyna; Korn, Dieter; Struck, Ulrich; Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens; Hairapetian, Vachik; Ghaderi, Abbas; Korte, Christoph; Newton, Robert J.; Poulton, Simon W.; Wignall, Paul B.

    2017-04-01

    Bulk-carbonate stable carbon isotope records are used to proxy the ancient biogeochemical carbon cycle as well as aid in determining the age of sedimentary deposits. However, the multicomponent nature and the component-specific diagenetic potential of bulk-rock pose limits on the applicability of this proxy in recording ancient seawater chemistry and its usability as a stratigraphic aid. The aim of this study is to disentangle primary trends from diagenetic signals in carbonate-carbon isotope records traversing the Permian-Triassic boundary in marine carbonate-bearing sequences of Iran and South China. We observe, 1) a global first-order trend towards depleted carbon isotope values across the Permian-Triassic transition, 2) second-order carbon isotope variability superimposed on the first-order trend, and 3) a temporal trend in the amplitude of the second-order carbon isotope fluctuations. By application of a diagenetic model, we show that microbial-steered carbonate additions can introduce diagenetic carbon isotope signals to the carbonate archive. Organic carbon sedimentation has the potential to fuel this (sub)seafloor microbial pathway of carbonate stabilization and determines trajectories of diagenetic bulk-rock carbon isotope alteration. Moreover, we identified through this numerical exercise that lowered marine sulfate levels makes the sedimentary system vulnerable to diagenetic modulations of the primary carbon isotope signal, by modest changes of organic carbon supply. This approach suggests that latest Permian reduced bioturbation, consequential heterogeneous organic matter accumulation and authigenic mineralization can explain the temporal trend of increased second-order carbon isotope scatter, whilst retaining the first-order trend. In conclusion, the combined dataset and calculations suggest that the application of carbon isotope chemostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary is at present limited to the recognition of broad temporal patterns

  18. Evaporative Control on Soil Water Isotope Ratios: Implications for Atmosphere-Land Surface Water Fluxes and Interpretation of Terrestrial Proxy Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, A.; Noone, D. C.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; O'Neill, M.

    2014-12-01

    The moisture balance of the continental boundary layer plays an important role in regulating the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and atmosphere. Near-surface moisture balance is controlled by a number of factors including precipitation, infiltration and evapotranspiration. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in water can be exploited to better understand the mechanisms controlling atmosphere-land surface water fluxes. Understanding the processes that set sub-surface water isotope ratios can prove useful for refining paleoclimate interpretations of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope-based proxies. We present in situ tower-based measurements of stable isotope ratios of water (δD and δ18O) in vapor, precipitation and soil from the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, a semi-arid tall-tower site in Erie, Colorado, from July 2012 to September 2014. Near surface profiles from 0 to 10 m were measured approximately every ninety minutes. Soil profiles from 0 to 30 cm, the region of maximum variability, were sampled on a weekly basis and cryogenically extracted for stable water isotope measurement. Evaporation-proof bulk rain collectors provided precipitation samples at this site. Results show disequilibrium exists between surface vapor and soil water isotopes, with the top 10 cm of soil water approaching equilibrium with the surface vapor right after a rain event because of high infiltration and saturation at the surface. At this semi-arid site with little vegetation, evaporative exchange is the main driver for soil water fluxes as the soil dries, corroborated by soil Dexcess profiles showing progressive enrichment through evaporation. In addition, when nighttime surface temperatures are cooler than deep soil, as is the case in many arid and semi-arid environments, upward vapor diffusion from the soil leads to dew formation at the surface which then contributes to surface vapor values. We use these observations to constrain a Craig-Gordon evaporation

  19. Controls, variation, and a record of climate change in detailed stable isotope record in a single bryozoan skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abigail M.; Key, Marcus M., Jr.

    2004-03-01

    The long-lived (about 20 yr) bryozoan Adeonellopsis sp. from Doubtful Sound, New Zealand, precipitates aragonite in isotopic equilibrium with seawater, exerting no metabolic or kinetic effects. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ 18O) in 61 subsamples (along three branches of a single unaltered colony) range from -0.09 to +0.68‰ PDB (mean = +0.36‰ PDB). Carbon isotope ratios (δ 13C) range from +0.84 to +2.18‰ PDB (mean = +1.69‰ PDB). Typical of cool-water carbonates, δ 18O-derived water temperatures range from 14.2 to 17.5 °C. Adeonellopsis has a minimum temperature growth threshold of 14 °C, recording only a partial record of environmental variation. By correlating seawater temperatures derived from δ 18O with the Southern Oscillation Index, however, we were able to detect major events such as the 1983 El Niño. Interannual climatic variation can be recorded in skeletal carbonate isotopes. The range of within-colony isotopic variability found in this study (0.77‰ in δ 18O and 1.34 in δ 13C) means that among-colony variation must be treated cautiously. Temperate bryozoan isotopes have been tested in less than 2% of described extant species — this highly variable phylum is not yet fully understood.

  20. The stable isotopic composition of coral skeletons: control by environmental variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Sandra M.; Buddemeier, Robert W.; Smith, Stephen V.; Kroopnick, Peter M.

    1981-07-01

    The reef corals Pocillopora damicornis and Montipora verrucosa were cultured under various controlled temperature and light conditions. The corals were analyzed for growth rate, tissue pigment content and skeletal 13C and 18O. Coral skeletal δ 13C values varied with light dose and correlated with changes in zooxanthellar pigment. The δ 13C values of skeletal aragonite seem to be modified by oxidation of photosynthetically produced organic matter. Functionally significant relationships between coral skeletal δ 18O values and temperature have been determined. The temperature coefficients of the δ 18O values [-4.4°C (%.) -1] are similar to the first order coefficient in the equilibrium paleotemperature equation, but the δ 18O values have taxonomically consistent offsets from equilibrium. The offsets may be attributed to the coral metabolism with slight but statistically significant differences between the two genera. Environmental and metabolic variables other than temperature have little or no effect on skeletal δ 18O.

  1. Isotopically engineered silicon/silicon-germanium nanostructures as basic elements for a nuclear spin quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlimak, I.; Safarov, V. I.; Vagner, I. D.

    2001-07-01

    The idea of quantum computation is the most promising recent development in the high-tech domain, while experimental realization of a quantum computer poses a formidable challenge. Among the proposed models especially attractive are semiconductor based nuclear spin quantum computers (S-NSQCs), where nuclear spins are used as quantum bistable elements, `qubits', coupled to the electron spin and orbital dynamics. We propose here a scheme for implementation of basic elements for S-NSQCs which are realizable within achievements of the modern nanotechnology. These elements are expected to be based on a nuclear-spin-controlled isotopically engineered Si/SiGe heterojunction, because in these semiconductors one can vary the abundance of nuclear spins by engineering the isotopic composition. A specific device is suggested, which allows one to model the processes of recording, reading and information transfer on a quantum level using the technique of electrical detection of the magnetic state of nuclear spins. Improvement of this technique for a semiconductor system with a relatively small number of nuclei might be applied to the manipulation of nuclear spin `qubits' in the future S-NSQCs.

  2. Slow Light Semiconductor Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-02

    we demonstrate a semiconductor laser with a spectral linewidth of 18 kHz in the telecom band around 1:55um. The views, opinions and/or findings...we demonstrate a semiconductor laser with a spectral linewidth of 18 kHz in the telecom band around 1:55um. Further, the large intracavity field...hybrid Si/III- V platforms Abstract The semiconductor laser is the principal light source powering the world-wide optical fiber network . Ever

  3. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    2005-03-01

    This volume offers a solid foundation for understanding the most important devices used in the hottest areas of electronic engineering today, from semiconductor fundamentals to state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in the telecommunications and computing industries. Kevin Brennan describes future approaches to computing hardware and RF power amplifiers, and explains how emerging trends and system demands of computing and telecommunications systems influence the choice, design and operation of semiconductor devices. In addition, he covers MODFETs and MOSFETs, short channel effects, and the challenges faced by continuing miniaturization. His book is both an excellent senior/graduate text and a valuable reference for practicing engineers and researchers.

  4. Semiconductor diode characterization for total skin electron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Madrid González, O A; Rivera Montalvo, T

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a semiconductor diode characterization was performed. The diode characterization was completed using an electron beam with 4 MeV of energy. The semiconductor diode calibration used irradiation with an electron beam in an ion chamber. "In vivo" dosimetry was also conducted. The dosimetry results revealed that the semiconductor diode was a good candidate for use in the total skin electron therapy (TSET) treatment control.

  5. Spatially controlled Fe and Si isotope variations: an alternative view on the formation of the Torres del Paine pluton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, Norbert A.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Taylor, Alexander H.

    2016-11-01

    We present new Fe and Si isotope ratio data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of an approximately 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous 250-m-thick mafic gabbro suite. This first-of-its-kind spatially dependent Fe and Si isotope investigation of a convergent margin-related pluton aims to understand the nature of granite and silicic igneous rock formation. Results collected by MC-ICP-MS show a trend of increasing δ56Fe and δ30Si with increasing silica content as well as a systematic increase in δ56Fe away from the mafic base of the pluton. The marginal Torres del Paine granites have heavier Fe isotope signatures (δ56Fe = +0.25 ± 0.02 2se) compared to granites found in the interior pluton (δ56Fe = +0.17 ± 0.02 2se). Cerro Toro country rock values are isotopically light in both Fe and Si isotopic systems (δ56Fe = +0.05 ± 0.02 ‰; δ30Si = -0.38 ± 0.07 ‰). The variations in the Fe and Si isotopic data cannot be accounted for by local assimilation of the wall rocks, in situ fractional crystallization, late-stage fluid exsolution or some combination of these processes. Instead, we conclude that thermal diffusion or source magma variation is the most likely process producing Fe isotope ratio variations in the Torres del Paine pluton.

  6. Stable Isotope Values of the Mesoamerican Monsoon: δ18O and δ2H Values Reveal Climate Controls on Summer Rainfall Amount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, J. P.; Lachniet, M. S.; Rosales Lagarde, L.; Morales Puente, P.; Cienfuegos, E.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions using δ18O as a proxy for the isotopic composition of rainfall are based upon the mostly untested assumption that either rainfall amount or equilibration temperature are the main drivers modulating the isotopic composition of pluvial precipitation. Whilst a broad correlation between geographical location and driving mechanisms has been long recognized (i.e. amount effect is pervasive in tropical areas), further tests are required to determine the effect that different sources of moisture might impose on the isotopic composition of precipitation, particularly in areas where contributions from different ocean-basins might be significant, such as south Mexico. Here, we present the δ18O and δ2H composition of summer rainfall collected throughout south, central and western Mexico, particularly from Veracruz, Puebla, Guerrero, Morelos, Mexico City, Jalisco, Michoacán and Querétaro states. The geographical and temporal extent of our sampling (2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2011) results in a large dataset comprising more than 600 samples and represents the base data to understand the atmospheric mechanisms modulating the isotopic composition of rainfall in Mexico. Our data span a range of 30‰ in δ18O, from high values nearest the Gulf of Mexico coast and during weak rainfall events, to lowest values in high-altitude central Mexico and during heavy rainfall events associated with tropical cyclones. Values on the Pacific Coast are intermediate, and likely reflect a contribution of both Gulf of Mexico and Pacific sources. Our data define a meteoric water line of δ2H = 7.92 × δ18O + 9.48, which indicate that most precipitation values formed close to isotopic equilibrium with water vapor. The two primary physiographic variables controlling δ18O values are distance from the Gulf of Mexico and altitude, which together explain about 70% of the variation in spatial δ18O values.

  7. Effects of quantum interference on the electron transport in the semiconductor/benzene/semiconductor junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahedi, Javad; Sartipi, Zahra

    2015-06-01

    Using the tight-binding model and the generalised Green's function formalism, the effect of quantum interference on the electron transport through the benzene molecule in a semiconductor/benzene/semiconductor junction is numerically investigated. We show how the quantum interference sources, different contact positions and local gate can control the transmission characteristics of the electrode/molecule/electrode junction. We also study the occurrence of antiresonant states in the transmission probability function using a simple graphical scheme for different geometries of the contacts between the benzene molecule and semiconductor (silicon and titanium dioxide) electrodes.

  8. Isotopic evidence of multiple controls on atmospheric oxidants over climate transitions.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lei; Murray, Lee T; Mickley, Loretta J; Lin, Pu; Fu, Qiang; Schauer, Andrew J; Alexander, Becky

    2017-06-01

    The abundance of tropospheric oxidants, such as ozone (O3) and hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2), determines the lifetimes of reduced trace gases such as methane and the production of particulate matter important for climate and human health. The response of tropospheric oxidants to climate change is poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in the degree to which processes that influence oxidants may change with climate and owing to a lack of palaeo-records with which to constrain levels of atmospheric oxidants during past climate transitions. At present, it is thought that temperature-dependent emissions of tropospheric O3 precursors and water vapour abundance determine the climate response of oxidants, resulting in lower tropospheric O3 in cold climates while HOx (= OH + HO2 + RO2) remains relatively buffered. Here we report observations of oxygen-17 excess of nitrate (a proxy for the relative abundance of atmospheric O3 and HOx) from a Greenland ice core over the most recent glacial-interglacial cycle and for two Dansgaard-Oeschger events. We find that tropospheric oxidants are sensitive to climate change with an increase in the O3/HOx ratio in cold climates, the opposite of current expectations. We hypothesize that the observed increase in O3/HOx in cold climates is driven by enhanced stratosphere-to-troposphere transport of O3, and that reactive halogen chemistry is also enhanced in cold climates. Reactive halogens influence the oxidative capacity of the troposphere directly as oxidants themselves and indirectly via their influence on O3 and HOx. The strength of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport is largely controlled by the Brewer-Dobson circulation, which may be enhanced in colder climates owing to a stronger meridional gradient of sea surface temperatures, with implications for the response of tropospheric oxidants and stratospheric thermal and mass balance. These two processes may represent important, yet relatively

  9. Isotopic evidence of multiple controls on atmospheric oxidants over climate transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Lei; Murray, Lee T.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Lin, Pu; Fu, Qiang; Schauer, Andrew J.; Alexander, Becky

    2017-06-01

    The abundance of tropospheric oxidants, such as ozone (O3) and hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2), determines the lifetimes of reduced trace gases such as methane and the production of particulate matter important for climate and human health. The response of tropospheric oxidants to climate change is poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in the degree to which processes that influence oxidants may change with climate and owing to a lack of palaeo-records with which to constrain levels of atmospheric oxidants during past climate transitions. At present, it is thought that temperature-dependent emissions of tropospheric O3 precursors and water vapour abundance determine the climate response of oxidants, resulting in lower tropospheric O3 in cold climates while HOx (= OH + HO2 + RO2) remains relatively buffered. Here we report observations of oxygen-17 excess of nitrate (a proxy for the relative abundance of atmospheric O3 and HOx) from a Greenland ice core over the most recent glacial-interglacial cycle and for two Dansgaard-Oeschger events. We find that tropospheric oxidants are sensitive to climate change with an increase in the O3/HOx ratio in cold climates, the opposite of current expectations. We hypothesize that the observed increase in O3/HOx in cold climates is driven by enhanced stratosphere-to-troposphere transport of O3, and that reactive halogen chemistry is also enhanced in cold climates. Reactive halogens influence the oxidative capacity of the troposphere directly as oxidants themselves and indirectly via their influence on O3 and HOx. The strength of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport is largely controlled by the Brewer-Dobson circulation, which may be enhanced in colder climates owing to a stronger meridional gradient of sea surface temperatures, with implications for the response of tropospheric oxidants and stratospheric thermal and mass balance. These two processes may represent important, yet relatively

  10. Semiconductor Solar Superabsorbers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yiling; Huang, Lujun; Cao, Linyou

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the maximal enhancement of solar absorption in semiconductor materials by light trapping promises the development of affordable solar cells. However, the conventional Lambertian limit is only valid for idealized material systems with weak absorption, and cannot hold for the typical semiconductor materials used in solar cells due to the substantial absorption of these materials. Herein we theoretically demonstrate the maximal solar absorption enhancement for semiconductor materials and elucidate the general design principle for light trapping structures to approach the theoretical maximum. By following the principles, we design a practical light trapping structure that can enable an ultrathin layer of semiconductor materials, for instance, 10 nm thick a-Si, absorb > 90% sunlight above the bandgap. The design has active materials with one order of magnitude less volume than any of the existing solar light trapping designs in literature. This work points towards the development of ultimate solar light trapping techniques. PMID:24531211

  11. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    Filling the gap in the literature currently available, this book presents an overview of our knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 18 international research groups cover various aspects of this field, ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in such different devices as organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes. From the contents: * Excitation Dynamics in Organic Semiconductors * Organic Field-Effect Transistors * Spectroscopy of Organic Semiconductors * Interfaces between Organic Semiconductors and Metals * Analysis and Modeling of Devices * Exciton Formation and Energy Transfer in Organic Light Emitting Diodes * Deposition and Characterization

  12. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices. PMID:28681843

  13. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices.

  14. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W A; Bommer, Jouri D S; van Woerkom, David J; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2017-07-06

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices.

  15. Factors controlling hydrogen isotope ratios of plant leaf waxes: implications for interpreting delta D record during major intervals of climate transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Hou, J.; D'Andrea, W.; Toney, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentary records of hydrogen isotope ratios of higher plant leaf waxes are increasingly used to infer changes in continental hydrology. Ideally, plant leaf wax delta D values can be used to calculate precipitation delta D values, which is a well-established proxy for reconstructing temperature and/or precipitation changes (e.g., ice cores record delta D values of past precipitation). However, multiple factors besides precipitation affect leaf wax delta D values in terrestrial plants. Soil evaporation and plant transpiration increase δD values of plant leaf water; whereas, biosynthesis of leaf waxes decreases the deuterium content in the products relative to leaf water. Our recent studies indicate that different plants from a single site (hence receiving the same precipitation) show large variability in their leaf wax delta D values (up to 70 permil difference between trees and grasses) (Hou et al., in review). The results highlight the importance of fully understanding the hydrogen isotopic fractionation between individual steps from plant source water to leaf waxes, so that proper interpretation of hydrogen isotope records in ancient sediments can be made. In this presentation, I will review the published work and summarize our latest experimental and field results on key factors controlling the leaf wax delta D values in higher plants. Our plant growth experiments under controlled laboratory conditions allow us to determine how relative humidity, evapotranspiration rates and biosynthetic fractionation affect the leaf wax delta D values. Our field data on lake surface sediments provide conditions and constraints for interpreting leaf wax delta D values as precipitation isotope changes. I will also present several high resolution leaf wax delta D records from aquatic sediments spanning major climate transitions and discuss their climatic inferences in light of the latest understanding of factors controlling the leaf wax delta D values in higher plants.

  16. SILICON CARBIDE FOR SEMICONDUCTORS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This state-of-the-art survey on silicon carbide for semiconductors includes a bibliography of the most important references published as of the end...of 1964. The various methods used for growing silicon carbide single crystals are reviewed, as well as their properties and devices fabricated from...them. The fact that the state of-the-art of silicon carbide semiconductors is not further advanced may be attributed to the difficulties of growing

  17. Understanding of anthropogenic controls on water chemistry and isotopic compositions of nitrate in the Geum River, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, D.; Shin, W.; Park, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations of dissolved ions and isotopic compositions of nitrate were determined for water samples collected along the main channel of the Geum River, South Korea to identify anthropogenic and natural controls on water chemistry. The catchment characteristics vary along the river encompassing relatively undisturbed forest areas in its upper reach, agricultural and populated urban areas in the middle, and dominantly agricultural areas in the lower reach. Compared to the undisturbed upper reach, the dissolved ion concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO42- and NO3-) slightly increased in agricultural areas. Abrupt increases in Na, Cl, SO42- and NO3- concentrations were observed in the river water after flowing through populated Daejeon metropolitan city. The effects of anthropogenic inputs were clearly represented in SO42- vs. Cl cross plot. Data from all locations were plotted along the assumed binary mixing line between rainwater and sewage with the data from the upper reach plotted close to the rainwater and the data from the urban areas close to the sewage end-member. δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 indicated that the dominant nitrate sources in the river were manure/sewage derived from agricultural and residential areas, except the dam discharge that contains a large proportion of soil nitrates. Notably, the anthropogenic disturbances in water chemistry were moderated in the lower reaches and dam discharges possibly due to the dilution effects and metabolic recycling. Our results suggest that water chemistry in the Geum River was closely related to the land use patterns in the catchment and therefore the management efforts for water quality should be devised according to the catchment characteristics.

  18. Semiconductor activated terahertz metamaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-08-01

    Metamaterials have been developed as a new class of artificial effective media realizing many exotic phenomena and unique properties not normally found in nature. Metamaterials enable functionality through structure design, facilitating applications by addressing the severe material issues in the terahertz frequency range. Consequently, prototype functional terahertz devices have been demonstrated, including filters, antireflection coatings, perfect absorbers, polarization converters, and arbitrary wavefront shaping devices. Further integration of functional materials into metamaterial structures have enabled actively and dynamically switchable and frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials through the application of external stimuli. The enhanced light-matter interactions in active terahertz metamaterials may result inmore » unprecedented control and manipulation of terahertz radiation, forming the foundation of many terahertz applications. In this paper, we review the progress during the past few years in this rapidly growing research field. We particularly focus on the design principles and realization of functionalities using single-layer and few-layer terahertz planar metamaterials, and active terahertz metamaterials through the integration of semiconductors to achieve switchable and frequency-tunable response.« less

  19. Semiconductor activated terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-08-01

    Metamaterials have been developed as a new class of artificial effective media realizing many exotic phenomena and unique properties not normally found in nature. Metamaterials enable functionality through structure design, facilitating applications by addressing the severe material issues in the terahertz frequency range. Consequently, prototype functional terahertz devices have been demonstrated, including filters, antireflection coatings, perfect absorbers, polarization converters, and arbitrary wavefront shaping devices. Further integration of functional materials into metamaterial structures have enabled actively and dynamically switchable and frequency tunable terahertz metamaterials through the application of external stimuli. The enhanced light-matter interactions in active terahertz metamaterials may result in unprecedented control and manipulation of terahertz radiation, forming the foundation of many terahertz applications. In this paper, we review the progress during the past few years in this rapidly growing research field. We particularly focus on the design principles and realization of functionalities using single-layer and few-layer terahertz planar metamaterials, and active terahertz metamaterials through the integration of semiconductors to achieve switchable and frequency-tunable response.

  20. Engineering optical properties of semiconductor metafilm superabsorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2016-04-01

    Light absorption in ultrathin layer of semiconductor has been considerable interests for many years due to its potential applications in various optical devices. In particular, there have been great efforts to engineer the optical properties of the film for the control of absorption spectrums. Whereas the isotropic thin films have intrinsic optical properties that are fixed by materials' properties, metafilm that are composed by deep subwavelength nano-building blocks provides significant flexibilities in controlling the optical properties of the designed effective layers. Here, we present the ultrathin semiconductor metafilm absorbers by arranging germanium (Ge) nanobeams in deep subwavelength scale. Resonant properties of high index semiconductor nanobeams play a key role in designing effective optical properties of the film. We demonstrate this in theory and experimental measurements to build a designing rule of efficient, controllable metafilm absorbers. The proposed strategy of engineering optical properties could open up wide range of applications from ultrathin photodetection and solar energy harvesting to the diverse flexible optoelectronics.

  1. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    SciTech Connect

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, T