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Sample records for iss elements systems

  1. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  2. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  3. Implementation of Leak Test Methods for the International Space Station (ISS) Elements, Systems and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Steve; Lvovsky, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS has Qualification and Acceptance Environmental Test Requirements document, SSP 41172 that includes many environmental tests such as Thermal vacuum & Cycling, Depress/Repress, Sinusoidal, Random, and Acoustic Vibration, Pyro Shock, Acceleration, Humidity, Pressure, Electromatic Interference (EMI)/Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMCO), etc. This document also includes (13) leak test methods for Pressure Integrity Verification of the ISS Elements, Systems, and Components. These leak test methods are well known, however, the test procedure for specific leak test method shall be written and implemented paying attention to the important procedural steps/details that, if omitted or deviated, could impact the quality of the final product and affect the crew safety. Such procedural steps/details for different methods include, but not limited to: - Sequence of testing, f or example, pressurization and submersion steps for Method I (Immersion); - Stabilization of the mass spectrometer leak detector outputs fo r Method II (vacuum Chamber or Bell jar); - Proper data processing an d taking a conservative approach while making predictions for on-orbit leakage rate for Method III(Pressure Change); - Proper Calibration o f the mass spectrometer leak detector for all the tracer gas (mostly Helium) Methods such as Method V (Detector Probe), Method VI (Hood), Method VII (Tracer Probe), Method VIII(Accumulation); - Usage of visibl ility aides for Method I (Immersion), Method IV (Chemical Indicator), Method XII (Foam/Liquid Application), and Method XIII (Hydrostatic/Visual Inspection); While some methods could be used for the total leaka ge (either internal-to-external or external-to-internal) rate requirement verification (Vacuum Chamber, Pressure Decay, Hood, Accumulation), other methods shall be used only as a pass/fail test for individual joints (e.g., welds, fittings, and plugs) or for troubleshooting purposes (Chemical Indicator, Detector Probe

  4. Results of the first stage (2002-2009) of investigation of higher plants onboard RS ISS, as an element of future closed Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Novikova, Nataliya; Sugimoto, Manabu

    A key task for biomedical human support in long-term manned space expeditions is the develop-ment of the Life Support System (LSS). It is expected that in the first continuous interplanetary expeditions LSS of only a few biological elements of the LSS, such as higher plants will be in-cluded. Therefore, investigations of growth and development of higher plants for consideration in the LSS are of high importance. In a period from October, 2002 to December 2009, 15 ex-periments on cultivation of different plants, including two genetically marked species of dwarf peas, a leaf vegetable strain of Mizuna, radish, barley and wheat were conducted in space greenhouse "LADA" onboard Russian Segment (RS) of International Space Station (ISS). The experiments resulted in the conclusion that the properties of growth and development of plants grown in space greenhouse "LADA" were unaffected by spaceflight conditions. In experiments conducted in a period from 2003 to 2005, it was shown for the first time that pea plants pre-serve reproductive functions, forming viable seeds during at least four continuous full cycles of ontogenesis ("seed to seed") under spaceflight conditions. No changes were found in the genetic apparatus of the pea plants in the four "space" generations. Since 2005, there have been routine collections of microbiological samples from the surfaces of the plants grown on-board in "LADA" greenhouse. Analysis has shown that the properties of contamination of the plants grown aboard by microorganism contain no abnormal patterns. Since 2008, the plants cultivated in "LADA" greenhouse have been frozen onboard RS ISS in the MELFI refrigerator and transferred to the Earth for further investigations. Investigations of Mizuna plants grown and frozen onboard of ISS, showed no differences between "ground control" and "space" plants in chemical and biochemical properties. There also no stress-response was found in kashinriki strain barley planted and frozen onboard ISS.

  5. Early Communication System (ECOMM) for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaylor, Kent; Tu, Kwei

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Early Communications System (ECOMM) was a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Avionic Systems Division (ASD) in-house developed communication system to provide early communications between the ISS and the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H). This system allows for low rate commands (link rate of 6 kbps) to be transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) from MCC-H to the ISS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Forward (SSA/) link service. This system also allows for low rate telemetry (link rate of 20.48 kbps) to be transmitted from ISS to MCC-H through the TDRSS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Return (SSAR) link service. In addition this system supports a JSC developed Onboard Communications Adapter (OCA) that allows for a two-way data exchange of 128 kbps between MCC-H and the ISS through TDRSS. This OCA data can be digital video/audio (two-way videoconference), and/or file transfers, and/or "white board". The key components of the system, the data formats used by the system to insure compatibility with the future ISS S-Band System, as well as how other vehicles may be able to use this system for their needs are discussed in this paper.

  6. ISS Update: High Rate Communications System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Diego Serna, Communications and Tracking Officer, about the High Rate Communications System. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the ha...

  7. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The air revitalization system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) provides the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation due to the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) media filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Segment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. These filters see a replacement interval, as part of maintenance, of 2-5 years dependent on location in the ISS. In this work, we present particulate removal efficiency, pressure drop, and leak test results for a sample set of 8 BFEs returned from the ISS after filter replacement. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS beyond 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  8. Upgrades to the ISS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruitt, Jennifer M.; Carter, Layne; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Kayatin, Mattthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) includes the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. The WRS has been operational on ISS since November 2008, producing over 21,000 L of potable water during that time. Though the WRS has performed well during this time, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications can reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper lists these modifications, how they improve WRS performance, and a status on the ongoing development effort.

  9. Battery Resistance Analysis of ISS Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newstadt, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    The computer package, SPACE (Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) was created by the members of LT-9D to perform power analysis and modeling of the electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS). Written in FORTRAN, SPACE comprises thousands of lines of code and has been used profficiently in analyzing missions to the ISS. LT-9D has also used its expertise recently to investigate the batteries onboard the Hubble telescope. During the summer of 2004, I worked with the members of LT-9D, under the care of Dave McKissock. Solar energy will power the ISS through eight solar arrays when the ISS is completed, although only two arrays are currently connected. During the majority of the periods of sunlight, the solar arrays provide enough energy for the ISS. However, rechargeable Nickel-Hydrogen batteries are used during eclipse periods or at other times when the solar arrays cannot be used (at docking for example, when the arrays are turned so that they will not be damaged by the Shuttle). Thirty-eight battery cells are connected in series, which make up an ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit). An ISS "battery" is composed of two ORUs. a great deal of time into finding the best way to represent them in SPACE. During my internship, I investigated the resistance of the ISS batteries. SPACE constructs plots of battery charge and discharge voltages vs. time using a constant current. To accommodate for a time-varying current, the voltages are adjusted using the formula, DeltaV = DeltaI * Cell Resistance. To enhance our model of the battery resistance, my research concentrated on several topics: investigating the resistance of a qualification unit battery (using data gathered by LORAL), comparing the resistance of the qualification unit to SPACE, looking at the internal resistance and wiring resistance, and examining the impact of possible recommended changes to SPACE. The ISS batteries have been found to be very difficult to model, and LT-9D has

  10. Battery Resistance Analysis of ISS Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newstadt, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    The computer package, SPACE (Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) was created by the members of LT-9D to perform power analysis and modeling of the electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS). Written in FORTRAN, SPACE comprises thousands of lines of code and has been used profficiently in analyzing missions to the ISS. LT-9D has also used its expertise recently to investigate the batteries onboard the Hubble telescope. During the summer of 2004, I worked with the members of LT-9D, under the care of Dave McKissock. Solar energy will power the ISS through eight solar arrays when the ISS is completed, although only two arrays are currently connected. During the majority of the periods of sunlight, the solar arrays provide enough energy for the ISS. However, rechargeable Nickel-Hydrogen batteries are used during eclipse periods or at other times when the solar arrays cannot be used (at docking for example, when the arrays are turned so that they will not be damaged by the Shuttle). Thirty-eight battery cells are connected in series, which make up an ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit). An ISS "battery" is composed of two ORUs. a great deal of time into finding the best way to represent them in SPACE. During my internship, I investigated the resistance of the ISS batteries. SPACE constructs plots of battery charge and discharge voltages vs. time using a constant current. To accommodate for a time-varying current, the voltages are adjusted using the formula, DeltaV = DeltaI * Cell Resistance. To enhance our model of the battery resistance, my research concentrated on several topics: investigating the resistance of a qualification unit battery (using data gathered by LORAL), comparing the resistance of the qualification unit to SPACE, looking at the internal resistance and wiring resistance, and examining the impact of possible recommended changes to SPACE. The ISS batteries have been found to be very difficult to model, and LT-9D has

  11. Shuttle and ISS Food Systems Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloeris, Vickie

    2000-01-01

    Russia and the U.S. provide the current International Space Station (ISS) food system. Each country contributes half of the food supply in their respective flight food packaging. All of the packaged flight food is stowed in Russian provided containers, which interface with the Service Module galley. Each country accepts the other's flight worthiness inspections and qualifications. Some of the food for the first ISS crew was launched to ISS inside the Service Module in July of 2000, and STS-106 in September 2000 delivered more food to the ISS. All subsequent food deliveries will be made by Progress, the Russian re-supply vehicle. The U.S. will ship their portion of food to Moscow for loading onto the Progress. Delivery schedules vary, but the goal is to maintain at least a 45-day supply onboard ISS at all times. The shelf life for ISS food must be at least one year, in order to accommodate the long delivery cycle and onboard storage. Preservation techniques utilized in the US food system include dehydration, thermo stabilization, intermediate moisture, and irradiation. Additional fresh fruits and vegetables will be sent with each Progress and Shuttle flights as permitted by volume allotments. There is limited refrigeration available on the Service Module to store fresh fruits and vegetables. Astronauts and cosmonauts eat half U.S. and half Russian food. Menu planning begins 1 year before a planned launch. The flight crews taste food in the U.S. and in Russia and rate the acceptability. A preliminary menu is planned, based on these ratings and the nutritional requirements. The preliminary menu is then evaluated by the crews while training in Russia. Inputs from this evaluation are used to finalize the menu and flight packaging is initiated. Flight food is delivered 6 weeks before launch. The current challenge for the food system is meeting the nutritional requirements, especially no more than 10 mg iron, and 3500 mg sodium. Experience from Shuttle[Mir also indicated

  12. Upgrades to the ISS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayatin, Matthew; Takada, Kevin; Carter, Layne

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) includes the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. Though the WRS has performed well since operations began in November 2008, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications can reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper details efforts to improve the WPA through the use of Reverse Osmosis technology to reduce the resupply mass of the WPA Multifiltration Bed and improved catalyst for the WPA Catalytic Reactor to reduce the operational temperature and pressure. For the UPA, this paper discusses progress on various concepts for improving the reliability of the UPA, including the implementation of a more reliable drive belt, improved methods for managing condensate in the stationary bowl of the Distillation Assembly, deleting the Separator Plumbing Assembly, and evaluating upgrades to the UPA vacuum pump.

  13. Cardiomed System for Medical Monitoring Onboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, J. C.; Aubry, P.; Nguyen, L.; Kozharinov, V.; Grachev, V.; Temnova, E.

    2008-06-01

    Cardiomed system was developed with two main objectives: (1) cardiovascular medical monitoring of cosmonauts onboard ISS together with LBNP countermeasure; (2) scientific study of the cardio-vascular system in micro-gravity. Cardiomed is an integrated end-to-end system, from the onboard segment operating different medical instruments, to the ground segment which provides real-time telemetry of on-board experiments and off-line analysis of physiological measurements. In the first part of the paper, Cardiomed is described from an architecture point of view together with some typical uses. In the second part, the most constraining requirements with respect to system design are introduced. Some requirements are generic; some are specific to medical follow-up, others to scientific objectives. In the last part, the main technical challenges which were addressed during the development and the qualification of Cardiomed and the lessons learnt are presented.

  14. Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The air quality control equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provide the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Seg-ment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. In our previous work, we presented results of efficiency and pressure drop measurements for a sample set of two returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years. In this follow-on work, we present similar efficiency, pressure drop, and leak tests results for a larger sample set of six returned BFEs. The results of this work can aid the ISS Program in managing BFE logistics inventory through the stations planned lifetime as well as provide insight for managing filter element logistics for future exploration missions. These results also can provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  15. Upgrades to the ISS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayatin, Matthew J.; Carter, Donald L.; Schunk, Richard G.; Pruitt, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station Water Recovery System (WRS) is comprised of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The WRS produces potable water from a combination of crew urine (first processed through the UPA), crew latent, and Sabatier product water. Though the WRS has performed well since operations began in November 2008, several modifications have been identified to improve the overall system performance. These modifications can reduce resupply and improve overall system reliability, which is beneficial for the ongoing ISS mission as well as for future NASA manned missions. The following paper details efforts to reduce the resupply mass of the WPA Multifiltration Bed, develop improved catalyst for the WPA Catalytic Reactor, evaluate optimum operation of UPA through parametric testing, and improve reliability of the UPA fluids pump and Distillation Assembly.

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2003-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2003 and March 2004. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  17. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2003-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2003 and March 2004. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  18. On-Orbit Propulsion System Performance of ISS Visiting Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Mary Regina M.; Swanson, Robert A.; Kamath, Ulhas P.; Hernandez, Francisco J.; Spencer, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents the culmination of over two decades of unprecedented global human endeavors to conceive, design, build and operate a research laboratory in space. Uninterrupted human presence in space since the inception of the ISS has been made possible by an international fleet of space vehicles facilitating crew rotation, delivery of science experiments and replenishment of propellants and supplies. On-orbit propulsion systems on both ISS and Visiting Vehicles are essential to the continuous operation of the ISS. This paper compares the ISS visiting vehicle propulsion systems by providing an overview of key design drivers, operational considerations and performance characteristics. Despite their differences in design, functionality, and purpose, all visiting vehicles must adhere to a common set of interface requirements along with safety and operational requirements. This paper addresses a wide variety of methods for satisfying these requirements and mitigating credible hazards anticipated during the on-orbit life of propulsion systems, as well as the seamless integration necessary for the continued operation of the ISS.

  19. Filter Efficiency and Leak Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements After 2.5 Years of Continuous Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere revitalization equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provides the vital functions of maintaining a habitable environment for the crew as well as protecting the hardware from fouling by suspended particulate matter. Providing these functions are challenging in pressurized spacecraft cabins because no outside air ventilation is possible and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation in reduced gravity conditions. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each module. These filters are referred to as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs). As more experience has been gained with ISS operations, the BFE service life, which was initially one year, has been extended to two to five years, dependent on the location in the U.S. Segment. In previous work we developed a test facility and test protocol for leak testing the ISS BFEs. For this work, we present results of leak testing a sample set of returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years, along with particulate removal efficiency and pressure drop measurements. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS to 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  20. Preparation and Launch of the JEM ISS Elements - A NASA Mission Manager's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The pre-flight launch site preparations and launch of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) elements of the International Space Station required an intense multi-year, international collaborative effort between US and Japanese personnel at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This presentation will provide a brief overview of KSC, a brief overview of the ISS, and a summary of authors experience managing the NASA team responsible that supported and conducted the JEM element operations.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-14

    Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, works with a series of cables on the EXPRESS Rack in the United State's Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). The EXPRESS Rack is a standardized payload rack system that transports, stores, and supports experiments aboard the ISS. EXPRESS stands for EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to the Space Station, reflecting the fact that this system was developed specifically to maximize the Station's research capabilities. The EXPRESS Rack system supports science payloads in several disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, and medicine. With the EXPRESS Rack, getting experiments to space has never been easier or more affordable. With its standardized hardware interfaces and streamlined approach, the EXPRESS Rack enables quick, simple integration of multiple payloads aboard the ISS. The system is comprised of elements that remain on the ISS, as well as elements that travel back and forth between the ISS and Earth via the Space Shuttle.

  2. ISS-CREAM Thermal and Fluid System Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Rosemary S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. The ISS-CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station) payload is being developed by an international team and will provide significant cosmic ray characterization over a long time frame. Cold fluid provided by the ISS Exposed Facility (EF) is the primary means of cooling for 5 science instruments and over 7 electronics boxes. Thermal fluid integrated design and analysis was performed for CREAM using a Thermal Desktop model. This presentation will provide some specific design and modeling examples from the fluid cooling system, complex SCD (Silicon Charge Detector) and calorimeter hardware, and integrated payload and ISS level modeling. Features of Thermal Desktop such as CAD simplification, meshing of complex hardware, External References (Xrefs), and FloCAD modeling will be discussed.

  3. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Drop Testing of Returned Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon M.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The air quality control equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provide the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Seg-ment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. In our previous work, we presented results of efficiency and pressure drop measurements for a sample set of two returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years. In this follow-on work, we present similar efficiency, pressure drop, and leak tests results for a larger sample set of six returned BFEs. The results of this work can aid the ISS Program in managing BFE logistics inventory through the stations planned lifetime as well as provide insight for managing filter element logistics for future exploration missions. These results also can provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  4. Multi-Element Integration Test on ISS components under way in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In The Space Station Processing Facility, a Multi-Element Integration Test (MEIT) is underway to ensure components of the International Space Station work together before they are launched into orbit. Within the framework at right is the U.S. Lab, called Destiny; at left is the Z-1 truss. The current MEIT combines the P-6 photovoltaic module, the Z-1 truss and the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3. Electrical and fluid connections are being hooked up to verify how the ISS elements operate together.

  5. Inflatable System Verification towards AURORA using ISS as Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischof, B.

    2002-01-01

    e to implement an optical window through the flexible structure and an own power supply by utility of an unfoldable solar array and also an active thermal control system. In a first step the objective of the technology project is the implementation of a ground test model allowing to verify the system for the planned space mission to the ISS.The ground test model will be completed until the end of this year,followed by tests which will lead to the begin of a design and development phase for the flight module at the end of 2003. In 2001 an optical window has been installed into the flexible shell as well as an deployable platform for the camera and the payload units. The system has been tested already for pressure tightness and for the deploying procedures. During the last months the design and test of a M/OD impact protection system has been performed and will be integrated within the next months. The project shall pave the way to build larger manned inflatable compartments for missions to moon and mars. A further step could be the implementation of a larger inflatable living module at the ISS as an enhancement of ISS habitation capacity.

  6. ISS Efforts to Fully Utilize its Target Acquisition Capability Serves as an Analog for Future Laser Pointing Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The ISS is an outstanding platform for developing, testing and refining laser communications systems for future exploration. A recent ISS project which improved ISS communications satellite acquisition performance proves the platform’s utility as a laser communications systems testbed.

  7. Innovative Imagery System for Enhanced Habitability Onboard ISS: Desired Features and Possible Hardware Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Byrne, Vicky

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of the ISS and the experience of Russian, European, and US crewmembers on Mir, the importance of the psychological element in long duration missions is increasingly recognized. An integrated imagery system or Magic Window System could enhance the habitability, performance, and productivity for long term stays in space. Because this is type of system is a new concept for space, functional and technical requirements need to be determined. As part of a three-year project, the functional and technical requirements for an Imagery System onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been explored. Valuable information was gathered from a survey completed by participants that had been in analog environments (remote/isolated) such as Antarctica, Aquarius, ISS crewmember debriefs, and crew support meetings to identify key functions desired for an integrated Magic Window System. Exercise and medical care activities were identified as areas that could benefit from such a system. It was determined that for exercise, it was worth exploring the concept of displaying a dynamic screen that changes as the crewmember's speed changes while showing physiological measures in a combined display. In terms of enhancing the interfaces for medical care activities, the Magic Window System could show video clips along side procedures for just-in-time training scenarios through a heads-up display. In addition, the portability, usability, and reliability were stressed as important considerations for an integrated system of technologies or Magic Window System. In addition, a review of state-of-the-art screens and other existing technologies such as tablet PCs and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) was conducted and contributed to defining technical requirements and feasibility of systems. Some heuristic evaluations of large displays and PDAs were conducted. Finally, feasibility for implementation onboard ISS has been considered. Currently, specific headset units are

  8. Evolution of International Space Station GN&C System Across ISS Assembly Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Roscoe; Frank, K. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system for the International Space Station is initially implemented by the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) which was built by the Khrunichev Space Center under direct contract to Boeing. This element (Stage 1A/R) was launched on 20 November 1998 and is currently operating on-orbit. The components and capabilities of the FGB Motion Control System (MCS) are described. The next ISS element, which has GN&C functionality will be the Service Module (SM) built by Rocket Space Corporation-Energia. This module is scheduled for launch (Stage 1R) in early 2000. Following activation of the SM GN&C system, the FGB MCS is deactivated and no longer used. The components and capabilities of the SM GN&C system are described. When a Progress vehicle is attached to the ISS it can be used for reboost operations, based on commands provided by the Mission Control Center-Moscow. When a data connection is implemented between the SM and the Progress, the SM can command the Progress thrusters for attitude control and reboosts. On Stage 5A, the U.S. GN&C system will become activated when the U.S. Laboratory is de loyed and installed (launch schedule is currently TBD). The U.S. GN&C system provides non-propulsive control capabilities to support micro-gravity operations and minimize the use of propellant for attitude control, and an independent capability for determining the ISS state vector, attitude, attitude rate. and time.. The components and capabilities of the U.S. GN&C system are described and the interactions between the U.S. and Russian Segment GN&C systems are also described.

  9. Status of the ISS Trace Contaminant Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Perry, Jay L.; Johnson, Sharon A.; Belcher, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    A habitable atmosphere is a fundamental requirement for human spaceflight. To meet such a requirement, the cabin atmosphere must be constantly scrubbed to maintain human life and system functionality. The primary system for atmospheric scrubbing of the US on-orbit segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS). As part of the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) atmosphere revitalization rack in the US Lab, the TCCS operates continuously, scrubbing trace contaminants generated primarily by two sources: the metabolic offgassing of crew members and the offgassing of equipment in the ISS. It has been online for approximately 95% since activated in February 2001. The TCCS is comprised of a charcoal bed, a catalytic oxidizer, and a lithium hydroxide post-sorbent bed, all of which are designed to be replaced onorbit when necessary. In 2006, all three beds were replaced following an observed increase in the system resistance that occurred over a period several months. The beds were returned to ground and subjected to a test, teardown and evaluation to investigate the root cause(s) of the decrease in flow rate through the system. In addition, various chemical and physical analyses of the bed materials were performed to determine contaminant loading and any changes in performance. This paper will mainly focus on the results of these analyses and how this correlates with what has been observed from archival sampling and onorbit events. This may provide insight into the future performance of the TCCS and rate of change for orbital replacement units in the TCCS.

  10. Status of the ISS Trace Contaminant Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Perry, Jay L.; Johnson, Sharon A.; Belcher, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    A habitable atmosphere is a fundamental requirement for human spaceflight. To meet such a requirement, the cabin atmosphere must be constantly scrubbed to maintain human life and system functionality. The primary system for atmospheric scrubbing of the US on-orbit segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS). As part of the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) atmosphere revitalization rack in the US Lab, the TCCS operates continuously, scrubbing trace contaminants generated primarily by two sources: the metabolic offgassing of crew members and the offgassing of equipment in the ISS. It has been online for approximately 95% since activated in February 2001. The TCCS is comprised of a charcoal bed, a catalytic oxidizer, and a lithium hydroxide post-sorbent bed, all of which are designed to be replaced onorbit when necessary. In 2006, all three beds were replaced following an observed increase in the system resistance that occurred over a period several months. The beds were returned to ground and subjected to a test, teardown and evaluation to investigate the root cause(s) of the decrease in flow rate through the system. In addition, various chemical and physical analyses of the bed materials were performed to determine contaminant loading and any changes in performance. This paper will mainly focus on the results of these analyses and how this correlates with what has been observed from archival sampling and onorbit events. This may provide insight into the future performance of the TCCS and rate of change for orbital replacement units in the TCCS.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: 2010-2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Cover, John

    2015-01-01

    Nov 2, 2014 marked the completion of the 14th year of continuous human presence in space on board the International Space Station (ISS). After 42 expedition crews, over 115 assembly & utilization flights, over 180 combined Shuttle/Station, US & Russian Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), the post-Assembly-Complete ISS continues to fly and the engineering teams continue to learn from operating its systems, particularly the life support equipment. Problems with initial launch, assembly and activation of ISS elements have given way to more long term system operating trends. New issues have emerged, some with gestation periods measured in years. Major events and challenges for each U.S. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) subsystem occurring during calendar years 2010 through 2014 are summarily discussed in this paper, along with look-aheads for what might be coming in the future for each U.S. ECLS subsystem.

  12. Internet-Based System for Voice Communication With the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James; Myers, Gerry; Clem, David; Speir, Terri

    2005-01-01

    The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) is a voice-communication system that comprises mainly computer hardware and software. The IVoDS was developed to supplement and eventually replace the Enhanced Voice Distribution System (EVoDS), which, heretofore, has constituted the terrestrial subsystem of a system for voice communications among crewmembers of the International Space Station (ISS), workers at the Payloads Operations Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, principal investigators at diverse locations who are responsible for specific payloads, and others. The IVoDS utilizes a communication infrastructure of NASA and NASArelated intranets in addition to, as its name suggests, the Internet. Whereas the EVoDS utilizes traditional circuitswitched telephony, the IVoDS is a packet-data system that utilizes a voice over Internet protocol (VOIP). Relative to the EVoDS, the IVoDS offers advantages of greater flexibility and lower cost for expansion and reconfiguration. The IVoDS is an extended version of a commercial Internet-based voice conferencing system that enables each user to participate in only one conference at a time. In the IVoDS, a user can receive audio from as many as eight conferences simultaneously while sending audio to one of them. The IVoDS also incorporates administrative controls, beyond those of the commercial system, that provide greater security and control of the capabilities and authorizations for talking and listening afforded to each user.

  13. Evaluating the Medical Kit System for the International Space Station(ISS) - A Paradigm Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, Melinda J.; Urbina, Michelle C.; Hughlett, Jessica L.; Gilmore, Stevan; Locke, James; Reyna, Baraquiel; Smith, Gwyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been packaged to help astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) mitigate both urgent and non-urgent medical issues during their 6-month expeditions. Two ISS crewmembers are designated as CMOs for each 3-crewmember mission and are typically not physicians. In addition, the ISS may have communication gaps of up to 45 minutes during each orbit, necessitating medical equipment that can be reliably operated autonomously during flight. The retirement of the space shuttle combined with ten years of manned ISS expeditions led the Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to reassess the current ISS Medical Kit System. This reassessment led to the system being streamlined to meet future logistical considerations with current Russian space vehicles and future NASA/commercial space vehicle systems. Methods The JSC Space Medicine Division coordinated the development of requirements, fabrication of prototypes, and conducted usability testing for the new ISS Medical Kit System in concert with implementing updated versions of the ISS Medical Check List and associated in-flight software applications. The teams constructed a medical kit system with the flexibility for use on the ISS, and resupply on the Russian Progress space vehicle and future NASA/commercial space vehicles. Results Prototype systems were developed, reviewed, and tested for implementation. Completion of Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews resulted in a streamlined ISS Medical Kit System that is being used for training by ISS crews starting with Expedition 27 (June 2011). Conclusions The team will present the process for designing, developing, , implementing, and training with this new ISS Medical Kit System.

  14. Improved Emergency Egress Lighting System for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Leslie L.; Barr, Don A.

    2005-01-01

    Emergency lights provide illumination in corridors, stairwells, ramps, escalators, aisles, and exit passageways during power failures. Safety and visibility are critical during a power outage. If emergency lights fail to operate properly, the building occupants can become disoriented. Four documents in a collection discuss different topics relating to a proposed improved emergency egress lighting system (EELS) for the International Space Station (ISS). While the present EELS is designed around rows of green-light-emitting diodes, the proposed system contains strips of electroluminescent tape using different colors for each egress path. The proposed EELS can be powered by the same battery currently used by the present EELS, but would require an inverter because electroluminescent devices require AC. Electroluminescent devices also require significantly less current and, depending on the color, would emit 3 to 8 times the light of the present EELS. In addition, they could operate for up to 75 hours (versus .20 minutes for the present system). The first document contains a one-page summary of the proposal and an evaluation of technical merit. The second document summarizes the motivation for, and the design of, the proposed EELS. The third document addresses relevant aspects of the measurement of spectral sensitivity and the psychophysics of perception of light. The fourth document presents additional background information and technical specifications for the electroluminescent tapes.

  15. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  16. On Orbit ISS Oxygen Generation System Operation Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diderich, Greg S.; Polis, Pete; VanKeuren, Steven P.; Erickson, Robert; Mason, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) has accumulated almost a year of operation at varied oxygen production rates within the US Laboratory Module (LAB) since it was first activated in July 2007. It was operated intermittently through 2009 and 2010, due to filter clogging and acid accumulation in the recirculation loop. Since the installation of a deionizing bed in the recirculation loop in May of 2011 the OGA has been operated continuously. Filters in the recirculation loop have clogged and have been replaced. Hydrogen sensors have drifted apart, and a power failure may have condensed water on a hydrogen sensor. A pump delta pressure sensor failed, and a replacement new spare pump failed to start. Finally, the voltage across the cell stack increased out of tolerance due to cation contamination, and the cell stack was replaced. This paper will discuss the operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  17. The ISS Increments 3 and 4 Test Report: For the Active Rack Isolation System ISS Characterization Experiment (ARIS-ICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quraishi, Naveed; Allen, Jim; Bushnell, Glenn; Fialho, Ian

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of ARIS-ICE is to improve, optimize then operationally test and document the performance of the ARIS system on the International Space Station. The ICE program required testing across a full 3 increments (2 through 4). This paper represents the operational report summarizing our accomplishments through the third and fourth increment of testing. The main objectives and results of the increment two testing are discussed in The Increment two Operational Report. This report can be obtained from the ISS Payloads Office or from (http://iss-www.isc.nasa.gov/sslissapt/payofc/OZ3/ARIS.html). In summary these were to ensure the smooth and successful activation of the system and correct operational issues related to long term testing. Then the follow on increment 3 & 4 testing encompassed the majority of the on orbit performance assessments and improvements made to the ARIS system. The intent here is to report these preliminary results of the increment 3 & 4 ARIS-ICE testing as well as the ARIS system improvements made for our users and customers.

  18. A Selected Operational History of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) for International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Vipul P.; Winton, Dale; Ibarra, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) has been developed jointly by Boeing Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama and Honeywell Engines & Systems, Torrance, California to meet the internal thermal control needs for the International Space Station (ISS). The ITCS provides heat removal for the critical life support systems and thermal conditioning for numerous experiment racks. The ITCS will be fitted on a number of modules on the ISS. The first US Element containing the ITCS, Node 1, was launched in December 1998. Since Node 1 does not contain a pump to circulate the fluid it was not filled with ITCS fluid until after the US Laboratory Module was installed. The second US Element module, US Laboratory Module, which contains the pumps and all the major ITCS control hardware, was launched in February 2001. The third US Element containing the ITCS, the US Airlock, was launched in July 2001. The dual loop system of the ITCS is comprised of a lowtemperature loop (LTL) and a moderate-temperature loop (MTL). Each loop has a pump package assembly (PPA), a system flow control assembly (SFCA), a threeway mixing valve (TWMV), several rack flow control assemblies (RFCA), cold plates, pressure sensors, temperature sensors, pump bypass assembly (PBA) and a heat exchanger. In addition, the MTL has an additional TWMV, a payload regeneration heat exchanger (P/RHE) and a manual flow control valve (MFCV). The LTL has a service performance and checkout unit (SPCU) heat exchanger. The two loops are linked via one loop crossover assembly (LCA) providing cross loop capabilities and a single PPA, two-loop functionality. One important parameter monitored by the ground stations and on-orbit is the amount of fluid leakage from the ITCS. ISS fluid leakage is of importance since ITCS fluid is costly to re-supply, may be difficult to clean up in zero-g, and if uncontained could lead to equipment failures and potential hazards. This paper examines the nominal leakage observed over period of a year

  19. ISERV Pathfinder. The ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Burgess

    2011-01-01

    SERVIR integrates Earth observations (e.g., space imagery), predictive models, and in situ data to provide timely information products to support environmental decision makers. ISERV propoesed development -- ISERV-W: Internal Visible/Near-Infrared (VNIR), attached to ISS via Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), ISERV-E: External Visible/Broad-Infrared (V/IR) and ISERV-PM: External Passive Microwave.

  20. Instructional Support System (ISS): An Overview for Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    other person or corporation ; or as conveying any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may in any way be...software to run on IBM- comnatible hardware. ISS is a Government-owned product written in Ada in a modular format, enabling it to run on machines

  1. ISS Expedition 18 Komparus A3 System Repair and Replace OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-05

    ISS018-E-007610 (5 Nov. 2008) --- Cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov, Expedition 18 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Komparus A3 System in the Zarya module of the International Space Station.

  2. ISS Expedition 18 Fincke on Cycle Egrometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-29

    ISS018-E-005710 (29 Oct. 2008) --- Astronaut Michael Fincke, Expedition 18 commander, exercises on the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. AN-Type Fittings in the International Space System (ISS) Node 2 Ammonia System Technical Assessment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cragg, Clinton H.; Dibbern, Andreas W.; Beil, Robert J.; Terrone, Mark; Rotter, Henry A.; Ernest, Steve; Frankenfield, Bruce; Solano, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Based on an anonymous request, an NESC Assessment Team was formed to investigate potential leakage problems from the ISS Program's Node 2 Anhydrous Ammonia System AN fittings. The Team's charter was to provide the ISS Program with a path to follow, which could include testing, to ensure the ISS Program felt confident that the AN fittings' leakage would not exceed specified limits in orbit. The findings from that assessment are contained in this document.

  4. CHeCS (Crew Health Care Systems): International Space Station (ISS) Medical Hardware Catalog. Version 10.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this catalog is to provide a detailed description of each piece of hardware in the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS), including subpacks associated with the hardware, and to briefly describe the interfaces between the hardware and the ISS. The primary user of this document is the Space Medicine/Medical Operations ISS Biomedical Flight Controllers (ISS BMEs).

  5. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS) for Vehicle Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Mahammad A.; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications. PMID:22205861

  6. System interface for an integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) for vehicle applications.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Mahammad A; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications.

  7. The International Scoring System (ISS) for multiple myeloma remains a robust prognostic tool independently of patients' renal function.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, M A; Kastritis, E; Michalis, E; Tsatalas, C; Michael, M; Pouli, A; Kartasis, Z; Delimpasi, S; Gika, D; Zomas, A; Roussou, M; Konstantopoulos, K; Parcharidou, A; Zervas, K; Terpos, E

    2012-03-01

    The International Staging System (ISS) is the most widely used staging system for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, serum β2-microglobulin increases in renal impairment (RI) and there have been concerns that ISS-3 stage may include 'up-staged' MM patients in whom elevated β2-microglobulin reflects the degree of renal dysfunction rather than tumor load. In order to assess the impact of RI on the prognostic value of ISS, we analyzed 1516 patients with symptomatic MM and the degree of RI was classified according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative-Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) criteria. Forty-eight percent patients had stages 3-5 CKD while 29% of patients had ISS-1, 38% had ISS-2 and 33% ISS-3. The frequency and severity of RI were more common in ISS-3 patients. RI was associated with inferior survival in univariate but not in multivariate analysis. When analyzed separately, ISS-1 and ISS-2 patients with RI had inferior survival in univariate but not in multivariate analysis. In ISS-3 MM patients, RI had no prognostic impact either in univariate or multivariate analysis. Results were similar, when we analyzed only patients with Bence-Jones >200 mg/day. ISS remains unaffected by the degree of RI, even in patients with ISS-3, which includes most patients with renal dysfunction.

  8. Interorbit Communication System in Japanese Experiment Module- Control for the RF Energy Radiation to ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Naoki; Yoshihara, Toru; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Ijiri, Tatsuya; Wakabyashi, Yasufumi

    2005-12-01

    The JEM Inter orbit Communication System (JEM- ICS) is a part of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM /KIBO) that is the Japanese experimental facility in the ISS. JEM-ICS is expected to transmit JEM experiment data as much as possible. However certain portion of the antenna viewing angle is interfered by huge ISS structure and the operations time of JEM-ICS is restricted for visiting vehicles and Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Those two aspects need special consideration to avoid hurting flight crew and causing malfunction of hardware such as Orbiter, EMU (Extravehicular Maneuvering / Mobility Unit) and ISS modules. Several safety considerations have been incorporated into JEM-ICS RF radiation design. The system has hardware stoppers to restrict RF radiation angle facing to the ISS module and software masks to avoid direct radiation to the ISS Solar Paddle. JEM-ICS is controlled not to radiate RF during EVA and visiting vehicles' traffic. This paper describes how JAXA designed the JEM-ICS RF radiation to satisfy ISS safety requirements.

  9. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weirong; Palm, Lars; Lu, Xin; Nie, Shaofa; Xu, Biao; Zhao, Qi; Tao, Tao; Cheng, Liwei; Tan, Li; Dong, Hengjin; Diwan, Vinod K

    2013-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS) for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP), combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1) work group and communication group; 2) data source and collection; 3) data visualization; and 4) outbreak detection and alerting. As of Jan. 31(st) 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  10. Evaluation of Human Research Facility Ultrasound With the ISS Video System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Shannon; Sargsyan, Ashot

    2003-01-01

    Most medical equipment on the International Space Station (ISS) is manifested as part of the U.S. or the Russian medical hardware systems. However, certain medical hardware is also available as part of the Human Research Facility. The HRF and the JSC Medical Operations Branch established a Memorandum of Agreement for joint use of certain medical hardware, including the HRF ultrasound system, the only diagnostic imaging device currently manifested to fly on ISS. The outcome of a medical contingency may be changed drastically, or an unnecessary evacuation may be prevented, if clinical decisions are supported by timely and objective diagnostic information. In many higher-probability medical scenarios, diagnostic ultrasound is a first-choice modality or provides significant diagnostic information. Accordingly, the Clinical Care Capability Development Project is evaluating the HRF ultrasound system for its utility in relevant clinical situations on board ISS. For effective management of these ultrasound-supported ISS medical scenarios, the resulting data should be available for viewing and interpretation on the ground, and bidirectional voice communication should be readily available to allow ground experts (sonographers, physicians) to provide guidance to the Crew Medical Officer. It may also be vitally important to have the capability of real-time guidance via video uplink to the CMO-operator during an exam to facilitate the diagnosis in a timely fashion. In this document, we strove to verify that the HRF ultrasound video output is compatible with the ISS video system, identify ISS video system field rates and resolutions that are acceptable for varying clinical scenaiios, and evaluate the HRF ultrasound video with a commercial, off-the-shelf video converter, and compare it with the ISS video system.

  11. Exploration Platform in the Earth-Moon Libration System Based on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Derechin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) industry partners have been working for the past two years on concepts using ISS development methods and residual assets to support a broad range of exploration missions. These concepts have matured along with planning details for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to allow serious consideration for a platform located in the Earth-Moon Libration (EML) system. This platform would provide a flexible basis for future exploration missions and would significantly reduce costs because it will enable re-use of expensive spacecraft and reduce the total number of launches needed to accomplish these missions. ISS provides a robust set of methods which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. We will show how ISS can be used to reduce risk and improve operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit through the development of a new Exploration Platform based in the EML system. The benefits of using the EML system as a gateway will be presented along with additional details of a lunar exploration mission concept. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. We will show how technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the new exploration challenge. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Finally, we will describe how the EML Platform could be built and deployed and how International access for crew and cargo could be provided.

  12. Exploration Platform in the Earth-Moon Libration System Based on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Derechin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) industry partners have been working for the past two years on concepts using ISS development methods and residual assets to support a broad range of exploration missions. These concepts have matured along with planning details for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to allow serious consideration for a platform located in the Earth-Moon Libration (EML) system. This platform would provide a flexible basis for future exploration missions and would significantly reduce costs because it will enable re-use of expensive spacecraft and reduce the total number of launches needed to accomplish these missions. ISS provides a robust set of methods which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. We will show how ISS can be used to reduce risk and improve operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit through the development of a new Exploration Platform based in the EML system. The benefits of using the EML system as a gateway will be presented along with additional details of a lunar exploration mission concept. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. We will show how technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the new exploration challenge. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Finally, we will describe how the EML Platform could be built and deployed and how International access for crew and cargo could be provided.

  13. Implementation of a Water Flow Control System into the ISS'S Planned Fluids & Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Daryl A.

    2003-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) will become an ISS facility capable of performing basic combustion and fluids research. The facility consists of two independent payload racks specifically configured to support multiple experiments over the life of the ISS. Both racks will depend upon the ISS's Moderate Temperature Loop (MTL) for removing waste heat generated by the avionics and experiments operating within the racks. By using the MTL, constraints are imposed by the ISS vehicle on how the coolant resource is used. On the other hand, the FCF depends upon effective thermal control for maximizing life of the hardware and for supplying proper boundary conditions for the experiments. In the implementation of a design solution, significant factors in the selection of the hardware included ability to measure and control relatively low flow rates, ability to throttle flow within the time constraints of the ISS MTL, conserve energy usage, observe low mass and small volume requirements. An additional factor in the final design solution selection was considering how the system would respond to a loss of power event. This paper describes the method selected to satisfy the FCF design requirements while maintaining the constraints applied by the ISS vehicle.

  14. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry; Taylor ,Brandon W.

    2012-01-01

    Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System. With the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet retired, the supply of extremely high-quality water "super-Q" - required for the EMU Space suit cooling on this ISS - will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. A proposed potential solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semi-permeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins. Aquaporins are a special class of trans-membrane proteins that facilitate passive transport of water and other substances across a membrane. The specificity of these proteins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and this novel property invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically usage on the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are found in many living systems and have been developed for commercial use today.

  15. Instructional Support System (ISS): Upgrading the Vax Prototype and Development of the Zenith-248 Micro-Based ISS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    following process converted ISS to the validated DEC Ada compiler: 1. The software was "frozen" on the nonvalidated version of the source code. 2. The...converted to coincide with the validated Ada source code. 9. Test procedures were run for the following software : a. User Editor (UserEd) b. CAI Authoring...documentation. They developed within code or inline documentation of the ISS application software source code as follows: 1. A document specification was

  16. Methodology and Assumptions of Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Calculations Using ISS Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee; Shkedi, Brienne

    2006-01-01

    The current International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system is designed to support an ISS crew size of three people. The capability to expand that system to support nine crew members during a Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) scenario has been evaluated. This paper describes how the ISS ECLS systems may be operated for supporting CSCS, and the durations expected for the oxygen supply and carbon dioxide control subsystems.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-07

    In this image, STS-97 astronaut and mission specialist Carlos I. Noriega waves at a crew member inside Endeavor's cabin during the mission's final session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000, the STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  18. Commonalities and Differences in Functional Safety Systems Between ISS Payloads and Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, Mikhail; Kreimer, Johannes

    2013-09-01

    Safety analyses for electrical, electronic and/or programmable electronic (E/E/EP) safety-related systems used in payload applications on-board the International Space Station (ISS) are often based on failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). For industrial applications of E/E/EP safety-related systems, comparable strategies exist and are defined in the IEC-61508 standard. This standard defines some quantitative criteria based on potential failure modes (for example, Safe Failure Fraction). These criteria can be calculated for an E/E/EP system or components to assess their compliance to requirements of a particular Safety Integrity Level (SIL). The standard defines several SILs depending on how much risk has to be mitigated by a safety-critical system. When a FMECA is available for an ISS payload or its subsystem, it may be possible to calculate the same or similar parameters as defined in the 61508 standard. One example of a payload that has a dedicated functional safety subsystem is the Electromagnetic Levitator (EML). This payload for the ISS is planned to be operated on-board starting 2014. The EML is a high-temperature materials processing facility. The dedicated subsystem "Hazard Control Electronics" (HCE) is implemented to ensure compliance to failure tolerance in limiting samples processing parameters to maintain generation of the potentially toxic by-products to safe limits in line with the requirements applied to the payloads by the ISS Program. The objective of this paper is to assess the implementation of the HCE in the EML against criteria for functional safety systems in the IEC-61508 standard and to evaluate commonalities and differences with respect to safety requirements levied on ISS Payloads. An attempt is made to assess a possibility of using commercially available components and systems certified for compliance to industrial functional safety standards in ISS payloads.

  19. ISS-based Development of Elements and Operations for Robotic Assembly of A Space Solar Power Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valinia, Azita; Moe, Rud; Seery, Bernard D.; Mankins, John C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a concept for an ISS-based optical system assembly demonstration designed to advance technologies related to future large in-space optical facilities deployment, including space solar power collectors and large-aperture astronomy telescopes. The large solar power collector problem is not unlike the large astronomical telescope problem, but at least conceptually it should be easier in principle, given the tolerances involved. We strive in this application to leverage heavily the work done on the NASA Optical Testbed Integration on ISS Experiment (OpTIIX) effort to erect a 1.5 m imaging telescope on the International Space Station (ISS). Specifically, we examine a robotic assembly sequence for constructing a large (meter diameter) slightly aspheric or spherical primary reflector, comprised of hexagonal mirror segments affixed to a lightweight rigidizing backplane structure. This approach, together with a structured robot assembler, will be shown to be scalable to the area and areal densities required for large-scale solar concentrator arrays.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-01

    The Quest Airlock is in the process of being installed onto the starboard side of the Unity Node 1 of the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Susan J. Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, used controls onboard the station to maneuver the Airlock into place with the Canadarm2, or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The Joint Airlock is a pressurized flight element consisting of two cylindrical chambers attached end-to-end by a cornecting bulkhead and hatch. Once installed and activated, the ISS Airlock becomes the primary path for ISS space walk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, which are known as Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs). In addition, it is designed to support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for extravehicular activity (EVA). The Joint Airlock is 20-feet long, 13-feet in diameter and weighs 6.5 tons. It was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by the Space Station prime contractor Boeing. The ISS Airlock has two main components: a crew airlock and an equipment airlock for storing EVA and EVA preflight preps. The Airlock was launched on July 21, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis for the STS-104 mission.

  1. Would Current International Space Station (ISS) Recycling Life Support Systems Save Mass on a Mars Transit?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen and water are recycled on the International Space Station (ISS) to save the cost of launching their mass into orbit. Usually recycling systems are justified by showing that their launch mass would be much lower than the mass of the oxygen or water they produce. Short missions such as Apollo or space shuttle directly provide stored oxygen and water, since the needed total mass of oxygen and water is much less than that of there cycling equipment. Ten year or longer missions such as the ISS or a future moon base easily save mass by recycling while short missions of days or weeks do not. Mars transit and long Mars surface missions have an intermediate duration, typically one to one and a half years. Some of the current ISS recycling systems would save mass if used on a Mars transit but others would not.

  2. ISS Expedition 18 Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Remote Manipulator System (RMS) Function Test 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-01-19

    ISS018-E-019933 (19 Jan. 2009) --- Astronaut Sandra Magnus, Expedition 18 flight engineer, uses a communication system while performing a function test of the Japanese Remote Manipulator System (JEM-RMS) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. ISS Expedition 18 Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Remote Manipulator System (RMS) Function Test 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-01-19

    ISS018-E-019920 (19 Jan. 2009) --- Astronaut Sandra Magnus, Expedition 18 flight engineer, uses a communication system while performing a function test of the Japanese Remote Manipulator System (JEM-RMS) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  4. Remote Advanced Payload Test Rig (RAPTR) Portable Payload Test System for the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, John; Freas, George, II

    2017-01-01

    The RAPTR was developed to test ISS payloads for NASA. RAPTR is a simulation of the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) interfaces of the ISS (MIL-STD 1553B, Ethernet and TAXI) and is designed to facilitate rapid testing and deployment of payload experiments to the ISS. The ISS Program's goal is to reduce the amount of time it takes a payload developer to build, test and fly a payload, including payload software. The RAPTR meets this need with its user oriented, visually rich interface. Additionally, the Analog and Discrete (A&D) signals of the following payload types may be tested with RAPTR: (1) EXPRESS Sub Rack Payloads; (2) ELC payloads; (3) External Columbus payloads; (4) External Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) payloads. The automated payload configuration setup and payload data inspection infrastructure is found nowhere else in ISS payload test systems. Testing can be done with minimal human intervention and setup, as the RAPTR automatically monitors parameters in the data headers that are sent to, and come from the experiment under test.

  5. Opals: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In April of 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Flight System (FS) launched to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a planned 90-day baseline mission, the OPALS FS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) ground station in Wrightwood, California. Interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure have been established to facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes, such as pointing prediction and data processing, satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The ORTs have provided valuable insight into operational considerations for the instrument on the ISS.

  6. Opals: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In April of 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Flight System (FS) launched to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a planned 90-day baseline mission, the OPALS FS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) ground station in Wrightwood, California. Interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure have been established to facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes, such as pointing prediction and data processing, satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The ORTs have provided valuable insight into operational considerations for the instrument on the ISS.

  7. Russian Countermeasure Systems for Adverse Effects of Microgravity on Long-Duration ISS Flights.

    PubMed

    Kozlovskaya, Inessa B; Yarmanova, E N; Yegorov, A D; Stepantsov, V I; Fomina, E V; Tomilovaskaya, E S

    2015-12-01

    The system of countermeasures for the adverse effects of microgravity developed in the USSR supported the successful implementation of long-duration spaceflight (LDS) programs on the Salyut and Mir orbital stations and was subsequently adapted for flights on the International Space Station (ISS). From 2000 through 2010, crews completed 26 ISS flight increments ranging in duration from 140 to 216 d, with the participation of 27 Russian cosmonauts. These flights have made it possible to more precisely determine a crew-member's level of conditioning, better assess the advantages and disadvantages of training processes, and determine prospects for future developments.

  8. ISS Expedition 18 Komparus A3 System Repair and Replace OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-05

    ISS018-E-007629 (7 Nov. 2008) --- Cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov, Expedition 18 flight engineer, takes a moment for a photo while performing in-flight maintenance on the Komparus A3 System in the Zarya module of the International Space Station.

  9. ISS Expedition 18 Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) Passive Rack Isolation System (

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-01-05

    ISS018-E-017796 (5 Jan. 2009) --- Astronaut Sandra Magnus, Expedition 18 flight engineer, works on the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) Passive Rack Isolation System (PaRIS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-04

    This video still depicts the recently deployed starboard and port solar arrays towering over the International Space Station (ISS). The video was recorded on STS-97's 65th orbit. Delivery, assembly, and activation of the solar arrays was the main mission objective of STS-97. The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics, and will provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  11. Utilizing the ISS Mission as a Testbed to Develop Cognitive Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS provides an excellent opportunity for pioneering artificial intelligence software to meet the challenges of real-time communications (comm) link management. This opportunity empowers the ISS Program to forge a testbed for developing cognitive communications systems for the benefit of the ISS mission, manned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) science programs and future planetary exploration programs. In November, 1998, the Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) started the ISS Antenna Manager (IAM) project to develop a single processor supporting multiple comm satellite tracking for two different antenna systems. Further, the processor was developed to be highly adaptable as it supported the ISS mission through all assembly stages. The ISS mission mandated communications specialists with complete knowledge of when the ISS was about to lose or gain comm link service. The current specialty mandated cognizance of large sun-tracking solar arrays and thermal management panels in addition to the highly-dynamic satellite service schedules and rise/set tables. This mission requirement makes the ISS the ideal communications management analogue for future LEO space station and long-duration planetary exploration missions. Future missions, with their precision-pointed, dynamic, laser-based comm links, require complete autonomy for managing high-data rate communications systems. Development of cognitive communications management systems that permit any crew member or payload science specialist, regardless of experience level, to control communications is one of the greater benefits the ISS can offer new space exploration programs. The IAM project met a new mission requirement never previously levied against US space-born communications systems management: process and display the orientation of large solar arrays and thermal control panels based on real-time joint angle telemetry. However, IAM leaves the actual communications availability assessment to human judgement, which introduces

  12. Utilizing the ISS Mission as a Testbed to Develop Cognitive Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS provides an excellent opportunity for pioneering artificial intelligence software to meet the challenges of real-time communications (comm) link management. This opportunity empowers the ISS Program to forge a testbed for developing cognitive communications systems for the benefit of the ISS mission, manned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) science programs and future planetary exploration programs. In November, 1998, the Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) started the ISS Antenna Manager (IAM) project to develop a single processor supporting multiple comm satellite tracking for two different antenna systems. Further, the processor was developed to be highly adaptable as it supported the ISS mission through all assembly stages. The ISS mission mandated communications specialists with complete knowledge of when the ISS was about to lose or gain comm link service. The current specialty mandated cognizance of large sun-tracking solar arrays and thermal management panels in addition to the highly-dynamic satellite service schedules and rise/set tables. This mission requirement makes the ISS the ideal communications management analogue for future LEO space station and long-duration planetary exploration missions. Future missions, with their precision-pointed, dynamic, laser-based comm links, require complete autonomy for managing high-data rate communications systems. Development of cognitive communications management systems that permit any crew member or payload science specialist, regardless of experience level, to control communications is one of the greater benefits the ISS can offer new space exploration programs. The IAM project met a new mission requirement never previously levied against US space-born communications systems management: process and display the orientation of large solar arrays and thermal control panels based on real-time joint angle telemetry. However, IAM leaves the actual communications availability assessment to human judgment, which introduces

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-09

    Against a black night sky, the Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member crew head toward Earth-orbit and a scheduled linkup with the International Space Station (ISS). Liftoff from the Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39B occurred at 8:47 p.m. (EST) on Dec. 9, 2006 in what was the first evening shuttle launch since 2002. The primary mission objective was to deliver and install the P5 truss element. The P5 installation was conducted during the first of three space walks, and involved use of both the shuttle and station’s robotic arms. The remainder of the mission included a major reconfiguration and activation of the ISS electrical and thermal control systems, as well as delivery of Zvezda Service Module debris panels, which will increase ISS protection from potential impacts of micro-meteorites and orbital debris. Two major payloads developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) were also delivered to the Station. The Lab-On-A Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) and the Water Delivery System, a vital component of the Station’s Oxygen Generation System.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-05

    Astronaut Joseph R. Tanner, STS-97 mission specialist, is seen during a session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), performing work on the International Space Station (ISS). Part of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm and a section of the newly deployed solar array panel are in the background. The primary objective of the STS-97 mission was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system on board the ISS. The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-17

    International Cooperation Phase III: A Space Shuttle docked to the International Space Station (ISS) in this computer generated representation of the ISS in its completed and fully operational state with elements from the U.S., Europe, Canada, Japan, and Russia.

  16. An experimental study on the geochemical behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSE) and metalloids (As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi) in a mss-iss-pyrite system at 650 °C: A possible magmatic origin for Co-HSE-bearing pyrite and the role of metalloid-rich phases in the fractionation of HSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafagna, Fabio; Jugo, Pedro J.

    2016-04-01

    Pyrite, the most abundant sulfide in the Earth's crust, is an accessory mineral in several magmatic sulfide deposits. Although most pyrite is hydrothermal, previous experimental studies have shown that pyrite can also have a primary magmatic origin, by exsolving from monosulfide solid solution (mss) during cooling of a sulfide melt, if sulfur fugacity is sufficiently high. Pyrite from some localities has significant amounts of Co, and complex zonation in some low-melting-point chalcophile elements (LMCE), such as As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi (henceforth referred to as metalloids) and some platinum-group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt). However, the origin of such pyrite and the causes of zonation are not clear. Because the distribution of some of these elements is heterogeneous and seems to be developed in concentric zones, the zonation has been interpreted to represent growth stages, some of them secondary and caused partly by hydrothermal fluids. Better constraints on the origin of Co-PGE-bearing pyrite could help unravel the geochemical processes affecting the sulfide assemblages in which it is found; thus, an experimental study was undertaken to characterize pyrite formation in magmatic sulfide environments and its relationship with metalloids and highly siderophile elements (HSE: PGE, Re, Au). Natural pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite and elemental S were mixed and doped with approximately 50 ppm of each HSE. A mixture of metalloids was added at 0.2 wt.% or 3 wt.% to aliquots of sulfide mixtures. Starting materials were sealed in evacuated silica tubes and fused at 1200 °C. The temperature was subsequently reduced to 750 °C (at 60 °C/h), then to 650 °C (at 0.5 °C/h) to produce relatively large euhedral pyrite crystals, then quenched. The experiments were analyzed using reflected light, SEM, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. Experimental products contained euhedral pyrite, mss, intermediate solid solution (iss) and metalloid-rich phases, interpreted as quench product

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-08

    The STS-101 mission patch commemorates the third Space Shuttle flight supporting the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). This flight's primary tasks were to outfit the ISS and extend its lifetime, to conduct a space walk to install external components in preparation for the docking of the Russian Service Module, Zvezda, and the arrival of the first ISS crew. The Space Shuttle is depicted in an orbit configuration prior to docking with the ISS. The ISS is depicted in the stage of assembly completed for the STS-101 mission, which consists of the United States built Unity module and the Russian-built Zarya module. The three large stars represent the third ISS mission in the assembly sequence. The elements and colors of the border reflect the flags of the nations represented by the STS-101 crew members, the United States, and Russia.

  18. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; Taylor, Brandon W.

    2011-01-01

    With the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet retired, the supply of extremely high-quality water 'super-Q' - required for the EMU Space suit cooling on this ISS - will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. A proposed potential solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semi-permeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins. Aquaporins are a special class of trans-membrane proteins that facilitate passive transport of water and other substances across a membrane. The specificity of these proteins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and this novel property invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically usage on the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are found in many living systems and have been developed for commercial use today.

  19. Assessment of polycarbonate filter in a molecular analytical system for the microbiological quality monitoring of recycled waters onboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechy-Loizeau, Anne-Laure; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Abaibou, Hafid

    2015-07-01

    On the ISS, as on Earth, water is an essential element for life and its quality control on a regular basis allows to ensure the health of the crew and the integrity of equipment. Currently, microbial water analysis onboard ISS still relies on the traditional culture-based microbiology methods. Molecular methods based on the amplification of nucleic acids for microbiological analysis of water quality show enormous potential and are considered as the best alternative to culture-based methods. For this reason, the Midass, a fully integrated and automated prototype was designed conjointly by ESA and bioMérieux for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of air. The prototype allows air sampling, sample processing and the amplification/detection of nucleic acids. We describe herein the proof of principle of an analytical approach based on molecular biology that could fulfill the ESA's need for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of recycled water onboard ISS. Both concentration and recovery of microorganisms are the main critical steps when the microfiltration technology is used for water analysis. Among filters recommended standards for monitoring the microbiological quality of the water, the polycarbonate filter was fully in line with the requirements of the ISO 7704-1985 standard in terms of efficacy of capture and recovery of bacteria. Moreover, this filter does not retain nucleic acids on the surface and has no inhibitory effect on their downstream processing steps such as purification and amplification/detection. Although the Midass system was designed for the treatment of air samples, the first results on the integration of PC filters were encouraging. Nevertheless, system modifications are needed to better adapt the Midass system for the monitoring of the microbiological water quality.

  20. Assessment of polycarbonate filter in a molecular analytical system for the microbiological quality monitoring of recycled waters onboard ISS.

    PubMed

    Bechy-Loizeau, Anne-Laure; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Abaibou, Hafid

    2015-07-01

    On the ISS, as on Earth, water is an essential element for life and its quality control on a regular basis allows to ensure the health of the crew and the integrity of equipment. Currently, microbial water analysis onboard ISS still relies on the traditional culture-based microbiology methods. Molecular methods based on the amplification of nucleic acids for microbiological analysis of water quality show enormous potential and are considered as the best alternative to culture-based methods. For this reason, the Midass, a fully integrated and automated prototype was designed conjointly by ESA and bioMérieux for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of air. The prototype allows air sampling, sample processing and the amplification/detection of nucleic acids. We describe herein the proof of principle of an analytical approach based on molecular biology that could fulfill the ESA's need for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of recycled water onboard ISS. Both concentration and recovery of microorganisms are the main critical steps when the microfiltration technology is used for water analysis. Among filters recommended standards for monitoring the microbiological quality of the water, the polycarbonate filter was fully in line with the requirements of the ISO 7704-1985 standard in terms of efficacy of capture and recovery of bacteria. Moreover, this filter does not retain nucleic acids on the surface and has no inhibitory effect on their downstream processing steps such as purification and amplification/detection. Although the Midass system was designed for the treatment of air samples, the first results on the integration of PC filters were encouraging. Nevertheless, system modifications are needed to better adapt the Midass system for the monitoring of the microbiological water quality.

  1. Development and Certification of Ultrasonic Background Noise Test (UBNT) System for use on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    As a next step in the development and implementation of an on-board leak detection and localization system on the International Space Station (ISS), there is a documented need to obtain measurements of the ultrasonic background noise levels that exist within the ISS. This need is documented in the ISS Integrated Risk Management System (IRMA), Watch Item #4669. To address this, scientists and engineers from the Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Johnson Space Center (JSC), proposed to the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and the ISS Vehicle Office a joint assessment to develop a flight package as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) that would perform ultrasonic background noise measurements within the United States (US) controlled ISS structure. This document contains the results of the assessment

  2. ISS Update: Station Command and Data Handling System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kylie Clem interviews ODIN flight controller Amy Brezinski, who monitors and commands the Command and Data Handling System for the International Space Station. Brezinski...

  3. Multi-Element Airfoil System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.

  4. Design Solutions for the Treatment of DMSD in the ISS Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Donald; Kayatin, Matthew; Bowman, Elizabeth; Gentry, Greg; Muirhead, Brian; Gazda, Daniel; Wilson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) has been identified as a problematic organic on ISS. This contaminant was initially identified in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water in 2010 by the Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA). DMSD is not a crew health hazard at the levels observed in the product water, but it may degrade the performance of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) which uses the WPA product water for electrolysis and does impact the effective operation of the WPA catalytic reactor. To mitigate these impacts, early replacement of the Multifiltration Beds in the WPA is required. An investigation has determined that the decomposition of atmospheric polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs) is the primary source of DMSD in the condensate. PDMSs are prevalent on ISS from a variety of sources, including crew hygiene products, adhesives, caulks, lubricants, and various nonmetallics. These PDMSs also contribute to degradation of the CHX hydrophilic coating, rendering it hydrophobic and therefore affecting its ability to transmit water to the condensate bus. In addition, literature research has determined that PDMSs are likely oxidized to DMSD in the atmosphere when exposed to hydroxyl radicals in the ISS atmosphere. To address these mechanisms, filters have been developed for removal of PDMSs from the ISS atmosphere. However, ongoing analysis indicates a significant reduction in atmospheric PDMSs is required to achieve a measurable reduction of DMSD in the condensate. As a result, additional measures are being pursued to mitigate this issue. First, credible sources are being investigated to quantity to the extent possible the significant sources of PDMSs and identify sources that can be reasonably removed from ISS. Second, a Reverse Osmosis technology is being investigated as an alternate means for removing DMSD from the condensate. This paper summarizes the current status of the overall effort to mitigate DMSD in the US condensate.

  5. Developing Metrics in Systems Integration (ISS Program COTS Integration Model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the complications in developing metrics for systems integration. Specifically it reviews a case study of how two programs within NASA try to develop and measure performance while meeting the encompassing organizational goals.

  6. ISS Update: Space Flight and the Immune System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Brian Crucian, NASA immunologist, about the issues with space flight and the immune system. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and inc...

  7. Assessment of the Impacts of ACLS on the ISS Life Support System using Dynamic Simulations in V-HAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puetz, Daniel; Olthoff, Claas; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Closed Loop System (ACLS) is currently under development by Airbus Defense and Space and is slated for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2017. The addition of new hardware into an already complex system such as the ISS life support system (LSS) always poses operational risks. It is therefore important to understand the impacts ACLS will have on the existing systems to ensure smooth operations for the ISS. This analysis can be done by using dynamic computer simulations and one possible tool for such a simulation is Virtual Habitat (V-HAB). Based on Matlab (Registered Trademark) V-HAB has been under development at the Institute of Astronautics of the Technical University Munich (TUM) since 2006 and in the past has been successfully used to simulate the ISS life support systems. The existing V-HAB ISS simulation model treated the interior volume of the space station as one large ideally-stirred container. This model was improved to allow the calculation of the atmospheric composition inside the individual modules of the ISS by splitting it into ten distinct volumes. The virtual volumes are connected by a simulation of the inter-module ventilation flows. This allows for a combined simulation of the LSS hardware and the atmospheric composition aboard the ISS. A dynamic model of ACLS is added to the ISS simulation and different operating modes for both ACLS and the existing ISS life support systems are studied to determine the impacts of ACLS on the rest of the system. The results suggest that the US, Russian and ACLS CO2 systems can operate at the same time without impeding each other. Furthermore, based on the results of this analysis, the US and ACLS Sabatier systems can be operated in parallel as well to achieve the highest possible CO2 recycling together with a low CO2 concentration.

  8. Assessment of the Impacts of ACLS on the ISS Life Support System Using Dynamic Simulations in V-HAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putz, Daniel; Olthoff, Claas; Ewert, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Closed Loop System (ACLS) is currently under development by Airbus Defense and Space and is slated for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2017. The addition of new hardware into an already complex system such as the ISS life support system (LSS) always poses operational risks. It is therefore important to understand the impacts ACLS will have on the existing systems to ensure smooth operations for the ISS. This analysis can be done by using dynamic computer simulations and one possible tool for such a simulation is the Virtual Habitat (V-HAB). Based on MATLAB, V-HAB has been under development at the Institute of Astronautics of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) since 2004 and in the past has been successfully used to simulate the ISS life support systems. The existing V-HAB ISS simulation model treated the interior volume of the space station as one large, ideally-stirred container. This model was improved to allow the calculation of the atmospheric composition inside individual modules of the ISS by splitting it into twelve distinct volumes. The virtual volumes are connected by a simulation of the inter-module ventilation flows. This allows for a combined simulation of the LSS hardware and the atmospheric composition aboard the ISS. A dynamic model of ACLS is added to the ISS Simulation and several different operating modes for both ACLS and the existing ISS life support systems are studied and the impacts of ACLS on the rest of the system are determined. The results suggest that the US, Russian and ACLS CO2 systems can operate at the same time without impeding each other. Furthermore, based on the results of this analysis, the US and ACLS Sabatier systems can be operated in parallel as well to a achieve a very low CO2 concentration in the cabin atmosphere.

  9. Practical Applications of Cables and Ropes in the ISS Countermeasures System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svetlik, Randall G.; Moore, Cherice; Williams, Antony

    2017-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses exercise countermeasures on the International Space Station (ISS) to maintain crew health and combat the negative effects of long-duration spaceflight on the human body. Most ISS exercise countermeasures system (CMS) equipment rely heavily on the use of textile and wire ropes to transmit resistive loads and provide stability in a microgravity environment. For a variety of reasons, including challenges in simulating microgravity environments for testing and limits on time available for life cycle testing, the textiles and wire ropes have contributed significantly to on-orbit planned and unplanned maintenance time. As a result, continued ground testing and on-orbit experience since the first expedition on the ISS in 2000 provide valuable data and lessons learned in materials selection, applications, and design techniques to increase service life of these ropes. This paper will present a review of the development and failure history of textile and wire ropes for four exercise countermeasure systems-the Treadmill with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization (TVIS) System, Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization (CEVIS) System, Interim Resistive Exercise Device (IRED), and the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED)-to identify lessons learned in order to improve future systems. These lessons learned, paired with thorough testing on the ground, offer a forward path towards reduced maintenance time and up-mass for future space missions.

  10. Comparison of ISS Power System Telemetry with Analytically Derived Data for Shadowed Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, H. James

    2002-01-01

    Accurate International Space Station (ISS) power prediction requires the quantification of solar array shadowing. Prior papers have discussed the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) ISS power system tool SPACE (System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) and its integrated shadowing algorithms. On-orbit telemetry has become available that permits the correlation of theoretical shadowing predictions with actual data. This paper documents the comparison of a shadowing metric (total solar array current) as derived from SPACE predictions and on-orbit flight telemetry data for representative significant shadowing cases. Images from flight video recordings and the SPACE computer program graphical output are used to illustrate the comparison. The accuracy of the SPACE shadowing capability is demonstrated for the cases examined.

  11. A Unique Power System For The ISS Fluids And Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, David A.; Poljak, Mark D.

    2001-01-01

    Unique power control technology has been incorporated into an electrical power control unit (EPCU) for the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The objective is to maximize science throughput by providing a flexible power system that is easily reconfigured by the science payload. Electrical power is at a premium on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU utilizes advanced power management techniques to maximize the power available to the FCF experiments. The EPCU architecture enables dynamic allocation of power from two ISS power channels for experiments. Because of the unique flexible remote power controller (FRPC) design, power channels can be paralleled while maintaining balanced load sharing between the channels. With an integrated and redundant architecture, the EPCU can tolerate multiple faults and still maintain FCF operation. It is important to take full advantage of the EPCU functionality. The EPCU acts as a buffer between the experimenter and the ISS power system with all its complex requirements. However, FCF science payload developers will still need to follow guidelines when designing the FCF payload power system. This is necessary to ensure power system stability, fault coordination, electromagnetic compatibility, and maximum use of available power for gathering scientific data.

  12. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  13. Russian system of countermeasures on board of the International Space Station (ISS): the first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2004-08-01

    The system of countermeasures used by Russian cosmonauts in space flights on board of International Space Station (ISS) was based on the developed and tested in flights on board of Russian space stations. It included as primary components: physical methods aimed to maintain the distribution of fluids at levels close to those experienced on Earth; physical exercises and loading suits aimed to load the musculoskeletal and the cardiovascular systems; measures that prevent the loss of fluids, mainly, water-salt additives which aid to maintain orthostatic tolerance and endurance to gravitational overloads during the return to Earth; well-balanced diet and medications directed to correct possible negative reactions of the body to weightlessness. Fulfillment of countermeasure's protocols inflight was thoroughly controlled. Efficacy of countermeasures used were assessed both in-and postflight. The results of studies showed that degrees of alterations recorded in different physiological systems after ISS space flights in Russian cosmonauts were significantly higher than those recorded after flights on the Russian space stations. This phenomenon was caused by the failure of the ISS crews to execute fully the prescribed countermeasures' protocols which was as a rule excused by technical imperfectness of exercise facilities, treadmill TVIS particularly.

  14. Russian system of countermeasures on board of the International Space Station (ISS): the first results.

    PubMed

    Kozlovskaya, Inessa B; Grigoriev, Anatoly I

    2004-01-01

    The system of countermeasures used by Russian cosmonauts in space flights on board of International Space Station (ISS) was based on the developed and tested in flights on board of Russian space stations. It included as primary components: physical methods aimed to maintain the distribution of fluids at levels close to those experienced on Earth; physical exercises and loading suits aimed to load the musculoskeletal and the cardiovascular systems; measures that prevent the loss of fluids, mainly, water-salt additives which aid to maintain orthostatic tolerance and endurance to gravitational overloads during the return to Earth; well-balanced diet and medications directed to correct possible negative reactions of the body to weightlessness. Fulfillment of countermeasure's protocols inflight was thoroughly controlled. Efficacy of countermeasures used were assessed both in- and postflight. The results of studies showed that degrees of alterations recorded in different physiological systems after ISS space flights in Russian cosmonauts were significantly higher than those recorded after flights on the Russian space stations. This phenomenon was caused by the failure of the ISS crews to execute fully the prescribed countermeasures' protocols which was as a rule excused by technical imperfectness of exercise facilities, treadmill TVIS particularly. c2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Shuttle/ISS EMU Failure History and the Impact on Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As the Shuttle/ISS EMU Program exceeds 35 years in duration and is still supporting the needs of the International Space Station (ISS), a critical benefit of such a long running program with thorough documentation of system and component failures is the ability to study and learn from those failures when considering the design of the next generation space suit. Study of the subject failure history leads to changes in the Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) schematic, selected component technologies, as well as the planned manner of ground testing. This paper reviews the Shuttle/ISS EMU failure history and discusses the implications to the AEMU PLSS.

  16. Three Years of on Orbit ISS Oxygen Generation System Operation 2007-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diderich, Greg S.; Polis, Pete; VanKeuren, Steven P.; Erickson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) has accumulated 240 days of continuous operation at varied oxygen production rates within the US Laboratory Module (LAB) since it was first activated in July 2007. OGS relocated from the ISS LAB to Node 3 during 20A Flight (February 2010). The OGS rack delivery was accelerated for on-orbit checkout in the LAB, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006. During the on-orbit checkout interval within the LAB from July 2007 to October 2008, OGS operational times were limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Longer runtimes are now achievable due to the continuous feedwater availability after ULF2 delivery and activation of the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. OGS is considered a critical function to maintaining six crew capability. There have been a number of failures which interrupted or threatened to interrupt oxygen production. Filters in the recirculation loop have clogged and have been replaced, Hydrogen sensors have fallen out of specifications, a pump delta pressure sensor failed, a pump failed to start, and the voltage on the cell stack increased out of tolerance. This paper will discuss the operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  17. ISS: Columbus.

    PubMed

    Thirkettle, A; Patti, B; Mitschdoerfer, P; Kledzik, R; Gargioli, E; Brondolo, D

    2002-02-01

    In 2001, a total of 13 assembly and logistic flights to the ISS were made, using both Russian launchers and the Space Shuttle, including flights of the first European astronauts, payloads and Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLMs). Several US, Russian and Canadian elements have already been assembled in orbit and the fourth Expedition Crew is currently onboard. The cornerstone of ESA's contribution to this enormous international undertaking in space is the Columbus laboratory. On 27 September 2001, the Columbus flight unit arrived at the premises of ESA's industrial prime contractor Astrium in Bremen, Germany. Final integration of the module is now nearly complete and functional qualification and acceptance testing is about to start. This article summarises the characteristics and functional architecture of Columbus, its development, integration and test approach, as well as today's qualification status.

  18. On-Orbit Checkout and Activation of the ISS Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has developed and; deployed an Oxygen Generation System (OGS) into the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The major. assembly; included in this system is the Oxygen Generator Assembly. (OGA) which was developed under NASA contract by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI), Inc. This paper summarizes the installation of the system into the Destiny Module, its initial checkout and periodic preventative maintenance activities, and its operational activation. Trade studies and analyses that were conducted with the goal of mitigating on-orbit operational risks are also discussed.

  19. On-Orbit Checkout and Activation of the ISS Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has developed and; deployed an Oxygen Generation System (OGS) into the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The major. assembly; included in this system is the Oxygen Generator Assembly. (OGA) which was developed under NASA contract by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI), Inc. This paper summarizes the installation of the system into the Destiny Module, its initial checkout and periodic preventative maintenance activities, and its operational activation. Trade studies and analyses that were conducted with the goal of mitigating on-orbit operational risks are also discussed.

  20. Bioculture System: Expanding ISS Space Bioscience Capabilities for Fundamental Stem Cell Research and Commercial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo; Fitzpatrick, Garret; Ellingson, Lance; Mitchell, Sarah; Yang, Anthony; Kosnik, Cristine; Rayl, Nicole; Cannon, Tom; Austin, Edward; Sato, Kevin

    With the recent call by the 2011 Decadal Report and the 2010 Space Biosciences Roadmap for the International Space Station (ISS) to be used as a National Laboratory for scientific research, there is now a need for new laboratory instruments on ISS to enable such research to occur. The Bioculture System supports the extended culturing of multiple cell types and microbiological specimens. It consists of a docking station that carries ten independent incubation units or ‘Cassettes’. Each Cassette contains a cooling chamber (5(°) C) for temperature sensitive solutions and samples, or long duration fluids and sample storage, as well as an incubation chamber (ambient up to 42(°) C). Each Cassette houses an independent fluidics system comprised of a biochamber, medical-grade fluid tubing, medium warming module, oxygenation module, fluid pump, and sixteen solenoid valves for automated biochamber injections of sampling. The Bioculture System provides the user with the ability to select the incubation temperature, fluid flow rate and automated biochamber sampling or injection events for each separate Cassette. Furthermore, the ISS crew can access the biochamber, media bag, and accessory bags on-orbit using the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The Bioculture System also permits initiation of cultures, subculturing, injection of compounds, and removal of samples for on-orbit processing using ISS facilities. The Bioculture System therefore provides a unique opportunity for the study of stem cells and other cell types in space. The first validation flight of the Bioculture System will be conducted on SpaceX5, consisting of 8 Cassettes and lasting for 30-37 days. During this flight we plan to culture two different mammalian cell types in bioreactors: a mouse osteocytic-like cell line, and human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)-derived cardiomyocytes. Specifically, the osteocytic line will enable the study of a type of cell that has been flown on the Bioculture System

  1. Converting the ISS to an Earth-Moon Transport System Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Paniagua, John; Maise, George; Powell, James

    2008-01-21

    Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), the International Space Station (ISS) can be placed into a cyclic orbit between the Earth and the Moon for 2-way transport of personnel and supplies to a permanent Moon Base. The ISS cycler orbit apogees 470,000 km from Earth, with a period of 13.66 days. Once a month, the ISS would pass close to the Moon, enabling 2-way transport between it and the surface using a lunar shuttle craft. The lunar shuttle craft would land at a desired location on the surface during a flyby and return to the ISS during a later flyby. At Earth perigee 7 days later at 500 km altitude, there would be 2-way transport between it and Earth's surface using an Earth shuttle craft. The docking Earth shuttle would remain attached to the ISS as it traveled towards the Moon, while personnel and supplies transferred to a lunar shuttle spacecraft that would detach and land at the lunar base when the ISS swung around the Moon. The reverse process would be carried out to return personnel and materials from the Moon to the Earth. The orbital mechanics for the ISS cycle are described in detail. Based on the full-up mass of 400 metric tons for the ISS, an ISP of 900 seconds, and a delta V burn of 3.3 km/sec to establish the orbit, 200 metric tons of liquid H-2 propellant would be required. The 200 metric tons could be stored in 3 tanks, each 8 meters in diameter and 20 meters in length. An assembly of 3 MITEE NTP engines would be used, providing redundancy if an engine were to fail. Two different MITEE design options are described. Option 1 is an 18,000 Newton, 100 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 6.6/1; Option 2 is a 180,000 Newton, 1000 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 23/1. Burn times to establish the orbit are {approx}1 hour for the large 3 engine assembly, and 10 hours for the small 3 engine assembly. Both engines would use W-UO2 cermet fuel at {approx}2750 K which has demonstrated the capability to operate for at least 50 hours in 2750 K

  2. Evolution of the iss gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M; Nolan, Lisa K

    2008-04-01

    The increased serum survival gene iss has long been recognized for its role in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence. iss has been identified as a distinguishing trait of avian ExPEC but not of human ExPEC. This gene has been localized to large virulence plasmids and shares strong similarities with the bor gene from bacteriophage lambda. Here, we demonstrate that three alleles of iss occur among E. coli isolates that appear to have evolved from a common lambda bor precursor. In addition to the occurrence of iss on the ColV/BM virulence plasmids, at least two iss alleles occur within the E. coli chromosome. One of these alleles (designated type 3) was found to occur in the genomes of all currently sequenced ExPEC strains on a similar prophage element that also harbors the Sit iron and manganese transport system. When the prevalence of the three iss types was examined among 487 E. coli isolates, the iss type 3 gene was found to occur at a high frequency among ExPEC isolates, irrespective of the host source. The plasmid-borne iss allele (designated type 1) was highly prevalent among avian pathogenic E. coli and neonatal meningitis-associated E. coli isolates but not among uropathogenic E. coli isolates. This study demonstrates the evolution of iss in E. coli and provides an additional tool for discriminating among E. coli pathotypes through the differentiation of the three iss allele types and bor.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-06-08

    Astronaut Susan J. Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, mounts a video camera onto a bracket in the Russian Zarya or Functional Cargo Block (FGB) of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, the Unites States-funded and Russian-built Zarya was the first element of the ISS, followed by the U.S. Unity Node.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-07

    In this image, the five STS-97 crew members pose with the 3 members of the Expedition One crew onboard the International Space Station (ISS) for the first ever traditional onboard portrait taken in the Zvezda Service Module. On the front row, left to right, are astronauts Brent W. Jett, Jr., STS-97 commander; William M. Shepherd, Expedition One mission commander; and Joseph R. Tarner, STS-97 mission specialist. On the second row, from the left are Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition One flight engineer; astronaut Carlos I. Noriega, STS-97 mission specialist; cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, Expedition One Soyuz commander; and Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-97 pilot. Behind them is astronaut Marc Garneau, STS-97 mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The primary objective of the STS-97 mission was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-07

    In this image, planet Earth, some 235 statute miles away, forms the back drop for this photo of STS-97 astronaut and mission specialist Joseph R. Tanner, taken during the third of three space walks. The mission's goal was to perform the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  6. ISS Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The Microgravity performance assessment of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of a quasi-steady, structural dynamic and a vibro-acoustic analysis of the ISS assembly-complete vehicle configuration. The Boeing Houston (BHOU) Loads and Dynamics Team is responsible to verify compliance with the ISS System Specification (SSP 41000) and USOS Segment (SSP 41162) microgravity requirements. To verify the ISS environment, a series of accelerometers are on-board to monitor the current environment. This paper summarizes the results of the analysis that was performed for the Verification Analysis Cycle (VAC)-Assembly Complete (AC) and compares it to on-orbit acceleration values currently being reported. The analysis will include the predicted maximum and average environment on-board ISS during multiple activity scenarios

  7. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Earth Science Capability for ISS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Scott, S.; Kupchock, A.; Selmer, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a lidar remote sensing instrument developed for deployment to the International Space Station (ISS). The CATS lidar will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud distributions and properties. The CATS instrument uses a high repetition rate laser operating at three wavelengths (1064, 532, and 355 nm) to derive properties of cloud/aerosol layers including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The CATS mission was designed to capitalize on the Space Station's unique orbit and facilities to continue existing Earth Science data records, to provide observational data for use in forecast models, and to demonstrate new technologies for use in future missions. The CATS payload will be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). The payload is designed to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. The payload is completed and currently scheduled for a mid-2014 launch. The ISS and, in particular, the JEM-EF, is an exciting new platform for spaceborne Earth observations. The ability to leverage existing aircraft instrument designs coupled with the lower cost possible for ISS external attached payloads permits rapid and cost effective development of spaceborne sensors. The CATS payload is based on existing instrumentation built and operated on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft. The payload is housed in a 1.5 m x 1 m x 0.8 m volume that attaches to the JEM-EF. The allowed volume limits the maximum size for the collecting telescope to 60 cm diameter. Figure 1 shows a schematic layout of the CATS payload, with the primary instrument components identified. Figure 2 is a photo of the completed payload. CATS payload cut-away view. Completed CATS payload assembly.

  8. ISS Propulsion Module Crew Systems Interface Analysis in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Di-Wen

    1999-01-01

    ERGO, a human modeling software for ergonomic assessment and task analysis, was used for the crew systems interface analysis of the International Space Station (ISS) Propulsion Module (PM). The objective of analysis was to alleviate passageway size concerns. Three basic passageway configuration concepts: (1) 45" clear passageway without centerline offset (2) 50" clear passageway, 12" centerline offset, (3) 50" clear passageway, no centerline offset, and were reviewed. 95 percentile male and female models which were provided by the software performed crew system analysis from an anthropometric point of view. Four scenarios in which the crew floats in microgravity through a 50" no-offset passageway as they carry a 16" x 20" x 30" avionics box were simulated in the 10-weeks of intensive study. From the results of the analysis, concept (3) was the preferred option. A full scale, three-dimensional virtual model of the ISS Propulsion Module was created to experience the sense of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment and to evaluate the usability and applicability of the software.

  9. The ISS Water Processor Catalytic Reactor as a Post Processor for Advanced Water Reclamation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalette, Tim; Snowdon, Doug; Pickering, Karen D.; Callahan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Advanced water processors being developed for NASA s Exploration Initiative rely on phase change technologies and/or biological processes as the primary means of water reclamation. As a result of the phase change, volatile compounds will also be transported into the distillate product stream. The catalytic reactor assembly used in the International Space Station (ISS) water processor assembly, referred to as Volatile Removal Assembly (VRA), has demonstrated high efficiency oxidation of many of these volatile contaminants, such as low molecular weight alcohols and acetic acid, and is considered a viable post treatment system for all advanced water processors. To support this investigation, two ersatz solutions were defined to be used for further evaluation of the VRA. The first solution was developed as part of an internal research and development project at Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and is based primarily on ISS experience related to the development of the VRA. The second ersatz solution was defined by NASA in support of a study contract to Hamilton Sundstrand to evaluate the VRA as a potential post processor for the Cascade Distillation system being developed by Honeywell. This second ersatz solution contains several low molecular weight alcohols, organic acids, and several inorganic species. A range of residence times, oxygen concentrations and operating temperatures have been studied with both ersatz solutions to provide addition performance capability of the VRA catalyst.

  10. ISS Propulsion Module Crew Systems Interface Analysis in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Di-Wen

    1999-01-01

    ERGO, a human modeling software for ergonomic assessment and task analysis, was used for the crew systems interface analysis of the International Space Station (ISS) Propulsion Module (PM). The objective of analysis was to alleviate passageway size concerns. Three basic passageway configuration concepts: (1) 45" clear passageway without centerline offset (2) 50" clear passageway, 12" centerline offset, (3) 50" clear passageway, no centerline offset, and were reviewed. 95 percentile male and female models which were provided by the software performed crew system analysis from an anthropometric point of view. Four scenarios in which the crew floats in microgravity through a 50" no-offset passageway as they carry a 16" x 20" x 30" avionics box were simulated in the 10-weeks of intensive study. From the results of the analysis, concept (3) was the preferred option. A full scale, three-dimensional virtual model of the ISS Propulsion Module was created to experience the sense of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment and to evaluate the usability and applicability of the software.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  12. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  13. ISS Utilization for Exploration-Class Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FIncke, R.; Davis-Street, J.; Korth, D.

    2006-01-01

    Exercise countermeasures are the most commonly utilized approach for maintaining the health and performance of astronauts during spaceflight missions. However, International Space Station (ISS) exercise countermeasure hardware reliability and prescriptions are not at a point of departure to support exploration-class missions. The JSC Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) plans to use ISS as a research and hardware evaluation platform to define and validate improved exercise hardware, prescriptions, and monitoring strategies to support crewmember operations on the Moon and Mars. The ECP will partner with JSC's Space Medicine Division to standardize elements of ISS exercise prescriptions to better understand their efficacy and to propose modified prescriptions for implementation that may be used in the crew exploration vehicle and/or lunar habitat. In addition, evaluations of the ISS treadmill harness will be conducted to define and improve fit and function, and assess the next generation medical monitoring devices such as the portable unit for metabolic analysis and the muscle atrophy research and exercise system for completion of periodic fitness evaluations during lunar and Mars travel. Finally, biomechanical data from ISS crew exercise sessions will be obtained to better understand loading and restraint systems, and identify the physiologic requirements during ISS extravehicular activities that may be analogous to extended excursions from the lunar habitat. It is essential to optimize exercise prescriptions, hardware, and monitoring strategies for exploration initiatives using ISS as a platform before the planned retirement of the Shuttle in 2010 and the declining NASA emphasis on ISS to maximize knowledge before embarking on travel to the Moon and Mars.

  14. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  15. iss014e12521

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-21

    ISS014-E-12521 (21 Jan. 2007) --- Cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, Expedition 14 flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, uses a communication system as he floats in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  16. iss030e250643

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-24

    ISS030-E-250643 (24 April 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 30 flight engineer, uses a communication system near a robotic workstation in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  17. iss028e034978

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-30

    ISS028-E-034978 (30 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES) in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  18. iss028e034992

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-30

    ISS028-E-034992 (30 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES) in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  19. iss028e034980

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-30

    ISS028-E-034980 (30 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES) in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  20. iss028e034993

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-30

    ISS028-E-034993 (30 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES) in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  1. iss028e035002

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-30

    ISS028-E-035002 (30 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES) in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  2. iss028e035603

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-31

    ISS028-E-035603 (31 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES) hardware in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. iss028e035301

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-31

    ISS028-E-035301 (31 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES) hardware in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  4. iss028e034984

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-30

    ISS028-E-034984 (30 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES) in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  5. iss028e035566

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-31

    ISS028-E-035566 (31 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES) hardware in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  6. iss028e035617

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-31

    ISS028-E-035617 (31 Aug. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System (MARES) hardware in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  7. iss034e010622

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-31

    ISS034-E-010622 (31 Dec. 2012) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield, Expedition 34 flight engineer, performs a periodic fitness evaluation on the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  8. iss034e010621

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-31

    ISS034-E-010621 (31 Dec. 2012) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield, Expedition 34 flight engineer, performs a periodic fitness evaluation on the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  9. iss051e029335

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-30

    iss051e029335 (April 30, 2017) --- European Space Agency astronaut Thomas Pesquet exercises on the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (CEVIS), the station’s exercise bike, inside the Destiny laboratory module.

  10. Basic imaging properties of an indirect flat-panel detector system employing irradiation side sampling (ISS) technology for chest radiography: comparison with a computed radiographic system.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobukazu; Yano, Yuki; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Akasaka, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Masayuki; Ohki, Masafumi; Morishita, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The image quality and potential usefulness for patient skin-dose reduction of a newly developed flat-panel detector (FPD) system employing irradiation side sampling (ISS) were investigated and compared to a conventional computed radiography (CR) system. We used the X-ray beam quality of RQA 9 as noted in the standard evaluation method by the International Electrotechnical Commission 62220-1 to evaluate the image quality of the detector for chest radiography. The presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) of the ISS-FPD system was slightly higher than that of the CR system in the horizontal direction at more than 2.2 cycles/mm. However, the presampled MTF of the ISS-FPD system was slightly lower than that of the CR system in the vertical direction. The Wiener spectrum of the ISS-FPD system showed a 50-65 % lesser noise level than that of the CR system under the same exposure condition. The detective quantum efficiency of the ISS-FPD system was at least twice as great as that of the CR system. We conclude that the ISS-FPD system has the potential to reduce the patient skin dose compared to a conventional CR system for chest radiography.

  11. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  12. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Photo and TV Operations Manager (PHANTOM) at a work station. The PHANTOM configures all video systems aboard the ISS and ensures they are working properly, providing a video link from the ISS to the POC.

  14. iss009e21116

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-01

    ISS009-E-21116 (1 Sept. 2004) -- Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of about 230 miles, took this photo of Hurricane Frances early Sept. 1. Part of the large system is obscured by the portal. The Guantanimo Bay area of Cuba appears near frame's edge and part of Hispaniola is pictured near frame center. Sunglint alters the natural colors in this scene.

  15. iss047e066248

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-19

    ISS047e066248 (04/19/2016) --- NASA astronaut and Expedition 47 Flight Engineer Jeff Williams works with the Wet Lab RNA SmartCycler on-board the International Space Station. Wetlab RNA SmartCycler is a research platform for conducting real-time quantitative gene expression analysis aboard the ISS. The system enables spaceflight genomic studies involving a wide variety of biospecimen types in the unique microgravity environment of space.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-07-11

    Artist's concept for Phase III of the International Space Station (ISS) as shown here in its completed and fully operational state with elements from the United States, Europe, Canada, Japan, and Russia. Sixteen countries are cooperating to provide a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  17. International Space Station (ISS) External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM) Jettison Options Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    On December 11, 2013, the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure of the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM). To minimize the number of extravehicular activities (EVA) required to replace the PM, jettisoning the faulty pump was evaluated. The objective of this study was to independently evaluate the jettison options considered by the ISS Trajectory Operations Officer (TOPO) and to provide recommendations for safe jettison of the ETCS Loop A PM. The simulation selected to evaluate the TOPO options was the NASA Engineering and Safety Center's (NESC) version of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) developed to support another NESC assessment. The objective of the jettison analysis was twofold: (1) to independently verify TOPO posigrade and retrograde jettison results, and (2) to determine jettison guidelines based on additional sensitivity, trade study, and Monte Carlo (MC) analysis that would prevent PM recontact. Recontact in this study designates a propagated PM trajectory that comes within 500 m of the ISS propagated trajectory. An additional simulation using Systems Tool Kit (STK) was run for independent verification of the POST2 simulation results. Ultimately, the ISS Program removed the PM jettison option from consideration. However, prior to the Program decision, the retrograde jettison option remained part of the EVA contingency plan. The jettison analysis presented showed that, in addition to separation velocity/direction and the atmosphere conditions, the key variables in determining the time to recontact the ISS is highly dependent on the ballistic number (BN) difference between the object being jettisoned and the ISS.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) with solar panels fully deployed. In addition to the use of solar energy, the ISS will employ at least three types of propulsive support systems for its operation. The first type is to reboost the Station to correct orbital altitude to offset the effects of atmospheric and other drag forces. The second function is to maneuver the ISS to avoid collision with oribting bodies (space junk). The third is for attitude control to position the Station in the proper attitude for various experiments, temperature control, reboost, etc. The ISS, a gateway to permanent human presence in space, is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation by cooperation of sixteen countries.

  19. Potential and benefits of closed loop ECLS systems on the ISS.

    PubMed

    Raatschen, W; Preiss, H

    2001-01-01

    To close open loops for long manned missions in space is a big challenge for aeronautic engineers throughout the world. The paper's focus is on the oxygen reclamation from carbon dioxide within a space habitat. A brief description of the function principle of a fixed alkaline electrolyzer, a solid amine carbon dioxide concentrator and a Sabatier reactor is given. By combining these devices to an air revitalization system the technical and economical benefits are explained. Astrium's Air Revitalization System (ARES) as a potential future part of the International Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System would close the oxygen loop. The amount of oxygen, needed for an ISS crew of seven astronauts could be provided by ARES. The upload of almost 1500 kg of water annually for oxygen generation through the onboard electrolyzer would be reduced by more than 1000 kg, resulting in savings of more than 30M$ per year. Additionally, the payload capacity of supply flights would be increased by this amount of mass. Further possibilities are addressed to combine ECLS mass flows with those of the power, propulsion and attitude control systems. Such closed loop approaches will contribute to ease long time missions (e. g. Mars, Moon) from a cost and logistic point of view. The hardware realization of Astrium's space-sized operating ARES is shown and test results of continuous and intermittent closed chamber tests are presented. c2001 Astrium GmbH. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project -2006 Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. This paper presents a status of the coolant stability over the past year as well as results from destructive analyses of hardware removed from the on-orbit system and the current approach to coolant remediation.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. At center left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. On the left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is an exterior view of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator containing the ECLSS Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) testing facility at MSFC. At the bottom right is the data acquisition and control computers (in the blue equipment racks) that monitor the testing in the facility. The ITCS simulator facility duplicates the function, operation, and troubleshooting problems of the ITCS. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-30

    Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, performs an electronics task in the Russian Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Zvezda is linked to the Russian-built Functional Cargo Block (FGB), or Zarya, the first component of the ISS. Zarya was launched on a Russian Proton rocket prior to the launch of Unity, the first U.S.-built component to the ISS. Zvezda (Russian word for star), the third component of the ISS and the primary Russian contribution to the ISS, was launched by a three-stage Proton rocket on July 12, 2000. Zvezda serves as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the station, providing living quarters, a life support system, electrical power distribution, a data processing system, a flight control system, and a propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. The 42,000-pound module measures 43 feet in length and has a wing span of 98 feet. Similar in layout to the core module of Russia's Mir space station, it contains 3 pressurized compartments and 13 windows that allow ultimate viewing of Earth and space.

  5. Measurements with the TRITEL system in the Columbus Laboratory of the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirn, Attila; Reitz, Guenther; Zabori, Balazs; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Burmeister, Soenke; Pazmandi, Tamas; Apathy, Istvan; Szanto, Peter; Deme, Sandor; Csoke, Antal

    In cooperation with BL-Electronics Ltd. a three-dimensional silicon detector telescope (TRITEL) was developed at MTA Centre for Energy Research (MTA EK, the former MTA KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute) in the past years. The main objective of the instrument was to measure not only the absorbed dose in the cosmic radiation field, but also the linear energy (LET) spectrum of the charged particles and their average quality factor in three mutually orthogonal directions in order to give an estimation of the equivalent dose, too. In the frame of the EC project SURE the TRITEL system was delivered to the European Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) in October 31, 2012 and it was operated there between November 6, 2012 and May 10, 2013. Our presentation addresses the main characteristics of the TRITEL-SURE dosimetry system and the first measurement results obtained in the Columbus module. The TRITEL-SURE experiment is co-funded by the EC project SURE, contract number RITA-CT-2006-026069 and by the Government of Hungary through ESA Contracts 98057 and 4000108072/13/NL/KML under the PECS (Plan for European Cooperating States). The view expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Space Agency.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the flow of water recovery and management in the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the regenerative ECLSS hardware, as well as providing technical support for the rest of the system. The regenerative ECLSS, whose main components are the Water Recovery System (WRS), and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS), reclaims and recycles water oxygen. The ECLSS maintains a pressurized habitation environment, provides water recovery and storage, maintains and provides fire detection/ suppression, and provides breathable air and a comfortable atmosphere in which to live and work within the ISS. The ECLSS hardware will be located in the Node 3 module of the ISS.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the flow of recyclable resources in the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the regenerative ECLSS hardware, as well as providing technical support for the rest of the system. The regenerative ECLSS, whose main components are the Water Recovery System (WRS), and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS), reclaims and recycles water and oxygen. The ECLSS maintains a pressurized habitation environment, provides water recovery and storage, maintains and provides fire detection / suppression, and provides breathable air and a comfortable atmosphere in which to live and work within the ISS. The ECLSS hardware will be located in the Node 3 module of the ISS.

  8. LOCAD-PTS: Operation of a New System for Microbial Monitoring Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Danibm N,; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; Monaco, L.

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms within the space stations Salyut, Mir and the International Space Station (ISS), have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growing environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies; and return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. This approach has provided a wealth of useful data and enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach is also limited by the following: i) More than 95% microorganisms in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags occur between onboard sampling and colony visualization (3-5 days) and ground-based analysis (as long as several months); iii) Colonies are often difficult to visualize due to condensation within contact slide media plates; and iv) Techniques involve growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and -1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and fungi, respectively. This technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device. This handheld device and sampling system is known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). A poster will be presented that describes a comparative study between LOCAD-PTS analysis and existing culture-based methods onboard the ISS; together with an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin throughout the ISS. It is concluded that while a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not necessarily be expected, a combinatorial approach can be adopted where both sets of data are used together to generate a more complete story of

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-10-01

    The Zvezda Service Module, the first Russian contribution and third element to the International Space Station (ISS), is shown under construction in the Krunichev State Research and Production Facility (KhSC) in Moscow. Russian technicians work on the module shortly after it completed a pressurization test. In the foreground is the forward portion of the module, including the spherical transfer compartment and its three docking ports. The forward port docked with the cornected Functional Cargo Block, followed by Node 1. Launched via a three-stage Proton rocket on July 12, 2000, the Zvezda Service Module serves as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the Station, providing living quarters, life support system, electrical power distribution, data processing system, flight control system, and propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. The 42,000-pound module measures 43 feet in length and has a wing span of 98 feet. Similar in layout to the core module of Russia's Mir space station, it contains 3 pressurized compartments and 13 windows that allow ultimate viewing of Earth and space.

  10. iss047e038968

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-05

    ISS047e038968 (04/05/2016) --- ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Tim Peake operates the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) equipment inside the Columbus module. MARES is an ESA system that will be used for research on musculoskeletal, biomechanical, and neuromuscular human physiology to better understand the effects of microgravity on the muscular system.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Soyuz Vehicle Descent Module Evaluation of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Penetration Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The descent module (DM) of the ISS Soyuz vehicle is covered by thermal protection system (TPS) materials that provide protection from heating conditions experienced during reentry. Damage and penetration of these materials by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts could result in loss of vehicle during return phases of the mission. The descent module heat shield has relatively thick TPS and is protected by the instrument-service module. The TPS materials on the conical sides of the descent module (referred to as backshell in this test plan) are exposed to more MMOD impacts and are relatively thin compared to the heat shield. This test program provides hypervelocity impact (HVI) data on materials similar in composition and density to the Soyuz TPS on the backshell of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz TPS penetration risk assessments. The impact testing was coordinated by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Group [1] in Houston, Texas. The HVI testing was conducted at the NASA-JSC White Sands Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Figure

  12. OPALS: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) will launch to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a 90-day baseline mission, OPALS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) in Wrightwood, California. To achieve mission success, interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure are established. For OPALS, the interfaces facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes such as pointing prediction and data processing satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The tests have provided valuable insight into operational considerations on the ISS.

  13. OPALS: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) will launch to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a 90-day baseline mission, OPALS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) in Wrightwood, California. To achieve mission success, interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure are established. For OPALS, the interfaces facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes such as pointing prediction and data processing satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The tests have provided valuable insight into operational considerations on the ISS.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module past other ISS elements to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module past other ISS elements to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved past other ISS elements in the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is moved past other ISS elements in the Space Station Processing Facility to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named "Kibo" (Hope), to be delivered to KSC. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) developed the laboratory at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and is Japan's primary contribution to the Station. It will enhance the unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment for astronauts to conduct science experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility (platform) for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-01

    Astronaut James F. Reilly participated in the first ever space walk to egress from the International Space Station (ISS) by utilizing the newly-installed Joint Airlock Quest. The Joint Airlock is a pressurized flight element consisting of two cylindrical chambers attached end-to-end by a cornecting bulkhead and hatch. Once installed and activated, the ISS Airlock becomes the primary path for ISS space walk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, which are known as Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs). In addition, it is designed to support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for extravehicular activity (EVA). The Joint Airlock is 20-feet long, 13- feet in diameter and weighs 6.5 tons. It was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by the Space Station prime contractor Boeing. The ISS Airlock has two main components: a crew airlock and an equipment airlock for storing EVA and EVA preflight preps. The Airlock was launched on July 21, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis for the STS-104 mission.

  17. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    s time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e207712 - iss042e209132 ). Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  18. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e211498 - iss042e212135). Shows Earth views. Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground

  19. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e290689 - iss042e291289). Shows Earth views. Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  20. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e203119 - iss042e203971). Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  1. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e170341 - iss042e171462). Shows Earth views. Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  2. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e193144 - iss042e194102). Shows Earth views. Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  3. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e215401 -iss042e215812). Shows Earth views. Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  4. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e249923 - iss042e250759). Shows Earth views. Space Station Remote Manipulator system (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  5. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e162807 - iss042e163936). Shows Earth views. Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  6. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e209133 - iss042e210379). Shows Earth views. Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  7. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e244330 - iss042e245101). Shows Earth views. Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-25

    Cosmonaut Yury I. Onufrienko, Expedition Four mission commander, uses a communication system in the Russian Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). The Zvezda is linked to the Russian-built Functional Cargo Block (FGB) or Zarya, the first component of the ISS. Zarya was launched on a Russian Proton rocket prior to the launch of Unity. The third component of the ISS, Zvezda (Russian word for star), the primary Russian contribution to the ISS, was launched by a three-stage Proton rocket on July 12, 2000. Zvezda serves as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the station, providing living quarters, a life support system, electrical power distribution, a data processing system, flight control system, and propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. The 42,000-pound module measures 43 feet in length and has a wing span of 98 feet. Similar in layout to the core module of Russia's Mir space station, it contains 3 pressurized compartments and 13 windows that allow ultimate viewing of Earth and space.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows a Payload Rack Officer (PRO) at a work station. The PRO is linked by a computer to all payload racks aboard the ISS. The PRO monitors and configures the resources and environment for science experiments including EXPRESS Racks, multiple-payload racks designed for commercial payloads.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Payload Communications Manager (PAYCOM) at a work station. The PAYCOM coordinates payload-related voice communications between the POC and the ISS crew. The PAYCOM is the voice of the POC.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Timeline Change Officer (TCO) at a work station. The TCO maintains the daily schedule of science activities and work assignments, and works with planners at Mission Control at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, to ensure payload activities are accommodated in overall ISS plans and schedules.

  12. International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Keep Out Zone On-Orbit Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system performance can be impacted by operations on ISS. This is especially important for the Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) and for the Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS) subsystems. It is also more important for Node 1 since it has become a convenient area for many crew tasks and for stowing hardware prior to Shuttle arrival. This paper will discuss the current requirements for ECLS keep out zones in Node 1; the issues with stowage in Node 1 during Increment 7 and how they impacted the keep out zone requirements; and the solution during Increment 7 and 8 for maintaining the keep out zones in Node 1.

  13. International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Keep Out Zone On-Orbit Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system performance can be impacted by operations on ISS. This is especially important for the Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) and for the Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS) subsystems. It is also more important for Node 1 since it has become a convenient area for many crew tasks and for stowing hardware prior to Shuttle arrival. This paper will discuss the current requirements for ECLS keep out zones in Node 1; the issues with stowage in Node 1 during Increment 7 and how they impacted the keep out zone requirements; and the solution during Increment 7 and 8 for maintaining the keep out zones in Node 1.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-12-12

    Astronauts Frank L. Culbertson, Jr. (left), Expedition Three mission commander, and Daniel W. Bursch, Expedition Four flight engineer, work in the Russian Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Zvezda is linked to the Russian built Functional Cargo Block (FGB), or Zarya, the first component of the ISS. Zarya was launched on a Russian Proton rocket prior to the launch of Unity. The third component of the ISS, Zvezda (Russian word for star), the primary Russian contribution to the ISS, was launched by a three-stage Proton rocket on July 12, 2000. Zvezda serves as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the Station, providing living quarters, a life support system, electrical power distribution, a data processing system, a flight control system, and a propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. The 42,000 pound module measures 43 feet in length and has a wing span of 98 feet. Similar in layout to the core module of Russia's Mir space station, it contains 3 pressurized compartments and 13 windows that allow ultimate viewing of Earth and space.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-09-16

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), Cosmonaut and Expedition Three flight engineer Vladimir N. Dezhurov, representing Rosaviakosmos, talks with flight controllers from the Zvezda Service Module. Russian-built Zvezda is linked to the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), or Zarya, the first component of the ISS. Zarya was launched on a Russian Proton rocket prior to the launch of Unity. The third component of the ISS, Zvezda (Russian word for star), the primary Russian contribution to the ISS, was launched by a three-stage Proton rocket on July 12, 2000. Zvezda serves as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the Station, providing living quarters, a life support system, electrical power distribution, a data processing system, flight control system, and propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. The 42,000-pound module measures 43 feet in length and has a wing span of 98 feet. Similar in layout to the core module of Russia's Mir space station, it contains 3 pressurized compartments and 13 windows that allow ultimate viewing of Earth and space.

  16. iss028e025567

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-16

    ISS028-E-025567 (16 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Ron Garan, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses a communication system while holding one of the Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. A second SPHERES is at left.

  17. iss051e044497

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-17

    iss051e044497 (5/17/2017) --- Crew members on the International Space Station completed a new session of the Genes in Space 2 investigation. Spaceflight causes many changes to the human body, including alterations in DNA and a weakened immune system. This study uses a new technology to study DNA in space to try and safeguard crew health. Credits: NASA

  18. iss051e044502

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-17

    iss051e044502 (5/17/2017) --- Crew members on the International Space Station completed a new session of the Genes in Space 2 investigation. Spaceflight causes many changes to the human body, including alterations in DNA and a weakened immune system. This study uses a new technology to study DNA in space to try and safeguard crew health. Credits: NASA

  19. iss051e029016

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-28

    iss051e029016 (4/28/2017) --- Crew members on the International Space Station completed a new session of the Genes in Space 2 investigation. Spaceflight causes many changes to the human body, including alterations in DNA and a weakened immune system. This study uses a new technology to study DNA in space to try and safeguard crew health. Credits: NASA

  20. iss002e6675

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-15

    ISS002-E-6675 (15 May 2001) --- James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, wearing a safety harness, exercises on the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS) equipment in the Zvezda Service Module. This image was taken with a digital still camera.

  1. iss028e036696

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-02

    ISS028-E-036696 (2 Sept. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs a periodic calibration of the pedals for the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  2. Ring-laser gyroscope system using dispersive element(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A ring-laser gyroscope system includes a ring-laser gyroscope (RLG) and at least one dispersive element optically coupled to the RLG's ring-shaped optical path. Each dispersive element has a resonant frequency that is approximately equal to the RLG's lasing frequency. A group index of refraction defined collectively by the dispersive element(s) has (i) a real portion that is greater than zero and less than one, and (ii) an imaginary portion that is less than zero.

  3. Pick-and-Eat Salad-Crop Productivity, Nutritional Value, and Acceptability to Supplement the ISS Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hummerick, M. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Whitmire, A. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    The capability to grow nutritious, palatable food for crew consumption during spaceflight has the potential to provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients, enhance the dietary experience, and reduce launch mass as we move toward longer-duration missions. However, studies of edible produce during spaceflight have been limited, leaving a significant knowledge gap in the methods required to grow safe, acceptable, nutritious crops for consumption in space. Researchers from Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, Purdue University and ORBITEC have teamed up to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC, Purdue, and ORBITEC bring a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for ISS and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), and statistics. The Veggie vegetable-production system on the ISS offers an opportunity to develop a pick-and-eat fresh vegetable component to the ISS food system as a first step to bioregenerative supplemental food production. We propose growing salad plants in the Veggie unit during spaceflight, focusing on the impact of light quality and fertilizer formulation on crop morphology, edible biomass yield, microbial food safety, organoleptic acceptability, nutritional value, and behavioral health benefits of the fresh produce. The first phase of the project will involve flight tests using leafy greens, with a small Chinese cabbage variety, Tokyo bekana, previously down selected through a series of research tests as a suitable candidate. The second phase will focus on dwarf tomato. Down selection of candidate varieties have been performed, and the dwarf cultivar Red Robin has been selected as the test crop. Four light treatments and three fertilizer treatments will be tested for each crop on the ground, to down select to two light

  4. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  5. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-10-03

    In this photograph, Russians are working on the aft portion of the United States-funded, Russian-built Functional Cargo Bay (FGB) also known as Zarya (Russian for sunrise). Built at Khrunichev, the FGB began pre-launch testing shortly after this photo was taken. Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, Zarya was the first element of the International Space Station (ISS) followed by the U.S. Unity Node. The aft docking mechanism, Pirs, on the far right with ventilation ducting rurning through it, will be docked with the third Station element, the Russian Service Module, or Zvezda.

  7. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  8. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  9. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, a Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  10. Human Factors and ISS Medical Systems: Highlights of Procedures and Equipment Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, V. E.; Hudy, C.; Smith, D.; Whitmore, M.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering Critical Questions Roadmap, a three year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to examine emergency medical procedures on ISS. The overall aim of the emergency medical procedures project was to determine the human factors issues in the procedures, training, communications and equipment, and to recommend solutions that will improve the survival rate of crewmembers in the event of a medical emergency. Currently, each ISS crew remains on orbit for six month intervals. As there is not standing requirement for a physician crewmember, during such time, the maintenance of crew health is dependant on individual crewmembers. Further, in the event of an emergency, crew will need to provide prolonged maintenance care, as well as emergency treatment, to an injured crewmember while awaiting transport to Earth. In addition to the isolation of the crew, medical procedures must be carried out within the further limitations imposed by the physical environment of the space station. For example, in order to administer care on ISS without the benefit of gravity, the Crew Medical Officers (CMOs) must restrain the equipment required to perform the task, restrain the injured crewmember, and finally, restrain themselves. Both the physical environment and the physical space available further limit the technology that can be used onboard. Equipment must be compact, yet able to withstand high levels of radiation and function without gravity. The focus here is to highlight the human factors impacts from our three year project involving the procedures and equipment areas that have been investigated and provided valuable to ISS and provide groundwork for human factors requirements for medical applications for exploration missions.

  11. Service on demand for ISS users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüser, Detlev; Berg, Marco; Körtge, Nicole; Mildner, Wolfgang; Salmen, Frank; Strauch, Karsten

    2002-07-01

    Since the ISS started its operational phase, the need of logistics scenarios and solutions, supporting the utilisation of the station and its facilities, becomes increasingly important. Our contribution to this challenge is a SERVICE On DEMAND for ISS users, which offers a business friendly engineering and logistics support for the resupply of the station. Especially the utilisation by commercial and industrial users is supported and simplified by this service. Our industrial team, consisting of OHB-System and BEOS, provides experience and development support for space dedicated hard- and software elements, their transportation and operation. Furthermore, we operate as the interface between customer and the envisaged space authorities. Due to a variety of tailored service elements and the ongoing servicing, customers can concentrate on their payload content or mission objectives and don't have to deal with space-specific techniques and regulations. The SERVICE On DEMAND includes the following elements: ITR is our in-orbit platform service. ITR is a transport rack, used in the SPACEHAB logistics double module, for active and passive payloads on subrack- and drawer level of different standards. Due to its unique late access and early retrieval capability, ITR increases the flexibility concerning transport capabilities to and from the ISS. RIST is our multi-functional test facility for ISPR-based experiment drawer and locker payloads. The test program concentrates on physical and functional interface and performance testing at the payload developers site prior to the shipment to the integration and launch. The RIST service program comprises consulting, planning and engineering as well. The RIST test suitcase is planned to be available for lease or rent to users, too. AMTSS is an advanced multimedia terminal consulting service for communication with the space station scientific facilities, as part of the user home-base. This unique ISS multimedia kit combines

  12. ISS-Lobster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, S. D.; Petre, R.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Ptak, A.

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents ISS-Lobster, a wide-field X-ray transient mission proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10^-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving both stellar mass and supermassive black holes. A 3-axis gimbal system will allow fast pointing in response to any independent, multi-wavelength indication of these events. Finally, deployment of this detector on the ISS will realize significant cost savings compared to a free-flying satellite as power, communication, and ISS transport are provided.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-10

    Being attached to the Canadarm2 on the International Space Station (ISS), the Remote Manipulator System arm built by the Canadian Space Agency, the Integrated Truss Assembly (S1) Truss is suspended over the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' cargo bay. Astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, STS-112 mission specialist, and Peggy A. Whitson, Expedition Five flight engineer, used the Canadarm2 from inside the Destiny laboratory on the ISS to lift the S1 truss out of the orbiter's cargo bay and move it into position prior to its installation on the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, ISS Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S One), the starboard side thermal radiator truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the development Water Processor located in two racks in the ECLSS test area at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Actual waste water, simulating Space Station waste, is generated and processed through the hardware to evaluate the performance of technologies in the flight Water Processor design.

  15. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: February 2006 - 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Reysa, Richard P.; Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) continues to mature and operate its life support equipment. Major events occurring between February 2006 and February 2007 are discussed in this paper, as are updates from previously ongoing hardware anomalies. This paper addresses the major ISS operation events over the last year. Impact to overall ISS operations is also discussed.

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: February 2005 - 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Reysa, RIchard P.; Williams, David E.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) continues to mature and operate its life support equipment. Major events occurring between February 2005 and February 2006 are discussed in this paper, as are updates from previously ongoing hardware anomalies. This paper addresses the major ISS operation events over the last year. Impact to overall ISS operations is also discussed.

  17. Assessment of nutrient stability in foods from the space food system after long-duration spaceflight on the ISS.

    PubMed

    Zwart, S R; Kloeris, V L; Perchonok, M H; Braby, L; Smith, S M

    2009-09-01

    Maintaining an intact nutrient supply in the food system flown on spacecraft is a critical issue for mission success and crew health. Ground-based evidence indicates that some vitamins may be altered and fatty acids oxidized (and therefore rendered useless, or even dangerous) by long-term storage and by exposure to radiation, both of which will be issues for long-duration exploration missions in space. In this study, the stability of nutrients was investigated in food samples exposed to spaceflight on the Intl. Space Station (ISS). A total of 6 replicates of 5 different space food items, a multivitamin, and a vitamin D supplement were packaged into 4 identical kits and were launched in 2006 on the space shuttle. After 13, 353, 596, and 880 d of spaceflight aboard the ISS, the kits were returned to Earth. Nine replicates of each food item and vitamin, from the same lots as those sent into space, remained in an environmental chamber on Earth to serve as controls at each time point. Vitamins, hexanal, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and amino acids were measured in identical-lot food samples at each time point. After 596 d of spaceflight, differences in intact vitamin concentrations due to duration of storage were observed for most foodstuffs, but generally, nutrients from flight samples did not degrade any faster than ground controls. This study provided the 1st set of spaceflight data for investigation of nutrient stability in the food system, and the results will help NASA design food systems for both ISS and space exploration missions.

  18. iss051e049147

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-24

    iss051e049147 (5/24/2017) --- ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet performs the commissioning of the Gravitational References for Sensimotor Performance (GRASP) experiment, to better understand how the central nervous system (CNS) integrates information from different sensations. The data collected could help researchers better understand the workings of the human vestibular system and how it connects to the other sensory organs. This research hopes to shed light on how to best treat the loss of vestibular function on Earth.

  19. iss051e049152

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-24

    iss051e049152 (5/24/2017) --- ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet performs the commissioning of the Gravitational References for Sensimotor Performance (GRASP) experiment, to better understand how the central nervous system (CNS) integrates information from different sensations. The data collected could help researchers better understand the workings of the human vestibular system and how it connects to the other sensory organs. This research hopes to shed light on how to best treat the loss of vestibular function on Earth.

  20. iss014-s-001

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-01

    ISS014-S-001 (May 2006) --- This emblem embodies the past, present, and future of human space exploration. The Roman numeral XIV suspended above the Earth against the black background of space symbolizes the fourteenth expeditionary mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Elements of this symbol merge into a unified trajectory destined for the moon, Mars, and beyond, much as science and operations aboard the ISS today will pave the way for future missions to our celestial neighbors. The five stars honor the astronauts and cosmonauts of missions Apollo 1, Soyuz 1, Soyuz 11, Challenger, and Columbia, who gave their lives in the pursuit of knowledge and discovery. The NASA insignia for design for shuttle flights and station increments is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced.

  1. iss026-s-001

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-14

    ISS026-S-001 (June 2010) --- In the foreground of the patch, the International Space Station is prominently displayed to acknowledge the efforts of the entire International Space Station (ISS) team - both the crews who have built and operated it, and the team of scientists, engineers, and support personnel on Earth who have provided a foundation for each successful mission. Their efforts and accomplishments have demonstrated the space station?s capabilities as a technology test bed and a science laboratory, as well as a path to the human exploration of our solar system and beyond. The ISS is shown with the European Space Agency?s (ESA) Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-2), the Johannes Kepler, docked to resupply it with experiments, food, water, and fuel for Expedition 26 and beyond. This Expedition 26 patch represents the teamwork among the international partners ? USA, Russia, Japan, Canada, and the ESA - and the ongoing commitment from each partner to build, improve, and utilize the ISS. Prominently displayed in the background is our home planet, Earth - the focus of much of our exploration and research on our outpost in space. The two stars symbolize two Soyuz spacecraft, each one carrying a three -member crew, who for four months will work and live together aboard the ISS as Expedition 26. The patch shows the crewmembers? names, and it?s framed with the flags of their countries of origin - United States, Russia, and Italy. The NASA insignia design for shuttle and space station flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. Laboratory hatch and behind Astronaut James D. Weatherbee, mission specialist. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  3. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunn, Griffin Michael; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Ruby, Anna Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the fifth generation Urine Processor Development Hardware. The Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) is a part of the Water Recovery System (WRS) on the ISS. It uses a chase change process called vapor compression distillation technology to remove contaminants from urine. The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. In this photograph, the life test area on the left of the MSFC ECLSS test facility is where various subsystems and components are tested to determine how long they can operate without failing and to identify components needing improvement. Equipment tested here includes the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), the Urine Processing Assembly (UPA), the mass spectrometer filament assemblies and sample pumps for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) simulator facility (in the module in the right) duplicates the function and operation of the ITCS in the ISS U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. This facility provides support for Destiny, including troubleshooting problems related to the ITCS.

  6. Environmental Effects on ISS Materials Aging (1998 to 2008)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alred, John; Dasgupta, Rajib; Koontz, Steve; Soares, Carlos; Golden, John

    2009-01-01

    geomagnetic field. As a result, ISS exposure to many environmental factors can vary dramatically along a particular orbital ground track, and from one ground track to the next, during any 24-hour period. The induced environment results from ISS interactions with the natural environment as well as environmental factors produced by ISS itself and visiting vehicles fleet. Examples include ram-wake effects, hypergolic thruster plume impingement, materials out-gassing, venting and dumping of fluids, and specific photovoltaic (PV) power system interactions with the ionospheric plasma (7-11). Vehicle size (L) and velocity (V), combined with the magnitude and direction of the geomagnetic field (B) produce operationally significant magnetic induction voltages (VxB.L) in ISS conducting structure during flight through high latitudes (> +45deg) during each orbit. Finally, an induced ionizing radiation environment is produced by cosmic ray interaction with the relatively thick ISS structure and shielding materials. The intent of this review article is, therefore, to provide a summary of selected aspects and elements of the ISS vehicle with regard to LEO space environment effects, associated with the much larger and more complicated vehicle that ISS has become since 1998, but also with an eye towards performance life extension to the year 2016 and beyond.

  7. Integrating MBSE into Ongoing Projects: Requirements Validation and Test Planning for the ISS SAFER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Herbert A.; Williams, Antony; Pierce, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Simplified Aid for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) is the spacewalking astronaut's final safety measure against separating from the ISS and being unable to return safely. Since the late 1990s, the SAFER has been a standard element of the spacewalking astronaut's equipment. The ISS SAFER project was chartered to develop a new block of SAFER units using a highly similar design to the legacy SAFER (known as the USA SAFER). An on-orbit test module was also included in the project to enable periodic maintenance/propulsion system checkout on the ISS SAFER. On the ISS SAFER project, model-based systems engineering (MBSE) was not the initial systems engineering (SE) approach, given the volume of heritage systems engineering and integration (SE&I) products. The initial emphasis was ensuring traceability to ISS program standards as well as to legacy USA SAFER requirements. The requirements management capabilities of the Cradle systems engineering tool were to be utilized to that end. During development, however, MBSE approaches were applied selectively to address specific challenges in requirements validation and test and verification (T&V) planning, which provided measurable efficiencies to the project. From an MBSE perspective, ISS SAFER development presented a challenge and an opportunity. Addressing the challenge first, the project was tasked to use the original USA SAFER operational and design requirements baseline, with a number of additional ISS program requirements to address evolving certification expectations for systems operating on the ISS. Additionally, a need to redesign the ISS SAFER avionics architecture resulted in a set of changes to the design requirements baseline. Finally, the project added an entirely new functionality for on-orbit maintenance. After initial requirements integration, the system requirements count was approaching 1000, which represented a growth of 4x over the original USA SAFER system

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-28

    The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS) launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1.

  9. iss042e094136

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-01

    ISS042E094136 (01/01/2015) --- Station solar arrays from the Russian Zarya module (top) and main arrays (bottom left) dominate this picturesque view as the International Space Station passes over a darkening Earth below. The combination of arrays on station power the multitude of systems onboard providing life support and functionality to a crew working on scientific research off the Earth, for the Earth.

  10. Unusual ISS Rate Signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    On November 23, 2011 International Space Station Guidance, Navigation, and Control reported unusual pitch rate disturbance. These disturbances were an order of magnitude greater than nominal rates. The Loads and Dynamics team was asked to review and analyze current accelerometer data to investigate this disturbance. This paper will cover the investigation process under taken by the Loads and Dynamics group. It will detail the accelerometers used and analysis performed. The analysis included performing Frequency Fourier Transform of the data to identify the mode of interest. This frequency data is then reviewed with modal analysis of the ISS system model. Once this analysis is complete and the disturbance quantified, a forcing function was produced to replicate the disturbance. This allows the Loads and Dynamics team to report the load limit values for the 100's of interfaces on the ISS.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph show the Safety Coordination Manager (SCM) at a work station. The SCM monitors science experiments to ensure they are conducted in a safe manner in accordance with strict safety regulations.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Command and Payload Multiplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) Officers (CPO's) at their work stations. The CPO maintains the command link between the Operation Center at MSFC and Mission Control at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, and configures the link to allow the international partners and remote scientists to operate their payloads from their home sites.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles, operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Payload Operations Director (POD) at work. The POD is the leader of the POC flight control team. The Director guides all payload activities in coordination with Mission Control at Johnson Space Center at Houston, Texas, the Station crew, the international partners, and other research facilities.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-01

    This photograph depicts the International Space Station's (ISS) Joint Airlock Module undergoing exhaustive structural and systems testing in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) prior to shipment to the Kennedy Space Center. The Airlock includes two sections. The larger equipment lock, on the left, will store spacesuits and associated gear and the narrower crewlock is on the right, from which the astronauts will exit into space for extravehicular activity. The airlock is 18 feet long and has a mass of about 13,500 pounds. It was launched to the station aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-104 mission) on July 12, 2001. The MSFC is playing a primary role in NASA's development, manufacturing, and operations of the ISS.

  15. iss034e045751

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-11

    ISS034-E-045751 (11 Feb. 2013) --- Russian cosmonauts Oleg Novitskiy (left) and Roman Romanenko, both Expedition 34 flight engineers, monitor data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 50 resupply vehicle. Progress 50 docked with the station’s Pirs docking compartment at 3:35 p.m. (EST), delivering 1,764 pounds of propellant, 110 pounds of oxygen and air, 926 pounds of water and 3,000 pounds of spare parts, experiment hardware and logistics equipment --- 2.9 tons of supplies in all. The space freighter launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 9:41 a.m. (8:41 p.m. Kazakhstan time) on an accelerated, four-orbit journey to rendezvous with the station.

  16. iss034e045753

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-11

    ISS034-E-045753 (11 Feb. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, Expedition 34 flight engineer, monitors data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 50 resupply vehicle. Progress 50 docked with the station’s Pirs docking compartment at 3:35 p.m. (EST), delivering 1,764 pounds of propellant, 110 pounds of oxygen and air, 926 pounds of water and 3,000 pounds of spare parts, experiment hardware and logistics equipment --- 2.9 tons of supplies in all. The space freighter launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 9:41 a.m. (8:41 p.m. Kazakhstan time) on an accelerated, four-orbit journey to rendezvous with the station.

  17. Further results on output-feedback regulation of stochastic nonlinear systems with SiISS inverse dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Xie, Xue-Jun; Wu, Yu-Qiang

    2010-10-01

    This article further discusses the problem of output-feedback regulation for more general stochastic nonlinear systems with stochastic integral input-to-state stable inverse dynamics, and focuses on solving the important and unsolved problem proposed in Yu and Xie (Yu, X., and Xie, X.J. (2010), 'Output Feedback Regulation of Stochastic Nonlinear Systems with Stochastic iISS Inverse Dynamics', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 55, 304-320): How to weaken the conditions on nonlinearities in drift and diffusion vector fields? Under the weaker conditions, how to make full use of the known information of stochastic nonlinear systems to design an adaptive output-feedback controller such that all the closed-loop signals are almost surely bounded and the output is driven to zero almost surely?

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-01

    This is the crew patch for the Shuttle Endeavor STS-113 mission, the 16th American assembly flight, and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS). STS-113 mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five back to Earth, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. Also, more than 2,500 pounds (1,134 kilograms) of cargo were transferred between the Shuttle and Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A and returned 11 days later on December 4, 2002. The patch depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour docked to the ISS during the installation of the P1 truss with the gold astronaut symbol in the background. The seven stars at the top left center of the patch are the seve brightest stars in the constellation Orion. They represent the combined seven crew members (four Shuttle and three Expedition Six). The three stars to the right of the astronaut symbol represent the returning Expedition Five crew members. The Roman Numeral CXIII represents the mission number 113.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-26

    The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS) launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, the delivery of the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. In this photograph, astronauts and mission specialists John B. Herrington (left) and Michael E. Lopez-Alegria (right) work near the CETA cart on a truss on the ISS during a scheduled space walk for the mission. The final major task of the space walk was the relocation of the CETA cart from the Port One (P1) to the Starboard One (S1) Truss, which will allow the Mobile Transporter to move along the P1 to assist in upcoming assembly missions.

  20. iss009e23808

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-20

    ISS009-E-23808 (20 September 2004) --- A fringing coral reef in the Red Sea is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 9 crewmember on the International Space Station (ISS). The Sudanese coast of the Red Sea is a well known destination for divers due to clear water and abundance of coral reefs (or “shia’ab” in Arabic). According to NASA scientists studying the ISS imagery, reefs are formed primarily from precipitation of calcium carbonate by corals; massive reef structures are built over thousands of years of succeeding generations of coral. In the Red Sea, fringing reefs form on shallow shelves of less than 50 meters depth along the coastline. This photograph illustrates the intricate morphology of the reef system located along the coast between Port Sudan to the northwest and the Tokar River delta to the southeast. Close to shore, fringing reefs border the coastline. Farther offshore grows a larger, more complicated barrier reef structure. Different parts of the reef structure show up as variable shades of light blue. Deeper water channels (darker blue) define the boundaries for individual reefs within the greater barrier reef system. Such a complex pattern of reefs may translate into greater ecosystem diversity through a wide variety of local reef environments.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-14

    Astronauts Piers J. Sellers (left ) and David A. Wolf work on the newly installed Starboard One (S1) truss to the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-112 mission. The primary payloads of this mission, ISS Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S One), the starboard side thermal radiator truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-10

    This view of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by an STS-112 crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during rendezvous and docking operations. Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the railway on the ISS providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-16

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The newly added S1 truss is visible in the center frame. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S-1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss,and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-16

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  5. iss049e002733

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-14

    iss049e002733 (09/14/2016) --- Expedition 49 crew member and NASA astronaut Kate Rubins works with a Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) tank aboard the International Space Station. The tanks are designed to be plugged into the station's existing air supply network to refill the crew’s breathable air supply. Each tank is pressurized up to 10,000 pounds per square inch to giving the station an atmosphere of nitrogen and oxygen like that of Earth, the system provides the pure oxygen astronauts breathe before beginning a spacewalk. The gases also are used in the station's ammonia-based cooling system and for other secondary uses.

  6. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  7. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  8. Analysis of ISS Plasma Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, Brandon; Alred, John; Kramer, Leonard; Mikatarian, Ron; Minow, Joe; Koontz, Steve

    2006-01-01

    To date, the International Space Station (ISS) has been one of the largest objects flown in lower earth orbit (LEO). The ISS utilizes high voltage solar arrays (160V) that are negatively grounded leading to pressurized elements that can float negatively with respect to the plasma. Because laboratory measurements indicate a dielectric breakdown potential difference of 80V, arcing could occur on the ISS structure. To overcome the possibility of arcing and clamp the potential of the structure, two Plasma Contactor Units (PCUs) were designed, built, and flown. Also a limited amount of measurements of the floating potential for the present ISS configuration were made by a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), indicating a minimum potential of 24 Volts at the measurement location. A predictive tool, the ISS Plasma Interaction Model (PIM) has been developed accounting for the solar array electron collection, solar array mast wire and effective conductive area on the structure. The model has been used for predictions of the present ISS configuration. The conductive area has been inferred based on available floating potential measurements. Analysis of FPP and PCU data indicated distribution of the conductive area along the Russian segment of the ISS structure. A significant input to PIM is the plasma environment. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2001) was initially used to obtain plasma temperature and density values. However, IRI provides mean parameters, leading to difficulties in interpretation of on-orbit data, especially at eclipse exit where maximum charging can occur. This limits our predicative capability. Satellite and Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) data of plasma parameters have also been collected. Approximately 130,000 electron temperature (Te) and density (Ne) pairs for typical ISS eclipse exit conditions have been extracted from the reduced Langmuir probe data flown aboard the NASA DE-2 satellite. Additionally, another 18,000 Te and Ne pairs of ISR data

  9. Progress and Status of the Japan's ISS Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Hideshi

    2002-01-01

    The first element of the International Space Station (ISS) was launched in November 1998. Since then, ISS construction has progressed steadily, and ISS has been operated safely. Since the first permanent crew boarded the ISS in November 2000, various experiments have been conducted. NASDA astronaut Mr. Soichi Noguchi will fly on the STS-114 (ULF1) utilization and supply mission scheduled in early 2003 as a Mission Specialist. Japan is continuing its development and preparation for ISS operation and utilization. The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) "Kibo" overall system test started in November 2001 at Tsukuba Space Center (TKSC) and it was successfully completed in May 2002. Subsequently, the integration test with the Operation Control System (OCS) has been prepared to verify compatibility with JEM on-board software. The development of the Centrifuge, H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and JEM experiment equipment is also proceeding smoothly. Furthermore, Japan conducted precursor missions as an early utilization program for promoting the JEM research program. An overview of the progress and current status of Japan's Space Station program will be presented.

  10. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.

  11. Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.

  12. Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.

  13. A novel intronic cis element, ISE/ISS-3, regulates rat fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 splicing through activation of an upstream exon and repression of a downstream exon containing a noncanonical branch point sequence.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, Ruben H; Carstens, Russ P

    2005-01-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) exons IIIb and IIIc yields two receptor isoforms, FGFR2-IIIb and -IIIc, with distinctly different ligand binding properties. Several RNA cis elements in the intron (intron 8) separating these exons have been described that are required for splicing regulation. Using a heterologous splicing reporter, we have identified a new regulatory element in this intron that confers cell-type-specific inclusion of an unrelated exon that mirrors its ability to promote cell-type-specific inclusion of exon IIIb. This element promoted inclusion of exon IIIb while at the same time silencing exon IIIc inclusion in cells expressing FGFR2-IIIb; hence, we have termed this element ISE/ISS-3 (for "intronic splicing enhancer-intronic splicing silencer 3"). Silencing of exon IIIc splicing by ISE/ISS-3 was shown to require a branch point sequence (BPS) using G as the primary branch nucleotide. Replacing a consensus BPS with A as the primary branch nucleotide resulted in constitutive splicing of exon IIIc. Our results suggest that the branch point sequence constitutes an important component that can contribute to the efficiency of exon definition of alternatively spliced cassette exons. Noncanonical branch points may thus facilitate cell-type-specific silencing of regulated exons by flanking cis elements.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-04-20

    An artist's concept of a fully deployed International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS-A is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experiments.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-21

    Artist's concept of the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  16. Impact of Solar Array Position on ISS Vehicle Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alred, John; Mikatarian, Ronald; Koontz, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), because of its large structure and high voltage solar arrays, has a complex plasma interaction with the ionosphere in low Earth orbit (LEO). This interaction of the ISS US Segment photovoltaic (PV) power system with the LEO ionospheric plasma produces floating potentials on conducting elements of the ISS structure relative to the local plasma environment. To control the ISS floating potentials, two Plasma Contactor Units (PCUs) are installed on the Z1 truss. Each PCU discharges accumulated electrons from the Space Station structure, thus reducing the potential difference between the ISS structure and the surrounding charged plasma environment. Operations of the PCUs were intended to keep the ISS floating potential to 40 Volts (Reference 1). Exposed dielectric surfaces overlying conducting structure on the Space Station will collect an opposite charge from the ionosphere as the ISS charges. In theory, when an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crewmember is tethered to structure via the crew safety tether or when metallic surfaces of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) come in contact with conducting metallic surfaces of the ISS, the EMU conducting components, including the perspiration-soaked crewmember inside, can become charged to the Space Station floating potential. The concern is the potential dielectric breakdown of anodized aluminum surfaces on the EMU producing an arc from the EMU to the ambient plasma, or nearby ISS structure. If the EMU arcs, an electrical current of an unknown magnitude and duration may conduct through the EVA crewmember, producing an unacceptable condition. This electrical current may be sufficient to startle or fatally shock the EVA crewmember (Reference 2). Hence, as currently defined by the EVA community, the ISS floating potential for all nominal and contingency EVA worksites and translation paths must have a magnitude less than 40 volts relative to the local ionosphere at all times during EVA

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Russian Lada greenhouse provides home to an experiment that investigates plant development and genetics. Space grown peas have dried and "gone to seed." The crew of the ISS will soon harvest the seeds. Eventually some will be replanted onboard the ISS, and some will be returned to Earth for further study.

  18. iss050e030665

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-12

    iss050e030665 (01/12/2017) --- The international Space Station (ISS) passes over South America showing Argentina, and the Southern Andes. This angled image of the ISS Solar Arrays frames the Earth scene taken by astronauts of Expedition 50.

  19. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    The design and functions of ALEPS (Automated Logistics Element Planning System) is a computer system that will automate planning and decision support for Space Station Freedom Logistical Elements (LEs) resupply and return operations. ALEPS provides data management, planning, analysis, monitoring, interfacing, and flight certification for support of LE flight load planning activities. The prototype ALEPS algorithm development is described.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  1. ISS Plasma Interaction: Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsamian, H.; Mikatarian, R.; Alred, J.; Minow, J.; Koontz, S.

    2004-01-01

    Ionospheric plasma interaction effects on the International Space Station are discussed in the following paper. The large structure and high voltage arrays of the ISS represent a complex system interacting with LEO plasma. Discharge current measurements made by the Plasma Contactor Units and potential measurements made by the Floating Potential Probe delineate charging and magnetic induction effects on the ISS. Based on theoretical and physical understanding of the interaction phenomena, a model of ISS plasma interaction has been developed. The model includes magnetic induction effects, interaction of the high voltage solar arrays with ionospheric plasma, and accounts for other conductive areas on the ISS. Based on these phenomena, the Plasma Interaction Model has been developed. Limited verification of the model has been performed by comparison of Floating Potential Probe measurement data to simulations. The ISS plasma interaction model will be further tested and verified as measurements from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit become available, and construction of the ISS continues.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-11

    STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist James S. Voss works outside Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory (shown in lower frame) on the International Space Station (ISS), while anchored to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm on the Space Shuttle Discovery during the first of two space walks. During this space walk, the longest to date in space shuttle history, Voss in tandem with Susan Helms (out of frame), prepared the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 for repositioning from the Unity Module's Earth-facing berth to its port-side berth to make room for the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) supplied by the Italian Space Agency. The The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS' moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. Launched on May 8, 2001 for nearly 13 days in space, the STS-102 mission was the 8th spacecraft assembly flight to the ISS and NASA's 103rd overall mission. The mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-11

    STS-102 mission astronaut Susan J. Helms works outside the International Space Station (ISS) while holding onto a rigid umbilical and her feet anchored to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm on the Space Shuttle Discovery during the first of two space walks. During this space walk, the longest to date in space shuttle history, Helms in tandem with James S. Voss (out of frame), prepared the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 for repositioning from the Unity Module's Earth-facing berth to its port-side berth to make room for the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) supplied by the Italian Space Agency. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. Launched on May 8, 2001 for nearly 13 days in space, STS-102 mission was the 8th spacecraft assembly flight to the ISS and NASA's 103rd overall mission. The mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  4. Using the ISS as a Testbed to Prepare for the Next Generation of Space-Based Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Kim; Thronson, Harley; Boyles, Mark; Sparks, William; Postman, Marc; Carpenter, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The ISS provides a unique opportunity to develop the technologies and operational capabilities necessary to assemble future large space telescopes that may be used to investigate planetary systems around neighboring stars. Assembling telescopes in space is a paradigm-shifting approach to space astronomy. Using the ISS as a testbed will reduce the technical risks of implementing this major scientific facility, such as laser metrology and wavefront sensing and control (WFSC). The Optical Testbed and Integration on ISS eXperiment (OpTIIX) will demonstrate the robotic assembly of major components, including the primary and secondary mirrors, to mechanical tolerances using existing ISS infrastructure, and the alignment of the optical elements to a diffraction-limited optical system in space. Assembling the optical system and removing and replacing components via existing ISS capabilities, such as the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) or the ISS flight crew, allows for future experimentation and repair, if necessary. First flight on ISS for OpTIIX, a small 1.5 meter optical telescope, is planned for 2015. In addition to demonstration of key risk-retiring technologies, the OpTIIX program includes a public outreach program to show the broad value of ISS utilization.

  5. Design and construction of Information Systems of Ocean Satellite Monitoring for Air-sea CO2 Flux (IssCO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiankun; Fang, Lei; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Jianyu

    2013-10-01

    Climate change has become one of the hotspots of global attention in recent progress of globalization and industrialization. The mainstream opinion presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) regards that the global warming was caused mainly by greenhouse gases generated by human activities, such as anthropogenic CO2, which also resulting in the high-frequent happening of abnormal climate events. Satellite remote sensing is an efficient and economic method for CO2 flux observation. In this paper, we describe an Information System of Ocean Satellite Monitoring for Ari-sea CO2 Flux (IssCO2) which developed by the Second Institute of Oceanography, China. The IssCO2can achieve the whole procedure automatically from the satellite remote data receiving to products distribution, including the data acquirement and satellite image process, products generation, etc. The IssCO2 can process various types of in situ data, satellite data and model data, and validate the final satellite-derived CO2 flux products by in situ data; it can provide a real-time browsing and download of remote sensing products on the web based on the Geo-information System (GIS) technologies. The IssCO2 can meet the concurrent queries of different levels of users, and the query results can be visual displayed and analyzed on the client.

  6. ISS Operations for the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) Experiences from the Robotic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (RSEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinler, Anthony B.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will present a new era of telerobotic operations on-orbit. Operating the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) in its tasks of maintaining the multitude of Space Station Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs) creates numerous operational considerations not seen in the existing Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the future Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The differences between the large arms and the dexterous arm greatly affect the interconnection of man, robot, and task. This paper presents some of the issues arising from this new breed of on-orbit robotics as garnered from over three years of ORU testing experience within the Robotic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (RSEL) at NASA Johnson Space Center. The effects of new robotic features on operations, the issues surrounding targets and visual cues, the differences in operating with Force Moment Accommodation (FMA), the effects of changes in task complexity and scale, the lack of supporting flight information, and the changes in procedures required by the dexterous task will be discussed.

  7. ISS Operations for the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) Experiences from the Robotic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (RSEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinler, Anthony B.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will present a new era of telerobotic operations on-orbit. Operating the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) in its tasks of maintaining the multitude of Space Station Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs) creates numerous operational considerations not seen in the existing Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or the future Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The differences between the large arms and the dexterous arm greatly affect the interconnection of man, robot, and task. This paper presents some of the issues arising from this new breed of on-orbit robotics as garnered from over three years of ORU testing experience within the Robotic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (RSEL) at NASA Johnson Space Center. The effects of new robotic features on operations, the issues surrounding targets and visual cues, the differences in operating with Force Moment Accommodation (FMA), the effects of changes in task complexity and scale, the lack of supporting flight information, and the changes in procedures required by the dexterous task will be discussed.

  8. Partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE) and chalcogens (Se, Te, As, Sb, Bi) between monosulfide-solid solution (MSS), intermediate solid solution (ISS) and sulfide liquid at controlled fO2-fS2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanan; Brenan, James

    2015-06-01

    In order to better understand the behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSEs: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Au, Re), Ag, Pb and chalcogens (As, Se, Sb, Te and Bi) during the solidification of sulfide magmas, we have conducted a series of experiments to measure partition coefficients (D values) between monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and sulfide melt, as well as MSS and intermediate solid solution (ISS), at 0.1 MPa and 860-926 °C, log fS2 -3.0 to -2.2 (similar to the Pt-PtS buffer), with fO2 controlled at the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. The IPGEs (Os, Ir, Ru), Rh and Re are found to be compatible in MSS relative to sulfide melt with D values ranging from ∼20 to ∼5, and DRe/DOs of ∼0.5. Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, Pb, as well as the chalcogens, are incompatible in MSS, with D values ranging from ∼0.1 to ∼1 × 10-3. For the same metal/sulfur ratio, D values for the IPGEs, Rh and Re are systematically larger than most past studies, correlating with higher oxygen content in the sulfide liquid, reflecting the significant effect of oxygen on increasing the activity coefficients for these elements in the melt phase. MSS/ISS partitioning experiments reveal that Ru, Os, Ir, Rh and Re are partitioned into MSS by a factor of >50, whereas Pd, Pt, Ag, Au and the chalcogens partition from weakly (Se, As) to strongly (Ag, Au) into ISS. Uniformly low MSS- and ISS- melt partition coefficients for the chalcogens, Pt, Pd, Ag and Au will lead to enrichment in the residual sulfide liquid, but D values are generally too large to reach early saturation in Pt-Pd-chalcogen-rich accessory minerals, based on current solubility estimates. Instead, these phases likely precipitate at the last dregs of crystallization. Modeled evolution curves for the PGEs and chalcogens are in reasonably good agreement with whole-rock sulfide compositions for the McCreedy East deposit (Sudbury, Ontario), consistent with an origin by crystallization of MSS, then MSS + ISS from sulfide magma.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-01

    Backdropped against the blackness of space and the Earth's horizon, the Mobile Remote Base System (MBS) is moved by the Canadarm2 for installation on the International Space Station (ISS). Delivered by the STS-111 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in June 2002, the MBS is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station, which is neccessary for future construction tasks. In addition, STS-111 delivered a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after remaining a record-setting 196 days in space. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish the delivery and installation of the MBS to the Mobile Transporter on the S0 (S-zero) truss, the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm, and the task of unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-02

    Back dropped against the blue hues of Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) sports its new Port One (P-1) Truss (center frame) as photographed by a crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour following its undocking from the Station. Launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A, the STS-113 mission, the 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight, installed and activated the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss will provide three additional External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. This photograph depicts the the latest completed configuration of the ISS to date.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-28

    The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS), launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. In this photograph, astronaut and mission specialist Michael E. Lopez-Alegria works on the newly installed P1 truss during the mission's second scheduled session of extravehicular activity.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-10

    Anchored to a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm2, astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's first session of extravehicular activity (EVA). Wolf is carrying the Starboard One (S1) outboard nadir external camera which was installed on the end of the S1 Truss on the International Space Station (ISS). Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVAs. Its primary mission was to install the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  13. RHIC Ring Element Nomenclature System

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Rufer, C.; Sondericker, J.

    1990-10-11

    A technical note was published by Hahn, in March 1985, that presented a nomenclature system which identified RHIC main magnets and their position in the ring structure. A revised nomenclature system is described in this technical note which supersedes the earlier version. This present designation completes the 1985 note and has been enlarged to take into account practical considerations like machine installation and operation.

  14. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.

  15. ISS Expedition Six NASA Insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-01

    ISS006-S-001 (September 2002) --- The International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Six crew patch depicts the station orbiting the Earth on its mission of international cooperation and scientific research. The Earth is placed in the center of the patch to emphasize that work conducted aboard this orbiting laboratory is intended to improve life on our home planet. The shape of the space station’s orbit symbolizes the role that experience gained from ISS will have on future exploration of our solar system and beyond. The American and Russian flags encircling the Earth represent the native countries of the Expedition 6 crew members, which are just two of the many participant countries contributing to the ISS and committed to the peaceful exploration of space. The NASA insignia design for International Space Station (ISS) missions is reserved for use by the crew members and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced.

  16. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    EVADES output. As mentioned above, GEnEVADOSE makes extensive use of ROOT version 6, the data analysis framework developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the code is written to the C++11 standard (as are the other projects). My second project is the Automated Mission Reference Exposure Utility (AMREU).Unlike GEnEVADOSE, AMREU is a combination of three frameworks written in both Python and C++, also making use of ROOT (and PyROOT). Run as a combination of daily and weekly cron jobs, these macros query the SRAG database system to determine the active ISS missions, and query minute-by-minute radiation dose information from ISS-TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter), one of the radiation detectors onboard the ISS. Using this information, AMREU creates a corrected data set of daily radiation doses, addressing situations where TEPC may be offline or locked up by correcting doses for days with less than 95% live time (the total amount time the instrument acquires data) by averaging the past 7 days. As not all errors may be automatically detectable, AMREU also allows for manual corrections, checking an updated plaintext file each time it runs. With the corrected data, AMREU generates cumulative dose plots for each mission, and uses a Python script to generate a flight note file (.docx format) containing these plots, as well as information sections to be filled in and modified by the space weather environment officers with information specific to the week. AMREU is set up to run without requiring any user input, and it automatically archives old flight notes and information files for missions that are no longer active. My other projects involve cleaning up a large data set from the Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (CPDS), joining together many different data sets in order to clean up information in SRAG SQL databases, and developing other automated utilities for displaying information on active solar regions, that may be used by the

  17. Simulation of an urban ground-water-flow system in the Menomonee Valley, Milwaukee, Wisconsin using analytic element modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunning, C.P.; Feinstein, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    A single-layer, steady-state analytic element model was constructed to simulate shallow ground-water flow in the Menomonee Valley, an old industrial center southwest of downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Project objectives were to develop an understanding of the shallow ground-water flow system and identify primary receptors of recharge to the valley. The analytic element model simulates flow in a 18.3 m (60 ft) thick layer of estuarine and alluvial sediments and man-made fill that comprises the shallow aquifer across the valley. The thin, laterally extensive nature of the shallow aquifer suggests horizontal-flow predominates, thus the system can appropriately be modeled with the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation in an analytic element model. The model was calibrated to the measured baseflow increase between two USGS gages on the Menomonee River, 90 head measurements taken in and around the valley during December 1999, and vertical gradients measured at five locations under the river and estuary in the valley. Recent construction of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewer District Inline Storage System (ISS) in the Silurian dolomite under the Menomonee Valley has locally lowered heads in the dolomite appreciably, below levels caused by historic pumping. The ISS is a regional hydraulic sink which removes water from the bedrock even during dry weather. The potential effect on flow directions in the shallow aquifer of dry-weather infiltration to the ISS was evaluated by adjusting the resistance of the line-sink strings representing the ISS in the model to allow infiltration from 0 to 100% of the reported 9,500 m3/d. The best fit to calibration targets was found between 60% (5,700 m3/d) and 80% (7,600 m3/d) of the reported dry-weather infiltration. At 60% infiltration, 65% of the recharge falling on the valley terminates at the ISS and 35% at the Menomonee River and estuary. At 80% infiltration, 73% of the recharge terminates at the ISS, and 27% at the river and estuary. Model

  18. ISS GN and C - First Year Surprises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begley, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) began in late 1998 with the joining of the first two US and Russ ian elements. For more than two years, the outpost was served by two Russian Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) systems. The station requires orbital translation and attitude control functions for its 100+ configurations, from the nascent two-module station to the half million kilogram completed station owned and operated by seventeen nations. With the launch of the US Laboratory module in February 2001, the integration of the US GN&C system with its Russian counterpart laid the foundation for such a robust system. In its first year of combined operation, the ISS GN&C system has performed admirably, even better than many expected, but there have been surprises. Loss of command capability, loss of communication between segments, a control system force-fight, and "non-propulsive vents" that weren't - such events have repeatedly underscored the importance of thorough program integration, testing, and operation, both across subsystem boundaries and across international borders.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-01

    These 5 astronauts and cosmonaut, all members of the STS-112 mission, pose for a crew portrait. Pictured from left to right are: Astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, mission specialist; David A. Wolf, mission specialist; Pamela A. Melroy, pilot; Jeffrey S. Ashby, commander; Piers J. Sellers, mission specialist; and cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, mission specialist representing Rosaviakosmos. STS-112 launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis October 7, 2002 for an 11-day mission completing three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity(EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the railway on the ISS providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    In the grasp of the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm, the U.S. Laboratory, Destiny, is moved from its stowage position in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis. This photograph was taken by astronaut Thomas D. Jones during his Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The American-made Destiny module is the cornerstone for space-based research aboard the orbiting platform and the centerpiece of the International Space Station (ISS), where unprecedented science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. Destiny will also serve as the command and control center for the ISS. The aluminum module is 8.5- meters (28-feet) long and 4.3-meters (14-feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations. Payload racks will occupy 15 locations especially designed to support experiments. The Destiny module was built by the Boeing Company under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    In the grasp of the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm, the U.S. Laboratory, Destiny, is moved from its stowage position in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis. This photograph was taken by astronaut Thomas D. Jones during his Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The American-made Destiny module is the cornerstone for space-based research aboard the orbiting platform and the centerpiece of the International Space Station (ISS), where unprecedented science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. Destiny will also serve as the command and control center for the ISS. The aluminum module is 8.5- meters (28-feet) long and 4.3-meters (14-feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations. Payload racks will occupy 15 locations especially designed to support experiments. The Destiny module was built by the Boeing Company under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  2. ISS Solar Array Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  3. Overview of ISS U.S. Fire Detection and Suppression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Alana

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the International Space Station's Fire Detection and Suppression System. The topics include: 1) Introduction to Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS); 2) Description of (FDS) Subsystems; 3) FDS System Component Location and Status; 4) FDS System Capabilities; 5) FDS Automatic and Manual Response; 6) Post Fire Atmosphere Restoration and Air Quality Assessment; and 7) FDS Research Needs. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  4. Analyzing an Aging ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ISS External Survey integrates the requirements for photographic and video imagery of the International Space Station (ISS) for the engineering, operations, and science communities. An extensive photographic survey was performed on all Space Shuttle flights to the ISS and continues to be performed daily, though on a level much reduced by the limited available imagery. The acquired video and photo imagery is used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of external deposition and contamination, surface degradation, dynamic events, and MMOD strikes. Many of these assessments provide important information about ISS surfaces and structural integrity as the ISS ages. The imagery is also used to assess and verify the physical configuration of ISS structure, appendages, and components.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-20

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-105 mission from the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery after separating from the ISS. The STS-105 mission was the 11th ISS assembly flight and its goals were the rotation of the ISS Expedition Two crew with Expedition Three crew, and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistic Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Aboard Leonardo were six resupply stowage racks, four resupply stowage supply platforms, and two new scientific experiment racks, EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Racks 4 and 5, which added science capabilities to the ISS. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), which included materials and other types of space exposure experiments mounted on the exterior of the ISS.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-06-09

    The STS-121 patch depicts the Space Shuttle docked with the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, overlaying the astronaut symbol with three gold columns and a gold star. The ISS is shown in the configuration that it was during the STS-121 mission. The background shows the nighttime Earth with a dawn breaking over the horizon. STS-121, ISS mission ULF1.1, was the final Shuttle Return to Flight test mission. This utilization and logistics flight delivered a multipurpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS with several thousand pounds of new supplies and experiments. In addition, some new orbital replacement units (ORUs) were delivered and stowed externally on the ISS on a special pallet. These ORUs are spares for critical machinery located on the outside of the ISS. During this mission the crew also carried out testing of Shuttle inspection and repair hardware, as well as evaluated operational techniques and concepts for conducting on-orbit inspection and repair.

  7. 3D information from 2D images recorded in the European Modular Cultivation System on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, B. G. B.

    2009-12-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) on the ISS allows long-term biological experiments, e.g. on plants. Video cameras provide near real-time 2D images from these experiments. A method to obtain 3D coordinates and stereoscopic images from these 2D images has been developed and is described in this paper. The procedure was developed to enhance the data output of the MULTIGEN-1 experiment in 2007. One of the main objectives of the experiment was to study growth movements of the Arabidopsis plants and the effect of gravity on these. 3D data were important during parts of the experiment and the paper presents the method developed to acquire 3D data, the accuracy of the data, limitations to the technique and ways to improve the accuracy. Sequences of 3D data obtained from the MULTIGEN-1 experiment are used to illustrate the potential of this newfound capability of the EMCS. In the experiment setup, a positional depth accuracy of about ±0.4 mm for relative object distances and an absolute depth accuracy of about ±1.4 mm for time dependent phenomena was reached. The ability to both view biological specimens in 3D as well as obtaining quantitative 3D data added greatly to the scientific output of the MULTIGEN-1 experiment. The uses of the technique to other researchers and their experiments are discussed.

  8. iss048e046434

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-29

    iss048e046434 (07/29/2016) --- Towering cumulonimbus and other clouds are spotted during a pass over the Earth by the Expedition 48 crew aboard the International Space Station. Photographs from the station provides researchers on Earth with key data to understand the planet from the perspective of the ISS. Crew members have been photographing Earth from space since the early Mercury missions beginning in 1961. The images taken from the ISS ensure this record remains unbroken.

  9. iss048e046923

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-31

    iss048e046923 (07/31/2016) --- Towering cumulonimbus and other clouds are spotted during a pass over the Earth by the Expedition 48 crew aboard the International Space Station. Photographs from the station provides researchers on Earth with key data to understand the planet from the perspective of the ISS. Crew members have been photographing Earth from space since the early Mercury missions beginning in 1961. The images taken from the ISS ensure this record remains unbroken.

  10. iss048e046902

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-31

    iss048e046902 (07/31/2016) --- Towering cumulonimbus and other clouds are spotted during a pass over the Earth by the Expedition 48 crew aboard the International Space Station. Photographs from the station provides researchers on Earth with key data to understand the planet from the perspective of the ISS. Crew members have been photographing Earth from space since the early Mercury missions beginning in 1961. The images taken from the ISS ensure this record remains unbroken.

  11. ISS Update: Suitport

    NASA Image and Video Library

    ISS Update commentator Lynnette Madison interviews Mallory Jennings, Suitport Human Testing Lead, about making spacewalks easier and more efficient with the Suitport. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @...

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    This artist's digital concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida and the Bahamas. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating in the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  14. ISS Update: Active Response Gravity Offload System -- 08.24.12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks to the Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) Project Manager Larry Dungan in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center in Hou...

  15. Concept for Sustained Plant Production on ISS Using VEGGIE Capillary Mat Rooting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth in microgravity presents unique challenges associated with maintaining appropriate conditions for seed germination, seedling establishment, maturation and harvest. They include maintaining appropriate soil moisture content, nutrient balance, atmospheric mixing and containment. Sustained production imposes additional challenges of harvesting, replanting, and safety. The VEGGIE is a deployable (collapsible) plant growth chamber developed as part of a NASA SBIR Phase II by Orbitec, Madison, WI. The intent of VEGGIE is to provide a low-resource system to produce fresh vegetables for the crew on long duration missions. The VEGGIE uses and LED array for lighting, an expandable bellows for containment, and a capillary matting system for nutrient and water delivery. The project evaluated a number of approaches to achieve sustained production, and repeated plantings, using the capillary rooting system. A number of different root media, seed containment, and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated and effects on seed germination and growth were evaluated. A number of issues limiting sustained production, such as accumulation of nutrients, uniform water, elevated vapor pressure deficit, and media containment were identified. A concept using pre-planted rooting packs shown to effectively address a number of those issues and is a promising approach for future development as a planting system for microgravity conditions.

  16. Practical Applications of Cables and Ropes in the ISS Countermeasures System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Cherice; Svetlik, Randall; Williams, Antony

    2017-01-01

    As spaceflight durations have increased over the last four decades, the effects of weightlessness on the human body are far better understood, as are the countermeasures. A combination of aerobic and resistive exercise devices contribute to countering the losses in muscle strength, aerobic fitness, and bone strength of today's astronauts and cosmonauts that occur during their missions on the International Space Station. Creation of these systems has been a dynamically educational experience for designers and engineers. The ropes and cables in particular have experienced a wide range of challenges, providing a full set of lessons learned that have already enabled improvements in on-orbit reliability by initiating system design improvements. This paper examines the on-orbit experience of ropes and cables in several exercise devices and discusses the lessons learned from these hardware items, with the goal of informing future system design.

  17. Bioculture System Expanding ISS Capabilities for Space Biosciences Research and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2013-01-01

    Oral presentation at the ASGSR 2013 Annual Meeting. The presentation describes the NASA Bioculture System hardware design, capabilities, enabling science research capabilities, and flight concept of operations. The presentation is part of the Enabling Technologies special session and will be presented to perspective users in both academics and commercial communities.

  18. Optimal Propellant Maneuver Flight Demonstrations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Sagar; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Longacre, Kenneth; Nguyen, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, first ever flight demonstrations of Optimal Propellant Maneuver (OPM), a method of propulsive rotational state transition for spacecraft controlled using thrusters, is presented for the International Space Station (ISS). On August 1, 2012, two ISS reorientations of about 180deg each were performed using OPMs. These maneuvers were in preparation for the same-day launch and rendezvous of a Progress vehicle, also a first for ISS visiting vehicles. The first maneuver used 9.7 kg of propellant, whereas the second used 10.2 kg. Identical maneuvers performed without using OPMs would have used approximately 151.1kg and 150.9kg respectively. The OPM method is to use a pre-planned attitude command trajectory to accomplish a rotational state transition. The trajectory is designed to take advantage of the complete nonlinear system dynamics. The trajectory choice directly influences the cost of the maneuver, in this case, propellant. For example, while an eigenaxis maneuver is kinematically the shortest path between two orientations, following that path requires overcoming the nonlinear system dynamics, thereby increasing the cost of the maneuver. The eigenaxis path is used for ISS maneuvers using thrusters. By considering a longer angular path, the path dependence of the system dynamics can be exploited to reduce the cost. The benefits of OPM for the ISS include not only reduced lifetime propellant use, but also reduced loads, erosion, and contamination from thrusters due to fewer firings. Another advantage of the OPM is that it does not require ISS flight software modifications since it is a set of commands tailored to the specific attitude control architecture. The OPM takes advantage of the existing ISS control system architecture for propulsive rotation called USTO control mode1. USTO was originally developed to provide ISS Orbiter stack attitude control capability for a contingency tile-repair scenario, where the Orbiter is maneuvered using its robotic

  19. ISS Russian service module data management system designed _ developed by ESA industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, G.; Graf, J.; Hadler, H.; Häbel, W.; Schneider, W.; Urban, G.

    1997-01-01

    In frame of the European-Russian cooperation within the International Space Station Program a Fault Tolerant Computer assembly with associated crew-control station is under development in European industry. The on-board equipment, which is supposed to be accommodated within the data management and guidance navigation control system of the Russian Service Module, is complemented with a complete set of ground hard- and software required for the application software development and verification process as well as Service Module System integration and check-out. For the on-board fault tolerant computer a new mechanism, that provides the required two failure tolerant feature is implemented, which is based on the so-called Byzantine Failure algorithm. (1) The Ground segment is based on Columbus Ground Software (CGS) which is a consistent set of software products which form in different combinations the basis for a set of integrated ground facilities, also in use for the Space Station Mission Built Facility (MBF) and the System Verification Facility (SVF) at NASA. The project is in an advanced stage, engineering models are available, development and test facilities used to generate and test application software are in operation in Russia. The paper will provide initial test results and information on experience gained within the integration and verification process for both, the on-board and ground hardware and software.

  20. Development of visual peak selection system based on multi-ISs normalization algorithm to apply to methamphetamine impurity profiling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hun Joo; Han, Eunyoung; Lee, Jaesin; Chung, Heesun; Min, Sung-Gi

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to improve resolution of impurity peaks using a newly devised normalization algorithm for multi-internal standards (ISs) and to describe a visual peak selection system (VPSS) for efficient support of impurity profiling. Drug trafficking routes, location of manufacture, or synthetic route can be identified from impurities in seized drugs. In the analysis of impurities, different chromatogram profiles are obtained from gas chromatography and used to examine similarities between drug samples. The data processing method using relative retention time (RRT) calculated by a single internal standard is not preferred when many internal standards are used and many chromatographic peaks present because of the risk of overlapping between peaks and difficulty in classifying impurities. In this study, impurities in methamphetamine (MA) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method using ethylacetate containing 4 internal standards and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The newly developed VPSS consists of an input module, a conversion module, and a detection module. The input module imports chromatograms collected from GC and performs preprocessing, which is converted with a normalization algorithm in the conversion module, and finally the detection module detects the impurities in MA samples using a visualized zoning user interface. The normalization algorithm in the conversion module was used to convert the raw data from GC-FID. The VPSS with the built-in normalization algorithm can effectively detect different impurities in samples even in complex matrices and has high resolution keeping the time sequence of chromatographic peaks the same as that of the RRT method. The system can widen a full range of chromatograms so that the peaks of impurities were better aligned for easy separation and classification. The resolution, accuracy, and speed of impurity profiling showed remarkable improvement. Copyright

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-09

    Back dropped against a blue and white Earth, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis was photographed by an Expedition 5 crew member onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during rendezvous and docking operations. Docking occurred at 10:17 am on October 9, 2002. The Starboard 1 (S1) Integrated Truss Structure, the primary payload of the STS-112 mission, can be seen in Atlantis' cargo bay. Installed and outfitted within 3 sessions of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) during the 11 day mission, the S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-01

    This image shows the Integrated Truss Assembly S-1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss, for the International Space Station (ISS) undergoing final construction in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. Delivered and installed by the STS-112 mission, the S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-11-03

    While anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), astronaut Scott Parazynski, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, Parazynski cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Astronaut Doug Wheelock (out of frame), mission specialist, assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-03

    While anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), astronaut Scott Parazynski, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, Parazynski cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Astronaut Doug Wheelock (out of frame), mission specialist, assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  5. iss009e26364

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-01

    ISS009-E-26364 (1 October 2004) --- Mount Saint Helens, Washington, is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 9 crewmember on the International Space Station (ISS). The USGS has been monitoring Mount Saint Helens closely since last Thursday, when the volcano began to belch steam and swarms of tiny earthquakes were first recorded.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-01

    As the Space Shuttle Discovery began its separation from the International Space Station (ISS), a crew member captured this view of the ISS, revealing new additions to the complex. Most of the Z1 truss structure is visible, along with the recently installed Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-3).

  7. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    Tara Ruttley, International Space Station Program Scientist, talks about the benefits of conducting science experiments on ISS at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. iss049e012018

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-27

    ISS049e012018 (09/27/2016) --- Expedition 49 crewmember Kate Rubins of NASA works with the airlock inside of Kibo, the Japanese Experiment Module. Rubins was installing the Robotics External Leak Locator (RELL), a technology demonstration designed to locate external ISS ammonia (NH3) leaks.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    One of the astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery took this photograph, from the aft flight deck of the Discovery, of the International Space Station (ISS) in orbit. The photo was taken after separation of the orbiter Discovery from the ISS after several days of joint activities and an important crew exchange.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-07-20

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-12-16

    Artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha deployed and operational. This figure also includes the docking procedures for the Space Shuttle (shown with cargo bay open). The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-03

    Expedition Seven photographed the Soyez TMA-1 Capsule through a window of the International Space Station (ISS) as it departed for Earth. Aboard were Expedition Six crew members, astronauts Kerneth D. Bowersox and Donald R. Pettit, and cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin. Expedition Six served a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS, the longest stay to date.

  13. iss012e23442

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-12-02

    ISS012-E-23442 (2 Dec. 2005) --- The coastal region in Somalia, south of the capital of Mogadishu (out of frame), is featured in this image photographed during normal conditions by an Expedition 12 crewmember on the International Space Station. An image captured during the Expedition 14 mission (ISS014-E-13848) shows the same coastal region with contrasting wet conditions.

  14. iss050e057428

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-15

    iss050e057428 (03/15/2017) --- NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough removes a storage locker in the Minus Eighty-degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) to store samples from an experiment. MELFI is a cold storage unit that maintains experiment samples at ultra-cold temperatures throughout a mission.

  15. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    A NASA Social participant asks a question to the astronauts onboard the International Space Station in a live downlink from the ISS at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. iss031e143839

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-25

    ISS031-E-143839 (25 June 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 31 flight engineer, prepares to insert biological samples in the Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS-2 (MELFI-2) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  17. iss031e143832

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-25

    ISS031-E-143832 (25 June 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 31 flight engineer, prepares to insert biological samples in the Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS-2 (MELFI-2) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  18. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    Marshall Porterfield, Life and Physical Sciences Division Director at NASA Headquarters, talks about the human body in microgravity and other life sciences at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. In the foreground is pictured Veggie, a container used for growing plants on the ISS. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e103580 - iss042e104044). Shows night time Earth views. Solar Array Wing (SAW) and Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  20. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e218184 - iss042e219070 ). Shows night time views over Egypt, Sinai, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Israel. Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  1. ISS Expedition 42 Time Lapse Video of Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    This time lapse video taken during ISS Expedition 42 is assembled from JSC still photo collection (still photos iss042e196791 - iss042e197504). Shows Earth views. Day time views turn into night time views. Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm in foreground.

  2. Assessment of Ethanol Trends on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Gazda, Daniel; McCoy, Torin; Limero, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides a working environment for six crewmembers through atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems. In the last year, elevated ethanol levels have presented a unique challenge for the ISS ECLSS. Ethanol is monitored on the ISS by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM). The source of this increase is currently unknown. This paper documents the credible sources for the increased ethanol concentration, the monitoring provided by the AQM, and the impact on the atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems.

  3. STS-104 Onboard Photograph-ISS Airlock Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Quest Airlock is in the process of being installed onto the starboard side of the Unity Node 1 of the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Susan J. Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, used controls onboard the station to maneuver the Airlock into place with the Canadarm2, or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The Joint Airlock is a pressurized flight element consisting of two cylindrical chambers attached end-to-end by a cornecting bulkhead and hatch. Once installed and activated, the ISS Airlock becomes the primary path for ISS space walk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, which are known as Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs). In addition, it is designed to support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for extravehicular activity (EVA). The Joint Airlock is 20-feet long, 13-feet in diameter and weighs 6.5 tons. It was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by the Space Station prime contractor Boeing. The ISS Airlock has two main components: a crew airlock and an equipment airlock for storing EVA and EVA preflight preps. The Airlock was launched on July 21, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis for the STS-104 mission.

  4. The Role of IA in Reciprocal Reviews within the ISS Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Teresa A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contribution to the International Space Station (ISS) goes beyond major station elements and a system integration responsibility, it includes participation in the design and acceptance reviews of its ISS partners. Furthermore, within NASA, an office independent of the Space Station Program is charged with a broad level overview of the design, integration, product assurance, verification and operation of major ISS elements. This office is the Independent Assurance (IA) Office. IA also participates in these ISS international design and acceptance reviews. IA appoints independent disciplined system/specialty analysts to perform mini-assessments on the systems hardware. Where ISS lessons learned can be implemented IA encourages the programs attention to disseminating these lessons to the partners. IA reviews compliance with established requirements (design, safety, performance, functional). IA plays an important role by evaluating the technical data for sufficiency and level of support is adequate from the appropriate internal/external organizations. IA provides independent oversight to influence hardware, software, processes, integration, and operations by advising the Programs of potential design inconsistencies which might negatively impact mission success. Lastly IA provides input as to the readiness of the International Partner (IP) hardware to proceed with the next design phase or acceptance. This paper concludes with insight into the net impact and processes used to improve the success of these design and acceptance reviews.

  5. ISS Interface Mechanisms and their Heritage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, John G.; Aksamentov, Valery; Hoffman, Thomas; Bruner, Wes

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station, by nurturing technological development of a variety of pressurized and unpressurized interface mechanisms fosters "competition at the technology level". Such redundancy and diversity allows for the development and testing of mechanisms that might be used for future exploration efforts. The International Space Station, as a test-bed for exploration, has 4 types of pressurized interfaces between elements and 6 unpressurized attachment mechanisms. Lessons learned from the design, test and operations of these mechanisms will help inform the design for a new international standard pressurized docking mechanism for the NASA Docking System. This paper will examine the attachment mechanisms on the ISS and their attributes. It will also look ahead at the new NASA docking system and trace its lineage to heritage mechanisms.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  7. Operating the European Drawer Rack on the ISS.

    PubMed

    Degavre, J C; Taylor, C; Miro, J; Kuijpers, E; Dujardin, P; Steinicke, L; Koenig, H

    2002-05-01

    The Erasmus User Centre, located at ESTEC in Noordwijk, will have overall responsibility for the preparation and execution of operations for the European Drawer Rack (EDR) facility in the European Columbus laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). Together with the national User Support and Operations Centres (USOCs) involved in the operation of experiments on the ISS, it will form the network conducting the decentralised payload operations baselined for the European elements of the ISS.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    This is a crew portrait of the International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Two. Left to right are Astronaut James S. Voss, flight engineer; Cosmonaut Yury V. Usachev, commander; and Astronaut Susan J. Helms, flight engineer. The crew was launched on March 8, 2001 aboard the STS-102 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for an extended stay on the ISS. After living and working on the ISS for the duration of 165 days, the crew returned to Earth on August 22, 2001 aboard the STS-105 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery. Cosmonaut Usachev represents the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The flags representing all the international partners are arrayed at bottom.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-12

    In this photograph, Astronaut Susan Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, is positioned near a large amount of water temporarily stored in the Unity Node aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Helms accompanied the STS-105 crew back to Earth after having spent five months with two crewmates aboard the ISS. The 11th ISS assembly flight, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission was launched on August 10, 2001, and landed on August 22, 2001 at the Kennedy Space Center after the completion of the successful 12-day mission.

  10. KSC ISS Logistics Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellado, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The presentation contains a status of KSC ISS Logistics Operations. It basically presents current top level ISS Logistics tasks being conducted at KSC, current International Partner activities, hardware processing flow focussing on late Stow operations, list of KSC Logistics POC's, and a backup list of Logistics launch site services. This presentation is being given at the annual International Space Station (ISS) Multi-lateral Logistics Maintenance Control Panel meeting to be held in Turin, Italy during the week of May 13-16. The presentatiuon content doesn't contain any potential lessons learned.

  11. iss01e5318

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-01

    ISS001-E-05318 (December 2000) --- The Upsala Glacier in Argentina was featured in this image photographed by an Expedition One crewmember onboard the International Space Station (ISS). This is the third largest glacier of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field with an estimated area of over 800 square kilometers. This long, north-south oriented river of ice terminates in the northern arm of Lake Argentino. This same area was photographed during the eighth expedition of the International Space Station just over 3 years later; reference photo no. ISS008-E-11807 under the Expedition 8 section of the Human Space Flight website.

  12. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system

    SciTech Connect

    Lenton, T.M.; Held, H.; Lucht, W.; Rahmstorf, S.; Kriegler, E. |; Hall, J.W.; Schellnhuber, H.J. |

    2008-02-12

    The term 'tipping point' commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here the authors introduce the term 'tipping element' to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. They critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and they assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then the authors explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points.

  13. Continuing Evolution of the Hydrothermal System at the RIDGE2000 ISS, 9-10° N EPR: 1991-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Damm, K. L.; Parker, C. M.; Beers, K. A.; Hyde, A. A.

    2004-12-01

    We have been studying the evolution of the chemical composition of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal system on the East Pacific Rise from 9° 46-51'N since it was impacted by volcanic eruptions in 1991/2. We have been using the chemical and temperature data to infer the processes that are occurring subseafloor in the upper oceanic crust. As of March 2004, the chemical compositions of the vent fluids from this site have not yet stabilized. This observation is helping us to better understand not only the impact of magmatic events on these systems, but also the time scales on which they occur. Centered at the RIDGE2000 ISS "bull's-eye" at 9° 50'N we have noted a striking increase in the number of hydrothermal vents as well as in their measured fluid temperatures beginning after ~2000. In November 2003 we first noted the formation of a black smoker vent at the Tica site (measured T=342° C). In March 2004 we identified another new area of robust flow near the Bio9 vents at 9° 50'N, the 'Alvinellid Mat,' that we anticipate will form an additional black smoker to the three currently active at this site. In March 2004 we measured temperatures of 388° C in fluids from both the Bio9 and Bio9' smokers, putting them essentially on the two phase curve for seawater at this depth. For all of the Bio9 vents, as well as Tica, the fluids contain less than 300 mmoles/kg of Cl, approximately half the local seawater concentration. These high temperature and low Cl concentrations are accompanied by unusually low Si concentrations, <9.5 mmoles/kg. These data suggest a relatively shallow depth of reaction for the fluids, within a few hundred meters of the seafloor. These are the hottest temperatures measured in the Bio9 vents since the eruption in 1992. In contrast, the temperatures at P vent, about 60m south have cooled by ˜15° C since 2002. About 400m south, the chlorinity of the fluids from Ty and Io vents have increased, and Tube Worm Pillar, about 400m further south has

  14. ISS Assembly Progress and Future Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station is 300,000 pounds of orbiting microgravity facility with a permanent international crew on board performing assembly, operations and research tasks. Twenty-four missions have been flown to the ISS since 1998. The July 12, 2000, Service Module launch set in motion an unprecedented succession of space flights - nine U.S. and 11 Russian. In the year and a half before the Service Module launch, four missions went to ISS. A total of 24 flights (12 U.S./12 Russian) gave us the 300,000 pounds of microgravity facility we have today, with nearly 15,000 cubic feet of living and working space. We've added 19kw of power with the P6 solar array on STS-97, quintupled on board computing and activated a fully functioning laboratory delivered on STS-98 in February 2001. All major systems are functioning nominally. On ISS flight 6A, STS-100, in April 2001, we added a state-of-the-art robotics system by deploying Canadarm2. We also installed an American joint airlock Quest in August 2001 and a Russian docking compartment called Pirs in September 2001, enhancing a record schedule of spacewalking activity. We have deployed 12 major elements on orbit: Zarya, Zvezda, Unity, 3 PMAs, Z-1, P6, Destiny, CanadaArm2, Quest and Pirs. The Station has a Soyuz lifeboat, reusable moving vans (MPLMs) and refuel/resupply (Progress) services. We've logged 70,000 hours of U.S. payload run-time since STS-106 (September 2000). We have been experimenting in both U.S. and Russian segments and Expeditions have been averaging about 19 hours a week since April 2001. Our fourth Expedition crew arrived in December 2001 and is just beginning their increment, which will include work on 25 scientific payloads. Its been characterized as "the most diverse, most complex research program of any Expedition so far. Phase 3 assembly and operations of ISS focuses on expanding and powering up the station towards its permanent configuration. We have an executable plan for 2002 and 2003, where

  15. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  16. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT AND CORE SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Moore, W.T.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors and in particular to an improved fuel element and a novel reactor core system for facilitating removal of contaminating fission products, as they are fermed, from association with the flssionable fuel, so as to mitigate the interferent effects of such fission products during reactor operation. The fuel elements are comprised of tubular members impervious to fluid and contatning on their interior surfaces a thin layer of fissionable material providing a central void. The core structure is comprised of a plurality of the tubular fuel elements arranged in parallel and a closed manifold connected to their ends. In the reactor the core structure is dispersed in a water moderator and coolant within a pressure vessel, and a means connected to said manifuld is provided for withdrawing and disposing of mobile fission product contamination from the interior of the feel tubes and manifold.

  18. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Bazley, Jesse; Gazda, Daniel; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2016-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2016 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  19. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  20. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Wilson, Laura Labuda; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2011, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  1. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Tobias, Barry; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2012, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  2. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2015 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past two years.

  3. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Takada, Kevin; Gazda, Daniel; Brown, Christopher; Bazley, Jesse; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2017-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2017 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  4. iss028e034116

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-26

    ISS028-E-034116 (26 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  5. iss028e034309

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-25

    ISS028-E-034309 (25 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  6. iss028e034305

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-25

    ISS028-E-034305 (25 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  7. ISS Update: Suitport Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    ISS Update commentator Lynnette Madison interviews Joel Maganza, Test Director, about thermal vacuum chambers and unmanned and human-testing with the Suitport. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Jo...

  8. iss042e135484

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-10

    ISS042E135484 (01/10/2015) --- NASA astronaut Terry Virts flight engineer of Expedition 42 on the International Space Station tweeted this Caribbean image of the sunny isle of #"Jamaica" on Jan. 10, 2015.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-08

    Astronaut Michael E. Fossum, STS-121 mission specialist, used a digital still camera to expose a photo of his helmet visor during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). Also visible in the visor reflections are fellow space walker Piers J. Sellers, mission specialist, Earth's horizon, and a station solar array. During its 12-day mission, this utilization and logistics flight delivered a multipurpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS with several thousand pounds of new supplies and experiments. In addition, some new orbital replacement units (ORUs) were delivered and stowed externally on the ISS on a special pallet. These ORUs are spares for critical machinery located on the outside of the ISS. During this mission the crew also carried out testing of Shuttle inspection and repair hardware, as well as evaluated operational techniques and concepts for conducting on-orbit inspection and repair.

  10. iss025e011183

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-03

    ISS025-E-011183 (3 Nov. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Doug Wheelock, Expedition 25 commander, equipped with a bungee harness, exercises on the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  11. iss042e237320

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-09

    ISS042E237320 (02/09/2015) ---A weather observation image taken from the International Space Station tweeted out to social media fans by NASA astronaut Terry Virts. He added this comment: "Enormous #thunderstorm over the jungles of #Africa".

  12. iss045e147255

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-28

    ISS045e147255 (11/28/2015) --- Nightfall slides across the Earth and astronauts & cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station begin their resting period after many hours of conducting experiments and maintaining the station.

  13. iss028e026402

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-17

    ISS028-E-026402 (17 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Ron Garan, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  14. iss028e026400

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-17

    ISS028-E-026400 (17 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Ron Garan, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  15. iss042e136404

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-11

    ISS042E136404 (01/11/2015) --- This image of Cyclone Chedza, headed for the Island nation of Madagascar, off the African coast was taken by a member of Expedition 42 on the International Space Station Jan. 11, 2015.

  16. iss051e039765

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-07

    iss051e039765 (May 9, 2017) --- Cyclone Donna was photographed just East of Australia as the International Space Station orbited about 250 miles above. Donna is the strongest South Pacific cyclone in the month of May ever recorded.

  17. iss051e040010

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    iss051e039765 (May 9, 2017) --- Cyclone Donna was photographed just East of Australia as the International Space Station orbited about 250 miles above. Donna is the strongest South Pacific cyclone in the month of May ever recorded.

  18. iss042e033478

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-09

    ISS042E033478 (12/09/2014) --- ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti took this aurora borealis earth observation image from the cupola window of the International Space Station. She is a flight engineer of Expedition 42.

  19. ISS-RapidScat

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-22

    Artist rendering of NASA ISS-RapidScat instrument inset, which will launch to the International Space Station in 2014 to measure ocean surface wind speed and direction and help improve weather forecasts, including hurricane monitoring.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-17

    This computer generated scene of the International Space Station (ISS) represents the first addition of hardware following the completion of Phase II. The 8-A Phase shows the addition of the S-9 truss.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) in orbit was taken during a fly-around inspection by the Space Shuttle Endeavour after successfull attachment of the 240-foot-long, 38-foot-wide solar array.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over the Straits of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  3. iss051e029147

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-29

    iss051e029147 (4/29/2017) --- Russian Cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin prepares to eat some of the Chinese cabbage that was grown in the Veggie Plant Growth facility as part of the Veg-03 investigation. Credits: NASA

  4. iss051e029233

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-27

    iss051e029233 (April 27, 2017) --- Stickers representing insignia of past space shuttle missions and past Expeditions are encircled by signatures of the crew members who have visited and lived at the International Space Station.

  5. Back at the ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Back at the ISS is a rocking musical greeting to ESA Astronaut André Kuipers, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko and the entire crew of the International Space Station on the occasion of the docking...

  6. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    NASA Astronaut Don Pettit, speaks about his experience onboard the International Space Station at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. ISS Update: NEEMO 16

    NASA Image and Video Library

    ISS Update commentator Josh Byerly interviews astronaut Stan Love about the NEEMO 16 mission from Aquarius Base. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For ...

  8. iss028e036517

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-02

    ISS028-E-036517 (2 Sept. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-5 (BCAT-5) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  9. iss028e036580

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-02

    ISS028-E-036580 (2 Sept. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-5 (BCAT-5) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  10. iss031e143872

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-24

    ISS031-E-143872 (24 June 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 31 flight engineer, squeezes a water bubble out of his beverage container, showing his image refracted and reflected, on the International Space Station.

  11. iss031e143875

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-24

    ISS031-E-143875 (24 June 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 31 flight engineer, watches a water bubble float freely between him and the camera, showing his image refracted and reflected, on the International Space Station.

  12. iss031e143936

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-24

    ISS031-E-143936 (24 June 2012) --- NASA astronaut Joe Acaba, Expedition 31 flight engineer, watches a water bubble float freely between him and the camera, showing his image refracted, on the International Space Station.

  13. Recently Deployed Solar Arrays on International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This video still depicts the recently deployed starboard and port solar arrays towering over the International Space Station (ISS). The video was recorded on STS-97's 65th orbit. Delivery, assembly, and activation of the solar arrays was the main mission objective of STS-97. The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics, and will provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  14. Development of the ISS NORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Richard; Griffin, Thomas; Tokacz, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the design and development of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) for the International Space Station (ISS). The emphasis of the paper is the collaborative effort between The Boeing Company and Cobham in the crafting of the architecture of the system to meet NASA's requirements. Specific examples to be discussed include the inclusion of the pneumatic isolation valve for compliance with safety requirement, the inclusion of a single stage regulator with flow limiter versus a two-stage regulator, and the use of integrated assemblies as opposed to separate valves/regulators. The paper will also discuss NORS experience with integrated assemblies (common body) verses prior ISS hardware and Cobham trade study efforts, to include lessons learned and potential applications to future programs.

  15. iss009e22160

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-11

    ISS009-E-22160 (11 September 2004) ---- This image of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, was taken Saturday from an altitude of about 230 miles by Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, looking out the window of the International Space Station. At the time, Ivan was in the western Caribbean Sea and reported to have winds of 160 mph

  16. iss009e22157

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-11

    ISS009-E-22157 (11 September 2004) ---- This image of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, was taken Saturday from an altitude of about 230 miles by Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, looking out the window of the International Space Station. At the time, Ivan was in the western Caribbean Sea and reported to have winds of 160 mph

  17. iss009e22192

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-11

    ISS009-E-22192 (11 September 2004) ---- This image of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, was taken Saturday from an altitude of about 230 miles by Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, looking out the window of the International Space Station. At the time, Ivan was in the western Caribbean Sea and reported to have winds of 160 mph

  18. iss009e22187

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-11

    ISS009-E-22187 (11 September 2004) --- This image features the eye of Hurricane Ivan at center, partially framed by solar array panels on the International Space Station. One of the strongest hurricanes on record, Ivan was photographed Saturday from an altitude of about 230 miles by Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, aboard the orbital outpost. At the time, Ivan was in the western Caribbean Sea and reported to have winds of 160 mph.

  19. Holodeck-ISS Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainbolt, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    For the duration of my internship here at JSC for the summer 2016 session, the main project that I worked on dealt with hybrid reality simulations of the ISS. As an ER6 intern for the spacecraft software division, the main project that I worked alongside others was with regards to the Holodeck Virtual Reality Project, specifically with the ISS experience, with the use of the HTC Vive and controllers.

  20. ISS Payload Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-12-15

    As seen through a window on the Space Shuttle Endeavor's aft flight deck, the International Space Station (ISS), with its newly-staffed crew of three, Expedition Four, is contrasted against a patch of the blue and white Earth. The Destiny laboratory is partially covered with shadows in the foreground. The photo was taken during the departure of the Earth-bound Endeavor, bringing to a close the STS-108 mission, the 12th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-13

    Posed inside the Soyuz TMA-3 Vehicle in a processing facility at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan during a pre-launch inspection are (left to right): Expedition-8 Crew members, Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer; Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer; and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. The three launched from the Cosmodrome on October 18, 2003 onboard a Soyuz rocket destined for the International Space Station (ISS).

  3. iss009e21151

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-01

    ISS009-E-21151 (1 Sept. 2004) -- Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of about 230 miles, took this photo of Hurricane Frances at about 9 a.m. EDT Sept. 1 as the storm was centered about 775 miles east-southeast of West Palm Beach, Florida. At the time, Frances was a category 4 hurricane with winds of 140 mph.

  4. iss01e5117

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-01

    ISS01-E-5117 (December 2000) --- This westerly-looking view over north Harris County featuring Lake Houston and the Bush Intercontinental Airport was photographed with a digital still camera from the Earth-orbiting International Space Station (ISS). Parts of the 610 Loop, Interstate Highway 45, U.S. Highway 59 and the Sam Houston Toll Way can be easily delineated in the view. Part of the downtown area is just below center at left edge of the frame.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-25

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain watches a water bubble float between a camera and himself. The bubble shows his reflection (reversed). Duque was launched aboard a Russian Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 18th, along with expedition-8 crew members Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer, and Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the International Space Station (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating in the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-12

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard Side Integrated Truss Structure (S1) and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. In this photograph, Astronaut Piers J. Sellers uses both a handrail on the Destiny Laboratory and a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 to remain stationary while performing work at the end of the STS-112 mission's second space walk. A cloud-covered Earth provides the backdrop for the scene.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-30

    STS-113, the 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS), launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour. The main mission objective was the the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. In this photograph astronaut and mission specialist John B. Herrington, (center frame), participates in the mission's third space walk. The forward section of the Space Shuttle Endeavour is in right frame.

  11. iss016e019394

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-05-02

    ISS016-E-019394 (30 Dec. 2007) --- Al Wadj Bank, Saudi Arabia is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 16 crewmember on the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia boasts the most coral reefs of any Middle Eastern country, as it includes coastline along both the Red Sea and Gulf of Arabia. This high resolution image depicts a portion of the Al Wadj Bank, located along the northern Red Sea coast. Despite the relatively high salinity of Red Sea water (compared to other oceans), approximately 260 species of coral are found here, according to scientists. Large tracts of the Saudi Arabian coastline are undeveloped, and reefs in these areas are in generally good ecological health. However, reefs located near large urban centers like Jeddeh have suffered degradation due to land reclamation, pollution, and increased terrigeneous sediment input. The Al Wadj Bank includes a healthy and diverse reef system, extensive seagrass beds, and perhaps the largest population of dugong -- a marine mammal similar to the North American manatee -- in the eastern Red Sea. The portion of the Bank in this image illustrates the complex form and topography of the reef system. Several emergent islands (tan) - surrounded primarily by dark green seagrass - are visible, the largest located at top left. Only the islands are above the waterline -- over the reef structures the water color ranges from light teal (shallow) to turquoise (increasing depth). The southern edge of the reef is well indicated by the deep, dark blue water of the Red Sea at image top.

  12. Preliminary Analysis of ISS Maintenance History and Implications for Supportability of Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. Kevin; Robbins, William W.

    2004-02-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) enables the study of supportability issues associated with long-duration human spaceflight. The ISS is a large, complex spacecraft that must be maintained by its crew. In contrast to the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle, but similar to spacecraft that will be component elements of future missions beyond low-Earth orbit, ISS does not return to the ground for servicing and provisioning of spares is severely constrained by transportation limits. Although significant technical support is provided by ground personnel, all hands-on maintenance tasks are performed by the crew. Data accumulated over the first several years of ISS operations have been analyzed to gain a better understanding of maintenance-related workload. This analysis addresses both preventive and corrective maintenance and includes all U.S segment core systems. Systems and tasks that are major contributors to workload are identified. As further experience accrues, lessons will be learned that will influence future system designs so that they require less maintenance and, when maintenance is required, it can be performed more efficiently. By heeding the lessons of ISS it will be possible to identify system designs that should be more robust and point towards advances in both technology and design that will offer the greatest return on investment.

  13. Electric discharge processes in the ISS plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverdokhlebova, E. M.; Korsun, A. G.; Gabdullin, F. F.; Karabadzhak, G. F.

    We consider the behaviour of the electric discharges which can be initiated between constructional elements of the International Space Station (ISS) due to the electric field of high-voltaic solar arrays (HVSA). The characteristics of the ISS plasma environment are evaluated taking into account the influence of space ionizing fluxes, the Earth's magnetic field, and the HVSA's electric field. We offer the statement of the space experiment "Plasma-ISS", the aim of which is to investigate, using optical emission characteristics, parameters of the ISS plasma environment formed at operation of both the onboard engines and other plasma sources.

  14. Solar-system abundances of the elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Ebihara, M.

    1982-01-01

    Elemental analyses of the Ogueil Cl meteorite and all previous Cl chondrite analyses were employed to develop a new solar system abundance table, including the standard deviation and number of analyses for each element. The table also comprises the abundances of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides at the present and 4.55 AE ago, as well as abundances by weight in a typical Cl chondrite. The new abundances were within 20% of those determined by Cameron (1982), except for 14 cases in the range 20-50%, and 5 over 50%. The solar abundances were compared with the Cl abundances, showing a total of only 7 disagreements. No significant discrepancies were detected in the major cosmochemical groups, and a smooth trend was found in the abundances of odd-A nuclides. The new set is interpreted as accurate to 10%, with the Cl chondrites matching the primordial solar system abundances to at most 10% deviation.

  15. Applied research on extension element model in hydraulic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Junying; Wei, Bingyang; Han, Jianhai

    2010-08-01

    This paper further researches the application of extension element model of hydraulic system. A extension element model of hydraulic system contains three parts: the prototype of a hydraulic component, the matter-element and relationelement model of hydraulic components, and the matter-element and relation-element model of hydraulic systems. The foundation building a extension element model of hydraulic system is to build its database of the prototypes of a hydraulic component. The matter-element and relation-element model of hydraulic components is a model for physical hydraulic components. The the matter-element and relation-element models of hydraulic components on a hydraulic system can describe the internal links among hydraulic components. Through analysis of the connections among the matter-element and relation-element models of hydraulic components, rings, power bond graphs, and dynamic equations will be found and gained. Thus, the performance and digital simulation for a hydraulic system will be realized and finished.

  16. MSFC ISS Resource Reel 2016

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-01

    International Space Station Resource Reel. This video describes shows the International Space Station components, such as the Destiny laboratory and the Quest Airlock, being manufactured at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. It provides manufacturing and ground testing video and in-flight video of key space station components: the Microgravity Science Glovebox, the Materials Science Research Facility, the Window Observational Research Facility, the Environmental Control Life Support System, and basic research racks. There is video of people working in Marshall's Payload Operations Integration Center where controllers operate experiments 24/7, 365 days a week. Various crews are shown conducting experiments on board the station. PAO Name:Jennifer Stanfield Phone Number:256-544-0034 Email Address: JENNIFER.STANFIELD@NASA.GOV Name/Title of Video: ISS Resource Reel Description: ISS Resource Reel Graphic Information: NASA PAO Name:Tracy McMahan Phone Number:256-544-1634 Email Address: tracy.mcmahan@nasa.gov

  17. Dexterous Operations on ISS and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, P. Andrew; Read, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is a complex robotics system used extensively in the assembly, inspection and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Its external components are comprised of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Base System (MBS), and the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM or "Dextre"). Dexterous robotic maintenance operations on the ISS are now enabled with the launch and deployment of "Dextre" in March 2008 and the recently completed commissioning to support nominal operations. These operations include allowing for maintenance of the MSS capability to be executed uniquely via robotic means. Examples are detailed inspection and the removal and replacement of On-orbit Replaceable Units (ORUs) located outside the pressurized volume of the ISS, alleviating astronauts from performing numerous risky and time-consuming extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). In light of the proposed extension of the ISS to 2020 and beyond, "Dextre" can also be seen as a resource for the support and conduct of external ISS experiments. "Dextre" can be utilized to move experiments around ISS, as test bed for more elaborate experiments outside the original design intent, and as a unique platform for external experiments. This paper summarizes the status of "Dextre", its planned use, and future potential for dexterous operations on the ISS. Lessons learned from the planning and execution of SPDM commissioning are first introduced, and significant differences between "Dextre" and SSRMS operations are discussed. The use of ground control as the predominant method for operating "Dextre" is highlighted, along with the benefits and challenges that this poses. Finally, the latest plans for dexterous operations on ISS are summarized including visiting vehicle unloading, nominal maintenance, and operations of a more experimental flavor.

  18. System software for the finite element machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, T. W.; Knott, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Finite Element Machine is an experimental parallel computer developed at Langley Research Center to investigate the application of concurrent processing to structural engineering analysis. This report describes system-level software which has been developed to facilitate use of the machine by applications researchers. The overall software design is outlined, and several important parallel processing issues are discussed in detail, including processor management, communication, synchronization, and input/output. Based on experience using the system, the hardware architecture and software design are critiqued, and areas for further work are suggested.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-10

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-15

    At the control of Expedition Two Flight Engineer Susan B. Helms, the newly-installed Canadian-built Canadarm2, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) maneuvers the Quest Airlock into the proper position to be mated onto the starboard side of the Unity Node I during the first of three extravehicular activities (EVA) of the STS-104 mission. The Quest Airlock makes it easier to perform space walks, and allows both Russian and American spacesuits to be worn when the Shuttle is not docked with the International Space Station (ISS). American suits will not fit through Russion airlocks at the Station. The Boeing Company, the space station prime contractor, built the 6.5-ton (5.8 metric ton) airlock and several other key components at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), in the same building where the Saturn V rocket was built. Installation activities were supported by the development team from the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at the MSFC and the Mission Control Center at NASA's Johnson Space Flight Center in Houston, Texas.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-16

    In this International Space Station (ISS) onboard photo, Expedition Six Science Officer Donald R. Pettit works to set up the Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) experiment hardware in the Destiny Laboratory. Expedition Six is the fourth and final crew to perform the PuFF experiment. The PuFF experiment was developed to better understand what effects long term exposure to microgravity may have on the lungs. The focus is on measuring changes in the everness of gas exchange in the lungs, and on detecting changes in respiratory muscle strength. It allows astronauts to measure blood flow through the lungs, the ability of the lung to take up oxygen, and lung volumes. Each PuFF session includes five lung function tests, which involve breathing only cabin air. For each planned extravehicular (EVA) activity, a crew member performs a PuFF test within one week prior to the EVA. Following the EVA, those crew members perform another test to document the effect of exposure of the lungs to the low-pressure environment of the space suits. This experiment utilizes the Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology, or GASMAP, located in the Human Research Facility (HRF), along with a variety of other Puff equipment including a manual breathing valve, flow meter, pressure-flow module, pressure and volume calibration syringes, and disposable mouth pieces.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-12

    Astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's second session of extravehicular activity (EVA), a six hour, four minute space walk, in which an exterior station television camera was installed outside of the Destiny Laboratory. Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVA sessions. Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  3. Artist's Concept of International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) with solar panels fully deployed. In addition to the use of solar energy, the ISS will employ at least three types of propulsive support systems for its operation. The first type is to reboost the Station to correct orbital altitude to offset the effects of atmospheric and other drag forces. The second function is to maneuver the ISS to avoid collision with oribting bodies (space junk). The third is for attitude control to position the Station in the proper attitude for various experiments, temperature control, reboost, etc. The ISS, a gateway to permanent human presence in space, is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation by cooperation of sixteen countries.

  4. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document with its sister documents, Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes (CCT-PLN-1120), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), and Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT-STD-1150), and International Space Station (ISS) to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase of the NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP).

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-08

    This is the insignia for STS-98, which marks a major milestone in assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). Atlantis' crew delivered the United States Laboratory, Destiny, to the ISS. Destiny will be the centerpiece of the ISS, a weightless laboratory where expedition crews will perform unprecedented research in the life sciences, materials sciences, Earth sciences, and microgravity sciences. The laboratory is also the nerve center of the Station, performing guidance, control, power distribution, and life support functions. With Destiny's arrival, the Station will begin to fulfill its promise of returning the benefits of space research to Earth's citizens. The crew patch depicts the Space Shuttle with Destiny held high above the payload bay just before its attachment to the ISS. Red and white stripes, with a deep blue field of white stars, border the Shuttle and Destiny to symbolize the continuing contribution of the United States to the ISS. The constellation Hercules, seen just below Destiny, captures the Shuttle and Station's team efforts in bringing the promise of orbital scientific research to life. The reflection of Earth in Destiny's window emphasizes the connection between space exploration and life on Earth.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-09

    The STS-117 crew patch symbolizes the continued construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and our ongoing human presence in space. The ISS is shown orbiting high above the Earth. Gold is used to highlight the portion of the ISS that will be installed by the STS-117 crew. It consists of the second starboard truss section, S3 and S4, and a set of solar arrays. The names of the STS-117 crew are located above and below the orbiting outpost. The two gold astronaut office symbols, emanating from the 117 at the bottom of the patch, represent the concerted efforts of the shuttle and station programs toward the completion of the station. The orbiter and unfurled banner of red, white, and blue represent our Nation and renewed patriotism as we continue to explore the universe.

  7. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  8. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  9. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  10. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  11. System design description for the whole element furnace testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, G.A.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; King, D.A.

    1998-05-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory G-Cell (327 Building). Equipment specifications, system schematics, general operating modes, maintenance and calibration requirements, and other supporting information are provided in this document. This system was developed for performing cold vacuum drying and hot vacuum drying testing of whole N-Reactor fuel elements, which were sampled from the 105-K East and K West Basins. The proposed drying processes are intended to allow dry storage of the SNF for long periods of time. The furnace testing system is used to evaluate these processes by simulating drying sequences with a single fuel element and measuring key system parameters such as internal pressures, temperatures, moisture levels, and off-gas composition.

  12. Upgraded HFIR Fuel Element Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, John D

    2010-02-01

    The welding of aluminum-clad fuel plates into aluminum alloy 6061 side plate tubing is a unique design feature of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel assemblies as 101 full-penetration circumferential gas metal arc welds (GMAW) are required in the fabrication of each assembly. In a HFIR fuel assembly, 540 aluminum-clad fuel plates are assembled into two nested annular fuel elements 610 mm (24-inches) long. The welding process for the HFIR fuel elements was developed in the early 1960 s and about 450 HFIR fuel assemblies have been successfully welded using the GMAW process qualified in the 1960 s. In recent years because of the degradation of the electronic and mechanical components in the old HFIR welding system, reportable defects in plate attachment or adapter welds have been present in almost all completed fuel assemblies. In October 2008, a contract was awarded to AMET, Inc., of Rexburg, Idaho, to replace the old welding equipment with standard commercially available welding components to the maximum extent possible while maintaining the qualified HFIR welding process. The upgraded HFIR welding system represents a major improvement in the welding system used in welding HFIR fuel elements for the previous 40 years. In this upgrade, the new inner GMAW torch is a significant advancement over the original inner GMAW torch previously used. The innovative breakthrough in the new inner welding torch design is the way the direction of the cast in the 0.762 mm (0.030-inch) diameter aluminum weld wire is changed so that the weld wire emerging from the contact tip is straight in the plane perpendicular to the welding direction without creating any significant drag resistance in the feeding of the weld wire.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-18

    Astronaut Patrick G. Forrester works with the the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) during extravehicular activity (EVA). MISSE would expose 750 material samples for about 18 months and collect information on how different materials weather the space environment The objective of MISSE is to develop early, low-cost, non-intrusive opportunities to conduct critical space exposure tests of space materials and components plarned for use on future spacecraft. The experiment was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) and was installed on the outside of the ISS Quest Airlock. MISSE was launched on August 10, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-19

    Back dropped by the colorful Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) boasts its newest configuration upon the departure of Space Shuttle Endeavor and STS-118 mission. Days earlier, construction resumed on the ISS as STS-118 mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the Starboard 5 (S-5) truss segment, removed a faulty Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG-3), installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss, relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) to Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1, retrieved the P6 transponder, and delivered roughly 5,000 pounds of supplies.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-01

    This is a crew portrait of the International Space Station (ISS) Expedition One. Left to right are flight engineer Sergei K. Krikalev, commander William M. (Bill) Shepherd, and Soyuz commander Yuri P. Gidzenko. They are wearing the Russian Sokol space suits. The Russian Soyuz rocket carrying the Expedition One crew was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 31, 2000. The crew returned to the Kennedy Space Center on March 21, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery (STS-102 mission). The crew's duration on the ISS was 138 days. National flags representing all the international partners run along the bottom of the portrait.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-09-16

    The setting sun and the thin blue airglow line at Earth's horizon was captured by the International Space Station's (ISS) Expedition Three crewmembers with a digital camera. Some of the Station's components are silhouetted in the foreground. The crew was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission, on August 10, 2001, replacing the Expedition Two crew. After marning the orbiting ISS for 128 consecutive days, the three returned to Earth on December 17, 2001, aboard the STS-108 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-05

    Back dropped by the blackness of space and Earth's horizon is the International Space Station (ISS) as seen from Space Shuttle Discovery as the two spacecraft begin their relative separation. The latest configuration of the ISS includes the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, named Harmony, and the P6 truss segment installed over 11 days of cooperative work onboard the shuttle and station by the STS-120 and Expedition 16 crews. Undocking of the two spacecraft occurred at 4:32 a.m. (CST) on Nov. 5, 2007.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut James Voss, flight engineer of Expedition Two, performs a task at a work station in the International Space Station (ISS) Destiny Laboratory, or U.S. Laboratory, as Astronaut Scott Horowitz, STS-105 mission commander, floats through the hatchway leading to the Unity node. After spending five months aboard the orbital outpost, the ISS Expedition Two crew was replaced by Expedition Three and returned to Earth aboard the STS-105 Space Shuttle Discovery on August 22, 2001. The Orbiter Discovery was launched from the Kennedy Space Center on August 10, 2001.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-01

    This is a crew portrait of the International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Four. Left to right are Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, flight engineer; Cosmonaut Yuri I. Onufrienko, mission commander; and Astronaut Carl E. Walz, flight engineer. The crew was launched on December 5, 2001 aboard the STS-108 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, the 12th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS. The crew returned to Earth on June 19th, 2002 aboard the STS-111 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, replaced by Expedition Five. The Expedition Four crew spent 196 days in space, which gives flight engineers Walz and Bursh the U.S. space flight endurance record.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-05

    Back dropped by the blueness of Earth is the International Space Station (ISS) as seen from Space Shuttle Discovery as the two spacecraft begin their relative separation. The latest configuration of the ISS includes the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, named Harmony, and the P6 truss segment installed over 11 days of cooperative work onboard the shuttle and station by the STS-120 and Expedition 16 crews. Undocking of the two spacecraft occurred at 4:32 a.m. (CST) on Nov. 5, 2007.

  1. iss047e134605

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-30

    ISS047e134605 (05/30/2016) --- ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Tim Peake uses hardware for the Vascular Echo experiment. As humans get older on Earth, arteries stiffen and this causes an increase in blood pressure (hypertension) and elevates the risk for cardiovascular disease. Recently, it has been observed that some crew members returning from the International Space Station (ISS) have much stiffer arteries than when they went into space. The results from studying these changes could provide insight into potential countermeasures to help maintain crew member health, and quality of life for everyone.

  2. iss009e21210

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-02

    ISS009-E-21210 (2 September 2004) --- Hurricane Frances fills the window of the International Space Station, orbiting 230 miles above, in this photo taken at about 8 a.m. EDT Thursday, Sept. 2, 2004 by Astronaut Mike Fincke. At the time, Frances was a category 4 hurricane located almost 500 miles east-southeast of West Palm Beach, Fla., with winds of 145 mph.Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Fincke, the NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer, are in the fifth month of a six-month stay on the orbiting research platform.

  3. iss009e21206

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-02

    ISS009-E-21206 (2 September 2004) --- This image of Hurricane Frances was taken at 8 a.m. EDT Thursday, Sept. 2, 2004 by Astronaut Mike Fincke aboard the International Space Station at an altitude of about 230 miles. At the time, Frances was a category 4 hurricane located almost 500 miles east-southeast of West Palm Beach, Fla., with winds of 145 mph. Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Fincke, the NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer, are in the fifth month of a six-month stay on the orbiting research platform.

  4. iss009e21199

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-02

    ISS009-E-21199 (2 September 2004) --- From 230 miles above, this is a nadir view of Hurricane Frances as it churned in the Atlantic Ocean almost 500 miles east-southeast of West Palm Beach, Fla., at about 8 a.m EDT Thursday, Sept. 2, 2004. At the time, Frances was a category 4 hurricane with winds of 145 mph. Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke took this photo through the window of the International Space Station. Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Fincke, the NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer, are in the fifth month of a six-month stay on the orbiting research platform.

  5. iss009e21207

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-02

    ISS009-E-21207 (2 September 2004) --- Hurricane Frances fills the window of the International Space Station, orbiting 230 miles above, in this photo taken at about 8 a.m. EDT Thursday, Sept. 2, 2004 by Astronaut Mike Fincke. At the time, Frances was a category 4 hurricane located almost 500 miles east-southeast of West Palm Beach, Fla., with winds of 145 mph.Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Fincke, the NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer, are in the fifth month of a six-month stay on the orbiting research platform.

  6. iss009e21205

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-02

    ISS009-E-21205 (2 September 2004) --- From 230 miles above, this is a view into the eye of Hurricane Frances as it churned in the Atlantic Ocean almost 500 miles east-southeast of West Palm Beach, Fla., at about 8 a.m EDT Thursday, Sept. 2, 2004. At the time, Frances was a category 4 hurricane with winds of 145 mph. Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke took this photo through the window of the International Space Station. Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Fincke, the NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer, are in the fifth month of a six-month stay on the orbiting research platform.

  7. iss009e21203

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-02

    ISS009-E-21203 (2 September 2004) --- From 230 miles above, this is a view into the eye of Hurricane Frances as it churned in the Atlantic Ocean almost 500 miles east-southeast of West Palm Beach, Fla., at about 8 a.m EDT Thursday, Sept. 2, 2004. At the time, Frances was a category 4 hurricane with winds of 145 mph. Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke took this photo through the window of the International Space Station. Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Fincke, the NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer, are in the fifth month of a six-month stay on the orbiting research platform.

  8. iss007e13829

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-30

    ISS007-E-13829 (30 August 2003) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station (ISS). The Progress 12 resupply craft, which launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 8:48 p.m. (CDT) on August 28, 2003, carried nearly three tons of food, fuel, water, supplies and scientific gear for the Expedition 7 crew aboard the Station. The Progress linked up with the Station at 10:40 p.m. (CDT) on August 30, 2003 as the two spacecraft were flying over Central Asia at an altitude of 240 statute miles.

  9. Elements of a 'nervous system' in sponges.

    PubMed

    Leys, Sally P

    2015-02-15

    Genomic and transcriptomic analyses show that sponges possess a large repertoire of genes associated with neuronal processes in other animals, but what is the evidence these are used in a coordination or sensory context in sponges? The very different phylogenetic hypotheses under discussion today suggest very different scenarios for the evolution of tissues and coordination systems in early animals. The sponge genomic 'toolkit' either reflects a simple, pre-neural system used to protect the sponge filter or represents the remnants of a more complex signalling system and sponges have lost cell types, tissues and regionalization to suit their current suspension-feeding habit. Comparative transcriptome data can be informative but need to be assessed in the context of knowledge of sponge tissue structure and physiology. Here, I examine the elements of the sponge neural toolkit including sensory cells, conduction pathways, signalling molecules and the ionic basis of signalling. The elements described do not fit the scheme of a loss of sophistication, but seem rather to reflect an early specialization for suspension feeding, which fits with the presumed ecological framework in which the first animals evolved. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Scientific Verification Test of Orbitec Deployable Vegetable Production System for Salad Crop Growth on ISS- Gas Exchange System design and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldemire, Ashleigh

    2007-01-01

    The ability to produce and maintain salad crops during long term missions would be a great benefit to NASA; the renewable food supply would save cargo space, weight and money. The ambient conditions of previous ground controlled crop plant experiments do not reflect the microgravity and high CO2 concentrations present during orbit. It has been established that microgravity does not considerably alter plant growth. (Monje, Stutte, Chapman, 2005). To support plants in a space-craft environment efficient and effective lighting and containment units are necessary. Three lighting systems were previously evaluated for radish growth in ambient air; fluorescent lamps in an Orbitec Biomass Production System Educational (BPSE), a combination of red, blue, and green LED's in a Deployable Vegetable Production System (Veggie), and a combination of red and blue LED's in a Veggie. When mass measurements compared the entire possible growing area vs. power consumed by the respective units, the Veggies clearly exceeded the BPSE indicating that the LED units were a more resource efficient means of growing radishes under ambient conditions in comparison with fluorescent lighting. To evaluate the most productive light treatment system for a long term space mission a more closely simulated ISS environment is necessary. To induce a CO2 dense atmosphere inside the Veggie's and BPSE a gas exchange system has been developed to maintain a range of 1000-1200 ppm CO2 during a 21-day light treatment experiment. This report details the design and function of the gas exchange system. The rehabilitation, trouble shooting, maintenance and testing of the gas exchange system have been my major assignments. I have also contributed to the planting, daily measurements and harvesting of the radish crops 21-day light treatment verification test.

  11. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the

  12. Finite-element solutions for geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Conel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vector potential and scalar potential are used to formulate the governing equations for a single-component and single-phase geothermal system. By assuming an initial temperature field, the fluid velocity can be determined which, in turn, is used to calculate the convective heat transfer. The energy equation is then solved by considering convected heat as a distributed source. Using the resulting temperature to compute new source terms, the final results are obtained by iterations of the procedure. Finite-element methods are proposed for modeling of realistic geothermal systems; the advantages of such methods are discussed. The developed methodology is then applied to a sample problem. Favorable agreement is obtained by comparisons with a previous study.

  13. Finite-element solutions for geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Conel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vector potential and scalar potential are used to formulate the governing equations for a single-component and single-phase geothermal system. By assuming an initial temperature field, the fluid velocity can be determined which, in turn, is used to calculate the convective heat transfer. The energy equation is then solved by considering convected heat as a distributed source. Using the resulting temperature to compute new source terms, the final results are obtained by iterations of the procedure. Finite-element methods are proposed for modeling of realistic geothermal systems; the advantages of such methods are discussed. The developed methodology is then applied to a sample problem. Favorable agreement is obtained by comparisons with a previous study.

  14. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1992-01-01

    ALEPS, which is being developed to provide the SSF program with a computer system to automate logistics resupply/return cargo load planning and verification, is presented. ALEPS will make it possible to simultaneously optimize both the resupply flight load plan and the return flight reload plan for any of the logistics carriers. In the verification mode ALEPS will support the carrier's flight readiness reviews and control proper execution of the approved plans. It will also support the SSF inventory management system by providing electronic block updates to the inventory database on the cargo arriving at or departing the station aboard a logistics carrier. A prototype drawer packing algorithm is described which is capable of generating solutions for 3D packing of cargo items into a logistics carrier storage accommodation. It is concluded that ALEPS will provide the capability to generate and modify optimized loading plans for the logistics elements fleet.

  15. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1992-01-01

    ALEPS, which is being developed to provide the SSF program with a computer system to automate logistics resupply/return cargo load planning and verification, is presented. ALEPS will make it possible to simultaneously optimize both the resupply flight load plan and the return flight reload plan for any of the logistics carriers. In the verification mode ALEPS will support the carrier's flight readiness reviews and control proper execution of the approved plans. It will also support the SSF inventory management system by providing electronic block updates to the inventory database on the cargo arriving at or departing the station aboard a logistics carrier. A prototype drawer packing algorithm is described which is capable of generating solutions for 3D packing of cargo items into a logistics carrier storage accommodation. It is concluded that ALEPS will provide the capability to generate and modify optimized loading plans for the logistics elements fleet.

  16. iss045e107821

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-12

    ISS045E107821 (11/13/2015) --- As night falls the astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station prepare for sleep while also viewing the softening curvature of the Earth go by with lighted cities below them and sparkling stars above.

  17. ISS seen during flyaround

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-16

    STS98-E-5310 (16 February 2001) --- Sporting an important new component in the Destiny laboratory (near center of frame), the International Space Station (ISS) is backdropped against the blackness of space following undocking. The photo was taken with a digital still camera.

  18. iss042e135486

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-10

    ISS042E135486 (01/10/2015) --- Just another sunny day in the Caribbean sea as viewed by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. This image was tweeted out by NASA astronaut Terry Virts as he captured the Earth observation of #Cuba and #Bahamas on Jan. 10, 2015.

  19. Soyuz docked on ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-29

    ISS040-E-005997 (29 May 2014) --- Featured near the center of this night photograph, taken by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station, is Seoul, South Korea. A Russian Soyuz spacecraft, docked to the orbital outpost, takes up the top part of the frame.

  20. iss042e237341

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-09

    ISS042E237341 (02/09/2015) --- Twitter image from US Astronaut Terry Virts of the Red Sea in the Middle East on Feb. 09, 2015. Terry labeled it "earth art." Terry is a flight engineer of Expedition 42 on the International Space Station.

  1. iss038e055240

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-24

    ISS038-E-055240 (24 Feb. 2014) --- In the International Space Station's Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins, Expedition 38 flight engineer, sets up the Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) housed in the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) inside the Fluids Integrated Rack. ACE studies microscopic particles suspended in a liquid.

  2. iss028e035073

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-27

    ISS028-E-035073 (27 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, trims the hair of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Fossum used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  3. iss019e013266

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-03

    ISS019-E-013266 (3 May 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer, trims his hair in a crew compartment on the International Space Station, using hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  4. iss038e054116

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-22

    ISS038-E-054116 (22 Feb. 2014) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 flight engineer, trims the hair of NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, flight engineer, in the Unity node of the International Space Station. Wakata used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  5. iss028e035074

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-27

    ISS028-E-035074 (27 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, trims the hair of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Fossum used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  6. iss028e035053

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-27

    ISS028-E-035053 (27 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Ron Garan, Expedition 28 flight engineer, trims astronaut Mike Fossum's hair in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Garan used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  7. iss028e035071

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-27

    ISS028-E-035071 (27 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, trims the hair of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Fossum used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  8. iss028e035028

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-27

    ISS028-E-035028 (27 Aug. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, trims astronaut Ron Garan's hair in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Fossum used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  9. iss038e054117

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-22

    ISS038-E-054117 (22 Feb. 2014) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 flight engineer, trims the hair of NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, flight engineer, in the Unity node of the International Space Station. Wakata used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  10. iss028e025737

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-15

    ISS028-E-025737 (15 Aug. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses a computer to activate the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Furukawa was preparing to conduct experiments with the Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment (SHERE) hardware inside the MSG.

  11. iss028e025736

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-15

    ISS028-E-025736 (15 Aug. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses a computer to activate the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Furukawa was preparing to conduct experiments with the Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment (SHERE) hardware inside the MSG.

  12. iss030e108820

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-28

    ISS030-E-108820 (28 Feb. 2012) --- In the center of this "fisheye" lens image is a four-inch polished metal sphere onboard the International Space Station. Expedition 30 crew members using an 8-mm lens took a series of pictures of the sphere.

  13. iss042e237302

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-09

    ISS042E237302 (02/09/2015) --- Aboard the International Space Station on Feb. 9, 2015 NASA astronaut Terry Virts while viewing through the Cupola window captured this image of the African continent. Virts tweeted the photo to his many fans with the comment: "Sun glint on one of a thousand rivers in the heart of #Africa, this one in #Angola" .

  14. iss042e019845

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-02

    ISS042E019845 (12/02/2014) ---US Astronaut Terry Virts flight engineer of Expedition 42 on the International Space Station is in the multi windowed Cupola on Dec. 2, 2014 and has the rising sun in view while over Siberia. Virts will spend a total of 6 months in space.

  15. iss042e065678

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-25

    iss042e065678 (12/25/14) --- Expedition 42 Commander Barry Wilmore of NASA and Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (ESA) pose for the camera on Christmas day aboard the International Space Station. Wilmore is holding a patch traditionally given to astronauts following their first flight on a Soyuz spacecraft.

  16. iss047e083584

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-27

    ISS047e083584 (04/27/2016) --- The DIWATA-1 satellite is deployed from outside of the Japanese Kibo modul. Intended to observe earth and monitor climate changes, this was the first microsatellite owned by the Philippine government that involved Filipino engineers in the development. It was a joint project between Philippine and Japanese universities.

  17. iss028e023972

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-10

    ISS028-E-023972 (10 Aug. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment (SHERE) hardware inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  18. iss028e023969

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-10

    ISS028-E-023969 (10 Aug. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment (SHERE) hardware inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  19. iss035-s-001

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-13

    ISS035-S-001 (April 2011) --- Emblazoned with a bold 35 for the 35th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS), this patch portrays a natural moonlit view of the Earth from the ISS at the moment of sunrise, one of the sixteen that occur each day at orbital velocity, with glowing bands of Earth's atmosphere dispersing the sun's bright light into primary colors. The Earth is depicted as it often appears from space, without recognizable coastlines or boundaries - just as the international endeavor of living and working together in space blurs technical and cultural boundaries between nations. The ISS is the unseen central figure of the image, since the view is from a window of the Space Station itself, commemorating full use of the Space Station as a long-duration dwelling from which humans can develop techniques and technologies to further explore. The crew points out, ?The arc of the Earth?s horizon with the sun?s arrows of light imply a bow shooting the imagination to Mars and the cosmos where our species may one day thrive.? The NASA insignia design for shuttle and space station flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced.

  20. iss020e038138

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-04

    ISS020-E-038138 (3 Sept. 2009) --- A full moon is visible in this view above Earth?s horizon, photographed by a crew member from the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-128) remains docked with the station. A portion of a station solar array wing is at left.

  1. iss020e038139

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-04

    ISS020-E-038139 (3 Sept. 2009) --- A full moon is visible in this view above Earth?s horizon, photographed by a crew member from the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-128) remains docked with the station. A portion of a station solar array wing is at left.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-06

    Though very close to the International Space Station, the majority of Discovery's underside is visible in this frame. The image was captured by one of the Expedition 13 crew members onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-121 Rotating Pitch Maneuver (RPM) survey prior to docking of the two spacecraft.

  3. iss048e056981

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-13

    ISS048e056981 (0813/2016) --- Sparkling aurora colors of magenta and green color the sky's while the International Space Station orbits above the planet every 90 minutes. SpaceX’s Dragon resupply vehicle is seen docked to the Earth-facing port of the Harmony module.

  4. iss028e034133

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-26

    ISS028-E-034133 (26 Aug. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28 flight engineer, equipped with a bungee harness, exercises on the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  5. iss042e230270

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-06

    ISS042E230270 (02/06/2015) --- US NASA astronaut Terry Virts, Expedition 42 flight engineer on the International Space Station tweeted this Earth observation on Feb. 6, 2015 and made this comment: " Looking back over middle America at twilight. I love the sun’s reflection off these rivers and lakes".

  6. iss042e287843

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-22

    ISS042E287843 (02/22/2015) --- This Earth observation of North America was taken on Feb. 22, 2015 and tweeted out to social media fans of NASA astronaut Terry Virts who is on a 6 month Expedition of the International Space Station. Terry added this comment to his tweeted image: "#Sunset over the frozen Great Lakes and southern #Canada".

  7. iss042e300570

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-04

    ISS042E300570 (03/04/2015) --- NASA Astronaut Terry Virts on the International Space Station tweeted this sunny day Caribbean image out to his social media fans on Mar. 4, 2015 with this attached comment: "#Cuba is surrounded by some unbelievable beaches and blue-green waters".

  8. iss042e046048

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-16

    iss042e046048 (12/16/14) --- NASA Astronaut Barry (Butch) Wilmore holds a 3-D printed ratchet wrench from the new 3-D printer aboard the International Space Station. The printer completed the first phase of a NASA technology demonstration by printing a tool with a design file that was transmitted from the ground to the printer.

  9. iss042e046041

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-16

    iss042e046041 (12/16/14) --- NASA Astronaut Barry (Butch) Wilmore holds a 3-D printed ratchet wrench and plate from the new 3-D printer aboard the International Space Station. The printer completed the first phase of a NASA technology demonstration by printing a tool with a design file that was transmitted from the ground to the printer.

  10. iss028e041305

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-07

    ISS028-E-041305 (7 Sept. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses the Russian Tekh-38 VETEROK ("Breeze") science hardware to take aero-ionic concentration measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  11. iss028e041287

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-07

    ISS028-E-041287 (7 Sept. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses the Russian Tekh-38 VETEROK ("Breeze") science hardware to take aero-ionic concentration measurements in the Rassvet Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM1) of the International Space Station.

  12. iss028e041297

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-07

    ISS028-E-041297 (7 Sept. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses the Russian Tekh-38 VETEROK ("Breeze") science hardware to take aero-ionic concentration measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  13. iss028e041290

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-07

    ISS028-E-041290 (7 Sept. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses the Russian Tekh-38 VETEROK ("Breeze") science hardware to take aero-ionic concentration measurements in the Rassvet Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM1) of the International Space Station.

  14. iss028e041310

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-07

    ISS028-E-041310 (7 Sept. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses the Russian Tekh-38 VETEROK ("Breeze") science hardware to take aero-ionic concentration measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  15. iss028e041283

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-07

    ISS028-E-041283 (7 Sept. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev, Expedition 28 flight engineer, uses the Russian Tekh-38 VETEROK ("Breeze") science hardware to take aero-ionic concentration measurements in the Rassvet Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM1) of the International Space Station.

  16. iss030e028959

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-09

    ISS030-E-028859 (9 Jan. 2012) --- One of a series of photos of the moon and Earth?s atmosphere as seen from the International Space Station over a period of time that covered a number of orbits by the orbital outpost.

  17. iss030e028893

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-09

    ISS030-E-028893 (9 Jan. 2012) --- One of a series of photos of the moon and Earth?s atmosphere as seen from the International Space Station over a period of time that covered a number of orbits by the orbital outpost.

  18. iss030e028984

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-09

    ISS030-E-028984 (9 Jan. 2012) --- One of a series of photos of the moon and Earth?s atmosphere as seen from the International Space Station over a period of time that covered a number of orbits by the orbital outpost.

  19. iss030e028977

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-09

    ISS030-E-028977(9 Jan. 2012) --- One of a series of photos of the moon and Earth’s atmosphere as seen from the International Space Station over a period of time that covered a number of orbits by the orbital outpost.

  20. iss030e028873

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-09

    ISS030-E-028873 (9 Jan. 2012) --- One of a series of photos of the moon and Earth?s atmosphere as seen from the International Space Station over a period of time that covered a number of orbits by the orbital outpost.

  1. iss028e032133

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-17

    ISS028-E-032133 (17 Aug. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov, Expedition 28 flight engineer, is pictured in the Unity node of the International Space Station while filming an installment of the ?The Orbital Station. Life on Orbit? video, intended for a documentary film to be prepared by the Roscosmos TV studio for the ?Kultura? State TV channel.

  2. iss028e032136

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-17

    ISS028-E-032136 (17 Aug. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov, Expedition 28 flight engineer, is pictured floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station while filming an installment of the ?The Orbital Station. Life on Orbit? video, intended for a documentary film to be prepared by the Roscosmos TV studio for the ?Kultura? State TV channel.

  3. iss042e230335

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-06

    ISS042E230335 (02/06/2015) --- This Earth observation image taken at night on Feb. 6, 2015 from the International Space Station shows northern central Europe. US Astronaut Terry Virts tweeted the image on Mar. 5, 2015 with the comment "A tale of two cities. #London #Paris"

  4. iss028e048923

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-13

    ISS028-E-048923 (13 Sept. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28 flight engineer, works with the Fluid Physics Experiment Facility/Marangoni Surface (FPEF MS) Core hardware in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. The Marangoni convection experiment in the FPEF examines fluid tension flow in micro-G.

  5. iss031e140672

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-22

    ISS031-E-140672 (22 June 2012) --- Two bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites called Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites Zero Robotics (SPHERES ZR) are pictured during a test session in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  6. iss031e140676

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-22

    ISS031-E-140676 (22 June 2012) --- Two bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites called Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites Zero Robotics (SPHERES ZR) are pictured during a test session in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  7. iss042e295288

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-27

    ISS042E295288 (03/02/2015) --- US Astronaut Terry Virts Flight Engineer of Expedition 42 on the International Space Station tweeted this Earth observation on Mar. 2, 2015 with the comment "The Earth completely changes colors at twilight. It's like a different planet".

  8. iss042e277408

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-17

    ISS042E277408 (02/17/2015) --- U.S. astronaut Terry Virts shows off his "space cheeseburger" while taking a lunch break during preparations for an upcoming spacewalk. The concoction was made up of beef paddies, cheese, tomato paste and Russian mustard on a tortilla wrap. Virts is a Flight Engineer with Expedition 42 on the International Space Station.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-12

    Astronaut Robert L. Curbeam, Jr., STS-116 mission specialist, smiles for the camera in the Quest Airlock of the International Space Station (ISS). Curbeam had just completed the mission’s first space walk in which the P6 truss installation was conducted.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-09-17

    Enroute for docking, the 16-foot-long Russian docking compartment Pirs (the Russian word for pier) approaches the International Space Station (ISS). Pirs will provide a docking port for future Russian Soyuz or Progress craft, as well as an airlock for extravehicular activities. Pirs was launched September 14, 2001 from Baikonur in Russia.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-23

    Carrying out a flight program for the French Space Agency (CNES) under a commerial contract with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, a Russian Soyuz spacecraft approaches the International Space Station (ISS) delivering a crew of three for an eight-day stay. Aboard the craft are Commander Victor Afanasyev, Flight Engineer Konstantin Kozeev, both representing Rosaviakosmos, and French Flight Engineer Claudie Haignere.

  12. iss051e038158

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-08

    iss051e038158 (5/8/2017) --- Chinese cabbage is grown in the Veggie facility on the International Space Station. The sprouts form in a low-maintenance foam pillow and are grown using a special light to help the plants thrive.

  13. iss049e007067

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-19

    iss049e007067 (09/19/2016) --- Night views of the Earth from the International Space Station. This image is the southern Persian Gulf at night centered on Dubai and Abu Dhabi; east is at the top of the image with the coast of Iran to upper left and Muscat, Oman upper right.

  14. iss028e034129

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-26

    ISS028-E-034129 (26 Aug. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28 flight engineer, smiles for a close-up photo while exercising on the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  15. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    Marshall Porterfield, Life and Physical Sciences Division Director at NASA Headquarters, talks about the human body in microgravity and other life sciences at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. iss050e038462

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-03

    iss050e038462 (02/03/2017) --- A Russian Soyuz spacecraft can be seen in this image from the International Space Station as it passes over the American state of Florida surrounded by the blue waters of the Gulf of Mexico on the west side and the Atlantic Ocean on the other.

  17. iss042e292504

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-01

    ISS042E292504 (03/01/2015) --- US astronaut Terry Virts observed this scene from the International Space Station on Feb.1, 2015. He sent this image via Twitter with the remark, "The camera doesn't do it justice - floating in space, looking down on creation, seeing new color shades".

  18. iss050e055950

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-27

    iss050e055950 (02/27/2017) --- NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough performs routine maintenance on a treadmill aboard the International Space Station. Astronauts exercise about two hours daily to combat the negative effects of living for long durations in microgravity.

  19. iss047e044560

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-03

    ISS047e044560 (04/03/2016) --- The very bottom tip of Africa is imaged here as captured by the crew of the International Space Station on April 3rd, 2016. South Africa's capitol Cape Town is located at the bottom left of this beautiful Earth picture captured on a sunny day.

  20. iss042e243192

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-11

    ISS042E243192 (02/11/2015) --- This huge Desert in northern Africa is an image tweeted by NASA astronaut Terry Virts on Feb. 11, 2015 from the International Space Station. He wanted to share with his Twitter fans the enormous size of the " Murzuq Desert #Libya #Africa".

  1. ISS NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    Expedition 33/34 astronauts onboard the International Space Station answer questions in a live downlink at a NASA Social exploring science on the ISS at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, Feb. 20, 2013 in Washington. Seen from left to right are NASA astronauts Tom Marshburn, Kevin Ford and Canadian Space Agency (CSA) astronaut Chris Hadfield. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. iss047e111682

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    ISS047e111682 (05/09/2016) --- This Image from the International Space Station is of the middle eastern country of Yemen and its ancient port of Aden located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea. Aden's ancient, natural harbor lies in the crater of a dormant volcano which now forms a peninsula, joined to the mainland by a low isthmus.

  3. iss009e21540

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-05

    ISS009-E-21540 (5 September 2004) --- While Frances was moving destructively through Florida, another hurricane formed Sunday, September 5, in the central Atlantic. Quickly strengthening, Ivan was photographed at 10:27:46 (GMT) from the International Space Station, flying above Earth at an altitude of 235 miles.

  4. iss009e20890

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-30

    ISS009-E-20890 (30 August 2004) --- This oblique view of the poorly defined eye of Hurricane Frances was taken Monday morning (12:13:41 GMT) by the crew of the International Space Station. The storm was a Category 3 hurricane and had been experiencing fluctuations in organization and strength during the previous day.

  5. iss042e136080

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-15

    ISS042E136080 (01/15/2015) ---US astronaut Barry "Butch" Wilmore Expedition 42 Commander on the International Space Station juggles some bottles in microgravity while preparing to take an experiment reading in the micro5 dragon pink Columbus laboratory. This picture was taken by his fellow US astronaut Terry Virts.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-06

    The nozzles for Discovery's three main engines are visible in this close-up image photographed by one of the Expedition 13 crew members onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-121 Rotating Pitch Maneuver (RPM) survey prior to docking of the two spacecraft. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has management responsibility for development of the space shuttle main engines (SSME).

  7. iss047e012492

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-21

    ISS047e012492 (03/21/2016) --- NASA astronaut Tim Kopra stows hardware from the OASIS experiment aboard the International Space Station. OASIS, which stands for Observation and Analysis of Smectic Islands In Space, studies the unique behavior of liquid crystals in microgravity.

  8. iss038e053780

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-18

    ISS038-E-053780 (18 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, uses a Microbial Air Sampler to collect air samples in the Unity node of the International Space Station. These air samples will be incubated for five days and tested for signs of microbial contamination.

  9. iss038e042125

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-042125 (6 Feb. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. The bright sun and the thin line of Earth's atmosphere provide the backdrop for the scene.

  10. iss028e034854

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-31

    ISS028-E-034854 (31 Aug. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov, Expedition 28 flight engineer, checks the progress of a new growth experiment on the BIO-5 Rasteniya-2 (Plants-2) payload with its LADA-01 greenhouse in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  11. iss028e050058

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-15

    ISS028-E-050058 (15 Sept. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, inspects a new growth experiment on the BIO-5 Rasteniya-2 (Plants-2) payload with its LADA-01 greenhouse in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  12. iss028e028794

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-22

    ISS028-E-028794 (18 Aug. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Andrey Borisenko, Expedition 28 commander, works with a new growth experiment on the BIO-5 Rasteniya-2 (Plants-2) payload with its LADA-01 greenhouse in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  13. iss028e025963

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-18

    ISS028-E-025963 (18 Aug. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Andrey Borisenko, Expedition 28 commander, inspects a new growth experiment on the BIO-5 Rasteniya-2 (Plants-2) payload with its LADA-01 greenhouse in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  14. iss042e275153

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-15

    ISS042E275153 (02/15/2015) --- Expedition 42 Flight Engineer Terry Virts on the International Space Station tweeted his followers this earth observation image on Feb. 15, 2015. He commented that it was "Extensive #Africa desert of #Libya and #Chad".

  15. iss050e038054

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-03

    iss050e038054 (02/03/2017) --- NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough is seen executing the SPHERES-HALO experiment aboard the International Space Station. The investigation uses two small, self-contained satellites (SPHERES) fitted with donut-like rings to test wireless power transfer and formation flight using electromagnetic fields.

  16. iss050e038043

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-03

    iss050e038043 (02/03/2017) --- NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough is seen executing the SPHERES-HALO experiment aboard the International Space Station. The investigation uses two small, self-contained satellites (SPHERES) fitted with donut-like rings to test wireless power transfer and formation flight using electromagnetic fields.

  17. iss012e15035

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-12

    ISS012-E-15035 (12 Jan. 2006) --- The confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers at Cairo, Illinois is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 12 crew member on the International Space Station. The Ohio River becomes a tributary of the Mississippi River directly to the south of Cairo, Illinois, a small city on the spit of land where the rivers converge (at center of image). Brown sediment-laden water flowing generally northeast to south from the Ohio River is distinct from the green and relatively sediment-poor water (northwest- to south-flowing) of the Mississippi River. The coloration of the rivers in this image is reversed from the usual condition of a green Ohio and a brown Mississippi. According to scientists, this suggests that recent precipitation in the Ohio River watershed, with very high rainfall over the Appalachians and the northeastern United States in December 2005, has led to a greater sediment load in the Ohio waters. The distinct boundary between the two river’s waters indicates that little to no mixing occurs even 3-4 miles (5-6 kilometers) downstream. The city of Cairo became a prosperous port following the Civil War due to increased riverboat and railroad commerce. Small features on the Ohio are river barges and indicate the continued importance of Cairo as a transport hub. Flooding of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers presents a continual danger to the city; this danger is lessened by the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway that begins directly to the south of the river confluence. The floodway lowers flood stages upstream (such as at Cairo) and adjacent to the floodway during major flood events. Part of the extensive levee system associated with flood control of the Mississippi River is visible in the image. Barlow Bottoms (image right), located in adjacent Kentucky, are a wetlands bird watching location that is replenished by periodic floods and releases of Ohio River water.

  18. Analytical Assessment of a Gross Leakage Event Within the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James M.; Clanton, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) gross leakage analysis are presented for evaluating total leakage flow rates and volume discharge caused by a gross leakage event (i.e. open boundary condition). A Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA85/FLUINT) thermal hydraulic mathematical model (THMM) representing the Node 2 IATCS was developed to simulate system performance under steady-state nominal conditions as well as the transient flow effect resulting from an open line exposed to ambient. The objective of the analysis was to determine the adequacy of the leak detection software in limiting the quantity of fluid lost during a gross leakage event to within an acceptable level.

  19. Analytical Assessment of a Gross Leakage Event Within the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James M.; Clanton, Stephen E.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) gross leakage analysis are presented for evaluating total leakage flowrates and volume discharge caused by a gross leakage event (i.e. open boundary condition). A Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA/FLUINT) thermal hydraulic mathematical model (THMM) representing the Node 2 IATCS was developed to simulate system performance under steady-state nominal conditions as well as the transient flow effects resulting from an open line exposed to ambient. The objective of the analysis was to determine the adequacy of the leak detection software in limiting the quantity of fluid lost during a gross leakage event to within an acceptable level.

  20. iss030-s-001

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-21

    ISS030-S-001 (April 2011) --- The International Space Station (ISS) program is completing the transition from assembly to full utilization as humankind celebrates the golden anniversary of human space exploration. In recognition of these milestones and especially of the contribution of those whose dedication and ingenuity make spaceflight possible, a fully assembled ISS is depicted rising above a sunlit Earth limb. Eastward of the sunlit limb, the distinctive portrayal of Earth?s surface illuminated by nighttime city lights is a reminder of mankind?s presence on the planet, most readily apparent from space only by night, and commemorates how human beings have transcended their early bonds throughout the previous 50 years of space exploration. The ISS, a unique space-based outpost for research in biological, physical, space and Earth sciences, in the words of the crew members, is an impressive testament to the tremendous teamwork of the engineers, scientists and technicians from 15 countries and five national space agencies. The six crew members of Expedition 30, like those who have gone before them, express that they are honored to represent their countries and the ISS team in conducting research aboard the station and adding to the body of knowledge that will enable the world?s space faring countries to more safely and more productively live, work and explore outer space, paving the way for future missions beyond low Earth orbit, and inspiring young people to join in this great adventure. The NASA insignia design for shuttle and space station flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, it will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA