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Sample records for iss elements systems

  1. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  2. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  3. Implementation of Leak Test Methods for the International Space Station (ISS) Elements, Systems and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Steve; Lvovsky, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS has Qualification and Acceptance Environmental Test Requirements document, SSP 41172 that includes many environmental tests such as Thermal vacuum & Cycling, Depress/Repress, Sinusoidal, Random, and Acoustic Vibration, Pyro Shock, Acceleration, Humidity, Pressure, Electromatic Interference (EMI)/Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMCO), etc. This document also includes (13) leak test methods for Pressure Integrity Verification of the ISS Elements, Systems, and Components. These leak test methods are well known, however, the test procedure for specific leak test method shall be written and implemented paying attention to the important procedural steps/details that, if omitted or deviated, could impact the quality of the final product and affect the crew safety. Such procedural steps/details for different methods include, but not limited to: - Sequence of testing, f or example, pressurization and submersion steps for Method I (Immersion); - Stabilization of the mass spectrometer leak detector outputs fo r Method II (vacuum Chamber or Bell jar); - Proper data processing an d taking a conservative approach while making predictions for on-orbit leakage rate for Method III(Pressure Change); - Proper Calibration o f the mass spectrometer leak detector for all the tracer gas (mostly Helium) Methods such as Method V (Detector Probe), Method VI (Hood), Method VII (Tracer Probe), Method VIII(Accumulation); - Usage of visibl ility aides for Method I (Immersion), Method IV (Chemical Indicator), Method XII (Foam/Liquid Application), and Method XIII (Hydrostatic/Visual Inspection); While some methods could be used for the total leaka ge (either internal-to-external or external-to-internal) rate requirement verification (Vacuum Chamber, Pressure Decay, Hood, Accumulation), other methods shall be used only as a pass/fail test for individual joints (e.g., welds, fittings, and plugs) or for troubleshooting purposes (Chemical Indicator, Detector Probe

  4. Results of the first stage (2002-2009) of investigation of higher plants onboard RS ISS, as an element of future closed Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Novikova, Nataliya; Sugimoto, Manabu

    A key task for biomedical human support in long-term manned space expeditions is the develop-ment of the Life Support System (LSS). It is expected that in the first continuous interplanetary expeditions LSS of only a few biological elements of the LSS, such as higher plants will be in-cluded. Therefore, investigations of growth and development of higher plants for consideration in the LSS are of high importance. In a period from October, 2002 to December 2009, 15 ex-periments on cultivation of different plants, including two genetically marked species of dwarf peas, a leaf vegetable strain of Mizuna, radish, barley and wheat were conducted in space greenhouse "LADA" onboard Russian Segment (RS) of International Space Station (ISS). The experiments resulted in the conclusion that the properties of growth and development of plants grown in space greenhouse "LADA" were unaffected by spaceflight conditions. In experiments conducted in a period from 2003 to 2005, it was shown for the first time that pea plants pre-serve reproductive functions, forming viable seeds during at least four continuous full cycles of ontogenesis ("seed to seed") under spaceflight conditions. No changes were found in the genetic apparatus of the pea plants in the four "space" generations. Since 2005, there have been routine collections of microbiological samples from the surfaces of the plants grown on-board in "LADA" greenhouse. Analysis has shown that the properties of contamination of the plants grown aboard by microorganism contain no abnormal patterns. Since 2008, the plants cultivated in "LADA" greenhouse have been frozen onboard RS ISS in the MELFI refrigerator and transferred to the Earth for further investigations. Investigations of Mizuna plants grown and frozen onboard of ISS, showed no differences between "ground control" and "space" plants in chemical and biochemical properties. There also no stress-response was found in kashinriki strain barley planted and frozen onboard ISS.

  5. ISS Update: High Rate Communications System

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Diego Serna, Communications and Tracking Officer, about the High Rate Communications System. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the ha...

  6. Upgrades to the ISS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruitt, Jennifer M.; Carter, Layne; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Kayatin, Mattthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) includes the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. The WRS has been operational on ISS since November 2008, producing over 21,000 L of potable water during that time. Though the WRS has performed well during this time, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications can reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper lists these modifications, how they improve WRS performance, and a status on the ongoing development effort.

  7. Battery Resistance Analysis of ISS Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newstadt, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    The computer package, SPACE (Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) was created by the members of LT-9D to perform power analysis and modeling of the electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS). Written in FORTRAN, SPACE comprises thousands of lines of code and has been used profficiently in analyzing missions to the ISS. LT-9D has also used its expertise recently to investigate the batteries onboard the Hubble telescope. During the summer of 2004, I worked with the members of LT-9D, under the care of Dave McKissock. Solar energy will power the ISS through eight solar arrays when the ISS is completed, although only two arrays are currently connected. During the majority of the periods of sunlight, the solar arrays provide enough energy for the ISS. However, rechargeable Nickel-Hydrogen batteries are used during eclipse periods or at other times when the solar arrays cannot be used (at docking for example, when the arrays are turned so that they will not be damaged by the Shuttle). Thirty-eight battery cells are connected in series, which make up an ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit). An ISS "battery" is composed of two ORUs. a great deal of time into finding the best way to represent them in SPACE. During my internship, I investigated the resistance of the ISS batteries. SPACE constructs plots of battery charge and discharge voltages vs. time using a constant current. To accommodate for a time-varying current, the voltages are adjusted using the formula, DeltaV = DeltaI * Cell Resistance. To enhance our model of the battery resistance, my research concentrated on several topics: investigating the resistance of a qualification unit battery (using data gathered by LORAL), comparing the resistance of the qualification unit to SPACE, looking at the internal resistance and wiring resistance, and examining the impact of possible recommended changes to SPACE. The ISS batteries have been found to be very difficult to model, and LT-9D has

  8. Shuttle and ISS Food Systems Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloeris, Vickie

    2000-01-01

    Russia and the U.S. provide the current International Space Station (ISS) food system. Each country contributes half of the food supply in their respective flight food packaging. All of the packaged flight food is stowed in Russian provided containers, which interface with the Service Module galley. Each country accepts the other's flight worthiness inspections and qualifications. Some of the food for the first ISS crew was launched to ISS inside the Service Module in July of 2000, and STS-106 in September 2000 delivered more food to the ISS. All subsequent food deliveries will be made by Progress, the Russian re-supply vehicle. The U.S. will ship their portion of food to Moscow for loading onto the Progress. Delivery schedules vary, but the goal is to maintain at least a 45-day supply onboard ISS at all times. The shelf life for ISS food must be at least one year, in order to accommodate the long delivery cycle and onboard storage. Preservation techniques utilized in the US food system include dehydration, thermo stabilization, intermediate moisture, and irradiation. Additional fresh fruits and vegetables will be sent with each Progress and Shuttle flights as permitted by volume allotments. There is limited refrigeration available on the Service Module to store fresh fruits and vegetables. Astronauts and cosmonauts eat half U.S. and half Russian food. Menu planning begins 1 year before a planned launch. The flight crews taste food in the U.S. and in Russia and rate the acceptability. A preliminary menu is planned, based on these ratings and the nutritional requirements. The preliminary menu is then evaluated by the crews while training in Russia. Inputs from this evaluation are used to finalize the menu and flight packaging is initiated. Flight food is delivered 6 weeks before launch. The current challenge for the food system is meeting the nutritional requirements, especially no more than 10 mg iron, and 3500 mg sodium. Experience from Shuttle[Mir also indicated

  9. Upgrades to the ISS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayatin, Matthew J.; Carter, Donald L.; Schunk, Richard G.; Pruitt, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station Water Recovery System (WRS) is comprised of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. Though the WRS has performed well since operations began in November 2008, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications can reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper details efforts to reduce the resupply mass of the WPA Multifiltration Bed, develop improved catalyst for the WPA Catalytic Reactor, evaluate optimum operation of UPA through parametric testing, and improve reliability of the UPA fluids pump and Distillation Assembly.

  10. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2003-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2003 and March 2004. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  11. On-Orbit Propulsion System Performance of ISS Visiting Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Mary Regina M.; Swanson, Robert A.; Kamath, Ulhas P.; Hernandez, Francisco J.; Spencer, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents the culmination of over two decades of unprecedented global human endeavors to conceive, design, build and operate a research laboratory in space. Uninterrupted human presence in space since the inception of the ISS has been made possible by an international fleet of space vehicles facilitating crew rotation, delivery of science experiments and replenishment of propellants and supplies. On-orbit propulsion systems on both ISS and Visiting Vehicles are essential to the continuous operation of the ISS. This paper compares the ISS visiting vehicle propulsion systems by providing an overview of key design drivers, operational considerations and performance characteristics. Despite their differences in design, functionality, and purpose, all visiting vehicles must adhere to a common set of interface requirements along with safety and operational requirements. This paper addresses a wide variety of methods for satisfying these requirements and mitigating credible hazards anticipated during the on-orbit life of propulsion systems, as well as the seamless integration necessary for the continued operation of the ISS.

  12. ISS space radiation environment as observed by radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, Victor; Petrov, V.; Panasyuk, Michail; Nechaev, Oleg; Lishnevskiy, Andrey; Volkov, Aleksey

    Radiation monitoring system (RMS) has worked on board of the International Space Station (ISS) Service Module practically continuously beginning from August 2001. Data of dose rate on board the ISS observed by the RMS beginning from August 2001 up to January 2008 are presented. The dose rate values measured by four detectors disposed in different places of the Service Module are compared. The measurements were carried out under a wide variety of solar and geomagnetic activity conditions during decreasing phase of the 23-th solar cycle. Solar proton events doses measured by RMS are presented. It was noted a high difference of the dose values measured in various places of the ISS Service Module. The dose values caused by the large solar particle events including October 2003 and January 2005 events are presented. In particular, the maximum solar particle event dose during the full-considered period of the ISS flight was fixed in the October 2003 events.

  13. Filter Efficiency and Leak Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements After 2.5 Years of Continuous Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere revitalization equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provides the vital functions of maintaining a habitable environment for the crew as well as protecting the hardware from fouling by suspended particulate matter. Providing these functions are challenging in pressurized spacecraft cabins because no outside air ventilation is possible and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation in reduced gravity conditions. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each module. These filters are referred to as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs). As more experience has been gained with ISS operations, the BFE service life, which was initially one year, has been extended to two to five years, dependent on the location in the U.S. Segment. In previous work we developed a test facility and test protocol for leak testing the ISS BFEs. For this work, we present results of leak testing a sample set of returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years, along with particulate removal efficiency and pressure drop measurements. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS to 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  14. ISS-CREAM Thermal and Fluid System Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Rosemary S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. The ISS-CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station) payload is being developed by an international team and will provide significant cosmic ray characterization over a long time frame. Cold fluid provided by the ISS Exposed Facility (EF) is the primary means of cooling for 5 science instruments and over 7 electronics boxes. Thermal fluid integrated design and analysis was performed for CREAM using a Thermal Desktop model. This presentation will provide some specific design and modeling examples from the fluid cooling system, complex SCD (Silicon Charge Detector) and calorimeter hardware, and integrated payload and ISS level modeling. Features of Thermal Desktop such as CAD simplification, meshing of complex hardware, External References (Xrefs), and FloCAD modeling will be discussed.

  15. Preparation and Launch of the JEM ISS Elements - A NASA Mission Manager's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The pre-flight launch site preparations and launch of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) elements of the International Space Station required an intense multi-year, international collaborative effort between US and Japanese personnel at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This presentation will provide a brief overview of KSC, a brief overview of the ISS, and a summary of authors experience managing the NASA team responsible that supported and conducted the JEM element operations.

  16. Innovative Imagery System for Enhanced Habitability Onboard ISS: Desired Features and Possible Hardware Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Byrne, Vicky

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of the ISS and the experience of Russian, European, and US crewmembers on Mir, the importance of the psychological element in long duration missions is increasingly recognized. An integrated imagery system or Magic Window System could enhance the habitability, performance, and productivity for long term stays in space. Because this is type of system is a new concept for space, functional and technical requirements need to be determined. As part of a three-year project, the functional and technical requirements for an Imagery System onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been explored. Valuable information was gathered from a survey completed by participants that had been in analog environments (remote/isolated) such as Antarctica, Aquarius, ISS crewmember debriefs, and crew support meetings to identify key functions desired for an integrated Magic Window System. Exercise and medical care activities were identified as areas that could benefit from such a system. It was determined that for exercise, it was worth exploring the concept of displaying a dynamic screen that changes as the crewmember's speed changes while showing physiological measures in a combined display. In terms of enhancing the interfaces for medical care activities, the Magic Window System could show video clips along side procedures for just-in-time training scenarios through a heads-up display. In addition, the portability, usability, and reliability were stressed as important considerations for an integrated system of technologies or Magic Window System. In addition, a review of state-of-the-art screens and other existing technologies such as tablet PCs and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) was conducted and contributed to defining technical requirements and feasibility of systems. Some heuristic evaluations of large displays and PDAs were conducted. Finally, feasibility for implementation onboard ISS has been considered. Currently, specific headset units are

  17. Status of the ISS Trace Contaminant Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Perry, Jay L.; Johnson, Sharon A.; Belcher, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    A habitable atmosphere is a fundamental requirement for human spaceflight. To meet such a requirement, the cabin atmosphere must be constantly scrubbed to maintain human life and system functionality. The primary system for atmospheric scrubbing of the US on-orbit segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS). As part of the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) atmosphere revitalization rack in the US Lab, the TCCS operates continuously, scrubbing trace contaminants generated primarily by two sources: the metabolic offgassing of crew members and the offgassing of equipment in the ISS. It has been online for approximately 95% since activated in February 2001. The TCCS is comprised of a charcoal bed, a catalytic oxidizer, and a lithium hydroxide post-sorbent bed, all of which are designed to be replaced onorbit when necessary. In 2006, all three beds were replaced following an observed increase in the system resistance that occurred over a period several months. The beds were returned to ground and subjected to a test, teardown and evaluation to investigate the root cause(s) of the decrease in flow rate through the system. In addition, various chemical and physical analyses of the bed materials were performed to determine contaminant loading and any changes in performance. This paper will mainly focus on the results of these analyses and how this correlates with what has been observed from archival sampling and onorbit events. This may provide insight into the future performance of the TCCS and rate of change for orbital replacement units in the TCCS.

  18. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: 2010-2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Cover, John

    2015-01-01

    Nov 2, 2014 marked the completion of the 14th year of continuous human presence in space on board the International Space Station (ISS). After 42 expedition crews, over 115 assembly & utilization flights, over 180 combined Shuttle/Station, US & Russian Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), the post-Assembly-Complete ISS continues to fly and the engineering teams continue to learn from operating its systems, particularly the life support equipment. Problems with initial launch, assembly and activation of ISS elements have given way to more long term system operating trends. New issues have emerged, some with gestation periods measured in years. Major events and challenges for each U.S. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) subsystem occurring during calendar years 2010 through 2014 are summarily discussed in this paper, along with look-aheads for what might be coming in the future for each U.S. ECLS subsystem.

  19. Evaluating the Medical Kit System for the International Space Station(ISS) - A Paradigm Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, Melinda J.; Urbina, Michelle C.; Hughlett, Jessica L.; Gilmore, Stevan; Locke, James; Reyna, Baraquiel; Smith, Gwyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been packaged to help astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) mitigate both urgent and non-urgent medical issues during their 6-month expeditions. Two ISS crewmembers are designated as CMOs for each 3-crewmember mission and are typically not physicians. In addition, the ISS may have communication gaps of up to 45 minutes during each orbit, necessitating medical equipment that can be reliably operated autonomously during flight. The retirement of the space shuttle combined with ten years of manned ISS expeditions led the Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to reassess the current ISS Medical Kit System. This reassessment led to the system being streamlined to meet future logistical considerations with current Russian space vehicles and future NASA/commercial space vehicle systems. Methods The JSC Space Medicine Division coordinated the development of requirements, fabrication of prototypes, and conducted usability testing for the new ISS Medical Kit System in concert with implementing updated versions of the ISS Medical Check List and associated in-flight software applications. The teams constructed a medical kit system with the flexibility for use on the ISS, and resupply on the Russian Progress space vehicle and future NASA/commercial space vehicles. Results Prototype systems were developed, reviewed, and tested for implementation. Completion of Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews resulted in a streamlined ISS Medical Kit System that is being used for training by ISS crews starting with Expedition 27 (June 2011). Conclusions The team will present the process for designing, developing, , implementing, and training with this new ISS Medical Kit System.

  20. Internet-Based System for Voice Communication With the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James; Myers, Gerry; Clem, David; Speir, Terri

    2005-01-01

    The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) is a voice-communication system that comprises mainly computer hardware and software. The IVoDS was developed to supplement and eventually replace the Enhanced Voice Distribution System (EVoDS), which, heretofore, has constituted the terrestrial subsystem of a system for voice communications among crewmembers of the International Space Station (ISS), workers at the Payloads Operations Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, principal investigators at diverse locations who are responsible for specific payloads, and others. The IVoDS utilizes a communication infrastructure of NASA and NASArelated intranets in addition to, as its name suggests, the Internet. Whereas the EVoDS utilizes traditional circuitswitched telephony, the IVoDS is a packet-data system that utilizes a voice over Internet protocol (VOIP). Relative to the EVoDS, the IVoDS offers advantages of greater flexibility and lower cost for expansion and reconfiguration. The IVoDS is an extended version of a commercial Internet-based voice conferencing system that enables each user to participate in only one conference at a time. In the IVoDS, a user can receive audio from as many as eight conferences simultaneously while sending audio to one of them. The IVoDS also incorporates administrative controls, beyond those of the commercial system, that provide greater security and control of the capabilities and authorizations for talking and listening afforded to each user.

  1. Improved Emergency Egress Lighting System for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Leslie L.; Barr, Don A.

    2005-01-01

    Emergency lights provide illumination in corridors, stairwells, ramps, escalators, aisles, and exit passageways during power failures. Safety and visibility are critical during a power outage. If emergency lights fail to operate properly, the building occupants can become disoriented. Four documents in a collection discuss different topics relating to a proposed improved emergency egress lighting system (EELS) for the International Space Station (ISS). While the present EELS is designed around rows of green-light-emitting diodes, the proposed system contains strips of electroluminescent tape using different colors for each egress path. The proposed EELS can be powered by the same battery currently used by the present EELS, but would require an inverter because electroluminescent devices require AC. Electroluminescent devices also require significantly less current and, depending on the color, would emit 3 to 8 times the light of the present EELS. In addition, they could operate for up to 75 hours (versus .20 minutes for the present system). The first document contains a one-page summary of the proposal and an evaluation of technical merit. The second document summarizes the motivation for, and the design of, the proposed EELS. The third document addresses relevant aspects of the measurement of spectral sensitivity and the psychophysics of perception of light. The fourth document presents additional background information and technical specifications for the electroluminescent tapes.

  2. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  3. The ISS Increments 3 and 4 Test Report: For the Active Rack Isolation System ISS Characterization Experiment (ARIS-ICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quraishi, Naveed; Allen, Jim; Bushnell, Glenn; Fialho, Ian

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of ARIS-ICE is to improve, optimize then operationally test and document the performance of the ARIS system on the International Space Station. The ICE program required testing across a full 3 increments (2 through 4). This paper represents the operational report summarizing our accomplishments through the third and fourth increment of testing. The main objectives and results of the increment two testing are discussed in The Increment two Operational Report. This report can be obtained from the ISS Payloads Office or from (http://iss-www.isc.nasa.gov/sslissapt/payofc/OZ3/ARIS.html). In summary these were to ensure the smooth and successful activation of the system and correct operational issues related to long term testing. Then the follow on increment 3 & 4 testing encompassed the majority of the on orbit performance assessments and improvements made to the ARIS system. The intent here is to report these preliminary results of the increment 3 & 4 ARIS-ICE testing as well as the ARIS system improvements made for our users and customers.

  4. A Selected Operational History of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) for International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Vipul P.; Winton, Dale; Ibarra, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) has been developed jointly by Boeing Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama and Honeywell Engines & Systems, Torrance, California to meet the internal thermal control needs for the International Space Station (ISS). The ITCS provides heat removal for the critical life support systems and thermal conditioning for numerous experiment racks. The ITCS will be fitted on a number of modules on the ISS. The first US Element containing the ITCS, Node 1, was launched in December 1998. Since Node 1 does not contain a pump to circulate the fluid it was not filled with ITCS fluid until after the US Laboratory Module was installed. The second US Element module, US Laboratory Module, which contains the pumps and all the major ITCS control hardware, was launched in February 2001. The third US Element containing the ITCS, the US Airlock, was launched in July 2001. The dual loop system of the ITCS is comprised of a lowtemperature loop (LTL) and a moderate-temperature loop (MTL). Each loop has a pump package assembly (PPA), a system flow control assembly (SFCA), a threeway mixing valve (TWMV), several rack flow control assemblies (RFCA), cold plates, pressure sensors, temperature sensors, pump bypass assembly (PBA) and a heat exchanger. In addition, the MTL has an additional TWMV, a payload regeneration heat exchanger (P/RHE) and a manual flow control valve (MFCV). The LTL has a service performance and checkout unit (SPCU) heat exchanger. The two loops are linked via one loop crossover assembly (LCA) providing cross loop capabilities and a single PPA, two-loop functionality. One important parameter monitored by the ground stations and on-orbit is the amount of fluid leakage from the ITCS. ISS fluid leakage is of importance since ITCS fluid is costly to re-supply, may be difficult to clean up in zero-g, and if uncontained could lead to equipment failures and potential hazards. This paper examines the nominal leakage observed over period of a year

  5. ISERV Pathfinder. The ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Burgess

    2011-01-01

    SERVIR integrates Earth observations (e.g., space imagery), predictive models, and in situ data to provide timely information products to support environmental decision makers. ISERV propoesed development -- ISERV-W: Internal Visible/Near-Infrared (VNIR), attached to ISS via Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), ISERV-E: External Visible/Broad-Infrared (V/IR) and ISERV-PM: External Passive Microwave.

  6. CHeCS (Crew Health Care Systems): International Space Station (ISS) Medical Hardware Catalog. Version 10.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this catalog is to provide a detailed description of each piece of hardware in the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS), including subpacks associated with the hardware, and to briefly describe the interfaces between the hardware and the ISS. The primary user of this document is the Space Medicine/Medical Operations ISS Biomedical Flight Controllers (ISS BMEs).

  7. AN-Type Fittings in the International Space System (ISS) Node 2 Ammonia System Technical Assessment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cragg, Clinton H.; Dibbern, Andreas W.; Beil, Robert J.; Terrone, Mark; Rotter, Henry A.; Ernest, Steve; Frankenfield, Bruce; Solano, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Based on an anonymous request, an NESC Assessment Team was formed to investigate potential leakage problems from the ISS Program's Node 2 Anhydrous Ammonia System AN fittings. The Team's charter was to provide the ISS Program with a path to follow, which could include testing, to ensure the ISS Program felt confident that the AN fittings' leakage would not exceed specified limits in orbit. The findings from that assessment are contained in this document.

  8. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS) for Vehicle Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Mahammad A.; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications. PMID:22205861

  9. Exploration Platform in the Earth-Moon Libration System Based on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Derechin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) industry partners have been working for the past two years on concepts using ISS development methods and residual assets to support a broad range of exploration missions. These concepts have matured along with planning details for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to allow serious consideration for a platform located in the Earth-Moon Libration (EML) system. This platform would provide a flexible basis for future exploration missions and would significantly reduce costs because it will enable re-use of expensive spacecraft and reduce the total number of launches needed to accomplish these missions. ISS provides a robust set of methods which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. We will show how ISS can be used to reduce risk and improve operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit through the development of a new Exploration Platform based in the EML system. The benefits of using the EML system as a gateway will be presented along with additional details of a lunar exploration mission concept. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. We will show how technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the new exploration challenge. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Finally, we will describe how the EML Platform could be built and deployed and how International access for crew and cargo could be provided.

  10. Evaluation of Human Research Facility Ultrasound With the ISS Video System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Shannon; Sargsyan, Ashot

    2003-01-01

    Most medical equipment on the International Space Station (ISS) is manifested as part of the U.S. or the Russian medical hardware systems. However, certain medical hardware is also available as part of the Human Research Facility. The HRF and the JSC Medical Operations Branch established a Memorandum of Agreement for joint use of certain medical hardware, including the HRF ultrasound system, the only diagnostic imaging device currently manifested to fly on ISS. The outcome of a medical contingency may be changed drastically, or an unnecessary evacuation may be prevented, if clinical decisions are supported by timely and objective diagnostic information. In many higher-probability medical scenarios, diagnostic ultrasound is a first-choice modality or provides significant diagnostic information. Accordingly, the Clinical Care Capability Development Project is evaluating the HRF ultrasound system for its utility in relevant clinical situations on board ISS. For effective management of these ultrasound-supported ISS medical scenarios, the resulting data should be available for viewing and interpretation on the ground, and bidirectional voice communication should be readily available to allow ground experts (sonographers, physicians) to provide guidance to the Crew Medical Officer. It may also be vitally important to have the capability of real-time guidance via video uplink to the CMO-operator during an exam to facilitate the diagnosis in a timely fashion. In this document, we strove to verify that the HRF ultrasound video output is compatible with the ISS video system, identify ISS video system field rates and resolutions that are acceptable for varying clinical scenaiios, and evaluate the HRF ultrasound video with a commercial, off-the-shelf video converter, and compare it with the ISS video system.

  11. Implementation of a Water Flow Control System into the ISS'S Planned Fluids & Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Daryl A.

    2003-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) will become an ISS facility capable of performing basic combustion and fluids research. The facility consists of two independent payload racks specifically configured to support multiple experiments over the life of the ISS. Both racks will depend upon the ISS's Moderate Temperature Loop (MTL) for removing waste heat generated by the avionics and experiments operating within the racks. By using the MTL, constraints are imposed by the ISS vehicle on how the coolant resource is used. On the other hand, the FCF depends upon effective thermal control for maximizing life of the hardware and for supplying proper boundary conditions for the experiments. In the implementation of a design solution, significant factors in the selection of the hardware included ability to measure and control relatively low flow rates, ability to throttle flow within the time constraints of the ISS MTL, conserve energy usage, observe low mass and small volume requirements. An additional factor in the final design solution selection was considering how the system would respond to a loss of power event. This paper describes the method selected to satisfy the FCF design requirements while maintaining the constraints applied by the ISS vehicle.

  12. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry; Taylor ,Brandon W.

    2012-01-01

    Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System. With the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet retired, the supply of extremely high-quality water "super-Q" - required for the EMU Space suit cooling on this ISS - will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. A proposed potential solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semi-permeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins. Aquaporins are a special class of trans-membrane proteins that facilitate passive transport of water and other substances across a membrane. The specificity of these proteins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and this novel property invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically usage on the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are found in many living systems and have been developed for commercial use today.

  13. Methodology and Assumptions of Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Calculations Using ISS Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee; Shkedi, Brienne

    2006-01-01

    The current International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system is designed to support an ISS crew size of three people. The capability to expand that system to support nine crew members during a Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) scenario has been evaluated. This paper describes how the ISS ECLS systems may be operated for supporting CSCS, and the durations expected for the oxygen supply and carbon dioxide control subsystems.

  14. Structure and performance of radiation monitoring system of ISS ``ZVEZDA'' module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, Victor; Nechaev, Oleg; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Lyagushin, Vladimir; Volkov, Alexey; Mitrikas, Victor; Teltsov, Mikhail; Bratoliubova-Tselukidze, Ledeja.; Miasnikov, Alexander; Alexandrin, Alexandr

    It is presented the radiation monitoring system (RMS) structure, detector unit’s construction, dose measuring method, algorithms of signals processing. The interface for data transmission to ISS onboard systems is considered. Information about radiation detectors placement and shielding environment is presented. The devices calibration methods and results are presented.

  15. Opals: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In April of 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Flight System (FS) launched to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a planned 90-day baseline mission, the OPALS FS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) ground station in Wrightwood, California. Interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure have been established to facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes, such as pointing prediction and data processing, satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The ORTs have provided valuable insight into operational considerations for the instrument on the ISS.

  16. ISS-based Development of Elements and Operations for Robotic Assembly of A Space Solar Power Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valinia, Azita; Moe, Rud; Seery, Bernard D.; Mankins, John C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a concept for an ISS-based optical system assembly demonstration designed to advance technologies related to future large in-space optical facilities deployment, including space solar power collectors and large-aperture astronomy telescopes. The large solar power collector problem is not unlike the large astronomical telescope problem, but at least conceptually it should be easier in principle, given the tolerances involved. We strive in this application to leverage heavily the work done on the NASA Optical Testbed Integration on ISS Experiment (OpTIIX) effort to erect a 1.5 m imaging telescope on the International Space Station (ISS). Specifically, we examine a robotic assembly sequence for constructing a large (meter diameter) slightly aspheric or spherical primary reflector, comprised of hexagonal mirror segments affixed to a lightweight rigidizing backplane structure. This approach, together with a structured robot assembler, will be shown to be scalable to the area and areal densities required for large-scale solar concentrator arrays.

  17. Utilizing the ISS Mission as a Testbed to Develop Cognitive Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS provides an excellent opportunity for pioneering artificial intelligence software to meet the challenges of real-time communications (comm) link management. This opportunity empowers the ISS Program to forge a testbed for developing cognitive communications systems for the benefit of the ISS mission, manned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) science programs and future planetary exploration programs. In November, 1998, the Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) started the ISS Antenna Manager (IAM) project to develop a single processor supporting multiple comm satellite tracking for two different antenna systems. Further, the processor was developed to be highly adaptable as it supported the ISS mission through all assembly stages. The ISS mission mandated communications specialists with complete knowledge of when the ISS was about to lose or gain comm link service. The current specialty mandated cognizance of large sun-tracking solar arrays and thermal management panels in addition to the highly-dynamic satellite service schedules and rise/set tables. This mission requirement makes the ISS the ideal communications management analogue for future LEO space station and long-duration planetary exploration missions. Future missions, with their precision-pointed, dynamic, laser-based comm links, require complete autonomy for managing high-data rate communications systems. Development of cognitive communications management systems that permit any crew member or payload science specialist, regardless of experience level, to control communications is one of the greater benefits the ISS can offer new space exploration programs. The IAM project met a new mission requirement never previously levied against US space-born communications systems management: process and display the orientation of large solar arrays and thermal control panels based on real-time joint angle telemetry. However, IAM leaves the actual communications availability assessment to human judgment, which introduces

  18. Utilizing the ISS Mission as a Testbed to Develop Cognitive Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS provides an excellent opportunity for pioneering artificial intelligence software to meet the challenges of real-time communications (comm) link management. This opportunity empowers the ISS Program to forge a testbed for developing cognitive communications systems for the benefit of the ISS mission, manned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) science programs and future planetary exploration programs. In November, 1998, the Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) started the ISS Antenna Manager (IAM) project to develop a single processor supporting multiple comm satellite tracking for two different antenna systems. Further, the processor was developed to be highly adaptable as it supported the ISS mission through all assembly stages. The ISS mission mandated communications specialists with complete knowledge of when the ISS was about to lose or gain comm link service. The current specialty mandated cognizance of large sun-tracking solar arrays and thermal management panels in addition to the highly-dynamic satellite service schedules and rise/set tables. This mission requirement makes the ISS the ideal communications management analogue for future LEO space station and long-duration planetary exploration missions. Future missions, with their precision-pointed, dynamic, laser-based comm links, require complete autonomy for managing high-data rate communications systems. Development of cognitive communications management systems that permit any crew member or payload science specialist, regardless of experience level, to control communications is one of the greater benefits the ISS can offer new space exploration programs. The IAM project met a new mission requirement never previously levied against US space-born communications systems management: process and display the orientation of large solar arrays and thermal control panels based on real-time joint angle telemetry. However, IAM leaves the actual communications availability assessment to human judgement, which introduces

  19. Increasing the utilization of the ISS Mobile Servicing System through ground control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembala, Richard; Aziz, Sarmad

    2007-10-01

    On February 24th, 2005 the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) was maneuvred on the International Space Station (ISS) by an operator from the ground for the first time, marking a first in human space flight history. Allowing ground support teams the capability to move the MSS in a manner that satisfies human space flight safety requirements provides an invaluable tool in supporting more efficient utilization of both the MSS and the ISS. Ground control allows for the optimal separation of on-orbit crew and ground functions; thereby redirecting more on-orbit crew time towards other more scientifically rewarding ISS utilization activities. Apart from supporting routine ISS operations, significant benefits will also be gained from ground control to support engineering investigations. One of the "way-of-doing-business" adjustments that was required for the MSS on the ISS over the original robotic manipulator system developed for the Space Shuttle (the "SRMS"), was in the sustaining engineering support function. Many SRMS minor on-orbit anomalies are investigated in detail after the mission is completed and the arm has returned to earth. In the case of the MSS where it remains on-orbit, engineering investigations and performance characterization efforts are more challenging. However, contrary to initial expectations, the challenge in troubleshooting and characterizing the MSS was not because of lack of data or insight into the on-orbit system, but rather due to lack of on-orbit crew time for engineering investigations. This has led to some engineering support teams having to wait up to a year before even straightforward troubleshooting investigations could be scheduled and executed. Ground control affords a more efficient way of characterizing and maintaining the health of the MSS. This paper will describe the utilization challenges the MSS has faced in the past, provide an overview of the MSS ground control capability, and discuss the benefits that are expected to be gained

  20. Development and Certification of Ultrasonic Background Noise Test (UBNT) System for use on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    As a next step in the development and implementation of an on-board leak detection and localization system on the International Space Station (ISS), there is a documented need to obtain measurements of the ultrasonic background noise levels that exist within the ISS. This need is documented in the ISS Integrated Risk Management System (IRMA), Watch Item #4669. To address this, scientists and engineers from the Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Johnson Space Center (JSC), proposed to the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and the ISS Vehicle Office a joint assessment to develop a flight package as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) that would perform ultrasonic background noise measurements within the United States (US) controlled ISS structure. This document contains the results of the assessment

  1. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; Taylor, Brandon W.

    2011-01-01

    With the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet retired, the supply of extremely high-quality water 'super-Q' - required for the EMU Space suit cooling on this ISS - will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. A proposed potential solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semi-permeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins. Aquaporins are a special class of trans-membrane proteins that facilitate passive transport of water and other substances across a membrane. The specificity of these proteins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and this novel property invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically usage on the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are found in many living systems and have been developed for commercial use today.

  2. Assessment of polycarbonate filter in a molecular analytical system for the microbiological quality monitoring of recycled waters onboard ISS.

    PubMed

    Bechy-Loizeau, Anne-Laure; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Abaibou, Hafid

    2015-07-01

    On the ISS, as on Earth, water is an essential element for life and its quality control on a regular basis allows to ensure the health of the crew and the integrity of equipment. Currently, microbial water analysis onboard ISS still relies on the traditional culture-based microbiology methods. Molecular methods based on the amplification of nucleic acids for microbiological analysis of water quality show enormous potential and are considered as the best alternative to culture-based methods. For this reason, the Midass, a fully integrated and automated prototype was designed conjointly by ESA and bioMérieux for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of air. The prototype allows air sampling, sample processing and the amplification/detection of nucleic acids. We describe herein the proof of principle of an analytical approach based on molecular biology that could fulfill the ESA's need for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of recycled water onboard ISS. Both concentration and recovery of microorganisms are the main critical steps when the microfiltration technology is used for water analysis. Among filters recommended standards for monitoring the microbiological quality of the water, the polycarbonate filter was fully in line with the requirements of the ISO 7704-1985 standard in terms of efficacy of capture and recovery of bacteria. Moreover, this filter does not retain nucleic acids on the surface and has no inhibitory effect on their downstream processing steps such as purification and amplification/detection. Although the Midass system was designed for the treatment of air samples, the first results on the integration of PC filters were encouraging. Nevertheless, system modifications are needed to better adapt the Midass system for the monitoring of the microbiological water quality.

  3. Assessment of polycarbonate filter in a molecular analytical system for the microbiological quality monitoring of recycled waters onboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechy-Loizeau, Anne-Laure; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Abaibou, Hafid

    2015-07-01

    On the ISS, as on Earth, water is an essential element for life and its quality control on a regular basis allows to ensure the health of the crew and the integrity of equipment. Currently, microbial water analysis onboard ISS still relies on the traditional culture-based microbiology methods. Molecular methods based on the amplification of nucleic acids for microbiological analysis of water quality show enormous potential and are considered as the best alternative to culture-based methods. For this reason, the Midass, a fully integrated and automated prototype was designed conjointly by ESA and bioMérieux for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of air. The prototype allows air sampling, sample processing and the amplification/detection of nucleic acids. We describe herein the proof of principle of an analytical approach based on molecular biology that could fulfill the ESA's need for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of recycled water onboard ISS. Both concentration and recovery of microorganisms are the main critical steps when the microfiltration technology is used for water analysis. Among filters recommended standards for monitoring the microbiological quality of the water, the polycarbonate filter was fully in line with the requirements of the ISO 7704-1985 standard in terms of efficacy of capture and recovery of bacteria. Moreover, this filter does not retain nucleic acids on the surface and has no inhibitory effect on their downstream processing steps such as purification and amplification/detection. Although the Midass system was designed for the treatment of air samples, the first results on the integration of PC filters were encouraging. Nevertheless, system modifications are needed to better adapt the Midass system for the monitoring of the microbiological water quality.

  4. Assessment of polycarbonate filter in a molecular analytical system for the microbiological quality monitoring of recycled waters onboard ISS.

    PubMed

    Bechy-Loizeau, Anne-Laure; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Abaibou, Hafid

    2015-07-01

    On the ISS, as on Earth, water is an essential element for life and its quality control on a regular basis allows to ensure the health of the crew and the integrity of equipment. Currently, microbial water analysis onboard ISS still relies on the traditional culture-based microbiology methods. Molecular methods based on the amplification of nucleic acids for microbiological analysis of water quality show enormous potential and are considered as the best alternative to culture-based methods. For this reason, the Midass, a fully integrated and automated prototype was designed conjointly by ESA and bioMérieux for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of air. The prototype allows air sampling, sample processing and the amplification/detection of nucleic acids. We describe herein the proof of principle of an analytical approach based on molecular biology that could fulfill the ESA's need for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of recycled water onboard ISS. Both concentration and recovery of microorganisms are the main critical steps when the microfiltration technology is used for water analysis. Among filters recommended standards for monitoring the microbiological quality of the water, the polycarbonate filter was fully in line with the requirements of the ISO 7704-1985 standard in terms of efficacy of capture and recovery of bacteria. Moreover, this filter does not retain nucleic acids on the surface and has no inhibitory effect on their downstream processing steps such as purification and amplification/detection. Although the Midass system was designed for the treatment of air samples, the first results on the integration of PC filters were encouraging. Nevertheless, system modifications are needed to better adapt the Midass system for the monitoring of the microbiological water quality. PMID:26256625

  5. Assessment of the Impacts of ACLS on the ISS Life Support System Using Dynamic Simulations in V-HAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putz, Daniel; Olthoff, Claas; Ewert, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Closed Loop System (ACLS) is currently under development by Airbus Defense and Space and is slated for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2017. The addition of new hardware into an already complex system such as the ISS life support system (LSS) always poses operational risks. It is therefore important to understand the impacts ACLS will have on the existing systems to ensure smooth operations for the ISS. This analysis can be done by using dynamic computer simulations and one possible tool for such a simulation is the Virtual Habitat (V-HAB). Based on MATLAB, V-HAB has been under development at the Institute of Astronautics of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) since 2004 and in the past has been successfully used to simulate the ISS life support systems. The existing V-HAB ISS simulation model treated the interior volume of the space station as one large, ideally-stirred container. This model was improved to allow the calculation of the atmospheric composition inside individual modules of the ISS by splitting it into twelve distinct volumes. The virtual volumes are connected by a simulation of the inter-module ventilation flows. This allows for a combined simulation of the LSS hardware and the atmospheric composition aboard the ISS. A dynamic model of ACLS is added to the ISS Simulation and several different operating modes for both ACLS and the existing ISS life support systems are studied and the impacts of ACLS on the rest of the system are determined. The results suggest that the US, Russian and ACLS CO2 systems can operate at the same time without impeding each other. Furthermore, based on the results of this analysis, the US and ACLS Sabatier systems can be operated in parallel as well to a achieve a very low CO2 concentration in the cabin atmosphere.

  6. Assessment of the Impacts of ACLS on the ISS Life Support System using Dynamic Simulations in V-HAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puetz, Daniel; Olthoff, Claas; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Closed Loop System (ACLS) is currently under development by Airbus Defense and Space and is slated for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2017. The addition of new hardware into an already complex system such as the ISS life support system (LSS) always poses operational risks. It is therefore important to understand the impacts ACLS will have on the existing systems to ensure smooth operations for the ISS. This analysis can be done by using dynamic computer simulations and one possible tool for such a simulation is Virtual Habitat (V-HAB). Based on Matlab (Registered Trademark) V-HAB has been under development at the Institute of Astronautics of the Technical University Munich (TUM) since 2006 and in the past has been successfully used to simulate the ISS life support systems. The existing V-HAB ISS simulation model treated the interior volume of the space station as one large ideally-stirred container. This model was improved to allow the calculation of the atmospheric composition inside the individual modules of the ISS by splitting it into ten distinct volumes. The virtual volumes are connected by a simulation of the inter-module ventilation flows. This allows for a combined simulation of the LSS hardware and the atmospheric composition aboard the ISS. A dynamic model of ACLS is added to the ISS simulation and different operating modes for both ACLS and the existing ISS life support systems are studied to determine the impacts of ACLS on the rest of the system. The results suggest that the US, Russian and ACLS CO2 systems can operate at the same time without impeding each other. Furthermore, based on the results of this analysis, the US and ACLS Sabatier systems can be operated in parallel as well to achieve the highest possible CO2 recycling together with a low CO2 concentration.

  7. ISS Update: Station Command and Data Handling System

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kylie Clem interviews ODIN flight controller Amy Brezinski, who monitors and commands the Command and Data Handling System for the International Space Station. Brezinski...

  8. ISS: Columbus.

    PubMed

    Thirkettle, A; Patti, B; Mitschdoerfer, P; Kledzik, R; Gargioli, E; Brondolo, D

    2002-02-01

    In 2001, a total of 13 assembly and logistic flights to the ISS were made, using both Russian launchers and the Space Shuttle, including flights of the first European astronauts, payloads and Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLMs). Several US, Russian and Canadian elements have already been assembled in orbit and the fourth Expedition Crew is currently onboard. The cornerstone of ESA's contribution to this enormous international undertaking in space is the Columbus laboratory. On 27 September 2001, the Columbus flight unit arrived at the premises of ESA's industrial prime contractor Astrium in Bremen, Germany. Final integration of the module is now nearly complete and functional qualification and acceptance testing is about to start. This article summarises the characteristics and functional architecture of Columbus, its development, integration and test approach, as well as today's qualification status.

  9. Comparison of ISS Power System Telemetry with Analytically Derived Data for Shadowed Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, H. James

    2002-01-01

    Accurate International Space Station (ISS) power prediction requires the quantification of solar array shadowing. Prior papers have discussed the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) ISS power system tool SPACE (System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) and its integrated shadowing algorithms. On-orbit telemetry has become available that permits the correlation of theoretical shadowing predictions with actual data. This paper documents the comparison of a shadowing metric (total solar array current) as derived from SPACE predictions and on-orbit flight telemetry data for representative significant shadowing cases. Images from flight video recordings and the SPACE computer program graphical output are used to illustrate the comparison. The accuracy of the SPACE shadowing capability is demonstrated for the cases examined.

  10. A Unique Power System For The ISS Fluids And Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, David A.; Poljak, Mark D.

    2001-01-01

    Unique power control technology has been incorporated into an electrical power control unit (EPCU) for the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The objective is to maximize science throughput by providing a flexible power system that is easily reconfigured by the science payload. Electrical power is at a premium on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU utilizes advanced power management techniques to maximize the power available to the FCF experiments. The EPCU architecture enables dynamic allocation of power from two ISS power channels for experiments. Because of the unique flexible remote power controller (FRPC) design, power channels can be paralleled while maintaining balanced load sharing between the channels. With an integrated and redundant architecture, the EPCU can tolerate multiple faults and still maintain FCF operation. It is important to take full advantage of the EPCU functionality. The EPCU acts as a buffer between the experimenter and the ISS power system with all its complex requirements. However, FCF science payload developers will still need to follow guidelines when designing the FCF payload power system. This is necessary to ensure power system stability, fault coordination, electromagnetic compatibility, and maximum use of available power for gathering scientific data.

  11. ISS Update: Space Flight and the Immune System

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Brian Crucian, NASA immunologist, about the issues with space flight and the immune system. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and inc...

  12. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  13. Shuttle/ISS EMU Failure History and the Impact on Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As the Shuttle/ISS EMU Program exceeds 35 years in duration and is still supporting the needs of the International Space Station (ISS), a critical benefit of such a long running program with thorough documentation of system and component failures is the ability to study and learn from those failures when considering the design of the next generation space suit. Study of the subject failure history leads to changes in the Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) schematic, selected component technologies, as well as the planned manner of ground testing. This paper reviews the Shuttle/ISS EMU failure history and discusses the implications to the AEMU PLSS.

  14. Russian system of countermeasures on board of the International Space Station (ISS): the first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2004-08-01

    The system of countermeasures used by Russian cosmonauts in space flights on board of International Space Station (ISS) was based on the developed and tested in flights on board of Russian space stations. It included as primary components: physical methods aimed to maintain the distribution of fluids at levels close to those experienced on Earth; physical exercises and loading suits aimed to load the musculoskeletal and the cardiovascular systems; measures that prevent the loss of fluids, mainly, water-salt additives which aid to maintain orthostatic tolerance and endurance to gravitational overloads during the return to Earth; well-balanced diet and medications directed to correct possible negative reactions of the body to weightlessness. Fulfillment of countermeasure's protocols inflight was thoroughly controlled. Efficacy of countermeasures used were assessed both in-and postflight. The results of studies showed that degrees of alterations recorded in different physiological systems after ISS space flights in Russian cosmonauts were significantly higher than those recorded after flights on the Russian space stations. This phenomenon was caused by the failure of the ISS crews to execute fully the prescribed countermeasures' protocols which was as a rule excused by technical imperfectness of exercise facilities, treadmill TVIS particularly.

  15. An experimental study on the geochemical behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSE) and metalloids (As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi) in a mss-iss-pyrite system at 650 °C: A possible magmatic origin for Co-HSE-bearing pyrite and the role of metalloid-rich phases in the fractionation of HSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafagna, Fabio; Jugo, Pedro J.

    2016-04-01

    Pyrite, the most abundant sulfide in the Earth's crust, is an accessory mineral in several magmatic sulfide deposits. Although most pyrite is hydrothermal, previous experimental studies have shown that pyrite can also have a primary magmatic origin, by exsolving from monosulfide solid solution (mss) during cooling of a sulfide melt, if sulfur fugacity is sufficiently high. Pyrite from some localities has significant amounts of Co, and complex zonation in some low-melting-point chalcophile elements (LMCE), such as As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi (henceforth referred to as metalloids) and some platinum-group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt). However, the origin of such pyrite and the causes of zonation are not clear. Because the distribution of some of these elements is heterogeneous and seems to be developed in concentric zones, the zonation has been interpreted to represent growth stages, some of them secondary and caused partly by hydrothermal fluids. Better constraints on the origin of Co-PGE-bearing pyrite could help unravel the geochemical processes affecting the sulfide assemblages in which it is found; thus, an experimental study was undertaken to characterize pyrite formation in magmatic sulfide environments and its relationship with metalloids and highly siderophile elements (HSE: PGE, Re, Au). Natural pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite and elemental S were mixed and doped with approximately 50 ppm of each HSE. A mixture of metalloids was added at 0.2 wt.% or 3 wt.% to aliquots of sulfide mixtures. Starting materials were sealed in evacuated silica tubes and fused at 1200 °C. The temperature was subsequently reduced to 750 °C (at 60 °C/h), then to 650 °C (at 0.5 °C/h) to produce relatively large euhedral pyrite crystals, then quenched. The experiments were analyzed using reflected light, SEM, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. Experimental products contained euhedral pyrite, mss, intermediate solid solution (iss) and metalloid-rich phases, interpreted as quench product

  16. Bioculture System: Expanding ISS Space Bioscience Capabilities for Fundamental Stem Cell Research and Commercial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo; Fitzpatrick, Garret; Ellingson, Lance; Mitchell, Sarah; Yang, Anthony; Kosnik, Cristine; Rayl, Nicole; Cannon, Tom; Austin, Edward; Sato, Kevin

    With the recent call by the 2011 Decadal Report and the 2010 Space Biosciences Roadmap for the International Space Station (ISS) to be used as a National Laboratory for scientific research, there is now a need for new laboratory instruments on ISS to enable such research to occur. The Bioculture System supports the extended culturing of multiple cell types and microbiological specimens. It consists of a docking station that carries ten independent incubation units or ‘Cassettes’. Each Cassette contains a cooling chamber (5(°) C) for temperature sensitive solutions and samples, or long duration fluids and sample storage, as well as an incubation chamber (ambient up to 42(°) C). Each Cassette houses an independent fluidics system comprised of a biochamber, medical-grade fluid tubing, medium warming module, oxygenation module, fluid pump, and sixteen solenoid valves for automated biochamber injections of sampling. The Bioculture System provides the user with the ability to select the incubation temperature, fluid flow rate and automated biochamber sampling or injection events for each separate Cassette. Furthermore, the ISS crew can access the biochamber, media bag, and accessory bags on-orbit using the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The Bioculture System also permits initiation of cultures, subculturing, injection of compounds, and removal of samples for on-orbit processing using ISS facilities. The Bioculture System therefore provides a unique opportunity for the study of stem cells and other cell types in space. The first validation flight of the Bioculture System will be conducted on SpaceX5, consisting of 8 Cassettes and lasting for 30-37 days. During this flight we plan to culture two different mammalian cell types in bioreactors: a mouse osteocytic-like cell line, and human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)-derived cardiomyocytes. Specifically, the osteocytic line will enable the study of a type of cell that has been flown on the Bioculture System

  17. On-Orbit Checkout and Activation of the ISS Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has developed and; deployed an Oxygen Generation System (OGS) into the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The major. assembly; included in this system is the Oxygen Generator Assembly. (OGA) which was developed under NASA contract by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI), Inc. This paper summarizes the installation of the system into the Destiny Module, its initial checkout and periodic preventative maintenance activities, and its operational activation. Trade studies and analyses that were conducted with the goal of mitigating on-orbit operational risks are also discussed.

  18. Converting the ISS to an Earth-Moon Transport System Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, John; Maise, George; Powell, James

    2008-01-01

    Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), the International Space Station (ISS) can be placed into a cyclic orbit between the Earth and the Moon for 2-way transport of personnel and supplies to a permanent Moon Base. The ISS cycler orbit apogees 470,000 km from Earth, with a period of 13.66 days. Once a month, the ISS would pass close to the Moon, enabling 2-way transport between it and the surface using a lunar shuttle craft. The lunar shuttle craft would land at a desired location on the surface during a flyby and return to the ISS during a later flyby. At Earth perigee 7 days later at 500 km altitude, there would be 2-way transport between it and Earth's surface using an Earth shuttle craft. The docking Earth shuttle would remain attached to the ISS as it traveled towards the Moon, while personnel and supplies transferred to a lunar shuttle spacecraft that would detach and land at the lunar base when the ISS swung around the Moon. The reverse process would be carried out to return personnel and materials from the Moon to the Earth. The orbital mechanics for the ISS cycle are described in detail. Based on the full-up mass of 400 metric tons for the ISS, an ISP of 900 seconds, and a delta V burn of 3.3 km/sec to establish the orbit, 200 metric tons of liquid H-2 propellant would be required. The 200 metric tons could be stored in 3 tanks, each 8 meters in diameter and 20 meters in length. An assembly of 3 MITEE NTP engines would be used, providing redundancy if an engine were to fail. Two different MITEE design options are described. Option 1 is an 18,000 Newton, 100 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 6.6/1 Option 2 is a 180,000 Newton, 1000 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 23/1. Burn times to establish the orbit are ~1 hour for the large 3 engine assembly, and 10 hours for the small 3 engine assembly. Both engines would use W-UO2 cermet fuel at ~2750 K which has demonstrated the capability to operate for at least 50 hours in 2750 K hydrogen with

  19. Converting the ISS to an Earth-Moon Transport System Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Paniagua, John; Maise, George; Powell, James

    2008-01-21

    Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), the International Space Station (ISS) can be placed into a cyclic orbit between the Earth and the Moon for 2-way transport of personnel and supplies to a permanent Moon Base. The ISS cycler orbit apogees 470,000 km from Earth, with a period of 13.66 days. Once a month, the ISS would pass close to the Moon, enabling 2-way transport between it and the surface using a lunar shuttle craft. The lunar shuttle craft would land at a desired location on the surface during a flyby and return to the ISS during a later flyby. At Earth perigee 7 days later at 500 km altitude, there would be 2-way transport between it and Earth's surface using an Earth shuttle craft. The docking Earth shuttle would remain attached to the ISS as it traveled towards the Moon, while personnel and supplies transferred to a lunar shuttle spacecraft that would detach and land at the lunar base when the ISS swung around the Moon. The reverse process would be carried out to return personnel and materials from the Moon to the Earth. The orbital mechanics for the ISS cycle are described in detail. Based on the full-up mass of 400 metric tons for the ISS, an ISP of 900 seconds, and a delta V burn of 3.3 km/sec to establish the orbit, 200 metric tons of liquid H-2 propellant would be required. The 200 metric tons could be stored in 3 tanks, each 8 meters in diameter and 20 meters in length. An assembly of 3 MITEE NTP engines would be used, providing redundancy if an engine were to fail. Two different MITEE design options are described. Option 1 is an 18,000 Newton, 100 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 6.6/1; Option 2 is a 180,000 Newton, 1000 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 23/1. Burn times to establish the orbit are {approx}1 hour for the large 3 engine assembly, and 10 hours for the small 3 engine assembly. Both engines would use W-UO2 cermet fuel at {approx}2750 K which has demonstrated the capability to operate for at least 50 hours in 2750 K

  20. ISS Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The Microgravity performance assessment of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of a quasi-steady, structural dynamic and a vibro-acoustic analysis of the ISS assembly-complete vehicle configuration. The Boeing Houston (BHOU) Loads and Dynamics Team is responsible to verify compliance with the ISS System Specification (SSP 41000) and USOS Segment (SSP 41162) microgravity requirements. To verify the ISS environment, a series of accelerometers are on-board to monitor the current environment. This paper summarizes the results of the analysis that was performed for the Verification Analysis Cycle (VAC)-Assembly Complete (AC) and compares it to on-orbit acceleration values currently being reported. The analysis will include the predicted maximum and average environment on-board ISS during multiple activity scenarios

  1. Learning from ISS-modular adaptive NN control of nonlinear strict-feedback systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Wang, Min; Liu, Tengfei; Hill, David J

    2012-10-01

    This paper studies learning from adaptive neural control (ANC) for a class of nonlinear strict-feedback systems with unknown affine terms. To achieve the purpose of learning, a simple input-to-state stability (ISS) modular ANC method is first presented to ensure the boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and the convergence of tracking errors in finite time. Subsequently, it is proven that learning with the proposed stable ISS-modular ANC can be achieved. The cascade structure and unknown affine terms of the considered systems make it very difficult to achieve learning using existing methods. To overcome these difficulties, the stable closed-loop system in the control process is decomposed into a series of linear time-varying (LTV) perturbed subsystems with the appropriate state transformation. Using a recursive design, the partial persistent excitation condition for the radial basis function neural network (NN) is established, which guarantees exponential stability of LTV perturbed subsystems. Consequently, accurate approximation of the closed-loop system dynamics is achieved in a local region along recurrent orbits of closed-loop signals, and learning is implemented during a closed-loop feedback control process. The learned knowledge is reused to achieve stability and an improved performance, thereby avoiding the tremendous repeated training process of NNs. Simulation studies are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Earth Science Capability for ISS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Scott, S.; Kupchock, A.; Selmer, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a lidar remote sensing instrument developed for deployment to the International Space Station (ISS). The CATS lidar will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud distributions and properties. The CATS instrument uses a high repetition rate laser operating at three wavelengths (1064, 532, and 355 nm) to derive properties of cloud/aerosol layers including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The CATS mission was designed to capitalize on the Space Station's unique orbit and facilities to continue existing Earth Science data records, to provide observational data for use in forecast models, and to demonstrate new technologies for use in future missions. The CATS payload will be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). The payload is designed to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. The payload is completed and currently scheduled for a mid-2014 launch. The ISS and, in particular, the JEM-EF, is an exciting new platform for spaceborne Earth observations. The ability to leverage existing aircraft instrument designs coupled with the lower cost possible for ISS external attached payloads permits rapid and cost effective development of spaceborne sensors. The CATS payload is based on existing instrumentation built and operated on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft. The payload is housed in a 1.5 m x 1 m x 0.8 m volume that attaches to the JEM-EF. The allowed volume limits the maximum size for the collecting telescope to 60 cm diameter. Figure 1 shows a schematic layout of the CATS payload, with the primary instrument components identified. Figure 2 is a photo of the completed payload. CATS payload cut-away view. Completed CATS payload assembly.

  3. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  4. ISS Propulsion Module Crew Systems Interface Analysis in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Di-Wen

    1999-01-01

    ERGO, a human modeling software for ergonomic assessment and task analysis, was used for the crew systems interface analysis of the International Space Station (ISS) Propulsion Module (PM). The objective of analysis was to alleviate passageway size concerns. Three basic passageway configuration concepts: (1) 45" clear passageway without centerline offset (2) 50" clear passageway, 12" centerline offset, (3) 50" clear passageway, no centerline offset, and were reviewed. 95 percentile male and female models which were provided by the software performed crew system analysis from an anthropometric point of view. Four scenarios in which the crew floats in microgravity through a 50" no-offset passageway as they carry a 16" x 20" x 30" avionics box were simulated in the 10-weeks of intensive study. From the results of the analysis, concept (3) was the preferred option. A full scale, three-dimensional virtual model of the ISS Propulsion Module was created to experience the sense of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment and to evaluate the usability and applicability of the software.

  5. The ISS Water Processor Catalytic Reactor as a Post Processor for Advanced Water Reclamation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalette, Tim; Snowdon, Doug; Pickering, Karen D.; Callahan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Advanced water processors being developed for NASA s Exploration Initiative rely on phase change technologies and/or biological processes as the primary means of water reclamation. As a result of the phase change, volatile compounds will also be transported into the distillate product stream. The catalytic reactor assembly used in the International Space Station (ISS) water processor assembly, referred to as Volatile Removal Assembly (VRA), has demonstrated high efficiency oxidation of many of these volatile contaminants, such as low molecular weight alcohols and acetic acid, and is considered a viable post treatment system for all advanced water processors. To support this investigation, two ersatz solutions were defined to be used for further evaluation of the VRA. The first solution was developed as part of an internal research and development project at Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and is based primarily on ISS experience related to the development of the VRA. The second ersatz solution was defined by NASA in support of a study contract to Hamilton Sundstrand to evaluate the VRA as a potential post processor for the Cascade Distillation system being developed by Honeywell. This second ersatz solution contains several low molecular weight alcohols, organic acids, and several inorganic species. A range of residence times, oxygen concentrations and operating temperatures have been studied with both ersatz solutions to provide addition performance capability of the VRA catalyst.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  7. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  8. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  9. International Space Station (ISS) External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM) Jettison Options Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    On December 11, 2013, the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure of the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM). To minimize the number of extravehicular activities (EVA) required to replace the PM, jettisoning the faulty pump was evaluated. The objective of this study was to independently evaluate the jettison options considered by the ISS Trajectory Operations Officer (TOPO) and to provide recommendations for safe jettison of the ETCS Loop A PM. The simulation selected to evaluate the TOPO options was the NASA Engineering and Safety Center's (NESC) version of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) developed to support another NESC assessment. The objective of the jettison analysis was twofold: (1) to independently verify TOPO posigrade and retrograde jettison results, and (2) to determine jettison guidelines based on additional sensitivity, trade study, and Monte Carlo (MC) analysis that would prevent PM recontact. Recontact in this study designates a propagated PM trajectory that comes within 500 m of the ISS propagated trajectory. An additional simulation using Systems Tool Kit (STK) was run for independent verification of the POST2 simulation results. Ultimately, the ISS Program removed the PM jettison option from consideration. However, prior to the Program decision, the retrograde jettison option remained part of the EVA contingency plan. The jettison analysis presented showed that, in addition to separation velocity/direction and the atmosphere conditions, the key variables in determining the time to recontact the ISS is highly dependent on the ballistic number (BN) difference between the object being jettisoned and the ISS.

  10. Multi-Element Airfoil System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.

  11. Potential and benefits of closed loop ECLS systems on the ISS.

    PubMed

    Raatschen, W; Preiss, H

    2001-01-01

    To close open loops for long manned missions in space is a big challenge for aeronautic engineers throughout the world. The paper's focus is on the oxygen reclamation from carbon dioxide within a space habitat. A brief description of the function principle of a fixed alkaline electrolyzer, a solid amine carbon dioxide concentrator and a Sabatier reactor is given. By combining these devices to an air revitalization system the technical and economical benefits are explained. Astrium's Air Revitalization System (ARES) as a potential future part of the International Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System would close the oxygen loop. The amount of oxygen, needed for an ISS crew of seven astronauts could be provided by ARES. The upload of almost 1500 kg of water annually for oxygen generation through the onboard electrolyzer would be reduced by more than 1000 kg, resulting in savings of more than 30M$ per year. Additionally, the payload capacity of supply flights would be increased by this amount of mass. Further possibilities are addressed to combine ECLS mass flows with those of the power, propulsion and attitude control systems. Such closed loop approaches will contribute to ease long time missions (e. g. Mars, Moon) from a cost and logistic point of view. The hardware realization of Astrium's space-sized operating ARES is shown and test results of continuous and intermittent closed chamber tests are presented.

  12. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project -2006 Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. This paper presents a status of the coolant stability over the past year as well as results from destructive analyses of hardware removed from the on-orbit system and the current approach to coolant remediation.

  13. LOCAD-PTS: Operation of a New System for Microbial Monitoring Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Danibm N,; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; Monaco, L.

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms within the space stations Salyut, Mir and the International Space Station (ISS), have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growing environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies; and return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. This approach has provided a wealth of useful data and enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach is also limited by the following: i) More than 95% microorganisms in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags occur between onboard sampling and colony visualization (3-5 days) and ground-based analysis (as long as several months); iii) Colonies are often difficult to visualize due to condensation within contact slide media plates; and iv) Techniques involve growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and -1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and fungi, respectively. This technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device. This handheld device and sampling system is known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). A poster will be presented that describes a comparative study between LOCAD-PTS analysis and existing culture-based methods onboard the ISS; together with an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin throughout the ISS. It is concluded that while a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not necessarily be expected, a combinatorial approach can be adopted where both sets of data are used together to generate a more complete story of

  14. Calibration of the videospectral system for the space experiment "Uragan" onboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Yury; Katkovsky, Leonid; Beliaev, Boris; Martenov, Anton

    2015-10-01

    The videospectral system (VSS) intended for ecological space experiment on board of the International Space Station (ISS) has been developed by the Aerospace Researches Department of the Institute of Applied Physical Problems of the Belarusian State University. The VSS is intended for registration of color images and spectra of underlying surface. The system comprises an imaging channel and three CCD-array spectrometers based on diffraction gratings. A CCD-array photodetector of each spectrometer measures the spectral radiation distribution in rows, and the spatial distribution in columns. Astigmatism is a typical aberration of polychromators based on concave spherical gratings - rays in tangential and sagittal planes are focused at different points. This degrades the spectral or spatial resolution along the entrance slit. The proposed method of obtaining high spatial resolution without spectral resolution loss consists in a displacement of the output end of the imaging fiber along the optical axis at a specified distance from the entrance slit. The entrance slit operates as a one-dimensional aperture to obtain high spectral resolution. The image and spectral channel of the VSS were calibrated by wavelengths and spectral sensitivity. A method of the second diffraction order correction has been proposed for spectrometers based on diffraction gratings. Some results of laboratory calibration and the first application are presented.

  15. Measurements with the TRITEL system in the Columbus Laboratory of the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirn, Attila; Reitz, Guenther; Zabori, Balazs; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Burmeister, Soenke; Pazmandi, Tamas; Apathy, Istvan; Szanto, Peter; Deme, Sandor; Csoke, Antal

    In cooperation with BL-Electronics Ltd. a three-dimensional silicon detector telescope (TRITEL) was developed at MTA Centre for Energy Research (MTA EK, the former MTA KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute) in the past years. The main objective of the instrument was to measure not only the absorbed dose in the cosmic radiation field, but also the linear energy (LET) spectrum of the charged particles and their average quality factor in three mutually orthogonal directions in order to give an estimation of the equivalent dose, too. In the frame of the EC project SURE the TRITEL system was delivered to the European Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) in October 31, 2012 and it was operated there between November 6, 2012 and May 10, 2013. Our presentation addresses the main characteristics of the TRITEL-SURE dosimetry system and the first measurement results obtained in the Columbus module. The TRITEL-SURE experiment is co-funded by the EC project SURE, contract number RITA-CT-2006-026069 and by the Government of Hungary through ESA Contracts 98057 and 4000108072/13/NL/KML under the PECS (Plan for European Cooperating States). The view expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Space Agency.

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Soyuz Vehicle Descent Module Evaluation of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Penetration Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The descent module (DM) of the ISS Soyuz vehicle is covered by thermal protection system (TPS) materials that provide protection from heating conditions experienced during reentry. Damage and penetration of these materials by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts could result in loss of vehicle during return phases of the mission. The descent module heat shield has relatively thick TPS and is protected by the instrument-service module. The TPS materials on the conical sides of the descent module (referred to as backshell in this test plan) are exposed to more MMOD impacts and are relatively thin compared to the heat shield. This test program provides hypervelocity impact (HVI) data on materials similar in composition and density to the Soyuz TPS on the backshell of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz TPS penetration risk assessments. The impact testing was coordinated by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Group [1] in Houston, Texas. The HVI testing was conducted at the NASA-JSC White Sands Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Figure

  17. OPALS: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) will launch to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a 90-day baseline mission, OPALS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) in Wrightwood, California. To achieve mission success, interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure are established. For OPALS, the interfaces facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes such as pointing prediction and data processing satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The tests have provided valuable insight into operational considerations on the ISS.

  18. International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Keep Out Zone On-Orbit Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system performance can be impacted by operations on ISS. This is especially important for the Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) and for the Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS) subsystems. It is also more important for Node 1 since it has become a convenient area for many crew tasks and for stowing hardware prior to Shuttle arrival. This paper will discuss the current requirements for ECLS keep out zones in Node 1; the issues with stowage in Node 1 during Increment 7 and how they impacted the keep out zone requirements; and the solution during Increment 7 and 8 for maintaining the keep out zones in Node 1.

  19. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  20. Pick-and-Eat Salad-Crop Productivity, Nutritional Value, and Acceptability to Supplement the ISS Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hummerick, M. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Whitmire, A. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    The capability to grow nutritious, palatable food for crew consumption during spaceflight has the potential to provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients, enhance the dietary experience, and reduce launch mass as we move toward longer-duration missions. However, studies of edible produce during spaceflight have been limited, leaving a significant knowledge gap in the methods required to grow safe, acceptable, nutritious crops for consumption in space. Researchers from Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, Purdue University and ORBITEC have teamed up to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC, Purdue, and ORBITEC bring a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for ISS and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), and statistics. The Veggie vegetable-production system on the ISS offers an opportunity to develop a pick-and-eat fresh vegetable component to the ISS food system as a first step to bioregenerative supplemental food production. We propose growing salad plants in the Veggie unit during spaceflight, focusing on the impact of light quality and fertilizer formulation on crop morphology, edible biomass yield, microbial food safety, organoleptic acceptability, nutritional value, and behavioral health benefits of the fresh produce. The first phase of the project will involve flight tests using leafy greens, with a small Chinese cabbage variety, Tokyo bekana, previously down selected through a series of research tests as a suitable candidate. The second phase will focus on dwarf tomato. Down selection of candidate varieties have been performed, and the dwarf cultivar Red Robin has been selected as the test crop. Four light treatments and three fertilizer treatments will be tested for each crop on the ground, to down select to two light

  1. ISS-Lobster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, S. D.; Petre, R.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Ptak, A.

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents ISS-Lobster, a wide-field X-ray transient mission proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10^-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving both stellar mass and supermassive black holes. A 3-axis gimbal system will allow fast pointing in response to any independent, multi-wavelength indication of these events. Finally, deployment of this detector on the ISS will realize significant cost savings compared to a free-flying satellite as power, communication, and ISS transport are provided.

  2. Service on demand for ISS users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüser, Detlev; Berg, Marco; Körtge, Nicole; Mildner, Wolfgang; Salmen, Frank; Strauch, Karsten

    2002-07-01

    Since the ISS started its operational phase, the need of logistics scenarios and solutions, supporting the utilisation of the station and its facilities, becomes increasingly important. Our contribution to this challenge is a SERVICE On DEMAND for ISS users, which offers a business friendly engineering and logistics support for the resupply of the station. Especially the utilisation by commercial and industrial users is supported and simplified by this service. Our industrial team, consisting of OHB-System and BEOS, provides experience and development support for space dedicated hard- and software elements, their transportation and operation. Furthermore, we operate as the interface between customer and the envisaged space authorities. Due to a variety of tailored service elements and the ongoing servicing, customers can concentrate on their payload content or mission objectives and don't have to deal with space-specific techniques and regulations. The SERVICE On DEMAND includes the following elements: ITR is our in-orbit platform service. ITR is a transport rack, used in the SPACEHAB logistics double module, for active and passive payloads on subrack- and drawer level of different standards. Due to its unique late access and early retrieval capability, ITR increases the flexibility concerning transport capabilities to and from the ISS. RIST is our multi-functional test facility for ISPR-based experiment drawer and locker payloads. The test program concentrates on physical and functional interface and performance testing at the payload developers site prior to the shipment to the integration and launch. The RIST service program comprises consulting, planning and engineering as well. The RIST test suitcase is planned to be available for lease or rent to users, too. AMTSS is an advanced multimedia terminal consulting service for communication with the space station scientific facilities, as part of the user home-base. This unique ISS multimedia kit combines

  3. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, a Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  4. Human Factors and ISS Medical Systems: Highlights of Procedures and Equipment Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, V. E.; Hudy, C.; Smith, D.; Whitmore, M.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering Critical Questions Roadmap, a three year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to examine emergency medical procedures on ISS. The overall aim of the emergency medical procedures project was to determine the human factors issues in the procedures, training, communications and equipment, and to recommend solutions that will improve the survival rate of crewmembers in the event of a medical emergency. Currently, each ISS crew remains on orbit for six month intervals. As there is not standing requirement for a physician crewmember, during such time, the maintenance of crew health is dependant on individual crewmembers. Further, in the event of an emergency, crew will need to provide prolonged maintenance care, as well as emergency treatment, to an injured crewmember while awaiting transport to Earth. In addition to the isolation of the crew, medical procedures must be carried out within the further limitations imposed by the physical environment of the space station. For example, in order to administer care on ISS without the benefit of gravity, the Crew Medical Officers (CMOs) must restrain the equipment required to perform the task, restrain the injured crewmember, and finally, restrain themselves. Both the physical environment and the physical space available further limit the technology that can be used onboard. Equipment must be compact, yet able to withstand high levels of radiation and function without gravity. The focus here is to highlight the human factors impacts from our three year project involving the procedures and equipment areas that have been investigated and provided valuable to ISS and provide groundwork for human factors requirements for medical applications for exploration missions.

  5. Environmental Effects on ISS Materials Aging (1998 to 2008)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alred, John; Dasgupta, Rajib; Koontz, Steve; Soares, Carlos; Golden, John

    2009-01-01

    geomagnetic field. As a result, ISS exposure to many environmental factors can vary dramatically along a particular orbital ground track, and from one ground track to the next, during any 24-hour period. The induced environment results from ISS interactions with the natural environment as well as environmental factors produced by ISS itself and visiting vehicles fleet. Examples include ram-wake effects, hypergolic thruster plume impingement, materials out-gassing, venting and dumping of fluids, and specific photovoltaic (PV) power system interactions with the ionospheric plasma (7-11). Vehicle size (L) and velocity (V), combined with the magnitude and direction of the geomagnetic field (B) produce operationally significant magnetic induction voltages (VxB.L) in ISS conducting structure during flight through high latitudes (> +45deg) during each orbit. Finally, an induced ionizing radiation environment is produced by cosmic ray interaction with the relatively thick ISS structure and shielding materials. The intent of this review article is, therefore, to provide a summary of selected aspects and elements of the ISS vehicle with regard to LEO space environment effects, associated with the much larger and more complicated vehicle that ISS has become since 1998, but also with an eye towards performance life extension to the year 2016 and beyond.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: February 2006 - 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Reysa, Richard P.; Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) continues to mature and operate its life support equipment. Major events occurring between February 2006 and February 2007 are discussed in this paper, as are updates from previously ongoing hardware anomalies. This paper addresses the major ISS operation events over the last year. Impact to overall ISS operations is also discussed.

  7. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: February 2005 - 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Reysa, RIchard P.; Williams, David E.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) continues to mature and operate its life support equipment. Major events occurring between February 2005 and February 2006 are discussed in this paper, as are updates from previously ongoing hardware anomalies. This paper addresses the major ISS operation events over the last year. Impact to overall ISS operations is also discussed.

  8. Integrating MBSE into Ongoing Projects: Requirements Validation and Test Planning for the ISS SAFER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Herbert A.; Williams, Antony; Pierce, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Simplified Aid for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) is the spacewalking astronaut's final safety measure against separating from the ISS and being unable to return safely. Since the late 1990s, the SAFER has been a standard element of the spacewalking astronaut's equipment. The ISS SAFER project was chartered to develop a new block of SAFER units using a highly similar design to the legacy SAFER (known as the USA SAFER). An on-orbit test module was also included in the project to enable periodic maintenance/propulsion system checkout on the ISS SAFER. On the ISS SAFER project, model-based systems engineering (MBSE) was not the initial systems engineering (SE) approach, given the volume of heritage systems engineering and integration (SE&I) products. The initial emphasis was ensuring traceability to ISS program standards as well as to legacy USA SAFER requirements. The requirements management capabilities of the Cradle systems engineering tool were to be utilized to that end. During development, however, MBSE approaches were applied selectively to address specific challenges in requirements validation and test and verification (T&V) planning, which provided measurable efficiencies to the project. From an MBSE perspective, ISS SAFER development presented a challenge and an opportunity. Addressing the challenge first, the project was tasked to use the original USA SAFER operational and design requirements baseline, with a number of additional ISS program requirements to address evolving certification expectations for systems operating on the ISS. Additionally, a need to redesign the ISS SAFER avionics architecture resulted in a set of changes to the design requirements baseline. Finally, the project added an entirely new functionality for on-orbit maintenance. After initial requirements integration, the system requirements count was approaching 1000, which represented a growth of 4x over the original USA SAFER system

  9. Assessment of nutrient stability in foods from the space food system after long-duration spaceflight on the ISS.

    PubMed

    Zwart, S R; Kloeris, V L; Perchonok, M H; Braby, L; Smith, S M

    2009-09-01

    Maintaining an intact nutrient supply in the food system flown on spacecraft is a critical issue for mission success and crew health. Ground-based evidence indicates that some vitamins may be altered and fatty acids oxidized (and therefore rendered useless, or even dangerous) by long-term storage and by exposure to radiation, both of which will be issues for long-duration exploration missions in space. In this study, the stability of nutrients was investigated in food samples exposed to spaceflight on the Intl. Space Station (ISS). A total of 6 replicates of 5 different space food items, a multivitamin, and a vitamin D supplement were packaged into 4 identical kits and were launched in 2006 on the space shuttle. After 13, 353, 596, and 880 d of spaceflight aboard the ISS, the kits were returned to Earth. Nine replicates of each food item and vitamin, from the same lots as those sent into space, remained in an environmental chamber on Earth to serve as controls at each time point. Vitamins, hexanal, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and amino acids were measured in identical-lot food samples at each time point. After 596 d of spaceflight, differences in intact vitamin concentrations due to duration of storage were observed for most foodstuffs, but generally, nutrients from flight samples did not degrade any faster than ground controls. This study provided the 1st set of spaceflight data for investigation of nutrient stability in the food system, and the results will help NASA design food systems for both ISS and space exploration missions.

  10. Assessment of nutrient stability in foods from the space food system after long-duration spaceflight on the ISS.

    PubMed

    Zwart, S R; Kloeris, V L; Perchonok, M H; Braby, L; Smith, S M

    2009-09-01

    Maintaining an intact nutrient supply in the food system flown on spacecraft is a critical issue for mission success and crew health. Ground-based evidence indicates that some vitamins may be altered and fatty acids oxidized (and therefore rendered useless, or even dangerous) by long-term storage and by exposure to radiation, both of which will be issues for long-duration exploration missions in space. In this study, the stability of nutrients was investigated in food samples exposed to spaceflight on the Intl. Space Station (ISS). A total of 6 replicates of 5 different space food items, a multivitamin, and a vitamin D supplement were packaged into 4 identical kits and were launched in 2006 on the space shuttle. After 13, 353, 596, and 880 d of spaceflight aboard the ISS, the kits were returned to Earth. Nine replicates of each food item and vitamin, from the same lots as those sent into space, remained in an environmental chamber on Earth to serve as controls at each time point. Vitamins, hexanal, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and amino acids were measured in identical-lot food samples at each time point. After 596 d of spaceflight, differences in intact vitamin concentrations due to duration of storage were observed for most foodstuffs, but generally, nutrients from flight samples did not degrade any faster than ground controls. This study provided the 1st set of spaceflight data for investigation of nutrient stability in the food system, and the results will help NASA design food systems for both ISS and space exploration missions. PMID:19895472

  11. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunn, Griffin Michael; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Ruby, Anna Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  12. Impact of Solar Array Position on ISS Vehicle Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alred, John; Mikatarian, Ronald; Koontz, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), because of its large structure and high voltage solar arrays, has a complex plasma interaction with the ionosphere in low Earth orbit (LEO). This interaction of the ISS US Segment photovoltaic (PV) power system with the LEO ionospheric plasma produces floating potentials on conducting elements of the ISS structure relative to the local plasma environment. To control the ISS floating potentials, two Plasma Contactor Units (PCUs) are installed on the Z1 truss. Each PCU discharges accumulated electrons from the Space Station structure, thus reducing the potential difference between the ISS structure and the surrounding charged plasma environment. Operations of the PCUs were intended to keep the ISS floating potential to 40 Volts (Reference 1). Exposed dielectric surfaces overlying conducting structure on the Space Station will collect an opposite charge from the ionosphere as the ISS charges. In theory, when an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crewmember is tethered to structure via the crew safety tether or when metallic surfaces of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) come in contact with conducting metallic surfaces of the ISS, the EMU conducting components, including the perspiration-soaked crewmember inside, can become charged to the Space Station floating potential. The concern is the potential dielectric breakdown of anodized aluminum surfaces on the EMU producing an arc from the EMU to the ambient plasma, or nearby ISS structure. If the EMU arcs, an electrical current of an unknown magnitude and duration may conduct through the EVA crewmember, producing an unacceptable condition. This electrical current may be sufficient to startle or fatally shock the EVA crewmember (Reference 2). Hence, as currently defined by the EVA community, the ISS floating potential for all nominal and contingency EVA worksites and translation paths must have a magnitude less than 40 volts relative to the local ionosphere at all times during EVA

  13. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.

  14. Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.

  15. Using the ISS as a Testbed to Prepare for the Next Generation of Space-Based Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Kim; Thronson, Harley; Boyles, Mark; Sparks, William; Postman, Marc; Carpenter, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The ISS provides a unique opportunity to develop the technologies and operational capabilities necessary to assemble future large space telescopes that may be used to investigate planetary systems around neighboring stars. Assembling telescopes in space is a paradigm-shifting approach to space astronomy. Using the ISS as a testbed will reduce the technical risks of implementing this major scientific facility, such as laser metrology and wavefront sensing and control (WFSC). The Optical Testbed and Integration on ISS eXperiment (OpTIIX) will demonstrate the robotic assembly of major components, including the primary and secondary mirrors, to mechanical tolerances using existing ISS infrastructure, and the alignment of the optical elements to a diffraction-limited optical system in space. Assembling the optical system and removing and replacing components via existing ISS capabilities, such as the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) or the ISS flight crew, allows for future experimentation and repair, if necessary. First flight on ISS for OpTIIX, a small 1.5 meter optical telescope, is planned for 2015. In addition to demonstration of key risk-retiring technologies, the OpTIIX program includes a public outreach program to show the broad value of ISS utilization.

  16. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.

  17. ISS Solar Array Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  18. Analyzing an Aging ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ISS External Survey integrates the requirements for photographic and video imagery of the International Space Station (ISS) for the engineering, operations, and science communities. An extensive photographic survey was performed on all Space Shuttle flights to the ISS and continues to be performed daily, though on a level much reduced by the limited available imagery. The acquired video and photo imagery is used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of external deposition and contamination, surface degradation, dynamic events, and MMOD strikes. Many of these assessments provide important information about ISS surfaces and structural integrity as the ISS ages. The imagery is also used to assess and verify the physical configuration of ISS structure, appendages, and components.

  19. ISS Update: Suitport

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Lynnette Madison interviews Mallory Jennings, Suitport Human Testing Lead, about making spacewalks easier and more efficient with the Suitport. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @...

  20. ISS GN and C - First Year Surprises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begley, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) began in late 1998 with the joining of the first two US and Russ ian elements. For more than two years, the outpost was served by two Russian Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) systems. The station requires orbital translation and attitude control functions for its 100+ configurations, from the nascent two-module station to the half million kilogram completed station owned and operated by seventeen nations. With the launch of the US Laboratory module in February 2001, the integration of the US GN&C system with its Russian counterpart laid the foundation for such a robust system. In its first year of combined operation, the ISS GN&C system has performed admirably, even better than many expected, but there have been surprises. Loss of command capability, loss of communication between segments, a control system force-fight, and "non-propulsive vents" that weren't - such events have repeatedly underscored the importance of thorough program integration, testing, and operation, both across subsystem boundaries and across international borders.

  1. ISS Operations for the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) Experiences from the Robotic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (RSEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinler, Anthony B.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will present a new era of telerobotic operations on-orbit. Operating the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) in its tasks of maintaining the multitude of Space Station Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs) creates numerous operational considerations not seen in the existing Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the future Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The differences between the large arms and the dexterous arm greatly affect the interconnection of man, robot, and task. This paper presents some of the issues arising from this new breed of on-orbit robotics as garnered from over three years of ORU testing experience within the Robotic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (RSEL) at NASA Johnson Space Center. The effects of new robotic features on operations, the issues surrounding targets and visual cues, the differences in operating with Force Moment Accommodation (FMA), the effects of changes in task complexity and scale, the lack of supporting flight information, and the changes in procedures required by the dexterous task will be discussed.

  2. Ring-laser gyroscope system using dispersive element(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A ring-laser gyroscope system includes a ring-laser gyroscope (RLG) and at least one dispersive element optically coupled to the RLG's ring-shaped optical path. Each dispersive element has a resonant frequency that is approximately equal to the RLG's lasing frequency. A group index of refraction defined collectively by the dispersive element(s) has (i) a real portion that is greater than zero and less than one, and (ii) an imaginary portion that is less than zero.

  3. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  4. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  5. Partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE) and chalcogens (Se, Te, As, Sb, Bi) between monosulfide-solid solution (MSS), intermediate solid solution (ISS) and sulfide liquid at controlled fO2-fS2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanan; Brenan, James

    2015-06-01

    In order to better understand the behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSEs: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Au, Re), Ag, Pb and chalcogens (As, Se, Sb, Te and Bi) during the solidification of sulfide magmas, we have conducted a series of experiments to measure partition coefficients (D values) between monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and sulfide melt, as well as MSS and intermediate solid solution (ISS), at 0.1 MPa and 860-926 °C, log fS2 -3.0 to -2.2 (similar to the Pt-PtS buffer), with fO2 controlled at the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. The IPGEs (Os, Ir, Ru), Rh and Re are found to be compatible in MSS relative to sulfide melt with D values ranging from ∼20 to ∼5, and DRe/DOs of ∼0.5. Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, Pb, as well as the chalcogens, are incompatible in MSS, with D values ranging from ∼0.1 to ∼1 × 10-3. For the same metal/sulfur ratio, D values for the IPGEs, Rh and Re are systematically larger than most past studies, correlating with higher oxygen content in the sulfide liquid, reflecting the significant effect of oxygen on increasing the activity coefficients for these elements in the melt phase. MSS/ISS partitioning experiments reveal that Ru, Os, Ir, Rh and Re are partitioned into MSS by a factor of >50, whereas Pd, Pt, Ag, Au and the chalcogens partition from weakly (Se, As) to strongly (Ag, Au) into ISS. Uniformly low MSS- and ISS- melt partition coefficients for the chalcogens, Pt, Pd, Ag and Au will lead to enrichment in the residual sulfide liquid, but D values are generally too large to reach early saturation in Pt-Pd-chalcogen-rich accessory minerals, based on current solubility estimates. Instead, these phases likely precipitate at the last dregs of crystallization. Modeled evolution curves for the PGEs and chalcogens are in reasonably good agreement with whole-rock sulfide compositions for the McCreedy East deposit (Sudbury, Ontario), consistent with an origin by crystallization of MSS, then MSS + ISS from sulfide magma.

  6. Assessment of Ethanol Trends on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Gazda, Daniel; McCoy, Torin; Limero, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides a working environment for six crewmembers through atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems. In the last year, elevated ethanol levels have presented a unique challenge for the ISS ECLSS. Ethanol is monitored on the ISS by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM). The source of this increase is currently unknown. This paper documents the credible sources for the increased ethanol concentration, the monitoring provided by the AQM, and the impact on the atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems.

  7. STS-104 Onboard Photograph-ISS Airlock Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Quest Airlock is in the process of being installed onto the starboard side of the Unity Node 1 of the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Susan J. Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, used controls onboard the station to maneuver the Airlock into place with the Canadarm2, or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The Joint Airlock is a pressurized flight element consisting of two cylindrical chambers attached end-to-end by a cornecting bulkhead and hatch. Once installed and activated, the ISS Airlock becomes the primary path for ISS space walk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, which are known as Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs). In addition, it is designed to support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for extravehicular activity (EVA). The Joint Airlock is 20-feet long, 13-feet in diameter and weighs 6.5 tons. It was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by the Space Station prime contractor Boeing. The ISS Airlock has two main components: a crew airlock and an equipment airlock for storing EVA and EVA preflight preps. The Airlock was launched on July 21, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis for the STS-104 mission.

  8. Overview of ISS U.S. Fire Detection and Suppression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Alana

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the International Space Station's Fire Detection and Suppression System. The topics include: 1) Introduction to Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS); 2) Description of (FDS) Subsystems; 3) FDS System Component Location and Status; 4) FDS System Capabilities; 5) FDS Automatic and Manual Response; 6) Post Fire Atmosphere Restoration and Air Quality Assessment; and 7) FDS Research Needs. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  9. Transfer and partitioning of energy and mass through seafloor hydrothermal systems: comparative studies at the Ridge2000 Integrated Study Sites (ISS) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems are major players in the transfer of mass and energy from the mantle and crust to the ocean and biosphere. Over the past thirty years, much has been learned about this transfer to the ocean, but considerably less is known about the transfer to the biosphere. Study of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings has shown relationships between spreading rate and hydrothermal heat flux, substrate composition (including rock geochemistry, presence/absence of sediment) and hydrothermal fluid composition, and magmatic/tectonic events and temporal variability of fluid composition (e.g., German and Von Damm, Treatise On Geochemistry, 2004; Baker et al. AGU Monograph Series 91, 1995). Studies in arc and back-arc settings are documenting the effects of magmatic acid volatiles on fluid-rock reaction and fluid and vent deposit compositions (e.g., Ishibashi and Urabe, Backarc Basins: Tectonics and Magmatism, 1995). These comparative studies in a wide range of geologic settings, including at the three Ridge2000 ISS, have provided a fairly good understanding of the flux of heat and many elements to the ocean associated with high temperature seafloor hydrothermal systems. Considerably less is known, however, about the partitioning of heat and mass (particularly metals and sulfur) in hydrothermal systems. The deposits that form at vent sites are intimately linked within paths of energy and mass transport from the mantle and crust to the oceans. Transport differs greatly through different types of deposits (e.g., black smokers, white smokers/diffusers, flanges). Estimates of heat flux from measured temperatures of flow (unless integrated over and around an entire vent field) require an understanding of the partitioning of flow between focused black smokers and more diffuse flow from diffusers, flanges, and surfaces of deposits, and from the igneous substrate. Estimates of mass flux into the ocean require an understanding of the

  10. ISS Update: Active Response Gravity Offload System -- 08.24.12

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks to the Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) Project Manager Larry Dungan in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center in Hou...

  11. ISS Utilization Potential for 2011-2020 and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askew, R.; Chabrow, J.; Nakagawa, R.

    The US concept for a permanent human presence in space as directed by President Ronald Reagan in 1984 was called Space Station Freedom. This was the precursor to the International Space Station (ISS) that now orbits the earth. The first element of the ISS, Zarya, was launched November 20, 1998. The launch of STS-133 provides the final component of the assembly, the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). During the assembly the ISS was utilized to the extent possible for the conduct of scientific research and technology development, and for the development of enhancements to the ISS capabilities. These activities have resulted in a significant database of lessons learned regarding operations, both of the ISS platform as well as in the conduct of research. For the coming decade utilization of the ISS will be impacted by how these lessons learned are used to improve operations. Access to the ISS and to its capabilities will determine the types of projects that can use the ISS. Perhaps the most critical limitation is the funds that must be invested by potential users of the ISS. This paper examines the elements that have been identified as impediments to utilization of the ISS by both basic researchers and by the private sector over the past decade and provides an assessment of which of these are likely to be satisfactorily altered and on what time scale.

  12. Concept for Sustained Plant Production on ISS Using VEGGIE Capillary Mat Rooting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth in microgravity presents unique challenges associated with maintaining appropriate conditions for seed germination, seedling establishment, maturation and harvest. They include maintaining appropriate soil moisture content, nutrient balance, atmospheric mixing and containment. Sustained production imposes additional challenges of harvesting, replanting, and safety. The VEGGIE is a deployable (collapsible) plant growth chamber developed as part of a NASA SBIR Phase II by Orbitec, Madison, WI. The intent of VEGGIE is to provide a low-resource system to produce fresh vegetables for the crew on long duration missions. The VEGGIE uses and LED array for lighting, an expandable bellows for containment, and a capillary matting system for nutrient and water delivery. The project evaluated a number of approaches to achieve sustained production, and repeated plantings, using the capillary rooting system. A number of different root media, seed containment, and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated and effects on seed germination and growth were evaluated. A number of issues limiting sustained production, such as accumulation of nutrients, uniform water, elevated vapor pressure deficit, and media containment were identified. A concept using pre-planted rooting packs shown to effectively address a number of those issues and is a promising approach for future development as a planting system for microgravity conditions.

  13. Practical Applications of Cables and Ropes in the ISS Countermeasures System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Cherice; Svetlik, Randall; Williams, Antony

    2017-01-01

    As spaceflight durations have increased over the last four decades, the effects of weightlessness on the human body are far better understood, as are the countermeasures. A combination of aerobic and resistive exercise devices contribute to countering the losses in muscle strength, aerobic fitness, and bone strength of today's astronauts and cosmonauts that occur during their missions on the International Space Station. Creation of these systems has been a dynamically educational experience for designers and engineers. The ropes and cables in particular have experienced a wide range of challenges, providing a full set of lessons learned that have already enabled improvements in on-orbit reliability by initiating system design improvements. This paper examines the on-orbit experience of ropes and cables in several exercise devices and discusses the lessons learned from these hardware items, with the goal of informing future system design.

  14. KSC ISS Logistics Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellado, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The presentation contains a status of KSC ISS Logistics Operations. It basically presents current top level ISS Logistics tasks being conducted at KSC, current International Partner activities, hardware processing flow focussing on late Stow operations, list of KSC Logistics POC's, and a backup list of Logistics launch site services. This presentation is being given at the annual International Space Station (ISS) Multi-lateral Logistics Maintenance Control Panel meeting to be held in Turin, Italy during the week of May 13-16. The presentatiuon content doesn't contain any potential lessons learned.

  15. Bioculture System Expanding ISS Capabilities for Space Biosciences Research and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2013-01-01

    Oral presentation at the ASGSR 2013 Annual Meeting. The presentation describes the NASA Bioculture System hardware design, capabilities, enabling science research capabilities, and flight concept of operations. The presentation is part of the Enabling Technologies special session and will be presented to perspective users in both academics and commercial communities.

  16. ISS Interface Mechanisms and their Heritage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, John G.; Aksamentov, Valery; Hoffman, Thomas; Bruner, Wes

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station, by nurturing technological development of a variety of pressurized and unpressurized interface mechanisms fosters "competition at the technology level". Such redundancy and diversity allows for the development and testing of mechanisms that might be used for future exploration efforts. The International Space Station, as a test-bed for exploration, has 4 types of pressurized interfaces between elements and 6 unpressurized attachment mechanisms. Lessons learned from the design, test and operations of these mechanisms will help inform the design for a new international standard pressurized docking mechanism for the NASA Docking System. This paper will examine the attachment mechanisms on the ISS and their attributes. It will also look ahead at the new NASA docking system and trace its lineage to heritage mechanisms.

  17. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  18. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2015 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past two years.

  19. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Bazley, Jesse; Gazda, Daniel; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2016-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2016 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  20. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Wilson, Laura Labuda; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2011, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  1. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Tobias, Barry; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2012, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  2. ISS Update: Suitport Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Lynnette Madison interviews Joel Maganza, Test Director, about thermal vacuum chambers and unmanned and human-testing with the Suitport. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Jo...

  3. Back at the ISS

    NASA Video Gallery

    Back at the ISS is a rocking musical greeting to ESA Astronaut André Kuipers, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko and the entire crew of the International Space Station on the occasion of the docking...

  4. ISS Update: NEEMO 16

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Josh Byerly interviews astronaut Stan Love about the NEEMO 16 mission from Aquarius Base. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For ...

  5. ISS Payload Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  6. Holodeck-ISS Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainbolt, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    For the duration of my internship here at JSC for the summer 2016 session, the main project that I worked on dealt with hybrid reality simulations of the ISS. As an ER6 intern for the spacecraft software division, the main project that I worked alongside others was with regards to the Holodeck Virtual Reality Project, specifically with the ISS experience, with the use of the HTC Vive and controllers.

  7. Dexterous Operations on ISS and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, P. Andrew; Read, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is a complex robotics system used extensively in the assembly, inspection and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Its external components are comprised of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Base System (MBS), and the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM or "Dextre"). Dexterous robotic maintenance operations on the ISS are now enabled with the launch and deployment of "Dextre" in March 2008 and the recently completed commissioning to support nominal operations. These operations include allowing for maintenance of the MSS capability to be executed uniquely via robotic means. Examples are detailed inspection and the removal and replacement of On-orbit Replaceable Units (ORUs) located outside the pressurized volume of the ISS, alleviating astronauts from performing numerous risky and time-consuming extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). In light of the proposed extension of the ISS to 2020 and beyond, "Dextre" can also be seen as a resource for the support and conduct of external ISS experiments. "Dextre" can be utilized to move experiments around ISS, as test bed for more elaborate experiments outside the original design intent, and as a unique platform for external experiments. This paper summarizes the status of "Dextre", its planned use, and future potential for dexterous operations on the ISS. Lessons learned from the planning and execution of SPDM commissioning are first introduced, and significant differences between "Dextre" and SSRMS operations are discussed. The use of ground control as the predominant method for operating "Dextre" is highlighted, along with the benefits and challenges that this poses. Finally, the latest plans for dexterous operations on ISS are summarized including visiting vehicle unloading, nominal maintenance, and operations of a more experimental flavor.

  8. Simulation of an urban ground-water-flow system in the Menomonee Valley, Milwaukee, Wisconsin using analytic element modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunning, C.P.; Feinstein, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    A single-layer, steady-state analytic element model was constructed to simulate shallow ground-water flow in the Menomonee Valley, an old industrial center southwest of downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Project objectives were to develop an understanding of the shallow ground-water flow system and identify primary receptors of recharge to the valley. The analytic element model simulates flow in a 18.3 m (60 ft) thick layer of estuarine and alluvial sediments and man-made fill that comprises the shallow aquifer across the valley. The thin, laterally extensive nature of the shallow aquifer suggests horizontal-flow predominates, thus the system can appropriately be modeled with the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation in an analytic element model. The model was calibrated to the measured baseflow increase between two USGS gages on the Menomonee River, 90 head measurements taken in and around the valley during December 1999, and vertical gradients measured at five locations under the river and estuary in the valley. Recent construction of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewer District Inline Storage System (ISS) in the Silurian dolomite under the Menomonee Valley has locally lowered heads in the dolomite appreciably, below levels caused by historic pumping. The ISS is a regional hydraulic sink which removes water from the bedrock even during dry weather. The potential effect on flow directions in the shallow aquifer of dry-weather infiltration to the ISS was evaluated by adjusting the resistance of the line-sink strings representing the ISS in the model to allow infiltration from 0 to 100% of the reported 9,500 m3/d. The best fit to calibration targets was found between 60% (5,700 m3/d) and 80% (7,600 m3/d) of the reported dry-weather infiltration. At 60% infiltration, 65% of the recharge falling on the valley terminates at the ISS and 35% at the Menomonee River and estuary. At 80% infiltration, 73% of the recharge terminates at the ISS, and 27% at the river and estuary. Model

  9. Continuing Evolution of the Hydrothermal System at the RIDGE2000 ISS, 9-10° N EPR: 1991-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Damm, K. L.; Parker, C. M.; Beers, K. A.; Hyde, A. A.

    2004-12-01

    We have been studying the evolution of the chemical composition of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal system on the East Pacific Rise from 9° 46-51'N since it was impacted by volcanic eruptions in 1991/2. We have been using the chemical and temperature data to infer the processes that are occurring subseafloor in the upper oceanic crust. As of March 2004, the chemical compositions of the vent fluids from this site have not yet stabilized. This observation is helping us to better understand not only the impact of magmatic events on these systems, but also the time scales on which they occur. Centered at the RIDGE2000 ISS "bull's-eye" at 9° 50'N we have noted a striking increase in the number of hydrothermal vents as well as in their measured fluid temperatures beginning after ~2000. In November 2003 we first noted the formation of a black smoker vent at the Tica site (measured T=342° C). In March 2004 we identified another new area of robust flow near the Bio9 vents at 9° 50'N, the 'Alvinellid Mat,' that we anticipate will form an additional black smoker to the three currently active at this site. In March 2004 we measured temperatures of 388° C in fluids from both the Bio9 and Bio9' smokers, putting them essentially on the two phase curve for seawater at this depth. For all of the Bio9 vents, as well as Tica, the fluids contain less than 300 mmoles/kg of Cl, approximately half the local seawater concentration. These high temperature and low Cl concentrations are accompanied by unusually low Si concentrations, <9.5 mmoles/kg. These data suggest a relatively shallow depth of reaction for the fluids, within a few hundred meters of the seafloor. These are the hottest temperatures measured in the Bio9 vents since the eruption in 1992. In contrast, the temperatures at P vent, about 60m south have cooled by ˜15° C since 2002. About 400m south, the chlorinity of the fluids from Ty and Io vents have increased, and Tube Worm Pillar, about 400m further south has

  10. Artist's Concept of International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) with solar panels fully deployed. In addition to the use of solar energy, the ISS will employ at least three types of propulsive support systems for its operation. The first type is to reboost the Station to correct orbital altitude to offset the effects of atmospheric and other drag forces. The second function is to maneuver the ISS to avoid collision with oribting bodies (space junk). The third is for attitude control to position the Station in the proper attitude for various experiments, temperature control, reboost, etc. The ISS, a gateway to permanent human presence in space, is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation by cooperation of sixteen countries.

  11. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document with its sister documents, Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes (CCT-PLN-1120), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), and Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT-STD-1150), and International Space Station (ISS) to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase of the NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP).

  12. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  13. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  14. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the

  15. Measurements of Neutron Radiation on the International Space Station: ISS-34 to ISS-40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Martin

    Radiation protection associated with human spaceflight is an important issue that becomes more vital as both the length of the mission and the distance from Earth increase. Radiation in deep space is a mixed field due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar particle events (SPEs). In low-Earth orbit (LEO), protons and electrons trapped in the Van Allen radiation belts also make a major contribution to the radiation field. Neutrons encountered in LEO, for example on the International Space Station (ISS), are produced by nuclear interactions of GCRs and trapped protons with various elements in the walls and interior components of the spacecraft, and by neutron albedo after GCRs are incident on the Earth’s atmosphere. Previous investigations using bubble detectors (on Russian satellites, the Mir space station, the space shuttle, and the ISS) have shown that neutrons contribute significantly to the total biologically-equivalent radiation dose received by astronauts. As part of the ongoing Matroshka-R experiment, bubble detectors have been used to characterize neutron radiation on the ISS, starting with the ISS-13 mission in 2006. Two types of bubble detectors have been used for these experiments, namely space personal neutron dosimeters (SPNDs) and the space bubble-detector spectrometer (SBDS). The SBDS is a set of six detectors with different energy thresholds, which is used to determine the neutron energy spectrum. During the ISS-34 to ISS-40 expeditions (2012 - 2014) bubble detectors were used in both the US Orbital Segment (USOS) and the Russian segment of the ISS. The Radi-N2 experiment, a repeat of the 2009 Radi-N investigation, started during ISS-34 and included repeated measurements in four USOS modules: Columbus, the Japanese Experiment Module, the US Laboratory, and Node 2. Parallel experiments using a second set of detectors in the Russian segment included the first characterization of the neutron spectrum inside the tissue-equivalent Matroshka-R phantom

  16. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    The design and functions of ALEPS (Automated Logistics Element Planning System) is a computer system that will automate planning and decision support for Space Station Freedom Logistical Elements (LEs) resupply and return operations. ALEPS provides data management, planning, analysis, monitoring, interfacing, and flight certification for support of LE flight load planning activities. The prototype ALEPS algorithm development is described.

  17. Preliminary Analysis of ISS Maintenance History and Implications for Supportability of Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Kevin J.; Robbins, William W.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) enables the study of supportability issues associated with long-duration human spaceflight. The ISS is a large, complex spacecraft that must be maintained by its crew. In contrast to the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle, but similar to spacecraft that will be component elements of future missions beyond low-Earth orbit, ISS does not return to the ground for servicing and provisioning of spares is severely constrained by transportation limits. Although significant technical support is provided by ground personnel, all hands-on maintenance tasks are performed by the crew. It is expected that future missions to distant destinations will be further limited by lack of resupply opportunities and will, eventually, become largely independent of ground support. ISS provides an opportunity to begin learning lessons that will enable future missions to be successful. Data accumulated over the first several years of ISS operations have been analyzed to gain a better understanding of maintenance-related workload. This analysis addresses both preventive and corrective maintenance and includes all U.S segment core systems. Systems and tasks that are major contributors to workload are identified. As further experience accrues, lessons will be learned that will influence future system designs so that they require less maintenance and, when maintenance is required, it can be performed more efficiently. By heeding the lessons of ISS it will be possible to identify system designs that should be more robust and point towards advances in both technology and design that will offer the greatest return on investment.

  18. Scientific Verification Test of Orbitec Deployable Vegetable Production System for Salad Crop Growth on ISS- Gas Exchange System design and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldemire, Ashleigh

    2007-01-01

    The ability to produce and maintain salad crops during long term missions would be a great benefit to NASA; the renewable food supply would save cargo space, weight and money. The ambient conditions of previous ground controlled crop plant experiments do not reflect the microgravity and high CO2 concentrations present during orbit. It has been established that microgravity does not considerably alter plant growth. (Monje, Stutte, Chapman, 2005). To support plants in a space-craft environment efficient and effective lighting and containment units are necessary. Three lighting systems were previously evaluated for radish growth in ambient air; fluorescent lamps in an Orbitec Biomass Production System Educational (BPSE), a combination of red, blue, and green LED's in a Deployable Vegetable Production System (Veggie), and a combination of red and blue LED's in a Veggie. When mass measurements compared the entire possible growing area vs. power consumed by the respective units, the Veggies clearly exceeded the BPSE indicating that the LED units were a more resource efficient means of growing radishes under ambient conditions in comparison with fluorescent lighting. To evaluate the most productive light treatment system for a long term space mission a more closely simulated ISS environment is necessary. To induce a CO2 dense atmosphere inside the Veggie's and BPSE a gas exchange system has been developed to maintain a range of 1000-1200 ppm CO2 during a 21-day light treatment experiment. This report details the design and function of the gas exchange system. The rehabilitation, trouble shooting, maintenance and testing of the gas exchange system have been my major assignments. I have also contributed to the planting, daily measurements and harvesting of the radish crops 21-day light treatment verification test.

  19. Analytical Assessment of a Gross Leakage Event Within the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James M.; Clanton, Stephen E.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) gross leakage analysis are presented for evaluating total leakage flowrates and volume discharge caused by a gross leakage event (i.e. open boundary condition). A Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA/FLUINT) thermal hydraulic mathematical model (THMM) representing the Node 2 IATCS was developed to simulate system performance under steady-state nominal conditions as well as the transient flow effects resulting from an open line exposed to ambient. The objective of the analysis was to determine the adequacy of the leak detection software in limiting the quantity of fluid lost during a gross leakage event to within an acceptable level.

  20. Analytical Assessment of a Gross Leakage Event Within the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James M.; Clanton, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) gross leakage analysis are presented for evaluating total leakage flow rates and volume discharge caused by a gross leakage event (i.e. open boundary condition). A Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA85/FLUINT) thermal hydraulic mathematical model (THMM) representing the Node 2 IATCS was developed to simulate system performance under steady-state nominal conditions as well as the transient flow effect resulting from an open line exposed to ambient. The objective of the analysis was to determine the adequacy of the leak detection software in limiting the quantity of fluid lost during a gross leakage event to within an acceptable level.

  1. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  2. ISS Local Environment Spectrometers (ISLES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Gilchrist, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the ISS and the ISS surface materials, we propose to use lowcost, high-TRL plasma sensors on the ISS robotic arm to probe the ISS space environment. During many years of ISS operation, we have been able to condut effective (but not perfect) extravehicular activities (both human and robotic) within the perturbed local ISS space environment. Because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the LEO space environment, there remain important questions, such as differential charging at solar panel junctions (the so-called "triple point" between conductor, dielectric, and space plasma), increased chemical contamination due to ISS surface charging and/or thruster activation, water dumps, etc, and "bootstrap" charging of insulating surfaces. Some compelling questions could synergistically draw upon a common sensor suite, which also leverages previous and current MSFC investments. Specific questions address ISS surface charging, plasma contactor plume expansion in a magnetized drifting plasma, and possible localized contamination effects across the ISS.

  3. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - the First Operational Payload on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, F. H.; McFadin, L.; Steiner, M.; Conley, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    As astronauts and cosmonauts have adapted to life on the International Space Station (ISS), they have found Amateur Radio and its connection to life on Earth to be a constant companion and a substantial psychological boost. Since its first use in November 2000, the first five expedition crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the FGB to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early in the development of ISS, an international organization called ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station) was formed to coordinate the construction and operation of amateur radio (ham radio) equipment on ISS. ARISS represents a melding of the volunteer teams that have pioneered the development and use of amateur radio equipment on human spaceflight vehicles. The Shuttle/Space Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) team enabled Owen Garriott to become the first astronaut ham to use amateur radio from space in 1983. Since then, amateur radio teams in the U.S. (SAREX), Germany, (SAFEX), and Russia (Mirex) have led the development and operation of amateur radio equipment on board NASA's Space Shuttle, Russia's Mir space station, and the International Space Station. The primary goals of the ARISS program are fourfold: 1) educational outreach through crew contacts with schools, 2) random contacts with the Amateur Radio public, 3) scheduled contacts with the astronauts' friends and families and 4) ISS-based communications experimentation. To date, over 65 schools have been selected from around the world for scheduled contacts with the orbiting ISS crew. Ten or more students at each school ask the astronauts questions, and the nature of these contacts embodies the primary goal of the ARISS program, -- to excite student's interest in science, technology and amateur radio. The ARISS team has developed various hardware elements for the ISS amateur radio station. These hardware elements have flown to ISS

  4. MSFC Analyses of ISS Auroral and Solar Array Charging Environments and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily; Minow, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Analysis on-going to differentiate charging due to environment and operations. Analysis requires a combination of FPMU data, ISS systems data, and other data sources. Results will be important for current ISS operations as well as future spacecraft programs.

  5. ISS ECLSS Technology Evolution for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrasquillo, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    The baseline environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) currently deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) and the regenerative oxygen generation and water early 1990's. While they are generally meeting, or exceeding requirements for supporting the ISS crew, lessons learned from hardware development and on orbit experience, together with advances in technology state of the art, and th&e unique requirements for future manned exploration missions prompt consideration of the next steps to be taken to evolve these technologies to improve robustness and reliability, enhance performance, and reduce resource requirements such as power and logistics upmass This paper discusses the current state of ISS ECLSS technology and identifies possible areas for evolutionary enhancement or improvement.

  6. Lobster-ISS: Time-resolved all-sky X-ray imaging from the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, G.; Bannister, N.

    LOBSTER-ISS will offer a major advance in the observation of X-ray variability in the 0.1 - 3.5 keV band. The combination of a wide instantaneous field of view (162° x 22.5° realized using microchannel plate optics, and the orbital mo tion of the ISS results in almost complete sky coverage every 90 minute orbit, achieving a daily sensitivity approaching 0.1 mCrab, with ~4 arcmin angular resolution. The scientific goals of the mission span all of astronomy - observations of X-ray emission from comets within the solar system, detailed studies of the X-ray background, and the detection of galactic and extra-galactic X ray transients. Frequent and regularly- spaced observations by LOBSTER-ISS allow temporal studies of phenomena such as AGN activity over timescales impossible to cover using current instrumentation. Data from the six LOBSTER-ISS telescopes provide the locations of short-lived transients, which can be relayed to contemporary narrow-field observatories in space and on the ground for multi-wavelength follow-up observations, while the inclusion of a gamma ray detector in the payload permits rapid identification of the soft X-ray tail of GRBs . Lobster-ISS, now proceeding through Phase-A study, is due to fly on the European Columbus mo dule of the ISS, for three years beginning in 2009.

  7. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  8. ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

    2004-01-01

    A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

  9. Stability Analysis of ISS Medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, V. E.

    2014-01-01

    It is known that medications degrade over time, and that extreme storage conditions will hasten their degradation. The temperature and humidity conditions of the ISS have been shown to be within the ideal ranges for medication storage, but the effects of other environmental factors, like elevated exposure to radiation, have not yet been evaluated. Current operational procedures ensure that ISS medications are re-stocked before expiration, but this may not be possible on long duration exploration missions. For this reason, medications that have experienced long duration storage on the ISS were returned to JSC for analysis to determine any unusual effects of aging in the low- Earth orbit environment. METHODS Medications were obtained by the JSC Pharmacy from commercial distributors and were re-packaged by JSC pharmacists to conserve up mass and volume. All medication doses were part of the ISS crew medical kit and were transported to the International Space Station (ISS) via NASA's Shuttle Transportation System (Space Shuttle). After 568 days of storage, the medications were removed from the supply chain and returned to Earth on a Dragon (SpaceX) capsule. Upon return to Earth, medications were transferred to temperature and humidity controlled environmental chambers until analysis. Nine medications were chosen on the basis of their availability for study. The medications included several of the most heavily used by US crewmembers: 2 sleep aids, 2 antihistamines/decongestants, 3 pain relievers, an antidiarrheal and an alertness medication. Each medication was available at a single time point; analysis of the same medication at multiple time points was not possible. Because the samples examined in this study were obtained opportunistically from medical supplies, there were no control samples available (i.e. samples aged for a similar period of time on the ground); a significant limitation of this study. Medications were analyzed using the HPLC/MS methods described in

  10. International Space Station (ISS) Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) Wet Storage Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Michael D.; Rotter, Henry A.; Lee, Jason; Packham, Nigel; Brady, Timothy K.; Kelly, Robert; Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to evaluate the risks posed by the practice of long-term wet storage of ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) regeneration system orbital replacement units (ORUs). The ISS ECLS regeneration system removes water from urine and humidity condensate and converts it into potable water and oxygen. A total of 29 ORUs are in the ECLS system, each designed to be replaced by the ISS crew when necessary. The NESC assembled a team to review the ISS ECLS regeneration system and evaluate the potential for biofouling and corrosion. This document contains the outcome of the evaluation.

  11. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the One EVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more

  12. International Space Station (ISS) Low Pressure Intramodule Quick Disconnect Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Harris, Danny; Link, Dwight; Morrison, Russel

    2004-01-01

    A failure of an ISS intermodule Quick Disconnect (QD) during protoflight vibration testing of ISS regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware led to the discovery of QD design, manufacturing, and test flaws which can yield the male QD susceptible to failure of the secondary housing seal and inadequate housing assembly locking mechanisms. Discovery of this failure had large implications when considering that currently there are 399 similar units on orbit and approximately 1100 units on the ground integrated into flight hardware. Discovery of the nature of the failure required testing and analysis and implementation of a recovery plan requiring part screening and review of element level and project hazard analysis to determine if secondary seals are required. Implementation also involves coordination with the Nodes and MPLM project offices, Regenerative ECLS Project, ISS Payloads, JAXA, ESA, and ISS Logistics and Maintenance.

  13. Trial production of iss/jem glossary of terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Youko; Iwata, Yoshiaki; Kusunose, Tomohiro; Kitagawa, Yuta; Koide, Kazumi

    2002-01-01

    The IAA has studied global standardization of term definitions in the astronautics area. The IAA multilingual space terminology data bank (MSTDB) was published and is a useful multilingual astronautical terminology database for public use. In the Space Station area, Space Station terminology definitions must be standardized and an easy-to-understand glossary of terms is required because new major elements of Space Station are being developed. To promote international cooperation in standardizing ISS terminology, this paper reports the trial development of the ISS JEM glossary of terms in both English and Japanese. The glossary emphasizes the Japanese experiment module (JEM; recently named "KIBO"). It includes major ISS and Space Shuttle terms and terms that also can be used for public relations activities. We will describe the study results, which include the scope of use and terminology, communications network, database, display tools, security, and copyrights. We will also clarify the potential problems in developing an ISS glossary of terms in several languages.

  14. Presence of ISS1-like insertion sequence in wild type Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from cases of bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Dego, O Kerro; Almeida, R A; Oliver, S P

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a major cause of environmental mastitis worldwide. In spite of significant economic losses caused by S. uberis in many well-managed dairy herds, virulence factors and mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of S. uberis mastitis are not well known. The ability of S. uberis to attach to and internalize into mammary epithelial cells and subsequent intracellular survival enables it to avoid host defense mechanisms. Research to determine virulence factors responsible for these pathogenic strategies involved creating a random chromosomal mutant library of S. uberis strain UT888 using the thermosensitive plasmid pGh9:ISS1 mutagenesis system. During Southern blot analysis of the mutant library, an endogenous element similar to ISS1 insertion sequence of Lactococcus lactis was found. ISS1 is a transposable bacterial insertion sequence isolated originally from L. lactis and are small phenotypically cryptic sequences of DNA with a simple genetic organization and capable of inserting at multiple sites in a target molecule. They are flanked by inverted repeats; generally encode their own transposition functions. A total of 29 of 34 wild type strains of S. uberis evaluated were positive for ISS1 by Southern blot. Insertion of ISS1 might have a significant phenotypic and genotypic role in the S. uberis genome because of its ability to transpose within the genome. PMID:21531093

  15. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system

    SciTech Connect

    Lenton, T.M.; Held, H.; Lucht, W.; Rahmstorf, S.; Kriegler, E. |; Hall, J.W.; Schellnhuber, H.J. |

    2008-02-12

    The term 'tipping point' commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here the authors introduce the term 'tipping element' to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. They critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and they assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then the authors explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points.

  16. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the station to perform these repairs. After the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for the ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained or for contingency operations has become a very critical subject. In many situations, the time between the last session of Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training and an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) task might be 6 to 8 months. In order to help with training for contingency repairs and to maintain EVA proficiency while on flight, the Johnson Space Center Virtual Reality Lab (VRLab) designed an onboard immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT), incorporating a unique optical system and making use of the already successful Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphical (DOUG) graphics software, to assist crew members with current procedures and contingency EVAs while on flight. The VRT provides an immersive environment similar to the one experienced at the VRLab crew training facility at NASA Johnson Space Center. EVA tasks are critical for a mission since as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the ISS ages. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before.

  17. ISS Update: 1st Annual ISS R&D Conference

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks by phone on Wednesday with Julie Robinson, ISS Program Scientist, about the 1st Annual International Space Station Research and Development Confere...

  18. ISS Update: ISS Flight Director Royce Renfrew Talks Station "Stuff"

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Space Station Flight Director Royce Renfrew, who talks about ISS crew activities, Robonaut, ATV-3 cargo and other "stuff." Questions? Ask us on...

  19. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  20. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT AND CORE SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Moore, W.T.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors and in particular to an improved fuel element and a novel reactor core system for facilitating removal of contaminating fission products, as they are fermed, from association with the flssionable fuel, so as to mitigate the interferent effects of such fission products during reactor operation. The fuel elements are comprised of tubular members impervious to fluid and contatning on their interior surfaces a thin layer of fissionable material providing a central void. The core structure is comprised of a plurality of the tubular fuel elements arranged in parallel and a closed manifold connected to their ends. In the reactor the core structure is dispersed in a water moderator and coolant within a pressure vessel, and a means connected to said manifuld is provided for withdrawing and disposing of mobile fission product contamination from the interior of the feel tubes and manifold.

  2. Comparative ISS accelerometric analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, N.; Ruiz, X.; Gavaldà, Jna.; Pallarés, J.; Shevtsova, V.

    2014-02-01

    Two accelerometric records coming from the SAMSes es08 sensor in the Columbus module, the so-called Runs 14 and 33 in terms of the IVIDIL experiment, has been studied here using standard digital signal analysis techniques. The principal difference between both records is the vibrational state of the IVIDIL experiment, that is to say, during Run 14 the shaking motor of the experiment is active while that in Run 33 this motor is stopped. Identical procedures have been applied to a third record coming from the SAMSII 121f03 sensor located in the Destiny module during an IVIDIL quiescent period. All records have been downloaded from the corresponding public binary accelerometric files from the NASA Principal Investigator Microgravity Services, PIMS website and, in order to be properly compared, have the same number of data. Results detect clear differences in the accelerometric behavior, with or without shaking, despite the care of the designers to ensure the achievement of the ISS μg-vibrational requirements all along the experiments.

  3. The ISS protontherapy LINAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, A.

    1997-02-01

    The TERA foundation stimulated in the past years a comparative study of compact proton accelerators for therapy and at the end of 1995 the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS) decided for the construction of a proton linac for its TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni) project. The TOP-LINAC will be composed of a 7 MeV RFQ+DTL injector followed by a 7-65 MeV section of the innovative 3 GHz SCDTL structure and a 65-200 MeV variable energy SCL 3 GHz structure. A 5-cavity model of the SCDTL has been built and measured on a RF test bench while a 11-cavities prototype (accelerating until 12.5 MeV) is under construction and will be assembled within few months. The TOP LINAC whose construction will start at the end of 1996, will be the first linear accelerator dedicated to proton therapy, and the first 3 GHz proton linac. In this paper the accelerator design and the construction schedule will be presented, and the SCDTL structure RF measurements will be discussed.

  4. ISS Update: Transit of Venus

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Brandi Dean interviews Mario Runco, NASA astronaut, about Venus's transit across the sun on June 5, 2012. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #...

  5. ISS and Its Discovery Potential

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cool video highlighting Space Station Research & Technology efforts, shown at the 1st Annual International Space Station (ISS) Research and Development Conference: Results and Opportunities – The...

  6. Modeling Ionosphere Environments: Creating an ISS Electron Density Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurgew, Danielle N.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) maintains an altitude typically between 300 km and 400 km in low Earth orbit (LEO) which itself is situated in the Earth's ionosphere. The ionosphere is a region of partially ionized gas (plasma) formed by the photoionization of neutral atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere of Earth. It is important to understand what electron density the spacecraft is/will be operating in because the ionized gas along the ISS orbit interacts with the electrical power system resulting in charging of the vehicle. One instrument that is already operational onboard the ISS with a goal of monitoring electron density, electron temperature, and ISS floating potential is the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU). Although this tool is a valuable addition to the ISS, there are limitations concerning the data collection periods. The FPMU uses the Ku band communication frequency to transmit data from orbit. Use of this band for FPMU data runs is often terminated due to necessary observation of higher priority Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) and other operations on ISS. Thus, large gaps are present in FPMU data. The purpose of this study is to solve the issue of missing environmental data by implementing a secondary electron density data source, derived from the COSMIC satellite constellation, to create a model of ISS orbital environments. Extrapolating data specific to ISS orbital altitudes, we model the ionospheric electron density along the ISS orbit track to supply a set of data when the FPMU is unavailable. This computer model also provides an additional new source of electron density data that is used to confirm FPMU is operating correctly and supplements the original environmental data taken by FPMU.

  7. Combustion Research Aboard the ISS Utilizing the Combustion Integrated Rack and Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Otero, Angel M.; Urban, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The Physical Sciences Research Program of NASA sponsors a broad suite of peer-reviewed research investigating fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics. This research is performed through both ground-based and on-orbit research capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) and two facilities, the Combustion Integrated Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox, are key elements in the execution of microgravity combustion flight research planned for the foreseeable future. This paper reviews the Microgravity Combustion Science research planned for the International Space Station implemented from 2003 through 2012. Examples of selected research topics, expected outcomes, and potential benefits will be provided. This paper also summarizes a multi-user hardware development approach, recapping the progress made in preparing these research hardware systems. Within the description of this approach, an operational strategy is presented that illustrates how utilization of constrained ISS resources may be maximized dynamically to increase science through design decisions made during hardware development.

  8. Veggie ISS Validation Test Results and Produce Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Spencer, LaShelle; Smith, Trent

    2015-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system flew to the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2014. The first set of plants, Outredgeous red romaine lettuce, was grown, harvested, frozen, and returned to Earth in October. Ground control and flight plant tissue was sub-sectioned for microbial analysis, anthocyanin antioxidant phenolic analysis, and elemental analysis. Microbial analysis was also performed on samples swabbed on orbit from plants, Veggie bellows, and plant pillow surfaces, on water samples, and on samples of roots, media, and wick material from two returned plant pillows. Microbial levels of plants were comparable to ground controls, with some differences in community composition. The range in aerobic bacterial plate counts between individual plants was much greater in the ground controls than in flight plants. No pathogens were found. Anthocyanin concentrations were the same between ground and flight plants, while antioxidant and phenolic levels were slightly higher in flight plants. Elements varied, but key target elements for astronaut nutrition were similar between ground and flight plants. Aerobic plate counts of the flight plant pillow components were significantly higher than ground controls. Surface swab samples showed low microbial counts, with most below detection limits. Flight plant microbial levels were less than bacterial guidelines set for non-thermostabalized food and near or below those for fungi. These guidelines are not for fresh produce but are the closest approximate standards. Forward work includes the development of standards for space-grown produce. A produce consumption strategy for Veggie on ISS includes pre-flight assessments of all crops to down select candidates, wiping flight-grown plants with sanitizing food wipes, and regular Veggie hardware cleaning and microbial monitoring. Produce then could be consumed by astronauts, however some plant material would be reserved and returned for analysis. Implementation of

  9. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Bill; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The EVA hardware used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed with the assumption that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for ground processing, refurbishment, or failure investigation (if necessary). With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (EMU, Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support equipment and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2016 and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, NASA and the One EVA contractor team jointly initiated the EVA 2010 Project. Challenges were addressed to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, and protect EMU hardware operability on orbit for long durations.

  10. Communications and Tracking of Visiting Vehicles near ISS: The Design of the Reusable Launch Vehicle Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillwagen, Frederic H.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide for the visitation of various vehicles such as the Shuttle, Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), Crew Return Vehicle (CRV), Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) and Soyuz. These vehicles will provide for crew replacement, consumables resupply, and equipment delivery. In order for these vehicles to approach and eventually dock with the ISS, there must be near continuous communications coverage between the visiting vehicle and the ISS, as well as communications between the vehicle and a Mission Control Center (MCC). Since the ISS communications systems are already designed and scheduled for ISS activation, the vehicles must either utilize these communications systems or provide their own. There are two means of two-way communications with the ISS. These are (1) S-Band communications using TDRSS, and (2) UHF communications using some form of the Space to Space Station Radio (SSSR) link. The RLV utilizes ISS compatible communications systems to communicate with both the ISS and a Mission Control Center. Since all vehicles must adhere to the Visiting Vehicle Interface requirements given in reference 1, the RLV communications system design must meet these requirements during entry into the ISS Approach Ellipsoid (AE) and during Proximity Operations. Included in this paper are descriptions of these communications approaches as well as their potential utilization in the ISS communications system.

  11. Endeavor Approaches Docking Port of ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pictured here is the forward docking port on the International Space Station's (ISS) Destiny Laboratory as seen by one of the STS-111 crewmembers from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour just prior to docking. In June 2002, STS-111 provided the Space Station with a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after remaining a record-setting 196 days in space. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish additional mission objectives: the delivery and installation of a new platform for the ISS robotic arm, the Mobile Base System (MBS) which is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm; and unloading supplies and science experiments form the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  12. System design description for the whole element furnace testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, G.A.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; King, D.A.

    1998-05-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory G-Cell (327 Building). Equipment specifications, system schematics, general operating modes, maintenance and calibration requirements, and other supporting information are provided in this document. This system was developed for performing cold vacuum drying and hot vacuum drying testing of whole N-Reactor fuel elements, which were sampled from the 105-K East and K West Basins. The proposed drying processes are intended to allow dry storage of the SNF for long periods of time. The furnace testing system is used to evaluate these processes by simulating drying sequences with a single fuel element and measuring key system parameters such as internal pressures, temperatures, moisture levels, and off-gas composition.

  13. Upgraded HFIR Fuel Element Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, John D

    2010-02-01

    The welding of aluminum-clad fuel plates into aluminum alloy 6061 side plate tubing is a unique design feature of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel assemblies as 101 full-penetration circumferential gas metal arc welds (GMAW) are required in the fabrication of each assembly. In a HFIR fuel assembly, 540 aluminum-clad fuel plates are assembled into two nested annular fuel elements 610 mm (24-inches) long. The welding process for the HFIR fuel elements was developed in the early 1960 s and about 450 HFIR fuel assemblies have been successfully welded using the GMAW process qualified in the 1960 s. In recent years because of the degradation of the electronic and mechanical components in the old HFIR welding system, reportable defects in plate attachment or adapter welds have been present in almost all completed fuel assemblies. In October 2008, a contract was awarded to AMET, Inc., of Rexburg, Idaho, to replace the old welding equipment with standard commercially available welding components to the maximum extent possible while maintaining the qualified HFIR welding process. The upgraded HFIR welding system represents a major improvement in the welding system used in welding HFIR fuel elements for the previous 40 years. In this upgrade, the new inner GMAW torch is a significant advancement over the original inner GMAW torch previously used. The innovative breakthrough in the new inner welding torch design is the way the direction of the cast in the 0.762 mm (0.030-inch) diameter aluminum weld wire is changed so that the weld wire emerging from the contact tip is straight in the plane perpendicular to the welding direction without creating any significant drag resistance in the feeding of the weld wire.

  14. Elements of a 'nervous system' in sponges.

    PubMed

    Leys, Sally P

    2015-02-15

    Genomic and transcriptomic analyses show that sponges possess a large repertoire of genes associated with neuronal processes in other animals, but what is the evidence these are used in a coordination or sensory context in sponges? The very different phylogenetic hypotheses under discussion today suggest very different scenarios for the evolution of tissues and coordination systems in early animals. The sponge genomic 'toolkit' either reflects a simple, pre-neural system used to protect the sponge filter or represents the remnants of a more complex signalling system and sponges have lost cell types, tissues and regionalization to suit their current suspension-feeding habit. Comparative transcriptome data can be informative but need to be assessed in the context of knowledge of sponge tissue structure and physiology. Here, I examine the elements of the sponge neural toolkit including sensory cells, conduction pathways, signalling molecules and the ionic basis of signalling. The elements described do not fit the scheme of a loss of sophistication, but seem rather to reflect an early specialization for suspension feeding, which fits with the presumed ecological framework in which the first animals evolved.

  15. Need to Update the ISS Safety Regulatory Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgobba, T.

    2012-01-01

    While the time of commercial transportation of cargo and crew to ISS is approaching, not much thought has yet been given to the necessary evolution of the safety organization. The ISS Memorandums of Understanding signed by NASA with the International Partners say nothing, specifically or generally, about safety responsibilities and roles for certification of commercial hardware and services. A dedicated agreement may be needed with the objectives of ensuring continuous ISS safety in the upcoming mixed government and commercial operational environment, It is suggested that as part of the above agreement the ISS partners should establish a single independent safety authority for ISS in which all partners would be duly represented and share responsibilities. Such safety authority would be the natural evolution of the current ISS safety organization, but separated from the program while fully integrated into its operations. The safety authority would have the mandate to review and as necessary update all current ISS safety processes, and to verify compliance. The final aim would be to make the overall safety system consistent, and cost effective for both government and commercial operations. The paper discusses some legal, programmatic and organisational aspects related to ISS safety, with the intent to provide insights about their status, and to identify indicators of the need for evolution and reform of the current system. The paper will also briefly outline the foundation, objectives and set-up of the International Civil Aviation Organisation, which has worked so successfully since the founding Chicago Convention in 1944, as an inspiring model for any future civil space organization.

  16. Commercial investments in Combustion research aboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is working with a number of companies planning commercial combustion research to be done aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This research will be conducted in two major ISS facilities, SpaceDRUMS™ and the Fluids and Combustion Facility. SpaceDRUMS™, under development by Guigne Technologies, Ltd., of St. John's Newfoundland, is a containerless processing facility employing active acoustic sample positioning. It is capable of processing the large samples needed in commercial research and development with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. SpaceDRUMS™ will be the first commercial hardware to be launched to ISS. Launch is currently scheduled for UF-1 in 2001. The CCACS research to be done in SpaceDRUMS™ includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials. The FCF is currently scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-3 in 2002. The CCACS research to be done in the FCF includes water mist fire suppression, catalytic combustion and flame synthesis of ceramic powders. The companies currently planning to be involved in the research include Guigne International, Ltd., Technology International, Inc., Coors Ceramics Company, TDA Research, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc., ADA Technologies, Inc., ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Princeton Instruments, Inc., Environmental Engineering Concepts, Inc., and Solar Turbines, Inc. Together, these companies are currently investing almost $2 million in cash and in-kind annually toward the seven commercial projects within CCACS. Total private investment in CCACS research to date is over $7 million. .

  17. SPHERES: Design of a Formation Flying Testbed for ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, S. W.; Chen, S. E.

    2002-01-01

    The SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) payload is an innovative formation-flying spacecraft testbed currently being developed for use internally aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of the testbed is to provide a cost-effective, long duration, replenishable, and easily reconfigurable platform with representative dynamics for the development and validation of metrology, formation flying, and autonomy algorithms. The testbed components consist of three 8-inch diameter free-flying "satellites," five ultrasound beacons, and an ISS laptop workstation. Each satellite is self-contained with on-board battery power, cold-gas propulsion (CO2), and processing systems. Satellites use two packs of eight standard AA batteries for approximately 90 minutes of lifetime while beacons last the duration of the mission powered by a single AA battery. The propulsion system uses pressurized carbon dioxide gas, stored in replaceable tanks, distributed through an adjustable regulator and associated tubing to twelve thrusters located on the faces of the satellites. A Texas Instruments C6701 DSP handles control algorithm data while an FPGA manages all sensor data, timing, and communication processes on the satellite. All three satellites communicate with each other and with the controlling laptop via a wireless RF link. Five ultrasound beacons, located around a predetermined work area, transmit ultrasound signals that are received by each satellite. The system effectively acts as a pseudo-GPS system, allowing the satellites to determine position and attitude and to navigate within the test arena. The payload hardware are predominantly Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) products with the exception of custom electronics boards, selected propulsion system adaptors, and beacon and satellite structural elements. Operationally, SPHERES will run in short duration test sessions with approximately two weeks between each session. During

  18. Technical Consultation of the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Cooling Water Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Rotter, Hank A.; Easton, Myriam; Lince, Jeffrey; Park, Woonsup; Stewart, Thomas; Speckman, Donna; Dexter, Stephen; Kelly, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) coolant exhibited unexpected chemical changes during the first year of on-orbit operation following the launch and activation in February 2001. The coolant pH dropped from 9.3 to below the minimum specification limit of 9.0, and re-equilibrated between 8.3 and 8.5. This drop in coolant pH was shown to be the result of permeation of CO2 from the cabin into the coolant via Teflon flexible hoses which created carbonic acid in the fluid. This unexpected diffusion was the result of having a cabin CO2 partial pressure higher than the ground partial pressure (average 4.0 mmHg vs. less than 0.2 mmHg). This drop in pH was followed by a concurrent increasing coolant nickel concentration. No other metal ions were observed in the coolant and based on previous tests, the source of nickel ion was thought to be the boron nickel (BNi) braze intermetallics used in the construction of HXs and cold plates. Specifically, BNi2 braze alloy was used for the IATCS IFHX and BNi3 braze alloy was used for the IATCS Airlock Servicing and Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) HX and cold plates. Given the failure criticality of the HXs, a Corrosion Team was established by the IATCS CWG to determine the impact of the nickel corrosion on hardware performance life.

  19. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e., US Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accommodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e., Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system Maximum Design Pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation phase. During this time the element loop is a stand alone closed individual system. The solution approach for accommodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  20. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e. U.S. Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accomodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e. Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system maximum design pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation (LTA) phase. During this time the element loops is a stand alone closed system. The solution approach for accomodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  1. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  2. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  3. Finite-element solutions for geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Conel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vector potential and scalar potential are used to formulate the governing equations for a single-component and single-phase geothermal system. By assuming an initial temperature field, the fluid velocity can be determined which, in turn, is used to calculate the convective heat transfer. The energy equation is then solved by considering convected heat as a distributed source. Using the resulting temperature to compute new source terms, the final results are obtained by iterations of the procedure. Finite-element methods are proposed for modeling of realistic geothermal systems; the advantages of such methods are discussed. The developed methodology is then applied to a sample problem. Favorable agreement is obtained by comparisons with a previous study.

  4. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1992-01-01

    ALEPS, which is being developed to provide the SSF program with a computer system to automate logistics resupply/return cargo load planning and verification, is presented. ALEPS will make it possible to simultaneously optimize both the resupply flight load plan and the return flight reload plan for any of the logistics carriers. In the verification mode ALEPS will support the carrier's flight readiness reviews and control proper execution of the approved plans. It will also support the SSF inventory management system by providing electronic block updates to the inventory database on the cargo arriving at or departing the station aboard a logistics carrier. A prototype drawer packing algorithm is described which is capable of generating solutions for 3D packing of cargo items into a logistics carrier storage accommodation. It is concluded that ALEPS will provide the capability to generate and modify optimized loading plans for the logistics elements fleet.

  5. The Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI): A Mission Concept to Investigate ISS Charging and Wake Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. Habash; Minow, J. I.; Coffey, V. N.; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoegy, W. R.

    2014-01-01

    The complex interaction between the International Space Station (ISS) and the surrounding plasma environment often generates unpredictable environmental situations that affect operations. Examples of affected systems include extravehicular activity (EVA) safety, solar panel efficiency, and scientific instrument integrity. Models and heuristically-derived best practices are well-suited for routine operations, but when it comes to unusual or anomalous events or situations, especially those driven by space weather, there is no substitute for real-time monitoring. Space environment data collected in real-time (or near-real time) can be used operationally for both real-time alarms and data sources in assimilative models to predict environmental conditions important for operational planning. Fixed space weather instruments mounted to the ISS can be used for monitoring the ambient space environment, but knowing whether or not (or to what extent) the ISS affects the measurements themselves requires adequate space situational awareness (SSA) local to the ISS. This paper presents a mission concept to use a suite of plasma instruments mounted at the end of the ISS robotic arm to systematically explore the interaction between the Space Station structure and its surrounding environment. The Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) would be deployed and operated on the ISS Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) for long-term "survey mode" observations and the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) for short-term "campaign mode" observations. Specific areas of investigation include: 1) ISS frame and surface charging during perturbations of the local ISS space environment, 2) calibration of the ISS Floating Point Measurement Unit (FPMU), 3) long baseline measurements of ambient ionospheric electric potential structures, 4) electromotive force-induced currents within large structures moving through a magnetized plasma, and 5) wake-induced ion waves in both

  6. Integrating International Engineering Organizations For Successful ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blome, Elizabeth; Duggan, Matt; Patten, L.; Pieterek, Hhtrud

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a multinational orbiting space laboratory that is built in cooperation with 16 nations. The design and sustaining engineering expertise is spread worldwide. As the number of Partners with orbiting elements on the ISS grows, the challenge NASA is facing as the ISS integrator is to ensure that engineering expertise and data are accessible in a timely fashion to ensure ongoing operations and mission success. Integrating international engineering teams requires definition and agreement on common processes and responsibilities, joint training and the emergence of a unique engineering team culture. ISS engineers face daunting logistical and political challenges regarding data sharing requirements. To assure systematic information sharing and anomaly resolution of integrated anomalies, the ISS Partners are developing multi-lateral engineering interface procedures. Data sharing and individual responsibility are key aspects of this plan. This paper describes several examples of successful multilateral anomaly resolution. These successes were used to form the framework of the Partner to Partner engineering interface procedures, and this paper describes those currently documented multilateral engineering processes. Furthermore, it addresses the challenges experienced to date, and the forward work expected in establishing a successful working relationship with Partners as their hardware is launched.

  7. ISS Remote User Payload Operations Training and Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Karl

    2012-01-01

    For more than ten years hundreds of payloads have been, and are currently being, successfully operated onboard the ISS. These payloads are operated by a diverse set of users all over the world. Due to the current international economic environment payload operations are being streamlined, in more and more cases, by using the payload investigators and scientists to also fill the role of operators. Taking this into consideration, increasingly, we have payload operators that are new to space operations and practices, therefore ground systems training and support have become a more critical aspect in ensuring a successful payload mission. The ISS ground systems payload interface is the Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC), located at Marshall Space Flight Center. ISS ground systems training for all remote ISS payload operators, as well as the ISS POIC CADRE, are centralized at this facility. The POIC is the starting point for a remote payload operator to learn how to integrate, and operate their payload, successfully onboard the ISS. Additionally, the CADRE that supports the payload user community are trained and operate from this facility. This paper will give an overview of the ISS ground systems at the POIC, as it relates to the payload user/operator and CADRE community. The entire training process from initial contact with the POIC to in-flight operations will be reviewed and improvements to this process will be presented. More importantly we will present current training methods and proposed methodology whereby the user community will be trained more efficiently and thoroughly. Also, we will discuss how we can more effectively support users in their operations concept to programmatically conduct certain aspects of payload operations to reduce costs.

  8. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT

  9. ISS/IDS Detector Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cervera-Villanueva, A.

    2008-02-21

    This article summarises the results obtained by the detector working group of the 'International Scooping Study' (ISS) of a future neutrino oscillations facility. Special emphasis is put on far detectors, for which some of the main issues are identified. A detector R and D strategy in the context of the 'International Design Study' (IDS) for a neutrino factory is also presented.

  10. ISS Ammonia Leak Detection Through X-Ray Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Skinner, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia leaks are a significant concern for the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS has external transport lines that direct liquid ammonia to radiator panels where the ammonia is cooled and then brought back to thermal control units. These transport lines and radiator panels are subject to stress from micrometeorites and temperature variations, and have developed small leaks. The ISS can accommodate these leaks at their present rate, but if the rate increased by a factor of ten, it could potentially deplete the ammonia supply and impact the proper functioning of the ISS thermal control system, causing a serious safety risk. A proposed ISS astrophysics instrument, the Lobster X-Ray Monitor, can be used to detect and localize ISS ammonia leaks. Based on the optical design of the eye of its namesake crustacean, the Lobster detector gives simultaneously large field of view and good position resolution. The leak detection principle is that the nitrogen in the leaking ammonia will be ionized by X-rays from the Sun, and then emit its own characteristic Xray signal. The Lobster instrument, nominally facing zenith for its astrophysics observations, can be periodically pointed towards the ISS radiator panels and some sections of the transport lines to detect and localize the characteristic X-rays from the ammonia leaks. Another possibility is to use the ISS robot arm to grab the Lobster instrument and scan it across the transport lines and radiator panels. In this case the leak detection can be made more sensitive by including a focused 100-microampere electron beam to stimulate X-ray emission from the leaking nitrogen. Laboratory studies have shown that either approach can be used to locate ammonia leaks at the level of 0.1 kg/day, a threshold rate of concern for the ISS. The Lobster instrument uses two main components: (1) a microchannel plate optic (also known as a Lobster optic) that focuses the X-rays and directs them to the focal plane, and (2) a CCD (charge

  11. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Graf, John; Carlile, Christie; Young, GIna

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the United States Orbital Segments, which include Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Currently, there are operational concerns with the emergency breathing equipment and the carbon dioxide extinguisher. The toxicity of the carbon dioxide requires the crew members to have an oxygen supply present during a fire event, therefore inherently creating an unsafe environment. The FWM PFE extinguishes a fire without creating a hazardous breathing environment for crew members. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE, identify unique microgravity design considerations for liquid and gas systems, as well as discuss the NASA ISS specific fire standards that were developed to establish an acceptable portable fire extinguisher s performance.

  12. Item Description: ISS TransHab Restraint Sample and Photo Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Constance

    2000-01-01

    The yellow strap seen in the display is a piece of the main restraint layer of a test article for the ISS TransHab spacecraft, First conceived as a technology which is capable of supporting a [human] crew of six on an extended space journey such as the six-month trip to Mars, TransHab (short for "Transit habitat") is the first space inflatable module ever designed. As this text is written it is being considered as a replacement for the Habitation module on the International Space Station (ISS). It constitutes a major breakthrough both in technology and in tectonics: capable of tight packaging at light weight for efficient launch, the vehicle can then be inflated to its full size on orbit via its own inflation tanks. This is made possible by the separation of its main structural elements from its pressure-shell. In other words, all spacecraft flown to date have been of an exoskeletal type---i.e., its hard outer shell acts both as a pressure container and as its main channel for structural loading This includes the ISS, which is currently under construction in Low Earth Orbit [275 miles above the Earth]. By contrast TransHab is the first endoskeletal space Habitat, consisting of a dual system: a light, reconfigurable central structure of graphite composite and a multilayered, deployable pressure shell.

  13. ISS Stage 12A Post-Flight Modal Analysis, Model Validation and Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Kristin; Grygier, Michael; Bartkowicz, Ted

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the on-orbit structural dynamic data and the related modal analysis, model validation and correlation performed for the ISS configurations spanning ISS Stage 12A. The objective of this analysis is to validate and correlate analytical models used to verify the ISS critical interface dynamic loads and improve its fatigue life prediction. On-Orbit dynamic responses were measured during the ISS configurations throughout ISS Stage 12A by the two main ISS instrumentation systems; Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS) and the Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). These nominal on-orbit events include Russian vehicle docking and undockings. Also, the ISS photogrammetric system recorded the movements of the 2A and 4A solar arrays during a modified ISS maneuver. Modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping and mode shapes. Correlation and comparisons between the test and analytical frequencies and mode shapes were performed to assess the accuracy of the analytical models for the ISS configurations under consideration.

  14. The International Space Station (ISS) Education Accomplishments and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Blue, Regina; Mayo, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers worldwide and thus stands as an invaluable learning platform for the advancement of proficiency in research and development and education. The presence of humans on board ISS for the past ten years has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines which will lead to an increase in quality of teachers, advancements in research and development, an increase in the global reputation for intellectual achievement, and an expanded ability to pursue unchartered avenues towards a brighter future. Over 41 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related activities since the year 2000. Projects such as the Amateur Radio on International Space Station (ARISS) and Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), among others, have allowed for global student, teacher, and public access to space through radio contacts with crewmembers and student image acquisition respectively. . With planned ISS operations at least until 2020, projects like the aforementioned and their accompanying educational materials will be available to enable increased STEM literacy around the world. Since the launch of the first ISS element, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed by each of the international partner agencies: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). Additionally, a number of non-participating countries, some under commercial agreements, have also participated in Station-related activities. Many of these programs still continue while others are being developed and added to the station crewmembers tasks

  15. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System: Verification for the Pressurized Mating Adapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMA 1 and PMA 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and PMA 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and the detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for the PMAs.

  16. The ESA Laboratory Support Equipment for the ISS.

    PubMed

    Petrivelli, A

    2002-02-01

    The Laboratory Support Equipment (LSE) for the International Space Station (ISS) is a suite of general-purpose items that will be available onboard the Station either as self-standing facilities or as equipment that can be used at defined locations. Dedicated to supporting system maintenance and payload operations, some LSE items are derived from commercial equipment, while others have been specifically developed for the ISS. ESA is currently engaged in developing three pressurised facilities and one pointing mechanism that will become part of the LSE complement, namely: the Minus Eighty degree centigrade Laboratory Freezer for the ISS (MELFI), the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), the cryogenic storage and quick/snap freezer system (Cryosystem), the external-payload pointing system (Hexapod).

  17. Utilization of ISS/KIBO as a Test Bed for JAXA ECLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Masato; Ohnishi, Mitsuru; Shima, Asuka

    Environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) provide the basic metabolic needs and environmental conditions necessary to support humans in safe and comfortable environments. As crew-days accumulate, the commodities needing to be supplied to and the wastes that are generated by crewmembers both increase. In order to reduce the mass needing to be resupplied and disposed of, regenerative life support processes can be utilized. Regenerative life support functions that include oxygen recovery from carbon dioxide via the combination of CO2 reduction via a Sabatier process and O2 generative via an electrolysis process. We are planning each elements of air revitalization will be launched on HTV in turn: The water Reclamation element→ The water electrolysis element → The CO2 reduction element→ The CO2 removal element. Air re-vitalization system in JAXA is shown in the paper. Japan should acquire air and water recycling technology. Those technologies are based on environmental technology in which Japan has an advantage. As the Post ISS mission, manned lunar or asteroid exploration is discussed. JAXA has a plan to achieve early in-orbit demonstration of ECLSS technology during the extended ISS operation (2015-2020).

  18. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) / International Space Station (ISS) Coolant Loop Failure and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Cole, Harold; Cronin, Gary; Gazda, Daniel B.; Steele, John

    2006-01-01

    Following the Colombia accident, the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU) onboard ISS were unused for several months. Upon startup, the units experienced a failure in the coolant system. This failure resulted in the loss of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the US segment of ISS. With limited on-orbit evidence, a team of chemists, engineers, metallurgists, and microbiologists were able to identify the cause of the failure and develop recovery hardware and procedures. As a result of this work, the ISS crew regained the capability to perform EVAs from the US segment of the ISS.

  19. Independent Assessment of Instrumentation for ISS On-Orbit NDE. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Structural and Mechanical Systems Manager, requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) provide a quantitative assessment of commercially available nondestructive evaluation (NDE) instruments for potential application to the ISS. This work supports risk mitigation as outlined in the ISS Integrated Risk Management Application (IRMA) Watch Item #4669, which addresses the requirement for structural integrity after an ISS pressure wall leak in the event of a penetration due to micrometeoroid or debris (MMOD) impact. This document contains the appendices the final report.

  20. Independent Assessment of Instrumentation for ISS On-Orbit NDE. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Structural and Mechanical Systems Manager, requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) provide a quantitative assessment of commercially available nondestructive evaluation (NDE) instruments for potential application to the ISS. This work supports risk mitigation as outlined in the ISS Integrated Risk Management Application (IRMA) Watch Item #4669, which addresses the requirement for structural integrity after an ISS pressure wall leak in the event of a penetration due to micrometeoroid or debris (MMOD) impact. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  1. WetLab-2: Wet Lab RNA SmartCycler Providing PCR Capability on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Macarena; Schonfeld, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The WetLab-2 system will provide sample preparation and qRT-PCR analysis on-board the ISS, a capability to enable using the ISS as a real laboratory. The system will be validated on SpX-7, and is planned for its first PI use on SpX-9.

  2. A Hybrid Cadre Concept for International Space Station (ISS) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, Jeff; Mears, Teri

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a continuously operating on-orbit facility, with a ten to fifteen year lifetime. The staffing and rotation concepts defined and implemented for the ISS program must take into account the unique aspects associated with long duration mission operations. Innovative approaches to mission design and operations support must be developed and explored which address these unique aspects. Previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) man-based space programs, with the exception of Skylab, dealt primarily with short duration missions with some amount of down time between missions; e.g., Shuttle, Spacelab, and Spacehab programs. The ISS Program on the other hand requires continuous support, with no down time between missions. ISS operations start with the first element launch and continue through the end of the program. It is this key difference between short and long duration missions that needs to be addressed by the participants in the ISS Program in effectively and efficiently staffing the positions responsible for mission design and operations. The primary drivers considered in the development of staffing and rotation concepts for the ISS Program are budget and responsiveness to change. However, the long duration aspects of the program necessitate that personal and social aspects also be considered when defining staffing concepts. To satisfy these needs, a Hybrid Cadre concept has been developed and implemented in the area of mission design and operations. The basic premise of the Hybrid Cadre concept is the definition of Increment-Independent and Increment-Dependent cadre personnel. This paper provides: definitions of the positions required to implement the concept, the rotation scheme that is applied to the individual positions, and a summary of the benefits and challenges associated with implementing the Hybrid Cadre concept.

  3. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very early days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center for combustion, complex fluids, and fluid physics; GRC has led the successful implementation of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion; fire detection; fire extinguishment; soot phenomena; flame liftoff and stability; and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow; magneto-rheological fluids; colloidal systems; extensional rheology; pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years.

  4. Productivity of Mizuna Cultivated in the Space Greenhouse Onboard the Russian Module of the Iss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    As stipulated by the science program of research into the processes of growth, development, metabolism and reproduction of higher plants in microgravity in view of their potential use in advanced life support systems, five experiments on Mizuna plants (Brassica rapa var. nipponisica) were performed using the Lada space greenhouse onboard the ISS Russian Module (RM) during Expeditions ISS-5, 17 and 20-22. One of the goals of the experiments was to evaluate the productivity of Mizuna plants grown at different levels of ISS RM air contamination. Mizuna plants were cultivated for 31 - 36 days when exposed to continuous illumination. The root growing medium was made of Turface enriched with a controlled release fertilizer Osmocote. In the course of the flight experiments major parameters of plant cultivation, total level of ISS RM air contamination and plant microbiological status were measured. The grown plants were returned to Earth as fresh or frozen samples. After the three last vegetation cycles the plants were harvested, packed and frozen at -80 0C in the MELFI freezer on the ISS U.S. Module and later returned to Earth onboard Space Shuttle. It was found that the productivity and morphometric (e.g., plant height and mass, number of leaves) parameters of the plants grown in space did not differ from those seen in ground controls. The T coefficient, which represents the total contamination level of ISS air), was 4 (ISS-5), 22 (ISS-17), 55 (ISS-20), 22 (ISS-21) and 28 (ISS-22) versus the norm of no more than 5. In summary, a significant increase in the total contamination level of the ISS RM air did not reduce the productivity of the leaf vegetable plant used in the flight experiments.

  5. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  7. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non -regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  8. ISS National Laboratory Education Project: Enhancing and Innovating the ISS as an Educational Venue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, Leland D.

    2011-01-01

    The vision is to develop the ISS National Laboratory Education Project (ISS NLE) as a national resource for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, utilizing the unique educational venue of the International Space Station per the NASA Congressional Authorization Act of 2005. The ISS NLE will serve as an educational resource which enables educational activities onboard the ISS and in the classroom. The ISS NLE will be accessible to educators and students from kindergarten to post-doctoral studies, at primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities. Additionally, the ISS NLE will provide ISS-related STEM education opportunities and resources for learners of all ages via informal educational institutions and venues Though U.S. Congressional direction emphasized the involvement of U.S. students, many ISS-based educational activities have international student and educator participation Over 31 million students around the world have participated in several ISS-related education activities.

  9. Approximating Fluid Flow from Ambient to Very Low Pressures: Modeling ISS Experiments that Vent to Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Two ISS (International Space Station) experiment payloads will vent a volume of gas overboard via either the ISS Vacuum Exhaust System or the Vacuum Resource System. A system of ducts, valves and sensors, under design, will connect the experiments to the ISS systems. The following tasks are required: Create an analysis tool that will verify the rack vacuum system design with respect to design requirements, more specifically approximate pressure at given locations within the vacuum systems; Determine the vent duration required to achieve desired pressure within the experiment modules; Update the analysis as systems and operations definitions mature.

  10. Commitment and Compliance in the Evolution of the ISS Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covert, Liara M.

    2002-01-01

    To examine patterns of commitment and compliance in the ISS Program reveals connections between trends in international relations and perceptions of the effectiveness of legal structures. Whether or not ISS Agreements are considered successful depends on who is asking the question and what are their cultural points of reference or more general bases of comparison. Non-binding agreements as soft law can create an environment of political pressure with the aim of influencing change in national laws, multilateral compliance or diverse commercial practices. Proposed ISS codes need to become enshrined if they are to be effective in compelling action of ISS Partners, entities or other interested participants. Mechanisms of compelling action have included for example, U.S. export restrictions on elements of science and technology, ESA Ministerial and European legislative backing of ESA action, Russian Partner support of space tourism, and also State action and meditative roles of other Partners. Fundamental judgments made on acceptable ethics and principles may be controversial, but also justify respect of agreements for more global reasons. The political reality is that without diverse mechanisms of effective persuasion, there is less incentive for adherence. This paper is an analysis of language as a reflection of exerted power with respect to science and technology and suggests innovative approaches to alternative dispute resolution applicable in this context.

  11. STS-104 Onboard Photograph-Astronaut in the ISS Airlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut James F. Reilly participated in the first ever space walk to egress from the International Space Station (ISS) by utilizing the newly-installed Joint Airlock Quest. The Joint Airlock is a pressurized flight element consisting of two cylindrical chambers attached end-to-end by a cornecting bulkhead and hatch. Once installed and activated, the ISS Airlock becomes the primary path for ISS space walk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, which are known as Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs). In addition, it is designed to support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for extravehicular activity (EVA). The Joint Airlock is 20-feet long, 13- feet in diameter and weighs 6.5 tons. It was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by the Space Station prime contractor Boeing. The ISS Airlock has two main components: a crew airlock and an equipment airlock for storing EVA and EVA preflight preps. The Airlock was launched on July 21, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis for the STS-104 mission.

  12. Amine Swingbed Payload Testing on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Amy B.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA Johnson Space Center's test articles of the amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent system known as the CO2 And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed, or CAMRAS, was incorporated into a payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The intent of the payload is to demonstrate the spacecraft-environment viability of the core atmosphere revitalization technology baselined for the new Orion vehicle. In addition to the air blower, vacuum connection, and controls needed to run the CAMRAS, the payload incorporates a suite of sensors for scientific data gathering, a water save function, and an air save function. The water save function minimizes the atmospheric water vapor reaching the CAMRAS unit, thereby reducing ISS water losses that are otherwise acceptable, and even desirable, in the Orion environment. The air save function captures about half of the ullage air that would normally be vented overboard every time the cabin air-adsorbing and space vacuum-desorbing CAMRAS beds swap functions. The JSC team conducted 1000 hours of on-orbit Amine Swingbed Payload testing in 2013 and early 2014. This paper presents the basics of the payload's design and history, as well as a summary of the test results, including comparisons with prelaunch testing.

  13. Amine Swingbed Payload Testing on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA/Johnson Space Center's test articles of the amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent system known as the CO2 And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed, or CAMRAS, was incorporated into a payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The intent of the payload is to demonstrate the spacecraft-environment viability of the core atmosphere revitalization technology baselined for the new Orion vehicle. In addition to the air blower, vacuum connection, and controls needed to run the CAMRAS itself, the payload incorporates a suite of sensors for scientific data gathering, a water save function, and an air save function. The water save function minimizes the atmospheric water vapor reaching the CAMRAS unit, thereby reducing ISS water losses that are otherwise acceptable, and even desirable, in the Orion environment. The air save function captures about half of the ullage air that would normally be vented overboard every time the cabin air-adsorbing and space vacuum-desorbing CAMRAS beds swap functions. The JSC team conducted 1000 hours of on-orbit Amine Swingbed Payload testing in 2013. This paper presents the basics of the payload's design and history, as well as a summary of the test results, including comparisons with prelaunch testing.

  14. Current ISS Exercise Countermeasures: Where are we now?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. C.; Loerch, L.; Davis-Street, J.; Haralson, Cortni; Sams, C.

    2006-01-01

    Current International Space Station (ISS) crew schedules include 1.5 h/d for completion of resistive exercise and 1 h/d of aerobic exercise , 6 d/wk. While ISS post flight decrements in muscle strength, bone m ineral density, and aerobic capacity improved in some crewmembers, de conditioning was still evident even with this volume of exercise. Res ults from early ISS expeditions show maximum loss in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and pelvis in excess of 1.5% per month, with all crewmembers demonstrating significant bone loss in one or more re gions. Similarly, post flight muscle strength losses in the hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups exceeded 30% in the immediate post miss ion period in some crewmembers. Measures of aerobic capacity early in the mission show average decrements of 15%, but with onboard aerobic exercise capability, the crew has been able to "train up" over the co urse of the mission. These findings are highly variable among crewmem bers and appear to be correlated with availability and reliability of the inflight resistive exercise device (RED), cycle ergometer, and t readmill. This suite of hardware was installed on ISS with limited op erational evaluation in groundbased test beds. As a result, onorbit hardware constraints have resulted in inadequate physical stimulus, d econditioning, and increased risk for compromised performance during intra and extravehicular activities. These issues indicate that the c urrent ISS Countermeasures System reliability or validity are not ade quate for extendedduration exploration missions. Learning Objective: A better understanding of the status of ISS exercise countermeasures , their ability to protect physiologic systems, and recommendations for exploration exercise countermeasures.

  15. Bone Metabolism on ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those

  16. Associate ISS Program Scientist Talks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Associate ISS Program Scientist Pete Hasbrook participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Clark Creek S...

  17. ISS Update: Burning and Suppression of Solids

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Paul Ferkul, Principal Investigator for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment, about performing combustion experiments in microgravity. ...

  18. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  19. Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughson, Richard Lee; Shoemaker, Joel Kevin; Blaber, Andrew Philip; Arbeille, Philippe; Greaves, Danielle Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS (CCISS) will study the effects of long-duration spaceflight on crew members' heart functions and their blood vessels that supply the brain. Learning more about the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems could lead to specific countermeasures that might better protect future space travelers. This experiment is collaborative with the Canadian Space Agency.

  20. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section 108.413 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection...

  1. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section 108.413 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection...

  2. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section 108.413 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection...

  3. Electric breakdowns of the "plasma capacitors" occurs on insulation coating of the ISS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homin, Taras; Korsun, Anatolii

    High electric fields and currents are occurred in the spacecrafts plasma environment by onboard electric generators. Thus the high voltage solar array (SA) of the American segment of International Space Station (ISS) generates potential 160 V. Its negative pole is shorted to the frames of all the ISS segments. There is electric current between the SA and the frame through the plasma environment, i.e. electric discharge occurs. As a result a potential drop exists between the frames of all the ISS segments and the environmental plasma [1], which is cathode drop potential varphi _{c} defined. When ISS orbiting, the φc varies greatly in the range 0-100 V. A large area of the ISS frames and SA surface is coated with a thin dielectric film. Because of cathode drop potential the frame surfaces accumulate ion charges and the SA surfaces accumulate electron charges. These surfaces become plasma capacitors, which accumulate much charge and energy. Micrometeorite impacts or buildup of potential drop in excess of breakdown threshold varphi_{b} (varphi _{c} > varphi _{b} = 60 V) may cause breakdowns of these capacitors. Following a breakdown, the charge collected at the surfaces disperses and transforms into a layer of dense plasma [2]. This plasma environment of the spacecraft produces great pulsed electric fields E at the frame surfaces as well as heavy currents between construction elements which in turn induce great magnetic fields H. Therefore the conductive frame and the environmental plasma is plasma inductors. We have calculated that the densities of these pulsing and high-frequency fields E and H generated in the plasma environment of the spacecraft may exceed values hazardous to human. Besides, these fields must induce large electromagnetic impulses in the space-suit and in the power supply and control circuits of onboard systems. During astronaut’s space-suit activity, these fields will penetrate the space-suit and the human body with possible hazardous effects

  4. Solidifying Small Satellite Access to Orbit via the International Space Station (ISS): Cyclops' Deployment of the Lonestar SmallSat from the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hershey, Matthew P.; Newswander, Daniel R.; Evernden, Brent A.

    2016-01-01

    On January 29, 2016, the Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital Payload Systems (SSIKLOPS), known as "Cyclops" to the International Space Station (ISS) community, deployed Lonestar from the ISS. The deployment of Lonestar, a collaboration between Texas A&M University and the University of Texas at Austin, continued to showcase the simplicity and reliability of the Cyclops deployment system. Cyclops, a NASA-developed, dedicated 10-100 kg class ISS SmallSat deployment system, utilizes the Japanese airlock and robotic systems to seamlessly insert SmallSats into orbit. This paper will illustrate Cyclops' successful deployment of Lonestar from the ISS as well as outline its concept of operations, interfaces, requirements, and processes.

  5. ISS images for Observatory protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    Light pollution is the main factor of degradation of the astronomical quality of the sky along the history. Astronomical observatories have been monitoring how the brightness of the sky varies using photometric measures of the night sky brightness mainly at zenith. Since the sky brightness depends in other factors such as sky glow, aerosols, solar activity and the presence of celestial objects, the continuous increase of light pollution in these enclaves is difficult to trace except when it is too late.Using models of light dispersion on the atmosphere one can determine which light pollution sources are increasing the sky brightness at the observatories. The input satellite data has been provided by DMSP/OLS and SNPP/VIIRS. Unfortunately their panchromatic bands (color blinded) are not useful to detect in which extension the increase is due to the dramatic change produced by the irruption of LED technology in outdoor lighting. The only instrument in the space that is able to distinguish between the various lighting technologies are the DSLR cameras used by the astronauts onboard the ISS.Current status for some astronomical observatories that have been imaged from the ISS is presented. We are planning to send an official request to NASA with a plan to get images for the most important astronomical observatories. We ask support for this proposal by the astronomical community and especially by the US-based researchers.

  6. Reuse International Space Station (ISS) Modules as Lunar Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie; Owens, James E.; Floyd, Brian A.; Strong, Janet; Sanford, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    NASA currently projects ending the ISS mission in approximately 2016, due primarily to the expense of re-boost and re-supply. Lunar outposts are expected to be in place in the same timeframe. In support of these mission goals, a scheme to reuse ISS modules on the moon has been identified. These modules could function as pressurized volumes for human habitation in a lunar vacuum as they have done in low-earth orbit. The ISS hull is structurally capable of withstanding a lunar landing because there is no atmospheric turbulence or friction. A compelling reason to send ISS modules to the moon is their large mass; a large portion of the ISS would survive re-entry if allowed to de-orbit to Earth. ISS debris could pose a serious risk to people or structures on Earth unless a controlled re-entry is performed. If a propulsive unit is devised to be attached to the ISS and control re-entry, a propulsion system could be used to propel the modules to the moon and land them there. ISS modules on the lunar surface would not require re-boost. Radiation protection can be attained by burying the module in lunar regolith. Power and a heat removal system would be required for the lunar modules which would need little support structure other than the lunar surface. With planetary mass surrounding the module, heat flux may be controlled by conductance. The remaining requirement is the re-supply of life-support expendables. There are raw materials on the moon to supplement these vital resources. The lunar maria is known to contain approximately 40% oxygen by mass in inorganic mineral compounds. Chemical conversion of moon rocks to release gaseous oxygen is known science. Recycling and cleaning of air and water are currently planned to be accomplished with ISS Environmental Control & Life Support Systems (ECLSS). By developing a Propulsion and Landing Module (PLM) to dock to the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), several identical PLMs could be produced to rescue and transfer the ISS

  7. Chemorheology of reactive systems: Finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, C.; Roylance, D.

    1982-01-01

    The equations which govern the nonisothermal flow of reactive fluids are outlined, and the means by which finite element analysis is used to solve these equations for the sort of arbitrary boundary conditions encountered in industrial practice are described. The performance of the computer code is illustrated by several trial problems, selected more for their value in providing insight to polymer processing flows than as practical production problems. Although a good deal remains to be learned as to the performance and proper use of this numerical technique, it is undeniably useful in providing better understanding of today's complicated polymer processing problems.

  8. Finite element analysis of two disk rotor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Harsh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    A finite element model of simple horizontal rotor system is developed for evaluating its dynamic behaviour. The model is based on Timoshenko beam element and accounts for the effect of gyroscopic couple and other rotational forces. Present rotor system consists of single shaft which is supported by bearings at both ends and two disks are mounted at different locations. The natural frequencies, mode shapes and orbits of rotating system for a specific range of rotation speed are obtained by developing a MATLAB code for solving the finite element equations of rotary system. Consequently, Campbell diagram is plotted for finding a relationship between natural whirl frequencies and rotation of the rotor.

  9. OpTIIX: An ISS-Based Testbed Paving the Roadmap Toward a Next Generation Large Aperture UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Etemad, Shar; Seery, Bernard D.; Thronson, Harley; Burdick, Gary M.; Coulter, Dan; Goullioud, Renaud; Green, Joseph J.; Liu, Fengchuan; Ess, Kim; Postman, Marc; Sparks, Williams

    2012-01-01

    The next generation large aperture UV/Optical space telescope will need a diameter substantially larger than even that of JWST in order to address some of the most compelling unanswered scientific quests. These quests include understanding the earliest phases of the Universe and detecting life on exo-planets by studying spectra of their atmospheres. Such 8-16 meter telescopes face severe challenges in terms of cost and complexity and are unlikely to be affordable unless a new paradigm is adopted for their design and construction. The conventional approach is to use monolithic or preassembled segmented mirrors requiring complicated and risky deployments and relying on future heavy-lift vehicles, large fairings and complex geometry. The new paradigm is to launch component modules on relatively small vehicles and then perform in-orbit robotic assembly of those modules. The Optical Testbed and Integration on ISS eXperiment (OpTIIX) is designed to demonstrate, at low cost by leveraging the infrastructure provided by ISS, telescope assembly technologies and end-to-end optical system technologies. The use of ISS as a testbed permits the concentration of resources on reducing the technical risks associated with robotically integrating the components. These include laser metrology and wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) systems, an imaging instrument, lightweight, low-cost deformable primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror. These elements are then aligned to a diffraction-limited optical system in space. The capability to assemble the optical system and remove and replace components via the existing ISS robotic systems like the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), or by the ISS flight crew, allows for future experimentation, as well as repair.

  10. ISS Ambient Air Quality: Updated Inventory of Known Aerosol Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is of fundamental importance to crew health, with concerns encompassing both gaseous contaminants and particulate matter. Little opportunity exists for direct measurement of aerosol concentrations on the International Space Station (ISS), however, an aerosol source model was developed for the purpose of filtration and ventilation systems design. This model has successfully been applied, however, since the initial effort, an increase in the number of crewmembers from 3 to 6 and new processes on board the ISS necessitate an updated aerosol inventory to accurately reflect the current ambient aerosol conditions. Results from recent analyses of dust samples from ISS, combined with a literature review provide new predicted aerosol emission rates in terms of size-segregated mass and number concentration. Some new aerosol sources have been considered and added to the existing array of materials. The goal of this work is to provide updated filtration model inputs which can verify that the current ISS filtration system is adequate and filter lifetime targets are met. This inventory of aerosol sources is applicable to other spacecraft, and becomes more important as NASA considers future long term exploration missions, which will preclude the opportunity for resupply of filtration products.

  11. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  12. Listing of data systems elements authorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA personnel have a need to be aware of and to interact with key technical experts in all areas of data systems. This report presents a partial listing (names, addresses and telephone numbers) of individuals known to be authorities in selected areas of data systems of interest to NASA. The listings are based primarily on recent publications by the named individuals.

  13. Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment: A Proposed ISS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Nancy R.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Magee, Kevin S.

    2007-01-01

    The Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment (SHERE) is a proposed International Space Station (ISS) glovebox experiment designed to study the effect of preshear on the transient evolution of the microstructure and viscoelastic tensile stresses for monodisperse dilute polymer solutions. Collectively referred to as Boger fluids, these polymer solutions have become a popular choice for rheological studies of non-Newtonian fluids and are the non-Newtonian fluid used in this experiment. The SHERE hardware consists of the Rheometer, Camera Arm, Interface Box, Cabling, Keyboard, Tool Box, Fluid Modules, and Stowage Tray. Each component will be described in detail in this paper. In the area of space exploration, the development of in-situ fabrication and repair technology represents a critical element in evolution of autonomous exploration capability. SHERE has the capability to provide data for engineering design tools needed for polymer parts manufacturing systems to ensure their rheological properties have not been impacted in the variable gravity environment and this will be briefly addressed.

  14. Elements of radiative interactions in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Basic formulations, analyses, and numerical procedures are presented to study radiative interactions in gray as well as nongray gases under different physical and flow conditions. After preliminary fluid-dynamical considerations, essential governing equations for radiative transport are presented that are applicable under local and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Auxiliary relations for relaxation times and spectral absorption model are also provided. For specific applications, several simple gaseous systems are analyzed. The first system considered consists of a gas bounded by two parallel plates having the same temperature. For this system, both vibrational nonequilibrium effects and radiation conduction interactions are studied. The second system consists of fully developed laminar flow and heat transfer in a parallel plate duct under the boundary condition of a uniform surface heat flux. For this system, effects of gray surface emittance are studied. With the single exception of a circular geometry, the third system is identical to the second system. Here, the influence of nongray walls is also studied, and a correlation between the parallel plates and circular tube results is presented. The particular gases selected are CO, CO2, H2O, CH4, N2O, NH3, OH, and NO. The temperature and pressure range considered are 300 to 2000 K, and 0.1 to 100 atmosphere, respectively. Illustrative results obtained for different cases are discussed and some specific conclusions are provided.

  15. Reliability on ISS Talk Outline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misiora, Mike

    2015-01-01

    1. Overview of ISS 2. Space Environment and it effects a. Radiation b. Microgravity 3. How we ensure reliability a. Requirements b. Component Selection i. Note: I plan to stay away from talk about Rad Hardened components and talk about why we use older processors because they are less susceptible to SEUs. c. Testing d. Redundancy / Failure Tolerance e. Sparing strategies 4. Operational Examples a. Multiple MDM Failures on 6A due to hard drive failure In general, my plan is to only talk about data that is currently available via normal internet sources to ensure that I stay away from any topics that would be Export Controlled, ITAR, or NDA-controlled. The operational example has been well-reported on in the media and those are the details that I plan to cover. Additionally I am not planning on using any slides or showing any photos during the talk.

  16. DSMC Simulations of Disturbance Torque to ISS During Airlock Depressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, F. E., III; Stewart, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    The primary attitude control system on the International Space Station (ISS) is part of the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and uses Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMG). The secondary system is part of the Russian On orbit Segment (RSOS) and uses a combination of gyroscopes and thrusters. Historically, events with significant disturbances such as the airlock depressurizations associated with extra-vehicular activity (EVA) have been performed using the RSOS attitude control system. This avoids excessive propulsive "de-saturations" of the CMGs. However, transfer of attitude control is labor intensive and requires significant propellant. Predictions employing NASA's DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) of the disturbance torque to the ISS for depressurization of the Pirs airlock on the RSOS will be presented [1]. These predictions were performed to assess the feasibility of using USOS control during these events. The ISS Pirs airlock is vented using a device known as a "T-vent" as shown in the inset in figure 1. By orienting two equal streams of gas in opposite directions, this device is intended to have no propulsive effect. However, disturbance force and torque to the ISS do occur due to plume impingement. The disturbance torque resulting from the Pirs depressurization during EVAs is estimated by using a loosely coupled CFD/DSMC technique [2]. CFD is used to simulate the flow field in the nozzle and the near field plume. DSMC is used to simulate the remaining flow field using the CFD results to create an in flow boundary to the DSMC simulation. Due to the highly continuum nature of flow field near the T-vent, two loosely coupled DSMC domains are employed. An 88.2 cubic meter inner domain contains the Pirs airlock and the T-vent. Inner domain results are used to create an in flow boundary for an outer domain containing the remaining portions of the ISS. Several orientations of the ISS solar arrays and radiators have been investigated to find cases that result in minimal

  17. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very first days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center both Combustion, Fluid Physics, and Acceleration Measurement GRC has led the successful implementation of an Acceleration Measurement systems, the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion fire detection fire extinguishment soot phenomena flame liftoff and stability and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow magneto-rheological fluids colloidal systems extensional rheology pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years. We also provide a look to the future development. Experiments presented in combustion include areas such as droplet combustion, gaseous diffusion flames, solid fuels, premixed flame studies, fire safety, and super critical oxidation processes. In fluid physics, experiments are discussed in

  18. Repair of major system elements on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    In-flight maintenance, as conceived and pre-planned for the Skylab Mission, was limited to simple scheduled and unscheduled replacement tasks and minor contingency repairs. Failures during the mission dictated complicated and sophisticated repairs to major systems so that the mission could continue. These repairs include the release of a large structure that failed to deploy, the assembly and deployment of large mechanical devices, the installation and checkout of precision electronic equipment, troubleshooting and repair of precision electromechanical equipment and tapping into and recharging a cooling system. The Skylab experience proves conclusively that crewmen can, with adequate training, make major system repairs in space using standard or special tools.

  19. Elements of oxygen production systems using Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, R.L.; Huang, J.K.; Johnson, P.B.; Sivertson, W.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Hardware elements are studied in terms of their applicability to Mars oxygen production systems. Various aspects of the system design are discussed and areas requiring further research are identified. Initial work on system reliability is discussed and a methodology for applying expert system technology to the oxygen processor is described.

  20. ISS Radiation Shielding and Acoustic Simulation Using an Immersive Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhage, Joshua E.; Sandridge, Chris A.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station Environment Simulator (ISSES) is a virtual reality application that uses high-performance computing, graphics, and audio rendering to simulate the radiation and acoustic environments of the International Space Station (ISS). This CAVE application allows the user to maneuver to different locations inside or outside of the ISS and interactively compute and display the radiation dose at a point. The directional dose data is displayed as a color-mapped sphere that indicates the relative levels of radiation from all directions about the center of the sphere. The noise environment is rendered in real time over headphones or speakers and includes non-spatial background noise, such as air-handling equipment, and spatial sounds associated with specific equipment racks, such as compressors or fans. Changes can be made to equipment rack locations that produce changes in both the radiation shielding and system noise. The ISSES application allows for interactive investigation and collaborative trade studies between radiation shielding and noise for crew safety and comfort.

  1. An Evidence-Based Approach To Exercise Prescriptions on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes current exercise countermeasures and exercise equipment for astronauts onboard the ISS. Additionally, a strategy for evaluating evidence supporting spaceflight exercise is described and a new exercise prescription is proposed. The current exercise regimen is not fully effective as the ISS exercise hardware does not allow for sufficient exercise intensity, the exercise prescription is adequate and crew members are noncompliant with the prescription. New ISS hardware is proposed, Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED), which allows additional exercises, is instrumented for data acquisition and offers improved loading. The new T2 hardware offers a better harness and subject loading system, is instrumented to allow ground reaction force data, and offers improved speed. A strategy for developing a spaceflight exercise prescription is described and involves identifying exercise training programs that have been shown to maximize adaptive benefits of people exercising in both 0 and 1 g environments. Exercise intensity emerged as an important factor in maintaining physiologic adaptations in the spaceflight environment and interval training is suggested. New ISS exercise hardware should allow for exercise at intensities high enough to elicit adaptive responses. Additionally, new exercise prescriptions should incorporate higher intensity exercises and seek to optimize intensity, duration and frequency for greater efficiency.

  2. ISS Potable Water Quality for Expeditions 26 through 30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 26-30 spanned a 16-month period beginning in November of 2010 wherein the final 3 flights of the Space Shuttle program finished ISS construction and delivered supplies to support the post-shuttle era of station operations. Expedition crews relied on several sources of potable water during this period, including water recovered from urine distillate and humidity condensate by the U.S. water processor, water regenerated from humidity condensate by the Russian water recovery system, and Russian ground-supplied potable water. Potable water samples collected during Expeditions 26-30 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-133 (ULF5), STS-134 (ULF6), and STS-135 (ULF7), as well as Soyuz flights 24-27. The chemical quality of the ISS potable water supplies continued to be verified by the Johnson Space Center s Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) via analyses of returned water samples. This paper presents the chemical analysis results for water samples returned from Expeditions 26-30 and discusses their compliance with ISS potable water standards. The presence or absence of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) is specifically addressed, since DMSD was identified as the primary cause of the temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon of the U.S. product water that occurred in the summer of 2010.

  3. Characterizing ISS Charging Environments with On-Board Ionospheric Plasma Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Jospeh I.; Craven, Paul D.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright Jr, Kenneth; Parker, Paul D.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Kramer, Leonard; Hartman, William A.; Alred, John W.; Koontz, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    measurements to investigations of on-orbit anomalies in ISS systems.

  4. Development of the ISS EMU SPEEDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard. Craig; Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    The Self Powered EVA EMU Data Recorder (SPEEDR) is an FPGA (Field-programmable gate array) based device designed to collect high-rate EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) PLSS (Primary Life Support Subsystem) data for download at a later time. The existing EMU PLSS data down-link capability during EVA is one data packet every 2 minutes and is subject to bad packets or loss of signal. High-rate PLSS data is generated by the ECWS (Enhanced Caution and Warning System) but is not normally captured or distributed. Access to high-rate data will increase the capability of EMU anomaly resolution team to pinpoint issues remotely, saving crew time by reducing required call-down Q&A and on-orbit diagnostic activities. With no Shuttle flights post FY11, and potentially limited down-mass capability, the ISS crew and ground support personnel will have to be capable of on-orbit operations to maintain, diagnose, repair, and return to service EMU hardware, possibly through 2028. Collecting high-rate EMU PLSS data during both IVA (Intravehicular Activity) and EVA (Extravehicular Activity) operations will provide trending analysis for life extension and/or predictive performance. The SPEEDR concept has generated interest as a tool/technology that could be used for other ISS subsystems or future exploration-class space suits where hardware reliability/availability is critical and low/variable bandwidth may require "store then forward" methodology. Preliminary work in FY11 produced a functional prototype consisting of an FPGA evaluation board, custom memory/interface circuit board, and custom software. The SPEEDR concept includes a stand-alone battery that is recharged by a computer USB (Universal Serial Bus) port while data is being downloaded.

  5. Repair of major system elements on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    In-flight maintenance, as conceived and preplanned for the Skylab mission was limited to simple scheduled and unscheduled replacement tasks and minor contingency repairs. Tools and spares were provided accordingly. However, failures during the mission dictated complicated and sophisticated repairs to major systems so that the mission could continue. These repairs included the release of a large structure that failed to deploy, the assembly and deployment of large mechanical devices, the installation and checkout of precision electronic equipment, troubleshooting and repair of precision electromechanical equipment, and tapping into and recharging a cooling system. The repairs were conducted both inside the spacecraft and during extravehicular activities. Some of the repair tasks required team effort on the part of the crewmen including close procedural coordination between internal and extravehicular crewmen. The Skylab experience indicates that crewmen can, with adequate training, make major system repairs in space using standard or special tools. Design of future spacecraft systems should acknowledge this capability and provide for more extensive in-flight repair and maintenance.

  6. Effect of grid system on finite element calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. D.; Yen, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed parametric studies of the effect of grid system on finite element calculation for potential flows were made. These studies led to the formulation of a design criteria for optimum mesh system and the development of two methods to generate the optimum mesh system. The guidelines for optimum mesh system are: (1) the mesh structure should be regular; (2) the element should be as regular and equilateral as possible; (3) the distribution of size of element should be consistent with that of flow variables to insure maximum uniformity in error distribution; (4) for non-Dirichlet boundary conditions, smaller boundary elements or higher order interpolation functions should be used; and (5) the mesh should accommodate the boundary geometry as accurately as possible. The results of the parametric studies are presented.

  7. Innovations for ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Limited resources and increasing requirements will continue to influence decisions on ISS. The ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) supports power and data for utilization, systems, and daily operations through the Electrical Power System (EPS) Secondary Power/Data Subsystem. Given the fluid launch schedule, the focus of the Plug-In Plan has evolved to anticipate future requirements by judicious development and delivery of power supplies, power strips, Alternating Current (AC) power inverters, along with innovative deployment strategies. A partnership of ISS Program Office, Engineering Directorate, Mission Operations, and International Partners poses unique solutions with existing on-board equipment and resources.

  8. Shuttle/ISS EMU Failure History and the Impact on Advanced EMU PLSS Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2011-01-01

    As the Shuttle/ISS EMU Program exceeds 30 years in duration and is still successfully supporting the needs of the International Space Station (ISS), a critical benefit of such a long running program with thorough documentation of system and component failures is the ability to study and learn from those failures when considering the design of the next generation space suit. Study of the subject failure history leads to changes in the Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) schematic, selected component technologies, as well as the planned manner of ground testing. This paper reviews the Shuttle/ISS EMU failure history and discusses the implications to the AEMU PLSS.

  9. Shuttle/ISS EMU Failure History and the Impact on Advanced EMU PLSS Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As the Shuttle/ISS EMU Program exceeds 30 years in duration and is still supporting the needs of the International Space Station (ISS), a critical benefit of such a long running program with thorough documentation of system and component failures is the ability to study and learn from those failures when considering the design of the next generation space suit. Study of the subject failure history leads to changes in the Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) schematic, selected component technologies, as well as the planned manner of ground testing. This paper reviews the Shuttle/ISS EMU failure history and discusses the implications to the AEMU PLSS.

  10. Finite element microscopic stress analysis of cracked composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper considers the stress concentration problems of two types of cracked composite systems: (1) a composite system with a broken fiber (a penny-shaped crack problem), and (2) a composite system with a cracked matrix (an annular crack problem). The cracked composite systems are modeled with triangular and trapezoidal ring finite elements. Using NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis) finite element computer program, the stress and deformation fields in the cracked composite systems are calculated. The effect of fiber-matrix material combination on the stress concentrations and on the crack opening displacements is studied.

  11. Alternatives to the ISS Plasma Contacting Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2002-01-01

    A spacecraft in a high-density equatorial LEO plasma will float negative relative to the ambient plasma. Because of the electron collection of exposed conductors on its solar arrays, it may float negative by up to its array voltage. The floating potential depends on the relative areas of electron and ion collection of the spacecraft. Early estimates of the International Space Station (ISS) potential were about -140 V relative to the surrounding plasma, because of its 160 V solar array string voltage. Because of the possibility of arcing of ISS structures and astronaut EMUs (spacesuits) into the space plasma, Plasma Contacting Units (PCUs) were added to the ISS design, to reduce the highly negative floating potentials by emitting electrons (effectively increasing the ion collecting area). In addition to the now-operating ISS PCUs, safety rules require another independent arc-hazard control method. In this paper, I discuss alternatives to the ISS PCUs for keeping the ISS floating potential at values below the arc-thresholds of ISS and EMU surface materials. Advantages and disadvantages of all of the recline loss will be presented.

  12. IFEMS, an Interactive Finite Element Modeling System Using a CAD/CAM System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckellip, S.; Schuman, T.; Lauer, S.

    1980-01-01

    A method of coupling a CAD/CAM system with a general purpose finite element mesh generator is described. The three computer programs which make up the interactive finite element graphics system are discussed.

  13. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  14. Simulations of MATROSHKA experiment outside the ISS using PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalska, M.; Sihver, L.; Sato, T.; Berger, T.; Reitz, G.

    2012-08-01

    The radiation environment at the altitude of the International Space Station (ISS) is substantially different than anything typically encountered on Earth in both the character of the radiation field and the significantly higher dose rates. Concerns about the biological effects on humans of this highly complex natural radiation field are increasing due to higher amount of astronauts performing long-duration missions onboard the ISS and especially if looking into planned future manned missions to Mars. In order to begin the process of predicting the dose levels seen by the organs of an astronaut, being the prerequisite for radiation risk calculations, it is necessary to understand the character of the radiation environment both in- and outside of the ISS as well as the relevant contributions from the radiation field to the organ doses. In this paper the three-dimensional Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and a voxel-based numerical human model NUNDO (Numerical RANDO) were used to estimate the radiation load of human organs during a long term activity outside the ISS. The baseline measured data was generated with the MATROSHKA-1 (MTR-1) experiment taking place from February 2004 up to October 2005 outside the Russian Zvezda module of the ISS, thereby simulating a long term extravehicular activity (EVA) of an astronaut. The organ absorbed dose values calculated by PHITS for the inner organs are in a good agreement with the experimental data. However, a rather large disagreement was observed for the most outer organs. This disagreement appears to be due to the strong dependence that the thickness of the applied carbon fiber container, acting as the EVA suit of the astronaut, has on the effects caused by the trapped electron (TE) component. The organ dose equivalent values for the deeper organs are a factor of two lower than the experimental data. The detailed reason behind this is still under investigation.

  15. Biological Imaging Capability in the ABRS Facility on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, David R.; Murdoch, T.; Regan, M. F.; Meshlberger, R. J.; Mortenson, T. E.; Albino, S. A.; Paul, A. L.; Ferl, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) on the International Space Station (ISS) and its biological imaging capability. The ABRS is an environmental control chamber. It has two indpendently controlled Experiment Research Chambers (ERCs) with temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide controls. ABRS is a third generation plant growth system. Several experiments are reviewed, with particular interest in the use of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) a non-destructive plant stress reporting mechanism, naturally found in jellyfish.

  16. Assessment of RFID Read Accuracy for ISS Water Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Directorate/Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch (SD4) is assessing the benefits Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for tracking items flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an initial study, the Avionic Systems Division Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) is collaborating with SD4 to affix RFID tags to a water kit supplied by SD4 and studying the read success rate of the tagged items. The tagged water kit inside a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB) was inventoried using three different RFID technologies, including the Johnson Space Center Building 14 Wireless Habitat Test Bed RFID portal, an RFID hand-held reader being targeted for use on board the ISS, and an RFID enclosure designed and prototyped by EV4.

  17. Solar System Abundances of the Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palme, H.; Jones, A.

    2003-12-01

    nearly any story regarding the evolution of metabolism (and nearly all have been attempted!), the starting point of life is not known (great debates still rage as to the nature and origin of the first living systems), and it is not a trivial matter to specify the sequence and timing of metabolic innovations. As will be discussed below, genetic and genomic data have revealed that genetic exchange between organisms has been so pervasive that it has essentially uncoupled the evolution of taxonomic groups from the evolution of metabolic processes, thus, obscuring the evolutionary trail with blurred signals. Given these challenges, it may be prudent at this time to admit what we do not know, and lay out the challenges for the coming years.

  18. Elemental composition at different points of the rainwater harvesting system.

    PubMed

    Morrow, A C; Dunstan, R H; Coombes, P J

    2010-09-15

    Entry of contaminants, such as metals and non-metals, into rainwater harvesting systems can occur directly from rainfall with contributions from collection surfaces, accumulated debris and leachate from storage systems, pipes and taps. Ten rainwater harvesting systems on the east coast of Australia were selected for sampling of roof runoff, storage systems and tap outlets to investigate the variations in rainwater composition as it moved throughout the system, and to identify potential points of contribution to elemental loads. A total of 26 elements were screened at each site. Iron was the only element which was present in significantly higher concentrations in roof runoff samples compared with tank tap samples (P<0.05). At one case study site, results suggested that piping and tap material can contribute to contaminant loads of harvested rainwater. Increased loads of copper were observed in hot tap samples supplied by the rainwater harvesting system via copper piping and a storage hot water system (P<0.05). Similarly, zinc, lead, arsenic, strontium and molybdenum were significantly elevated in samples collected from a polyvinyl chloride pipe sampling point that does not supply household uses, compared with corresponding roof runoff samples (P<0.05). Elemental composition was also found to vary significantly between the tank tap and an internal cold tap at one of the sites investigated, with several elements fluctuating significantly between the two outlets of interest at this site, including potassium, zinc, manganese, barium, copper, vanadium, chromium and arsenic. These results highlighted the variability in the elemental composition of collected rainwater between different study sites and between different sampling points. Atmospheric deposition was not a major contributor to the rainwater contaminant load at the sites tested. Piping materials, however, were shown to contribute significantly to the total elemental load at some locations.

  19. Thermal Analysis for Orbiter and ISS Plume Impingement on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochelle, William C.; Reid, Ethan A.; Carl, Terry L.; Smith, Ries N.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Reaction Control System (RCS) Plume Model (RPM) is an exhaust plume flow field and impingement heating code that has been updated and applied to components of the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study was to use this code to determine if plume environments from either Orbiter PRCS jets or ISS reboost and Attitude Control System (ACS) jets cause thermal issues on ISS component surfaces. This impingement analysis becomes increasingly important as the ISS is being assembled with its first permanent crew scheduled to arrive by the end of fall 2000. By early summer 2001 , the ISS will have a number of major components installed such as the Unity (Node 1), Destiny (Lab Module), Zarya (Functional Cargo Block), and Zvezda (Service Module) along with the P6 solar arrays and radiators and the Z-1 truss. Plume heating to these components has been analyzed with the RPM code as well as additional components for missions beyond Flight 6A such as the Propulsion Module (PM), Mobile Servicing System, Space Station Remote Manipulator System, Node 2, and the Cupola. For the past several years NASA/JSC has been developing the methodology to predict plume heating on ISS components. The RPM code is a modified source flow code with capabilities for scarfed nozzles and intersecting plumes that was developed for the 44 Orbiter RCS jets. This code has been validated by comparison with Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX) heat flux and pressure data and with CFD and Method of Characteristics solutions. Previous analyses of plume heating predictions to the ISS using RPM have been reported, but did not consider thermal analysis for the components nor jet-firing histories as the Orbiter approaches the ISS docking ports. The RPM code has since been modified to analyze surface temperatures with a lumped mass approach and also uses jet-firing histories to produce pulsed heating rates. In addition, RPM was modified to include plume heating from ISS

  20. System and method for reproducibly mounting an optical element

    DOEpatents

    Eisenbies, Stephen; Haney, Steven

    2005-05-31

    The present invention provides a two-piece apparatus for holding and aligning the MEMS deformable mirror. The two-piece apparatus comprises a holding plate for fixedly holding an adaptive optics element in an overall optical system and a base spatially fixed with respect to the optical system and adapted for mounting and containing the holding plate. The invention further relates to a means for configuring the holding plate through adjustments to each of a number of off-set pads touching each of three orthogonal plane surfaces on the base, wherein through the adjustments the orientation of the holding plate, and the adaptive optics element attached thereto, can be aligned with respect to the optical system with six degrees of freedom when aligning the plane surface of the optical element. The mounting system thus described also enables an operator to repeatedly remove and restore the adaptive element in the optical system without the need to realign the system once that element has been aligned.

  1. ISS Update: NEEMO 16 Simulates Spacewalk Underwater

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Josh Byerly interviews European Space Agency astronaut Tim Peake, NEEMO 16 crew member. Peake talks about the spacewalk techniques they are testing by simulating an asteroid ...

  2. ISS Update: Science and Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office commentator Pat Ryan talks with Dr. Tara Ruttley, ISS Associate Program Scientist, about the science payload carried in the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, the impact of commer...

  3. Recent NASA research accomplishments aboard the ISS.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Neal R; North, Regina M

    2004-01-01

    The activation of the US Laboratory Module "Destiny" on the International Space Station (ISS) in February 2001 launched a new era in microgravity research. Destiny provides the environment to conduct long-term microgravity research utilizing human intervention to assess, report, and modify experiments real time. As the only available pressurized space platform, ISS maximizes today's scientific resources and substantially increases the opportunity to obtain much longed-for answers on the effects of microgravity and long-term exposure to space. In addition, it evokes unexpected questions and results while experiments are still being conducted, affording time for changes and further investigation. While building and outfitting the ISS is the main priority during the current ISS assembly phase, seven different space station crews have already spent more than 2000 crew hours on approximately 80 scientific investigations, technology development activities, and educational demonstrations.

  4. ISS Update: After the Venus Transit

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Brandi Dean interviewed astronaut Mario Runco about the results of the Expedition 31 crew’s effort to photograph Venus transit. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  5. Preliminary Findings from the SHERE ISS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Nancy R.; McKinley, Gareth H.; Erni, Philipp; Soulages, Johannes; Magee, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment (SHERE) is an International Space Station (ISS) glovebox experiment designed to study the effect of preshear on the transient evolution of the microstructure and viscoelastic tensile stresses for monodisperse dilute polymer solutions. The SHERE experiment hardware was launched on Shuttle Mission STS-120 (ISS Flight 10A) on October 22, 2007, and 20 fluid samples were launched on Shuttle Mission STS-123 (ISS Flight 10/A) on March 11, 2008. Astronaut Gregory Chamitoff performed experiments during Increment 17 on the ISS between June and September 2008. A summary of the ten year history of the hardware development, the experiment's science objectives, and Increment 17's flight operations are discussed in the paper. A brief summary of the preliminary science results is also discussed.

  6. Development of the Second Generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.; Stinson, Richard G.; VanWie, Michael; Warren, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The second generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer s (TOCA) function is to monitor concentrations of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in ISS water samples. TOC is one measurement that provides a general indication of overall water quality by indicating the potential presence of hazardous chemicals. The data generated from the TOCA is used as a hazard control to assess the quality of the reclaimed and stored water supplies on-orbit and their suitability for crew consumption. This paper details the unique ISS Program requirements, the design of the ISS TOCA, and a brief description of the on-orbit concept-of-operations. The TOCA schematic will be discussed in detail along with specific information regarding key components. The ISS TOCA was designed as a non-toxic TOC analyzer that could be deployed in a flight ready package. This basic concept was developed through laboratory component level testing, two moderate fidelity integrated system breadboard prototypes, a flight-like full scale prototype, as well as lessons learned from the inadequacies of the first unit. The result: a new TOCA unit that is robust in design and includes special considerations to microgravity and the on-orbit ISS environment. TOCA meets the accuracy needs of the ISS Program with a 1,000 to 25,000 g/L range, accurate to within +/-25%.

  7. A new integrated slot element feed array for multibeam systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid; Johansson, Joakim F.; Kollberg, Erik L.

    1986-01-01

    A feed array consisting of constant width slot antennas (CWSA), fed from a block containing fin-line transitions, has been developed. The array has a two-dimensional configuration, with five elements each on five parallel substrates. Beamwidths are compatible with use in f/D = 1.0 multibeam systems, with optimum taper. Array element spacings are close to a factor of two smaller than for other typical arrays, and spillover efficiency is about 65 percent.

  8. Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Blades, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted under a NASA grant on the topic 'Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating.' The research concerns ongoing development of the Substructure System Identification Algorithm (SSID Algorithm), a system identification algorithm that can be used to obtain mathematical models of substructures, like Space Shuttle payloads. In the present study, particular attention was given to the following topics: making the algorithm robust to noisy test data, extending the algorithm to accept experimental FRF data that covers a broad frequency bandwidth, and developing a test analytical model (TAM) for use in relating test data to reduced-order finite element models.

  9. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  10. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  11. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of

  12. Moduli stabilization in stringy ISS models

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yu; Nakayama, Yu; Yamazaki, Masahito; Yanagida, T.T.

    2007-09-28

    We present a stringy realization of the ISS metastable SUSY breaking model with moduli stabilization. The mass moduli of the ISS model is stabilized by gauging of a U(1) symmetry and its D-term potential. The SUSY is broken both by F-terms and D-terms. It is possible to obtain de Sitter vacua with a vanishingly small cosmological constant by an appropriate fine-tuning of flux parameters.

  13. International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the ISS requirements and initial design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to reduce risk -- given the determination and commitment to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS. While decades of work went into developing the ISS requirements, there are many things in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: (1) Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) (2) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Level 4 materials, emergency hardware and procedures) (3) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of nearly a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery.

  14. Surface Tension Demonstration Aboard the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Astronaut Donald R. Pettit, Expedition Six NASA ISS science officer, photographed this view of a surface tension demonstration using water that is held in place by a metal loop. The experiment took place in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition Six crew was delivered to the station via the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-113 mission which was launched on November 23, 2002.

  15. Early Literacy Assessment Systems: Essential Elements. Policy Information Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jacqueline

    This report outlines a system-wide framework for monitoring the literacy development of children in preschool through second grade. Specific early literacy assessment instruments and instructional approaches are not suggested. Instead, the report focuses on some of the essential elements of an assessment system intended to monitor the progress of…

  16. The matching of biological and technical elements and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zozulya, Y. I.

    1978-01-01

    The conditions necessary for matching the input-output relationships of nonlinear dynamic systems without memory and with image memory are discussed. A structural representation is provided for the input-output relationships of matched elements and systems with distributed kernels.

  17. Investigation of DMSD Trend in the ISS Water Processor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Bowman, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark; Gentry, Greg; Rector, Tony

    2013-01-01

    The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) is responsible for providing potable water to the crew, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. The WRS includes the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WPA processes condensate from the cabin air and distillate produced by the UPA. In 2010, an increasing trend in the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the potable water was ultimately identified as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). The increasing trend was ultimately reversed after replacing the WPA's two multifiltration beds. However, the reason for the TOC trend and the subsequent recovery was not understood. A subsequent trend occurred in 2012. This paper summarizes the current understanding of the fate of DMSD in the WPA, how the increasing TOC trend occurred, and the plan for modifying the WPA to prevent recurrence.

  18. Concept for a short arm human centrifuge onbord ISS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebler, Ulrich; Grinberg, Anna; Kern, Peter

    Astrium is presently performing for ESA a definition study about the accommodation of a short arm human centrfiuge into a spacecraft. A scientific workshop has been part of the study with the goal to define from various research fields (e.g. cardiovascular, gravitational biology, neuroscience, bone/muscle) requirements for such an artificial gravity system on ISS. As a second step the requirements were consolidated to a set of common specfications for the developemnt of a centrifuge system serving as integrated countermeasure for longterm exposure to g. The presentation will focus on the scientific requirements and the respective translation into technical requirement, finally leading to a centrifuge concept, including accommodation possi-bilities onbord ISS.

  19. Computer Aided Safety Assessment(CASA) Tool for ISS Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochstein, Jason; Festa, Fabrizio

    2010-09-01

    In an effort to streamline the processes established by the partners of the International Space Station(ISS) to certify the safety of hardware and experiments destined for the Station, the European Space Agency’s(ESA) ISS System Safety Team is developing the Computer Aided Safety Assessment(CASA) tool suite. These software tools guide payload developers through the creation process of two types of standard payload hazard reports via a series of questions following a predetermined logic. The responses provided by the user are used by the CASA system to complete the majority of each hazard report requisite for payload flight safety reviews, employing consistent, approved descriptions of most hazards, hazard causes, controls and verification methods. Though some manual inputs will still be required to complete these reports, working with CASA will considerably reduce the amount of time necessary to review the documentation by agency safety authorities.

  20. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS).

    PubMed

    Rabbow, E; Rettberg, P; Baumstark-Khan, C; Horneck, G

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system

  1. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Horneck, G.

    In the 21 st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system

  2. 2nd ISS Treadmill Development "T2 Project"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeill, Kevin; Wiederhoeft, Curt

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the development of a treadmill for the International Space Station is presented. Topics discussed include: flight certification of a Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Woodway Path treadmill; development and certificaiton of a crew interface to optimize use of the COTS design and/or existing NASA design (such as the ARED Pacebook); development and certification of a power supply to provide power from the ISS Vehicle to the treadmill system (crew interfaces, motor, controller and subject loading devices).

  3. Design of an elemental analysis system for CELSS research.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1987-01-01

    The results of experiments conducted with higher plants in tightly sealed growth chambers provide definite evidence that the physical closure of a chamber has significant effects on many aspects of a plant's biology. One of these effects is seen in the change in rates of uptake, distribution, and re-release of nutrient elements by the plant (mass balance). Experimental data indicates that these rates are different from those recorded for plants grown in open field agriculture, or in open growth chambers. Since higher plants are a crucial component of a CELSS, it is important that the consequences of these rate differences be understood with regard to the growth and yield of the plants. This paper will focus on the description of a system for elemental analysis which can be used to monitor the mass balance of nutrient elements in CELSS experiments. Additionally, data on the uptake of nutrient elements by higher plants grown in a growth chamber will be presented.

  4. Method and system for high power reflective optical elements

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros G.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Negres, Raluca A.

    2013-03-12

    A method of repairing damage in an optical element includes providing a laser system including at least one optical element having a coating layer having an incident light surface and directing a laser pulse from the laser system to impinge on the incident light surface. The method also includes sustaining damage to a portion of the incident light surface and melting the damaged portion of the incident light surface and a region adjacent to the damaged portion. The method further includes flowing material from the region adjacent the damaged portion to the damaged portion and solidifying the material in the damaged portion and the region adjacent to the damaged portion.

  5. ILWS program support by the OBSTANOVKA International Experiment onboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, S.; Korepanov, V.; Belyayev, S.; Lizunov, G.; Stanev, G.; Georgieva, K.; Kirov, B.; Gough, P.; Alleyne, H.; Balikhin, M.; Obstanovka Team

    International Living With a Star program is aimed at the creation of a global monitoring system allowing us to observe in a continuous way the Sun's activity and to follow its development and influence on numerous Earth structures - natural, industrial and especially human ones. Such an efficiently operating system has to include regular observations at every stage of the Sun-Earth interaction - from far space to the Earth's surface. The International Space Station (ISS) is well located as a long term ionospheric monitoring site. To this end, an international team headed by Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences agreed to create a system of space buoys and to install it onboard the Russian segment of ISS with the goal of studying the ISS environment (OBSTANOVKA in Russian). The "OBSTANOVKA-1" stage will be carried out first (launch in 2006) to provide a databank of electromagnetic fields and plasma-wave processes occurring in the ISS near-surface zone in order to study the plasma component features of near-Earth space. To achieve these goals the Plasma-Wave Complex (PWC) of scientific instrumentation will be created this year. The international cooperation (listed by the authors above) allows us not only to decrease the cost of instrumentation for every participating party but also to raise the scientific and technological level of the experiment. The main scientific premises of the OBSTANOVKA-1 experiment, realization schedule and a detailed description of PWC composition and measured parameters are given in this report. This work is partially supported by NSAU Contract No 1-02/03.

  6. What it takes to Fly in Space...Training to be an Astronaut and Daily Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA requirements to become an astronaut, training astronauts must do to fly on the International Space Station (ISS), systems and other training, and day-to-day activities onboard ISS. Additionally, stowage, organization and methods of communication (email, video conferenceing, IP phone) are discussed.

  7. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Angela L.; Dudley, Stephanie R. B.

    2014-01-01

    of the project included executing over 450 crew-hours of ISS real-time payload operations including a major onboard communications upgrade, SpaceX un-berth, a Soyuz launch, roll-out of ISS live video and interviews from the POIC, annual BCC certification and hurricane season, and ISS simulations and testing. Continuous ISS payload operations were possible during the PCA facility modifications with the reconfiguration of four control rooms and standup of two temporary control areas. Another major restriction to the project was an ongoing facility upgrade that included a NASA Headquarters mandated replacement of all electrical and mechanical systems and replacement of an external generator. These upgrades required a facility power outage during the PCA upgrades. The project also encompassed console layout designs and ordering, amenities selections and ordering, excessing of old equipment, moves, disposal of old IT equipment, camera installations, facility tour re-schedules, and contract justifications. These were just some of the tasks needed for a successful project.

  8. Status of UHECR detector KLYPVE on-board the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Pavel; Garipov, Gali; Khrenov, Boris; Yashin, Ivan; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Tkachev, Leonid; Sharakin, Sergey; Zotov, Mikhail; Churilo, Igor; Markov, Alexander

    A preliminary project of the KLYPVE detector of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) on board the International Space Station (ISS) was developed in Lomonosov Moscow State University Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics in cooperation with RSC “Energia”. The main scientific aims of the mission are measurements of the primary particles energy spectrum, their arrival directions and a search for large and small scale anisotropy (including point sources) in the energy region above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off. Various types of optical systems, photo detectors, mechanical structures and multiple issues related to transportation and accommodation on the Russian Segment of the ISS were considered. Recent development of KLYPVE is made in close cooperation with the JEM-EUSO collaboration in order to improve the detector parameters such as field of view, angular and energy resolution, energy threshold. Current status of the project is presented in the report.

  9. ISS ECLSS: 3 Years of Logistics for Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkedi, Brienne; Thompson, Dean

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is designed to be maintainable. During the 3 years since the ISS US Lab became operational, there have been numerous ECLSS Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) launched and returned to Maintain the ECLSS operation in the US segments. The maintenance logistics have provided tools for maintenance, replaced limited life ORUs and failed ORUs, upgraded ECLSS hardware to improve reliability and placed critical spares onboard prior to need. In most cases, the removed ORUs have been returned for either failure analysis and repair or refurbishment. This paper describes the ECLSS manifesting history and maintenance events and quantifies the numbers of ECLSS items, weights, and volumes.

  10. The OPALS Plan for Operations: Use of ISS Trajectory and Attitude Models in the OPALS Pointing Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Oaida, Bogdan; Erkmen, Baris

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the OPALS pointing strategy, focusing on incorporation of ISS trajectory and attitude models to build pointing predictions. Methods to extrapolate an ISS prediction based on past data will be discussed and will be compared to periodically published ISS predictions and Two-Line Element (TLE) predictions. The prediction performance will also be measured against GPS states available in telemetry. The performance of the pointing products will be compared to the allocated values in the OPALS pointing budget to assess compliance with requirements.

  11. CRUISE- Evaluating Enhanced Crew Autonomy Concepts On-Board the ISS as a Preparation for Future Long Term Crewed Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matevska, Jasminka; Sievi, Sonja; Plassmeier, Frank; Gries, Florian; Wolff, Mikael; Melody, John

    2014-08-01

    The Crew User Interface System Enhancement (CRUISE) system demonstrates concepts for increased crew autonomy and improved usability in microgravity with respect to the execution of operational procedures in order to prepare for future long term crewed space missions. As a main focus two software components/building blocks were addressed: 1. Flight software user interface elements embedded in traditional operational crew procedures. 2. Voice navigation, as an additional user interaction modality, for an astronaut manual hands-on task. The system was evaluated in the frame of an International Space Station (ISS) on-board experiment, which was carried out in the European science laboratory Columbus early 2013.

  12. Systems of elements preserving measure on varieties of groups

    SciTech Connect

    Timoshenko, E I

    2013-12-31

    It is proved that for any l, 1≤l≤r, a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) of a free metabelian group S of rank r≥2 is primitive if and only if it preserves measure on the variety of metabelian groups A{sup 2}. From this we obtain the result that a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) is primitive in the group S if and only if it is primitive in its profinite completion S-hat . Furthermore, it is proved that there exist a variety M and a nonprimitive element v∈F{sub r}(M) such that v preserves measure on M. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  13. An overview of ISS ECLSS life testing at NASA, MSFC.

    PubMed

    Tatara, J D; Roman, M C

    1998-01-01

    Numerous components have been developed for use in the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Although these components have performed admirably for short-duration subsystem tests, there is little long-range operational (life test) data available. It is important to know not only how long a subsystem is anticipated to perform, but also the problems that can be expected should subsystem components fail. For this reason, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed the ECLSS Life Test program. To date, assemblies and subassemblies that are being or have been tested include the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS), the Vapor Compression Distillation Urine Processor Assembly (VCD-UPA), the Four-Bed Molecular Sieve Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (4BMS-CDRA), and the Solid Polymer Electrolyzer Oxygen Generation Assembly (SPE-OGA). Also included in life testing are noncomponent life test studies. These include the Water Degradation Study and the Biofilm Life Test. The Water Degradation Study looks at water quality changes after exposure to simulated ISS pre-Water Recovery Management (WRM) conditions. The Biofilm Life Test will examine microbial accumulation on surfaces in a simulated ISS water delivery system. This article will briefly review the objectives of each life test program, the results of completed tests, and the major problems observed during the tests. PMID:11540459

  14. Viewing ISS Data in Real Time via the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Gerry; Chamberlain, Jim

    2004-01-01

    EZStream is a computer program that enables authorized users at diverse terrestrial locations to view, in real time, data generated by scientific payloads aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The only computation/communication resource needed for use of EZStream is a computer equipped with standard Web-browser software and a connection to the Internet. EZStream runs in conjunction with the TReK software, described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article, that coordinates multiple streams of data for the ground communication system of the ISS. EZStream includes server components that interact with TReK within the ISS ground communication system and client components that reside in the users' remote computers. Once an authorized client has logged in, a server component of EZStream pulls the requested data from a TReK application-program interface and sends the data to the client. Future EZStream enhancements will include (1) extensions that enable the server to receive and process arbitrary data streams on its own and (2) a Web-based graphical-user-interface-building subprogram that enables a client who lacks programming expertise to create customized display Web pages.

  15. Computational Model of Heat Transfer on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torian, John G.; Rischar, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    SCRAM Lite (SCRAM signifies Station Compact Radiator Analysis Model) is a computer program for analyzing convective and radiative heat-transfer and heat-rejection performance of coolant loops and radiators, respectively, in the active thermal-control systems of the International Space Station (ISS). SCRAM Lite is a derivative of prior versions of SCRAM but is more robust. SCRAM Lite computes thermal operating characteristics of active heat-transport and heat-rejection subsystems for the major ISS configurations from Flight 5A through completion of assembly. The program performs integrated analysis of both internal and external coolant loops of the various ISS modules and of an external active thermal control system, which includes radiators and the coolant loops that transfer heat to the radiators. The SCRAM Lite run time is of the order of one minute per day of mission time. The overall objective of the SCRAM Lite simulation is to process input profiles of equipment-rack, crew-metabolic, and other heat loads to determine flow rates, coolant supply temperatures, and available radiator heat-rejection capabilities. Analyses are performed for timelines of activities, orbital parameters, and attitudes for mission times ranging from a few hours to several months.

  16. An overview of ISS ECLSS life testing at NASA, MSFC.

    PubMed

    Tatara, J D; Roman, M C

    1998-01-01

    Numerous components have been developed for use in the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Although these components have performed admirably for short-duration subsystem tests, there is little long-range operational (life test) data available. It is important to know not only how long a subsystem is anticipated to perform, but also the problems that can be expected should subsystem components fail. For this reason, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed the ECLSS Life Test program. To date, assemblies and subassemblies that are being or have been tested include the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS), the Vapor Compression Distillation Urine Processor Assembly (VCD-UPA), the Four-Bed Molecular Sieve Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (4BMS-CDRA), and the Solid Polymer Electrolyzer Oxygen Generation Assembly (SPE-OGA). Also included in life testing are noncomponent life test studies. These include the Water Degradation Study and the Biofilm Life Test. The Water Degradation Study looks at water quality changes after exposure to simulated ISS pre-Water Recovery Management (WRM) conditions. The Biofilm Life Test will examine microbial accumulation on surfaces in a simulated ISS water delivery system. This article will briefly review the objectives of each life test program, the results of completed tests, and the major problems observed during the tests.

  17. Exercise Countermeasure Hardware Evolution on ISS: The First Decade.

    PubMed

    Korth, Deborah W

    2015-12-01

    The hardware systems necessary to support exercise countermeasures to the deconditioning associated with microgravity exposure have evolved and improved significantly during the first decade of the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in both new types of hardware and enhanced performance capabilities for initial hardware items. The original suite of countermeasure hardware supported the first crews to arrive on the ISS and the improved countermeasure system delivered in later missions continues to serve the astronauts today with increased efficacy. Due to aggressive hardware development schedules and constrained budgets, the initial approach was to identify existing spaceflight-certified exercise countermeasure equipment, when available, and modify it for use on the ISS. Program management encouraged the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, or hardware previously developed (heritage hardware) for the Space Shuttle Program. However, in many cases the resultant hardware did not meet the additional requirements necessary to support crew health maintenance during long-duration missions (3 to 12 mo) and anticipated future utilization activities in support of biomedical research. Hardware development was further complicated by performance requirements that were not fully defined at the outset and tended to evolve over the course of design and fabrication. Modifications, ranging from simple to extensive, were necessary to meet these evolving requirements in each case where heritage hardware was proposed. Heritage hardware was anticipated to be inherently reliable without the need for extensive ground testing, due to its prior positive history during operational spaceflight utilization. As a result, developmental budgets were typically insufficient and schedules were too constrained to permit long-term evaluation of dedicated ground-test units ("fleet leader" type testing) to identify reliability issues when applied to long-duration use. In most cases

  18. Exercise Countermeasure Hardware Evolution on ISS: The First Decade.

    PubMed

    Korth, Deborah W

    2015-12-01

    The hardware systems necessary to support exercise countermeasures to the deconditioning associated with microgravity exposure have evolved and improved significantly during the first decade of the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in both new types of hardware and enhanced performance capabilities for initial hardware items. The original suite of countermeasure hardware supported the first crews to arrive on the ISS and the improved countermeasure system delivered in later missions continues to serve the astronauts today with increased efficacy. Due to aggressive hardware development schedules and constrained budgets, the initial approach was to identify existing spaceflight-certified exercise countermeasure equipment, when available, and modify it for use on the ISS. Program management encouraged the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, or hardware previously developed (heritage hardware) for the Space Shuttle Program. However, in many cases the resultant hardware did not meet the additional requirements necessary to support crew health maintenance during long-duration missions (3 to 12 mo) and anticipated future utilization activities in support of biomedical research. Hardware development was further complicated by performance requirements that were not fully defined at the outset and tended to evolve over the course of design and fabrication. Modifications, ranging from simple to extensive, were necessary to meet these evolving requirements in each case where heritage hardware was proposed. Heritage hardware was anticipated to be inherently reliable without the need for extensive ground testing, due to its prior positive history during operational spaceflight utilization. As a result, developmental budgets were typically insufficient and schedules were too constrained to permit long-term evaluation of dedicated ground-test units ("fleet leader" type testing) to identify reliability issues when applied to long-duration use. In most cases

  19. International Space Station (ISS) Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) Utilization Plan Assessment Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Iannello, Christopher J.; Garrett, Henry B.; Ging, Andrew T.; Katz, Ira; Keith, R. Lloyd; Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Schneider, Todd A.; Whittlesey, Edward J.; Wollack, Edward J.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) vehicle undergoes spacecraft charging as it interacts with Earth's ionosphere and magnetic field. The interaction can result in a large potential difference developing between the ISS metal chassis and the local ionosphere plasma environment. If an astronaut conducting extravehicular activities (EVA) is exposed to the potential difference, then a possible electrical shock hazard arises. The control of this hazard was addressed by a number of documents within the ISS Program (ISSP) including Catastrophic Safety Hazard for Astronauts on EVA (ISS-EVA-312-4A_revE). The safety hazard identified the risk for an astronaut to experience an electrical shock in the event an arc was generated on an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) surface. A catastrophic safety hazard, by the ISS requirements, necessitates mitigation by a two-fault tolerant system of hazard controls. Traditionally, the plasma contactor units (PCUs) on the ISS have been used to limit the charging and serve as a "ground strap" between the ISS structure and the surrounding ionospheric plasma. In 2009, a previous NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team evaluated the PCU utilization plan (NESC Request #07-054-E) with the objective to assess whether leaving PCUs off during non-EVA time periods presented risk to the ISS through assembly completion. For this study, in situ measurements of ISS charging, covering the installation of three of the four photovoltaic arrays, and laboratory testing results provided key data to underpin the assessment. The conclusion stated, "there appears to be no significant risk of damage to critical equipment nor excessive ISS thermal coating damage as a result of eliminating PCU operations during non- EVA times." In 2013, the ISSP was presented with recommendations from Boeing Space Environments for the "Conditional" Marginalization of Plasma Hazard. These recommendations include a plan that would keep the PCUs off during EVAs when the

  20. General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program, Turbine Engine System Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program Turbine Engine System Elements is to conduct a shared resource project to develop an affordable gas turbine engine for use on 4 to 6 place, light aircraft that will lead to revitalization of the general aviation industry in the United States, creating many new, high-quality jobs.

  1. Boundary control of parabolic systems - Finite-element approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasiecka, I.

    1980-01-01

    The finite element approximation of a Dirichlet type boundary control problem for parabolic systems is considered. An approach based on the direct approximation of an input-output semigroup formula is applied. Error estimates are derived for optimal state and optimal control, and it is noted that these estimates are actually optimal with respect to the approximation theoretic properties.

  2. ISS-Lobster: a low-cost wide-field X-ray transient detector on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Robert; Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Racusin, Judith; Marshall, Frank; Ptak, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    ISS-Lobster is a wide-field X-ray transient detector proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving stellar mass and possibly supermassive black holes. The mission includes a 3-axis gimbal system that allows fast Target of Opportunity pointing, and a small gamma-ray burst monitor to be contributed by the Technion (Israel Institute of Technology).

  3. Statistical Evaluation of Utilization of the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ross; Andrews, Alida

    2006-01-01

    PayLoad Utilization Modeler (PLUM) is a statistical-modeling computer program used to evaluate the effectiveness of utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) in terms of the number of research facilities that can be operated within a specified interval of time. PLUM is designed to balance the requirements of research facilities aboard the ISS against the resources available on the ISS. PLUM comprises three parts: an interface for the entry of data on constraints and on required and available resources, a database that stores these data as well as the program output, and a modeler. The modeler comprises two subparts: one that generates tens of thousands of random combinations of research facilities and another that calculates the usage of resources for each of those combinations. The results of these calculations are used to generate graphical and tabular reports to determine which facilities are most likely to be operable on the ISS, to identify which ISS resources are inadequate to satisfy the demands upon them, and to generate other data useful in allocation of and planning of resources.

  4. Textile mechanical elements in aerospace vehicle parachute systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, M. J.; French, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, design considerations, and design details for textile mechanical elements used in aerospace vehicle parachute systems are briefly reviewed. Friction burns are noted as a major cause of parachute system failures. The friction burn hazard can be minimized by designing for predeployment and deployment sequence control with textile mechanical restraints. Two basic restraint designs (restraint loops and line ties) are discussed and various applications of the designs shown.

  5. Transient Finite Element Computations on a Variable Transputer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolinski, Patrick J.; Lapczyk, Ireneusz

    1993-01-01

    A parallel program to analyze transient finite element problems was written and implemented on a system of transputer processors. The program uses the explicit time integration algorithm which eliminates the need for equation solving, making it more suitable for parallel computations. An interprocessor communication scheme was developed for arbitrary two dimensional grid processor configurations. Several 3-D problems were analyzed on a system with a small number of processors.

  6. Case Study of Risk Mitigation Based on Hardware/Software Integration (HSI) Testing for the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James Mike; Clanton, Stephen Edward

    2004-01-01

    Within the pressurized elements of the International Space Station (ISS), requirements exist to ensure a safe, habitable environment for the crew. In order to provide this environment, thermal control components work in conjunction with software controls to provide heat rejection for subsystem avionics equipment, for the environmental control system and for experiment payloads. It is essential to ISS operations, mission success and crew safety that necessary testing incorporates the extreme conditions to ensure proper performance. This paper provides a general description and methodology applied to thermal related Hardware/Software Integration (HSI) tests for the ISS Node 2 module. A detailed test plan was developed and implemented with two objectives: the first was for risk mitigation of the thermal control algorithms and software qualification, and the second was for data collection which will substantiate thermalhydraulic models of the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). Analytical models are utilized to determine on-orbit performance for conditions and scenarios where the simulation of actual on-orbit system performance is limited by test configuration constraints. Node 2 IATCS HSI activities were performed at the Alenia Spazio facility in Torino, Italy with participation from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Alenia Spazio, Jacobs Engineering Sverdrup (JE Sverdrup) and Boeing.

  7. Organization and management of the International Space Station (ISS) multilateral medical operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework for, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The integrated medical group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial 15 long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  8. Organization and Management of the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The Integrated Medical Group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial fourteen long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  9. ISS Robotic Assembly Analysis Using MAGIK (Manipulator Analysis - Graphic, Interactive, Kinematic)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevill, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Using a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed kinematic analysis tool, the robotic tasks needed to assemble the large elements (truss segments and pressurized modules) of the International Space Station (ISS) can be carefully analyzed to ensure the tasks are kinematically feasible early in the hardware and assembly sequence development.

  10. Coordinating "Execute" Data for ISS and Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Greg; Melendrez, David; Hadlock, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Joint Execute Package Development and Integration tool is a Web utility program that provides an integrated capability to generate and manage messages and execute package data for members of a space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). (An execute package consists of flight plans, short-term plans, procedure updates, data needed to operate the space-shuttle and ISS systems, in-flight maintenance procedures, inventory-stowage data, software upgrades, flight notes, scripts for publicized events, and other instructions.) This program is a third-generation "execute"-package Web tool, built on experience gained from two programs used previously to support realtime operations. This program provides integration and synchronization between the space-shuttle and ISS teams during joint operations. Hundreds of messages per week must be uplinked as "joint" messages; that is, messages for crewmembers of both spacecraft. The program includes configuration-management components that ensure that the same message goes to both crews and spacecraft, effectively eliminating the potential for error in manual direction of messages. The program also controls the format and layout of the crews Web pages, ensuring consistency between uplinks. If the crews Web pages were edited manually, hyperlink and formatting errors would be common.

  11. The ACCESS Mission: ISS Accommodation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Wilson, Thomas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    ACCESS (Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station) is a new mission concept payload for the International Space Station (ISS) which has undergone a preliminary accommodation study. ACCESS science goals include new measurements of the rare ultra-high energy and ultra-heavy components of the cosmic radiation above the Earth's atmosphere. The critical resource made available by the ISS is collecting power; up to 10,000 square meters-sr-days, for a four-year stay on-orbit, allows ACCESS to go beyond balloon-borne detectors. The instrument, consisting of a charge module, a transition radiation detector, and a calorimeter, measures nuclei throughout the periodic table. The study demonstrates that the ISS as a stable science platform at the threshold of space, can make improved cosmic-ray investigations possible in the next century.

  12. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This report contains the outcome of the NESC Assessment.

  13. Elements of a national emergency response system for nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1987-02-10

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises.

  14. ISS External Payload Accommodations (EXPRESS pallet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Harvey L.

    1996-01-01

    The 'expedite the process of experiments to Space Station' (EXPRESS) pallet which is attached to the DS3 truss segment of the International Space Station (ISS) via the payload attach structure is illustrated. The EXPRESS pallet constitutes the primary ISS external payload carrier. Each pallet carries six robotically replaceable payload adapters which are capable of containing one or more payloads. The following aspects of the EXPRESS program and pallet are illustrated: the concept drivers; the physical integration; the installation and in-orbit replacement; and the experiments to be implemented. The program status is summarized.

  15. ISS-Lobster: a low-cost wide-field x-ray transient detector on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Petre, Rob; Gehrels, Neil; Marshall, Francis; Ptak, Andy; Racusin, Judith

    2015-05-01

    ISS-Lobster is a wide-field X-ray transient detector proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 1.6x10-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving stellar mass and possibly supermassive black holes. The mission includes a 3-axis gimbal system that allows fast Target of Opportunity pointing, and a small gamma-ray burst monitor. In this article we focus on ISS-Lobster measurements of X-ray counterparts of detections by the world-wide ground-based gravitational wave network.

  16. ISS Has an Attitude! Determining ISS Attitude at the ISS Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Using Landmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan K.; Pickard,Henry; Kowtha, Vijayanand; Jackson, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Universities and secondary schools can help solve a real issue for remote sensing from the ISS WORF through hands-on engineering and activities. Remote sensing technology is providing scientists with higher resolution, higher sensitivity sensors. Where is it pointing? - To take full advantage of these improved sensors, space platforms must provide commensurate improvements in attitude determination

  17. Optical system storage design with diffractive optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostuk, Raymond K.; Haggans, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Optical data storage systems are gaining widespread acceptance due to their high areal density and the ability to remove the high capacity hard disk from the system. In magneto-optical read-write systems, a small rotation of the polarization state in the return signal from the MO media is the signal which must be sensed. A typical arrangement used for detecting these signals and correcting for errors in tracking and focusing on the disk is illustrated. The components required to achieve these functions are listed. The assembly and alignment of this complex system has a direct impact on cost, and also affects the size, weight, and corresponding data access rates. As a result, integrating these optical components and improving packaging techniques is an active area of research and development. Most designs of binary optic elements have been concerned with optimizing grating efficiency. However, rigorous coupled wave models for vector field diffraction from grating surfaces can be extended to determine the phase and polarization state of the diffracted field, and the design of polarization components. A typical grating geometry and the phase and polarization angles associated with the incident and diffracted fields are shown. In our current stage of work, we are examining system configurations which cascade several polarization functions on a single substrate. In this design, the beam returning from the MO disk illuminates a cascaded grating element which first couples light into the substrate, then introduces a quarter wave retardation, then a polarization rotation, and finally separates s- and p-polarized fields through a polarization beam splitter. The input coupler and polarization beam splitter are formed in volume gratings, and the two intermediate elements are zero-order elements.

  18. Exemplifying Quantum Systems in a Finite Element Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Toby D.

    2009-08-13

    This paper presents a description of the abstractions required for the expression and solution of the linear single-particle Schroedinger equation in a finite element basis. This paper consists of two disparate themes: First, to layout and establish the foundations of finite element analysis as an approximate numerical solution to extendable quantum mechanical systems; and second, to promote a high-performance open-source computational model for the approximate numerical solution to quantum mechanical systems. The structural foundation of the one-and two-dimensional time-independent Schroedinger equation describing an infinite potential well is explored and a brief overview of the hierarchal design of the computational library written in C++ is given.

  19. Mechanical end joint system for structural column elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G.; Wallsom, R. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical end joint system, useful for the transverse connection of strut elements to a common node, comprises a node joint half with a semicircular tongue and groove, and a strut joint half with a semicircular tongue and groove. The two joint halves are engaged transversely and the connection is made secure by the inherent physical property characteristics of locking latches and/or by a spring-actioned shaft. A quick release mechanism provides rapid disengagement of the joint halves.

  20. Elements of a collaborative systems model within the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphalen, Bailee R.

    2000-10-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to determine the components of current aerospace collaborative efforts. There were 44 participants from two selected groups surveyed for this study. Nineteen were from the Oklahoma Air National Guard based in Oklahoma City representing the aviation group. Twenty-five participants were from the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston representing the aerospace group. The surveys for the aviation group were completed in reference to planning missions necessary to their operations. The surveys for the aerospace group were completed in reference to a well-defined and focused goal from a current mission. A questionnaire was developed to survey active participants of collaborative systems in order to consider various components found within the literature. Results were analyzed and aggregated through a database along with content analysis of open-ended question comments from respondents. Findings and conclusions. This study found and determined elements of a collaborative systems model in the aerospace industry. The elements were (1) purpose or mission for the group or team; (2) commitment or dedication to the challenge; (3) group or team meetings and discussions; (4) constraints of deadlines and budgets; (5) tools and resources for project and simulations; (6) significant contributors to the collaboration; (7) decision-making formats; (8) reviews of project; (9) participants education and employment longevity; (10) cross functionality of team or group members; (11) training on the job plus teambuilding; (12) other key elements identified relevant by the respondents but not included in the model such as communication and teamwork; (13) individual and group accountability; (14) conflict, learning, and performance; along with (15) intraorganizational coordination. These elements supported and allowed multiple individuals working together to solve a common problem or to develop innovation that could not have been

  1. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2006 - 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2006 and February 2007. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  2. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  3. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2010 - 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011 and the continued permanent presence of six crew members on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and extension of the ISS service life from 2015 to 2020 or beyond.

  4. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2005 - 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2005 and February 2006. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  5. International Space Station (ISS) Gas Logistics Planning in the Post Shuttle Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Daniel J.; Cook, Anthony J.; Lehman, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Over its life the International Space Station (ISS) has received gas (nitrogen, oxygen, and air) from various sources. Nitrogen and oxygen are used in the cabin to maintain total pressure and oxygen partial pressures within the cabin. Plumbed nitrogen is also required to support on-board experiments and medical equipment. Additionally, plumbed oxygen is required to support medical equipment as well as emergency masks and most importantly EVA support. Gas are supplied to ISS with various methods and vehicles. Vehicles like the Progress and ATV deliver nitrogen (both as a pure gas and as air) and oxygen via direct releases into the cabin. An additional source of nitrogen and oxygen is via tanks on the ISS Airlock. The Airlock nitrogen and oxygen tanks can deliver to various users via pressurized systems that run throughout the ISS except for the Russian segment. Metabolic oxygen is mainly supplied via cabin release from the Elektron and Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), which are water electrolyzers. As a backup system, oxygen candles (Solid Fuel Oxygen Generators-SFOGs) supply oxygen to the cabin as well. In the past, a major source of nitrogen and oxygen has come from the Shuttle via both direct delivery to the cabin as well as to recharge the ISS Airlock tanks. To replace the Shuttle capability to recharge the ISS Airlock tanks, a new system was developed called Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS). NIORS consists of high pressure (7000 psi) tanks which recharge the ISS Airlock tanks via a blowdown fill for both nitrogen and oxygen. NORS tanks can be brought up on most logistics vehicles such as the HTV, COTS, and ATV. A proper balance must be maintained to insure sufficient gas resources are available on-orbit so that all users have the required gases via the proper delivery method (cabin and/or plumbed).

  6. An Integrated, Evidence-Based Approach to Transitioning to Operations: Specifications for Future Replacement Lights on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren; Brainard, George; Whitmire, Alexandra; Kubey, Alan; Maida, Jim; Bowen, Charles; Johnston, Smith

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) as its primary light source. These GLAs are composed of fluorescent lighting and are integrated into the electrical system on Station. Seventy seven of these units are distributed throughout the vehicle, and many of the lights, having reached their lifespan, are no longer functional; while backup panels are available on orbit, it is anticipated that the supplies of fluorescents on the station will be exhausted by 2015. The ISS vehicle office is therefore preparing to replace all of the GLAs, with Solid State Light Assemblies (SSLAs) composed of white Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). In the Spring of 2010, an announcement for the replacement lights was released. The announcement specified that proposed lighting systems should use LED technology, given certain power draw restrictions and no changes to how the lights are currently controlled (a central on/off switch per node, and a dial to turn on/off and increase brightness on each lighting unit). The replacement lights are to follow current specifications for brightness levels (lux) and color temperature (degrees Kelvin, or K). Reportedly, the lighting on orbit is dim and suboptimal. The average brightness of the lights (given all lights within a node are operational) is 291 lux; by comparison, recommended office lighting ranges from 200 to 500 lux, and daylight ranges on a typical overcast day, consists of 10,000 to 25,000 lux. Representatives from NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) and Human Factors and Habitability identified that maintaining current brightness levels limits visual acuity, work space, and the use of light as a countermeasure for improving circadian entrainment, hastening phase shifting, evoking acute alertness and enhancing performance. Revised lighting specifications are therefore needed to optimize the replacement lights for the ISS.

  7. Elemental sulfur recovery from desulfurization sorbents in advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dorchak, T.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Turk, B.S.

    1995-12-31

    Regenerable metal oxide sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are being developed to efficiently remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gas in advanced power systems. Dilute air regeneration of the sorbents produces a tailgas containing a few percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur with a coal gas slipstream using the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a leading first-generation technology. Currently the DSRP is undergoing field testing at gasifier sites. The objective of this study is to develop second-generation processes that produce elemental sulfur with limited use of coal gas. Novel approaches that were evaluated to produce elemental sulfur from sulfided sorbents include (1) SO{sub 2} regeneration, (2) substoichiometric oxidation, (3) steam regeneration followed by H{sub 2}S oxidation, and (4) steam-air regeneration. Experimental results at high temperature and high pressure demonstrate that, with simple sorbent modifications, direct regeneration to elemental sulfur is feasible without the use of coal gas.

  8. Photography of Coral Reefs from ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the uses of photography from the International Space Station (ISS) in studying Earth's coral reefs. The photographs include reefs in various oceans . The photographs have uses for science in assisting NASA mapping initiatives, distribution worldwide through ReefBase, and by biologist in the field.

  9. ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

  10. Spheres: from Ground Development to ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katterhagen, A.

    2016-01-01

    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES National Lab Facility aboard ISS is managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. SPHERES has served to mature the adaptability of control algorithms of future formation flight missions in microgravity (6 DOF (Degrees of Freedom) / long duration microgravity), demonstrate key close-proximity formation flight and rendezvous and docking maneuvers, understand fault diagnosis and recovery, improve the field of human telerobotic operation and control, and lessons learned on ISS have significant impact on ground robotics, mapping, localization, and sensing in three-dimensions - among several other areas of study.

  11. Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Holcomb, R.S.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.; Hoffman, E.E.

    1995-12-31

    The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-based gas-turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/ Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from universities and the national laboratories. Projects in this sub-element are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines.

  12. SPAR data set contents. [finite element structural analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The contents of the stored data sets of the SPAR (space processing applications rocket) finite element structural analysis system are documented. The data generated by each of the system's processors are stored in a data file organized as a library. Each data set, containing a two-dimensional table or matrix, is identified by a four-word name listed in a table of contents. The creating SPAR processor, number of rows and columns, and definitions of each of the data items are listed for each data set. An example SPAR problem using these data sets is also presented.

  13. ISS Plasma Environment: Status of CCMC Products for ISS Mission Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    ISS Program currently using FPMU Ne, Te in-situ measurements to support operations and anomaly investigations. Working to acquire alternative data sources if FPMU is not available. Work is progressing on CCMC tools for low Earth orbit ionosphere characterization. Validation against FPMU data required before model output can be used for ISS operational support. MSFC plans to continue comparing CTIP output during FPMU campaigns. Results to date have been useful in identifying ionospheric origins of high latitude charging environments.

  14. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the "energy hub" formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case.

  15. System and Method for Finite Element Simulation of Helicopter Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, R. E. (Inventor); Dulsenberg, Ken (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a turbulence model that has been developed for blade-element helicopter simulation. This model uses an innovative temporal and geometrical distribution algorithm that preserves the statistical characteristics of the turbulence spectra over the rotor disc, while providing velocity components in real time to each of five blade-element stations along each of four blades. for a total of twenty blade-element stations. The simulator system includes a software implementation of flight dynamics that adheres to the guidelines for turbulence set forth in military specifications. One of the features of the present simulator system is that it applies simulated turbulence to the rotor blades of the helicopter, rather than to its center of gravity. The simulator system accurately models the rotor penetration into a gust field. It includes time correlation between the front and rear of the main rotor, as well as between the side forces felt at the center of gravity and at the tail rotor. It also includes features for added realism, such as patchy turbulence and vertical gusts in to which the rotor disc penetrates. These features are realized by a unique real time implementation of the turbulence filters. The new simulator system uses two arrays one on either side of the main rotor to record the turbulence field and to produce time-correlation from the front to the rear of the rotor disc. The use of Gaussian Interpolation between the two arrays maintains the statistical properties of the turbulence across the rotor disc. The present simulator system and method may be used in future and existing real-time helicopter simulations with minimal increase in computational workload.

  16. Design and Development of a Sub-Zero Fluid System for Demonstration of Orion's Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Ahlstrom, Thomas D.; Le, Hung V.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle's Exploration Mission 2 is expected to loiter in Lunar orbit for a relatively long period of time. In low Lunar orbit (LLO) the thermal environment is cyclic - extremely cold in the eclipse and relatively hot near the subsolar point. Phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HXs) are the best option for long term missions in these environments. A PCM HX allows a vehicle to store excess waste energy by thawing a phase change material such as n-pentadecane wax. During portions of the orbit that are extremely cold, the excess energy is rejected, resolidifying the wax. Due to the inherent risk of compromising the heat exchanger during multiple freeze and thaw cycles, a unique payload was designed for the International Space Station to test and demonstration the functions of a PCM HX. The payload incorporates the use of a pumped fluid system and a thermoelectric heat exchanger to promote the freezing and thawing of the PCM HX. This paper shall review the design and development undertaken to build such a system.

  17. Relative nuclear abundances inside ISS with ALTEA-Space experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, Veronica; Casolino, Marco; di Fino, Luca; La Tessa, Chiara; Larosa, Marianna; Narici, Livio; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rinaldi, Adele; Sannita, Walter G.

    ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts) is a multidisciplinary project aimed at studying the cosmic rays and their effects on the astronauts during the space missions, with a focus on the Light Flashes phenomenon. The ALTEA-Space is the main space experiment of the ALTEA project and its goal is the characterization of the radiation environment inside the International Space Station (ISS). It includes a stack of six silicon telescope particle detectors arranged in a 3D structure, capable to determine the energy loss and the trajectory of the cosmic ray ions. ALTEA-Space is on board the ISS since July 2006 and collected data continuously between August 2006 and July 2007. The first analysis has been performed on particles that release almost constant energy inside the detectors and provides spectra of the quasi relativistic radiation making possible the identification of ions from Boron to Iron. Relative nuclear abundances and absolute fluxes for all discriminated elements are presented, both total and divided into the different geomagnetic regions (polar, equatorial and South Atlantic Anomaly). Abundances are compared with literature values and with data from previous experiments.

  18. Analyzing Radio-Frequency Coverage for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolen, Steven M.; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    The Interactive Coverage Analysis Tool (iCAT) is an interactive desktop computer program serving to (1) support planning of coverage, and management of usage of frequencies, of current and proposed radio communication systems on and near the International Space Station (ISS) and (2) enable definition of requirements for development of future such systems. The iCAT can also be used in design trade studies for other (both outer-space and terrestrial) communication systems. A user can enter the parameters of a communication-system link budget in a table in a worksheet. The nominal (onaxis) link values for the bit-to-noise-energy ratio, received isotropic power (RIP), carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N), power flux density (PFD), and link margin of the system are calculated and displayed in the table. Plots of field gradients for the RIP, C/N, PFD, and link margin are constructed in an ISS coordinate system, at a specified link range, for both the forward and return link parameters, and are displayed in worksheets. The forward and reverse link antenna gain patterns are also constructed and displayed. Line-of-sight (LOS) obstructions can be both incorporated into the gradient plots and displayed on separate plots.

  19. Multi-Element Unstructured Analyses of Complex Valve Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulyma, Peter (Technical Monitor); Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Shipman, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    The safe and reliable operation of high pressure test stands for rocket engine and component testing places an increased emphasis on the performance of control valves and flow metering devices. In this paper, we will present a series of high fidelity computational analyses of systems ranging from cryogenic control valves and pressure regulator systems to cavitating venturis that are used to support rocket engine and component testing at NASA Stennis Space Center. A generalized multi-element framework with sub-models for grid adaption, grid movement and multi-phase flow dynamics has been used to carry out the simulations. Such a framework provides the flexibility of resolving the structural and functional complexities that are typically associated with valve-based high pressure feed systems and have been difficult to deal with traditional CFD methods. Our simulations revealed a rich variety of flow phenomena such as secondary flow patterns, hydrodynamic instabilities, fluctuating vapor pockets etc. In the paper, we will discuss performance losses related to cryogenic control valves, and provide insight into the physics of the dominant multi-phase fluid transport phenomena that are responsible for the choking like behavior in cryogenic control elements. Additionally, we will provide detailed analyses of the modal instability that is observed in the operation of the dome pressure regulator valve. Such instabilities are usually not localized and manifest themselves as a system wide phenomena leading to an undesirable chatter at high flow conditions.

  20. ISS Update: Solar Powered Refrigerator

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Mike Ewert, Life Support and Thermal Systems Engineer. Ewert co-invented the solar powered refrigerator for stowage of medical samples, preservation ...

  1. Main problems of the Russian Orlan-M space suit utilization for EVAs on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. P.; Pozdnyakov, S. S.; Severin, G. I.; Stoklitsky, A. Yu.

    2001-03-01

    In the recent years the Russian Orlan-M space suits have been improved as applied to their operational requirements for the ISS. A special attention is paid to enhancement of EVA crew efficiency and safety. The paper considers the main problems regarding specific features of the Russian space suit operation in the ISS, and analyses measures on their solution. In particular, the problems associated with the following are considered: enhancement of the anthropometric range for the EVA crewmembers; use of some US EMU elements and unified NASA equipment elements; Orlan-M operation support in the wide range of the ISS thermal conditions; use of Simplified Aid For Extravehicular activity Rescue (SAFER) designed as a self-rescue device, which will be used for an EVA crewmember return in the event that he (she) breaks away inadvertently from the ISS surface. The paper states the main space suit differences with reference to solution of the above problems. The paper presents briefly the design of space suit arms developed for crewmembers with small anthropometric parameters, as well as peculiarities and test results for the gloves with enhanced thermal protection. Measures on further space suit development with the purpose to improve its performances are considered.

  2. Lean Management Systems in Radiology: Elements for Success.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stacy R; Ruter, Royce L; Tibor, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of the literature on Lean and Lean Management Systems and how they have been implemented in healthcare organizations and particularly in radiology departments. The review focuses on the elements required for a successful implementation of Lean by applying the principles of a Lean Management System instead of a Lean tools-only approach. This review shares the successes and failures from healthcare organizations' efforts to improve the quality and safety of the services they provide. There are a limited number of healthcare organizations in the literature who have shared their experiences and additional research is necessary to determine whether a Lean Management System is a viable alternative to the current management structure in healthcare. PMID:27172649

  3. Lean Management Systems in Radiology: Elements for Success.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stacy R; Ruter, Royce L; Tibor, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of the literature on Lean and Lean Management Systems and how they have been implemented in healthcare organizations and particularly in radiology departments. The review focuses on the elements required for a successful implementation of Lean by applying the principles of a Lean Management System instead of a Lean tools-only approach. This review shares the successes and failures from healthcare organizations' efforts to improve the quality and safety of the services they provide. There are a limited number of healthcare organizations in the literature who have shared their experiences and additional research is necessary to determine whether a Lean Management System is a viable alternative to the current management structure in healthcare.

  4. Compute Element and Interface Box for the Hazard Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Khanoyan, Garen; Stern, Ryan A.; Some, Raphael R.; Bailey, Erik S.; Carson, John M.; Vaughan, Geoffrey M.; Werner, Robert A.; Salomon, Phil M.; Martin, Keith E.; Spaulding, Matthew D.; Luna, Michael E.; Motaghedi, Shui H.; Trawny, Nikolas; Johnson, Andrew E.; Ivanov, Tonislav I.; Huertas, Andres; Whitaker, William D.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) program is building a sensor that enables a spacecraft to evaluate autonomously a potential landing area to generate a list of hazardous and safe landing sites. It will also provide navigation inputs relative to those safe sites. The Hazard Detection System Compute Element (HDS-CE) box combines a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board for sensor integration and timing, with a multicore computer board for processing. The FPGA does system-level timing and data aggregation, and acts as a go-between, removing the real-time requirements from the processor and labeling events with a high resolution time. The processor manages the behavior of the system, controls the instruments connected to the HDS-CE, and services the "heavy lifting" computational requirements for analyzing the potential landing spots.

  5. DAC-3 Pointing Stability Analysis Results for SAGE 3 and Other Users of the International Space Station (ISS) Payload Attachment Sites (PAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Rombado, Gabriel

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide final results of a pointing stability analysis for external payload attachment sites (PAS) on the International Space Station (ISS). As a specific example, the pointing stability requirement of the SAGE III atmospheric science instrument was examined in this paper. The instrument requires 10 arcsec stability over 2 second periods. SAGE 3 will be mounted on the ISS starboard side at the lower, outboard FIAS. In this engineering analysis, an open-loop DAC-3 finite element model of ISS was used by the Microgravity Group at Johnson Space Flight Center to generate transient responses at PAS to a limited number of disturbances. The model included dynamics up to 50 Hz. Disturbance models considered included operation of the solar array rotary joints, thermal radiator rotary joints, and control moment gyros. Responses were filtered to model the anticipated vibration attenuation effects of active control systems on the solar and thermal radiator rotary joints. A pointing stability analysis was conducted by double integrating acceleration transient over a 2 second period. Results of the analysis are tabulated for ISS X, Y, and Z Axis rotations. These results indicate that the largest excursions in rotation during pointing occurred due to rapid slewing of the thermal radiator. Even without attenuation at the rotary joints, the resulting pointing error was limited to less than 1.6 arcsec. With vibration control at the joints, to a maximum 0.5 arcsec over a 2 second period. Based on this current level of model definition, it was concluded that between 0 - 50 Hz, the pointing stability requirement for SAGE 3 will not be exceeded by the disturbances evaluated in this study.

  6. Temperature control system for optical elements in astronomical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verducci, Orlando; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Flávio F.; Vital de Arruda, Márcio; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Fraga, Luciano

    2014-07-01

    Extremely low temperatures may damage the optical components assembled inside of an astronomical instrument due to the crack in the resin or glue used to attach lenses and mirrors. The environment, very cold and dry, in most of the astronomical observatories contributes to this problem. This paper describes the solution implemented at SOAR for remotely monitoring and controlling temperatures inside of a spectrograph, in order to prevent a possible damage of the optical parts. The system automatically switches on and off some heat dissipation elements, located near the optics, as the measured temperature reaches a trigger value. This value is set to a temperature at which the instrument is not operational to prevent malfunction and only to protect the optics. The software was developed with LabVIEWTM and based on an object-oriented design that offers flexibility and ease of maintenance. As result, the system is able to keep the internal temperature of the instrument above a chosen limit, except perhaps during the response time, due to inertia of the temperature. This inertia can be controlled and even avoided by choosing the correct amount of heat dissipation and location of the thermal elements. A log file records the measured temperature values by the system for operation analysis.

  7. Platelets--an important element of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Deptuła, W

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate cells derived from the megakaryocyte series, and have long been considered only as cells responsible for coagulation and the fibrinolysis process. However, recently more data shows that they are also effector cells in the inflammatory response and important elements of the immunological response. Platelets store and release many biologically active substances, including growth factors, cytokines and chemokines (tab. 1), which actively affect i.a. elements of the immune system, and thus become regulators of immunity and mediators of inflammatory response. Their impact on the immune system cells is also associated with the induction of leucocytes and progenitor cells to the site of pathogen permeation or vascular injury inflow, as well as endothelial cells. Interacting with neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, they not only activate them, but also form platelet-leukocyte aggregates that immobilise pathogens and prevent their spreading. Furthermore, platelets are capable of absorbing pathogens, affecting anti-infection immunity of the system. It is also assumed that the presence of receptors on their surface, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), affects their initiation and activity of the immunological response.

  8. A Review of Discrete Element Method Research on Particulate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, A. A.; Elektorowicz, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper summarizes research done using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and explores new trends in its use on Particulate systems. The rationale for using DEM versus the traditional continuum-based approach is explained first. Then, DEM application is explored in terms of geotechnical engineering and mining engineering materials, since particulate media are mostly associated with these two disciplines. It is concluded that no research to date had addressed the issue of using the DEM to model the strength and weathering characteristics of peaty soil-slag-Portland cement-fly ash combinations.

  9. Patient-specific modeling of human cardiovascular system elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossovich, Leonid Yu.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Polienko, Asel V.; Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.; Murylev, Vladimir V.

    2016-03-01

    Object of study: The research is aimed at development of personalized medical treatment. Algorithm was developed for patient-specific surgical interventions of the cardiovascular system pathologies. Methods: Geometrical models of the biological objects and initial and boundary conditions were realized by medical diagnostic data of the specific patient. Mechanical and histomorphological parameters were obtained with the help mechanical experiments on universal testing machine. Computer modeling of the studied processes was conducted with the help of the finite element method. Results: Results of the numerical simulation allowed evaluating the physiological processes in the studied object in normal state, in presence of different pathologies and after different types of surgical procedures.

  10. New Detector System for Super Heavy Elements Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieloch, A.; Sosin, Z.; Bańka, P.; Gonciarz, A.; Péter, J.; Drouart, A.; Dayras, R.; Łojek, K.; Stodel, Ch.; Adamczyk, M.; Avez, B.; Lasko, P.; Zosiak, Ł.; Kozik, T.; Alamanos, N.; Gillibert, A.; Grévy, S.; Hanappe, F.; Hannachi, F.; Hue, R.; Khouaja, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Manduci, L.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Politi, G.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Stuttgé, L.; Vandamme, Ch.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Piasecki, E.; Trzcińska, A.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Kisielewski, M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kordyasz, A.; Błocki, J.

    A new detector system dedicated for very/super heavy elements (VHE/SHE) detection that decay by spontaneous fission is presented. Such a decay mode of nuclei can be found e.g. in the region of Z≈100 (Fermium). Future experiments realized in the frame of French-Polish collaboration at the cyclotrons in GANIL and in the Heavy Ion Laboratory (HIL), University of Warsaw, is described. The results of test measurements made in the HIL for reactions 20Ne(8 A.MeV)+120Sn, 179Au are presented.

  11. Process Development for Removal of Siloxanes from ISS Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Perry, Jay; Kayatin, Matthew J.; Wilson, Mark; Gentry, Gregory J.; Bowman, Elizabeth; Monje, Oscar; Rector, Tony; Steele, John

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) has been identified as a problematic organic contaminant aboard the ISS. This contaminant was initially identified in humidity condensate and in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water in 2010 when routine water quality monitoring an increasing total organic carbon (TOC) trend in the WPA product water. Although DMSD is not a crew health hazard at the levels observed in the product water, it can degrade the WPA catalytic reactor's effectiveness and cause early replacement of Multifiltration Beds. DMSD may also degrade the performance of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) which uses the WPA product water for electrolysis. An investigation into the source of DMSD has determined that polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) compounds are likely hydrolyzing in the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX) to form DMSD. PDMS compounds are prevalent aboard ISS from a variety of sources, including crew hygiene products, adhesives, caulks, lubricants, and various nonmetallic materials. PDMS compounds are also known to contribute to CHX hydrophilic coating degradation by rendering it hydrophobic and therefore adversely affecting its ability to effectively transmit water to the condensate bus. Eventually this loss in performance results in water droplets in the air flow exiting the CHX, which may lead to microbial growth in the air ducts and may impact the performance of downstream systems. Several options have been evaluated to address these concerns. Modifications to the Water Processor Multifiltration Beds and Catalytic Reactor for removal of DMSD were not considered viable, and did not address the issue with PDMS compound degradation of the CHX coating. Design concepts are now in development for removing PDMS compounds from the air stream before they can reach the CHX coating, thus preventing coating degradation and hydrolysis of the PDMS compounds to DMSD. This paper summarizes the current status of the effort to treat these contaminants on ISS.

  12. Compact Image Slicing Spectrometer (ISS) for hyperspectral fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Kester, Robert T.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2009-01-01

    An image slicing spectrometer (ISS) for microscopy applications is presented. Its principle is based on the redirecting of image zones by specially organized thin mirrors within a custom fabricated component termed an image slicer. The demonstrated prototype can simultaneously acquire a 140nm spectral range within its 2D field of view from a single image. The spectral resolution of the system is 5.6nm. The FOV and spatial resolution of the ISS depend on the selected microscope objective and for the results presented is 45×45μm2 and 0.45μm respectively. This proof-of-concept system can be easily improved in the future for higher (both spectral and spatial) resolution imaging. The system requires no scanning and minimal post data processing. In addition, the reflective nature of the image slicer and use of prisms for spectral dispersion make the system light efficient. Both of the above features are highly valuable for real time fluorescent-spectral imaging in biological and diagnostic applications. PMID:19654631

  13. Biotechnology Facility (BTF) for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Engineering mockup shows the general arrangement of the plarned Biotechnology Facility inside an EXPRESS rack aboard the International Space Station. This layout includes a gas supply module (bottom left), control computer and laptop interface (bottom right), two rotating wall vessels (top right), and support systems.

  14. Crew on the ISS: Creativity or determinism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krikalev, Sergey K.; Kalery, Alexander Yu.; Sorokin, Igor V.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the experience of human flights to the Mir space station in 1986-2000 and to the ISS in 2000-2008, as well as Space Shuttle missions we can define structural and organizational tendencies in human missions to space and mission support. The tendency to the increased determinism in flight operations leads to lower flexibility of the "Crew-Mission Control Center" link in case of contingency. We justify the necessity to reduce the centralization of the control process and to hand over some mission control centers (MCC) authority to the International Space Station (ISS) crew. We conclude that human missions to the Moon and Mars where crew actions will be independent to a high degree will be impossible without resolution of this issue. Creativity and determinism should be properly balanced.

  15. IR Thermography NDE of ISS Radiator Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, William; Morton, Richard; Wilson, Walter; Reynolds, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The presentation covers an active and a passive infrared (IR) thermography for detection of delaminations in the radiator panels used for the International Space Station (ISS) program. The passive radiator IR data was taken by a NASA astronaut in an extravehicular activity (EVA) using a modified FLIR EVA hand-held camera. The IR data could be successfully analyzed to detect gross facesheet disbonds. The technique used the internal hot fluid tube as the heat source in analyzing the IR data. Some non-flight ISS radiators were inspected using an active technique of IR flash thermography to detect disbond of face sheet with honeycomb core, and debonds in facesheet overlap areas. The surface temperature and radiated heat emission from flight radiators is stable during acquisition of the IR video data. This data was analyzed to detect locations of unexpected surface temperature gradients. The flash thermography data was analyzed using derivative analysis and contrast evolutions. Results of the inspection are provided.

  16. ISS Servir Environmental Research and Visualization System

    NASA Video Gallery

    From the Marshall Space Flight Center’s Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) in Huntsville, Ala., NASA Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs interviews Burgess Howell, Principal Investigator ...

  17. ISS Service Module Pre-Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Various shots show Discovery at the launch pad during the final 30-minute countdown. The prelaunch conditions are described and information is given on the upcoming launch and the orbiter's docking with the International Space Station (ISS). A brief collage of rollout and launch footage of STS-92 Endeavour commemorates the 100th Space Shuttle mission and the 100th anniversary of the Philadelphia Orchestra (also seen). The music of '2001: A Space Odyssey) is played by the orchestra.

  18. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  19. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  20. A single element multiphase compulsator powered railgun systems

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, S.K.; Weldon, W.F. . Center for Electromechanics)

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates multiphase railguns (electromagnetic launchers) powered by multiphase compensated pulsed alternators (compulsators). The polyphase system offers several advantages over the single phase system. The multiphase compulsator relaxes the strong dependence between the current pulse width necessary for the railgun and the design parameters of the generator (number of poles, rotor diameter and tip speed) thus allowing the compulsator to be designed for optimum power density and electromechanical energy conversion. The paper examines in particular the two phase system. The authors explore different methods of achieving high acceleration ratios (average to peak) in multiphase railgun systems. Some of the methods analyzed are ramping up the field current of the compulsator to counter the increasing impedance of the gun, using a railgun with varying inductance per unit length (L[prime]), and using an external variable inductor in series with the compulsator. Special attention is devoted to the external series inductor method which uses a rotary flux compressor (rfc). Several concepts to integrate the rfc and the compulsator into a single element device are discussed. Comparison between the state of the art single phase compulsator powered 9 MJ railgun system, currently under fabrication at CEM-UT and a two phase compulsator driven four rail railgun system is also presented.

  1. Immersed finite element method and its applications to biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wing Kam; Liu, Yaling; Farrell, David; Zhang, Lucy; Wang, X. Sheldon; Fukui, Yoshio; Patankar, Neelesh; Zhang, Yongjie; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Lee, Junghoon; Hong, Juhee; Chen, Xinyu; Hsu, Huayi

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the newly developed immersed finite element method (IFEM) and its applications to the modeling of biological systems. This work was inspired by the pioneering work of Professor T.J.R. Hughes in solving fluid–structure interaction problems. In IFEM, a Lagrangian solid mesh moves on top of a background Eulerian fluid mesh which spans the entire computational domain. Hence, mesh generation is greatly simplified. Moreover, both fluid and solid domains are modeled with the finite element method and the continuity between the fluid and solid subdomains is enforced via the interpolation of the velocities and the distribution of the forces with the reproducing Kernel particle method (RKPM) delta function. The proposed method is used to study the fluid–structure interaction problems encountered in human cardiovascular systems. Currently, the heart modeling is being constructed and the deployment process of an angioplasty stent has been simulated. Some preliminary results on monocyte and platelet deposition are presented. Blood rheology, in particular, the shear-rate dependent de-aggregation of red blood cell (RBC) clusters and the transport of deformable cells, are modeled. Furthermore, IFEM is combined with electrokinetics to study the mechanisms of nano/bio filament assembly for the understanding of cell motility. PMID:20200602

  2. Orion Handling Qualities During ISS Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Stephens, J. P.; Spehar, P.; Bilimoria, K.; Foster, C.; Gonzalex, R.; Sullivan, K.; Jackson, B.; Brazzel, J.; Hart, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft was designed to rendezvous with multiple vehicles in low earth orbit (LEO) and beyond. To perform the required rendezvous and docking task, Orion must provide enough control authority to perform coarse translational maneuvers while maintaining precision to perform the delicate docking corrections. While Orion has autonomous docking capabilities, it is expected that final approach and docking operations with the International Space Station (ISS) will initially be performed in a manual mode. A series of evaluations was conducted by NASA and Lockheed Martin at the Johnson Space Center to determine the handling qualities (HQ) of the Orion spacecraft during different docking and rendezvous conditions using the Cooper-Harper scale. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities methodology, vehicle configuration, scenarios flown, data collection tools, and subject ratings and comments. The initial Orion HQ assessment examined Orion docking to the ISS. This scenario demonstrates the Translational Hand Controller (THC) handling qualities of Orion. During this initial assessment, two different scenarios were evaluated. The first was a nominal docking approach to a stable ISS, with Orion initializing with relative position dispersions and a closing rate of approximately 0.1 ft/sec. The second docking scenario was identical to the first, except the attitude motion of the ISS was modeled to simulate a stress case ( 1 degree deadband per axis and 0.01 deg/sec rate deadband per axis). For both scenarios, subjects started each run on final approach at a docking port-to-port range of 20 ft. Subjects used the THC in pulse mode with cues from the docking camera image, window views, and range and range rate data displayed on the Orion display units. As in the actual design, the attitude of the Orion vehicle was held by the automated flight control system at 0.5 degree deadband per axis. Several error sources were modeled including Reaction

  3. Analyzing Power Supply and Demand on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Justin; Pham, Tho; Halyard, Raymond; Conwell, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Station Power and Energy Evaluation Determiner (SPEED) is a Java application program for analyzing the supply and demand aspects of the electrical power system of the International Space Station (ISS). SPEED can be executed on any computer that supports version 1.4 or a subsequent version of the Java Runtime Environment. SPEED includes an analysis module, denoted the Simplified Battery Solar Array Model, which is a simplified engineering model of the ISS primary power system. This simplified model makes it possible to perform analyses quickly. SPEED also includes a user-friendly graphical-interface module, an input file system, a parameter-configuration module, an analysis-configuration-management subsystem, and an output subsystem. SPEED responds to input information on trajectory, shadowing, attitude, and pointing in either a state-of-charge mode or a power-availability mode. In the state-of-charge mode, SPEED calculates battery state-of-charge profiles, given a time-varying power-load profile. In the power-availability mode, SPEED determines the time-varying total available solar array and/or battery power output, given a minimum allowable battery state of charge.

  4. Progress in Spacecraft Environment Interactions: International Space Station (ISS) Development and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve; Suggs, Robb; Schneider, Todd; Minow, Joe; Alred, John; Cooke, Bill; Mikatarian, Ron; Kramer, Leonard; Boeder, paul; Soares, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The set of spacecraft interactions with the space flight environment that have produced the largest impacts on the design, verification, and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) Program during the May 2000 to May 2007 time frame are the focus of this paper. In-flight data, flight crew observations, and the results of ground-based test and analysis directly supporting programmatic and operational decision-making are reported as are the analysis and simulation efforts that have led to new knowledge and capabilities supporting current and future space explorations programs. The specific spacecraft-environment interactions that have had the greatest impact on ISS Program activities during the first several years of flight are: 1) spacecraft charging, 2) micrometeoroids and orbital debris effects, 3) ionizing radiation (both total dose to materials and single event effects [SEE] on avionics), 4) hypergolic rocket engine plume impingement effects, 5) venting/dumping of liquids, 6) spacecraft contamination effects, 7) neutral atmosphere and atomic oxygen effects, 8) satellite drag effects, and 9) solar ultraviolet effects. Orbital inclination (51.6deg) and altitude (nominally between 350 km and 460 km) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the performance and reliability of materials and systems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth s ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays. The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. The induced environment results from ISS interactions with the natural environment as well as environmental factors produced by ISS itself and visiting vehicles. Examples include ram-wake effects, hypergolic thruster plume impingement, materials out-gassing, venting

  5. Processing ISS Images of Titan's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jason; McEwen, Alfred; Fussner, Stephanie; Turtle, Elizabeth; West, Robert; Porco, Carolyn; Knowles, Ben; Dawson, Doug

    2005-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the Cassini-Huygens mission, in orbit around Saturn since July 2004, is to understand the surface and atmosphere of Titan. Surface investigations are primarily accomplished with RADAR, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), and the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) [1]. The latter two use methane "windows", regions in Titan's reflectance spectrum where its atmosphere is most transparent, to observe the surface. For VIMS, this produces clear views of the surface near 2 and 5 microns [2]. ISS uses a narrow continuum band filter (CB3) at 938 nanometers. While these methane windows provide our best views of the surface, the images produced are not as crisp as ISS images of satellites like Dione and Iapetus [3] due to the atmosphere. Given a reasonable estimate of contrast (approx.30%), the apparent resolution of features is approximately 5 pixels due to the effects of the atmosphere and the Modulation Transfer Function of the camera [1,4]. The atmospheric haze also reduces contrast, especially with increasing emission angles [5].

  6. Astronaut Whitson Displays Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmember and flight engineer Peggy Whitson displays the progress of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  7. Biological elements carry out optical tasks in coherent imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, P.; Bianco, V.; Paturzo, M.; Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Marchesano, V.

    2016-03-01

    We show how biological elements, like live bacteria species and Red Blood Cells (RBCs) can accomplish optical functionalities in DH systems. Turbid media allow coherent microscopy despite the strong light scattering these provoke, acting on light just as moving diffusers. Furthermore, a turbid medium can have positive effects on a coherent imaging system, providing resolution enhancement and mimicking the action of noise decorrelation devices, thus yielding an image quality significantly higher than the quality achievable through a transparent medium in similar recording conditions. Besides, suspended RBCs are demonstrated to behave as controllable liquid micro-lenses, opening new possibilities in biophotonics for endoscopy imaging purposes, as well as telemedicine for point-of-care diagnostics in developing countries and low-resource settings.

  8. Secondary optical element design for intracorporeal LED illumination system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jui-Wen; Su, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Yao-Shan

    2014-01-15

    In this Letter, we propose an intracorporeal illumination system for providing uniform and wide-field illumination during minimally invasive surgery. The illumination system is comprised of an Alexis wound retractor, a set of LEDs, and secondary optical elements (SOEs). The SOE was composed of a Fresnel lens and a total internal reflection lens, which was designed to improve the optical performance of the LED. The results of simulation demonstrate that the optical efficiency of each LED with an SOE could be increased from 33.6% to 82.9%. To avoid damage to human tissue by thermal effect, the number of LEDs with SOEs was optimized. The results indicate that our design to be applicable for practical surgery. PMID:24562112

  9. Simulations of MATROSHKA experiments at ISS using PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, L.; Sato, T.; Berger, T.; Reitz, G.

    Concerns about the biological effects of space radiation are increasing rapidly due to the per-spective of long-duration manned missions, both in relation to the International Space Station (ISS) and to manned interplanetary missions to Moon and Mars in the future. As a prepara-tion for these long duration space missions it is important to ensure an excellent capability to evaluate the impact of space radiation on human health in order to secure the safety of the astronauts/cosmonauts and minimize their risks. It is therefore necessary to measure the radi-ation load on the personnel both inside and outside the space vehicles and certify that organ and tissue equivalent doses can be simulated as accurate as possible. In this paper we will present simulations using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) of long term dose measurements performed with the ESA supported ex-periment MATROSHKA (MTR), which is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detectors, mimicking a human head and torso. The MTR experiment, led by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), was launched in January 2004 and has measured the ab-sorbed dose from space radiation both inside and outside the ISS. In this paper preliminary comparisons of measured and calculated dose and organ doses in the MTR located outside the ISS will be presented. The results confirm previous calculations and measurements which indicate that PHITS is a suitable tool for estimations of dose received from cosmic radiation and when performing shielding design studies of spacecraft. Acknowledgement: The research leading to these results has received funding from the Euro-pean Commission in the frame of the FP7 HAMLET project (Project 218817).

  10. ISS Expeditions 16 Thru 20: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the results of the chemical analysis of the potable water supply from the International Space Station (ISS) expeditions 16 thru 20. Both Russian ground water and shuttle-transferred water are available for the use of the ISS crew's requirements. This is supplemented with condensate water and water form the Water Recovery System (WRS). An overview of the condensate H2O recovery system is given and the WRS is described and diagrammed. The water quality requirements, the handling, and analytical methods for the inorganic and organic tests are reviewed. The chemical analysis results for expeditions 16-20 archival water samples collected from the various water sources indicate that all of the ISS potable water supplies were acceptable for crew consumption.

  11. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher ICES Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.; Carlile, Christie; Graf, John; Young, Gina

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA) offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen system increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide (CO2), so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. FWM extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE. In addition, the NASA ISS specific fire standards will be described which were developed to establish acceptable extinguisher performance. The paper will also discuss the flight hardware design. The fin e water mist fire extinguisher has two major elements: (1) the nozzle and crew interface, and (2) the tank. The nozzle and crew interface have been under development for several years. They have gone through several design iterations, and have been part of more than 400 fire challenge and spray characterizations. The

  12. A Case for Hypogravity Studies Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions being contemplated by NASA and other spacefaring nations include some that would require long stays upon bodies having gravity levels much lower than that of Earth. While we have been able to quantify the physiological effects of sustained exposure to microgravity during various spaceflight programs over the past half-century, there has been no opportunity to study the physiological adaptations to gravity levels between zero-g and one-g. We know now that the microgravity environment of spaceflight drives adaptive responses of the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor systems, causing bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, reduced aerobic capacity, motion sickness, and malcoordination. All of these outcomes can affect crew health and performance, particularly after return to a one-g environment. An important question for physicians, scientists, and mission designers planning human exploration missions to Mars (3/8 g), the Moon (1/6 g), or asteroids (likely negligible g) is: What protection can be expected from gravitational levels between zero-g and one-g? Will crewmembers deconditioned by six months of microgravity exposure on their way to Mars experience continued deconditioning on the Martian surface? Or, will the 3/8 g be sufficient to arrest or even reverse these adaptive changes? The implications for countermeasure deployment, habitat accommodations, and mission design warrant further investigation into the physiological responses to hypogravity. It is not possible to fully simulate hypogravity exposure on Earth for other than transient episodes (e.g., parabolic flight). However, it would be possible to do so in low Earth orbit (LEO) using the centrifugal forces produced in a live-aboard centrifuge. As we're not likely to launch a rotating human spacecraft into LEO anytime in the near future, we could take advantage of rodent subjects aboard the ISS if we had a centrifuge that could accommodate the rodent

  13. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    DOEpatents

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  14. Surveillance of the Radiation Environment in the Russian part of the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, Victor; Nechaev, Oleg; Nikolaev, Igor; Drobyshev, Sergey; Lishnevskii, Andrey; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Tsetlin, Vladimir; Bondarenko, Valentina; Lyagushin, Vladimir; Teltsov, Mikhail; Volkov, Alexey; Mitrikas, Victor

    The report presents the data measured with the radiation monitoring system (RMS) onboard “Zvezda” module of ISS. The dose rate data measured with R-16 and DB-8 dosimeters in undisturbed radiation environment as well as during solar proton events are presented. It was made separation of the Earth radiation belts, galactic and solar cosmic rays contributions to daily dose for the different shielding circumstances by the equipment of the station. It was shown that the galactic cosmic rays contribution to day's dose does not differentiate practically for the DB-8 detectors with the strongly differentiating shielding. The Earth radiation belts contribution to day's dose strongly depends on the DB-8 detectors shielding and have considerable variations in time. These variations caused, mainly, by the changes of the ISS height of flight. The absorbed doses measuring with PILLE devise for the inhabited compartments of the Russian segment of ISS are presented. It was shown that the ISS attitude has a considerable influence on radiation levels in the inhabited compartments. The dose rate measured by the DB-8 detectors in the South-Atlantic Anomaly, changes by factor of 2 under the typical changing of the ISS attitude relative to the orbit.

  15. Phase Change Material Heat Sink for an ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Stieber, Jesse; Sheth, Rubik; Ahlstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A flight experiment is being constructed to utilize the persistent microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prove out operation of a microgravity compatible phase change material (PCM) heat sink. A PCM heat sink can help to reduce the overall mass and volume of future exploration spacecraft thermal control systems (TCS). The program is characterizing a new PCM heat sink that incorporates a novel phase management approach to prevent high pressures and structural deformation that often occur with PCM heat sinks undergoing cyclic operation in microgravity. The PCM unit was made using brazed aluminum construction with paraffin wax as the fusible material. It is designed to be installed into a propylene glycol and water cooling loop, with scaling consistent with the conceptual designs for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. This paper reports on the construction of the PCM heat sink and on initial ground test results conducted at UTC Aerospace Systems prior to delivery to NASA. The prototype will be tested later on the ground and in orbit via a self-contained experiment package developed by NASA Johnson Space Center to operate in an ISS EXPRESS rack.

  16. The ROSE experiments on the EXPOSE facility of the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Rabbow, E.; Horneck, G.

    2001-08-01

    EXPOSE is a multi-user facility to be mounted outside of the International Space Station (ISS). The tray-like structure will accomodate among others 6 biological PI-experiments or experiment systems of the ROSE (Responses of Organisms to the Space Environment) consortium. EXPOSE will support long-term in situ studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and evaporitic ecosystems. Each compartment is either vented, i.e. open to space vacuum, or sealed and then provided with a defined gas environment. The experiment pockets will be covered by an optical filter system to control intensity and spectral range of solar UV irradiation. To achieve maximum insolation, EXPOSE is mounted on a coarse pointing device. Control of sun exposure will be achieved by use of shutters. EXPOSE has been selected for the Early Utilisation Period of the ISS and will stay in space for 1.5 years. The results will contribute to our understanding of photobiological processes in simulated radiation climates of planets (e.g. early Earth, early and present Mars, and the role of the ozone layer in protecting the biosphere from harmful UV-B radiation), as well as studies of the probabilities and limitations for life to be distributed beyond its planet of origin.

  17. Flight Hydrogen Sensor for use in the ISS Oxygen Generation Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MSadoques, George, Jr.; Makel, Darby B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the hydrogen sensor Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) used on the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA), to be operated on the International Space Station (ISS). The hydrogen sensor ORU is being provided by Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) to monitor the oxygen outlet for the presence of hydrogen. The hydrogen sensor ORU is a triple redundant design where each sensor converts raw measurements to actual hydrogen partial pressure that is reported to the OGA system controller. The signal outputs are utilized for system shutdown in the event that the hydrogen concentration in the oxygen outlet line exceeds the specified shutdown limit. Improvements have been made to the Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensing element, screening, and calibration process to meet OGA operating requirements. Two flight hydrogen sensor ORUs have successfully completed the acceptance test phase. This paper also describes the sensor s performance during acceptance testing, additional tests planned to extend the operational performance calibration cycle, and integration with the OGA system.

  18. Hybrid energy harvesting systems, using piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornogolub, Alexandru; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Petit, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Interest in energy harvesting applications has increased a lot during recent years. This is especially true for systems using electroactive materials like dielectric polymers or piezoelectric materials. Unfortunately, these materials despite multiple advantages, present some important drawbacks. For example, many dielectric polymers demonstrated high energy densities; they are cheap, easy to process and can be easily integrated in many different structures. But at the same time, dielectric polymer generators require an external energy supply which could greatly compromise their autonomy. Piezoelectric systems, on the other hand, are completely autonomous and can be easily miniaturized. However, most common piezoelectric materials present a high rigidity and are brittle by nature and therefore their integration could be difficult. This paper investigates the possibility of using hybrid systems combining piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers for mechanical energy harvesting applications and it is focused mainly on the problem of electrical energy transfer. Our objective is to show that such systems can be interesting and that it is possible to benefit from the advantages of both materials. For this, different configurations were considered and the problem of their optimization was addressed. The experimental work enabled us to prove the concept and identify the main practical limitations.

  19. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging on the International Space Station (ISS) is caused by a complex combination of the low Earth orbit plasma environment, space weather events, operations of the high voltage solar arrays, and changes in the ISS configuration and orbit parameters. Measurements of the ionospheric electron density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in the ISS electric potential are obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of four plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a Floating Potential Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe) on the ISS. These instruments provide a unique capability for monitoring the response of the ISS electric potential to variations in the space environment, changes in vehicle configuration, and operational solar array power manipulation. In particular, rapid variations in ISS potential during solar array operations on time scales of tens of milliseconds can be monitored due to the 128 Hz sample rate of the Floating Potential Probe providing an interesting insight into high voltage solar array interaction with the space plasma environment. Comparing the FPMU data with the ISS operations timeline and solar array data provides a means for correlating some of the more complex and interesting ISS electric potential variations with mission operations. In addition, recent extensions and improvements to the ISS data downlink capabilities have allowed more operating time for the FPMU than ever before. The FPMU was operated for over 200 days in 2013 resulting in the largest data set ever recorded in a single year for the ISS. In this paper we provide examples of a number of the more interesting ISS charging events observed during the 2013 operations including examples of rapid charging events due to solar array power operations, auroral charging events, and other charging behavior related to ISS mission operations.

  20. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging on the International Space Station (ISS) is caused by a complex mix of the low Earth orbit plasma environment, space weather events, operations of the high voltage solar arrays, and changes in the ISS configuration and orbit parameters. Measurements of the ionospheric electron density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in the ISS electric potential are obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of four plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a Floating Potential Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe) on the ISS. These instruments provide a unique capability for monitoring the response of the ISS electric potential to variations in the space environment, changes in vehicle configuration, and operational solar array power manipulation. In particular, rapid variations in ISS potential during solar array operations on time scales of tens of milliseconds can be monitored due to the 128 Hz sample rate of the Floating Potential Probe providing an interesting insight into high voltage solar array interaction with the space plasma environment. Comparing the FPMU data with the ISS operations timeline and solar array data provides a means for correlating some of the more complex and interesting ISS electric potential variations with mission operations. In addition, recent extensions and improvements to the ISS data downlink capabilities have allowed more operating time for the FPMU than ever before. The FPMU was operated for over 200 days in 2013 resulting in the largest data set ever recorded in a single year for the ISS. This presentation will provide examples of a number of the more interesting ISS charging events observed during the 2013 operations including examples of rapid charging events due to solar array power operations, auroral charging events, and other charging behavior related to ISS mission operations.

  1. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    the project included executing over 450 crew-hours of ISS real-time payload operations including a major onboard communications upgrade, SpaceX un-berth, a Soyuz launch, roll-out of ISS live video and interviews from the POIC, annual BCC certification and hurricane season, and ISS simulations and testing. Continuous ISS payload operations were possible during the PCA facility modifications with the reconfiguration of four control rooms and standup of two temporary control areas. Another major restriction to the project was an ongoing facility upgrade that included a NASA Headquarters mandated replacement of all electrical and mechanical systems and replacement of an external generator. These upgrades required a facility power outage during the PCA upgrades. The project also encompassed console layout designs and ordering, amenities selections and ordering, excessing of old equipment, moves, disposal of old IT equipment, camera installations, facility tour re-schedules, and contract justifications. These were just some of the tasks needed for a successful project. This paper describes the logistics and lessons learned in upgrading a control center capability in the middle of complex real-time operations. Combining the efficiencies of controller interaction and new technology infusion were prime drivers for this upgrade to handle the increased utilization of science research on ISS. The success of this project could not jeopardize the current operations while these facility upgrades occurred.

  2. A finite element study of the EIDI system. [Electro-Impulse De-Icing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatkhate, A. A.; Scavuzzo, R. J.; Chu, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a method for modeling the structural dynamics of an Electro-Impulse De-Icing System, using finite element analyses procedures. A guideline for building a representative finite element model is discussed. Modeling was done initially using four noded cubic elements, four noded isoparametric plate elements and eight noded isoparametric shell elements. Due to the size of the problem and due to the underestimation of shear stress results when compared to previous analytical work an approximate model was created to predict possible areas of shedding of ice. There appears to be good agreement with the test data provided by The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company. Thus these initial results of this method were found to be encouraging. Additional analytical work and comparison with experiment is needed in order to completely evaluate this approach.

  3. International Space Station (ISS) Accommodation of a Single US Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Garn, Michelle A.; Troutman, Patrick A.; Wang, Yuan; Kumar, Renjith; Heck, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The following report was generated to give the International Space Station (ISS) Program some additional insight into the operations and issues associated with accommodating a single U.S. developed Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV). During the generation of this report, changes in both the ISS and ACRV programs were factored into the analysis with the realization that most of the work performed will eventually need to be repeated once the two programs become more integrated. No significant issues associated with the ISS accommodating the ACRV were uncovered. Kinematic analysis of ACRV installation showed that there are viable methods of using Shuttle and Station robotic manipulators. Separation analysis demonstrated that the ACRV departure path clears the Station structure for all likely contingency scenarios. The payload bay packaging analysis identified trades that can be made between payload bay location, Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) reach and eventual designs of de-orbit stages and docking adapters.

  4. Simulation of Malfunctions for the ISS Double-Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inampudi, Ravi; Gordeuk, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified approach to simulation of malfunctions of the Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) on board the International Space Station (ISS). These malfunctions will be used as part of flight training of CMG failure scenarios in the guidance navigation control (GNC) subsystem of the Training Systems for 21st Century (TS21) simulator. The CMG malfunctions are grouped under mechanical, thermal and electrical categories. A malfunction can be as simple as one which only affects the telemetry or a complex one that changes the state and behavior of the CMG model. In both cases, the ISS GNC flight software will read the telemetry and respond accordingly. The user executes these malfunctions by supplying conditional data which modify internal model states and then elicit a response as seen on the user displays. Ground operators and crew on board the ISS use CMG malfunction procedures to better understand and respond to anomalies observed within the CMG subsystem.

  5. The VASIMR[registered trademark] VF-200-1 ISS Experiment as a Laboratory for Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover Tim W.; Squire, Jared P.; Longmier, Benjamin; Cassady, Leonard; Ilin, Andrew; Carter, Mark; Olsen, Chris S.; McCaskill, Greg; Diaz, Franklin Chang; Girimaji, Sharath; Araya, Daniel; Shebalin, John

    2010-01-01

    The VASIMR[R] Flight Experiment (VF-200-1) will be tested in space aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in about four years. It will consist of two 100 kW parallel plasma engines with opposite magnetic dipoles, resulting in a near zero-torque magnetic system. Electrical energy will come from ISS at low power level, be stored in batteries and used to fire the engine at 200 kW. The VF-200-1 project will provide a unique opportunity on the ISS National Laboratory for astrophysicists and space physicists to study the dynamic evolution of an expanding and reconnecting plasma loop. Here, we review the status of the project and discuss our current plans for computational modeling and in situ observation of a dynamic plasma loop on an experimental platform in low-Earth orbit. The VF-200-1 project is still in the early stages of development and we welcome new collaborators.

  6. Design of fast tuning elements for the ITER ICH system

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, D.W.; Goulding, R.H.

    1996-05-01

    The coupling between the ion cyclotron (IC) antenna and the ITER plasma (as expressed by the load resistance the antenna sees) will experience relatively fast variations due to plasma edge profile modifications. If uncompensated, these will cause an increase in the amount of power reflected back to the transmitter and ultimately a decrease in the amount of radio frequency (rf) power to the plasma caused by protective suppression of the amount of rf power generated by the transmitter. The goals of this task were to study several alternate designs for a tuning and matching (T&M) system and to recommend some research and development (R&D) tasks that could be carried out to test some of the most promising concepts. Analyses of five different T&M configurations are presented in this report. They each have different advantages and disadvantages, and the choice among them must be made depending on the requirements for the IC system. Several general conclusions emerge from our study: The use of a hybrid splitter as a passive reflected-power dump [``edge localized mode (ELM)-dump``] appears very promising; this configuration will protect the rf power sources from reflected power during changes in plasma loading due to plasma motion or profile changes (e.g., ELM- induced changes in the plasma scrape-off region) and requires no active control of the rf system. Trade-offs between simplicity of design and capability of the system must be made. Simple system designs with few components near the antenna either have high voltages over considerable distances of transmission lines, or they are not easily tuned to operate at different frequencies. Designs using frequency shifts and/or fast tuning elements can provide fast matching over a wide range of plasma loading; however, the designs studied here require components near the antenna, complicating assembly and maintenance. Capacitor-tuned resonant systems may offer a good compromise.

  7. LONESTAR: Texas Community Colleges Student Tracking System. Pilot Test Version 1.2. Data Element Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, Boulder, CO.

    This manual contains descriptions of all required and optional data elements used by LONESTAR, the computer-based student follow-up and tracking system developed for Texas community colleges. For each element, the following information is provided: (1) element title (i.e., the official name used in all references to the element in tracking system…

  8. ISS and Shuttle Payload Research Development and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Kyle A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's ISS and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (UB) is charged with the performance of payload development for research originating through NASA, ISS international partners, and the National Laboratory. The Payload Development sector of the Directorate takes biological research approved for on orbit experimentation from its infancy stage and finds a way to integrate and implement that research into a payload on either a Shuttle sortie or Space Station increment. From solicitation and selection, to definition, to verification, to integration and finally to operations and analysis, Payload Development is there every step of the way. My specific work as an intern this summer has consisted of investigating data received by separate flight and ground control Advanced Biological Research Systems (ABRS) units for Advanced Plant Experiments (APEX) and Cambium research. By correlation and analysis of this data and specific logbook information I have been working to explain changes in environmental conditions on both the flight and ground control unit. I have then, compiled all of that information into a form that can be presentable to the Principal Investigator (PI). This compilation allows that PI scientist to support their findings and add merit to their research. It also allows us, as the Payload Developers, to further inspect the ABRS unit and its performance

  9. Development and Capabilities of ISS Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry; Hasan, Mohammad; Balasubramaniam, R.; Patania, Michelle; Hall, Nancy; Wagner, James; Mackey, Jeffrey; Frankenfield, Bruce; Hauser, Daniel; Harpster, George; Nawrocki, David; Clapper, Randy; Kolacz, John; Butcher, Robert; May, Rochelle; Chao, David; Mudawar, Issam; Kharangate, Chirag R.; O'Neill, Lucas E.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental facility to perform flow boiling and condensation experiments in long duration microgravity environment is being designed for operation on the International Space Station (ISS). This work describes the design of the subsystems of the FBCE including the Fluid subsystem modules, data acquisition, controls, and diagnostics. Subsystems and components are designed within the constraints of the ISS Fluid Integrated Rack in terms of power availability, cooling capability, mass and volume, and most importantly the safety requirements. In this work we present the results of ground-based performance testing of the FBCE subsystem modules and test module which consist of the two condensation modules and the flow boiling module. During this testing, we evaluated the pressure drop profile across different components of the fluid subsystem, heater performance, on-orbit degassing subsystem, heat loss from different modules and components, and performance of the test modules. These results will be used in the refinement of the flight system design and build-up of the FBCE which is manifested for flight in late 2017-early 2018.

  10. Robonaut 2 - IVA Experiments On-Board ISS and Development Towards EVA Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Badger, Julia; Thackston, Allison; Rogers, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Robonaut 2 (R2) has completed its fixed base activities on-board the ISS and is scheduled to receive its climbing legs in early 2014. In its continuing line of firsts, the R2 torso finished up its on-orbit activities on its stanchion with the manipulation of space blanket materials and performed multiple tasks under teleoperation control by IVA astronauts. The successful completion of these two IVA experiments is a key step in Robonaut's progression towards an EVA capability. Integration with the legs and climbing inside the ISS will provide another important part of the experience that R2 will need prior to performing tasks on the outside of ISS. In support of these on-orbit activities, R2 has been traversing across handrails in simulated zero-g environments and working with EVA tools and equipment on the ground to determine manipulation strategies for an EVA Robonaut. R2 made significant advances in robotic manipulation of deformable materials in space while working with its softgoods task panel. This panel features quarter turn latches that secure a space blanket to the task panel structure. The space blanket covers two cloth cubes that are attached with Velcro to the structure. R2 was able to open and close the latches, pull back the blanket, and remove the cube underneath. R2 simulated cleaning up an EVA worksite as well, by replacing the cube and reattaching the blanket. In order to interact with the softgoods panel, R2 has both autonomously and with a human in the loop identified and localized these deformable objects. Using stereo color cameras, R2 identified characteristic elements on the softgoods panel then extracted the location and orientation of the object in its field of view using stereo disparity and kinematic transforms. R2 used both vision processing and supervisory control to successfully accomplish this important task. Teleoperation is a key capability for Robonaut's effectiveness as an EVA system. To build proficiency, crewmembers have

  11. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  12. Research Progress and Accomplishments on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Lesa B.; Uri, John J.

    2002-01-01

    The first research payloads reached the International Space Station (ISS) more than two years ago, with research operating continuously since March 2001. Seven research racks are currently on-orbit, with three more arriving soon to expand science capabilities. Through the first five expeditions, 60 unique NASA-managed investigations from 11 nations have been supported, many continuing into later missions. More than 90,000 experiment hours have been completed, and more than 1,000 hours of crew time have been dedicated to research, numbers that grow daily. The multidisciplinary program includes research in life sciences, physical sciences, biotechnology, Earth sciences, technology demonstrations as well as commercial endeavors and educational activities. The Payload Operations and Integration Center monitors the onboard activities around the clock, working with numerous Principal Investigators and Payload Developers at their remote sites. Future years will see expansion of the station with research modules provided by the European Space Agency and Japan, which will be outfitted with additional research racks. The first research payloads arrived at ISS more than two years ago, and continuous science has been ongoing for more than one and a half years. During this time, the research capabilities have been tremendously increased, even as assembly of the overall platform continues. Despite significant challenges along the way, ISS continues to successfully support a large number of investigations in a variety of research disciplines. The results of some of the early investigations are reaching the publication stage. The near future looms with new challenges, but experience to date and dedicated efforts give reason to be optimistic that the challenges will be overcome and that new and greater successes will be added to past ones.

  13. VR Lab ISS Graphics Models Data Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paddock, Eddie; Homan, Dave; Bell, Brad; Miralles, Evely; Hoblit, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    All the ISS models are saved in AC3D model format which is a text based format that can be loaded into blender and exported to other formats from there including FBX. The models are saved in two different levels of detail, one being labeled "LOWRES" and the other labeled "HIRES". There are two ".str" files (HIRES _ scene _ load.str and LOWRES _ scene _ load.str) that give the hierarchical relationship of the different nodes and the models associated with each node for both the "HIRES" and "LOWRES" model sets. All the images used for texturing are stored in Windows ".bmp" format for easy importing.

  14. European dosimetry activities for the ISS.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G

    2001-01-01

    In cooperation with the University of Kiel, the University GH of Siegen, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig, the Atomic Energy Research Institute in Budapest and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow, DLR performed measurements of the radiation environment inside and outside spacecrafts on numerous missions with the main objective to determine as precise as possible the radiation exposure of the astronauts. This report comprises some selected results of recent manned missions and indicates where improvements should be achieved and closes with the description of future measurements planned onboard the International Space Station (ISS).

  15. Finite element analysis of fluid-filled elastic piping systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everstine, G. C.; Marcus, M. S.; Quezon, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two finite element procedures are described for predicting the dynamic response of general 3-D fluid-filled elastic piping systems. The first approach, a low frequency procedure, models each straight pipe or elbow as a sequence of beams. The contained fluid is modeled as a separate coincident sequence axial members (rods) which are tied to the pipe in the lateral direction. The model includes the pipe hoop strain correction to the fluid sound speed and the flexibility factor correction to the elbow flexibility. The second modeling approach, an intermediate frequency procedure, follows generally the original Zienkiewicz-Newton scheme for coupled fluid-structure problems except that the velocity potential is used as the fundamental fluid unknown to symmetrize the coefficient matrices. From comparisons of the beam model predictions to both experimental data and the 3-D model, the beam model is validated for frequencies up to about two-thirds of the lowest fluid-filled labor pipe mode. Accurate elbow flexibility factors are seen to be crucial for effective beam modeling of piping systems.

  16. Biomedical Results of ISS Expeditions 1-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, Jennifer; Sams, Clarence F.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on biomedical data from International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 1-12 is shown. The topics include: 1) ISS Expeditions 1-12; 2) Biomedical Data; 3) Physiological Assessments; 4) Bone Mineral Density; 5) Bone Mineral Density Recovery; 6) Orthostatic Tolerance; 7) Postural Stability Set of Sensory Organ Test 6; 8) Performance Assessment; 9) Aerobic Capacity of the Astronaut Corps; 10) Pre-flight Aerobic Fitness of ISS Astronauts; 11) In-flight and Post-flight Aerobic Capacity of the Astronaut Corps; and 12) ISS Functional Fitness Expeditions 1-12.

  17. ISS Update: Keeping the Flight Control Rooms Running

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Angela Bauer, Facilities Operations and Maintenance Group lead in the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center. They discuss her group's rol...

  18. High temperature electrically conducting ceramic heating element and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbach, C. R.; Page, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements were made in both electrode technology and ceramic conductor quality to increase significantly the lifetime and thermal cycling capability of electrically conducting ceramic heater elements. These elements were operated in vacuum, inert and reducing environments as well as oxidizing atmospheres adding to the versatility of the conducting ceramic as an ohmic heater. Using stabilized zirconia conducting ceramic heater elements, a furnace was fabricated and demonstrated to have excellent thermal response and cycling capability. The furnace was used to melt platinum-20% rhodium alloy (melting point 1904 C) with an isothermal ceramic heating element having a nominal working cavity size of 2.5 cm diameter by 10.0 cm long. The furnace was operated to 1940 C with the isothermal ceramic heating element. The same furnace structure was fitted with a pair of main heater elements to provide axial gradient temperature control over a working cavity length of 17.8 cm.

  19. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  20. Practicing for Mars: The International Space Station (ISS) as a Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Allows demonstration and development of exploration capabilities to help accomplish future missions sooner with less risk to crew and mission Characteristics of ISS as a testbed High fidelity human operations platform in LEO: Continuously operating habitat and active laboratory. High fidelity systems. Astronauts as test subjects. Highly experienced ground operations teams. Offers a controlled test environment.: Consequences to systems performance and decision making not offered in ground analogs International participation. Continuously improving system looking for new technology and ideas to improve operations. Technology Demos & Critical Systems Maturation. Human Health and Performance. Operations Simulations and Techniques. Exploration prep testing on ISS has been ongoing since 2012. Number of tests increasing with each ISS expedition. One Year Crew Expedition starting in Spring 2015. ROSCOSMOS and NASA are partnering on the Participating Crew are Mikhail Kornienko and Scott Kelly Majority of testing is an extension of current Human Biomedical Research investigations Plan for extending & expanding upon current operations techniques and tech demo studies ESA 10 Day Mission in Fall 2015 ESA astronaut focus on testing exploration technologies Many more opportunities throughout the life of ISS! 4/24/2014 david.h.korth@nasa.gov 4 Exploration testing

  1. CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.1-V2-07

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-24

    CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.1-V2-07 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive ... Injection Heights Cloud Vertical Extent Aerosol Vertical Extent Volume Depolarization Ratio Profiles Attenuated ...

  2. CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.1-V2-07

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-25

    CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.1-V2-07 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive ... Injection Heights Cloud Vertical Extent Aerosol Vertical Extent Volume Depolarization Ratio Profiles Attenuated ...

  3. CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.2-V2-07

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-24

    CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.2-V2-07 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  4. CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-07

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-24

    CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-07 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  5. CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-05

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-03

    CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-05 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  6. Developing Data Elements for Research Information System in Health; a Starting Point for Systems Integration

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, NR; Ahmadi, M; Sadoughi, F; Ghanei, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study defines necessary data elements required for the research information system in the domain of health, and its level of accountability to national health research indicators from the experts’ perspective is being explored. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted based on comparative approach using the focus group method. Data were collected through 6 semi-structured group discussions held at the Undersecretary for Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran. For this study, 48 researchers were selected for the group discussions. All interviews and group discussions were recorded and transcribed. The Data analysis was performed simultaneously using Strauss and Corbin method. Results: Based on content analysis, the necessary data elements identified for the National Health Research Information System designed for all databases were the following: organizations, researchers, journals, articles, research projects and dissertations. Also, extracted from the focus group discussion were three main themes regarding data elements of these databases for the National Health Research Information System: 1) essential elements for each database 2) the system’s data elements accountability to the national indicators in the domain of health research and 3) recommendations in the direction of optimizing the data. Conclusions: The results obtained from this study can serve as a valuable source in designing research information system in the domain of health within the country and in the region as well. PMID:23641388

  7. 3D Printing In Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Cooper, Kenneth; Edmunson, Jennifer; Dunn, Jason; Snyder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station (ISS). The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment ('3D Print') will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station (ISS) up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up multiple drill bits that would be required to machine parts from aerospace-grade materials such as titanium 6-4 alloy and Inconel. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers

  8. Biotechnology Facility: An ISS Microgravity Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will support several facilities dedicated to scientific research. One such facility, the Biotechnology Facility (BTF), is sponsored by the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Division (MSAD) and developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The BTF is scheduled for delivery to the ISS via Space Shuttle in April 2005. The purpose of the BTF is to provide: (1) the support structure and integration capabilities for the individual modules in which biotechnology experiments will be performed, (2) the capability for human-tended, repetitive, long-duration biotechnology experiments, and (3) opportunities to perform repetitive experiments in a short period by allowing continuous access to microgravity. The MSAD has identified cell culture and tissue engineering, protein crystal growth, and fundamentals of biotechnology as areas that contain promising opportunities for significant advancements through low-gravity experiments. The focus of this coordinated ground- and space-based research program is the use of the low-gravity environment of space to conduct fundamental investigations leading to major advances in the understanding of basic and applied biotechnology. Results from planned investigations can be used in applications ranging from rational drug design and testing, cancer diagnosis and treatments and tissue engineering leading to replacement tissues.

  9. Data systems elements technology assessment and system specifications, issue no. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The ability to satisfy the objectives of future NASA Office of Applications Programs is dependent on technology advances in a number of areas of data systems. The technology of end-to-end data systems (space generator elements through ground processing, dissemination, and presentation, is examined in terms of state of the art, trends, and projected developments in the 1980 to 1985 timeframe. Capability is considered in terms of elements that are either commercially available or that can be implemented from commercially available components with minimal development.

  10. Data systems elements technology assessment and system specifications, issue no. 2. [nasa programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ability to satisfy the objectives of future NASA Office of Applications programs is dependent on technology advances in a number of areas of data systems. The hardware and software technology of end-to-end systems (data processing elements through ground processing, dissemination, and presentation) are examined in terms of state of the art, trends, and projected developments in the 1980 to 1985 timeframe. Capability is considered in terms of elements that are either commercially available or that can be implemented from commercially available components with minimal development.

  11. Measurements of the neutron dose and energy spectrum on the International Space Station during expeditions ISS-16 to ISS-21.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Akatov, Yu; Andrews, H R; Arkhangelsky, V; Chernykh, I V; Ing, H; Khoshooniy, N; Lewis, B J; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I; Romanenko, R Y; Shurshakov, V; Thirsk, R B; Tomi, L

    2013-01-01

    As part of the international Matroshka-R and Radi-N experiments, bubble detectors have been used on board the ISS in order to characterise the neutron dose and the energy spectrum of neutrons. Experiments using bubble dosemeters inside a tissue-equivalent phantom were performed during the ISS-16, ISS-18 and ISS-19 expeditions. During the ISS-20 and ISS-21 missions, the bubble dosemeters were supplemented by a bubble-detector spectrometer, a set of six detectors that was used to determine the neutron energy spectrum at various locations inside the ISS. The temperature-compensated spectrometer set used is the first to be developed specifically for space applications and its development is described in this paper. Results of the dose measurements indicate that the dose received at two different depths inside the phantom is not significantly different, suggesting that bubble detectors worn by a person provide an accurate reading of the dose received inside the body. The energy spectra measured using the spectrometer are in good agreement with previous measurements and do not show a strong dependence on the precise location inside the station. To aid the understanding of the bubble-detector response to charged particles in the space environment, calculations have been performed using a Monte-Carlo code, together with data collected on the ISS. These calculations indicate that charged particles contribute <2% to the bubble count on the ISS, and can therefore be considered as negligible for bubble-detector measurements in space.

  12. Nonlinear finite element formulation for the large displacement analysis in multibody system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rismantab-Sany, J.; Chang, B.; Shabana, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    A total Lagrangian finite element formulation for the deformable bodies in multibody mechanical systems that undergo finite relative rotations is developed. The deformable bodies are discretized using finite element methods. The shape functions that are used to describe the displacement field are required to include the rigid body modes that describe only large translational displacements. This does not impose any limitations on the technique because most commonly used shape functions satisfy this requirement. The configuration of an element is defined using four sets of coordinate systems: Body, Element, Intermediate element, Global. The body coordinate system serves as a unique standard for the assembly of the elements forming the deformable body. The element coordinate system is rigidly attached to the element and therefore it translates and rotates with the element. The intermediate element coordinate system, whose axes are initially parallel to the element axes, has an origin which is rigidly attached to the origin of the body coordinate system and is used to conveniently describe the configuration of the element in undeformed state with respect to the body coordinate system.

  13. Application of advanced material systems to composite frame elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llorente, Steven; Minguet, Pierre; Fay, Russell; Medwin, Steven

    1992-01-01

    A three phase program has been conducted to investigate DuPont's Long Discontinuous Fiber (LDF) composites. Additional tests were conducted to compare LDF composites against toughened thermosets and a baseline thermoset system. Results have shown that the LDF AS4/PEKK offers improved interlaminar (flange bending) strength with little reduction in mechanical properties due to the discontinuous nature of the fibers. In the third phase, a series of AS4/PEKK LDF C-section curved frames (representing a typical rotorcraft light frame) were designed, manufactured and tested. Specimen reconsolidation after 'stretch forming' and frame thickness were found to be key factors in this light frame's performance. A finite element model was constructed to correlate frame test results with expected strain levels determined from material property tests. Adequately reconsolidated frames performed well and failed at strain levels at or above baseline thermoset material test strains. Finally a cost study was conducted which has shown that the use of LDF for this frame would result in a significant cost savings, for moderate to large lot sizes compared with the hand lay-up of a thermoset frame.

  14. Finite-element model for endometrial ablation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Platt, Robert C.; Humphries, Stanley, Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Ablation of the endometrium has become a viable treatment for dysfunctional bleeding of the uterus in women. Surgical applications of thermal ablation utilized a rolling electrode to ablate the inner uterine lining, but required practiced surgical skills and made it difficult to assess subsurface damage. Recently, various energy systems have been applied to the endometrium such as lasers, microwaves, RF electrodes, hot water balloons, and cryotherapy. A finite element model is presented to compare a multi-electrode, multiplexed RF device with a balloon containing hot fluid. The temperature fields in the uterine wall are plotted over time for various blood flow values. Assumptions of constant electrical conductivity are compared to temperature- dependent electrical conductivity. Temperatures are shown to be a maximum of about 10 - 20 degree(s)C higher when varying electrical conductivity is used. Results are also shown for cases with a 2 mm blood vessel in the field and how each device adjusts its operation to compensate for this heat sink. Damage integral results will be shown according to the time and temperature of the treatments.

  15. Solar Electric Generating System II finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    On June 2, 1992, Landers` earthquake struck the Solar Electric Generating System II, located in Daggett, California. The 30 megawatt power station, operated by the Daggett Leasing Corporation (DLC), suffered substantial damage due to structural failures in the solar farm. These failures consisted of the separation of sliding joints supporting a distribution of parabolic glass mirrors. At separation, the mirrors fell to the ground and broke. It was the desire of the DLC and the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and to redesign these joints so that, in the event of future quakes, costly breakage will be avoided. To accomplish this task, drawings of collector components were developed by the STDAC, from which a detailed finite element computer model of a solar collector was produced. This nonlinear dynamic model, which consisted of over 8,560 degrees of freedom, underwent model reduction to form a low order nonlinear dynamic model containing only 40 degrees of freedom. This model was then used as a design tool to estimate joint dynamics. Using this design tool, joint configurations were modified, and an acceptable joint redesign determined. The results of this analysis showed that the implementation of metal stops welded to support shafts for the purpose of preventing joint separation is a suitable joint redesign. Moreover, it was found that, for quakes of Landers` magnitude, mirror breakage due to enhanced vibration in the trough assembly is unlikely.

  16. Mobile Monolith Polymer Elements For Flow Control In Microfluidic Systems

    DOEpatents

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2006-01-24

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by fluid pressure (either liquid or gas) against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  17. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 5: System design and specifications. Part 1: Observatory system element specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The performance, design, and quality assurance requirements for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Observatory and Ground System program elements required to perform the Land Resources Management (LRM) A-type mission are presented. The requirements for the Observatory element with the exception of the instruments specifications are contained in the first part.

  18. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2010 - 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028.

  19. From discrete elements to continuum fields: Extension to bidisperse systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak R.; Thornton, Anthony R.; Weinhart, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Micro-macro transition methods can be used to, both, calibrate and validate continuum models from discrete data obtained via experiments or simulations. These methods generate continuum fields such as density, momentum, stress, etc., from discrete data, i.e. positions, velocity, orientations and forces of individual elements. Performing this micro-macro transition step is especially challenging for non-uniform or dynamic situations. Here, we present a general method of performing this transition, but for simplicity we will restrict our attention to two-component scenarios. The mapping technique, presented here, is an extension to the micro-macro transition method, called coarse-graining, for unsteady two-component flows and can be easily extended to multi-component systems without any loss of generality. This novel method is advantageous; because, by construction the obtained macroscopic fields are consistent with the continuum equations of mass, momentum and energy balance. Additionally, boundary interaction forces can be taken into account in a self-consistent way and thus allow for the construction of continuous stress fields even within one element radius of the boundaries. Similarly, stress and drag forces can also be determined for individual constituents of a multi-component mixture, which is critical for several continuum applications, e.g. mixture theory-based segregation models. Moreover, the method does not require ensemble-averaging and thus can be efficiently exploited to investigate static, steady and time-dependent flows. The method presented in this paper is valid for any discrete data, e.g. particle simulations, molecular dynamics, experimental data, etc.; however, for the purpose of illustration we consider data generated from discrete particle simulations of bidisperse granular mixtures flowing over rough inclined channels. We show how to practically use our coarse-graining extension for both steady and unsteady flows using our open-source coarse

  20. Mitigation of Damage to the International Space Station (ISS) from Water Dumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidl, William; Visentine, James T.; Mikatarian, Ron

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) and Orbiter dump water overboard. This water is from the ISS condensate system, and from the Orbiter s fuel cell (supply side) and wastewater (urine and condensate) systems. Water dumped from either the ISS or Orbiter is a possible source of damage. When water is dumped into a vacuum, some of it flashes into a vapor. The expanding vapor bursts the liquid stream into vapor, and small and large liquid/ice particles. The large liquid/ice particles are approximately 2 mm in diameter and have nominal velocities of approximately 31 Wsec (U.S. Lab) and 50 Wsec (Orbiter). As these liquid/ice particles impact, they can cause mechanical damage due to erosion/pitting of sensitive surfaces, including solar array or radiator surfaces. Solar arrays are of particular concern because of the thin optical coatings on the surface of the cells. The thickness of these coatings is in the range of 1300 to 44000 angstroms. Damage to these coatings can cause degradation of the cells optical characteristics. To mitigate damage from water dumps, the characteristics of the water dumps were studied and an impact code was used to study damage to sensitive surfaces. The results were used to develop the constraints needed to mitigate damage to ISS hardware from Orbiter and U.S. Lab dumps.

  1. International SpaceStation (ISS) Alpha with Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha deployed and operational. This figure also includes the docking procedures for the Space Shuttle (shown with cargo bay open). The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  2. Design And Testing of The Floating Potential Probe For ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2001-01-01

    Flight 4A was an especially critical mission for the International Space Station (ISS). For the first time, the high voltage solar arrays generated significant amounts of power and long predicted environmental interactions (high negative floating potential and concomitant dielectric charging) became serious concerns. Furthermore, the same flight saw the Plasma Contacting Unit (PCU) deployed and put into operation to mitigate and control these effects. The ISS program office has recognized the critical need to verify, by direct measurement, that ISS does not charge to unacceptable levels. A Floating Potential Probe (FPP) was therefore deployed on ISS to measure ISS floating potential relative to the surrounding plasma and to measure relevant plasma parameters. The primary objective of FPP is to verify that ISS floating potential does not exceed the specified level of 40 volts with respect to the ambient. Since it is expected that in normal operations the PCU will maintain ISS within this specification, it is equivalent to say that the objective of FPP is to monitor the functionality of the PCU. In this paper, we report on the design and testing of the ISS FPP. In a separate paper, the operations and results obtained so far by the FPP will be presented.

  3. Lessons learned from the STS-120/ISS 10A robotics operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Sarmad

    2010-01-01

    The STS-120/ISS 10A assembly mission was an unprecedented period during the life of the International Space Stations (ISS). The successful completion of the mission laid the foundation for the launch of the European and Japanese laboratories and continued assembly of the station. Unlike previous missions that concluded when the Space Shuttle undocked from the ISS, the 10A mission required critical assembly operations to continue after the Shuttle's departure to relocate the Harmony module to its permanent location and activate its systems. The end-to-end mission lasted for almost a month and required the execution of seven space walks, over 20 major robotics operations, and countless hours of ground commanding. The Canadian built mobile servicing system (MSS) and its robotics space station remote manipulator system (SSRMS) played a key a role in the success of the assembly operations. The mission presented the ISS robotics flight control team (ROBO) with unique challenges during the pre-mission planning and real-time execution of complex assembly tasks. The mission included the relocation of the P6 truss segment from the Z1 Node to its permanent location on the P5 truss; a three day marathon of highly choreographed sequence of robotics operations and space walks, and the reconfiguration of ISS structure to attach Harmony (Node 2) to the US destiny laboratory module; a six day sequence of complex robotics operations the majority of which was executed after the departure of the shuttle and included an unprecedented amount of ground commanded robotics operations. Of all the robotics operations executed during the mission, none were more challenging than supporting the repair of a torn P6 solar array that was damaged during its deployment; a dramatic space walk that pushed the MSS and the robotics flight control team to new limits and required the real-time planning and execution of an intricate series of operations that spanned two days. This paper will present an

  4. NASDA aquatic animal experiment facilities for Space Shuttle and ISS.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Satoko; Masukawa, Mitsuyo; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has developed aquatic animal experiment facilities for NASA Space Shuttle use. Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU) was firstly designed and developed for physiological research using carp in Spacelab-J (SL-J, STS-47) mission. It was modified as Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) to accommodate small aquatic animals, such as medaka and newt, for second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, STS-65) mission. Then, VFEU was improved to accommodate marine fish and to perform neurobiological experiment for Neurolab (STS-90) and STS-95 missions. We have also developed and used water purification system which was adapted to each facility. Based on these experiences of Space Shuttle missions, we are studying to develop advanced aquatic animal experiment facility for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS).

  5. NASDA aquatic animal experiment facilities for space shuttle and ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Satoko; Masukawa, Mitsuyo; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has developed aquatic animal experiment facilities for NASA Space Shuttle use. Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU) was firstly designed and developed for physiological research using carp in Spacelab-J (SL-J, STS-47) mission. It was modified as Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) to accommodate small aquatic animals, such as medaka and newt, for second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, STS-65) mission. Then, VFEU was improved to accommodate marine fish and to perform neurobiological experiment for Neurolab (STS-90) and STS-95 missions. We have also developed and used water purification system which was adapted to each facility. Based on these experiences of Space Shuttle missions, we are studying to develop advanced aquatic animal experiment facility for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS).

  6. Constraints on Mimas' interior from Cassini ISS libration measurements.

    PubMed

    Tajeddine, R; Rambaux, N; Lainey, V; Charnoz, S; Richard, A; Rivoldini, A; Noyelles, B

    2014-10-17

    Like our Moon, the majority of the solar system's satellites are locked in a 1:1 spin-orbit resonance; on average, these satellites show the same face toward the planet at a constant rotation rate equal to the satellite's orbital rate. In addition to the uniform rotational motion, physical librations (oscillations about an equilibrium) also occur. The librations may contain signatures of the satellite's internal properties. Using stereophotogrammetry on Cassini Image Science Subsystem (ISS) images, we measured longitudinal physical forced librations of Saturn's moon Mimas. Our measurements confirm all the libration amplitudes calculated from the orbital dynamics, with one exception. This amplitude depends mainly on Mimas' internal structure and has an observed value of twice the predicted one, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. After considering various possible interior models of Mimas, we argue that the satellite has either a large nonhydrostatic interior, or a hydrostatic one with an internal ocean beneath a thick icy shell.

  7. High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckehard, Lorenz; Frerker, Hap; Fitch, Robert Alan

    High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment for monitoring global climate changes uses ISS internal and external resources (eg. data storage). The optical experiment will consist of an infrared camera for monitoring global climate changes from the ISS. This technology was evaluated by the German small satellite mission BIRD and further developed in different ESA projects. Compared to BIRD the presended instrument uses proven sensor advanced technologies (ISS external) and ISS on board processing and storage capabili-ties (internal). The instrument will be equipped with a serial interfaces for TM/TC and several relay commands for the power supply. For data processing and storage a mass memory is re-quired. The access to actual attitude data is highly desired to produce geo referenced maps-if possible by an on board processing.

  8. Space Debris in the neighborhood of the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Jarbas; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Celestino, Claudia C.; Fiorilo de Melo, Cristiano

    2016-07-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a great opportunity to use a research platform in space. An international partnership of space agencies provides the operation of the ISS since 2000. The ISS is in Low Earth Orbits, in the same region of most of the space debris orbiting the planet. In this way, several studies are important to preserve the operability of the space station and operational artificial satellites, considering the increasing number of distinct objects in the space environment offering collision risks. In this work, the orbital dynamics of space debris are studied in the neighborhood of the ISS - International Space Station. The results show that the collision risk of space debris with the ISS is high and purposes to avoid these events are necessary. Solutions for the space debris mitigation are considered.

  9. Humoral and cellular immunity in cosmonauts after the ISS missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykova, M. P.; Antropova, E. N.; Larina, I. M.; Morukov, B. V.

    Spaceflight effects on the immune system were studied in 30 cosmonauts flown onto the International Space Station (ISS) for long- (125-195 d, n=15) and short-term (8-10 d, n=15) missions. Immunological investigations before launch and after landing were performed by using methods for quantitative and functional evaluation of the immunologically competent cells. Specific assays include: peripheral leukocyte distribution, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity, phagocytic activity of monocytes and granulocytes, proliferation of T-cells in response to a mitogen, levels of immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, IgG, virus-specific antibody and cytokine in serum. It was noticed that after long-term spaceflights the percentage of NK (CD3-/CD16+/CD56+) cells was significantly reduced compared with pre-flight data (p<0.05) and NK activity was suppressed by 20-85% as compared with pre-flight data in 12 out of 15 cosmonauts. T-lymphocyte activity was decreased by 25-39% as compared with pre-flight data in 5 out of 13 cosmonauts. However, the relative number of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells did not change. The functional activity of NK and T-cells decreased in some of the cosmonauts after short-term missions. On the other hand, a moderate trend upward of NK cytotoxic activity and proliferative activity of T-cells was observed in some individuals. Concentrations immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgG) and levels of M and G antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and herpes virus type 6 (HV6) in serum did not reveal significant changes after long- and short-term flights. Concentrations of cytokines (IL- 1β, IL-2, IL-4 and TNF- α) in serum changed in an apparently random manner as compared with values before long- and short-term missions. Despite the fact that many improvements have been made to the living conditions of aboard the ISS our investigations demonstrate the remarkable depression of the immunological function after the ISS missions

  10. Development of the Packed Bed Reactor ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Martin O.; Bruzas, Anthony E.; Rame, Enrique; Motil, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Packed bed reactors are compact, require minimum power and maintenance to operate, and are highly reliable. These features make this technology a leading candidate as a potential unit operation in support of long duration human space exploration. On earth, this type of reactor accounts for approximately 80% of all the reactors used in the chemical process industry today. Development of this technology for space exploration is truly crosscutting with many other potential applications (e.g., in-situ chemical processing of planetary materials and transport of nutrients through soil). NASA is developing an ISS experiment to address this technology with particular focus on water reclamation and air revitalization. Earlier research and development efforts funded by NASA have resulted in two hydrodynamic models which require validation with appropriate instrumentation in an extended microgravity environment. The first model developed by Motil et al., (2003) is based on a modified Ergun equation. This model was demonstrated at moderate gas and liquid flow rates, but extension to the lower flow rates expected in many advanced life support systems must be validated. The other model, developed by Guo et al., (2004) is based on Darcy s (1856) law for two-phase flow. This model has been validated for a narrow range of flow parameters indirectly (without full instrumentation) and included test points where the flow was not fully developed. The flight experiment presented will be designed with removable test sections to test the hydrodynamic models. The experiment will provide flexibility to test additional beds with different types of packing in the future. One initial test bed is based on the VRA (Volatile Removal Assembly), a packed bed reactor currently on ISS whose behavior in micro-gravity is not fully understood. Improving the performance of this system through an accurate model will increase our ability to purify water in the space environment.

  11. The Low Earth Orbit validation of a dynamic and anisotropic trapped radiation model through ISS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.

    2011-10-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides the proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the experimental validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport code algorithms and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the Space Transportation System (STS; Shuttle) have provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code development by requiring dynamic models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Previous studies using Computer Aided Design (CAD) models of the evolving ISS configurations with Thermo-Luminescent Detector (TLD) area monitors, demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate non-isotropic as well as dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) description of ISS trajectory and orientation. It is imperative that we understand ISS exposures dynamically for crew career planning, and insure that the regulatory requirements of keeping exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) are adequately implemented. This is especially true as ISS nears some form of completion with increasing complexity, resulting in a larger drag coefficient, and requiring operation at higher altitudes with increased exposure rates. In this paper ISS environmental model is configured for 11A (circa mid 2005), and uses non-isotropic and dynamic geomagnetic transmission and trapped proton models. ISS 11A and LEO model validations are important steps in preparation for the design and validation for the next generation manned vehicles. While the described cutoff rigidity, trapped proton and electron formalisms as coded in a package named GEORAD (GEOmagnetic RADiation) and a web interface named OLTARIS (On-line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space) are applicable to the LEO, Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and

  12. Development of the ISS EMU Dashboard Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    The EMU (Extra-Vehicular Mobility Unit) Dashboard was developed at NASA s Johnson Space Center to aid in real-time mission support for the ISS (International Space Station) and Shuttle EMU space suit by time synchronizing down-linked video, space suit data and audio from the mission control audio loops. Once the input streams are synchronized and recorded, the data can be replayed almost instantly and has proven invaluable in understanding in-flight hardware anomalies and playing back information conveyed by the crew to missions control and the back room support. This paper will walk through the development from an engineer s idea brought to life by an intern to real time mission support and how this tool is evolving today and its challenges to support EVAs (Extra-Vehicular Activities) and human exploration in the 21st century.

  13. ISS Destiny Laboratory Smoke Detection Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, John E.; Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoke transport and detection were modeled numerically in the ISS Destiny module using the NIST, Fire Dynamics Simulator code. The airflows in Destiny were modeled using the existing flow conditions and the module geometry included obstructions that simulate the currently installed hardware on orbit. The smoke source was modeled as a 0.152 by 0.152 m region that emitted smoke particulate ranging from 1.46 to 8.47 mg/s. In the module domain, the smoke source was placed in the center of each Destiny rack location and the model was run to determine the time required for the two smoke detectors to alarm. Overall the detection times were dominated by the circumferential flow, the axial flow from the intermodule ventilation and the smoke source strength.

  14. Outgassing of ISS payload pointing devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobascio, Cesare; Rampini, Riccardo

    2003-09-01

    Hexapod and the Coarse Pointing Device (CPD) are specific devices currently planned for utilization on the International Space Station (ISS) external payload facilities, with the scope of pointing scientific payload instrumentation. During the design and development phases, the devices have been extensively analyzed for their outgassing characteristics, as relevant for the potential adverse contamination effects on sensitive instrumentation surfaces. Outgassing kinetics characteristics of selected materials in dedicated test facilities have been determined as per guidelines established in ASTM-E-1559, and ESTEC VBQC method. An analysis of molecular emissions and depositions from the integrated devices has been conducted. Outgassing rates (OGRs) on representative targets enveloping the complete payloads have been calculated. Generally, the outgassing emissions comply with the imposed requirements. In case of potential requirement violations, and for the protection of sensitive surfaces, countermeasures have been devised, such as vacuum bake-out and directional venting.

  15. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), Space Science's Past, Present and Future Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie; Spearing, Scott; Jordan, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS), which accommodates science and technology investigations in a "workbench' type environment. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. In fact, the MSG has been used for over 10,000 hours of scientific payload operations and plans to continue for the life of ISS. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume and allows researchers a controlled pristine environment for their needs. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, + 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. MSG investigations have involved research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, and plant growth technologies. Modifications to the MSG facility are currently under way to expand the capabilities and provide for investigations involving Life Science and Biological research. In addition, the MSG video system is being replaced with a state-of-the-art, digital video system with high definition/high speed capabilities, and with near real-time downlink capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, and an

  16. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

  17. Use of Semi-Autonomous Tools for ISS Commanding and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brzezinski, Amy S.

    2014-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) has moved into a utilization phase, operations have shifted to become more ground-based with fewer mission control personnel monitoring and commanding multiple ISS systems. This shift to fewer people monitoring more systems has prompted use of semi-autonomous console tools in the ISS Mission Control Center (MCC) to help flight controllers command and monitor the ISS. These console tools perform routine operational procedures while keeping the human operator "in the loop" to monitor and intervene when off-nominal events arise. Two such tools, the Pre-positioned Load (PPL) Loader and Automatic Operators Recorder Manager (AutoORM), are used by the ISS Communications RF Onboard Networks Utilization Specialist (CRONUS) flight control position. CRONUS is responsible for simultaneously commanding and monitoring the ISS Command & Data Handling (C&DH) and Communications and Tracking (C&T) systems. PPL Loader is used to uplink small pieces of frequently changed software data tables, called PPLs, to ISS computers to support different ISS operations. In order to uplink a PPL, a data load command must be built that contains multiple user-input fields. Next, a multiple step commanding and verification procedure must be performed to enable an onboard computer for software uplink, uplink the PPL, verify the PPL has incorporated correctly, and disable the computer for software uplink. PPL Loader provides different levels of automation in both building and uplinking these commands. In its manual mode, PPL Loader automatically builds the PPL data load commands but allows the flight controller to verify and save the commands for future uplink. In its auto mode, PPL Loader automatically builds the PPL data load commands for flight controller verification, but automatically performs the PPL uplink procedure by sending commands and performing verification checks while notifying CRONUS of procedure step completion. If an off-nominal condition

  18. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2010-2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028.

  19. Rapid Culture-Independent Microbial Analysis Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Monaco, Lisa; Morris, Heather; Gunter, Daniel; Damon, Michael; Wells, Mark

    2009-10-01

    A new culture-independent system for microbial monitoring, called the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS), was operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). LOCAD-PTS was launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle STS-116 on December 9, 2006, and has since been used by ISS crews to monitor endotoxin on cabin surfaces. Quantitative analysis was performed within 15 minutes, and sample return to Earth was not required. Endotoxin (a marker of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) was distributed throughout the ISS, despite previous indications that most bacteria on ISS surfaces were Gram-positive. Endotoxin was detected at 24 out of 42 surface areas tested and at every surface site where colony-forming units (cfu) were observed, even at levels of 4-120 bacterial cfu per 100 cm2, which is below NASA in-flight requirements (<10,000 bacterial cfu per 100 cm2). Absent to low levels of endotoxin (<0.24 to 1.0 EU per 100 cm2; defined in endotoxin units, or EU) were found on 31 surface areas, including on most panels in Node 1 and the US Lab. High to moderate levels (1.01 to 14.7 EU per 100 cm2) were found on 11 surface areas, including at exercise, hygiene, sleeping, and dining facilities. Endotoxin was absent from airlock surfaces, except the Extravehicular Hatch Handle (>3.78 EU per 100 cm2). Based upon data collected from the ISS so far, new culture-independent requirements (defined in EU) are suggested, which are verifiable in flight with LOCAD-PTS yet high enough to avoid false alarms. The suggested requirements are intended to supplement current ISS requirements (defined in cfu) and would serve a dual purpose of safeguarding crew health (internal spacecraft surfaces <20 EU per 100 cm2) and monitoring forward contamination during Constellation missions (surfaces periodically exposed to the external environment, including the airlock and space suits, <0.24 EU per 100 cm2).

  20. Recombinant Iss as a potential vaccine for avian colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Lynne, Aaron M; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Johnson, Timothy J; Johnson, Sara J; Sinha, Avanti S; Lynne, Dorie K; Moon, Harley W; Jordan, Dianna M; Logue, Catherine M; Foley, Steven L; Nolan, Lisa K

    2012-03-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause colibacillosis, a disease which is responsible for significant losses in poultry. Control of colibacillosis is problematic due to the restricted availability of relevant antimicrobial agents and to the frequent failure of vaccines to protect against the diverse range of APEC serogroups causing disease in birds. Previously, we reported that the increased serum survival gene (iss) is strongly associated with APEC strains, but not with fecal commensal E. coli in birds, making iss and the outer membrane protein it encodes (Iss) candidate targets for colibacillosis control procedures. Preliminary studies in birds showed that their immunization with Iss fusion proteins protected against challenge with two of the more-commonly occurring APEC serogroups (O2 and O78). Here, the potential of an Iss-based vaccine was further examined by assessing its effectiveness against an additional and widely occurring APEC serogroup (O1) and its ability to evoke both a serum and mucosal antibody response in immunized birds. In addition, tissues of selected birds were subjected to histopathologic examination in an effort to better characterize the protective response afforded by immunization with this vaccine. Iss fusion proteins were administered intramuscularly to four groups of 2-wk-old broiler chickens. At 2 wk postimmunization, chickens were challenged with APEC strains of the O1, O2, or O78 serogroups. One week after challenge, chickens were euthanatized, necropsied, any lesions consistent with colibacillosis were scored, and tissues from these birds were taken aseptically. Sera were collected pre-immunization, postimmunization, and post-challenge, and antibody titers to Iss were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, air sac washings were collected to determine the mucosal antibody response to Iss by ELISA. During the observation period following challenge, 3/12 nonimmunized chickens, 1/12 chickens immunized

  1. Intergenic Transposable Elements Are Not Randomly Distributed in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Plague, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) are mobile genetic elements in bacterial genomes. In general, intergenic IS elements are probably less deleterious for their hosts than intragenic ISs, simply because they have a lower likelihood of disrupting native genes. However, since promoters, Shine–Dalgarno sequences, and transcription factor binding sites are intergenic and upstream of genes, I hypothesized that not all neighboring gene orientations (NGOs) are selectively equivalent for IS insertion. To test this, I analyzed the NGOs of all intergenic ISs in 326 fully sequenced bacterial chromosomes. Of the 116 genomes with enough IS elements for statistical analysis, 68 have significantly more ISs between convergently oriented genes than expected, and 46 have significantly fewer ISs between divergently oriented genes. This suggests that natural selection molds intergenic IS distributions because they are least intrusive between convergent gene pairs and most intrusive between divergent gene pairs. PMID:20697140

  2. Cosmic Rays composition inside ISS measured by ALTEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Fino, Luca; di Fino, Luca; Zaconte, Veronica; Larosa, Marianna; La Tessa, Chiara; Narici, Livio; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rinaldi, Adele; Casolino, Marco

    The ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts) program is devoted to characterize the radiation environment on board the International Space Station and to study the effects on astronauts of cosmic ray exposure, with a focus on the Light Flash phenomenon. The ALTEA-space experiment includes six silicon telescopes arranged in a 3D structure, capable to determine the energy loss and the trajectory of HZE. ALTEA-Space is on board the ISS inside the USlab since July 2006 and collected data continuously between August 2006 and July 2007. Data are downloaded continuously and a first analysis is performed in real-time; ALTEA could then be used to alert the crew in case of high radiation level, in particular during SPEs. The analysis on particles with kinetic energy above 100M eV /n provided spectra that make possible the identification of ions from Beryllium to Iron. Relative nuclear abundances and absolute fluxes for all discriminated elements are presented. The data collected from ALTEA was used to characterize the December 2006 SPE in terms of single ion species fluxes through the entire solar activity period.

  3. ISS Material Science Research Rack HWIL Interface Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Philip J.; Ballard, Gary H.; Crumbley, Robert T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the first Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) interface simulation is described. Dynamic Concepts developed this HWIL simulation system with funding and management provided by the Flight Software group (ED14) of NASA-MSFC's Avionics Department. The HWIL system has been used both as a flight software development environment and as a software qualification tool. To fulfill these roles, the HWIL simulator accurately models the system dynamics of many MSRR-1 subsystems and emulates most of the internal interface signals. The modeled subsystems include the Experiment Modules, the Thermal Environment Control System, the Vacuum Access System, the Solid State Power Controller Module, and the Active Rack Isolation Systems. The emulated signals reside on three separate MIL-STD-1553B digital communication buses, the ISS Medium Rate Data Link, and several analog controller and sensor signals. To enhance the range of testing, it was necessary to simulate several off-nominal conditions that may occur in the interfacing subsystems.

  4. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Integration with the ISS Extravehicular Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margiott, Victoria; Boyle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NASA has developed a Solid Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) to provide cooling for the next generation spacesuit. One approach to increasing the TRL of the system is to incorporate this hardware with the existing EMU. Several integration issues were addressed to support a potential demonstration of the SWME with the existing EMU. Systems analysis was performed to assess the capability of the SWME to maintain crewmember cooling and comfort as a replacement for sublimation. The materials of the SWME were reviewed to address compatibility with the EMU. Conceptual system placement and integration with the EMU via an EVA umbilical system to ensure crew mobility and Airlock egress were performed. A concept of operation for EVA use was identified that is compatible with the existing system. This concept is extensible as a means to provide cooling for the existing EMU. The cooling system of one of the EMUs on orbit has degraded, with the root cause undetermined. Should there be a common cause resident on ISS, this integration could provide a means to recover cooling capability for EMUs on orbit.

  5. Astronaut Susan Helms in the ISS Unity Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut Susan Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, is positioned near a large amount of water temporarily stored in the Unity Node aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Helms accompanied the STS-105 crew back to Earth after having spent five months with two crewmates aboard the ISS. The 11th ISS assembly flight, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission was launched on August 10, 2001, and landed on August 22, 2001 at the Kennedy Space Center after the completion of the successful 12-day mission.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) Desiccant/Adsorbent Bed (DAB) Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reysa, Richard P.; Lumpkin, John P.; Sherif, Dian El; Kay, Robert; Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) is a part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system. The CDRA provides carbon dioxide (CO2) removal from the ISS on-orbit modules. Currently, the CDRA is the secondary removal system on the ISS, with the primary system being the Russian Vozdukh. Within the CDRA are two desiccant/adsorbent beds (DAB), which perform the carbon dioxide removal function. The DAB adsorbent containment approach required improvements with respect to adsorbent containment. These improvements were implemented through a redesign program and have been implemented on units returning from orbit. This paper presents a DAB design modification implementation description, a hardware performance comparison between the unmodified and modified DAB configurations, and a description of the modified DAB hardware implementation into the on-orbit CDRA.

  7. Structural health monitoring system design using finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stinemates, D. W.; Bennett, J. G.

    2002-01-01

    The project described in this report was performed to couple experimental and analytical techniques in the field of structural health monitoring and damage identification. To do this, a finite element model was constructed of a simulated three-story building used for damage identification experiments. The model was used in conjunction with data from the physical structure to research damage identification algorithms. Of particular interest was modeling slip in joints as a function of bolt torque and predicting the smallest change of torque that could be detected experimentally. After being validated with results from the physical structure, the model was used to produce data to test the capabilities of damage identification algorithms. This report describes the finite element model constructed, the results obtained, and proposed future use of the model.

  8. Preliminary Results of Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Shackelford, Linda C.; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan J.; Spector, Elisabeth R.; Sibonga, Jean; Matsumoti, Toshio; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Bone loss has been recognized as a potential problem from the beginning of human spaceflight. With the spaceflight missions lasting 6 months to potentially 3 years or longer this issue has assumed increased significance. Detailed measurements from the Mir and ISS long duration missions have documented losses in bone mineral density (BMD) from the total skeleton and critical sub-regions. The most important losses are from the femoral hip averaging about -1.6%/mo integral to -2.3%/mo trabecular BMD. Importantly these studies have documented the wide range in individual response from -0.5 to -5%/mo in BMD. Given the small size of any expedition crew, the wide range of responses has to be considered in the implementation of any countermeasure. Assuming that it is unlikely that the susceptibility for bone loss in any given crewmember will be known, a suite of bone loss countermeasures will likely be needed to insure protection of all crewmembers. The hypothesis for this experiment is that the combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus the standard in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect on preventing space flight induced bone loss and strength and will reduce renal stone risk. To date, 4 crewmembers have completed the flight portion of the protocol in which crewmembers take a 70-mg alendronate tablet once a week before and during flight, starting 17 days before launch. Compared to previous ISS crewmembers (n=14) not taking alendronate, DXA measurements of the total hip BMD were significantly changed from -1.1 0.5%/mo to 0.04 0.3%/mo (p<0.01); QCT-determined trabecular BMD of the total hip was significantly changed from -2.3 1.0%/mo to -0.3 1.6%/mo (p<0.01). Significance was calculated from a one-tailed t test. While these results are encouraging, the current n (4) is small, and the large SDs indicate that while the means are improved there is still high variability in individual response. Four additional crewmembers have been recruited to participate

  9. 40 CFR 57.402 - Elements of the supplementary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and shall meet the performance specifications contained in 40 CFR part 53. The monitors shall be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Elements of the supplementary control... Elements of the supplementary control system. Each supplementary control system shall contain the...

  10. 40 CFR 57.402 - Elements of the supplementary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and shall meet the performance specifications contained in 40 CFR part 53. The monitors shall be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Elements of the supplementary control... Elements of the supplementary control system. Each supplementary control system shall contain the...

  11. 40 CFR 57.402 - Elements of the supplementary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and shall meet the performance specifications contained in 40 CFR part 53. The monitors shall be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Elements of the supplementary control... Elements of the supplementary control system. Each supplementary control system shall contain the...

  12. 40 CFR 57.402 - Elements of the supplementary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and shall meet the performance specifications contained in 40 CFR part 53. The monitors shall be... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of the supplementary control... Elements of the supplementary control system. Each supplementary control system shall contain the...

  13. 40 CFR 57.402 - Elements of the supplementary control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and shall meet the performance specifications contained in 40 CFR part 53. The monitors shall be... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Elements of the supplementary control... Elements of the supplementary control system. Each supplementary control system shall contain the...

  14. Bubble-detector measurements of neutron radiation in the international space station: ISS-34 to ISS-37.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Khulapko, S; Andrews, H R; Arkhangelsky, V; Ing, H; Koslowksy, M R; Lewis, B J; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I; Shurshakov, V

    2016-02-01

    Bubble detectors have been used to characterise the neutron dose and energy spectrum in several modules of the International Space Station (ISS) as part of an ongoing radiation survey. A series of experiments was performed during the ISS-34, ISS-35, ISS-36 and ISS-37 missions between December 2012 and October 2013. The Radi-N2 experiment, a repeat of the 2009 Radi-N investigation, included measurements in four modules of the US orbital segment: Columbus, the Japanese experiment module, the US laboratory and Node 2. The Radi-N2 dose and spectral measurements are not significantly different from the Radi-N results collected in the same ISS locations, despite the large difference in solar activity between 2009 and 2013. Parallel experiments using a second set of detectors in the Russian segment of the ISS included the first characterisation of the neutron spectrum inside the tissue-equivalent Matroshka-R phantom. These data suggest that the dose inside the phantom is ∼70% of the dose at its surface, while the spectrum inside the phantom contains a larger fraction of high-energy neutrons than the spectrum outside the phantom. The phantom results are supported by Monte Carlo simulations that provide good agreement with the empirical data. PMID:25899609

  15. ISS FPP Ionospheric Electron Density and Temperature Measurements: Results, Comparison with the IRI-90 Model, and Implications for ISS Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, D. C.; Hillard, G. B.; Morton, T. L.; Personen, R.

    2003-01-01

    We give measurement results of electron temperature and electron density from the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) on the International Space Station (ISS), and relate them to the electron current collection of the ISS solar arrays and the degree of charging of ISS when its Plasma Contacting Units (PCUs) are not operating. We show that on days of high solar activity index Kp, high levels of ISS charging are significantly more probable than on days of low solar activity, due to some abnormally low morning electron temperatures. Although the FPP electron temperatures measured are almost always higher than predicted by the International Reference Ionosphere 90 model (IRI-90), it is shown that the CHAMP satellite Langmuir Probe (PLP) also shows low dawn electron temperatures on the same day as those found by FPP. It is further shown that similar high levels of predicted charging, accompanied by vxB charging on the ISS structure, could exceed the -40 V specification on ISS charging, and could be dangerous to ISS astronauts if the PCUs fail to operate.

  16. Bubble-detector measurements of neutron radiation in the international space station: ISS-34 to ISS-37.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Khulapko, S; Andrews, H R; Arkhangelsky, V; Ing, H; Koslowksy, M R; Lewis, B J; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I; Shurshakov, V

    2016-02-01

    Bubble detectors have been used to characterise the neutron dose and energy spectrum in several modules of the International Space Station (ISS) as part of an ongoing radiation survey. A series of experiments was performed during the ISS-34, ISS-35, ISS-36 and ISS-37 missions between December 2012 and October 2013. The Radi-N2 experiment, a repeat of the 2009 Radi-N investigation, included measurements in four modules of the US orbital segment: Columbus, the Japanese experiment module, the US laboratory and Node 2. The Radi-N2 dose and spectral measurements are not significantly different from the Radi-N results collected in the same ISS locations, despite the large difference in solar activity between 2009 and 2013. Parallel experiments using a second set of detectors in the Russian segment of the ISS included the first characterisation of the neutron spectrum inside the tissue-equivalent Matroshka-R phantom. These data suggest that the dose inside the phantom is ∼70% of the dose at its surface, while the spectrum inside the phantom contains a larger fraction of high-energy neutrons than the spectrum outside the phantom. The phantom results are supported by Monte Carlo simulations that provide good agreement with the empirical data.

  17. Analysis of Advanced Respiratory Support Onboard ISS and CCV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ronak V.; Kertsman, Eric L.; Alexander, David J.; Duchesne, Ted; Law, Jennifer; Roden, Sean K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is collaborating with private entities for the development of commercial space vehicles. The Space and Clinical Operations Division was tasked to review the oxygen and respiratory support system and recommend what capabilities, if any, the vehicle should have to support the return of an ill or injured crewmember. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) was utilized as a data source for the development of these recommendations. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) was used to simulate a six month, six crew, International Space Station (ISS) mission. Three medical system scenarios were considered based on the availability of (1) oxygen only, (2) oxygen and a ventilator, or (3) neither oxygen nor ventilator. The IMM analysis provided probability estimates of medical events that would require either oxygen or ventilator support. It also provided estimates of crew health, the probability of evacuation, and the probability of loss of crew life secondary to medical events for each of the three medical system scenarios. These IMM outputs were used as objective data to enable evidence-based decisions regarding oxygen and respiratory support system requirements for commercial crew vehicles. The IMM provides data that may be utilized to support informed decisions regarding the development of medical systems for commercial crew vehicles.

  18. Techniques for Unifying Disparate Elements in an EOS Instrument's Product Generation System Development Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Alex; Eng, Bjorn; Leff, Craig; Schwarz, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    In the development environment for ASTER level II product generation system, techniques have been incorporated to allow automated information sharing among all system elements, and to enable the use of sound software engineering techniques in the scripting languages.

  19. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), a Resource for Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Jeter, Linda B.; Vonk, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. The MSG's unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120,28, plus or minus 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust' and Vacuum Resource 'Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion and reacting control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG, and possible augmentations that can be added to-the MSG facility to further enhance the resources provided to investigations.

  20. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), a Resource for Gravity-Dependent Phenomena Research on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Jeter, Linda B.; Vonk, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS) designed for gravity-dependent phenomena investigation handling. The MSG has been operating in the ISS US Laboratory Module since July 2002. The MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. The MSG s unique design provides two levels of containment to protect the ISS crew from hazardous operations. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter work volume, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120,28, +/-12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. With these capabilities, the MSG is an ideal platform for research required to advance the technology readiness levels (TRL) needed for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Exploration Initiative. Areas of research that will benefit from investigations in the MSG include thermal management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion and reacting control systems, in situ fabrication and repair, and advanced life support technologies. This paper will provide a detailed explanation of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, an overview of investigations planning to operate in the MSG, and possible augmentations that can be added to the MSG facility to further enhance the resources provided to investigations.

  1. International Space Station (ISS) S1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Shown here is the International Space Station (ISS) S1 Truss in preparation for installation in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at NASA's Kennedy Space Center )KSC)in Florida. The truss launched October 7, 2002 on the STS-112 mission and will be attached during three spacewalks. Constructed primarily of aluminum, it measures 45 feet long, 15 feet wide, 10 feet tall, and weighs over 27,000 pounds. It is one of nine similar truss segments that, combined, will serve as the Station's main backbone, measuring 356 feet from end to end upon completion. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss was flown to the Marshall Space Flight Center, in Huntsville, Alabama where brackets, cable trays, fluid tubing, and other secondary components and outfitting items were added. In Huntsville, it was screened for manufacturing flaws, including pressure and leak checking tubing, and electrical checks for cabling, before being shipped to KSC for final hardware installation and testing. The Space Station's labs, living modules, solar arrays, heat radiators, and other main components will be attached to the truss.

  2. The ISS Sensitizing Agents Data Bank (BDS).

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Barbara; Binetti, Roberto; Ceccarelli, Federica; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; D'Angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Ferri, Maurizio; Marcello, Ida; Riva, Giovanni; Roazzi, Paolo; Trucchi, Daniela; Tinghino, Raffaella

    2008-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore Sanità has developed a data bank on sensitizing substances (Banca Dati Sensibilizzanti, BDS), available on website (www.iss.it/bdse/), sharing complete, controlled and updated information coming from different sources, such as scientific publications, international agencies and governmental or non governmental organizations. It is worthwhile that the main objective of the BDS is not the classification of sensitizing or potentially sensitizing agents within specific risk classes, but it is essentially to provide concise and non confidential information related to this endpoint. At present, the BDS includes: all the substances officially classified by European Union, (Annex I to Directive 67/548/EEC), some substances listed in I (Directive 67/548/EEC) for endpoints different than "sensitization" but indicated as sensitizers by other relevant institutions, all the substances indicated as sensitizers by relevant agencies or institutions (ACGIH, DFG), some substances indicted as sensitizers by industry and other non-governmental organizations (ETAD and HERA), all the substances regarded as "potentially sensitizing dyes" by the Commission of the European Community for the award of the eco-label to textile products, some substances for which, even in the absence of any categorization by Union, ACGIH or DFG, it is not possible to exclude a sensitizing potential on the basis of reliable documents.

  3. Modeling trace element partitioning in multi-component iron alloy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Orman, J. A.; Hayden, L. A.; Chabot, N. L.

    2011-12-01

    Iron alloys play a key role in the differentiation of planetary bodies, both during core formation and during the subsequent crystallization of the core. Siderophile trace elements are fractionated during these processes and thus have the potential to provide information on the conditions of differentiation. It is well known that the partitioning of trace elements between metallic phases, and between metal and silicate, depends strongly on the concentration of non-metallic "light" elements, such as sulfur, carbon, silicon, oxygen and phosphorus, in the liquid metal. These effects have been well characterized in many cases, for metallic systems that contain a single light element. Many trace elements have been shown to have variable affinities (and/or repulsions) for different light elements dissolved in iron alloys, and the combined effects of these interactions in complex systems containing multiple light elements have not yet been effectively parameterized. Here we present one possible solution to this problem, which is based on an activity model that is commonly used in metallurgy. The activity coefficient for the trace element of interest is expanded in a Taylor series about the infinitely dilute reference state, with first- and second-order interaction coefficients describing the influence of different light elements and their combinations. The model provides a good fit to the available experimental database for solid/liquid and liquid/liquid partitioning of more than 20 siderophile trace elements in binary (e.g. Fe-S) and ternary (e.g. Fe-S-C) iron alloy systems at ambient pressure. It should provide a useful framework for parameterizing trace element partition coefficients in metallic systems containing many light elements, and for evaluating the influence of pressure on trace element partitioning.

  4. ISS Update: ATV-3 ReEntry Breakup Recorder

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan talks with Dr. William Ailor, Principal Investigator for the ReEntry Breakup Recorder (REBR) for The Aerospace Corporation. Ailor talks about capturing data as Europ...

  5. ISS Update: How Long-Duration Spaceflight Affects Health

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Kelly Humphries interviews Dr. Scott Smith, Principal Investigator for the Pro_K and Nutrition experiments. During the interview, Smith talks about the Pro_K experiment, Nutr...

  6. Students Speak With Tara Ruttley Assoc. ISS Program Scientist

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center Tara Ruttley Associate ISS Program Scientist, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at St. Vincent St...

  7. ISS Update: Alvin Drew Talks about Delayed Communications

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Brandi Dean interviews NASA astronaut Alvin Drew about the Autonomous Mission Operations Test. Drew, who is the commander for the test, talks about the past, current and futu...

  8. ISS Update: JAXA Aquatic Habitat Facility-- 08.15.12

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Brandi Dean interviews Associate International Space Station Program Scientist Tara Ruttley about the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Aquatic Habitat facility. Ques...

  9. ISS pass over Southern California to Hudson Bay

    NASA Video Gallery

    This sequence of still frames was acquired as the International Space Station was tracking east-northeastward across the United States. The sequence begins over the Pacific Ocean as the ISS headed ...

  10. ISS Update: Progress 50 Launch and Docking with Tom Erkenswick

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias conducts an interview with Visiting Vehicle Officer Tom Erkenswick about the launch of the ISS Progress 50 resupply ship and its docking to the International ...

  11. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  12. Investigating the Response and Expansion of Plasma Plumes in a Mesosonic Plasma Using the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoegy, W. R.; Krause, L. Habash; Minow, J. I.; Coffey, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the International Space Station (ISS) and the ISS space vehicle, we are exploring a specialized suite of plasma sensors, manipulated by the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) to probe the near-ISS mesosonic plasma ionosphere moving past the ISS. It is proposed that SASSI consists of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Thermal Ion Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TICHS), Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS), Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), the Collimated PhotoElectron Gun (CPEG), and the University of Michigan Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). There are multiple expected applications for SASSI. Here, we will discuss the study of fundamental plasma physics questions associated with how an emitted plasma plume (such as from the ISS Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU)) responds and expands in a mesosonic magnetoplasma as well as emit and collect current. The ISS PCU Xe plasma plume drifts through the ionosphere and across the Earth's magnetic field, resulting in complex dynamics. This is of practical and theoretical interest pertaining to contamination concerns (e.g. energetic ion scattering) and the ability to collect and emit current between the spacecraft and the ambient plasma ionosphere. This impacts, for example, predictions of electrodynamic tether current performance using plasma contactors as well as decisions about placing high-energy electric propulsion thrusters on ISS. We will discuss the required measurements and connection to proposed instruments for this study.

  13. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forroci, Michael P.; Gafka, George K.; Lutomski, Michael G.; Maher, Jacilyn S.

    2011-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity hazard level-4 materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards). Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years to come.

  14. Trending of Overboard Leakage of ISS Cabin Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaezler, Ryan N.; Cook, Anthony J.; Leonard, Daniel J.; Ghariani, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) overboard leakage of cabin atmosphere is continually tracked to identify new or aggravated leaks and to provide information for planning of nitrogen supply to the ISS. The overboard leakage is difficult to trend with various atmosphere constituents being added and removed. Changes to nitrogen partial pressure is the nominal means of trending the overboard leakage. This paper summarizes the method of the overboard leakage trending and presents findings from the trending.

  15. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Geomagnetic Storm Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture geomagnetic storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of geomagnetic storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during geomagnetic storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.

  16. Horizontal gene transfer and mobile genetic elements in marine systems.

    PubMed

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Hazen, Tracy H

    2009-01-01

    The pool of mobile genetic elements (MGE) in microbial communities consists of viruses, plasmids, and associated elements (insertion sequences, transposons, and integrons) that are either self-transmissible or use mobile plasmids and viruses as vehicles for their dissemination. This mobilome facilitates the horizontal transfer of genes that promote the evolution and adaptation of microbial communities. Efforts to characterize MGEs from microbial populations resident in a variety of ecological habitats have revealed a surprisingly novel and seemingly untapped biodiversity. To better understand the impact of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), as well as the agents that promote HGT in marine ecosystems and to determine whether or not environmental parameters can effect the composition and structure of the mobilome in marine microbial communities, information on the distribution, diversity, and ecological traits of the marine mobilome is presented. In this chapter we discuss recent insights gained from different methodological approaches used to characterize the biodiversity and ecology of MGE in marine environments and their contributions to HGT. In addition, we present case studies that highlight specific HGT examples in coastal, open-ocean, and deep-sea marine ecosystems.

  17. Psychological Support Operations and the ISS One-Year Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, G.; Vander Ark, S. T.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Since NASA began human presence on the International Space Station (ISS) in November 1998, crews have spent two to seven months onboard. In March 2015 NASA and Russia embarked on a new era of ISS utilization, with two of their crewmembers conducting a one-year mission onboard ISS. The mission has been useful for both research and mission operations to better understand the human, technological, mission management and staffing challenges that may be faced on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. The work completed during the first 42 ISS missions provided the basis for the pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight work completed by NASA's Space Medicine Operations Division, while our Russian colleagues provided valuable insights from their long-duration mission experiences with missions lasting 10-14 months, which predated the ISS era. Space Medicine's Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) provided pre-flight training, evaluation, and preparation as well as in-flight psychological support for the NASA crewmember. While the BHP team collaboratively planned for this mission with the help of all ISS international partners within the Human Behavior and Performance Working Group to leverage their collective expertise, the US and Russian BHP personnel were responsible for their respective crewmembers. The presentation will summarize the lessons and experience gained within the areas identified by this Working Group as being of primary importance for a one-year mission.

  18. Material Testing in Support of the ISS Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Shindo, David; Modica, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant for the International Space Station (ISS) is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems that do not require regular up ]mass dependencies. Throughout the course of a year, four different electrochemical systems were investigated as a possible biocide for potable water on the ISS. Research has indicated that there is a wide variability with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants, therefore baseline efficacy values were established. This paper describes a series of tests performed in order to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Results of the testing determined whether these electrochemical disinfection systems are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on ISS.

  19. Rapid culture-independent microbial analysis aboard the international space station (ISS) stage two: quantifying three microbial biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Heather C; Damon, Michael; Maule, Jake; Monaco, Lisa A; Wainwright, Norm

    2012-09-01

    Abstract A portable, rapid, microbial detection unit, the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS), was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) as a technology demonstration unit in December 2006. Results from the first series of experiments designed to detect Gram-negative bacteria on ISS surfaces by quantifying a single microbial biomarker lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were reported in a previous article. Herein, we report additional technology demonstration experiments expanding the on-orbit capabilities of the LOCAD-PTS to detecting three different microbial biomarkers on ISS surfaces. Six different astronauts on more than 20 occasions participated in these experiments, which were designed to test the new beta-glucan (fungal cell wall molecule) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacterial cell wall component) cartridges individually and in tandem with the existing Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL; Gram-negative bacterial LPS detection) cartridges. Additionally, we conducted the sampling side by side with the standard culture-based detection method currently used on the ISS. Therefore, we present data on the distribution of three microbial biomarkers collected from various surfaces in every module present on the ISS at the time of sampling. In accordance with our previous experiments, we determined that spacecraft surfaces known to be frequently in contact with crew members demonstrated higher values of all three microbial molecules. Key Words: Planetary protection-Spaceflight-Microbiology-Biosensor. Astrobiology 12, 830-840. PMID:22984871

  20. Rapid culture-independent microbial analysis aboard the international space station (ISS) stage two: quantifying three microbial biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Heather C; Damon, Michael; Maule, Jake; Monaco, Lisa A; Wainwright, Norm

    2012-09-01

    Abstract A portable, rapid, microbial detection unit, the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS), was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) as a technology demonstration unit in December 2006. Results from the first series of experiments designed to detect Gram-negative bacteria on ISS surfaces by quantifying a single microbial biomarker lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were reported in a previous article. Herein, we report additional technology demonstration experiments expanding the on-orbit capabilities of the LOCAD-PTS to detecting three different microbial biomarkers on ISS surfaces. Six different astronauts on more than 20 occasions participated in these experiments, which were designed to test the new beta-glucan (fungal cell wall molecule) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacterial cell wall component) cartridges individually and in tandem with the existing Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL; Gram-negative bacterial LPS detection) cartridges. Additionally, we conducted the sampling side by side with the standard culture-based detection method currently used on the ISS. Therefore, we present data on the distribution of three microbial biomarkers collected from various surfaces in every module present on the ISS at the time of sampling. In accordance with our previous experiments, we determined that spacecraft surfaces known to be frequently in contact with crew members demonstrated higher values of all three microbial molecules. Key Words: Planetary protection-Spaceflight-Microbiology-Biosensor. Astrobiology 12, 830-840.

  1. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Service Life Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses high-efficiency particulate air filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as bacteria filter elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. segment in the flight 4R assembly level. The preflight service life prediction of 1 yr for the BFEs is based upon engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS program resources. Testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are provided.

  2. The Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in International Space Station (ISS) Astronauts: The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure Risk (VIIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, C.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Samuels, B.; Gibson, C.; Sargsyan, A.; Patel, N.; Riascos, R.; Garcia, K.; Kramer, L.; Alexander, D.; Lee, S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Occupational exposure. Describe temporal physiological changes due to ISS environment occurring in: Eye/Vision; Central Nervous System; Cardiovascular System. Methods: 13 subjects consented; 6 have completed flight phase (5 non-cases (grade 0 papilledema); 1 case with clinical grade greater than or equal to 1 papilledema). Data for 6 subjects will be presented: Preflight; Inflight (monthly); Postflight.

  3. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the International Space Station (ISS): Mission Description and Science Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners have developed and demonstrated space-based lightning observations as an effective remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) continues to provide global observations of total lightning after 17 years on-orbit. In April 2013, a space-qualified LIS built as the flight spare for TRMM, was selected for flight as a science mission on the International Space Station. The ISS LIS (or I-LIS as Hugh Christian prefers) will be flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program (STP) H5 mission, which has a January 2016 baseline launch date aboard a SpaceX launch vehicle for a 2-4 year or longer mission. The LIS measures the amount, rate, and radiant energy of global lightning. More specifically, it measures lightning during both day and night, with storm scale resolution, millisecond timing, and high, uniform detection efficiency, without any land-ocean bias. Lightning is a direct and most impressive response to intense atmospheric convection. It has been found that the characteristics of lightning that LIS measures can be quantitatively coupled to both thunderstorm and other geophysical processes. Therefore, the ISS LIS lightning observations will provide important gap-filling inputs to pressing Earth system science issues across a broad range of disciplines, including weather, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and lightning physics. A unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning, especially valuable for operational applications over data sparse regions such as the oceans. The ISS platform will also uniquely enable LIS to provide simultaneous and complementary observations with other payloads such as the European Space Agency's Atmosphere-Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM) that will be exploring

  4. Development and Operation of a Modern Information Portal for the ISS Medical Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damann, V.; Johnson, MaGee; Sargsyan, Ashot; McDonald, P. Vernon; Armstrong, C.; Scheer, M.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation begins with a review of some of the problems inherent in running medical services for the International Space Station. Part of the solution for the problems is the development of the information portal for the ISS medical groups. The presentation shows the tools that have been developed to assist in collaboration for the medical services, the security system and the capabilities of the portal.

  5. Video- Demonstration of Laminar Flow in a Liquid Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Pettit demonstrates laminar flow in a rotating film of water. The demonstration is done by placing tracer particles in a water film held in place by a round wire loop, then stirring the system rotationally. The resulting flow clearly demonstrates laminar 2D behavior with spiraling streamlines.

  6. Velocity Noise in Space Shuttle and ISS GPS from the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the noise velocity effects on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Global Positioning System (GPS) from the ionosphere is shown. The topics include: Scintillation in MAGR/S GPS used for Shuttle; 2) Geographic Distribution of Scintillation; 3) Diurnal Variability; 4) Feynman's interpretation of interference; 5) Angle between line of sight and S/C velocity; and 6) Space Station GPS

  7. The ISS 2B PVTCS Ammonia Leak: An Operational History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vareha, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) for the International Space Station's 2B power channel began leaking ammonia at a rate of approximately 1.5lbm/year (out of a starting approximately 53lbm system ammonia mass). Initially, the operations strategy was "feed the leak," a strategy successfully put into action via Extra Vehicular Activity during the STS-134 mission. During this mission the system was topped off with ammonia piped over from a separate thermal control system. This recharge was to have allowed for continued power channel operation into 2014 or 2015, at which point another EVA would have been required. Without these periodic EVAs to refill the 2B coolant system, the channel would eventually leak enough fluid as to risk pump cavitation and system failure, resulting in the loss of the 2B power channel - the most critical of the Space Station's 8 power channels. In mid-2012, the leak rate increased to approximately 5lbm/year. Once discovered, an EVA was planned and executed within a 5 week timeframe to drastically alter the architecture of the PVTCS via connection to a dormant thermal control system not intended to be utilized as anything other than spare components. The purpose of this rerouting of the TCS was to increase system volume and to isolate the photovoltaic radiator, thought to be the likely leak source. This EVA was successfully executed on November 1st, 2012 and left the 2B PVTCS in a configuration where the system was now being adequately cooled via a totally different radiator than what the system was designed to utilize. Unfortunately, data monitoring over the next several months showed that the isolated radiator was not leaking, and the system itself continued to leak steadily until May 9th, 2013. It was on this day that the ISS crew noticed the visible presence of ammonia crystals escaping from the 2B channel's truss segment, signifying a rapid acceleration of the leak from 5lbm/year to 5lbm/day. Within 48 hours of the

  8. Evolution of Patterning Systems and Circuit Elements for Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Heekyung; Dasen, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Evolutionary modifications in nervous systems enabled organisms to adapt to their specific environments and underlie the remarkable diversity of behaviors expressed by animals. Resolving the pathways that shaped and modified neural circuits during evolution remains a significant challenge. Comparative studies have revealed a surprising conservation in the intrinsic signaling systems involved in early patterning of bilaterian nervous systems, but also raise the question of how neural circuit compositions and architectures evolved within specific animal lineages. In this Review we discuss the mechanisms that contributed to the emergence and diversity of animal nervous systems, focusing on the circuits governing vertebrate locomotion. PMID:25710528

  9. ISS Microgravity Research Payload Training Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Geveden, Rex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Discipline has multiple categories of science payloads that are being planned and currently under development to operate on various ISS on-orbit increments. The current program includes six subdisciplines; Materials Science, Fluids Physics, Combustion Science, Fundamental Physics, Cellular Biology and Macromolecular Biotechnology. All of these experiment payloads will require the astronaut various degrees of crew interaction and science observation. With the current programs planning to build various facility class science racks, the crew will need to be trained on basic core operations as well as science background. In addition, many disciplines will use the Express Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) to utilize the accommodations provided by these facilities for smaller and less complex type hardware. The Microgravity disciplines will be responsible to have a training program designed to maximize the experiment and hardware throughput as well as being prepared for various contingencies both with anomalies as well as unexpected experiment observations. The crewmembers will need various levels of training from simple tasks as power on and activate to extensive training on hardware mode change out to observing the cell growth of various types of tissue cultures. Sample replacement will be required for furnaces and combustion type modules. The Fundamental Physics program will need crew EVA support to provide module change out of experiment. Training will take place various research centers and hardware development locations. It is expected that onboard training through various methods and video/digital technology as well as limited telecommunication interaction. Since hardware will be designed to operate from a few weeks to multiple research increments, flexibility must be planned in the training approach and procedure skills to optimize the output as well as the equipment maintainability. Early increment lessons learned

  10. Design of an optical element forming an axial line segment for efficient LED lighting systems.

    PubMed

    Aslanov, Emil R; Doskolovich, Leonid L; Moiseev, Mikhail A; Bezus, Evgeni A; Kazanskiy, Nikolay L

    2013-11-18

    An LED optical element is proposed as an alternative to cold-cathode fluorescent lamps. The optical element generates two symmetric uniformly illuminated line segments on the diffuse reflector. The illuminated segments then act as secondary linear light sources. The calculation of the optical element is reduced to the integration of the system of two explicit ordinary differential equations. The results of the simulation of an illumination system module consisting of a set of optical elements generating a set of line segments on the surface of the diffuse reflector are presented. The elements are located directly on the surface of the reflector. The simulation results demonstrate the uniform illumination of a rectangular area at a distance of 30-40 mm from the light source plane. The lighting efficiency of the designed system exceeds 83%. PMID:24514376

  11. Cargo transfer vehicle - An element of the National Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Harry

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the cargo transport vehicle (CTV), a rendezvous- and capture-capable on-orbit maneuvering stage of the NASA/DOD National Launch System (NLS) developed for off-loading the Space Shuttle for cargo delivery to the Space Station Freedom. Special attention is given to the background of the NLS CTV technology, a typical Space Station delivery mission profile, the design features of the payload accommodation system, and the forward propulsion module. The feasibility of the CTV functioning as an upper stage, in addition to acting as an on-orbit maneuvering system, is being presently considered.

  12. Mechanical integrity and piping systems -- The forgotten elements

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.D.; Uscocovich, J.S.

    1996-07-01

    Many codes and regulations address the issue of process piping inspections, the most recent being AP1570. OSH1910.119 paragraph (j) also contains requirements for maintaining the mechanical integrity of an operating system through inspections and tests. This paper includes details for an examination approach dealing with process piping as a system, including often neglected items such as piping supports and expansion joints. A training methodology will be discussed which incorporates site walkdowns, operating history, typical failures and other items which may be used to formulate a site specific and flexible program to ensure safe and reliable piping systems as well as compliance with OSHA 1910.119 paragraph (j).

  13. Hygienic support of the ISS air quality (main achievements and prospects)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkov, Dmitriy; Pakhomova, Anna

    Hygienic preventive measures during pre-flight processing of manned spaceships, selection of polymeric materials, sanitary-hygienic evaluation of cargo and scientific hardware to be used on the ISS and life support systems allow to maintain air quality in limits of regulatory requirements. However, graduate increase of total air contamination by harmful chemicals is observed as service life of the ISS gets longer. It is caused by polymeric materials used on the station overall quantity rise, by additional contamination brought by cargo spacecrafts and modules docking to the ISS and by the cargo. At the same time the range of contaminants that are typical for off-gassing from polymeric materials where modern stabilizers, plasticizers, flame retarders and other additives are used gets wider. In resolving the matters of the ISS service life extension the main question of hygienic researches is to determine real safe operation life of the polymeric material used in structures and hardware of the station, including: begin{itemize} research of polymers degradation (ageing) and its effect on intensity of off gassing and its toxicity; begin{itemize} introduction of polymers with minimal volatile organic compounds off gassing under conditions of space flight and thermal-oxidative degradation. In order to ensure human safety during long-term flight it is important to develop: begin{itemize} real-time air quality monitoring systems, including on-line analysis of highly toxic contaminants evolving during thermo-oxidative degradation of polymer materials and during blowouts of toxic contaminants; begin{itemize} hygienic standards of contaminants level for extended duration of flight up to 3 years. It is essential to develop an automated control system for on-line monitoring of toxicological status and to develop hygienic and engineer measures of its management in order to ensure crew members safety during off-nominal situation.

  14. An EXPRESS Rack Overview and Support for Microgravity Research on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelfrey, Joseph J.; Jordan, Lee P.

    2008-01-01

    The EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station or EXPRESS Rack System has provided accommodations and facilitated operations for microgravity-based research payloads for over 6 years on the International Space Station (ISS). The EXPRESS Rack accepts Space Shuttle middeck type lockers and International Subrack Interface Standard (ISIS) drawers, providing a modular-type interface on the ISS. The EXPRESS Rack provides 28Vdc power, Ethernet and RS-422 data interfaces, thermal conditioning, vacuum exhaust, and Nitrogen supply for payload use. The EXPRESS Rack system also includes payload checkout capability with a flight rack or flight rack emulator prior to launch, providing a high degree of confidence in successful operations once an-orbit. In addition, EXPRESS trainer racks are provided to support crew training of both rack systems and subrack operations. Standard hardware and software interfaces provided by the EXPRESS Rack simplify the integration processes for ISS payload development. The EXPRESS Rack is designed to accommodate multidiscipline research, allowing for the independent operation of each subrack payload within a single rack. On-orbit operations began for the EXPRESS Rack Project on April 24, 2001, with one rack operating continuously to support high-priority payloads. The other on-orbit EXPRESS Racks operate based on payload need and resource availability. Over 50 multi-discipline payloads have now been supported on-orbit by the EXPRESS Rack Program. Sustaining engineering, logistics, and maintenance functions are in place to maintain hardware, operations and provide software upgrades. Additional EXPRESS Racks are planned for launch prior to ISS completion in support of long-term operations and the planned transition of the U.S. Segment to a National Laboratory.

  15. Finite element modeling of occlusal variation in durophagous tooth systems.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    In addition to breaking hard prey items, the teeth of durophagous predators must also resist failure under high loads. To understand the effects of morphology on tooth resistance to failure, finite element models were used to examine differences in total strain energy (J), first principal strain and the distribution of strains in a diversity of canonical durophagous tooth morphologies. By changing the way loads were applied to the models, I was also able to model the effects of large and small prey items. Tooth models with overall convex morphologies have higher in-model strains than those with a flat or concave occlusal surface. When a cusp is added to the tooth model, taller or thinner cusps increase in-model strain. While there is little difference in the relationships between tooth morphology and strain measurements for most models, there is a marked difference between effects of the large and small prey loads on the concave and flat tooth morphologies. Comparing these data with measurements of force required by these same morphologies to break prey items illustrates functional trade-offs between the need to prevent tooth failure under high loads by minimizing in-tooth strain versus the drive to reduce the total applied force.

  16. Algorithms for computer detection of symmetry elements in molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Beruski, Otávio; Vidal, Luciano N

    2014-02-01

    Simple procedures for the location of proper and improper rotations and reflexion planes are presented. The search is performed with a molecule divided into subsets of symmetrically equivalent atoms (SEA) which are analyzed separately as if they were a single molecule. This approach is advantageous in many aspects. For instance, in those molecules that are symmetric rotors, the number of atoms and the inertia tensor of the SEA provide one straight way to find proper rotations of any order. The algorithms are invariant to the molecular orientation and their computational cost is low, because the main information required to find symmetry elements is interatomic distances and the principal moments of the SEA. For example, our Fortran implementation, running on a single processor, took only a few seconds to locate all 120 symmetry operations of the large and highly symmetrical fullerene C720, belonging to the Ih point group. Finally, we show how the interatomic distances matrix of a slightly unsymmetrical molecule is used to symmetrize its geometry. PMID:24403016

  17. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station: The First Operational Payload on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; McFadin, Lou; Steiner, Mark D.; Conley, Carolynn L.

    2002-01-01

    As astronauts and cosmonauts have adapted to life on the International Space Station (ISS), they have found amateur radio and its connection to life on Earth to be a important on-board companion and a substantial psychological boost. Since its first use in November 2000, the first five expedition crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the Functional Cargo Block (also referred to as the FGB or Zarya module) to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. This paper will discuss the development, qualification, installation and operation of the amateur radio system. It will also discuss some of the challenges that the amateur radio international team of volunteers overcame to bring its first phase of equipment on ISS to fruition.

  18. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  19. The NASA ISS-RapidScat Mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.

    2013-12-01

    After NASA's QuikSCAT satellite stopped spinning on November 2009, an observational gap opened in the international ocean surface winds constellation of observing satellites that also includes EUMETSAT's ASCAT and ISRO's OSCAT. While QuikSCAT continues to provide calibration data to the ISRO OSCAT on OceanSat-2 scatterometer, these data are sorely limited due to the satellite's hampered capabilities. Recognizing this gap, NASA has put together in a matter of a few months the ISS-RapidScat mission, which is a partnership between JPL, the ISS, ESA, KSC, and SpaceX. This mission, expected to launch in spring of 2014, is a very low-cost mission, enabled by the creative use of spare parts and a very rapid development process that nevertheless has great benefit to the science and operational weather and marine support communities. Since it uses the QuikSCAT engineering model, the RapidScat data will be quite similar to QuikSAT's in terms of data quality and spatial resolution, although modest gains in the latter are foreseen. However, due to the lower orbit and inclination, the RapidScat swath will be approximately a factor of two smaller than QuikSCAT's, and its geographic coverage will be limited to latitudes smaller than about 55 deg. Nevertheless, the unique sampling capabilities of the ISS non-sun-synchronous orbit opens up new science applications not available for typical sun-synchronous scatterometers. Foremost among these, is the ability to provide many more data that are collocated in space and time with each of the satellites in the international scatterometer constellation. Sun-synchronous satellites typically see each other with a suitably small temporal separation at high latitudes, and therefore, cross-calibration is limited in terms of the conditions that occur. RapidScat's orbit enables coincident wind observations in nearly every orbit, with a global geographical distribution, which will enable the determination of the global patterns of wind biases

  20. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Orbiting approximately 400 km above the Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) is a unique research laboratory used to conduct ground-breaking science experiments in space. The ISS has eight Solar Array Wings (SAW), and each wing is 11.7 meters wide and 35.1 meters long. The SAWs are controlled individually to maximize power output, minimize stress to the ISS structure, and minimize interference with other ISS operations such as vehicle dockings and Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). The Solar Arrays are designed to operate at 160 Volts. These large, high power solar arrays are negatively grounded to the ISS and collect charged particles (predominately electrons) as they travel through the space plasma in the Earth's ionosphere. If not controlled, this collected charge causes floating potential variations which can result in arcing, causing injury to the crew during an EVA or damage to hardware [1]. The environmental catalysts for ISS floating potential variations include plasma density and temperature fluctuations and magnetic induction from the Earth's magnetic field. These alone are not enough to cause concern for ISS, but when they are coupled with the large positive potential on the solar arrays, floating potentials up to negative 95 Volts have been observed. Our goal is to differentiate the operationally induced fluctuations in floating potentials from the environmental causes. Differentiating will help to determine what charging can be controlled, and we can then design the proper operations controls for charge collection mitigation. Additionally, the knowledge of how high power solar arrays interact with the environment and what regulations or design techniques can be employed to minimize charging impacts can be applied to future programs.