Science.gov

Sample records for issues untested emergency

  1. Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Denise

    1988-01-01

    Youth services programs and cholesterol in children's diets, two topics that may emerge as issues in schools and school districts in the near future, are addressed. Resources for further information are listed. (CB)

  2. Emerging Privacy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    As the issue of information privacy increases in complexity in terms of the number of organizations involved, the intricacy of the information flows, and the difficulty of conceiving appropriate legal safeguards, it is not certain that the practices and laws that have been developed for current privacy protection can work for new situations.…

  3. Emerging Issues in Duoethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breault, Rick A.

    2016-01-01

    Duoethnography is a relatively new research method in which two participants interrogate the cultural contexts of autobiographical experiences in order to gain insight into their current perspectives on and experience of issues related to personal and professional identities. Commonly explored themes include race, gender, pedagogy, professional…

  4. Emerging Issues in Duoethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breault, Rick A.

    2016-01-01

    Duoethnography is a relatively new research method in which two participants interrogate the cultural contexts of autobiographical experiences in order to gain insight into their current perspectives on and experience of issues related to personal and professional identities. Commonly explored themes include race, gender, pedagogy, professional…

  5. Urgent emergency issue in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Piotr

    2006-10-01

    The paper refers to the problem of emergency medical service in Poland, which is the only European Union Member State not having activated the emergency phone number 112. This fact has caused the threat of European Union sanctions. In this context, we try to discuss the chances of finalizing reform of the dramatically inefficient Polish emergency services. Except for the lack of the integrated emergency call centres, there is no appropriate network of emergency hospital departments in Poland and no clear regulations concerning emergency professions. The necessary law was enacted in 2001, but it did not come into force. The threat of European Union sanctions may hasten its implementation; however, the weak position of the present government may cause a further delay of the reform.

  6. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  7. Workplace bullying: an emergent issue.

    PubMed

    Essen, S Donovan; Esquivel, Cynthia; Jha, Pankaj

    2014-09-01

    All companies, including dentists, rely on their staff to represent their firms in the most positive and effective manner. Today's managers face a multitude of issues, and as such, they must walk a fine line of fostering a productive, harmonious and safe working environment for their employees. Over the last several decades it is apparent that on the- job sexual harassment is no longer the leading issue of employee complaints. Rather, the organization issue which was investigated is workplace bullying, also commonly referred to as employee harassment. Risk management is no longer limited to avoiding malpractice issues but also preventing litigation created by poor organizational behavior. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the background of workplace bullying and how it affects today's managers and their employees, customers and suppliers. In other words, the scope of this paper will feature research on past studies, results and conclusions. Since workplace bullying affects all levels of a corporation, it must be stated that the concern and focus of this paper is for today's manager to understand the background and history of workplace bullying, and what they can do to foster a safe working environment and prevent the bully from creating mental and physical harm to their employees. This paper details the history of workplace bullying and how management, employees and suppliers deal with and address the issue. Lastly, this treatise looks at risk management from a manger/dentist's perspective, the assessment/conclusion summarizes the implications for managers regarding how they must handle the issue or risk harm to the employee and/or serious legal ramifications.

  8. Emerging critical issues and technology needs

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.; Baker, A.B.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1997, a panel of experts representing private sector electricity companies met to identify emerging critical issues in the electricity sector and to ascertain how technology can help with these issues. Sandia National laboratories sponsored and conducted the meeting. The panel determined the top eight issues that will be critically important over the next five to ten years, when the electricity sector is expected to undergo a major transition in its market and the regulations that govern it. This report presents a discussion of the selection and ranking of critical issues identified by the panel and the research priorities that were identified.

  9. Emerging issues in forensic mental health.

    PubMed

    Petrila, John

    2004-01-01

    Forensic mental health traditionally was considered the backwater of forensic practice. However, because of advances in knowledge regarding the core issues of capacity and risk, and because of changes in the location of forensic assessment and treatment, "forensic" issues now permeate mental health practice and policy. While these advances have been important, there are a number of new issues that will occupy the attention of practitioners, researchers, and policymakers in the future. This article explores these issues and their implications, including the need to better integrate treatment and risk; the need to address the emergence of special jurisdiction courts and their impact on systems design issues; the need to address the impact of conservative social policies, particularly in the areas of juvenile justice and sexual predator legislation; and the need to better understand the use of coercion in the context of community treatment.

  10. OER Perspectives: Emerging Issues for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Don

    2012-01-01

    This reflection examines some of the continuing and emerging issues in the open educational resources (OER) field. These include blending OER with university management structures; formal and non-formal OER; the need for sustainable OER business models; and expanding awareness, adoption, and use of OER. In the future, research will need to examine…

  11. OER Perspectives: Emerging Issues for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Don

    2012-01-01

    This reflection examines some of the continuing and emerging issues in the open educational resources (OER) field. These include blending OER with university management structures; formal and non-formal OER; the need for sustainable OER business models; and expanding awareness, adoption, and use of OER. In the future, research will need to examine…

  12. Path forward: emerging issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Matt; Gittleman, Janie L

    2010-06-01

    The NIOSH Construction Program worked with industry stakeholders to develop a National Occupational Safety and Health Construction Agenda to target future research and activities. The Program and its partners are also cognizant that new developments can emerge over time and that research can play an important role in helping to understand and address these emerging issues. Examples of emerging issues relevant to construction safety and health are described. These include: (a) climate change and energy considerations; (b) green construction developments and opportunities; (c) new materials; (d) changes in industry structure and practice; (e) workforce developments and disparities; (f) injury underreporting and cost and risk shifting; and (g) increased interest in addressing root causes. Responding to emerging issues while maintaining a focus on fundamental longstanding issues represents an ongoing challenge for researchers and industry organizations. Additional research to understand the diffusion and adoption of research by the industry is also needed. Research accomplished to date provides a strong foundation for addressing future industry needs and trends.

  13. Chemical warfare agents: emergency medical and emergency public health issues.

    PubMed

    Brennan, R J; Waeckerle, J F; Sharp, T W; Lillibridge, S R

    1999-08-01

    The threat of exposure to chemical warfare agents has traditionally been considered a military issue. Several recent events have demonstrated that civilians may also be exposed to these agents. The intentional or unintentional release of a chemical warfare agent in a civilian community has the potential to create thousands of casualties, thereby overwhelming local health and medical resources. The resources of US communities to respond to chemical incidents have been designed primarily for industrial agents, but must be expanded and developed regarding incident management, agent detection, protection of emergency personnel, and clinical care. We present an overview of the risk that chemical warfare agents presently pose to civilian populations and a discussion of the emergency medical and emergency public health issues related to preparedness and response.

  14. Readiness Issues for Emergency Response Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Riland; D.R. Bowman; R.J. Tighe

    1999-03-01

    Issues in maintaining readiness of instruments for deployment and use in emergency response situation often differ from those in maintaining instruments for normal operations. Confunding circumstances include use of non-availability of check sources, ensuring instruments are always in calibration and operable, possible use of instruments in different climates, packaging of instrumentation for deployment, transport of instrumentation and check sources, and ensuring users are familiar with instruments. Methods and procedures for addressing these issues are presented. Instrumentation used for survey, in situ measurements, electronic dosimetry, and air conditioning are discussed.

  15. Emerging acid deposition research and monitoring issues

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, R.

    1997-12-31

    The research baselines established for acid rain in the 1980s position scientists and policy makers to evaluate the environmental effectiveness of the acid rain control program and to test the variety of scientific hypotheses made regarding the chemical, transport and biological processes involved in acidic deposition. Several new research questions have evolved. How effective are the emissions reductions? What is the residual risk? How have ecological recovery rates been affected and what other environmental factors influence recovery? What are the critical requirements to measure ecological change including the extent and rate while also capturing the extent and severity of emerging ecological stressors (such as watershed nitrogen saturation)? These and other questions are currently being synthesized within and outside of EPA to develop a long-term strategy to provide guidance to emerging research and monitoring issues.

  16. Emerging issues in public health genomics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights emerging areas of interest in public health genomics. First, recent advances in newborn screening (NBS) are described, with a focus on practice and policy implications of current and future efforts to expand NBS programs (e.g., via next-generation sequencing). Next, research findings from the rapidly progressing field of epigenetics and epigenomics are detailed, highlighting ways in which our emerging understanding in these areas could guide future intervention and research efforts in public health. We close by considering various ethical, legal and social issues posed by recent developments in public health genomics; these include policies to regulate access to personal genomic information; the need to enhance genetic literacy in both health professionals and the public; and challenges in ensuring that the benefits (and burdens) from genomic discoveries and applications are equitably distributed. Needs for future genomics research that integrates across basic and social sciences are also noted. PMID:25184533

  17. Emerging issues in public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J Scott; Dolinoy, Dana; Tarini, Beth

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights emerging areas of interest in public health genomics. First, we describe recent advances in newborn screening (NBS), with a focus on the practice and policy implications of current and future efforts to expand NBS programs (e.g., via next-generation sequencing). Next, we detail research findings from the rapidly progressing field of epigenetics and epigenomics, highlighting ways in which our emerging understanding in these areas could guide future intervention and research efforts in public health. We close by considering various ethical, legal, and social issues posed by recent developments in public health genomics; these include policies to regulate access to personal genomic information, the need to enhance genetic literacy in both health professionals and the public, and challenges in ensuring that the benefits (and burdens) of genomic discoveries and applications are equitably distributed. We also note needs for future genomic research that integrates across basic and social sciences.

  18. Emerging ethical issues in pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Nwomeh, Benedict C; Caniano, Donna A

    2011-06-01

    With the rapid pace of technological advancement and changing political, social, and legal attitudes, physicians face new ethical dilemmas. For pediatric surgeons, these emerging issues affect our relationship with, and the care we provide, to our patients and their families. In this review, we explore issues related to professionalism in pediatric surgery practice, the value of apology, and the risks associated with sleep deprivation. Furthermore, we discuss how the imperative of patient safety presents an opportunity for specialty-driven effort to define standards for the surgical care of children and a responsible process for introducing surgical innovations. Finally, we remind pediatric surgeons of their ethical and professional duty to support clinical research, and advocate the acceptance of community equipoise as sufficient basis for enrolling children in clinical trials.

  19. Emerging pesticide residue issues and analytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Fintschenko, Yolanda; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Wong, Jon W

    2010-05-26

    The 46th Annual Florida Pesticide Residue Workshop of 2009 (FPRW 2009) held in St. Pete Beach, FL, is the latest in an annual tradition drawing scientists from U.S. federal and state government laboratories, industry, and other laboratories worldwide. In 2009, selected FPRW presenters were invited to contribute to this special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry with a section devoted to emerging pesticide residue issues and analytical approaches. What follows is the written record of what should become a scientific conversation launched at FPRW 2009. There are two distinct approaches to organic residue analysis: instrumental methods and assays. In much of the world, scientists primarily rely on laboratories equipped with instrumentation for analysis, usually gas chromatography and liquid chromatography with some type of selective detector. In the discussion of instrumental approaches, the focus is on chromatography with mass spectrometry as a detection method. Approaches such as biomonitoring and assays fall outside the traditional instrumental method approach to residue analysis. Assays that do not require laboratory equipment are of greater interest for screening and are well-suited to field use. Regardless of the analytical method, the success of multiresidue analysis relies on the appropriate choice of sample preparation and cleanup methodologies. Many new sample preparation and cleanup approaches used for pesticide and other small molecule contaminant residue analyses in a variety of complex sample matrices are discussed in this special issue. The goal of these approaches is to reduce overall analysis time and solvent consumption without compromising the analytical results.

  20. Emerging Contaminant Issues, Including Management Of Emerging Contaminants In Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging contaminants are receiving increasing media and scientific attention. These chemicals are sometimes referred to as compounds of emerging concern or trace organic compounds, and include several groups of chemicals including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and pha...

  1. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. Emerging c...

  3. Emerging Issues in Educational Reform in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the demand-supply continuum to look at emerging reforms in the Japanese educational system. Data from fieldwork in major urban districts and their prefectures in Nagoya, Osaka, and Tokyo highlight demand-driven reform (higher education restructuring), integrated governance (mediating demand and supply at the K-12 levels), and ongoing…

  4. Working Time: Tendencies and Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Gerhard

    1999-01-01

    Examines issues of working time starting with International Labor Organization standards and reports on changes and the forces driving them. Outlines conditions in which working-time reductions are likely to affect employment positively and concludes with topics for further analysis. (Author/JOW)

  5. Emerging Issues in Land Remote Sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper summarizes the key questions and issues discussed in three review panels in the 9th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS) held in Oct. 2005 at Beijing. These three panels focused on remote sensing systems and sensors, modeling and inve...

  6. Emerging Issues and Opportunities Prospective Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Sharlene A.

    This paper discusses 14 issues related to gender equity in intercollegiate athletics, including: (1) the cost dilemma, in which institutions have to cut men's sports to introduce women's sports; (2) equal pay for the coaches of men's and women's teams; (3) the gender of coaches, namely men coaching women's teams; (4) peer harassment among…

  7. This issue: Managing emergencies part 2.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Mark E

    2005-12-01

    Pediatric toxicologic exposures are common, and the primary care pediatric practitioner must be prepared to handle emergencies related to poisoning and overdose in children and adolescents. Fortunately, many poisonings in children are unintentional, preventable, and benign. For both simple and complex cases, help is available to medical professionals 24/7 from multiple sources, including an improved toxic exposure database, new research, the network of Certified Specialists in Poison Information at our nation's regional poison control centers, and backup medical and clinical toxicologists. The US system of AAPCC-certified poison control centers has been appropriately labeled "a national safety net" serving the public and medical practitioners in the management of pediatric toxicologic exposures. Increased funding to this system will be critical to update its services for the future, including preparation to detect the increasing threat of new public health emergencies such as chemical and biological terrorist attacks.

  8. Signalling crosstalk in plants: emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jane E; McAinsh, Martin R

    2004-01-01

    The Oxford English Dictionary defines crosstalk as 'unwanted transfer of signals between communication channels'. How does this definition relate to the way in which we view the organization and function of signalling pathways? Recent advances in the field of plant signalling have challenged the traditional view of a signalling transduction cascade as isolated linear pathways. Instead the picture emerging of the mechanisms by which plants transduce environmental signals is of the interaction between transduction chains. The manner in which these interactions occur (and indeed whether the transfer of these signals is 'unwanted' or beneficial) is currently the topic of intense research.

  9. Focus issue articles on emerging and re-emerging plant diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review sums up the key findings of seventeen articles on emerging and re-emerging plant diseases that are designated for the July focus issue in Phytopathology. The emerging and re-emerging diseases discussed include those caused by three viral, six fungal, five oomycete, and four bacterial pa...

  10. Neurotoxicants: emerging issues and policy options.

    PubMed

    Hulebak, K L

    1987-01-01

    Neurotoxicants are increasingly seen as significant public health hazards, the resolution of which is influenced by science as well as economics, politics, and emotions. Three topical issues are presented to illustrate the application or abuse of scientific data in the political arena and to suggest appropriate responsibilities of scientists beyond the generation of data. The examples include regulation of occupation-related neurotoxic exposure, transfer of neurotoxic pollutants among environmental media, and export of neurotoxic hazards to Third World countries. These examples illustrate the variety of ways in which neurotoxicants impinge on policy questions--from international trade, through ecosystem effects, to personal occupational health and safety.

  11. Neurotoxicants: emerging issues and policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Hulebak, K.L.

    1987-03-01

    Neurotoxicants are increasingly seen as significant public health hazards, the resolution of which is influenced by science as well as economics, politics, and emotions. Three topical issues are presented to illustrate the application or abuse of scientific data in the political arena and to suggest appropriate responsibilities of scientists beyond the generation of data. The examples include regulation of occupation-related neurotoxic exposure, transfer of neurotoxic pollutants among environmental media, and export of neurotoxic hazards to Third World countries. These examples illustrate the variety of ways in which neurotoxicants impinge on policy questions--from international trade, through ecosystem effects, to personal occupational health and safety.

  12. General Growth Mixture Analysis of Adolescents' Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety: The Impact of Untested Invariance Assumptions on Substantive Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maiano, Christophe; Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morizot, Julien; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Substantively, this study investigates potential heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories of anxiety in adolescence. Methodologically, this study demonstrates the usefulness of general growth mixture analysis (GGMA) in addressing these issues and illustrates the impact of untested invariance assumptions on substantive interpretations. This…

  13. General Growth Mixture Analysis of Adolescents' Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety: The Impact of Untested Invariance Assumptions on Substantive Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maiano, Christophe; Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morizot, Julien; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Substantively, this study investigates potential heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories of anxiety in adolescence. Methodologically, this study demonstrates the usefulness of general growth mixture analysis (GGMA) in addressing these issues and illustrates the impact of untested invariance assumptions on substantive interpretations. This…

  14. Emerging Issues in School, Family, & Community Connections. Annual Synthesis, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Catherine; Orozco, Evangelina; Averett, Amy

    This research synthesis examines key issues in the field of family and community connections with schools. These issues represent critical areas of work where clarification, agreement, and further development are needed, as well as promising new directions that are emerging. After reviewing and examining more than 160 publications, four key issues…

  15. Emerging Issues for Bokori Island Development in Konawe Southeast Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulidy Navastara, Ardy

    2017-07-01

    This article discusses about emerging issues for small island development especially Bokori Island in Konawe Southeast Sulawesi. Indonesia have been known as a big archipelago has more than ten thousand small islands scattered about 5.8 million km2 of oceanic area Sabang in the West end to Merauke at the end East. It is also known as the largest “megabiodiversity” marine nation. However, the weak national policy that handles the development and management of small islands is suspected because it is not accurate in identifying strategic issues that occur in the development and management of small islands. Therefore, this article aims to identify and classify strategic issues related to the development of small islands in Konawe Southeast Sulawesi. A normative and empirical approach is made to discuss this article. It resulted that typology of issues such as internal and external issues, urgent issues and its supporting issues. Then local governments should pay attention to the urgent issues and its supporting issues - it is policy, investment, institutional and technological issues and the endogenous issues such as entrepreneurship and leadership.

  16. Clean water and family forest management: some emerging issues

    Treesearch

    Peter A. Bisson

    2011-01-01

    Demand for clean water for a variety of uses will increase. Watersheds are where we live, grow crops and create various forms of industry. As the Pacific Northwest's human population expands, competition for water and the ecological goods and services that water provides will grow more intense. With this in mind it is helpful to review emerging issues that are of...

  17. Emergent Issues in Enterprise Education: The Educator's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Charlotte; Matlay, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that important issues are emerging among enterprise educators in higher education institutions (HEIs). This paper examines four key areas of debate. The first of these is the assessment of entrepreneurship ideas and related activities (Pittaway and Cope, 2007). Penaluna and Penaluna (2008, 2009a, b), for example, focus on…

  18. Emerging Issues in Education: Policy Implications for the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, James E., Ed.

    Contents of this volume, one product of a collaboration between the Carnegie Corporation and Rand initiated in July 1969, include the following papers: "Emerging Issues in Education . . .," J. E. Bruno; "Societal Foundations for Change: Educational Alternatives for the Future," W. Harman: "Constitutional Aspects of Equality of Educational…

  19. Emergent Issues in Enterprise Education: The Educator's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Charlotte; Matlay, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that important issues are emerging among enterprise educators in higher education institutions (HEIs). This paper examines four key areas of debate. The first of these is the assessment of entrepreneurship ideas and related activities (Pittaway and Cope, 2007). Penaluna and Penaluna (2008, 2009a, b), for example, focus on…

  20. Untested pesticide mitigation requirements: ecological, agricultural, and legal implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, Nimish B.

    2013-01-01

    Every pesticide sold in the United States must have a U.S. Environmental Agency approved label on its container. The label provides directions for the pesticide’s use and is legally enforceable under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. For a pesticide with high ecological risks, mitigation statements may be included on the label to reduce the pesticide’s risks and to support its registration. Many mitigation mandates are easy to implement and are effective, however, at times, well-intentioned but novel and untested mitigation requirements, though theoretically sound, may not be perceived by the pesticide users to be practical under operational settings. Courts of law recognize the pesticide label as a legal document, therefore it is imperative that the label mitigation mandates be achievable. I use the rodenticide Rozol label to illustrate how an untested risk mitigation mandate may be considered too burdensome by pesticide users whereby the mitigation action may not be implemented in the field, resulting in label violation and unreasonable risks to the environment.

  1. Adduction of untested derived stimulus relations depends on environmental complexity.

    PubMed

    Rippy, Sterling M; Doughty, Adam H

    2017-10-01

    The present research assessed adduction involving derived stimulus relations as a function of environmental complexity. In Group CA, four college students were trained with arbitrary-matching-to-sample discriminations that could have established four, 3-member stimulus classes. In Group EA, four other students were trained with discriminations that could have established four, 5-member classes. Neither group received derived-relations testing; instead, adduction was assessed immediately after the baseline discriminations were learned. The adduction assessment required participants to derive the untested CA (Group CA) or EA (Group EA) equivalence relations and combine them with their already learned math skills. All participants in Group CA showed above 90% accuracy during the adduction assessment, whereas only one of four Group EA participants responded in that manner. These results extend adduction to untested equivalence relations and clarify the environmental conditions under which such adduction is less likely to occur (i.e., with larger relational networks). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Past, Present and Emerging Toxicity Issues for Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    freeze point . The initial specification for JP-8 MIL-T-83133) was issued in 1976. Conversion from JP-4 to JP-8 was begun in 1979 and was completed in 1994...as the standard for comparison of future fuels, including alternative fuels. Emerging issues of concern with jet fuels include naphthalene content...each test, 0.5 ml JP-8 was applied to clipped skin on the backs of New Zealand white rabbits, occluded and evaluated at multiple time points . JP-4

  3. Allergy and Aging: An Old/New Emerging Health Issue

    PubMed Central

    De Martinis, Massimo; Sirufo, Maria Maddalena; Ginaldi, Lia

    2017-01-01

    Allergy reactions are the most common immunological diseases and represent one of the most widespread and fast growing chronic human health problems among people over 15 years of age in developed countries. As populations get older worldwide, allergy manifestations in aged persons will occur more often in the future. To date, there has been much more studies on allergies in children than in adults. As the population ages, clinicians must be prepared to meet all the elderly's health care needs, including these new and emerging health issue. Allergic diseases represent an old/new emerging health issue. Because many common illnesses masquerade as atopic disease, the differential diagnosis of suspected allergic diseases becomes more expanded in an aging population. Research in the field needs to focus on both human and animal model systems to investigate the impact of the aging process on the immunologic pathways underpinning allergy and its different facets. PMID:28400983

  4. Developing an emergency code response team for behavioral issues.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sam

    2008-01-01

    An emergency code response team is seen as the answer by the author when intervention issues arise in connection with violence or potential violence by patients or others in the hospital. In the article he explains what is involved in recruiting and training such a team, the roles of its members in a crisis situation, and the preparation and follow-up necessary to perform its duties successfully.

  5. Creating a Victim Notification Protocol for Untested Sexual Assault Kits: An Empirically Supported Planning Framework.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Horsford, Sheena

    In cities throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. Given recent media attention and public outcry about this problem, many jurisdictions with large numbers of untested SAKs are deciding to test all previously unsubmitted SAKs, which raises complex issues regarding when and how victims ought to be notified about what has happened to the kits that were collected during their medical forensic examinations. In this project, we collaborated with one community that has had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-to develop an empirically supported planning framework for how to create a victim notification protocol. This planning tool presents 12 discussion questions that can guide communities through the process of creating a victim notification protocol tailored to the needs of their local jurisdiction. In this article, we review the evidence (both practice and research based) that can inform discussions about each of these 12 key questions.

  6. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  7. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives. PMID:27420080

  8. Stem cell research ethics: consensus statement on emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy; Ogbogu, Ubaka; Nelson, Erin; Einsiedel, Edna; Knoppers, Bartha; McDonald, Michael; Brunger, Fern; Downey, Robin; Fernando, Kanchana; Galipeau, Jacques; Geransar, Rose; Griener, Glenn; Grenier, Glenn; Hyun, Insoo; Isasi, Rosario; Kardel, Melanie; Knowles, Lori; Kucic, Terrence; Lotjonen, Salla; Lyall, Drew; Magnus, David; Mathews, Debra J H; Nisbet, Matthew; Nisker, Jeffrey; Pare, Guillaume; Pattinson, Shaun; Pullman, Daryl; Rudnicki, Michael; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Zimmerman, Susan

    2007-10-01

    This article is a consensus statement by an international interdisciplinary group of academic experts and Canadian policy-makers on emerging ethical, legal and social issues in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) research in Canada. The process of researching consensus included consultations with key stakeholders in hESC research (regulations, stem cell researchers, and research ethics experts), preparation and distribution of background papers, and an international workshop held in Montreal in February 2007 to discuss the papers and debate recommendations. The recommendations provided in the consensus statement focus on issues of immediate relevance to Canadian policy-makers, including informed consent to hESC research, the use of fresh embryos in research, management of conflicts of interest, and the relevance of public opinion research to policy-making.

  9. Wind power project siting workshop: emerging issues and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-12-01

    With wind power development extending more broadly across the various regions of the United States, and with new participants entering the wind development business, AWEA developed a workshop on the various ways in which wind power projects affect--and don't affect--elements of the human and natural environment. Over 180 people gathered in Portland, OR on October 13-14, 2004 to participate in a day and a half of presentations by 20 leading industry specialists. Their presentations covered emerging issues of project siting, such as bat interactions and wildlife survey techniques, and methods of generating local support for wind projects. Workshop topics included: Avian and Bat Research Updates; Wildlife Survey Technologies & Techniques; Technical Issues such as Noise, Aesthetics, and Lighting; National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Scenarios and Federal Land Policies; Tribal & Community Relations; Federal & State Permitting Process; and Bureau of Land Management Wind Power Developments.

  10. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children’s obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ. PMID:27809294

  11. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E

    2016-11-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children's obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ.

  12. Arctic Freshwater Synthesis: Summary of key emerging issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.; Holland, M.; Instanes, A.; Vihma, T.; Wrona, F. J.

    2015-10-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason behind the joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. The AFSΣ was structured around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources, and modeling, the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ summary manuscript reviews key issues that emerged during the conduct of the synthesis, especially those that are cross-thematic in nature, and identifies future research required to address such issues.

  13. 76 FR 6120 - Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... [Release No. 34-63798; File No. 265-26] Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues...''). ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues. SUMMARY: The Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues will hold a public meeting on...

  14. 75 FR 44781 - Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... COMMISSION SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues...''). ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues. SUMMARY: The Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues will hold a public meeting on...

  15. Informed consent: protection or obstacle? Some emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Ellenberg, S S

    1997-12-01

    There is widespread consensus on the need for informed consent procedures in medical research. Nevertheless, aspects of the informed consent process remain controversial, and innovative approaches to research may raise new issues and concerns. The randomized consent design for clinical trials, proposed by Zelen (N Engl J Med 1979; 300:1242-1245), permitted physicians to randomize patients without consent, then obtain informed consent from only those patients randomized to the experimental (as opposed to the standard treatment) arm. More recently, the proposal has been made to allow waiver of informed consent for study of patients in emergency circumstances who may be temporarily incapable of providing such consent, and for whom no family member is immediately available to give a "proxy" consent (Biros M.H. et al. JAMA 1995; 273:1283-1287). The medical community and federal regulatory policy have responded differently to these proposals.

  16. Food safety: current situation, unaddressed issues and the emerging priorities.

    PubMed

    Elmi, M

    2004-11-01

    This paper reviews the topic of food safety with reference to the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The differing views of food safety and the current situation with regard to ensuring food safety are presented. Also discussed are some of the unaddressed issues and challenges related to food safety. The new conditions that have arisen in the modern world which have facilitated the emergence of pathogens are presented, such as changes in animal husbandry, changes in international trade and travel, lifestyle and consumer changes. The urgent need for action in order to reduce the risk of microbiological and chemical foodborne diseases is emphasized. The food chain starts from farm and ends at fork; controlling this complex process requires an integrated approach and a responsible authority to oversee it in order to protect and promote food safety.

  17. CMOS reliability issues for emerging cryogenic Lunar electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tianbing; Zhu, Chendong; Najafizadeh, Laleh; Jun, Bongim; Ahmed, Adnan; Diestelhorst, Ryan; Espinel, Gustavo; Cressler, John D.

    2006-06-01

    We investigate the reliability issues associated with the application of CMOS devices contained within an advanced SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology to emerging cryogenic space electronics (e.g., down to 43 K, for Lunar missions). Reduced temperature operation improves CMOS device performance (e.g., transconductance, carrier mobility, subthreshold swing, and output current drive), as expected. However, operation at cryogenic temperatures also causes serious device reliability concerns, since it aggravates hot-carrier effects, effectively decreasing the inferred device lifetime significantly, especially at short gate lengths. In the paper, hot-carrier effects are demonstrated to be a stronger function of the device gate length than the temperature, suggesting that significant trade-offs between the gate length and the operational temperature must be made in order to ensure safe and reliable operation over typical projected mission lifetimes in these hostile environments.

  18. Emerging health issues: the widening challenge for population health promotion.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J; Butler, Colin D

    2006-12-01

    The spectrum of tasks for health promotion has widened since the Ottawa Charter was signed. In 1986, infectious diseases still seemed in retreat, the potential extent of HIV/AIDS was unrecognized, the Green Revolution was at its height and global poverty appeared less intractable. Global climate change had not yet emerged as a major threat to development and health. Most economists forecast continuous improvement, and chronic diseases were broadly anticipated as the next major health issue. Today, although many broadly averaged measures of population health have improved, many of the determinants of global health have faltered. Many infectious diseases have emerged; others have unexpectedly reappeared. Reasons include urban crowding, environmental changes, altered sexual relations, intensified food production and increased mobility and trade. Foremost, however, is the persistence of poverty and the exacerbation of regional and global inequality. Life expectancy has unexpectedly declined in several countries. Rather than being a faint echo from an earlier time of hardship, these declines could signify the future. Relatedly, the demographic and epidemiological transitions have faltered. In some regions, declining fertility has overshot that needed for optimal age structure, whereas elsewhere mortality increases have reduced population growth rates, despite continuing high fertility. Few, if any, Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including those for health and sustainability, seem achievable. Policy-makers generally misunderstand the link between environmental sustainability (MDG #7) and health. Many health workers also fail to realize that social cohesion and sustainability--maintenance of the Earth's ecological and geophysical systems--is a necessary basis for health. In sum, these issues present an enormous challenge to health. Health promotion must address population health influences that transcend national boundaries and generations and engage with the

  19. Emerging Issues and Opportunities in Health Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Elizabeth A; Lentz, Lisa Korin; Winckworth-Prejsnar, Katherine; Abernethy, Amy P; Carlson, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    When used effectively, health information technology (HIT) can transform clinical care and contribute to new research discoveries. Despite advances in HIT and increased electronic health record adoption, many challenges to optimal use, interoperability, and data sharing exist. Data standardization across systems is limited, and scanned medical note documents result in unstructured data that make reporting on quality measures for reimbursement burdensome. Different policies and initiatives, including the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act, and the National Cancer Moonshot initiative, among others, all recognize the impact that HIT can have on cancer care. Given the growing role HIT plays in health care, it is vital to have effective and efficient HIT systems that can exchange information, collect credible data that is analyzable at the point of care, and improves the patient-provider relationship. In June 2016, NCCN hosted the Emerging Issues and Opportunities in Health Information Technology Policy Summit. The summit addressed challenges, issues, and opportunities in HIT as they relate to cancer care. Keynote presentations and panelists discussed moving beyond Meaningful Use, HIT readiness to support and report on quality care, the role of HIT in precision medicine, the role of HIT in the National Cancer Moonshot initiative, and leveraging HIT to improve quality of clinical care.

  20. The cost of emergency obstetric care: concepts and issues.

    PubMed

    Desai, J

    2003-04-01

    Emergency obstetric care (EmOC), like any health intervention, requires resources, and resources are almost always limited. This forces decision makers to take into account the costs (and effectiveness) of EmOC provision and compare them with the costs (and effectiveness) of other health interventions. This is not inordinately complicated, but it does require paying attention to the fact that EmOC services require different types of inputs and are produced in facilities that also provide other health care services. This paper discusses the basic concepts underlying the costing of EmOC services, and the essential issues one must take into account while assessing the cost-effectiveness of EmOC interventions. A definition of EmOC provision cost is offered and then explained by progressively refining a simple measure of expenditures on all that is used to provide EmOC services. Thereupon the process of collecting cost data and calculating costs is outlined using a simple spreadsheet format, and issues related to the analysis of costs and cost-effectiveness are discussed.

  1. Emotion theory and research: highlights, unanswered questions, and emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Izard, Carroll E

    2009-01-01

    Emotion feeling is a phase of neurobiological activity, the key component of emotions and emotion-cognition interactions. Emotion schemas, the most frequently occurring emotion experiences, are dynamic emotion-cognition interactions that may consist of momentary/situational responding or enduring traits of personality that emerge over developmental time. Emotions play a critical role in the evolution of consciousness and the operations of all mental processes. Types of emotion relate differentially to types or levels of consciousness. Unbridled imagination and the ability for sympathetic regulation of empathy may represent both potential gains and losses from the evolution and ontogeny of emotion processes and consciousness. Unresolved issues include psychology's neglect of levels of consciousness that are distinct from access or reflective consciousness and use of the term "unconscious mind" as a dumpster for all mental processes that are considered unreportable. The relation of memes and the mirror neuron system to empathy, sympathy, and cultural influences on the development of socioemotional skills are unresolved issues destined to attract future research.

  2. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

  3. Emotion Theory and Research: Highlights, Unanswered Questions, and Emerging Issues

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Carroll E.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion feeling is a phase of neurobiological activity, the key component of emotions and emotion-cognition interactions. Emotion schemas, the most frequently occurring emotion experiences, are dynamic emotion-cognition interactions that may consist of momentary/ situational responding or enduring traits of personality that emerge over developmental time. Emotions play a critical role in the evolution of consciousness and the operations of all mental processes. Types of emotion relate differentially to types or levels of consciousness. Unbridled imagination and the ability for sympathetic regulation of empathy may represent both potential gains and losses from the evolution and ontogeny of emotion processes and consciousness. Unresolved issues include psychology’s neglect of levels of consciousness that are distinct from access or reflective consciousness and use of the term “unconscious mind” as a dumpster for all mental processes that are considered unreportable. The relation of memes and the mirror neuron system to empathy, sympathy, and cultural influences on the development of socioemotional skills are unresolved issues destined to attract future research. PMID:18729725

  4. Industrial Accidents Triggered by Natural Hazards: an Emerging Risk Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Basco, Anna; Salzano, Ernesto; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-05-01

    Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding or hurricanes have recently and dramatically hit several countries worldwide. Both direct and indirect consequences involved the population, causing on the one hand a high number of fatalities and on the other hand so relevant economical losses that the national gross product may be affected for many years. Loss of critical industrial infrastructures (electricity generation and distribution, gas pipelines, oil refineries, etc.) also occurred, causing further indirect damage to the population. In several cases, accident scenarios with large releases of hazardous materials were triggered by these natural events, causing so-called "Natech events", in which the overall damage resulted from the simultaneous consequences of the natural event and of the release of hazardous substances. Toxic releases, large fires and explosions, as well as possible long-term environmental pollution, economical losses, and overloading of emergency systems were recognised by post-event studies as the main issues of these Natech scenarios. In recent years the increasing frequency and severity of some natural hazards due to climate change has slowly increased the awareness of Natech risk as an emerging risk among the stakeholders. Indeed, the iNTeg-Risk project, co-funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Program specifically addresses these scenarios among new technological issues on public safety. The present study, in part carried out within the iNTeg-Risk project, was aimed at the analysis and further development of methods and tools for the assessment and mitigation of Natech accidents. Available tools and knowledge gaps in the assessment of Natech scenarios were highlighted. The analysis mainly addressed the potential impact of flood, lightning and earthquake events on industrial installations where hazardous substances are present. Preliminary screening methodologies and more detailed methods based on

  5. Identifying emerging issues in forestry as a tool for research planning.

    Treesearch

    Hans M. Gregersen; Allen L. Lundgren; Pamela J. Jakes; David N. Bengston

    1989-01-01

    A Delphi exercise is used to identify emerging issues in National Forest management and use, the relative importance of the issues, and barriers to resolving issues. USDA Forest Service managers agree on the importance of the 11 issues identified; however, researchers and National Forest managers do not always agree on the importance of issues or barriers.

  6. Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Mattie, David R.

    2011-07-15

    The US Air Force wrote the specification for the first official hydrocarbon-based jet fuel, JP-4, in 1951. This paper will briefly review the toxicity of the current fuel, JP-8, as compared to JP-4. JP-8 has been found to have low acute toxicity with the adverse effects being slight dermal irritation and weak dermal sensitization in animals. JP-4 also has low acute toxicity with slight dermal irritation as the adverse effect. Respiratory tract sensory irritation was greater in JP-8 than in JP-4. Recent data suggest exposure to jet fuel may contribute to hearing loss. Subchronic studies for 90 days with JP-8 and JP-4 showed little toxicity with the primary effect being male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A 1-year study was conducted for JP-4. The only tumors seen were associated with the male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A number of immunosuppressive effects have been seen after exposure to JP-8. Limited neurobehavioral effects have been associated with JP-8. JP-8 is not a developmental toxicant and has little reproductive toxicity. JP-4 has not been tested for immune, neurobehavioral or reproductive endpoints. JP-8 and JP-4 were negative in mutagenicity tests but JP-4 showed an increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis. Currently, JP-8 is being used as the standard for comparison of future fuels, including alternative fuels. Emerging issues of concern with jet fuels include naphthalene content, immunotoxicity and inhalation exposure characterization and modeling of complex mixtures such as jet fuels.

  7. Agriculture: Critical issues in planning for an effective radiological emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerton, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper highlights the significant agricultural issues involved in an effective emergency response to radiation accidents. Topics included are the following: planning for ingestion exercises; ingestion pathway exercise issues of concern; recovering from an emergency - the critical issues often not sufficently address in an exercise including social, political and economic.

  8. Ethical issues in pediatric emergency mass critical care.

    PubMed

    Antommaria, Armand H Matheny; Powell, Tia; Miller, Jennifer E; Christian, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    As a result of recent events, including natural disasters and pandemics, mass critical care planning has become a priority. In general, planning involves limiting the scope of disasters, increasing the supply of medical resources, and allocating scarce resources. Entities at varying levels have articulated ethical frameworks to inform policy development. In spite of this increased focus, children have received limited attention. Children require special attention because of their unique vulnerabilities and needs. In May 2008, the Task Force for Mass Critical Care published guidance on provision of mass critical care to adults. Acknowledging that the critical care needs of children during disasters were unaddressed by this effort, a 17-member Steering Committee, assembled by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education with guidance from members of the American Academy of Pediatrics, convened in April 2009 to determine priority topic areas for pediatric emergency mass critical care recommendations.Steering Committee members established subgroups by topic area and performed literature reviews of MEDLINE and Ovid databases. Draft documents were subsequently developed and revised based on the feedback from the Task Force. The Pediatric Emergency Mass Critical Care Task Force, composed of 36 experts from diverse public health, medical, and disaster response fields, convened in Atlanta, GA, on March 29-30, 2010. This document reflects expert input from the Task Force in addition to the most current medical literature. The Ethics Subcommittee recommends that surge planning seek to provide resources for children in proportion to their percentage of the population or preferably, if data are available, the percentage of those affected by the disaster. Generally, scarce resources should be allocated on the basis of need, benefit, and the conservation of resources. Estimates of need, benefit, and resource utilization may be more subjective or objective. While the

  9. 2008 Meeting in Germany: Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Current Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that are currently of concern to the U.S. EPA and to other agencies. Emerging contaminants include drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), perfluorinated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, benzo...

  10. 2008 Meeting in Germany: Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Current Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that are currently of concern to the U.S. EPA and to other agencies. Emerging contaminants include drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), perfluorinated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, benzo...

  11. Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Mattie, David R; Sterner, Teresa R

    2011-07-15

    The US Air Force wrote the specification for the first official hydrocarbon-based jet fuel, JP-4, in 1951. This paper will briefly review the toxicity of the current fuel, JP-8, as compared to JP-4. JP-8 has been found to have low acute toxicity with the adverse effects being slight dermal irritation and weak dermal sensitization in animals. JP-4 also has low acute toxicity with slight dermal irritation as the adverse effect. Respiratory tract sensory irritation was greater in JP-8 than in JP-4. Recent data suggest exposure to jet fuel may contribute to hearing loss. Subchronic studies for 90 days with JP-8 and JP-4 showed little toxicity with the primary effect being male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A 1-year study was conducted for JP-4. The only tumors seen were associated with the male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A number of immunosuppressive effects have been seen after exposure to JP-8. Limited neurobehavioral effects have been associated with JP-8. JP-8 is not a developmental toxicant and has little reproductive toxicity. JP-4 has not been tested for immune, neurobehavioral or reproductive endpoints. JP-8 and JP-4 were negative in mutagenicity tests but JP-4 showed an increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis. Currently, JP-8 is being used as the standard for comparison of future fuels, including alternative fuels. Emerging issues of concern with jet fuels include naphthalene content, immunotoxicity and inhalation exposure characterization and modeling of complex mixtures such as jet fuels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Incredible Years Parent and Teacher Programmes: Emerging Themes and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherall, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the Incredible Years Parent and Teacher Programmes that have originated from the work of Webster-Stratton. It provides a brief background on the programmes and a critical analysis of the issues as identified in current literature. The issues can be grouped into four main categories, the first being government decision-making…

  13. Emerging Issues in School, Family, & Community Connections. Annual Synthesis 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Catherine; Orozco, Evangelina; Averett, Amy

    2002-01-01

    This research synthesis is the first in a series that will examine key issues in the field of family and community connections with schools. The issues highlighted in this synthesis represent critical areas of work in family and community connections with schools where clarification, agreement, and further development are needed, as well as…

  14. Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current polic...

  15. Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues, 2008 Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2006-2007. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2008 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current polic...

  16. MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  17. MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  18. MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  19. Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2010 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in environmental mass spectrometry for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of 2008-2009. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2010 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current polic...

  20. MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

  1. MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  2. MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  3. MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  4. Emerging Issues and Models in College Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Ben; Wallace, David; Brunner, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of the psychological issues facing today's college students, information about students receiving mental health services, and an evidence-based model describing the practice and functions of today's counseling centers.

  5. Emerging Issues and Models in College Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Ben; Wallace, David; Brunner, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of the psychological issues facing today's college students, information about students receiving mental health services, and an evidence-based model describing the practice and functions of today's counseling centers.

  6. Emerging Issues from New Product Development in Food Manufacturing Industries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-19

    and powerful firms have raised concerns about food industry struc- ture and perfoLmance. We made this study to examine the nature and magnitude of the...changes taking place in the industry and to identify issues which relate to them. We did not attempt to provide resolution of the issues nor did we...makers in analyzing the performance of the food manufacturing industry . Most of the information presented in our study was gathered from published sources

  7. Nanomedicine-emerging or re-emerging ethical issues? A discussion of four ethical themes.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Christian; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2007-06-01

    Nanomedicine plays a prominent role among emerging technologies. The spectrum of potential applications is as broad as it is promising. It includes the use of nanoparticles and nanodevices for diagnostics, targeted drug delivery in the human body, the production of new therapeutic materials as well as nanorobots or nanoprotheses. Funding agencies are investing large sums in the development of this area, among them the European Commission, which has launched a large network for life-sciences related nanotechnology. At the same time government agencies as well as the private sector are putting forward reports of working groups that have looked into the promises and risks of these developments. This paper will begin with an introduction to the central ethical themes as identified by selected reports from Europe and beyond. In a next step, it will analyse the most frequently invoked ethical concerns-risk assessment and management, the issues of human identity and enhancement, possible implications for civil liberties (e.g. nanodevices that might be used for covert surveillance), and concerns about equity and fair access. Although it seems that the main ethical issues are not unique to nanotechnologies, the conclusion will argue against shrugging them off as non-specific items that have been considered before in the context of other biomedical technologies, such as gene therapy or xenotransplantation. Rather, the paper will call on ethicists to help foster a rational, fair and participatory discourse on the different potential applications of nanotechnologies in medicine, which can form the basis for informed and responsible societal and political decisions.

  8. Emergent Literacy: An Early Reading and Writing Concept. Issues in Adult Literacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The ERIC Review, 1991

    1991-01-01

    "The ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This second issue contains three principal articles: "Issues in Adult Literacy Education," by JoAnn Crandall and Susan Imel; "Emergent Literacy: An Early Reading and Writing Concept," by Carl B. Smith;…

  9. Some Issues in Emergency Management. Public Views in 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    202) 775-0177 Martha Williams, Ph.D. Coordinated Science Laboratory 1101 Springfield Avenue University of Illinois Urbana , IL 61801 Chuck Wilton...Emergency Planning Canada Gillin Building 141 Laurier Avenue, West Ottawa K1AOW6 Ontario, CANADA Carlo Pelanda Istituto di Sociologia Internazionale

  10. The Community College Baccalaureate: Emerging Trends and Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Deborah L.; Skolnik, Michael L.; Walker, Kenneth P.

    2005-01-01

    This book analyzes the emerging trend of the community college baccalaureate degree in the United States and Canada in order to contribute to the development of policy. The authors aim to describe, document, and explain this significant development in higher education. They present the background, examples of practice and different models of…

  11. Water Analysis: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2009 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Water Analysis for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2007-2008. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2009 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current policy is to limit rev...

  12. Emergency Preparedness: Issues for the Year 2000 and Beyond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    Defense Subcommittee Policy Coordinating Committees on Emergency Preparedness and Mobilization Planning. 29. Ibid. 30. George H. Orrell, "Current...Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. Basin Books, NY, 1988, p. 10. 33. Ibid, p. 216. 34. Ibid, p. 392. 35. Ibid, p. 392. 36. Alvin Toffler, Powershift. Danton Books, New York, 1990, p. 172. 31

  13. The Community College Baccalaureate: Emerging Trends and Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Deborah L.; Skolnik, Michael L.; Walker, Kenneth P.

    2005-01-01

    This book analyzes the emerging trend of the community college baccalaureate degree in the United States and Canada in order to contribute to the development of policy. The authors aim to describe, document, and explain this significant development in higher education. They present the background, examples of practice and different models of…

  14. Water Analysis: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues (2009 Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Water Analysis for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2007-2008. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2009 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current policy is to limit rev...

  15. National and Rural Housing Policy. Historical Development and Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, William J.; And Others

    This report traces the historical development of federal housing policy that has promoted a 40% decline in substandard housing and a 20% increase in homeownership over the past 50 years. It presents emerging national and rural housing policy concerns: the proper role of federal, state, and local governments in the mortgage credit and insurance…

  16. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    nanotechnolgies and nanosciences report has been issued by the Innovation Society Ltd., an independent consulting company, based at the Technology Centre of...foodproductiondaily.com/news/ng.asp?n=67935- nanotechnolgy -fsa-novel Germany Begins Risk Survey on Nanotechnology http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/news

  17. Needs of Displaced Students Emerge as Issue for Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    As schools scrambled to absorb hundreds of thousands of students displaced by Hurricane Katrina, experts urged administrators to consider and plan for a host of academic and emotional issues that could come along with them. Education researchers and experts in psychology recognize that school leaders may feel overwhelmed by the demands of…

  18. Youth with Mental Health Disorders: Issues and Emerging Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocozza, Joseph J.; Skowyra, Kathleen R.

    2000-01-01

    The mental health needs of youth in the juvenile justice system have received more attention at the federal level in the past 2 years than in the past three decades combined. The importance of the mental health issue is also being recognized at the state level. A number of factors have contributed to this change. They include: growing recognition…

  19. Advances and emerging issues in national forest inventories

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Erkki O. Tomppo; Erik. Naesset

    2010-01-01

    National forest inventories (NFIs) have a long history, although their current major features date only to the early years of the twentieth century. Recent issues such as concern over the effects of acid deposition, biodiversity, forest sustainability, increased demand for forest data, international reporting requirements and climate change have led to the expansion of...

  20. School Finance Reform: Emerging Issues and Needed Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    This article discusses several relatively new issues involved in current debates over education finance policies, notes the research related to them, and summarizes the areas for which additional research is needed. The areas discussed are the impacts of school finance reform, school district financial behavior, the impact of school finance reform…

  1. Needs of Displaced Students Emerge as Issue for Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    As schools scrambled to absorb hundreds of thousands of students displaced by Hurricane Katrina, experts urged administrators to consider and plan for a host of academic and emotional issues that could come along with them. Education researchers and experts in psychology recognize that school leaders may feel overwhelmed by the demands of…

  2. Issues, considerations and recommendations on emergency preparedness for vulnerable population groups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wilkinson, Diana; Richardson, Richard B; Waruszynski, Barbara

    2009-06-01

    The Workshop on Emergency Preparedness for Vulnerable Population Groups was held on 2 and 3 March 2009 in Ottawa, ON, Canada. The purpose of the workshop was to enhance communications within the emergency community response network and to identify the needs and gaps of emergency preparedness against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives events for vulnerable population groups. The workshop was organised to enable extensive round-table discussions and provide a summary of key issues, considerations and recommendations for emergency response planners.

  3. Emerging issues and future needs in humanitarian assistance.

    PubMed

    VanRooyen, M J; Hansch, S; Curtis, D; Burnham, G

    2001-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been tremendous investment in the ability to intervene in disaster settings, and significant barriers remain to providing appropriate services to populations affected by natural and man-made calamities. Many of the barriers to providing effective assistance exist within the NGO community, and illustrate emerging needs for international agencies. These emerging needs include improving methods of recipient participation to promote the local health system, developing improved methods for quality assurance, enhancing options for personnel development, and addressing long-term needs of reconstruction and rehabilitation. Relief agencies face challenges on all levels to develop sound practices in providing humanitarian assistance that can lead to long-term benefits to populations affected by disaster.

  4. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    concentration phosphate deposits are laced with radioactive elements like uranium and thorium , or heavy metals like cadmium, environmental concerns might...New measures emerge for measuring carbon emissions, both corporate and municipal http://www.smartplanet.com/business/blog/business- brains /new...Production to End of Life o Nanotechnology Regulation: Policies Proposed by Three Organizations for the Reform of the Toxic Substances Control Act

  5. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Cooperation in Africa to Counter Wildlife Trafficking……………………7 6.6 Bioethics Commission Calls for Enhanced Federal Oversight of Synthetic Biology…...7...6.6 Bioethics Commission Calls for Enhanced Federal Oversight of Synthetic Biology The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues...Commission on Bioethics calls for enhanced federal oversight of synthetic biology http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=19449.php New Directions -The

  6. Commercialization and Stem Cell Research: A Review of Emerging Issues

    PubMed Central

    Burningham, Sarah; Ollenberger, Adam; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Stem cell researchers face pressure to develop therapies that will reach the clinic within a short period of time. Yet, this pressure may be unrealistic, as bringing stem cell innovations to the clinic will likely require significant time and financial investment. In a variety of biomedical fields, some evidence suggests that commercialization pressures and strategies may negatively impact research. These negative impacts may also be felt in the field of stem cell research, unless the challenges and issues are addressed in the design and implementation of commercialization policies. Further inquiry into the impact of commercialization on the field of stem cell research is required. PMID:24304081

  7. Commercialization and stem cell research: a review of emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Burningham, Sarah; Ollenberger, Adam; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-12-01

    Stem cell researchers face pressure to develop therapies that will reach the clinic within a short period of time. Yet, this pressure may be unrealistic, as bringing stem cell innovations to the clinic will likely require significant time and financial investment. In a variety of biomedical fields, some evidence suggests that commercialization pressures and strategies may negatively impact research. These negative impacts may also be felt in the field of stem cell research, unless the challenges and issues are addressed in the design and implementation of commercialization policies. Further inquiry into the impact of commercialization on the field of stem cell research is required.

  8. Chemical mutagenesis: an emerging issue for public health.

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, L D; Barry, P Z

    1977-01-01

    Chemical mutagens are recognized as prevalent in the environment and a potential threat to the health of future generations. This paper presents an overview of chemical mutagenesis as an issue for public health. Several problems in the determination of risk to human populations are discussed, including difficulties of extrapolating scientific data to humans, the latency period between exposure and recognizable genetic damage, and the large number of chemicals which must be tested. Test systems are described. Possibilities of control through federal regulation are discussed. PMID:911015

  9. Emerging issues in the evolution of animal nuptial gifts

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Sara M.; Vahed, Karim; Koene, Joris M.; Engqvist, Leif; Bussière, Luc F.; Perry, Jennifer C.; Gwynne, Darryl; Lehmann, Gerlind U. C.

    2014-01-01

    Uniquely positioned at the intersection of sexual selection, nutritional ecology and life-history theory, nuptial gifts are widespread and diverse. Despite extensive empirical study, we still have only a rudimentary understanding of gift evolution because we lack a unified conceptual framework for considering these traits. In this opinion piece, we tackle several issues that we believe have substantively hindered progress in this area. Here, we: (i) present a comprehensive definition and classification scheme for nuptial gifts (including those transferred by simultaneous hermaphrodites), (ii) outline evolutionary predictions for different gift types, and (iii) highlight some research directions to help facilitate progress in this field. PMID:25030043

  10. Medicaid and Health Information: Current and Emerging Legal Issues

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Sara; MacTaggart, Patricia; Borzi, Phyllis C.

    2006-01-01

    Legal questions are an inevitable byproduct of significant technology change in health care such as that underway as a result of health information technology (HIT). This article examines several important existing and emerging legal questions in a Medicaid context. First, do the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and State Medicaid agencies, have a fiduciary obligation to adopt and fully use health information technology given its potential to improve health care quality while reducing racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in health and health care? Second, how can Medicaid privacy standards be reconciled with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy rule? Third, what actual or perceived legal barriers exist to ensuring that Medicaid information is interoperable with data produced under critical health care, educational, and social programs from which beneficiaries are simultaneously receiving care? PMID:17427842

  11. Issues and updates in emerging neurologic viral infections.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael R; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2011-07-01

    This review discusses the recent advances in the identification of viral pathogens and other etiologies responsible for cases of suspected viral encephalitis. The authors describe new molecular diagnostic strategies for identifying novel causes of viral encephalitis, including MassTag PCR, DNA microarrays, and high-throughput DNA pyrosequencing. They also highlight the increasing recognition of immune-mediated causes of encephalitis among those cases previously thought to be viral encephalitis of unknown etiology. Lastly, they review some of the most recent updates in the field of emerging neurologic viral infections impacting the United States, including the neurologic complications of H1N1 virus and the reemergence of dengue virus in the Florida Keys.

  12. Emerging clinical issues and multivariate analyses in PET investigations.

    PubMed

    Arbizu, Javier; Giuliani, Alessandro; Gállego Perez-Larraya, Jaime; Riverol, Mario; Jonsson, Cathrine; García-García, Berta; Morales, Maribel; Imaz, Laura; Pagani, Marco

    2017-12-01

    PET using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET) has been gradually introduced in the diagnostic clinical criteria of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, an increasing amount of literature has shown that the information provided by FDG-PET enhances the sensitivity of standard imaging biomarkers in less frequent disorders in which an early differential diagnosis can be of paramount relevance for patient management and outcome. Therefore emerging uses of FDG-PET may be important in prion diseases, autoimmune encephalitis (AE) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Interestingly, FDG-PET findings can also be observed in the early phases of these conditions, even in the presence of normal magnetic resonance imaging scans. Thalamic hypometabolism is a common finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease and fatal familiar insomnia patients, with further cortical synaptic dysfunction in the former. Limbic and extra-limbic metabolic abnormalities (more often hypermetabolism) can be observed in AE, although specific patterns may be seen within different syndromes associated with antibodies that target neuronal surface or synaptic antigens. FDG-PET shows its usefulness by discriminating patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated to upper motor neuron onset that evolve to frontotemporal dementia. Besides visual and voxel based image analysis, multivariate analysis as interregional correlation analysis and independent/principal component analysis have been successfully implemented to PET images increasing the accuracy of the discrimination of neurodegenerative diseases. The clinical presentation and current diagnostic criteria of these neurologic disorders as well as the emerging usefulness of FDG-PET in the diagnostic workup are presented and discussed in this review.

  13. 21 CFR 211.82 - Receipt and storage of untested components, drug product containers, and closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt and storage of untested components, drug product containers, and closures. 211.82 Section 211.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  14. 21 CFR 211.82 - Receipt and storage of untested components, drug product containers, and closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Receipt and storage of untested components, drug product containers, and closures. 211.82 Section 211.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  15. 21 CFR 211.82 - Receipt and storage of untested components, drug product containers, and closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Receipt and storage of untested components, drug product containers, and closures. 211.82 Section 211.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  16. 21 CFR 211.82 - Receipt and storage of untested components, drug product containers, and closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Receipt and storage of untested components, drug product containers, and closures. 211.82 Section 211.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  17. Partial Testing Can Potentiate Learning of Tested and Untested Material from Multimedia Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Carole L.; Soderstrom, Nicholas C.; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-01-01

    Test-potentiated learning occurs when testing renders a subsequent study period more effective than it would have been without an intervening test. We examined whether testing only a subset of material from a multimedia lesson would potentiate the restudy of both tested and untested material. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants studied a…

  18. Impact on arsenic exposure of a growing proportion of untested wells in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In many areas of Bangladesh, it has been more than six years since a national campaign to test tubewells for arsenic (As) was conducted. Many households therefore draw their water for drinking and cooking from untested wells. Methods A household drinking water survey of 6646 households was conducted in Singair upazilla of Bangladesh. A subset of 795 untested wells used by 1000 randomly selected households was tested in the field by trained village workers with the Hach EZ kit, using an extended reaction time of 40 min, and in the laboratory by high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS). Results The household survey shows that more than 80% of the wells installed since the national testing campaign in this area were untested. Less than 13% of the households with untested wells knew where a low-As well was located near their home. Village workers using the Hach EZ kit underestimated the As content of only 4 out of 795 wells relative to the Bangladesh standard. However, the As content of 168 wells was overestimated relative to the same threshold. Conclusion There is a growing need for testing tubewells in areas of Bangladesh where As concentrations in groundwater are elevated. This could be achieved by village workers trained to use a reliable field kit. Such an effort would result in a considerable drop in As exposure as it increases the opportunities for well switching by households. PMID:22353180

  19. Partial Testing Can Potentiate Learning of Tested and Untested Material from Multimedia Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Carole L.; Soderstrom, Nicholas C.; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-01-01

    Test-potentiated learning occurs when testing renders a subsequent study period more effective than it would have been without an intervening test. We examined whether testing only a subset of material from a multimedia lesson would potentiate the restudy of both tested and untested material. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants studied a…

  20. The Untested Accusation: Principals, Research Knowledge, and Policy Making in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Bruce J.; Saha, Lawrence J.

    2005-01-01

    This book is a report of a systematic study based on interviews with 120 school principals that addresses questions about the utilization of knowledge from social research. It offers evidence that challenges allegations about the "awful reputation" of educational research and its supposed lack of impact. The Untested Accusation: (1)…

  1. Emerging issues in the evolution of animal nuptial gifts.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sara M; Vahed, Karim; Koene, Joris M; Engqvist, Leif; Bussière, Luc F; Perry, Jennifer C; Gwynne, Darryl; Lehmann, Gerlind U C

    2014-07-01

    Uniquely positioned at the intersection of sexual selection, nutritional ecology and life-history theory, nuptial gifts are widespread and diverse. Despite extensive empirical study, we still have only a rudimentary understanding of gift evolution because we lack a unified conceptual framework for considering these traits. In this opinion piece, we tackle several issues that we believe have substantively hindered progress in this area. Here, we: (i) present a comprehensive definition and classification scheme for nuptial gifts (including those transferred by simultaneous hermaphrodites), (ii) outline evolutionary predictions for different gift types, and (iii) highlight some research directions to help facilitate progress in this field. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. [Excessive Internet use and Internet addiction: emerging public health issues.].

    PubMed

    Coniglio, Maria Anna; Muni, Viviana; Giammanco, Giuseppe; Pignato, Sarina

    2007-01-01

    A survey was performed among students of various faculties at the University of Catania (Italy) to examine the health effects of excessive Internet use and behaviour patterns of Internet dependency. Three hundred students were recruited through a non probabilistic quota sampling method and were asked to complete a questionnaire aimed at identifying attitudes and behaviours regarding Internet use, and the psychological and physical consequences of excessive use of the Internet. The most relevant findings that emerged from student responses regard: emotional dependency on the Internet (5% of students believe that Internet facilitates social relationships, 4% experiences euphoric feelings or excitement while on-line, 1% consider the Internet as a way of escaping from real life), the excessive amount of time spent on-line (8%) and the inability to end an on-line session(8%), lying to family members to conceal the nature of involvement with the Internet (3%), giving up sports (2%) or meals (1%), the negative impact on school grades (3%), lack of sleep (4%), and physical health problems such as backache (2%), arm or wrist pain (2%), vision disturbances (6%).

  3. Emerging technologies and fourth generation issues in cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michael W; Ackerman, George; Dines, Joshua S; Grande, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    The goals of successful cartilage repair include reducing pain, improving symptoms, and long-term function; preventing early osteoarthritis and subsequent total knee replacements; and rebuilding hyaline cartilage instead of fibrous tissue. Current methods such as microfracture, osteoarticular autograft transfer system, mosaicplasty, and autologous chondrocyte implantation are somewhat successful in regenerating cartilage; however, they also have significant limitations. The future of fourth generation cartilage repair focuses on gene therapy, the use of stem cells (bone marrow, adipose, or muscle derived), and tissue engineering. Emerging techniques include creating elastin-like polymers derived from native elastin sequences to serve as biocompatible scaffolds; using hydrogels to obtain a homogeneous distribution of cells within a 3-dimensional matrix; and using nonviral gene delivery via nucleofection to allow mesenchymal stem cells the ability to express osteogenic growth factors. Although many of the techniques mentioned have yet to be used in a cartilage regeneration model, we have tried to anticipate how methods used in other specialties may facilitate improved cartilage repair.

  4. Ethical issues of cardiopulmonary resuscitation: current practice among emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Marco, C A; Bessman, E S; Schoenfeld, C N; Kelen, G D

    1997-09-01

    To determine current practice and attitudes among emergency physicians (EPs) regarding the initiation and termination of CPR. An anonymous survey was mailed to randomly selected EPs. Main outcome measures included respondents' answers to questions regarding outcome of resuscitation, and current practice regarding initiation, continuation, and termination of resuscitation for victims of cardiopulmonary arrest. The 1,252 respondents were from all 50 states, a variety of practice settings, and varying board certification. Most (78%) respondents honor legal advance directives regarding resuscitation. Few (7%) follow unofficial documents, or verbal reports of advance directives (6%). Many (62%) make decisions regarding resuscitation because of fear of litigation or criticism. A majority (55%) have recently attempted numerous resuscitations despite expectations that such efforts would be futile. Most respondents indicated that ideally, legal concerns should not influence physician practice regarding resuscitation (78%), but that in the current environment, legal concerns do influence practice (94%). Most EPs attempt to resuscitate patients in cardiopulmonary arrest, regardless of futility, except in cases where a legal advance directive is available. Many EPs' decisions regarding resuscitation are based on concerns of litigation and criticism, rather than their professional judgment of medical benefit or futility. Compliance with patients' wishes regarding resuscitation is low unless a legal advance directive is present. Possible solutions to these problems may include standardized guidelines for the initiation and termination of CPR, tort reform, and additional public education regarding resuscitation and advance directives.

  5. Editorial: emerging issues in sociotechnical systems thinking and workplace safety

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Y. Ian; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Dainoff, Marvin J.; Carayon, Pascale; Leveson, Nancy G.; Robertson, Michelle M.; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of on-the-job accidents and fatalities and the harm of associated human suffering continue to present an important challenge for safety researchers and practitioners. While significant improvements have been achieved in recent decades, the workplace accident rate remains unacceptably high. This has spurred interest in the development of novel research approaches, with particular interest in the systemic influences of social/organisational and technological factors. In response, the Hopkinton Conference on Sociotechnical Systems and Safety was organised to assess the current state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. Over the course of several months prior to the conference, leading international experts drafted collaborative, state-of-the-art reviews covering various aspects of sociotechnical systems and safety. These papers, presented in this special issue, cover topics ranging from the identification of key concepts and definitions to sociotechnical characteristics of safe and unsafe organisations. This paper provides an overview of the conference and introduces key themes and topics. Practitioner Summary: Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety are intended to draw practitioners' attention to the critical influence that systemic social/organisational and technological factors exert on safety-relevant outcomes. This paper introduces major themes addressed in the Hopkinton Conference within the context of current workplace safety research and practice challenges. PMID:25819595

  6. Aging in Mexico: Population Trends and Emerging Issues.

    PubMed

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Vega, William; López-Ortega, Mariana

    2016-12-07

    Although all nations in the America's face a common demographic reality of longevity, declining fertility rates and changes in family roles a growing body of research points to a dramatic demographic transformation in Mexico. Although Mexico's population is relatively young, with a median age of 27.9 in 2015, it will age rapidly in coming years, increasing to 42 years by 2050. The rapid median age in the nation also reflects the growing proportion of people 65 or older, and is expected to triple to 20.2% by 2050. This article examines how the age and gender structure of Mexico offers important insights about current and future political and social stability, as well as economic development. Mexico is the world's eleventh largest country in terms of population size and the "demographic dividend" of a large youthful population is giving way to a growing older population that will inevitably place demands on health care and social security. The shift in age structure will result in increased dependency of retirees on the working-age population in the next 20 years. Mexico does not provide universal coverage of social security benefits and less than half of the labor force is covered by any pension or retirement plan. As a result, elderly Mexicans often continue working into old age. The high total poverty rate in the country, especially among the older population magnifies the problem of the potential dependency burden. The article ends with a discussion of key public policy issues related to aging in Mexico.

  7. Editorial: emerging issues in sociotechnical systems thinking and workplace safety.

    PubMed

    Noy, Y Ian; Hettinger, Lawrence J; Dainoff, Marvin J; Carayon, Pascale; Leveson, Nancy G; Robertson, Michelle M; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    The burden of on-the-job accidents and fatalities and the harm of associated human suffering continue to present an important challenge for safety researchers and practitioners. While significant improvements have been achieved in recent decades, the workplace accident rate remains unacceptably high. This has spurred interest in the development of novel research approaches, with particular interest in the systemic influences of social/organisational and technological factors. In response, the Hopkinton Conference on Sociotechnical Systems and Safety was organised to assess the current state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. Over the course of several months prior to the conference, leading international experts drafted collaborative, state-of-the-art reviews covering various aspects of sociotechnical systems and safety. These papers, presented in this special issue, cover topics ranging from the identification of key concepts and definitions to sociotechnical characteristics of safe and unsafe organisations. This paper provides an overview of the conference and introduces key themes and topics. Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety are intended to draw practitioners' attention to the critical influence that systemic social/organisational and technological factors exert on safety-relevant outcomes. This paper introduces major themes addressed in the Hopkinton Conference within the context of current workplace safety research and practice challenges.

  8. Emerging photovoltaic technologies: Environmental and health issues update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M.; Moskowitz, Paul D.

    1997-02-01

    New photovoltaic (PV) technologies promise low-cost, reliable PV modules and have the potential for significant PV penetration into the energy market. These prospects for commercialization have attracted renewed interest in the advantageous environmental impact of using PV and also in the potential environmental, health and safety (EHS) burdens in PV manufacturing and decommissioning. In this paper, we highlight recent studies on EHS issues: a) An integrated energy-environmental-economic analysis which shows that large-scale use of PV can significantly contribute to alleviating the greenhouse effect; in the United States alone, it could displace 450 million tons of carbon emissions by the year 2030, b) Recycling of the spent modules and scarp is economically feasible; current research centers on improving the efficiency and economics of recycling CdTe and CIS modules, c) Toxicological studies conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) compared the acute toxicity of CdTe, CIS, and CGS; CdTe was the most toxic, and CGS the least toxic of the three. Additional studies are now comparing the systemic toxicity of these compounds with the toxicity of their precursors.

  9. Preventable Errors in Organ Transplantation: An Emerging Patient Safety Issue?

    PubMed Central

    Ison, Michael G.; Holl, Jane L.; Ladner, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Several widely publicized errors in transplantation including a death due ABO incompatibility, two HIV transmissions and two HCV transmissions have raised concerns about medical errors in organ transplantation. The root cause analysis of each of these events revealed preventable failures in the systems and processes of care as the underlying causes. In each event, no standardized system or redundant process was in place to mitigate the failures that led to the error. Additional system and process vulnerabilities such as poor clinician communication, erroneous data transcription and transmission were also identified. Organ transplantation, because it is highly complex, often stresses the systems and processes of care and, therefore, offers a unique opportunity to proactively identify vulnerabilities and potential failures. Initial steps have been taken to understand such issues through the OPTN/UNOS Operations and Safety Committee, the Disease Transmission Advisory Committee (DTAC), and the current A2ALL ancillary Safety Study. However, to effectively improve patient safety in organ transplantation, the development of a process for reporting of preventable errors that affords protection and the support of empiric research are critical. Further, the transplant community needs to embrace the implementation of evidence-based system and process improvements that will mitigate existing safety vulnerabilities. PMID:22703471

  10. 75 FR 34704 - Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... COMMISSION COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory... (``CFTC'') (each, an ``Agency,'' and collectively, ``Agencies''). ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues. ] SUMMARY: The Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory...

  11. 75 FR 28667 - Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... COMMISSION COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory... (``CFTC'') (each, an ``Agency,'' and collectively, ``Agencies''). ACTION: Notice of meeting of Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues. SUMMARY: The Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory...

  12. Incorporating Chemical Hazards into an Emergency Management Plan. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on a chemical spill that went unreported for approximately seven years, setting off a series of responses from the school district's Environmental Health and Safety Department (EHS) and the state…

  13. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  14. Emerging Issues in the Utilization of Weblogs in Higher Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayao-ao, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the emerging issues in the utilization of weblogs in Philippine higher education and how these issues affect the performance of students. This study used a modified Delphi method. The Delphi panel consisted of 12 experts in the integration of technology, particularly blogs, in their teaching. The study yielded the following…

  15. Re: School Finance Reform: Emerging Issues and Needed Research. Occasional Paper #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    Several new school finance reform issues are emerging that require further analysis. The first issue is the impact of previous school finance reforms especially regarding their fiscal, programmatic, and governance effects. More analysis is also needed of the effects of the composition of the property tax base and the structure of state…

  16. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  17. EDITORIAL: Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverlag, Marco; Kroesen, Gerrit; Ferguson, Ian

    2011-06-01

    The papers in this special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (JPhysD) originate from the 12th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Light Sources and the 3rd International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting, held 11-16 July 2010 at Eindhoven University. Abstracts of all papers presented at this combined conference were published in the Conference Proceedings LS-WLED 2010 by FAST-LS, edited by M Haverlag, G M W Kroesen and T Taguchi. Special issues of the previous three LS conferences have been well-cited and have proven to be an important source of information for the lighting community. The 2010 LS-Symposium was a combined conference with the White LED Conference in order to enhance the scope of this conference series towards new light source technologies such as LEDs and OLEDs, and this co-operation will be continued in the future. Given the faster technology development in these areas it was also decided to shorten the interval between conferences from three to two years. Well over 200 invited presentations, landmark presentations and poster contributions were presented at the 2010 LS-Symposium. The organizing committee have selected from these a number of outstanding contributions with a high technological content and invited the authors to submit a full paper in JPhysD. The criteria were that the work should not be a repetition of the work already published in the Proceedings, but should be new, complete, within the scope of JPhysD, and meeting the normal quality standards of this journal. After peer review a combined set of 18 papers is published in this JPhysD special issue. In addition, a number of lighting-application-orientated papers will be published in a special issue of Journal of Light & Visual Environment later in 2011. The papers in this special issue of JPhysD show that research in the science and technology of light sources still covers a broad set of subject areas which includes both 'classical

  18. A 2017 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, William J; Barnard, Phoebe; Broad, Steven; Clout, Mick; Connor, Ben; Côté, Isabelle M; Dicks, Lynn V; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C; Fleishman, Erica; Fox, Marie; Gaston, Kevin J; Gibbons, David W; Jiang, Zhigang; Keim, Brandon; Lickorish, Fiona A; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Peck, Lloyd S; Pretty, Jules; Spalding, Mark D; Tonneijck, Femke H; Wintle, Bonnie C; Ockendon, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of our eighth annual horizon scan of emerging issues likely to affect global biological diversity, the environment, and conservation efforts in the future. The potential effects of these novel issues might not yet be fully recognized or understood by the global conservation community, and the issues can be regarded as both opportunities and risks. A diverse international team with collective expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, and conservation research, practice, and policy reviewed 100 potential issues and identified 15 that qualified as emerging, with potential substantial global effects. These issues include new developments in energy storage and fuel production, sand extraction, potential solutions to combat coral bleaching and invasive marine species, and blockchain technology.

  19. Uses of the Internet in post-emergency response: Some issues

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C.L.

    1998-09-01

    Can the Internet be of value in post-emergency response? The answer is yes, to judge by its use following the Kobe earthquake in Japan and the ice storms in the US and Canada last winter. This will not be a technical account of the Internet, but rather a quick look at some advantages, disadvantages, promising applications, and issues that may arise in using the Internet for post-emergency response.

  20. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump.

  1. Drug use as a driver of HIV Risks: Re-emerging and emerging issues

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Shaw, Stacey A.; Dasgupta, Anindita; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review We reviewed papers published in 2012–2013 that focused on re-emerging and emerging injection and non-injection drug use trends driving HIV risk behaviors and transmission in some parts of the world. Recent Findings While HIV incidence has declined in many countries, HIV epidemics remain at troubling levels among key drug using populations including females who inject drugs (FWID), FWID who trade sex, sex partners of people who inject drugs (SP-PWID), young PWID, and people who use non-injection drugs in a number of low- and middle- income countries such as in Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, and parts of Africa. Summary HIV epidemics occur within contexts of global economic and political forces, including poverty, human rights violations, discrimination, drug policies, trafficking, and other multi-level risk environments. Trends of injection and non-injection drug use and risk environments driving HIV epidemics in Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, and parts of Africa call for political will to improve HIV and substance use service delivery, access to combination HIV prevention, and harm reduction programs. PMID:24406532

  2. Emerging Trends and Critical Issues Affecting Private Fund-Raising among Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Karen Luke; Glass, Jr., J. Conrad

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and rank orders emerging trends and critical issues affecting private fund-raising among community colleges. Development officers representing 42 North Carolina community colleges participated in the study. The greatest number of participants identified trends related to business and industry, the need for private funds, and increased…

  3. Emergent Issues in Education: Comparative Perspectives. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnove, Robert F., Ed.; And Others

    This book reflects the field of comparative education as it has emerged in the 1990s. In a collection of 18 essays, leading scholars illuminate worldwide trends in critical issues that confront policymakers and practitioners in different national settings. Following the introduction by Robert F. Arnove, Philip G. Altbach, and Gail P. Kelly, part 1…

  4. Technology and Interactive Multimedia. Identifying Emerging Issues and Trends in Technology for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Ray

    As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the role of interactive multimedia, especially the digital, optical compact disc technologies, in providing instructional services to special education students. An overview identifies technological and economic trends,…

  5. The PPS Administrator as an Agent of Change. Emerging Issues in Pupil Personnel Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, Edward; Lifton, Walter M.

    In the article, "Emerging Issues in Pupil Personnel Services" (PPS), the problem of professional organization of PPS is discussed. Ground rules are given for developing large geographic units. The position of the community is next presented, the place of mental health, community aides, and institutions in a community. As Maslow points out, basic…

  6. Care of the Older Adult in the Emergency Department: Nurses Views of the Pressing Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltz, Marie; Parke, Belinda; Shuluk, Joseph; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Galvin, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses' views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile.…

  7. Care of the Older Adult in the Emergency Department: Nurses Views of the Pressing Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltz, Marie; Parke, Belinda; Shuluk, Joseph; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Galvin, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses' views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile.…

  8. VLSI Technology: Impact and Promise. Identifying Emerging Issues and Trends in Technology for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayoumi, Magdy

    As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the implications of very large scale integrated (VLSI) technology. The first section reviews the development of educational technology, particularly microelectronics technology, from the 1950s to the present. The implications…

  9. Emergent Issues in Education: Comparative Perspectives. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnove, Robert F., Ed.; And Others

    This book reflects the field of comparative education as it has emerged in the 1990s. In a collection of 18 essays, leading scholars illuminate worldwide trends in critical issues that confront policymakers and practitioners in different national settings. Following the introduction by Robert F. Arnove, Philip G. Altbach, and Gail P. Kelly, part 1…

  10. The Press Relations of a Local School District: An Analysis of the Emergence of School Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jon R.; Guenter, Cornelius

    Press coverage of a suburban midwest school district is analyzed as a set of time series of observations including the amount and quality of coverage. Possible shifts in these series because of the emergence of controversial issues are analyzed statistically using the Integrated Moving Average Time Series Model. Evidence of significant shifts in…

  11. Emerging Issues in Special Education Tort Liability: Implications for Special Educators and Teacher Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Critical issues in tort liability that confront special educators and teacher trainers include malpractice (failure to learn), misdiagnosis, immunity, impact of a handicap on standard of care, confidentiality, access to emergency medical services, the use of aversive consequences, child abuse and corporal punishment, and school violence.…

  12. Emerging science, emerging ethical issues: who should fund innate alloimmunity-suppressing drugs?

    PubMed

    Land, W G; Gutmann, Th; Daar, A S

    2008-01-01

    An emerging body of evidence suggests that the innate immune system plays a critical role in allograft rejection. Any injury to the donor organ, e.g. the reperfusion injury, induces an inflammatory milieu in the allograft which appears to be the initial event for activation of the innate immune system. Injury-induced intragraft damage- associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are recognized by donor-derived and recipient-derived, TLR4/2-bearing immature dendritic cells (iDCs). After recognition, these cells mature and initiate allorecognition/alloactivation in the lymphoid system of the recipient. Indeed, the key "innate" event, leading to activation of the adaptive alloimmune response, is the injury-induced, TLR4-triggered, and NFkappaB-mediated maturation of DCs ("innate alloimmunity"). Time-restricted treatment of innate immune events would include 1) treatment of the donor during organ removal, 2) in-situ/ex-vivo treatment of the donor organs alone, and 3) treatment of the recipient during allograft reperfusion and immediately postoperatively. Treatment modalities would include 1) minimization of the oxidative allograft injury with the use of antioxidants; 2) prevention of the TLR4-triggered maturation of DCs with the use of TLR4-antagonists; 3) inhibition of complement activation with the use of complement inhibiting agents. According to data from clinical and experimental studies it can be assumed that successful suppression of innate alloimmune events results in either subsequent significant reduction in, or even complete avoidance of the currently applied adaptive alloimmunity-suppressing drugs. However, in view of the time-restricted period of treatment, and the fear to potentially destroy its own business with currently applied alloimmunity-suppressing drugs, the pharmaceutical industry is still, but quite legitimately, reluctant to invest in the high cost of clinical development of those drugs for transplant patients because there are no marketing interests

  13. A procedure for rapid issue of red cells for emergency use.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Richard B; Webb, Mary; Stangle, Deena; Klinbergs, Gunter; Toy, Pearl

    2005-04-01

    A College of American Pathologists Q-Probe revealed that the median turnaround times for emergency requests for red blood cells from the operating room were 30 minutes to release of cells from the blood bank and 34 minutes to delivery to the operating room. These times may not be adequate to permit the red cells to provide sufficiently rapid delivery of oxygen in massively bleeding patients. To improve the time from emergency request for red cells to delivery to the operating room. A new emergency issue program was implemented for only the operating rooms; emergency issue to all other hospital locations remained unchanged. Six units of group O Rh-negative red blood cells (RBCs) are maintained in the blood bank in a separate basket with transfusion forms containing the unit numbers and expiration dates and a bag with one blood tubing segment from each unit. The times to issue and to delivery to the operating room suite were compared with time to issue of 2 group O Rh-negative RBCs for other hospital locations using the older system during the same time period and with the time to issue of 2 units to all other hospital locations during the preceding 2 years. A university hospital. Time between emergency request for red cells and delivery to the operating room. The time between blood bank notification and arrival in the operating room of the 6 units of RBCs was significantly shorter than the time required to just issue (not including delivery time) 2 units of RBCs to other hospital locations. With the new procedure, 82% of units issued reached the operating room within 2 minutes of request, 91% arrived within 3 minutes, and 100% arrived within 4 minutes. These percentages are significantly higher than those for only issue of blood (without delivery) using the older issuing procedure for all hospital locations during the previous 2 years (37%, 49%, and 66%, respectively; P = .007, .009, and .02, respectively) and for other locations during the same 7-month period (29

  14. Ethical and legal issues in emergency research: barriers to conducting prospective randomized trials in an emergency setting.

    PubMed

    Morrison, C Anne; Horwitz, Irwin B; Carrick, Matthew M

    2009-11-01

    As in any area of medicine, clinical trials are crucial to the advancement of trauma care and the establishment of evidence-based guidelines. This work identifies consent regulations that impede advances in trauma resuscitation research and examines several ethical issues underlying current policies in the United States which regulate how clinical trials are conducted in an emergency setting. Trauma is a leading cause of mortality in the U.S. Minorities and those in low socioeconomic groups are subject to a disproportional amount of traumatic injuries and have worse treatment outcomes than non-minority individuals. Current regulations guiding consent requirements in emergency research were enacted to protect such vulnerable populations from exploitation. Ironically, these same regulations also serve as barriers to clinical trials in trauma research, thus depriving these same vulnerable groups from the benefits of advances in trauma care. A literature review was conducted on areas affecting emergency medical research including: informed consent, socioeconomic and racial disparities, federal regulations in trauma research and biomedical ethics. In the ten year period following the passage of the FDA's Common Rule (21 CFR 50.24) in 1995, 21 published emergency research studies were conducted under the waiver of informed consent. Misconceptions regarding federal regulations and cumbersome internal review board approval processes are frequently cited as significant barriers to conducting prospective randomized trials in the emergency setting. Given the history of past abuses in medical research, the principle of maintaining autonomy of choice is of paramount importance. However, trauma resuscitation is unique in that patients are either unconscious or of limited mental capacity at the time treatment is required, and thus the standard of informed consent is unable to be achieved as in other areas of medicine. While this paradox was recognized by the FDA in 1995 with the

  15. Emerging freeze-drying process development and scale-up issues.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Pikal, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    Although several guidelines do exist for freeze-drying process development and scale-up, there are still a number of issues that require additional attention. The objective of this review article is to discuss some emerging process development and scale-up issue with emphasis on effect of load condition and freeze-drying in novel container systems such as syringes, Lyoguard trays, ampoules, and 96-well plates. Understanding the heat and mass transfer under different load conditions and for freeze-drying in these novel container systems will help in developing a robust freeze-drying process which is also easier to scale-up. Further research and development needs in these emerging areas have also been addressed.

  16. Security Classified and Controlled Information: History, Status, and Emerging Management Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-11

    pp. 789-797. 5 In Environmental Protection Agency v. Mink , Supreme Court Associate Justice Byron White, delivering the majority opinion, proffered...1978 Comp., pp. 190-205. E.O. 10290, issued in September 1951, introduced three sweeping innovations in security classification policy.4 First, the...include: “ Social Security Numbers, Employee Emergency Data, For Official Use Only Documents, For Limited Official Use Documents, Funding/Budget

  17. Security Classified and Controlled Information: History, Status, and Emerging Management Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-02

    4 Ibid., pp. 789-797. 5 In Environmental Protection Agency v. Mink , Supreme Court Associate Justice Byron White, delivering the majority opinion...C.F.R., 1978 Comp., pp. 190-205. E.O. 10290, issued in September 1951, introduced three sweeping innovations in security classification policy.4 First...which include: “ Social Security Numbers, Employee Emergency Data, For Official Use Only Documents, For Limited Official Use Documents, Funding/Budget

  18. E-Health Interventions for Eating Disorders: Emerging Findings, Issues, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Aardoom, Jiska J; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Van Furth, Eric F

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to review the emerging findings regarding E-health interventions for eating disorders and to critically discuss emerging issues as well as challenges for future research. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy and guided self-help have demonstrated promising results in terms of reducing eating disorder psychopathology. Emerging findings also suggest that E-health interventions reach an underserved population and improve access to care. The use of smartphone applications is becoming increasingly popular and has much potential although their clinical utility and effectiveness is presently unknown and requires investigation. Important challenges include the diagnostic process in E-health interventions, the optimization of E-health within existing health care models, and the investigation and implementation of blended care. More high-quality research is needed to bring the field forward and to determine the place for E-health in our health care service delivery systems.

  19. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  20. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  1. Care of the Older Adult in the Emergency Department: Nurses Views of the Pressing Issues

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses’ views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile. Results: 5 central themes emerged from the analysis, representing a lack of older personhospital environment fit in the ED: (a) respect for the older adult and carers, (b) correct and best procedures and treatment, (c) time and staff to do things right, (d) transitions, and (e) a safe and enabling environment. The nurses offered solutions to address lack of fit, including modifications to the social climate, policies and procedures, care systems and processes, and physical design. Implications: The nurses’ descriptions of the pressing issues surrounding care of older adults in the ED provide useful information to consider when developing a senior-friendly ED. Results also illuminate solutions that can be taken to address issues. These solutions give direction for future intervention research. PMID:23442380

  2. Pediatric HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: emerging issues and way forward.

    PubMed

    Ubesie, A C

    2012-09-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest burden of pediatric HIV in the world. Global target has been set for eradication of pediatric HIV by 2015 but there are still so many complex issues facing HIV infected and affected children in the sub-continent. To review the current and emerging challenges facing pediatric HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa; and proffer solutions that could help in tackling these challenges. A Medline literature search of recent publications was performed to identify articles on "pediatric HIV", "HIV and children", "HIV and infants", "HIV and adolescents" in sub-Saharan Africa. There are a number of challenges and emerging complex issues facing children infected and affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. These include late presentation, limited access to pediatric HIV services, delayed diagnosis, infant feeding choices, malnutrition, limited and complex drug regimen, disclosure, treatment failure and reproductive health concerns. A holistic cost effective preventive, diagnostic and treatment strategies are required in order to eliminate pediatric HIV in SSA. HIV infected children and their families in sub-Saharan Africa face myriad of complex medical and psychosocial issues. A holistic health promotional approach is being advocated as the required step for eradication of pediatric HIV in Africa.

  3. Naphthalene Mothballs: Emerging and Recurring Issues and their Relevance to Environmental Health.

    PubMed

    Sudakin, Daniel L; Stone, David L; Power, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Naphthalene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is commonly encountered in indoor and outdoor environments. There is growing awareness of the environmental health risks associated with inhalation exposure to naphthalene in the indoor environment. While there are numerous potential sources of naphthalene indoors, the use of mothballs can be a significant contributor to ambient concentrations. This review article describes recurring and emerging environmental health issues relating to mothballs containing naphthalene. The toxicology and health effects of naphthalene exposure are reviewed, with discussion of high-risk populations and risk mitigation strategies. Environmental health professionals should be aware of mothball use in the home, and recognize risks associated with accidental exposure and misuse.

  4. Emerging Issues for our Nation's Health: The Intersection of Marijuana Use and Cardiometabolic Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Vidot, Denise C.; Prado, Guillermo; Hlaing, WayWay M.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Current marijuana use rates are the highest in the past decade and not likely to decrease given the legalization of marijuana for medicinal and/or recreational use. Concurrently, the nation is facing epidemic levels of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes but little is known about the intersecting relationships of marijuana use and cardiometabolic health. The objective of this study was to explore emerging issues in context to the intersection of cardiometabolic risk and marijuana use. This topic has potential important implications for our nation's health as we relax our approach to marijuana but continue to have unacceptable rates of cardiometabolic illnesses. PMID:24471513

  5. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of contaminants in emerging food safety issues and food traceability.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2010-07-01

    This review presents an overview of the applicability of CE in the analysis of chemical and biological contaminants involved in emerging food safety issues. Additionally, CE-based genetic analyzers' usefulness as a unique tool in food traceability verification systems was presented. First, analytical approaches for the determination of melamine and specific food allergens in different foods were discussed. Second, natural toxin analysis by CE was updated from the last review reported in 2008. Finally, the analysis of prion proteins associated with the "mad cow" crises and the application of CE-based genetic analyzers for meat traceability were summarized.

  6. Global health: chronic diseases and other emergent issues in global health.

    PubMed

    Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Anwar, Shahela; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2011-09-01

    Infectious diseases have had a decisive and rapid impact on shaping and changing health policy. Noncommunicable diseases, while not garnering as much interest or importance over the past 20 years, have been affecting public health around the world in a steady and critical way, becoming the leading cause of death in developed and developing countries. This article discusses emergent issues in global health related to noncommunicable diseases and conditions, with focus on defining the unique epidemiologic features and relevant programmatic, health systems, and policy responses concerning noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, accidents and injuries, urbanization, climate change, and disaster preparedness.

  7. Emerging issues for our nation's health: the intersection of marijuana use and cardiometabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Vidot, Denise C; Prado, Guillermo; Hlaing, WayWay M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Current marijuana use rates are the highest they have been in the past decade and are not likely to decrease given the legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational use. Concurrently, the nation is facing epidemic levels of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus; but, little is known about the intersecting relationships of marijuana use and cardiometabolic health. The objective of this study was to explore emerging issues in context with the intersection of cardiometabolic risk and marijuana use. This topic has potential important implications for our nation's health as we relax our approach to marijuana but continue to have unacceptable rates of cardiometabolic illnesses.

  8. Secure messaging via the cloud and mobile devices: data security issues emerge with new technologies.

    PubMed

    Prestigiacomo, Jennifer

    2011-05-01

    The secure messaging space is alive with new innovations that are moving the industry forward. Key in this space is the push toward moving secure messaging to the cloud and pushing it out to mobile devices. Among the examples are solutions that allow physicians to receive encrypted email on mobile devices, as well as ones that allow doctors to securely text-message each other to coordinate care. However, the security issues around these emerging technologies in this very active space must be further explored.

  9. Changes in coverage of sun protection in the news: threats and opportunities from emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012. Coding variables included theme, article type, prominence, spokesperson and topic slant. Articles were collapsed into three 4-year blocks and a series of chi-square analyses conducted to examine changes over time in coverage of topical issues (i.e. vitamin D and sunbeds) and established sun protection themes [i.e. health effects of ultraviolet (UV) exposure, education/prevention, attitudes/behaviour]. Coverage of vitamin D and sunbed issues increased over time and became more positive for sun protection objectives. The proportion of articles reporting on established sun protection themes remained steady over time (range: 36-38%) and there were no changes observed in the way these topics were presented in the news media. These results highlight that potentially competing sun protection issues that emerge over time need not pose a threat to existing skin cancer prevention programmes but instead can provide opportunities to further spread programme messages while increasing credibility.

  10. Implantable electronics: emerging design issues and an ultra light-weight security solution.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Seetharam; Wang, Xinmu; Bhunia, Swarup

    2010-01-01

    Implantable systems that monitor biological signals require increasingly complex digital signal processing (DSP) electronics for real-time in-situ analysis and compression of the recorded signals. While it is well-known that such signal processing hardware needs to be implemented under tight area and power constraints, new design requirements emerge with their increasing complexity. Use of nanoscale technology shows tremendous benefits in implementing these advanced circuits due to dramatic improvement in integration density and power dissipation per operation. However, it also brings in new challenges such as reliability and large idle power (due to higher leakage current). Besides, programmability of the device as well as security of the recorded information are rapidly becoming major design considerations of such systems. In this paper, we analyze the emerging issues associated with the design of the DSP unit in an implantable system. Next, we propose a novel ultra light-weight solution to address the information security issue. Unlike the conventional information security approaches like data encryption, which come at large area and power overhead and hence are not amenable for resource-constrained implantable systems, we propose a multilevel key-based scrambling algorithm, which exploits the nature of the biological signal to effectively obfuscate it. Analysis of the proposed algorithm in the context of neural signal processing and its hardware implementation shows that we can achieve high level of security with ∼ 13X lower power and ∼ 5X lower area overhead than conventional cryptographic solutions.

  11. Failure to observe untested derived stimulus relations in extinction: implications for understanding stimulus-equivalence formation.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Adam H; Leake, Lesley W; Stoudemire, M Lee

    2014-11-01

    Wilson and Hayes (1996) and Doughty, Kastner, and Bismark (2011) observed resurgence of past equivalence relations when newer equivalence relations were punished or extinguished, respectively. Their findings support the notion that deriving stimulus relations is a form of operant behavior. Although there is consensus regarding the operant nature of deriving untrained stimulus relations, the necessary and sufficient conditions that establish these relations remain unclear. For example, in the aforementioned work, the resurgent equivalence relations were tested earlier in each study. The present research investigated whether this resurgence of equivalence relations requires their initial testing. In Experiment 1, college students received arbitrary matching-to-sample training in Phase 1. After these baseline discriminations were established, equivalence testing was omitted. In Phase 2, four 4-member equivalence classes were established that were inconsistent with the Phase-1 training. These Phase-2 relations then were extinguished to test whether the equivalence relations consistent with Phase-1 training would occur. Unlike in earlier research, these untested relations did not occur reliably. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2, and additional tests of stimulus relatedness did not reveal any evidence of derived stimulus relations consistent with the Phase-1 training. The present research extends other findings suggesting that the equivalence-testing context helps establish these stimulus classes. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. Research Ethics in Emerging Forms of Online Learning: Issues Arising from a Hypothetical Study on a MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how research ethics is evolving along with emerging online research methods and settings. In particular, it focuses on ethics issues implied in a hypothetical virtual ethnography study aiming to gain insights on participants' experience in an emergent context of networked learning, namely a MOOC--Massive Online Open…

  13. Youth with Mental Health Disorders: Issues and Emerging Responses. Also: Wraparound Milwaukee Program: Suicide Prevention in Juvenile Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvenile Justice, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue of Juvenile Justice presents three main articles. "Youth with Mental Health Disorders: Issues and Emerging Responses" (J. J. Cocozza and K. Skowyra) discusses tragic mass homicides by juveniles, documented cases of neglect and inadequate services, and federal policy focusing on providing systems of care for at-risk juveniles that have…

  14. Metallo-beta-lactamases as emerging resistance determinants in Gram-negative pathogens: open issues.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Akova, Murat; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Cantón, Rafael; Cauda, Roberto; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Edelstein, Mikhail; Frère, Jean-Marie; Fuzi, Miklós; Galleni, Moreno; Giamarellou, Helen; Gniadkowski, Marek; Koncan, Raffaella; Libisch, Balázs; Luzzaro, Francesco; Miriagou, Vivi; Navarro, Ferran; Nordmann, Patrice; Pagani, Laura; Peixe, Luisa; Poirel, Laurent; Souli, Maria; Tacconelli, Evelina; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2007-04-01

    The rapid spread of acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) among major Gram-negative pathogens is a matter of particular concern worldwide and primarily in Europe, one of first continents where the emergence of acquired MBLs has been reported and possibly the geographical area where the increasing diversity of these enzymes and the number of bacterial species affected are most impressive. This spread has not been paralleled by accuracy/standardisation of detection methods, completeness of epidemiological knowledge or a clear understanding of what MBL production entails in terms of clinical impact, hospital infection control and antimicrobial chemotherapy. A number of European experts in the field met to review the current knowledge on this phenomenon, to point out open issues and to reinforce and relate to one another the existing activities set forth by research institutes, scientific societies and European Union-driven networks.

  15. Emerging issues in receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase function: lifting fog or simply shifting?

    PubMed

    Petrone, A; Sap, J

    2000-07-01

    Transmembrane (receptor) tyrosine phosphatases are intimately involved in responses to cell-cell and cell-matrix contact. Several important issues regarding the targets and regulation of this protein family are now emerging. For example, these phosphatases exhibit complex interactions with signaling pathways involving SRC family kinases, which result from their ability to control phosphorylation of both activating and inhibitory sites in these kinases and possibly also their substrates. Similarly, integrin signaling illustrates how phosphorylation of a single protein, or the activity of a pathway, can be controlled by multiple tyrosine phosphatases, attesting to the intricate integration of these enzymes in cellular regulation. Lastly, we are starting to appreciate the roles of intracellular topology, tyrosine phosphorylation and oligomerization among the many mechanisms regulating tyrosine phosphatase activity.

  16. Emerging technologies and web accessibility: research challenges and opportunities focussing on vision issues.

    PubMed

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    2012-01-01

    This is a technological review paper focussed on identifying both the research challenges and opportunities for further investigation arising from emerging technologies, and it does not aim to propose any recommendation or standard. It is focussed on blind and partially sighted World Wide Web (Web) users along with others who use assistive technologies. The Web is a fast moving interdisciplinary domain in which new technologies, techniques and research is in perpetual development. It is often difficult to maintain a holistic view of new developments within the multiple domains which together make up the Web. This suggests that knowledge of the current developments and predictions of future developments are additionally important for the accessibility community. Web accessibility has previously been characterised by the correction of our past mistakes to make the current Web fulfil the original vision of access for all. New technologies were not designed with accessibility in mind and technologies that could be useful for addressing accessibility issues were not identified or adopted by the accessibility community. We wish to enable the research community to undertake preventative measures and proactively address challenges, while recognising opportunities, before they become unpreventable or require retrospective technological enhancement. This article then reviews emerging trends within the Web and Web Accessibility domains.

  17. Emerging issues in gram-negative bacterial resistance: an update for the practicing clinician.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Barreto, Jason N; Tosh, Pritish K

    2015-03-01

    The rapid and global spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms in recent years has been unprecedented. Although resistant gram-positive infections have been concerning to clinicians, the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative infections has become the most pressing issue in bacterial resistance. Indiscriminate antimicrobial use in humans and animals coupled with increased global connectivity facilitated the transmission of gram-negative infections harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamases in the 1990s. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, such as those containing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases, have been the latest scourge since the late 1990s to 2000s. Besides β-lactam resistance, these gram-negative infections are often resistant to multiple drug classes, including fluoroquinolones, which are commonly used to treat community-onset infections. In certain geographic locales, these pathogens, which have been typically associated with health care-associated infections, are disseminating into the community, posing a significant dilemma for clinicians treating community-onset infections. In this Concise Review, we summarize emerging trends in antimicrobial resistance. We also review the current knowledge on the detection, treatment, and prevention of infection with these organisms, with a focus on the carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacilli. Finally, we discuss emerging therapies and areas that need further research and effort to stem the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  18. Updating and Maintaining School Emergency Management Plans. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Helpful Hints" offers a quick overview of school emergency preparedness topics that are frequently the subject of inquiries. Developing and implementing comprehensive, multi-hazard emergency management plans is an ongoing process that must be consistently reinforced and strengthened. Opportunities for reviewing, strengthening and updating…

  19. Steps for Developing a School Emergency Management Plan. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools strongly encourages schools and school districts to develop emergency management plans within the context of the four phases of emergency management: prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In addition, schools should collaborate closely with police, fire…

  20. Critical incident exposure in South African emergency services personnel: prevalence and associated mental health issues

    PubMed Central

    Ward, C L; Lombard, C J; Gwebushe, N

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To assess critical incident exposure among prehospital emergency services personnel in the developing world context of South Africa; and to assess associated mental health consequences. Methods We recruited a representative sample from emergency services in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, to participate in this cross sectional epidemiological study. Questionnaires covered critical incident exposure, general psychopathology, risky alcohol use, symptoms of post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychological and physical aggression between co‐workers. Open ended questions addressed additional stressors. Results Critical incident exposure and rates of general psychopathology were higher than in studies in the developed world. Exposure to critical incidents was associated with general psychopathology, symptoms of PTSD, and with aggression between co‐workers, but not with alcohol use. Ambulance, fire, and sea rescue services had lower general psychopathology scores than traffic police. The sea rescue service also scored lower than traffic police on PTSD and psychological aggression. The defence force had higher rates of exposure to physical assault, and in ambulance services, younger staff were more vulnerable to assault. Women had higher rates of general psychopathology and of exposure to psychological aggression. Other stressors identified included death notification, working conditions, and organisational problems. Conclusions Service organisations should be alert to the possibility that their personnel are experiencing work ‐related mental health and behavioural problems, and should provide appropriate support. Attention should also be given to organisational issues that may add to the stress of incidents. Workplace programmes should support vulnerable groups, and address death notification and appropriate expression of anger. PMID:16498167

  1. Reconciliation of diverse telepathology system designs. Historic issues and implications for emerging markets and new applications.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Ronald S; Graham, Anna R; Lian, Fangru; Braunhut, Beth L; Barker, Gail R; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Bhattacharyya, Achyut K

    2012-04-01

    Telepathology, the distant service component of digital pathology, is a growth industry. The word "telepathology" was introduced into the English Language in 1986. Initially, two different, competing imaging modalities were used for telepathology. These were dynamic (real time) robotic telepathology and static image (store-and-forward) telepathology. In 1989, a hybrid dynamic robotic/static image telepathology system was developed in Norway. This hybrid imaging system bundled these two primary pathology imaging modalities into a single multi-modality pathology imaging system. Similar hybrid systems were subsequently developed and marketed in other countries as well. It is noteworthy that hybrid dynamic robotic/static image telepathology systems provided the infrastructure for the first truly sustainable telepathology services. Since then, impressive progress has been made in developing another telepathology technology, so-called "virtual microscopy" telepathology (also called "whole slide image" telepathology or "WSI" telepathology). Over the past decade, WSI has appeared to be emerging as the preferred digital telepathology digital imaging modality. However, recently, there has been a re-emergence of interest in dynamic-robotic telepathology driven, in part, by concerns over the lack of a means for up-and-down focusing (i.e., Z-axis focusing) using early WSI processors. In 2010, the initial two U.S. patents for robotic telepathology (issued in 1993 and 1994) expired enabling many digital pathology equipment companies to incorporate dynamic-robotic telepathology modules into their WSI products for the first time. The dynamic-robotic telepathology module provided a solution to the up-and-down focusing issue. WSI and dynamic robotic telepathology are now, rapidly, being bundled into a new class of telepathology/digital pathology imaging system, the "WSI-enhanced dynamic robotic telepathology system". To date, six major WSI processor equipment companies have embraced

  2. Next-generation biofuels: Survey of emerging technologies and sustainability issues.

    PubMed

    Zinoviev, Sergey; Müller-Langer, Franziska; Das, Piyali; Bertero, Nicolás; Fornasiero, Paolo; Kaltschmitt, Martin; Centi, Gabriele; Miertus, Stanislav

    2010-10-25

    Next-generation biofuels, such as cellulosic bioethanol, biomethane from waste, synthetic biofuels obtained via gasification of biomass, biohydrogen, and others, are currently at the center of the attention of technologists and policy makers in search of the more sustainable biofuel of tomorrow. To set realistic targets for future biofuel options, it is important to assess their sustainability according to technical, economical, and environmental measures. With this aim, the review presents a comprehensive overview of the chemistry basis and of the technology related aspects of next generation biofuel production, as well as it addresses related economic issues and environmental implications. Opportunities and limits are discussed in terms of technical applicability of existing and emerging technology options to bio-waste feedstock, and further development forecasts are made based on the existing social-economic and market situation, feedstock potentials, and other global aspects. As the latter ones are concerned, the emphasis is placed on the opportunities and challenges of developing countries in adoption of this new industry.

  3. SELF-REPORTED EXPERIENCES OF DISCRIMINATION AND HEALTH: SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES, ONGOING CONTROVERSIES, AND EMERGING ISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Cogburn, Courtney D.; Williams, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, research examining the impact of self-reported experiences of discrimination on mental and physical health has increased dramatically. Studies have found consistent associations between exposure to discrimination and a wide range of DSM-diagnosed mental disorders, as well as objective physical health outcomes. Associations are seen in cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies and persist even after adjustment for controls, including personality characteristics and other threats to validity. However, controversies remain, particularly around the best approach to measuring experiences of discrimination; the significance of racial/ethnic discrimination versus overall mistreatment; the need to account for “intersectionalities”; and the importance of comprehensive assessments. These issues are discussed in detail, along with emerging areas of emphasis including: cyber-discrimination; anticipatory stress or vigilance around discrimination; and interventions with potential to reduce the negative effects of discrimination on health. We also discuss priorities for future research, and implications for interventions and policy. PMID:25581238

  4. Some issues in emergency management. Public views in 1987. Final report, August-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Nehnevajsa, J.

    1987-12-01

    This report presents an overview of findings, derived from a 1987 national telephone survey, on current public sentiment as it relates to numerous crucial civil defense issues and concerns. A primary objective is to provide empirically based insight into some of the common arguments, presented as reflecting public attitudes and perceptions, that must be evaluated as decisions on complex national policy alternatives are weighed. Emergency planning and preparedness measures, in place or considered for future implementation, that address the threat of national disasters, technological hazards, and particularly those relevant to the threat of a nuclear confrontation are explored. The public's perception of what the principal goals of civil defense should be is questioned. Their acceptance of a nuclear attack as a credible threat is assessed, as well as their estimates of probable survival rates under a variety of passive defense conditions. The perceived viability and value of alternative civil-defense measures and the public's expectations regarding governmental responsibility for implementing such measures are explored. Willingness to finance such measures or to reallocate existing funds to civil defense efforts is reported as another indication of support. The acceptability of crisis relocation is evaluated through inquiries into the public's support for the development of a national relocation plan, their intentions to evacuate when threatened, either spontaneously or in compliance to a Presidential directive and their expectations of such a directive becoming a reality.

  5. Emergency communication and information issues in terrorist events involving radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Becker, Steven M

    2004-01-01

    With the threat posed by terrorism involving radioactive materials now high on the nation's agenda, local, state, and federal agencies are moving to enhance preparedness and response capabilities. Crucial to these efforts is the development of effective risk communication strategies. This article reports findings from an ongoing study of risk communication issues in nuclear/radiological terrorism situations. It is part of a larger CDC-funded effort that aims to better understand communication challenges associated with weapons of mass destruction terrorism incidents. Presented here are formative research findings from 16 focus groups (n = 163) in which a multi-part, hypothetical radioactive materials terrorism situation was discussed. Twelve of the focus groups were carried out with members of the general public (drawn from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and geographic locations), and four groups were composed of first responders, hospital emergency department personnel, and public health professionals. One aim of the focus groups was to elicit detailed information on people's knowledge, views, perceptions, reactions, and concerns related to a nuclear/radiological terrorism event, and to better understand people's specific information needs and preferred information sources. A second aim was to pretest draft informational materials prepared by CDC and NIOSH. Key findings for the public and professional groups are presented, and the implications of the research for developing messages in radiological/nuclear terrorism situations are explored.

  6. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and health: scientific advances, ongoing controversies, and emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Tené T; Cogburn, Courtney D; Williams, David R

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, research examining the impact of self-reported experiences of discrimination on mental and physical health has increased dramatically. Studies have found consistent associations between exposure to discrimination and a wide range of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-diagnosed mental disorders as well as objective physical health outcomes. Associations are seen in cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies and persist even after adjustment for confounding variables, including personality characteristics and other threats to validity. However, controversies remain, particularly around the best approach to measuring experiences of discrimination, the significance of racial/ethnic discrimination versus overall mistreatment, the need to account for "intersectionalities," and the importance of comprehensive assessments. These issues are discussed in detail, along with emerging areas of emphasis including cyber discrimination, anticipatory stress or vigilance around discrimination, and interventions with potential to reduce the negative effects of discrimination on health. We also discuss priorities for future research and implications for interventions and policy.

  7. Multipollutant modeling issues in a study of ambient air quality and emergency department visits in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, Paige E; Klein, Mitchel; Peel, Jennifer L; Sarnat, Stefanie E; Sarnat, Jeremy A

    2007-12-01

    Multipollutant models are frequently used to differentiate roles of multiple pollutants in epidemiologic studies of ambient air pollution. In the presence of differing levels of measurement error across pollutants under consideration, however, they can be biased and as misleading as single-pollutant models. Their appropriate interpretation depends on the relationships among the pollutant measurements and the outcomes in question. In situations where two or more pollutant variables may be acting as surrogates for the etiologic agent(s), multipollutant models can help identify the best surrogate, but the risk estimates may be influenced by inclusion of a second variable that is not itself an independent risk factor for the outcome in question. In this paper, these issues will be illustrated in the context of an ongoing study of emergency visits in Atlanta. Emergency department visits from 41 of 42 hospitals serving the 20-county Atlanta metropolitan area for the period 1993-2004 (n=10,206,389 visits) were studied in relation to ambient pollutant levels, including speciated particle measurements from an intensive monitoring campaign at a downtown station starting in 1998. Relative to our earlier publications, reporting results through 2000, the period for which the speciated data are available is now tripled (6 years in length). Poisson generalized linear models were used to examine outcome counts in relation to 3-day moving average concentrations of pollutants of a priori interest (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxygenated hydrocarbons, PM10, coarse PM, PM2.5, and the following components of PM2.5: elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, and water-soluble transition metals). In the present analysis, we report results for two outcome groups: a respiratory outcomes group and a cardiovascular outcomes group. For cardiovascular visits, associations were observed with CO, NO2, and PM2.5 elemental carbon and organic carbon. In multipollutant

  8. Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

  9. Responding To School Walkout Demonstrations. Lessons Learned From School Crises and Emergencies, Volume 3, Issue 1, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue examines the incidence of student walkout demonstrations and the various ways in which administrators, school staff, law enforcement, and the community at large can help keep youths…

  10. Virtual Reality and Its Potential Use in Special Education. Identifying Emerging Issues and Trends in Technology for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, John

    As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the possible contributions of virtual reality technology to educational services for students with disabilities. An example of the use of virtual reality in medical imaging introduces the paper and leads to a brief review of…

  11. Coping with Multiple Suicides among Middle School Students. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue addresses the experience of a school district where three middle school students hung themselves within a three-week timeframe. Although deaths were apparently unconnected, the school district is part of a…

  12. An Investigation into the Effects of Roll Gyradius on Experimental Testing and Numerical Simulation: Troubleshooting Emergent Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Troubleshooting Emergent Issues Edward Dawson Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-TN-1402 ABSTRACT This...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Published by Maritime Division DSTO Defence Science and Technology Organisation 506...tools used by the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) are an efficient and effective means to determine and evaluate the motion

  13. Design and Development of an Emerging Issues Tracking System for State-Level Educational Policy- and Decisionmakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Joyce S.; Rood, Magdalena M.

    This paper discusses the design, development, and results of a one-year pilot implementation of an emerging issues tracking system by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) for state-level educational policymakers and decision makers known as SEDL-SCAN. SEDL-SCAN offers policy-makers lead time on crises by flagging emerging…

  14. Emerging issues at the intersection of immigration and child welfare: results from a transnational research and policy forum.

    PubMed

    Dettlaff, Alan J; Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Velazquez, Sonia; Mindell, Robert; Bruce, Lara

    2009-01-01

    In July 2006, the American Humane Association and the Loyola University Chicago School of Social Work facilitated a roundtable to address the emerging issue of immigration and its intersection with child welfare systems. More than 70 participants from 10 states and Mexico joined the roundtable, representing the fields of higher education, child welfare, international immigration, legal practice, and others. This roundtable created a transnational opportunity to discuss the emerging impact of migration on child welfare services in the United States and formed the basis of a continued multidisciplinary collaboration designed to inform and impact policy and practice at the local, state, and national levels. This paper presents the results of the roundtable discussion and summarizes the emerging issues that participants identified as requiring attention by child welfare systems to facilitat positive outcomes of child safety, permanency, and well-being. Suggestions for further research and implications for policy and practice are also presented.

  15. Animal escapology I: theoretical issues and emerging trends in escape trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Blagburn, Jonathan M.; Bacon, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Escape responses are used by many animal species as their main defence against predator attacks. Escape success is determined by a number of variables; important are the directionality (the percentage of responses directed away from the threat) and the escape trajectories (ETs) measured relative to the threat. Although logic would suggest that animals should always turn away from a predator, work on various species shows that these away responses occur only approximately 50–90% of the time. A small proportion of towards responses may introduce some unpredictability and may be an adaptive feature of the escape system. Similar issues apply to ETs. Theoretically, an optimal ET can be modelled on the geometry of predator–prey encounters. However, unpredictability (and hence high variability) in trajectories may be necessary for preventing predators from learning a simple escape pattern. This review discusses the emerging trends in escape trajectories, as well as the modulating key factors, such as the surroundings and body design. The main ET patterns identified are: (1) high ET variability within a limited angular sector (mainly 90–180 deg away from the threat; this variability is in some cases based on multiple peaks of ETs), (2) ETs that allow sensory tracking of the threat and (3) ETs towards a shelter. These characteristic features are observed across various taxa and, therefore, their expression may be mainly related to taxon-independent animal design features and to the environmental context in which prey live – for example whether the immediate surroundings of the prey provide potential refuges. PMID:21753039

  16. The National Problem of Untested Sexual Assault Kits (SAKs): Scope, Causes, and Future Directions for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Feeney, Hannah; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Shaw, Jessica; Horsford, Sheena

    2015-12-23

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault kit (SAK; also termed a "rape kit") to preserve physical evidence (e.g., semen, blood, and/or saliva samples) to aid in the investigation and prosecution of the crime. Law enforcement are tasked with submitting the rape kit to a forensic laboratory for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis, which can be instrumental in identifying offenders in previously unsolved crimes, confirming identify in known-offender assaults, discovering serial rapists, and exonerating individuals wrongly accused. However, a growing number of media stories, investigative advocacy projects, and social science studies indicate that police are not routinely submitting SAKs for forensic testing, and instead rape kits are placed in evidence storage, sometimes for decades. This review article examines the growing national problem of untested rape kits by summarizing current research on the number of untested SAKs in the United States and exploring the underlying reasons why police do not submit this evidence for DNA testing. Recommendations for future research that can guide policy and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Tested at Last: How DNA Evidence in Untested Rape Kits Can Identify Offenders and Serial Sexual Assaults.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Feeney, Hannah; Pierce, Steven J; Sharma, Dhruv B; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2016-03-27

    An increasing number of U.S. law enforcement agencies have disclosed that they have large numbers of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs; also called "rape kits") in police property storage. Whether previously untested SAKs should be tested for DNA evidence has been the subject of considerable public debate. To inform policy and practice regarding rape kit testing, the current study tested a sample of 900 previously unsubmitted SAKs from Detroit, Michigan, and documented the DNA forensic testing outcomes associated with those kits. We assessed how many SAKs yielded DNA profiles eligible for upload into CODIS (Combined DNA Index System), the federal DNA criminal database; how many resulted in a DNA match (termed a "CODIS hit"); and how many of those hits were associated to other sexual assault crimes (i.e., serial sexual assault hits). Overall, there were 259 CODIS hits, 69 of which had DNA matches to another sexual assault case. The potential utility of a DNA profile and CODIS hit may vary depending on whether offender was known or unknown to the victim, so we examined these outcomes separately for SAKs associated with stranger- and non-stranger-perpetrated sexual assaults. We also present six case study examples of how DNA testing and CODIS hits helped identify serial sexual assaults in both stranger and non-stranger sexual assault cases. Implications for rape kit testing policies are discussed.

  18. The Law and Emergencies: Surveillance for Public Health–Related Legal Issues During Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Rachel I.; McKie, Karen L.; Goodman, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Law influenced every aspect of the public health response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, from evacuation orders, to waivers of medical licensing requirements, to the clean-up of public health threats on private property. We used public health surveillance of news reports to identify and characterize legal issues arising during the disaster response in 5 Gulf Coast states. Data collected from news reports of the events in real time were followed-up by interviews with selected state legal and emergency management officials. Our analysis indicates the value of surveillance during and after emergency responses in identifying public health–related legal issues and helps to inform the strengthening of legal preparedness frameworks for future disasters. PMID:17413083

  19. Identification and Evaluation of Human Factors Issues Associated with Emerging Nuclear Plant Technology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara,J.M.; Higgins,J.; Brown, William S.

    2009-04-01

    This study has identified human performance research issues associated with the implementation of new technology in nuclear power plants (NPPs). To identify the research issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were prioritized into four categories based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts representing vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. The study also identifies the priority of each issue and the rationale for those in the top priority category. The top priority issues were then organized into research program areas of: New Concepts of Operation using Multi-agent Teams, Human-system Interface Design, Complexity Issues in Advanced Systems, Operating Experience of New and Modernized Plants, and HFE Methods and Tools. The results can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas to support the safe operation of new NPPs.

  20. Review of psychological issues in victims of domestic violence seen in emergency settings.

    PubMed

    Frank, J B; Rodowski, M F

    1999-08-01

    When a history of domestic violence is discovered during a universal screening in the emergency department, emergency staff typically feel ill equipped to address the underlying psychological, behavioral, and health problems of the victim. This article reviews the known characteristics of ongoing relationships in which one partner exerts coercive control over another, with emphasis on the effects of abuse on the victim's physical and mental health. These effects include actual injury, multiple stress-related physical conditions, substance abuse, and a variety of psychiatric problems, including depression, anxiety and anxiety disorders, dissociation and dissociative disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. A patient-centered approach allows emergency response staff to tailor intervention to victims' real and perceived needs, fulfilling their professional obligation to provide meaningful help to female victims of domestic violence seen in emergency settings.

  1. [On the issue of the enhancement of high-specialized emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Shchepin, V O; Larionova, Iu K; Ponomareva, I V

    2007-01-01

    The negative trends in population health of Russia, the decline in well-being, the decrease of the availability of medical and pharmaceutical care, the increase of technogeneous accidents and disasters, the international terrorism cause the need in the structural reorganization of health care, especially in developing high-specialized emergency medical care. The specific solution of this problem is the establishment of medical districts with the multifield centers of emergency acute medical care (district hospitals) and selecting of the provision of emergency medical care, the quick diagnosis and immediate specialized medical care rendering as the priority direction. To establish the medical district with the district hospital it is necessary to develop corresponding normative legal base, accounting and reporting documentation, to provide the material, technical and trained personnel maintenance and to elaborate the algorithm of rendering the emergency medical care on pre-admission and hospital levels.

  2. Commercial Airline In-Flight Emergency: Medical Student Response and Review of Medicolegal Issues.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Josh H; Richards, John R

    2016-01-01

    As the prevalence of air travel increases, in-flight medical emergencies occur more frequently. A significant percentage of these emergencies occur when there is no certified physician, nurse, or paramedic onboard. During these situations, flight crews might enlist the help of noncertified passengers, such as medical students, dentists, or emergency medical technicians in training. Although Good Samaritan laws exist, many health care providers are unfamiliar with the limited legal protections and resources provided to them after responding to an in-flight emergency. A 78-year-old woman lost consciousness and became pulseless onboard a commercial aircraft. No physician was available. A medical student responded and coordinated care with the flight crew, ground support physician, and other passengers. After receiving a packet (4 g) of sublingual sucrose and 1 L i.v. crystalloid, the patient regained pulses and consciousness. The medical student made the decision not to divert the aircraft based on the patient's initial response to therapy and, 45 min later, the patient had normal vital signs. Upon landing, she was met and taken by paramedics to the nearest emergency department for evaluation of her collapse. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians are the most qualified to assist in-flight emergencies, but they might not be aware of the medicolegal risks involved with in-flight care, the resources available, and the role of the flight crew in liability and decision making. This case, which involved a medical student who was not given explicit protection under Good Samaritan laws, illustrates the authority of the flight crew during these events and highlights areas of uncertainty in the legislation for volunteer medical professionals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS AND ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH THE MANAGEMENT OF TREATED SLUDGES (BIOSOLIDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation looks at the pathogenic microorganisms present in municipal sludges and the public's concerns with the land application of sludges/biosolids. Methods for reducing pathogens in sludge; methods for reducing the vector attractiveness of sludge; and issues associate...

  4. Ethical Issues in Environmental Health Research Related to Public Health Emergencies: Reflections on the GuLF STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aubrey K.; Kwok, Richard K.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Health research in the context of an environmental disaster with implications for public health raises challenging ethical issues. This article explores ethical issues that arose in the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study (GuLF STUDY) and provides guidance for future research. Ethical issues encountered by GuLF STUDY investigators included a) minimizing risks and promoting benefits to participants, b) obtaining valid informed consent, c) providing financial compensation to participants, d) working with vulnerable participants, e) protecting participant confidentiality, f) addressing conflicts of interest, g) dealing with legal implications of research, and h) obtaining expeditious review from the institutional review board (IRB), community groups, and other committees. To ensure that ethical issues are handled properly, it is important for investigators to work closely with IRBs during the development and implementation of research and to consult with groups representing the community. Researchers should consider developing protocols, consent forms, survey instruments, and other documents prior to the advent of a public health emergency to allow for adequate and timely review by constituents. When an emergency arises, these materials can be quickly modified to take into account unique circumstances and implementation details. PMID:26325057

  5. Men's changing social roles in the 1990s: emerging issues in the psychiatric treatment of men.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, L J; Stein, T S; Pleck, J H; Myers, M F; Lewis, R A; Duncan, S F; Brod, H

    1991-07-01

    In the last two decades, men's social roles have changed to incorporate the increasing time they spend with their families, their greater concern about adult children's leaving or returning home, and alternative sexual preferences and life-styles. One related development is the increased amounts of psychiatric distress reported by men in recent years. Mental health professionals should be familiar with these and other complex issues specific to men and with how such issues might manifest themselves in psychotherapy.

  6. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. December 2008 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    oe/issue.cfm?volume=16&issue=26 The Green (and blue , red, and white) lights of the future http://www.physorg.com/news148708739.html Efficient...preventing the misuse of bioscience and biotechnology research. The Convention may be updated at the next review conference to be held in 2011 to cover...ingredient labelling requirements for sunscreens and cosmetics include the identification of nano-scale materials‘ ". The same report states, ―The

  7. Are Australians concerned about nanoparticles? A comparative analysis with established and emerging environmental health issues.

    PubMed

    Capon, Adam; Rolfe, Margaret; Gillespie, James; Smith, Wayne

    2015-02-01

    Introducing new technologies into society raises considerable public concern. We determine the public concern about nanoparticles, and compare this concern to other environmental health issues such as wind farms and coal seam gas production. A repeat cross sectional survey examining views on environmental health issues, risk, chemicals and trust was undertaken in more than 1,300 Australian residents in 2000 and 2013. Logistic regression and principal component analysis was used to investigate predictors of nanoparticle concern and identify a component structure for environmental health issues that could explain a trend of future nanoparticle concern. Australians have a relatively low level of concern about the risks of nanoparticles to health when compared to their concerns about other environmental health issues. Items associated with concern included gender, a general wish to avoid chemicals and possibly trust in politicians. Concern over nanoparticles clustered with similar views on technological risks. Current public concern over the risks of nanoparticles is low. However, a reframing of the issue towards 'chemicals' is likely to have a negative effect on risk perceptions. This paper raises questions about appropriate channels for the effective communication of risk. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Reasons for not taking an HIV-test among untested men who have sex with men: an Internet study.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Jochen; Hospers, Harm J; Kok, Gerjo

    2006-07-01

    The present paper focuses on reasons for not taking an HIV-test among untested men who have sex with men (MSM). From an MSM web-based survey, 1627 MSM who had never tested for HIV were selected for the reported analyses. Results show that fear of a positive test result and the perceived consequences thereof, are reported as the most important reasons for not taking an HIV-test among at-risk respondents. The most important reasons for not taking an HIV-test among no-risk respondents are related to perception of low risk for HIV-infection. Implications for future interventions to promote HIV-testing are discussed.

  9. Cultural, Linguistic and Cognitive Issues in Teaching the Language of Literature for Emergent Bilingual Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleroy, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the premise that literary texts use language in aesthetic, imaginative and engaging ways that have considerable potential to extend the learning of bilingual pupils. It draws on research findings from a qualitative study that examined the value of developing pedagogic practices for emergent bilingual learners at the…

  10. Emerging Workforce Trends and Issues Impacting the Virginia Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landon, Mary Greer

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the Virginia Community College workforce development leaders is to expand their training and development services to new and emerging high growth occupational areas in support of Virginia's economic growth and changing workforce needs in each of their regions. This research was designed to identify: high demand occupational skill…

  11. 75 FR 27028 - Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... COMMISSION COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on Emerging Regulatory... and CFTC Commissioners, respectively, intend to establish the Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee on... both Agencies. Respondents are encouraged to use the title ``Joint CFTC-SEC Advisory Committee''...

  12. Emerging Workforce Trends and Issues Impacting the Virginia Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landon, Mary Greer

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the Virginia Community College workforce development leaders is to expand their training and development services to new and emerging high growth occupational areas in support of Virginia's economic growth and changing workforce needs in each of their regions. This research was designed to identify: high demand occupational skill…

  13. Widening Participation to Doctoral Education and Research Degrees: A Research Agenda for an Emerging Policy Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Alistair; Thomas, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Widening participation is on the political agenda but, to date, policy, practice and research has focused on undergraduate education. This article identifies an emerging widening participation focus on doctoral education. Using England as a case study, the article examines this development within the context of the long-standing concern with…

  14. Emerging issues in urban ecology: implications for research, social justice, human health, and well-being

    Treesearch

    Viniece Jennings; Myron F. Floyd; Danielle Shanahan; Christopher Coutts; Alex Sinykin

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization affects landscape structure and the overall human condition in numerous ways. Green spaces include vegetated land cover (e.g., urban forests, trees, riparian zones, parks) which play a distinctive role in urban ecology. This article reviews emergent literature on the linkages between urban green spaces, social justice, and human health. We explore this...

  15. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies, Vol. 1, Issue 2, Fall 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. School and student names have been changed to protect identities. Information for this publication was gathered through a series of interviews with school stakeholders involved in the actual incident. This "Lessons Learned" issue…

  16. Masked mycotoxins: An emerging issue that makes renegotiable what is ordinary.

    PubMed

    Dellafiora, Luca; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2016-12-15

    The masked mycotoxins issue is of increasing relevance in the field of food safety. Although under discussion, regulations are still to be set due to the lack of proper toxicological data. In this communication, we discuss the unmet needs to support regulatory bodies in the decision making on this class of compounds.

  17. Changes in Coverage of Sun Protection in the News: Threats and Opportunities from Emerging Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012.…

  18. Outcome Studies of Social, Behavioral, and Educational Interventions: Emerging Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mark W.; Guo, Shenyang; Ellis, Alan R.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Wike, Traci L.; Li, Jilan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the core features of outcome research and then explores issues confronting researchers who engage in outcome studies. Using an intervention research perspective, descriptive and explanatory methods are distinguished. Emphasis is placed on the counterfactual causal perspective, designing programs that fit culture and context,…

  19. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. March 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    osmosis, and a project at the Center for Green Science at Carnegie Mellon Univ., based on tetra- amido macrocyclic ligand catalysts. Military...information on different industries‘ water footprints, and their potential future consequences both for supply and for addressing water stress issues

  20. Current Status of Learner Support in Distance Education: Emerging Issues and Future Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ji-Yeon

    The importance of learner support has been emphasized over and over in the distance education literature but there is a lack of comprehensive analysis of this issue. Besides that, most of existing studies on learner support are based on large-scale correspondence program and few of them provide guidelines for planning and implementing support…

  1. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 1, Issue 1, Fall 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of "Lessons Learned" addresses "Dealing with Weapons on Campus." Each year, school administrators, faculty and staff must deal with the possibility of students planning and carrying out pranks such as toilet-papering trees, egging automobiles or spray painting school property. These high jinks often occur at the end of the school year,…

  2. Perspectives on National Health Insurance and Rehabilitation. Emerging Issues in Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorken, Herbert; LaRocca, Joseph

    Major research findings are synthesized and innovations of current concern to vocational rehabilitation professionals are reported in this paper on national health insurance (NHI) and rehabilitation. Discussion covers the following topics: the concept of insurance, forms of health insurance, issues arising from hearings on NHI, perspectives of…

  3. Emerging Issues II: The Changing Roles and Identities of Teachers and Learners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Bettie, Ed.; McCarthy, Marian, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a wide selection of issues currently of interest and concern in higher education institutions in Ireland. The chapters are snapshots of the intersection between theory, practice and research in particular settings; they are not meant to be comprehensive. Nevertheless, they present practice approaches, new theoretical…

  4. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military, February 2011 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    6.3 Magma-fed Geothermal Sources Promise Major Improvement....................................5 Item 7. Updates on Previously Identified Issues...the UNEP Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum was held in Nairobi, Kenya , February 21-24, 2011. The ministerial consultations... Geothermal Sources Promise Major Improvement The Iceland Deep Drilling Project has announced that drilling hydrothermal wells into magma intrusions

  5. The Importance of Exposure in Addressing Current and Emerging Air Quality Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality issues that we face today and will face in the future are becoming increasingly more complex and require an improved understanding of human exposure to be effectively addressed. The objectives of this paper are (1) to discuss how concepts of human exposure and ex...

  6. Changes in Coverage of Sun Protection in the News: Threats and Opportunities from Emerging Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012.…

  7. Lessons from Adult Education: Identifying and Exploring Emerging Ethical Issues in Technologically Enhanced Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Christie Knittel; O'Driscoll, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Technologically Enhanced Performance (TEP) is the application of technology to improve the performance of knowledge workers. TEP is both an intellectual and ideological complement to the field of Adult Education. As such, much can be learned about ethical issues associated with implementing TEP from the established research and literature base in…

  8. The Cost and Management of Program Adequacy: An Emerging Issue in Educational Policy and Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces a special issue on educational program adequacy--the cost of raising poor children's outcomes to functional levels through improved systems of finance, governance, organization, implementation, and educational practice. Essays raise numerous problems, including a weak knowledge base, low educational productivity, political resistance,…

  9. The Emergence of Work-Centered Issues in Consultative Work: An Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Derek; Hughes, Lynette

    1987-01-01

    Two separate series of consultative meetings for professionals engaged in direct work with adolescents revealed that issues brought to consultation showed a definite and sustained shift away from matters to do with clientele, and toward matters concerning working relationships and work settings. Discusses possible causes and effects of this…

  10. Implementing a University-Wide Credit-Bearing English Language Enhancement Programme: Issues Emerging from Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton-Smith, Ben; Humphreys, Pamela; Walkinshaw, Ian; Michael, Rowan; Lobo, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Many nations now enrol large numbers of tertiary students with English as an additional language, raising concerns over academic literacy standards. As a result, calls for whole-institution approaches to enhance language proficiency have grown. This paper describes the issues faced by one university that attempted such an approach. We first…

  11. 78 FR 66841 - Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2003...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ..., the United States of America, acting through the U.S. Agency for International Development, may issue...-150, the United States of America, acting through the U.S. Agency for International Development, may... under such loans. The full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged for the full...

  12. Drought, drying and climate change: emerging health issues for ageing Australians in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Horton, Graeme; Hanna, Liz; Kelly, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Older Australians living in rural areas have long faced significant challenges in maintaining health. Their circumstances are shaped by the occupations, lifestyles, environments and remoteness which characterise the diversity of rural communities. Many rural regions face threats to future sustainability and greater proportions of the aged reside in these areas. The emerging changes in Australia's climate over the past decade may be considered indicative of future trends, and herald amplification of these familiar challenges for rural communities. Such climate changes are likely to exacerbate existing health risks and compromise community infrastructure in some instances. This paper discusses climate change-related health risks facing older people in rural areas, with an emphasis on the impact of heat, drought and drying on rural and remote regions. Adaptive health sector responses are identified to promote mitigation of this substantial emerging need as individuals and their communities experience the projected impact of climate change.

  13. The psychological advantage of unfalsifiability: the appeal of untestable religious and political ideologies.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Justin P; Campbell, Troy H; Kay, Aaron C

    2015-03-01

    We propose that people may gain certain "offensive" and "defensive" advantages for their cherished belief systems (e.g., religious and political views) by including aspects of unfalsifiability in those belief systems, such that some aspects of the beliefs cannot be tested empirically and conclusively refuted. This may seem peculiar, irrational, or at least undesirable to many people because it is assumed that the primary purpose of a belief is to know objective truth. However, past research suggests that accuracy is only one psychological motivation among many, and falsifiability or testability may be less important when the purpose of a belief serves other psychological motives (e.g., to maintain one's worldviews, serve an identity). In Experiments 1 and 2 we demonstrate the "offensive" function of unfalsifiability: that it allows religious adherents to hold their beliefs with more conviction and political partisans to polarize and criticize their opponents more extremely. Next we demonstrate unfalsifiability's "defensive" function: When facts threaten their worldviews, religious participants frame specific reasons for their beliefs in more unfalsifiable terms (Experiment 3) and political partisans construe political issues as more unfalsifiable ("moral opinion") instead of falsifiable ("a matter of facts"; Experiment 4). We conclude by discussing how in a world where beliefs and ideas are becoming more easily testable by data, unfalsifiability might be an attractive aspect to include in one's belief systems, and how unfalsifiability may contribute to polarization, intractability, and the marginalization of science in public discourse.

  14. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. May 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    include lead, mercury , cadmium and several other substances. [See Recycling Regulations in the EU in August 2005 and Two E-waste laws entered into... mercury and cadmium portable batteries may contain (Certain classes, such as those for emergency systems and handheld tools, are excepted.) The new...multiple-exciton generation in other semiconductors, including lead sulphide , lead telluride and cadmium selenide. What’s more, Klimov says his group

  15. Transcultural group performance in extreme environment: Issues, concepts and emerging theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, Judith; Bouchard, Stéphane; Martin, Thibault; Perreault, Michel

    2009-06-01

    A simulation for flight of international crew on space station took place in Moscow from July 1999 to April 2000 (SFINCS) at the State Biomedical Institute of Russia (IBMP) isolation chambers. Objectives of this study were to identify concepts of psychosocial adaptation and of social interactions to develop an explanation of the transcultural group performance. Method: constructivist epistemology with grounded theory research and fourth generation evaluation were used. Data on processes and interactions were gathered during 110 days of confinement as a subject and extended to 240 days as an outside scientist. Results indicate that coping is influenced by usual coping strategies and coping behaviors inside. Several stresses and human factor issues were identified altering well being and performance inside the chambers. Enabling and limiting forces are discussed. A theory on transcultural group performance is proposed. Issues are raised that appear critical to selection, training and group performance.

  16. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. May 2005 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    that better international regulations, management mechanisms, and long-term political commitments are needed to improve forest conservation . Several...Wildlife Federation and the World Bank renewed their World Bank/WWF Alliance for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Use and announced their new...Brazil declared forest conservation a security issue and uses the military to implement forest conservation programs. Eventually, the Forum’s

  17. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. November 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Technology, Industry and Economics, based in Paris. National participation in the panel has been expressed so far from Canada, China, Egypt, Finland ...countries on environmental matters aims to address urgent problems in the DPRK related to forest, water quality, air pollution, land degradation and...biological risks and threats in the conditions of the region’s growing biotechnology capabilities and its special security vulnerability. The issue

  18. Federal-State-Local Relations: Trends of the Past Decade and Emerging Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    government has issued new ones. For example, in 1979, the Department of Labor extended Fair Labor Standards Act regulations to state and local...eoresent percentages of the average per capita Dersora: -e United States . Source: GAO calcula,on’s -,asea on U S Commerce Department Bureau of Econom,--c... United States General Accounting Office GAO Report to Congressional Committees AD-A280 710 March 1990 FEDERAL- STATE - LOCAL RELATIONS SDTIC ’T E• •CT

  19. Security Classified and Controlled Information: History, Status, and Emerging Management Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-08

    Environmental Protection Agency v. Mink , Supreme Court Associate Justice Byron White, delivering the majority opinion, proffered that “Congress could...10290, issued in September 1951, introduced three sweeping innovations in security classification policy.4 First, the order indicated the Chief...Series 3500, also known as DM3550-02 of February 17, 2005. SBU information is identified, in part, in terms of examples, which include: “ Social Security

  20. Arrhenius thermodynamics and birth defects: chemical teratogen synergy. Untested, testable, and projected relevance.

    PubMed

    Miller, Morton W; Church, Charles C

    2013-03-01

    This article addresses the issue of hyperthermia-induced birth defects with an accompanying additional teratogen, be it a chemical or a physical agent (i.e., a simultaneous "combinational" exposure to two teratogens, one of which is hyperthermia). Hyperthermia per se is a recognized human and animal teratogen. An excellent example of such combinational exposures is an epileptic woman who becomes pregnant while taking valproic acid (VPA) to control seizures. VPA is a recognized chemical teratogen, and fever (hyperthermia) is not an uncommon event during pregnancy. While VPA also may occasionally induce fever as a side effect, we are concerned here with fevers arising from other, unrelated causes. There is a small but internally consistent literature on these combinational-teratogen exposures involving hyperthermia plus a chemical teratogen; in each instance, the effect level has been observed to be synergistically elevated above levels induced by the separate teratogenic components. The data were empirical. The observed synergy is, however, consistent with Arrhenius thermodynamics, a well-known chemical rate equation. The need for information about combinational teratogen exposures is acute; fever is a common occurrence during pregnancy; and there are many instances whereby there is also the simultaneous presence of some other teratogen(s). Given that the rate of autism spectrum disorders in the United States was recently presented as 1 in 88 births, it seems reasonable to suspect that such combinational regimens are much more prevalent than previously thought. Our hypothesis is that synergistic birth defect levels from combinational regimens are consistent with Arrhenius thermodynamics. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  2. Emerging issues in health and education in Asia-Pacific: a focus on speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some emerging issues in health and education in the Asia-Pacific region. Special attention will be given to the education of speech-language pathologists (SLP) and to service provision for the people with communicative disorders whenever possible. Information on the education of SLP in Asia-Pacific is not easy to gather because of the geographical distances between areas, language differences in the data compiled and the lack of consistent collaboration and information exchanges. In this article, a case study from Singapore is also presented. Implications for clinical services and education are discussed at the end of this paper.

  3. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. June 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Summarizes Pacific Environmental Threats and Solutions………..….13 8.4 Geo-engineering Promises/Threatens Major Consequences………………..………14 8.5 The Center for a...Northwest Pacific , Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, South Asian seas, South Pacific , and Wider Caribbean––the East Asian Seas seem to be in the worst situation...Items on similar issues in previous environmental security reports: Microplastics Recognized as Environmental Threat to Oceans in November 2008

  4. Emergence of influenza viruses with zoonotic potential: open issues which need to be addressed. A review.

    PubMed

    Capua, Ilaria; Munoz, Olga

    2013-07-26

    The real and perceived impact of influenza infections in animals has changed dramatically over the last 10 years, due mainly to the better understanding of the public health implications of avian and swine influenza viruses. On a number of occasions in the last decade avian-to-human transmissions of H5, H7 and H9 virus subtypes have occurred, and the first influenza pandemic of the new millennium occurred as a result of the emergence and spread of a virus from pigs. Although the mechanisms that allow influenza viruses to jump from one host species to another are not fully understood, several genetic signatures linked to the crossing of species barriers have been identified. This has led to a re-evaluation of the importance of understanding these viruses in the animal reservoir, to the extent that millions of euros have been invested in surveillance, research and capacity building worldwide. This has resulted in an enhanced collaboration with our medical counterparts, leading to many discoveries that will contribute to an understanding of the complex mechanisms that lead to the emergence of a pandemic virus.

  5. Emerging patient safety issues under health care reform: follow-on biologics and immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    US health care reform includes an abbreviated pathway for follow-on biologics, also known as biosimilars, in an effort to speed up access to these complex therapeutics. However, a key patient safety challenge emerges from such an abbreviated pathway: immunogenicity reactions. Yet immunogenicity is notoriously difficult to predict, and even cooperative approaches in licensing between companies have resulted in patient safety concerns, injury, and death. Because approval pathways for follow-on forms do not involve cooperative disclosure of methods and manufacturing processes by innovator companies and follow-on manufacturers, the potential for expanded immunogenicity must be taken into account from a risk management and patient safety perspective. The US Institute of Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) has principles of medication safety that have been applied in the past to high-risk drugs. We propose adapting ISMP principles to follow-on biologic forms and creating systems approaches to warn, rapidly identify, and alert providers regarding this emerging patient safety risk. This type of system can be built upon and provide lessons learned as these new drug forms are developed and marketed more broadly. PMID:22241945

  6. Patient adherence to oral anticancer drugs: an emerging issue in modern oncology.

    PubMed

    Foulon, V; Schöffski, P; Wolter, P

    2011-01-01

    The steady increase in the use of oral anticancer drugs in modern oncology has created a paradigm shift, challenging traditional attitudes towards cancer care and requiring new concepts of organization of oncology services. Important issues are the prolonged treatment period, management of toxicity, treatment adherence, reimbursement conditions and patient and family education. Although most patients generally prefer oral therapy over intravenous treatment for reasons of convenience, the daily use of oral anticancer drugs can be a challenging commitment for many patients. Reports on adherence and persistence among patients with cancer show that adherence ranges from 16% to 100%, depending on the type of therapy and the measurement/definition of adherence. Apart from demographic, disease and therapy related factors, the determinants that mostly influence (non-)adherence are the satisfaction with care activities performed at the initiation of the drug treatment, and the perceived necessity of treatment. Therefore, patient education addressing these issues is considered the cornerstone of successful oral anticancer treatment. Studies examining the role of different health care providers in the pharmacotherapeutic care of patients with cancer, treated with oral anti-cancer drugs, support the need for a multidisciplinary approach to achieve a maximum benefit for the individual patient and consequently for the whole health system. Limiting adverse events and developing appropriate supportive care are only some aspects that need to be considered in this.

  7. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Current Issues Regarding Diagnosis, Management, and Emerging Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Brummer, Grace C; Bowen, Anneli R; Bowen, Glen M

    2016-02-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive cutaneous tumor with a predilection for the head and neck of elderly Caucasian patients. Although much less common than melanoma, MCC has higher rates of sentinel lymph node involvement, local and regional recurrences, and mortality. The majority of MCC cases have been linked to the relatively newly discovered Merkel cell polyomavirus, which is a ubiquitous constituent of the skin flora. Recent discoveries regarding viral integration and carcinogenesis and the immunologic features of MCC have expanded the understanding of MCC. These discoveries have led to the development and application of emerging therapies such as somatostatin analogs, immune checkpoint inhibition, adoptive cell therapy, and other exciting possibilities for targeted therapy.

  8. Ethical, legal and professional issues arising from social media coverage by UK Helicopter Emergency Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Steele, Sarah; Adcock, Christopher; Steel, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    Social media (SoMe) are gaining increasing acceptance among, and use by, healthcare service deliverers and workers. UK Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) use SoMe to deliver service information and to fundraise, among other purposes. This article examines UK HEMS use of SoMe between January and February 2014 to determine the extent of adoption and to highlight trends in use. The database of the Association of Air Ambulances, crosschecked with UK Emergency Aviation, was used to identify flying, charitable UK HEMS. This search identified 28 UK HEMS, of which 24 services met the criteria for selection for review. Using information harvested from the public domain, we then systematically documented SoMe use by the services. SoMe use by UK HEMS is extensive but not uniform. All selected UK HEMS maintained websites with blogs, as well as Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia and JustGiving profiles, with the majority of services using Ebay for Charity, LinkedIn and YouTube. Some HEMS also held a presence on Pinterest, Google+, Instagram and Flickr, with a minority of services maintaining their own Rich Site Summary (RSS) feed. The SoMe adopted, while varied, allowed for increased, and different forms of, information delivery by HEMS to the public, often in real time. Such use, though, risks breaching patient confidentiality and data protection requirements, especially when information is viewed cumulatively across platforms. There is an urgent need for the continued development of guidance in this unique setting to protect patients while UK HEMS promote and fundraise for their charitable activities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Alcohol-related violence presenting to the emergency department: is 'glassing' the big issue?

    PubMed

    Laing, Anthony J; Sendall, Marguerite C; Barker, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    The study aims to describe the characteristics of patients presenting to EDs within Queensland, Australia with injuries because of assault with a glass implement ('glassing') and to set this within the broader context of presentations because of alcohol-related violence. This is an analysis of prospectively collected ED injury surveillance data collated by the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit between 1999 and 2011. Cases of injury because of alcohol-related violence were identified and analysed using coded fields supplemented with qualitative data contained within the injury description text. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the characteristics of injury presentations because of alcohol-related violence. Violence included interpersonal violence and aggression (verbal aggression and object violence). A total of 4629 cases were studied. The study population was predominantly men (72%) and aged 18 to 24 (36%), with men in this age group comprising more than a quarter of the study population (28%). Nine per cent of alcohol-related assault injuries were a consequence of 'glassing'. The home was the most common location for alcohol-related violence (31%) and alcohol-related 'glassings' (33%). Overall, the most common glass object involved was a bottle (75%); however, within licensed venues an even mix of a drinking glass (44%) and glass bottle (45%) was identified. Contrary to public perception generated by media, 'glassing' incidents, particularly at licensed venues, constitute a relatively small proportion of all alcohol-related violence. The current study highlights the predominance of young men injured following alcohol-related violence, demonstrating a key focus area within the population for aiming prevention strategies. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. Future trends and emerging issues for nanodelivery systems in oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Irimie, Alexandra Iulia; Sonea, Laura; Jurj, Ancuta; Mehterov, Nikolay; Zimta, Alina Andreea; Budisan, Liviuta; Braicu, Cornelia; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is a prevalent cancer type on a global scale, whose traditional treatment strategies have several drawbacks that could in the near future be overcome through the development of novel therapeutic and prognostic strategies. Nanotechnology provides an alternative to traditional therapy that leads to enhanced efficiency and less toxicity. Various nanosystems have been developed for the treatment of oral cancer, including polymeric, metallic, and lipid-based formulations that incorporate chemotherapeutics, natural compounds, siRNA, or other molecules. This review summarizes the main benefits of using these nanosystems, in parallel with a particular focus on the issues encountered in medical practice. These novel strategies have provided encouraging results in both in vitro and in vivo studies, but few have entered clinical trials. The use of nanosystems in oral cancer has the potential of becoming a valid therapeutic option for patients suffering from this malignancy, considering that clinical trials have already been completed and others are currently being developed. PMID:28721037

  11. Issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screenings in the emergence of HPV vaccination in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Davidson, Patricia M; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the HPV vaccine has been a major breakthrough in preventing cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases around the globe. Cervical cancer is a significant public health problem in Thailand. Despite the long-time availability of cervical cancer screening programs in Thailand, the uptake among the target female population remains low. HPV vaccines were approved by the Food and Drug Administration of Thailand in 2007. As of March 2011, due to financial limitations, HPV vaccines have still not been included in the national immunization program under the public health benefit plans although individuals has the option to pay privately for the vaccine. This paper discusses the issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening programs in the era of HPV vaccination in Thailand. Recommendations to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening and further research to inform a policy regarding the cervical cancer screening measures are proposed.

  12. Parenting Strategies in Modern and Emerging Economies : Introduction to the Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kermyt G; Starkweather, Kathrine E

    2017-06-01

    Independent of ecology, subsistence strategy, social complexity, or other aspects of socioecology, the altricial nature of young humans requires mothers to have help raising their offspring. What seems to be context-dependent, however, is who the helpers are, how they invest, and what the impacts of that investment are. In a series of papers that focus on parental and alloparental investment across five populations, this special issue of Human Nature uses evolutionary theory to examine how socioecological context influences modes of direct parental investment among the boat-dwelling Shodagor of Bangladesh (Starkweather), modes of indirect paternal investment in the modern United States (Anderson), and the biological outcome of paternal investment for men in Jamaica (Gray et al.), as well as direct alloparental investment among village Bangladeshis (Perry) and indirect alloparental investment in breastfeeding practices in the United States (Cisco).

  13. Training the powerful: issues that emerged during the evaluation of a communication skills training programme for senior cancer care professionals.

    PubMed

    Bibila, S; Rabiee, F

    2014-07-01

    'Connected' is the name of the national advanced communication skills training programme developed in 2008 for cancer care professionals in the NHS. A 3-day training course combining didactic and experiential learning elements is run by two facilitators with course participants expected to engage fully in simulated consultations with trained actors. In 2011, and as a result of participant feedback on the length of the course and increasing pressures on budgets and clinical time, the Connected team developed and piloted an alternative 2-day training course. Before its roll-out in 2012, Birmingham City University was commissioned to evaluate the effectiveness and quality of the 2-day course vis-à-vis the 'traditional' 3-day one. This article is written by the two evaluators and it discusses some of the issues that emerged during the evaluation. We broadly grouped these issues into two overlapping categories: the mandatory nature of the course and the different professional background and seniority of participants. In our discussion we consider the implications these issues have for communication skills training policy and practice and put forward suggestions for further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. From "lists of traits" to "open-mindedness": emerging issues in cultural competence education.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Angela C

    2011-06-01

    The incorporation of "culture" into U.S. biomedicine has been increasing at a rapid pace over the last several decades. Advocates for "cultural competence" point to changing patient demographics and growing health disparities as they call for improved educational efforts that train health providers to care for patients from a variety of backgrounds. Medical anthropologists have long been critical of the approach to "culture" that emerges in cultural competence efforts, identifying an essentialized, static notion of culture that is conflated with racial and ethnic categories and seen to exist primarily among exotic "Others." With this approach, culture can become a "list of traits" associated with various racial and ethnic groups that must be mastered by health providers and applied to patients as necessary. This article uses an ethnographic examination of cultural competence training to highlight recent efforts to develop more nuanced approaches to teaching culture. I argue that much of contemporary cultural competence education has rejected the "list of traits" approach and instead aims to produce a new kind of health provider who is "open-minded," willing to learn about difference, and treats each patient as an individual. This shift, however, can ultimately reinforce behavioral understandings of culture and draw attention away from the social conditions and power differentials that underlie health inequalities.

  15. Lymph node-positive prostate cancer: current issues, emerging technology and impact on clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julia; Cheng, Liang

    2011-09-01

    Lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer indicates a poorer prognosis compared with patients without lymph node metastasis; however, some patients with node-positive disease have long-term survival. Many studies have attempted to discern what characteristics of lymph node metastasis are prognostically significant. These characteristics include nodal tumor volume, number of positive lymph nodes, lymph node density, extranodal extension, lymphovascular invasion and tumor dedifferentiation. Favorable characteristics of regional lymph node involvement included a smaller tumor size and smaller tumor volume. However, the current staging system for prostate cancer does not provide different subclassifications for patients with node-positive prostate cancer. In recent years numerous advanced technologies for the detection of lymph node metastasis have been developed, including molecular imaging techniques and the CellSearch Circulating Tumor Cell System. With the increased detection of patients with prostate cancer, emergence of new technology to identify lymph node metastasis and the number of radical prostatectomies being performed on the rise, subclassifying patients with lymph node-positive disease is imperative. Subclassification would provide a better picture of patient prognosis and allow for a better understanding of targeted therapies to treat patients with lymph node metastasis.

  16. Comprehensive mollusk acute toxicity database improves the use of Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models to predict toxicity of untested freshwater and endangered mussel species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models extrapolate acute toxicity data from surrogate test species to untested taxa. A suite of ICE models developed from a comprehensive database is available on the US Environmental Protection Agency’s web-based application, Web-I...

  17. Comprehensive mollusk acute toxicity database improves the use of Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models to predict toxicity of untested freshwater and endangered mussel species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models extrapolate acute toxicity data from surrogate test species to untested taxa. A suite of ICE models developed from a comprehensive database is available on the US Environmental Protection Agency’s web-based application, Web-I...

  18. Print Me an Organ? Ethical and Regulatory Issues Emerging from 3D Bioprinting in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Frederic; O'Connell, Cathal D; Mladenovska, Tajanka; Dodds, Susan

    2017-02-09

    Recent developments of three-dimensional printing of biomaterials (3D bioprinting) in medicine have been portrayed as demonstrating the potential to transform some medical treatments, including providing new responses to organ damage or organ failure. However, beyond the hype and before 3D bioprinted organs are ready to be transplanted into humans, several important ethical concerns and regulatory questions need to be addressed. This article starts by raising general ethical concerns associated with the use of bioprinting in medicine, then it focuses on more particular ethical issues related to experimental testing on humans, and the lack of current international regulatory directives to guide these experiments. Accordingly, this article (1) considers whether there is a limit as to what should be bioprinted in medicine; (2) examines key risks of significant harm associated with testing 3D bioprinting for humans; (3) investigates the clinical trial paradigm used to test 3D bioprinting; (4) analyses ethical questions of irreversibility, loss of treatment opportunity and replicability; (5) explores the current lack of a specific framework for the regulation and testing of 3D bioprinting treatments.

  19. Migrants and emerging public health issues in a globalized world: threats, risks and challenges, an evidence-based framework

    PubMed Central

    Gushulak, BD; Weekers, J; MacPherson, DW

    2010-01-01

    International population mobility is an underlying factor in the emergence of public health threats and risks that must be managed globally. These risks are often related, but not limited, to transmissible pathogens. Mobile populations can link zones of disease emergence to lowprevalence or nonendemic areas through rapid or high-volume international movements, or both. Against this background of human movement, other global processes such as economics, trade, transportation, environment and climate change, as well as civil security influence the health impacts of disease emergence. Concurrently, global information systems, together with regulatory frameworks for disease surveillance and reporting, affect organizational and public awareness of events of potential public health significance. International regulations directed at disease mitigation and control have not kept pace with the growing challenges associated with the volume, speed, diversity, and disparity of modern patterns of human movement. The thesis that human population mobility is itself a major determinant of global public health is supported in this article by review of the published literature from the perspective of determinants of health (such as genetics/biology, behavior, environment, and socioeconomics), population-based disease prevalence differences, existing national and international health policies and regulations, as well as inter-regional shifts in population demographics and health outcomes. This paper highlights some of the emerging threats and risks to public health, identifies gaps in existing frameworks to manage health issues associated with migration, and suggests changes in approach to population mobility, globalization, and public health. The proposed integrated approach includes a broad spectrum of stakeholders ranging from individual health-care providers to policy makers and international organizations that are primarily involved in global health management, or are influenced

  20. Migrants and emerging public health issues in a globalized world: threats, risks and challenges, an evidence-based framework.

    PubMed

    Gushulak, Bd; Weekers, J; Macpherson, Dw

    2009-01-01

    International population mobility is an underlying factor in the emergence of public health threats and risks that must be managed globally. These risks are often related, but not limited, to transmissible pathogens. Mobile populations can link zones of disease emergence to lowprevalence or nonendemic areas through rapid or high-volume international movements, or both. Against this background of human movement, other global processes such as economics, trade, transportation, environment and climate change, as well as civil security influence the health impacts of disease emergence. Concurrently, global information systems, together with regulatory frameworks for disease surveillance and reporting, affect organizational and public awareness of events of potential public health significance. International regulations directed at disease mitigation and control have not kept pace with the growing challenges associated with the volume, speed, diversity, and disparity of modern patterns of human movement. The thesis that human population mobility is itself a major determinant of global public health is supported in this article by review of the published literature from the perspective of determinants of health (such as genetics/biology, behavior, environment, and socioeconomics), population-based disease prevalence differences, existing national and international health policies and regulations, as well as inter-regional shifts in population demographics and health outcomes. This paper highlights some of the emerging threats and risks to public health, identifies gaps in existing frameworks to manage health issues associated with migration, and suggests changes in approach to population mobility, globalization, and public health. The proposed integrated approach includes a broad spectrum of stakeholders ranging from individual health-care providers to policy makers and international organizations that are primarily involved in global health management, or are influenced

  1. Ethical issues of cardiopulmonary resuscitation: comparison of emergency physician practices from 1995 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Marco, Catherine A; Bessman, Edward S; Kelen, Gabor D

    2009-03-01

    The objectives were to determine current practice among emergency physicians (EPs) regarding the initiation and termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitative (CPR) efforts and to compare responses to those from a similar study performed in 1996. This anonymous self-administered survey was mailed to 4,991 randomly selected EPs. Main outcome measures included responses regarding current practices related to advance directives and initiation and termination of resuscitative attempts. Results from 1995 and 2007 surveys were compared, using 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the difference between groups. Among 928 respondents (18% response rate), most (86%) honor legal advance directives, an increase over 78% reported in 1996 (8% increase, 95% CI = 5% to 11%). Few honor unofficial documents (7%) or verbal reports (12%) of advance directives. Many (58%) make decisions regarding resuscitation because of fear of litigation or criticism. Most respondents (62%) attempt resuscitation in 10% or more of cases of cardiac arrest. A majority (56%) have attempted more than 10 resuscitations in the past 3 years, despite expectations that such efforts would be futile. Factors reported to be "very important" in making resuscitation decisions were advance directives (78%), witnessed arrest (77%), downtime (73%), family wishes (40%), presenting rhythm (38%), age (28%), and prearrest state of health (25%). A significant majority of respondents (80%) indicated that ideally, legal concerns should not influence physician practices regarding resuscitation, but that in the current environment, legal concerns do influence practice (92%). Other than the increase in respondents who honor legal advance directives, these results do not differ substantially from responses in 1996. Most EPs attempt to resuscitate patients in cardiopulmonary arrest regardless of poor outcomes, except in cases where a legal advance directive is available. Many EPs' decisions regarding resuscitation are based on

  2. Implementation and Operational Research: Convenient HIV Testing Service Models Are Attracting Previously Untested Gay and Bisexual Men: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Vickie; Wand, Handan; Gray, James; Keen, Phillip; McNulty, Anna; Guy, Rebecca

    2015-08-15

    HIV testing is a cornerstone of the treatment as prevention approach. We assessed which HIV testing service delivery models were more likely to attract untested or infrequent tested gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM). We compared demographics, risk behavior, and HIV testing history among new GBM clients attending 3 different HIV testing service models (fast-track Xpress clinic, fixed-site community-based service, and time-limited community-based shopfront) between August 2013 and May 2014. We used bivariate and multivariate regression to assess factors (including service model) associated with being untested or infrequent testers (not tested within the past 12 months). Overall, 1704 new GBM attended the services; 19% were untested and 41% were infrequent testers. Across the services, there were significant differences in demographics, risk behavior, and HIV testing history. The overall HIV seropositivity was 1.2% (95% confidence interval: 0.8% to 1.9%) and sexually transmitted infection positivity was 12.4% (95% confidence interval: 11.6 to 17.2) with no significant differences across services. Factors independently associated with being untested were attendance at the 2 community sites, younger age, being born in Asia, living in North Sydney, being bisexual and reporting fewer male sexual partners. Factors independently associated with infrequent testers were attending the fast track Xpress clinic, being older, being born in Asia, and reporting fewer male partners. The findings suggest both community and fast track testing service models are important to increase HIV testing among GBM with a similar yield of HIV diagnoses at the 3 services. The community models reached more untested men and the fast track model more infrequent testers.

  3. Issues in Energy Economics Led by Emerging Linkages between the Natural Gas and Power Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, Jeremy B.

    2007-09-15

    Fuel prices in 2006 continued at record levels, with uranium continuing upward unabated and coal, SO{sub 2} emission allowances, and natural gas all softening. This softening did not continue for natural gas, however, whose prices rose, fell and rose again, first following weather influences and, by the second quarter of 2007, continuing at high levels without any support from fundamentals. This article reviews these trends and describes the remarkable increases in fuel expenses for power generation. By the end of 2005, natural gas claimed 55% of annual power sector fuel expenses, even though it was used for only 19% of electric generation. Although natural gas is enormously important to the power sector, the sector also is an important driver of the natural gas market-growing to over 28% of the market even as total use has declined. The article proceeds to discuss globalization, natural gas price risk, and technology developments. Forces of globalization are poised to affect the energy markets in new ways-new in not being only about oil. Of particular interest in the growth of intermodal traffic and its a little-understood impacts on rail traffic patterns and transportation costs, and expected rapidly expanding LNG imports toward the end of the decade. Two aspects of natural gas price risk are discussed: how understanding the use of gas in the power sector helps define price ceilings and floors for natural gas, and how the recent increase in the natural gas production after years of record drilling could alter the supply-demand balance for the better. The article cautions, however, that escalation in natural gas finding and development costs is countering the more positive developments that emerged during 2006. Regarding technology, the exploitation of unconventional natural gas was one highlight. So too was the queuing up of coal-fired power plants for the post-2010 period, a phenomenon that has come under great pressure with many consequences including increased

  4. Personalized medicine and the role of health economics and outcomes research: issues, applications, emerging trends, and future research.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, John C

    2013-01-01

    The decade since the completion of the sequencing of the human genome has witnessed significant advances in the incorporation of genomic information in diagnostic, treatment, and reimbursement practices. Indeed, as case in point, there are now several dozen commercially available genomic tests routinely applied across a wide range of disease states in predictive or prognostic applications. Moreover, many involved in the advancement of personalized medicine would view emerging approaches to stratify patients in meaningful ways beyond genomic information as a signal of the progress made. Yet despite these advances, there remains a general sense of dissatisfaction about the progress of personalized medicine in terms of its contribution to the drug development process, to the efficiency and effectiveness of health care delivery, and ultimately to the provision of the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Academicians, payers, and manufacturers alike are struggling not only with how to embed the new insights that personalized medicine promises but also with the fundamental issues of application in early drug development, implications for health technology assessment, new demands on traditional health economic and outcomes research methods, and implications for reimbursement and access. In fact, seemingly prosaic issues such as the definition and composition of the term "personalized medicine" are still unresolved. Regardless of these issues, practitioners are increasingly compelled to find practical solutions to the challenges and opportunities presented by the evolving face of personalized medicine today. Accordingly, the articles comprising this Special Issue offer applied perspectives geared toward professionals and policymakers in the field grappling with developing, assessing, implementing, and reimbursing personalized medicine approaches. Starting with a framework with which to characterize personalized medicine, this Special Issue proceeds to

  5. Emerging issues concerning the education of speech and language pathologists and audiologists in Brazil and South America.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux M; de Andrade, Claudia R F; Befi-Lopes, Debora M; Wertzner, Haydée F; Limongi, Suelly C O

    2010-01-01

    Diversity is one of the major characteristics of Brazil and all South America. This paper presents an overview of the current situation of the education of speech and language pathologists (SLP) and audiologists in Brazil and in several other countries of South America. This paper also discusses the main challenges shared by these countries. The discussion is focused on the mutual interferences between education and the areas of professional practice, cultural diversity and continued education. There are many emerging issues about the education of SLP and audiologists in South America. The suggested conclusion is that, despite the many differences, the South American SLP and audiologists' education would benefit from joint efforts and collaborative experiences.

  6. Health issues and the environment--an emerging paradigm for providers of obstetrical and gynaecological health care.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J

    2006-09-01

    Although ongoing study is required to winnow environmental ideology from scientific fact, existing evidence from recent research demonstrates a definitive link between chemical toxicants and potential health sequelae, including congenital affliction and gynaecological disorders. Amid media clamour of health risk and biological peril associated with various environmental toxicants, a spectrum of responses has emerged: some have embraced the environmental cause, some have summarily dismissed it as piffle and perhaps the majority has remained disinterested. Although journals devoted to toxicological and environmental health concerns have become prominent in academia with voluminous numbers of scientific reports being published, there has been limited exploration of the relationship between contemporary chemical exposure and reproductive medical issues in mainstream obstetrics and gynaecology literature. Providers of obstetrical and gynaecological health care need to acquire knowledge of taking an exposure history, instruction in details of precautionary avoidance, skills to provide preconception care and necessary tools to investigate and manage patients with toxicant exposure.

  7. Recent Progress and Emerging Issues in Measuring and Modeling Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Veres, P. R.; Hatch, L. E.; Barsanti, K. C.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Alvarado, M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Akagi, S. K.; McMeeking, G. R.; Stone, E.; Gilman, J.; Warneke, C.; Sedlacek, A. J.; Kleinman, L. I.

    2013-12-01

    . The detection rate for the sampled US prescribed fires was zero by burned area and <30% by active fire detection. Smoke evolution was measured for numerous gas-phase precursors and products, ozone, OA, ions, and BC and BrC mixing state. BC particles were coated within one hour and the smoke evolution was, in general, strongly impacted by the unidentified low volatility gases. An informative synthesis of lab and field fire data with fuels from the same sites was carried out. A preliminary comparison of wildfire and prescribed fire emissions will be presented. Novel schemes are under development to summarize the new emissions data for models, with limited mechanisms and parameterize fast, sub-grid processes. Key current issues to be discussed include: packaging/parameterizing the recent explosion of emissions/evolution data for use in model mechanisms; addressing fires not detected from space; addressing the large amount of unidentified semi-volatile gases emitted by all fires; and developing appropriate airborne and ground-based sampling scales/strategies for local-global models. We briefly summarize a recently funded project that will sample emissions and quantify biomass consumption by peat fires in Indonesia and a pending proposal for comprehensive sampling of cooking fires, brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel super-emitters, etc. in South Asia.

  8. Implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus infection: progress and emerging issues in research and policy

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Carlos F; Borquez, Annick; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Baggaley, Rachel; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. Discussion The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives. Those guidelines present a timely challenge to health systems for the scaling up of not only treatment for every person living with HIV infection but also the offer of PrEP to those at substantial risk. Delivery and uptake of both universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and PrEP will require nation-wide commitment and could reinvigorate health systems to develop more comprehensive “combination prevention” programmes and support wider testing linked to both treatments and other prevention options for populations at highest risk who are currently not accessing services. Various gaps in current health systems will need to be addressed to achieve strategic scale-up of PrEP, including developing prioritization strategies, strengthening drug regulations, determining cost and funding sources, training health providers, supporting user adherence and creating demand. Conclusions The initial steps in the scale-up of PrEP globally suggest feasibility, acceptability and likely impact. However, to prevent setbacks in less well-resourced settings, countries will need to anticipate and address challenges such as operational and health systems barriers, drug cost and regulatory policies, health providers’ openness to prescribing PrEP to populations at substantial risk, demand and legal and human rights issues. Emerging problems will require creative solutions and will continue to illustrate the complexity of Pr

  9. MASS MEDIA COMMUNICATION OF EMERGENCY ISSUES AND COUNTERMEASURES IN A NUCLEAR ACCIDENT: FUKUSHIMA REPORTING IN EUROPEAN NEWSPAPERS.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Eduardo; Cantone, Marie Claire; Oughton, Deborah H; Perko, Tanja; Prezelj, Iztok; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a large study of 1340 articles published by two major newspapers in six European countries (Belgium, Italy, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Russia) in the first 2 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The focus of the analysis is on the application and overall impact of protective actions, both during the emergency phase and later, how the newspapers describe those actions, which differences were apparent between countries and what recommendations can be extracted in order to improve general communication about these issues. A clear lesson is that, even under uncertainty and recognising limitations, responsible authorities need to provide transparent, clear and understandable information to the public and the mass media right from the beginning of the early phase of any nuclear emergency. Clear, concise messages should be given. Mass media could play a key role in reassuring the public if the countermeasures are clearly explained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Electronic health records, adoption, quality of care, legal and privacy issues and their implementation in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Ben-Assuli, Ofir

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the healthcare sector has shown a growing interest in information technologies. Two popular health IT (HIT) products are the electronic health record (EHR) and health information exchange (HIE) networks. The introduction of these tools is believed to improve care, but has also raised some important questions and legal and privacy issues. The implementation of these systems has not gone smoothly, and still faces some considerable barriers. This article reviews EHR and HIE to address these obstacles, and analyzes the current state of development and adoption in various countries around the world. Moreover, legal and ethical concerns that may be encountered by EHR users and purchasers are reviewed. Finally, links and interrelations between EHR and HIE and several quality of care issues in today's healthcare domain are examined with a focus on EHR and HIE in the emergency department (ED), whose unique characteristics makes it an environment in which the implementation of such technology may be a major contributor to health, but also faces substantial challenges. The paper ends with a discussion of specific policy implications and recommendations based on an examination of the current limitations of these systems.

  11. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Slob, Wout; Galli, Corrado; Silano, Vittorio

    2008-08-15

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety experts and regulators of risks associated with the use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in food including food supplements. It is becoming clear that "natural" does not equal "safe" and that, in modern society, adverse health effects can occur as a result of (mis)use. With the growing awareness of these issues efforts to ensure safety of botanicals and botanical ingredients are also increasing. Several guidance documents on safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations to be used as ingredients in food and food supplements have been published, although, at present, relevant legislative frameworks and guidances for risk assessment are not established yet. Furthermore, when defining possible guidance documents for risk assessment of botanicals, several issues emerge that need to be developed beyond the present state-of-the-art. The present paper describes some of the issues to be considered and developed to a further extent to improve risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations, illustrated by examples based on some allylalkoxybenzenes. It is concluded that, for an improved and more accurate future risk assessment of botanicals, it is necessary to further develop and validate: (i) the use of the margin of exposure (MOE) concept for compounds that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic; (ii) new ways to quantify and incorporate matrix effects into risk assessment strategies; (iii) the use of analytical chemistry approaches, enabling complete chemical characterisation of complex mixtures. Defining new approaches in risk assessment would be in line with the inspiring attitude of the late Professor Robert Kroes, who, for example by supporting the

  12. The problem of untested sexual assault kits: why are some kits never submitted to a crime laboratory?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-07-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a sexual assault kit [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities throughout the United States, thousands of SAKs are left untested. Few studies have examined the rate at which law enforcement submits SAKs to crime labs or the factors that may predict them to do so. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of SAKs law enforcement submits to crime labs in cases in which a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) performed the exam with adult victims and (b) to explore whether assault and law enforcement characteristics predict whether SAKs are submitted to a crime lab. This study found that only 58.6% of the SAKs were submitted to the crime lab within a large Midwestern county. Using binary logistic regression, this study found that kits were significantly as likely to be submitted when there were documented physical (nonanogenital) injuries compared with kits that did not have documented physical injuries. In addition, kits that were handled by a law enforcement agency that had a high level of engagement with the SANE program were significantly as likely to be submitted as law enforcement agencies with a low or medium level of engagement. Kits were significantly less likely to be submitted when victims cleaned themselves after the sexual assault (e.g., bathing). No association was found between kit submission and the victim-offender relationship, suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, anogenital injury, and when the victim consumed alcohol or drugs before the assault. This article concludes with a discussion of the implications for research and practice.

  13. Prevalence of hereditary angioedema in untested first-degree blood relatives of known subjects with hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Marc A; Lumry, William R; Busse, Paula; Levy, Howard; Steele, Tamara; Dayno, Jeffrey; Li, H Henry

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease characterized by recurring attacks of nonpruritic, nonpitting edema caused by an inherited deficiency or dysfunction of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Symptoms can present years before an accurate diagnosis is made. The objective of this study, the Angioedema Clinical Epidemiology Testing Initiative for the Study of Hereditary Angioedema, was to determine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of HAE in untested first-degree blood relatives of known patients with HAE. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HAE recruited first-degree relatives who had not been evaluated for HAE. Enrolled subjects underwent complement testing (C4, C1 INH antigen, and functional C1 INH). If the lab tests were abnormal, the enrolled subjects returned to the site for a follow-up visit and questionnaire. Overall, 31 patients with HAE and 46 first-degree relatives enrolled in the study. Of 46 enrolled relatives, 30 (65%) had lab test results that ruled out a diagnosis of HAE, two (4%) were categorized as "HAE not ruled out," and 14 (30%) were newly diagnosed with HAE. Of 14 newly diagnosed subjects, nine (64%) reported having experienced symptoms that may have been related to HAE, such as swelling in the throat, face, or extremities or abdominal pain. When reported, median age of symptom onset in these 14 subjects was nine years whereas newly diagnosed asymptomatic subjects had a median chronological age of six years. These 14 subjects reported a historic mean standard deviation rate of 2.51 (5.59) swelling episodes per month with a mean standard deviation duration of 1.6 (0.74) days. This study's findings reinforce the importance of testing family members of patients with HAE to detect this hereditary condition.

  14. Ethical issues in the response to Ebola virus disease in United States emergency departments: a position paper of the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association, and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Asher, Shellie L; Wolf, Lisa; Geiderman, Joel M; Marco, Catherine A; McGreevy, Jolion; Derse, Arthur R; Otten, Edward J; Jesus, John E; Kreitzer, Natalie P; Escalante, Monica; Levine, Adam C

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has presented a significant public health crisis to the international health community and challenged U.S. emergency departments (EDs) to prepare for patients with a disease of exceeding rarity in developed nations. With the presentation of patients with Ebola to U.S. acute care facilities, ethical questions have been raised in both the press and medical literature as to how U.S. EDs, emergency physicians (EPs), emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system should approach the current epidemic and its potential for spread in the domestic environment. To address these concerns, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association, and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine developed this joint position paper to provide guidance to U.S. EPs, emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system on how to approach the ethical dilemmas posed by the outbreak of EVD. This paper will address areas of immediate and potential ethical concern to U.S. EDs in how they approach preparation for and management of potential patients with EVD.

  15. Reporting of gunshot wounds by doctors in emergency departments: a duty or a right? Some legal and ethical issues surrounding breaking patient confidentiality.

    PubMed

    Frampton, A

    2005-02-01

    Recent guidelines have been produced advising doctors working in emergency departments that they should report all gunshot injuries to the police (albeit with consent in all but very limited circumstances). This article will discuss some of the legal and ethical issues that surround breaking patient confidentiality in relation to gunshot wounds and other potentially dangerous patients; and looks at some cases from the UK and the USA where such issues have been ruled on. Finally, the issue of whether physicians do, or should, have a duty to warn when they feel that their patient may be dangerous will be discussed.

  16. Responding To Infectious Disease: Multiple Cases of Staph Infections in a Rural School District. Lessons Learned From School Crises and Emergencies, Volume 3, Issue 3, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an incident involving several cases of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at a rural high school. MRSA is a specific strain of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (often called staph)…

  17. Responding To and Recovering From an Active Shooter Incident That Turns Into a Hostage Situation. Lessons Learned From School Crises and Emergencies, Volume 2, Issue 6, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an active shooter situation that escalated to a hostage situation that required multiple law enforcement agencies and other first responders and agencies to coordinate response and recovery…

  18. Access to Information-Age Technologies: A Report on an Exploratory Project Examining the Issue of "Accessibility" for Handicapped and Older Persons to Emerging Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowe, Frank G.

    The project reviewed literature, surveyed manufacturers, and interviewed handicapped and elderly consumers of information-age technologies in an attempt to identify important accessibility issues with respect to emerging information technologies, particularly the personal computer. Results suggested that personal computers appear to be moving…

  19. Emerging Issues in the Rural Economy of the South. Proceedings of a Regional Workshop (Birmingham, Alabama, January 13-14, 1986). SRDC Series No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    The papers in this monograph represent the collective comments of speakers at a January 1986 conference addressing emerging issues in the rural economy of the South. The opening paper suggests that prospects for rural southern economic development are tied to new business development, new agricultural products, automated traditional manufacturing,…

  20. Communication and Collaboration During Natural Disasters: The Lessons Learned From Past Experience. Lessons Learned From School Crises and Emergencies, Volume 3, Issue 2, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on the response and recovery efforts to wildfires by the San Diego County Office of Education (SDCOE) and its school and community partners. Natural disasters such as floods,…

  1. Developing clinical practice guidelines: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and accounting for comorbid conditions in guideline development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this third paper we discuss the issues of: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the two emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and how guideline developers should approach dealing with the issue of patients who will be the subject of guidelines having co-morbid conditions. PMID:22762242

  2. EDITORIAL: Introduction to the special issue on electromagnetic inverse problems: emerging methods and novel applications Introduction to the special issue on electromagnetic inverse problems: emerging methods and novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, O.; Lesselier, D.

    2010-07-01

    Inverse problems in electromagnetics have a long history and have stimulated exciting research over many decades. New applications and solution methods are still emerging, providing a rich source of challenging topics for further investigation. The purpose of this special issue is to combine descriptions of several such developments that are expected to have the potential to fundamentally fuel new research, and to provide an overview of novel methods and applications for electromagnetic inverse problems. There have been several special sections published in Inverse Problems over the last decade addressing fully, or partly, electromagnetic inverse problems. Examples are: Electromagnetic imaging and inversion of the Earth's subsurface (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and T Habashy) October 2000 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data (Guest Editors: K Belkebir and M Saillard) December 2001 Electromagnetic and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and J Bowler) December 2002 Electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles (Guest Editors: D Lesselier and W C Chew) December 2004 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data: inhomogeneous targets (Guest Editors: K Belkebir and M Saillard) December 2005 Testing inversion algorithms against experimental data: 3D targets (Guest Editors: A Litman and L Crocco) February 2009 In a certain sense, the current issue can be understood as a continuation of this series of special sections on electromagnetic inverse problems. On the other hand, its focus is intended to be more general than previous ones. Instead of trying to cover a well-defined, somewhat specialized research topic as completely as possible, this issue aims to show the broad range of techniques and applications that are relevant to electromagnetic imaging nowadays, which may serve as a source of inspiration and encouragement for all those entering this active and rapidly developing research area. Also, the

  3. Emergency mitral valve replacement for acute severe mitral regurgitation following balloon mitral valvotomy: pathophysiology of hemodynamic collapse and peri-operative management issues.

    PubMed

    Bayya, Praveen Reddy; Varma, Praveen Kerala; Raman, Suneel Puthuvassery; Neema, Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Severe mitral regurgitation (MR) following balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV) needing emergent mitral valve replacement is a rare complication. The unrelieved mitral stenosis is compounded by severe MR leading to acute rise in pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular afterload, decreased coronary perfusion, ischemia and right ventricular failure. Associated septal shift and falling left ventricular preload leads to a vicious cycle of myocardial ischemia and hemodynamic collapse and needs to be addressed emergently before the onset of end organ damage. In this report, we describe the pathophysiology of hemodynamic collapse and peri-operative management issues in a case of mitral valve replacement for acute severe MR following BMV.

  4. Managing people with mental health presentations in emergency departments--a service exploration of the issues surrounding responsiveness from a mental health care consumer and carer perspective.

    PubMed

    Morphet, Julia; Innes, Kelli; Munro, Ian; O'Brien, Anthony; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Reed, Fiona; Kudinoff, Teresa

    2012-08-01

    Mainstreaming of mental health services (MHS) within the Australian medical system has generated a fundamental transformation in the way consumers and carers access emergency MHS. People present to the Emergency Department (ED) with many health issues which can often include the management of their mental illness, physical co morbidity, or substance use. This paper discusses the issues surrounding access to EDs for clients, families and staff in the context of presentations for mental health problems at a southern metropolitan hospital in Victoria. The pilot project utilised focus groups with mental health care consumers and carers to collaboratively focus on and document the mental health client's 'journey of care' in the ED. There is evidence to suggest from this project that the ED mental health client journey needs continuous improvement and evaluation.

  5. ["Emergency measures"].

    PubMed

    Louis, Jean-Jacques

    2012-03-01

    This article deals with the impact of health crisis on governance of public health. It tries to show that, in accordance with the thought of Michel Foucault, emergency measures issued during health crisis are akin to those issued during wartime.

  6. Something Old, Something New: The Wedding of Rural Education and Rural Development. SGPB Alert: Analysis of Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that rural communities will have to alter their economic patterns as the United States economy shifts and rural areas cannot compete successfully with cities for emerging industries and future jobs. Instead of catering to the large firms and high-tech companies that are expected to predominate in the future,…

  7. Planning and Conducting a Functional Exercise. Helpful Hints for School Emergency Management. Volume 2, Issue 4, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    A key component of comprehensive school and school district emergency management plans is an exercise program that includes the five types of exercises: (1) orientation seminars; (2) drills; (3) tabletop exercises; and (4) functional exercises. Functional exercises are excellent tools for testing the extent to which an existing emergency…

  8. Something Old, Something New: The Wedding of Rural Education and Rural Development. SGPB Alert: Analysis of Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that rural communities will have to alter their economic patterns as the United States economy shifts and rural areas cannot compete successfully with cities for emerging industries and future jobs. Instead of catering to the large firms and high-tech companies that are expected to predominate in the future,…

  9. Educational Issues for Children and Young People in Families Living in Emergency Accommodation--An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Anna Fiona; Halpenny, Ann Marie; Gilligan, Robbie

    2006-01-01

    The article explores how homelessness may impact on the educational participation of children and young people in families living in emergency accommodation in Dublin. Many difficulties arise in terms of maintaining consistent schooling for children when they are part of a homeless family, including problems getting to and from school if living at…

  10. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. Summarizing Environmental Security Monthly Scanning July 2007 - December 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Directive on urban waste water treatment ; final written warning to 12 EU Member States for failing to adopt emergency plans for chemical plants...reference=IP/07/1531&format=HTML&aged=0& language=EN&guiLanguage=en Waste water treatment : Commission gives Luxembourg final warning, seeks... Waste Management and Water Quality Chemical, Biological, Nuclear Safety IAEA to Upgrade International Nuclear Event Scale Progress on the Nuclear

  11. Holistic Integrative Analysis of International Change: A Commentary on Teaching Emergent Futures (Proteus Monograph Series. Volume 1, Issue 3)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Mill, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Montaigne, Machiavelli, Burke, Goethe, Schiller, Herder, Leibnitz, Schopenhauer , Nietzsche, Hegel, and Marx; and...comment applies well to Hayek’s view (1979) and to human systems futures forecasting. Arthur Schopenhauer and his German contemporaries worked heavily...in this idea-species and conforming idea-strategy area as leading to societal patterns ( Schopenhauer 1969). a commentary on teacHing emergent

  12. Managing marine mollusc diseases in the context of regional and international commerce: policy issues and emerging concerns

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, Ryan B.; Arzul, Isabelle; Bushek, David

    2016-01-01

    Marine mollusc production contributes to food and economic security worldwide and provides valuable ecological services, yet diseases threaten these industries and wild populations. Although the infrastructure for mollusc aquaculture health management is well characterized, its foundations are not without flaws. Use of notifiable pathogen lists can leave blind spots with regard to detection of unlisted and emerging pathogens. Increased reliance on molecular tools has come without similar attention to diagnostic validation, raising questions about assay performance, and has been accompanied by a reduced emphasis on microscopic diagnostic expertise that could weaken pathogen detection capabilities. Persistent questions concerning pathogen biology and ecology promote regulatory paralysis that impedes trade and which could weaken biosecurity by driving commerce to surreptitious channels. Solutions that might be pursued to improve shellfish aquaculture health management include the establishment of more broad-based surveillance programmes, wider training and use of general methods like histopathology to ensure alertness to emerging diseases, an increased focus on assay assessment and validation as fundamental to assay development, investment in basic research, and application of risk analyses to improve regulation. A continual sharpening of diagnostic tools and approaches and deepening of scientific knowledge is necessary to manage diseases and promote sustainable molluscan shellfish industries. PMID:26880834

  13. Managing marine mollusc diseases in the context of regional and international commerce: policy issues and emerging concerns.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Ryan B; Arzul, Isabelle; Bushek, David

    2016-03-05

    Marine mollusc production contributes to food and economic security worldwide and provides valuable ecological services, yet diseases threaten these industries and wild populations. Although the infrastructure for mollusc aquaculture health management is well characterized, its foundations are not without flaws. Use of notifiable pathogen lists can leave blind spots with regard to detection of unlisted and emerging pathogens. Increased reliance on molecular tools has come without similar attention to diagnostic validation, raising questions about assay performance, and has been accompanied by a reduced emphasis on microscopic diagnostic expertise that could weaken pathogen detection capabilities. Persistent questions concerning pathogen biology and ecology promote regulatory paralysis that impedes trade and which could weaken biosecurity by driving commerce to surreptitious channels. Solutions that might be pursued to improve shellfish aquaculture health management include the establishment of more broad-based surveillance programmes, wider training and use of general methods like histopathology to ensure alertness to emerging diseases, an increased focus on assay assessment and validation as fundamental to assay development, investment in basic research, and application of risk analyses to improve regulation. A continual sharpening of diagnostic tools and approaches and deepening of scientific knowledge is necessary to manage diseases and promote sustainable molluscan shellfish industries.

  14. Workplace worries: a preliminary look at online sexual activities at the office-emerging issues for clinicians and employers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Al; Safir, Marilyn P; Rosenmann, Amir

    2006-02-01

    Concerns about the impact of online sexual activities (OSA) on work-life are drastically increasing. This study examined 3,466 respondents who reported OSA, 18.5% of whom reported engaging in OSA at work. They were compared with the 81.5% who engaged in OSA at home, on average time spent in OSA, workplace policies regarding OSA, and relationship status. Two themes were identified and discussed: opportunity and sexual distress. Our findings indicate that participants are cognizant of issues of opportunity (e.g., the OSA from home group was more likely to indicate their workplace has established policies regarding OSA), and privacy, representing an important aspect of this theme (e.g., participants engaging in OSA at work were found to be twice as likely to have extra-marital affairs, compared with the OSA from home group). Secondly, our data suggests that many participants, especially from the OSA at work group, experience OSA-related distress. Engaging in OSA at the workplace may result in decreased productivity, issues of sexual harassment, and concerns about employee well-being. Clearly stated and consistently enforced policies regulating OSA are likely to mitigate workplace OSA. However, a significant minority of employees may have difficulties curbing OSA. Therefore, more sophisticated strategies to deal with workplace OSA should be established. Additional implications of importance for organizations and mental health professionals who support them are discussed.

  15. Emerging issue of e-waste in Pakistan: A review of status, research needs and data gaps.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mehreen; Breivik, Knut; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    This review article focuses on the current situation of e-waste in Pakistan with the emphasis on defining the major e-waste recycling sites, current and future domestic generation of e-waste, hidden flows or import of e-waste and discusses various challenges for e-waste management. Needed policy interventions and possible measures to be taken at governmental level are discussed to avoid the increasing problem of e-waste in the country. Our findings highlight that there is still a general lack of reliable data, inventories and research studies addressing e-waste related issues in the context of environmental and human health in Pakistan. There is therefore a critical need to improve the current knowledge base, which should build upon the research experience from other countries which have experienced similar situations in the past. Further research into these issues in Pakistan is considered vital to help inform future policies/control strategies as already successfully implemented in other countries.

  16. The Impact of Legalizing and Regulating Weed: Issues with Study Design and Emerging Findings in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Priscillia E; Miles, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Evaluations of the impact of medical and recreational marijuana laws rely on quasi- or natural experiments in which researchers exploit changes in the law and attempt to determine the impact of these changes on outcomes. This chapter reviews three key issues of causal inference in observational studies with respect to estimating of impact of medical or recreational laws on marijuana use-intervention definition, outcome measurement, and random assignment of study participants. We show that studies tend to use the same statistical approach (differences-in-differences) and yet find differential impacts of medical marijuana laws on adult use in particular. We demonstrate that these seemingly conflicting findings may be due to different years of analysis, ages of the study sample in each year, and assignment of jurisdictions to the control group versus treatment group.

  17. Review and prospect of emerging contaminants in waste--key issues and challenges linked to their presence in waste treatment schemes: general aspects and focus on nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, M-A; Matias, M; Olivier, F; Keck, G

    2013-11-01

    The presence in waste of emerging pollutants (EPs), whose behaviours and effects are not well understood, may present unexpected health and environmental risks and risks for the treatment processes themselves. EP may include substances that are newly detected in the environment, substances already identified as risky and whose use in items is prohibited (but which may be present in old or imported product waste) or substances already known but whose recent use in products can cause problems during their future treatment as waste. Several scientific studies have been conducted to assess the presence of EP in waste, but they are mostly dedicated to a single category of substance or one particular waste treatment. In the absence of a comprehensive review focused on the impact of the presence of EP on waste treatment schemes, the authors present a review of the key issues associated with the treatment of waste containing emerging pollutants. This review presents the typologies of emerging pollutants that are potentially present in waste along with the major challenges for each treatment scheme (recycling, composting, digestion, incineration, landfilling and wastewater treatment). All conventional treatment processes are affected by these new pollutants, and they were almost never originally designed to consider these substances. In addition to these general aspects, a comprehensive review of available data, projects and future R&D needs related to the impact of nanoparticles on waste treatment is presented as a case study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ERCMExpress. Volume 3, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Gina

    2007-01-01

    The Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's newsletter, "ERCMExpress," provides comprehensive information on key issues in school emergency management. This issue of "ERCMExpress" discusses "Tapping into Nontraditional Community Partners for Emergency Management." Collaboration by schools with community…

  19. Integrative medicine and systemic outcomes research: issues in the emergence of a new model for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Bell, Iris R; Caspi, Opher; Schwartz, Gary E R; Grant, Kathryn L; Gaudet, Tracy W; Rychener, David; Maizes, Victoria; Weil, Andrew

    2002-01-28

    Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using the term integrative medicine to refer to the merging of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with conventional biomedicine. However, combination medicine (CAM added to conventional) is not integrative. Integrative medicine represents a higher-order system of systems of care that emphasizes wellness and healing of the entire person (bio-psycho-socio-spiritual dimensions) as primary goals, drawing on both conventional and CAM approaches in the context of a supportive and effective physician-patient relationship. Using the context of integrative medicine, this article outlines the relevance of complex systems theory as an approach to health outcomes research. In this view, health is an emergent property of the person as a complex living system. Within this conceptualization, the whole may exhibit properties that its separate parts do not possess. Thus, unlike biomedical research that typically examines parts of health care and parts of the individual, one at a time, but not the complete system, integrative outcomes research advocates the study of the whole. The whole system includes the patient-provider relationship, multiple conventional and CAM treatments, and the philosophical context of care as the intervention. The systemic outcomes encompass the simultaneous, interactive changes within the whole person.

  20. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: A Review of Emerging Issues and Technologies.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Wissam; Giordano, James J; Rossi, Peter J; Mogilner, Alon Y; Gunduz, Aysegul; Judy, Jack W; Klassen, Bryan T; Butson, Christopher R; Van Horne, Craig; Deny, Damiaan; Dougherty, Darin D; Rowell, David; Gerhardt, Greg A; Smith, Gwenn S; Ponce, Francisco A; Walker, Harrison C; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M; Mayberg, Helen S; Chizeck, Howard J; Langevin, Jean-Philippe; Volkmann, Jens; Ostrem, Jill L; Shute, Jonathan B; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Foote, Kelly D; Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Rossi, Marvin A; Oh, Michael; Pourfar, Michael; Rosenberg, Paul B; Silburn, Peter A; de Hemptine, Coralie; Starr, Philip A; Denison, Timothy; Akbar, Umer; Grill, Warren M; Okun, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current progress in the technological advances and the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, as presented by participants of the Fourth Annual DBS Think Tank, which was convened in March 2016 in conjunction with the Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration at the University of Florida, Gainesveille FL, USA. The Think Tank discussions first focused on policy and advocacy in DBS research and clinical practice, formation of registries, and issues involving the use of DBS in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome. Next, advances in the use of neuroimaging and electrochemical markers to enhance DBS specificity were addressed. Updates on ongoing use and developments of DBS for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, Alzheimer's disease, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, obesity, addiction were presented, and progress toward innovation(s) in closed-loop applications were discussed. Each section of these proceedings provides updates and highlights of new information as presented at this year's international Think Tank, with a view toward current and near future advancement of the field.

  1. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: A Review of Emerging Issues and Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Wissam; Giordano, James J.; Rossi, Peter J.; Mogilner, Alon Y.; Gunduz, Aysegul; Judy, Jack W.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Butson, Christopher R.; Van Horne, Craig; Deny, Damiaan; Dougherty, Darin D.; Rowell, David; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Smith, Gwenn S.; Ponce, Francisco A.; Walker, Harrison C.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Mayberg, Helen S.; Chizeck, Howard J.; Langevin, Jean-Philippe; Volkmann, Jens; Ostrem, Jill L.; Shute, Jonathan B.; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Foote, Kelly D.; Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Rossi, Marvin A.; Oh, Michael; Pourfar, Michael; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Silburn, Peter A.; de Hemptine, Coralie; Starr, Philip A.; Denison, Timothy; Akbar, Umer; Grill, Warren M.; Okun, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current progress in the technological advances and the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, as presented by participants of the Fourth Annual DBS Think Tank, which was convened in March 2016 in conjunction with the Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration at the University of Florida, Gainesveille FL, USA. The Think Tank discussions first focused on policy and advocacy in DBS research and clinical practice, formation of registries, and issues involving the use of DBS in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome. Next, advances in the use of neuroimaging and electrochemical markers to enhance DBS specificity were addressed. Updates on ongoing use and developments of DBS for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, Alzheimer's disease, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, obesity, addiction were presented, and progress toward innovation(s) in closed-loop applications were discussed. Each section of these proceedings provides updates and highlights of new information as presented at this year's international Think Tank, with a view toward current and near future advancement of the field. PMID:27920671

  2. Emergencies and Emergency Permits for Ocean Dumping

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emergency permits under the MPRSA are issued if disposed material poses a threat to human health. Information is provided on emergency permit examples and disposal sites. Emergencies to safeguard life at sea does not require an ocean dumping permit.

  3. HIV-Untested Men who have Sex with Men in South Africa: The Perception of Not Being at Risk and Fear of Being Tested

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Juan A.; Yi, Huso; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Rich, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    A community-based needs assessment among men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Africa found that 27% (n=280/1045) of MSM had never been tested for HIV. The most frequently reported reasons for not having been tested were the perception of not being at risk (57%) and fear of being tested (52%). This article explores factors associated with these two reasons among the untested MSM. In multiple logistic regressions, the perception of not being at risk of HIV infection was negatively associated with being black, coloured or Indian, being sexually active, knowing people living with HIV, and a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the past 24 months (adj. OR = 0.24, 0.32, 0.38, and 0.22, respectively). Fear of being tested for HIV was positively associated with being black, coloured or Indian, preferred gender expression as feminine, being sexually active, a history of STIs, and experience of victimization on the basis of sexual orientation (adj. OR = 2.90, 4.07, 4.62, 5.05, and 2.34, respectively). Results suggest that HIV prevention programs directed at South African MSM will be more effective if testing and treatment of STIs are better integrated into HIV testing systems. Finally, social exclusion on the basis of race and sexual orientation ought to be addressed in order to reach hidden, at-risk, populations of MSM. PMID:23054041

  4. Field evaluation of a previously untested strain of biolarvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis H14) for mosquito control in an urban area of Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S K; Upadhyay, A K; Haque, M A; Raghavendra, K; Dash, A P

    2008-09-01

    A previously untested strain of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) serotype H14 (ID No. VCRC B17) has been evaluated under field conditions in an urban area of Rourkela city, India for its impact on the larval density of different mosquito species in a variety of habitats. The persistence of the biolarvicide used in an aqueous solution varied in different habitats. The lowest field application rate of 0.5 ml/m2 remained effective for about 10-12 days and provided 80-100% reduction in larval abundance of anopheline species, including Anopheles culicifacies breeding in unpolluted water bodies. However, in stagnant polluted waters in drains and cesspools supporting culicine breeding, the biocide at the same rate persists for 5-6 days only. An application rate of 1 ml/m2 to stagnant drains and cesspools, resulted in 84-100% reduction in the larval population of Culex quinquefasciatus over a period of 2 wk. Based on the field observations, an operational dose of 0.5 ml/m2 at fortnightly intervals is suggested for clean water sources supporting anopheline breeding. However, to control breeding of culicine mosquitoes in stagnant and polluted waters, an operational dose of 1 ml/m2 at fortnightly intervals is required. The study showed that Bti serotype H14 (VCRC B17) is a suitable biolarvicide that can be used against different mosquitoes in different types of urban habitats.

  5. Availability and Readability of Emergency Preparedness Materials for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing and Older Adult Populations: Issues and Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Neuhauser, Linda; Ivey, Susan L.; Huang, Debbie; Engelman, Alina; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Gurung, Sidhanta; Kealey, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    A major public health challenge is to communicate effectively with vulnerable populations about preparing for disasters and other health emergencies. People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (Deaf/HH) and older adults are particularly vulnerable during health emergencies and require communications that are accessible and understandable. Although health literacy studies indicate that the readability of health communication materials often exceeds people’s literacy levels, we could find no research about the readability of emergency preparedness materials (EPM) intended for Deaf/HH and older adult populations. The objective of this study was to explore issues related to EPM for Deaf/HH and older adult populations, to assess the availability and readability of materials for these populations, and to recommend improvements. In two California counties, we interviewed staff at 14 community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Deaf/HH clients and 20 CBOs serving older adults selected from a stratified, random sample of 227 CBOs. We collected 40 EPM from 10 CBOs and 2 public health departments and 40 EPM from 14 local and national websites with EPM for the public. We used computerized assessments to test the U.S. grade reading levels of the 16 eligible CBO and health department EPM, and the 18 eligible website materials. Results showed that less than half of CBOs had EPM for their clients. All EPM intended for clients of Deaf/HH-serving CBOs tested above the recommended 4th grade reading level, and 91% of the materials intended for clients of older adult-serving CBOs scored above the recommended 6th grade level. EPM for these populations should be widely available through CBOs and public health departments, adhere to health literacy principles, and be accessible in alternative formats including American Sign Language. Developers should engage the intended users of EPM as co-designers and testers. This study adds to the limited literature about EPM for these populations. PMID

  6. Availability and readability of emergency preparedness materials for deaf and hard-of-hearing and older adult populations: issues and assessments.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Linda; Ivey, Susan L; Huang, Debbie; Engelman, Alina; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Gurung, Sidhanta; Kealey, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    A major public health challenge is to communicate effectively with vulnerable populations about preparing for disasters and other health emergencies. People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (Deaf/HH) and older adults are particularly vulnerable during health emergencies and require communications that are accessible and understandable. Although health literacy studies indicate that the readability of health communication materials often exceeds people's literacy levels, we could find no research about the readability of emergency preparedness materials (EPM) intended for Deaf/HH and older adult populations. The objective of this study was to explore issues related to EPM for Deaf/HH and older adult populations, to assess the availability and readability of materials for these populations, and to recommend improvements. In two California counties, we interviewed staff at 14 community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Deaf/HH clients and 20 CBOs serving older adults selected from a stratified, random sample of 227 CBOs. We collected 40 EPM from 10 CBOs and 2 public health departments and 40 EPM from 14 local and national websites with EPM for the public. We used computerized assessments to test the U.S. grade reading levels of the 16 eligible CBO and health department EPM, and the 18 eligible website materials. Results showed that less than half of CBOs had EPM for their clients. All EPM intended for clients of Deaf/HH-serving CBOs tested above the recommended 4(th) grade reading level, and 91% of the materials intended for clients of older adult-serving CBOs scored above the recommended 6(th) grade level. EPM for these populations should be widely available through CBOs and public health departments, adhere to health literacy principles, and be accessible in alternative formats including American Sign Language. Developers should engage the intended users of EPM as co-designers and testers. This study adds to the limited literature about EPM for these populations.

  7. Co-occurring posttraumatic stress and substance use: Emerging research on correlates, mechanisms, and treatments-Introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Anka A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. Despite the well-established prevalence of this diagnostic comorbidity, much less is known about underlying etiological and maintenance processes or most effective treatment avenues. The comorbidity is complex, difficult to treat, and marked by a more costly and chronic clinical course, when compared with either disorder alone. Therefore, this Special Issue is devoted to highlighting recent, theory-driven, scientifically rigorous, and clinically applicable advances in our understanding of the PTSD-SUD comorbidity across various populations. Emerging psychological science on PTSD-SUD is profiled, and biological, psychological, and social processes implicated in etiology and maintenance are highlighted along with promising innovations in treatment. The articles range in methodology from more basic to applied, exemplifying a translational spectrum of research as each article presents meaningful clinical implications and future research directions. This introductory article describes the articles in this Special Issue and how they can inform the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Highly visible street-based HIV rapid testing: is it an attractive option for a previously untested population? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; de la Fuente, Luis; Hoyos, Juan; Rosales-Statkus, M Elena; Barrio, Gregorio; Belza, María-José

    2014-03-01

    Given the shortage of community-based HIV testing initiatives in resource-rich countries not targeting most-at-risk populations, we aimed to evaluate whether a highly visible mobile programme promoting and offering rapid HIV testing in the street can attract persons at risk for infection who have never been tested. Between 2008 and 2011, the programme served 7552 persons in various Spanish cities who answered a brief questionnaire while awaiting their results. The factors associated with being tested for the first time were analysed using two logistic regression models, one for men who have sex with men (MSM) and the other for only heterosexual men (MSW) and women. 3517 participants (47%) were first-time testers (24% of MSM, 56% of MSW and 60% of women). Among them, 22 undiagnosed HIV infections were detected with a global prevalence of 0.6% and 3.1% in MSM. Undergoing a first HIV test was independently associated with age <30, being from Spain or another developed country, lack of university education, having fewer partners, having had unprotected sex with casual partners and not having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. In heterosexuals, also with never injected drugs, and in MSM, with not being involved in the gay community. Among those tested for the first time, 22% had never thought of being tested and 62% decided to be tested when they passed by and noticed the programme, regardless of their previous intentions. This community programme attracted a substantial number of persons previously untested and particularly hard to reach, such as those with low education and MSM who were least involved in the gay community. Programme visibility was a decisive factor for almost two of every three persons who had never been tested.

  9. Faculty Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing syllabi for courses on faculty issues are discussed, and four sample syllabi are presented. Few doctoral programs in higher education administration were identified that devote an entire course to the subject of American college and university faculty. For four courses that did devote an entire course to the…

  10. Emerging issues in virus taxonomy.

    PubMed

    van Regenmortel, Marc H V; Mahy, Brian W J

    2004-01-01

    Viruses occupy a unique position in biology. Although they possess some of the properties of living systems such as having a genome, they are actually nonliving infectious entities and should not be considered microorganisms. A clear distinction should be drawn between the terms virus, virion, and virus species. Species is the most fundamental taxonomic category used in all biological classification. In 1991, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) decided that the category of virus species should be used in virus classification together with the categories of genus and family. More than 50 ICTV study groups were given the task of demarcating the 1,550 viral species that were recognized in the 7th ICTV report, which was published in 2000. We briefly describe the changes in virus classification that were introduced in that report. We also discuss recent proposals to introduce a nonlatinized binomial nomenclature for virus species.

  11. Emerging Issues in Handwriting Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillman, Carolyn V.; And Others

    Noting the general lack of research on handwriting instruction, a study examined hand and eye dominance, hand positions, and handwriting production of children. Subjects were 310 children from grades one through five in classrooms of regular children, mainstreamed team teaching classrooms, and self-contained gifted classes in a large elementary…

  12. Emerging Issues in Virus Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Mahy, Brian W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Viruses occupy a unique position in biology. Although they possess some of the properties of living systems such as having a genome, they are actually nonliving infectious entities and should not be considered microorganisms. A clear distinction should be drawn between the terms virus, virion, and virus species. Species is the most fundamental taxonomic category used in all biological classification. In 1991, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) decided that the category of virus species should be used in virus classification together with the categories of genus and family. More than 50 ICTV study groups were given the task of demarcating the 1,550 viral species that were recognized in the 7th ICTV report, which was published in 2000. We briefly describe the changes in virus classification that were introduced in that report. We also discuss recent proposals to introduce a nonlatinized binomial nomenclature for virus species. PMID:15078590

  13. Screening Out Controversy: Human Genetics, Emerging Techniques of Diagnosis, and the Origins of the Social Issues Committee of the American Society of Human Genetics, 1964-1973.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M X

    2017-05-01

    In the years following World War II, and increasingly during the 1960s and 1970s, professional scientific societies developed internal sub-committees to address the social implications of their scientific expertise (Moore, Disrupting Science: Social Movements, American Scientists, and the Politics of the Military, 1945-1975. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008). This article explores the early years of one such committee, the American Society of Human Genetics' "Social Issues Committee," founded in 1967. Although the committee's name might suggest it was founded to increase the ASHG's public and policy engagement, exploration of the committee's early years reveals a more complicated reality. Affronted by legislators' recent unwillingness to seek the expert advice of human geneticists before adopting widespread neonatal screening programs for phenylketonuria (PKU), and feeling pressed to establish their relevance in an increasingly resource-scarce funding environment, committee members sought to increase the discipline's expert authority. Painfully aware of controversy over abortion rights and haunted by the taint of the discipline's eugenic past, however, the committee proceeded with great caution. Seeking to harness interest in and assert professional control over emerging techniques of genetic diagnosis, the committee strove to protect the society's image by relegating ethical and policy questions about their use to the individual consciences of member scientists. It was not until 1973, after the committee's modest success in organizing support for a retrospective public health study of PKU screening and following the legalization of abortion on demand, that the committee decided to take a more publicly engaged stance.

  14. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  15. Perspectives on the Current Status of and Emerging Policy Issues for Single-Campus Public Institutions. AGB Occasional Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of concern to trustees of public, single-campus four-year institutions of higher education. Seven critical issues are listed: (1) enrollment trends are changing--although overall enrollment is increasing, the rate of growth is declining and there has been a shift from four-year and graduate institutions to two-year…

  16. Perspectives on the Current Status of and Emerging Policy Issues for Single-Campus Public Institutions. AGB Occasional Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of concern to trustees of public, single-campus four-year institutions of higher education. Seven critical issues are listed: (1) enrollment trends are changing--although overall enrollment is increasing, the rate of growth is declining and there has been a shift from four-year and graduate institutions to two-year…

  17. Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…

  18. Correction: Correction to 'Clinical Policy: Critical Issues in the Evaluation and Management of Adult Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department With Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning' [Annals of Emergency Medicine 69 (2017) 98-107.e6].

    PubMed

    Wolf, Stephen J; Maloney, Gerald E; Shih, Richard D; Shy, Bradley D; Brown, Michael D

    2017-04-07

    Due to a miscommunication during the process of transferring this manuscript from our editorial team to Production, the Members of the American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Committee (Oversight Committee) were not properly indexed in PubMed. This has now been corrected online. The publisher would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Correction: Correction to 'Clinical Policy: Critical Issues in the Evaluation of Adult Patients With Suspected Transient Ischemic Attack in the Emergency Department' [Annals of Emergency Medicine 68 (2016) 354-370.e29].

    PubMed

    Lo, Bruce M; Carpenter, Christopher R; Hatten, Benjamin W; Wright, Brian J; Brown, Michael D

    2017-04-07

    Due to a miscommunication during the process of transferring this manuscript from our editorial team to Production, the Members of the American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Committee (Oversight Committee) were not properly indexed in PubMed. This has now been corrected online. The publisher would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Correction: Correction to 'Clinical Policy: Critical Issues in the Initial Evaluation and Management of Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department in Early Pregnancy' [Annals of Emergency Medicine 69 (2017) 241-250.e20].

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sigrid A; Promes, Susan B; Brown, Michael D

    2017-04-07

    Due to a miscommunication during the process of transferring this manuscript from our editorial team to Production, the Members of the American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Committee (Oversight Committee) were not properly indexed in PubMed. This has now been corrected online. The publisher would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ERCMExpress. Volume 3, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Mary Frances; McDonald, Dale

    2007-01-01

    The Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress" is a newsletter that provides comprehensive information on key issues in school emergency management. This issue, entitled "Emergency Management Opportunities and Challenges for Non-Public Schools," examines integrating non-public…

  2. On the Road to SAC Professionalism. Emerging Models, Trends, and Issues in Credentialing: A Working Paper. Making the MOST Out of School Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Elizabeth A.

    This report presents findings from a national survey on emerging credentialing programs for school-age care (SAC) providers. About half of the states report that a credential is already available, is being piloted, or is being planned. About one-third of the states do not have a credential, nor is one being planned. Common characteristics of the…

  3. Report: Drinking Water Contamination in Flint, Michigan, Demonstrates a Need to Clarify EPA Authority to Issue Emergency Orders to Protect the Public

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #17-P-0004, Oct 20, 2016. To avoid future public health harm through drinking water contamination, the EPA needs to clarify for its employees how its emergency authority can and should be used to intervene in a public health threat.

  4. Emerging Issues in the Delivery of Rural Health Services. Prepared for the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry United States Senate, 98th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This document contains a compilation of articles that have been assembled because of their potential for enhancing understanding of rural health care issues and for their unwavering high standards. The articles promote high quality research in an area which is rapidly becoming a legitimate and recognized field of inquiry among scholars. Besides…

  5. Academic Accommodations for Postsecondary Students with Mental Health Disabilities in Ontario, Canada: A Review of the Literature and Reflections on Emerging Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condra, Mike; Dineen, Mira; Gills, Helen; Jack-Davies, Anita; Condra, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of students with mental health disabilities (MHDs) are enrolling at Canadian colleges and universities. This review examines the challenges and complexities of meeting the unique needs of these students at Ontario's postsecondary institutions, with a specific focus on the issue of academic accommodations. These complexities…

  6. Emerging Issues in the Delivery of Rural Health Services. Prepared for the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry United States Senate, 98th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This document contains a compilation of articles that have been assembled because of their potential for enhancing understanding of rural health care issues and for their unwavering high standards. The articles promote high quality research in an area which is rapidly becoming a legitimate and recognized field of inquiry among scholars. Besides…

  7. Proceedings of the Invitational Symposium on Emerging Critical Issues in Distance Higher Education (Albany, New York, November 28-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annenberg/CPB Project, Washington, DC.

    This document contains texts of presentations and transcriptions of panel discussions from an international symposium on critical issues in distance higher education. The following are included: "Opening Remarks" (Thomas Sobol); "The Changing Context for Distance Learning, Some Highlights" (Harold D. Hodgkinson); panel…

  8. Public Policies for Career Development. Case Studies And Emerging Issues For Designing Career Information And Guidance Systems In Developing And Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Fretwell, David H.

    2004-01-01

    The following pages summarize the findings of seven case-studies of public policy in career guidance carried out in Chile, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Turkey. The objectives of this World Bank study were: to identify and describe the distinctive issues faced by developing and transition economies in forming effective…

  9. "Why Isn't There a Cure?" Emerging Empathy and Prosocial Behaviors among Middle Childhood Children Responding to Real-World Issue Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Hyeyoung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore empathy and prosocial behaviors within real-world issues among Korean middle-childhood children living in Australia. Using a qualitative approach, seven students were engaged in six sessions of group or individual activities including five sessions of responding to video vignettes which demonstrated…

  10. "Why Isn't There a Cure?" Emerging Empathy and Prosocial Behaviors among Middle Childhood Children Responding to Real-World Issue Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Hyeyoung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore empathy and prosocial behaviors within real-world issues among Korean middle-childhood children living in Australia. Using a qualitative approach, seven students were engaged in six sessions of group or individual activities including five sessions of responding to video vignettes which demonstrated…

  11. Public Policies for Career Development. Case Studies And Emerging Issues For Designing Career Information And Guidance Systems In Developing And Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Fretwell, David H.

    2004-01-01

    The following pages summarize the findings of seven case-studies of public policy in career guidance carried out in Chile, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Turkey. The objectives of this World Bank study were: to identify and describe the distinctive issues faced by developing and transition economies in forming effective…

  12. Identification of potentially emerging food safety issues by analysis of reports published by the European Community's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) during a four-year period.

    PubMed

    Kleter, G A; Prandini, A; Filippi, L; Marvin, H J P

    2009-05-01

    The SAFE FOODS project undertakes to design a new approach towards the early identification of emerging food safety hazards. This study explored the utility of notifications filed through RASFF, the European Commission's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, to identify emerging trends in food safety issues. RASFF information and alert notifications published in the four-year period of July 2003-June 2007 were assigned to categories of products and hazards. For chronological trend analysis, a basic time unit of three months was chosen. Data within each hazard category were analyzed for chronological trends, relationships between product and hazard categories, regions of origin, and countries filing the notifications. Conspicuous trends that were observed included a rise in the incidence of food contact substances, particularly 2-isopropyl-thioxanthone, as well as of chemical substances migrating from utensils and fraud-related issues. Temporary increases were noted in the incidences of the unauthorized dye Para Red, genetically modified organisms, the pesticide isophenfos-methyl, and herring worm, Anisakis simplex. National and European authorities themselves have signaled these conspicuous trends and taken measures. It is recommended to add complementary data to RASFF data, including safety assessments, risk management measures, background data on hazards and surveillance patterns, for a holistic approach towards early identification of emerging hazards.

  13. ERCMExpress. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress" promotes emergency exercises as an effective way to validate school safety plans. Simulations of emergency situations, or emergency exercises, are integral to a sound school safety plan. They offer opportunities for district and schools to…

  14. What kind of memory has evolution wrought? Introductory article for the special issue of memory: adaptive memory: the emergence and nature of proximate mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    It is without question that our memory system evolved through a process of natural selection. However, basic research into the evolutionary foundations of memory has begun in earnest only recently. This is quite peculiar as the majority, perhaps even all, of memory research relates to whether memory is adaptive or not. In this Special Issue of Memory we have assembled a variety of papers that represent the cutting edge in research on the evolution of memory. These papers are centred on issues about the ultimate and proximate explanations of memory, the development of the adaptive functions of memory, as well as the positive consequences that arise from the current evolutionary form that our memory has taken. In this introductory article we briefly outline these different areas and indicate why they are vital for a more complete theory of memory. Further we argue that, by adopting a more applied stance in the area of the evolution of memory, one of the many future directions in this field could be a new branch of psychology that addresses questions in evolutionary legal psychology.

  15. Use of Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPERs) to Rapidly Assess Public Health Issues — United States, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M.; Schnall, Amy H.; Ballou, Shimere G.; Zane, David F.; Burrer, Sherry L.; Noe, Rebecca S.; Wolkin, Amy F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) is an epidemiologic technique designed to provide quick, inexpensive, accurate, and reliable household-based public health information about a community’s emergency response needs. The Health Studies Branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides in-field assistance and technical support to state, local, tribal, and territorial (SLTT) health departments in conducting CASPERs during a disaster response and in non-emergency settings. Data from CASPERs conducted from 2003 through 2012 were reviewed to describe uses of CASPER, ascertain strengths of the CASPER methodology, and highlight significant findings. Methods Through an assessment of the CDC’s CASPER metadatabase, all CASPERs that involved CDC support performed in US states and territories from 2003 through 2012 were reviewed and compared descriptively for differences in geographic distribution, sampling methodology, mapping tool, assessment settings, and result and action taken by decision makers. Results For the study period, 53 CASPERs were conducted in 13 states and one US territory. Among the 53 CASPERS, 38 (71.6%) used the traditional 2-stage cluster sampling methodology, 10 (18.8%) used a 3-stage cluster sampling, and two (3.7%) used a simple random sampling methodology. Among the CASPERs, 37 (69.9%) were conducted in response to specific natural or human-induced disasters, including 14 (37.8%) for hurricanes. The remaining 16 (30.1%) CASPERS were conducted in non-disaster settings to assess household preparedness levels or potential effects of a proposed plan or program. The most common recommendations resulting from a disaster-related CASPER were to educate the community on available resources (27; 72.9%) and provide services (18; 48.6%) such as debris removals and refills of medications. In preparedness CASPERs, the most common recommendations were to educate the community in disaster

  16. ERCMExpress. Volume 3, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's newsletter, "ERCMExpress," provides comprehensive information on key issues in school emergency management. This issue of "ERCMExpress," titled "Coping with the Death of a Student or Staff Member," highlights the range of impact death can have on a school community;…

  17. [Knowledge and opinions concerning legal and ethical issues with abortion among physicians working in emergency wards in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Loureiro, David Câmara; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on the knowledge and opinions of physicians regarding legal and ethical aspects of abortion. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by 57 physicians working in the emergency rooms of two hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil in 2001. The questionnaire had 38 questions on general knowledge, legislation, and attitudes towards abortion. Interviewees' mean age was 28.3, most were females, 52.6% were single, 42.1% were married, 54.4% were Catholic, and 21% were Spiritists. Although most of the physicians had a good level of overall knowledge on abortion (70%), one in five was not aware that abortion is the main cause of maternal mortality in Brazil. Most accepted the prevailing legal conditions for performing an abortion in Brazil but would also include fetal malformation incompatible with life, while opposing decriminalization of abortion on other grounds. Limited knowledge is revealed by misconceptions concerning enforcement of the prevailing legislation in practice. The study strongly suggests that many physicians lack knowledge or face difficulties in conforming to the Brazilian legislation on abortion.

  18. Responding to a Choking Emergency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & ... Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Sports Injuries Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Health Issues > Injuries & Emergencies > Responding to a Choking Emergency ...

  19. Medical emergencies in children of orthodox Jehovah’s Witness families: Three recent legal cases, ethical issues and proposals for management

    PubMed Central

    Guichon, Juliet; Mitchell, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Three recent Canadian legal cases have dealt with the proposed blood transfusion of adolescent members of Jehovah’s Witness (JW) families. In each case, the court permitted transfusions if medically necessary. Much critical analysis of the issue of forced treatment of decisionally competent adolescents focuses exclusively on competence and questions why mature minors may not decide for themselves. The authors argue that a focus on decision-making competence alone is too narrow. Before one may legally give or refuse consent to medical treatment, three conditions must be met: competence, adequate information and lack of coercion. In striving to find agreement on medical treatment, physicians, patients and JW family members seek and, in fact, often achieve mutual understanding and cooperation. Coercion by actual or threatened shunning and excommunication can occur, and these factors may affect adolescent decision-making. In this context, a court order authorizing medical treatment can, therefore, be seen as enhancing patient freedom. The authors suggest that, in addition to fulfilling existing statutory duties to report a child in need of protection, health care professionals caring for acute patients of JW families should actively look for evidence that the patient has accurate medical information and is acting without coercion. The authors also explore suggestions on how to deal with the unusual complexities of such cases. PMID:19030248

  20. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  1. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon ESU, 1/1/2016 - 12/31/2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Plumb, John M.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; Hemingway, Rulon; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2017-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2016 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2016, we described estimated the consumption rate and loss of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass before, during, and after four hatchery releases. Before releases, Smallmouth Bass consumption rates of subyearling was low (0–0.36 fish/bass/d), but the day after the releases consumption rates reached as high as 1.6 fish/bass/d. Bass consumption in the upper portion of Hells Canyon was high for about 1–2 d before returning to pre-release levels, but in the lower river consumption rates were reduced but took longer to return to pre-release levels. We estimated that most of the subyearlings consumed by bass were of hatchery origin. Smallmouth Bass predation on subyearlings is intense following a hatchery release, but the

  2. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River fall Chinook salmon ESU, 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; St John, Scott J.; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2015-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2014 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other Federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2014, consumption of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass was highest in the upper reach which had the highest abundance of Bass. With a few exceptions, predation tended to decrease seasonally from April through early July. A release of hatchery fish in mid-May significantly increased subyearling consumption by the following day. We estimated that over 600,000 subyearling fall Chinook Salmon were lost to Smallmouth Bass predation along the free-flowing Snake River in 2014. More information on predation is presented in Appendix A.3 (page 51). These findings coupled with stock-recruitment analyses presented in this report provide evidence for density-dependence in the Snake River reaches and in Lower Granite Reservoir that was

  3. ERCMExpress. Volume 2, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress" focuses on integrating students with special needs and disabilities into emergency response and crisis management planning. Meeting the needs of students with disabilities and special needs in the event of an emergency does not have to be…

  4. ERCMExpress. Volume 2, Issue 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of ERCMExpress provides direction to schools and school districts in "Creating Emergency Management Plans." To ensure the safety of students, faculty and staff, schools and school districts nationwide should create comprehensive, multi-hazard emergency management plans that focus on the four phases of emergency management--…

  5. Student Mastery of Civics Ed. Goes Untested

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 presidential election and many state and local races are only a few weeks away, but schools are not doing much to promote student interest in the elections or provide civic education more broadly, new research suggests. A report last week from the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE), at Tufts…

  6. Student Mastery of Civics Ed. Goes Untested

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 presidential election and many state and local races are only a few weeks away, but schools are not doing much to promote student interest in the elections or provide civic education more broadly, new research suggests. A report last week from the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE), at Tufts…

  7. Is it an Emergency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... but rather to provide examples of common issues: Warning Signs and Symptoms Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath ... can learn to recognize—and act on— emergency warning signs by taking a first aid class and ...

  8. Diabetic Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Diabetic Emergencies It ... seek immediate medical assistance. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Mental Health Emergencies - Waits for Care Grow Dramatically ...

  9. Issues of Gender. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on issues of gender in human resource development (HRD). "The Impact of Awareness and Action on the Implementation of a Women's Network" (Laura L. Bierema) reports on research to examine how gender consciousness emerges through the formation of in-company networks to promote corporate women's…

  10. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orey, Michael; Molenda, Michael; Sullivan, Michael; Klein, James D.; Brinkerfhoff, Jonathan; Koroghlanian, Carol; Moore, D. Michael; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.; Liu, Y.; Emerson, John D.; Boes, Lisa; Mosteller, Frederick; Ely, Donald P.; Belanger, Yvonne; Ellsworth, James B.; Lowe, Carrie A.; Russell, Shayne; Thomas, Lajeane; Richey, Rita C.; Earle, Rodney S.

    2002-01-01

    The articles in this section of "Educational Media and Technology Yearbook" identify current trends and issues in the field of instructional technology. Two subsections are also included: ERIC Digests, which are reprints of ERIC reports available on the Internet, and a subsection on a variety of standards that emerged during the past…

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  12. The Emerging Legal Issue of Competency Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David G.

    1979-01-01

    As more states adopt minimum competency testing (MCT) programs, MCT is becoming the subject of much debate among educators and in the courts. MCT has been attacked by those who claim it discriminates against Blacks and non-English-speaking minorities. Also raised in the MCT debate is the question of educational malpractice. (RLV)

  13. The Emerging Legal Issue of Competency Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David G.

    1979-01-01

    As more states adopt minimum competency testing (MCT) programs, MCT is becoming the subject of much debate among educators and in the courts. MCT has been attacked by those who claim it discriminates against Blacks and non-English-speaking minorities. Also raised in the MCT debate is the question of educational malpractice. (RLV)

  14. Emerging Issues in Migration, Emigration, and Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Intergroup Relations, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Reports on findings presented at three workshops on immigration and emigration at a 1982 conference on human rights. Addresses topics ranging from rights of refugees and migrants to philosophies of cultural pluralism. (KH)

  15. Emerging Issues in Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Hillary E.; Cook-Bolden, Fran E.; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Friedlander, Sheila F.; Rodriguez, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris (acne) is a common affliction in adolescence and is a growing problem in adult women. Despite an increasing awareness of acne in the adult female population, there is a lack of good prospective studies assessing the severity, distribution, and differential response to treatment in this group. The long-held dogma that acne in adult women develops on the lower one-third of the face has been recently challenged, and here the authors critically review data from available literature. Moreover, while adult female acne has traditionally been defined as disease in women over age 25, it is the authors’ experience that this group is subdivided into women ages 25 to 44 years, separate from perimenopausal patients, ages 45 years and up. While there is no data specifically comparing these two groups, the authors will review the existing data and provide practical recommendations based on our experience in treating these groups of patients. Finally, while there is a lack of data on this subject, it is the group’s opinion that adherence to medication regimens is likely higher in women than men, which influences therapeutic outcomes. PMID:28210380

  16. ADDRESSING EMERGING ISSUES IN WATER QUALITY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public concern over cleanliness and safety of source and recreational waters has prompted researchers to look for indicators of water quality. Giving public water authorities multiple tools to measure and monitor levels of chemical contaminants, as well as chemical markers of contamination, simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. The goals of water quality are outlined in the Water Quality Multi-year Plan [http://intranet.epa.gov/ospintra/Planning/wq.pdf] and the research in this task falls under GPRA Goal 2, 2.3.2, Long Term Goals 1, 2, and 4. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG

  17. The Emerging Issue of Digital Empathy.

    PubMed

    Terry, Christopher; Cain, Jeff

    2016-05-25

    Empathy can have strong positive effects on patient outcomes, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce malpractice litigation. With modern advances in technology, however, the appropriate expression of empathy in today's age is being threatened, largely as a result of psychological processes that form online disinhibition. The digitization of health care and the corresponding decrease in the expression of empathy may be cause for concern. Because empathy is strongly correlated to positive health outcomes and is an important part of health professions in general, the construct of digital empathy should be considered for integration into health professions curricula.

  18. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2001-2002. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2003 are also included. Previous Water Analysis reviews have been very comprehensive; however, in 2001, Analytical Chemistry c...

  19. WATER ANALYSIS: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in Water Analysis over the period of 2001-2002. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2003 are also included. Previous Water Analysis reviews have been very comprehensive; however, in 2001, Analytical Chemistry c...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  1. Converging social trends - emerging outdoor recreation issues

    Treesearch

    Carl H. Reidel

    1980-01-01

    I can't recall when I have attended a national conference with a more clearly defined objective than this one. We are here to document outdoor recreation trends and explore their meaning for the future. The word "trend" appears no less than 45 times in the conference brochure, and the symposium organizers are determined that the proceedings will be...

  2. The Emerging Issue of Digital Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Empathy can have strong positive effects on patient outcomes, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce malpractice litigation. With modern advances in technology, however, the appropriate expression of empathy in today’s age is being threatened, largely as a result of psychological processes that form online disinhibition. The digitization of health care and the corresponding decrease in the expression of empathy may be cause for concern. Because empathy is strongly correlated to positive health outcomes and is an important part of health professions in general, the construct of digital empathy should be considered for integration into health professions curricula. PMID:27293225

  3. City emergency medical services system issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persse, David E.; Bradley, Richard N.

    2003-09-01

    The City of Houston is continuously improving its preparedness for disasters and terrorism. This preparation requires strong and clear leadership. This includes a designated individual to lead the region"s preparation in the health and medical arena. An effective leader requires an effective command and control center. Real-time information on the situation is imperative.

  4. Emerging ethical issues in digital health information.

    PubMed

    Solomonides, Anthony E; Mackey, Tim Ken

    2015-07-01

    The problems of poor or biased information and of misleading health and well-being advice on the Internet have been extensively documented. The recent decision by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers to authorize a large number of new generic, top-level domains, including some with a clear connection to health or healthcare, presents an opportunity to bring some order to this chaotic situation. In the case of the most general of these domains, ".health," experts advance a compelling argument in favor of some degree of content oversight and control. On the opposing side, advocates for an unrestricted and open Internet counter that this taken-for-granted principle is too valuable to be compromised, and that, once lost, it may never be recovered. We advance and provide evidence for a proposal to bridge the credibility gap in online health information by providing provenance information for websites in the .health domain.

  5. Emerging issues with silviculture practices in wetlands

    Treesearch

    Mike. Wylle

    2016-01-01

    Silviculture activities in wetlands involving discharges of dredge and/or fill material have been exempt from Clean Water Act (CWA) permits after the 1975 amendments to the CWA which were phased in by July 1977.

  6. Issues associated with the emergence of coeliac disease in the Asia–Pacific region: a working party report of the World Gastroenterology Organization and the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Makharia, Govind K; Mulder, Chris J J; Goh, Khean Lee; Ahuja, Vineet; Bai, Julio C; Catassi, Carlo; Green, Peter H R; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Lundin, Knut E A; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan Siddartha; Rawat, Ramakant; Sharma, Hanish; Sood, Ajit; Watanabe, Chikako; Gibson, Peter R

    2014-04-01

    Once thought to be uncommon in Asia, coeliac disease (CD) is now being increasingly recognized in Asia–Pacific region. In many Asian nations, CD is still considered to be either nonexistent or very rare. In recognition of such heterogeneity of knowledge and awareness, the World Gastroenterology Organization and the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology commissioned a working party to address the key issues in emergence of CD in Asia. A working group consisting of members from Asia–Pacific region, Europe, North America, and South America reviewed relevant existing literature with focus on those issues specific to Asia–Pacific region both in terms of what exists and what needs to be done. The working group identified the gaps in epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of CD in Asian–Pacific region and recommended the following: to establish prevalence of CD across region, increase in awareness about CD among physicians and patients, and recognition of atypical manifestations of CD. The challenges such as variability in performance of serological tests, lack of population-specific cut-offs values for a positive test, need for expert dietitians for proper counseling and supervision of patients, need for gluten-free infrastructure in food supply and creation of patient advocacy organizations were also emphasized. Although absolute number of patients with CD at present is not very large, this number is expected to increase over the next few years or decades. It is thus appropriate that medical community across the Asia–Pacific region define extent of problem and get prepared to handle impending epidemic of CD.

  7. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  8. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  9. ERCMExpress. Volume 1, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This is the inaugural issue of the Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress," and it focuses on the new technical assistance center. The center will support 243 grantees funded under the Emergency Response and Crisis Management program in managing and implementing their projects, and in sustaining…

  10. ERCMExpress. Volume 3, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paine, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    The Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's newsletter, "ERCMExpress," provides comprehensive information on key issues in school emergency management. Memorials are deeply rooted in our culture and remind us of a person who has died or an event in which people died, and they provide a place for people to…

  11. ERCMExpress. Volume 3, Issue 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ECRM) Technical Assistance Center's newsletter "ERCMExpress" provides comprehensive information on key issues in school emergency management. Many nontraditional schools across the United States, such as storefront schools, rural schools, and alternative education facilities, face challenges…

  12. The Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boren, David L.

    Perspectives on issues in postsecondary education are presented with some reference to Oklahoma. Enrollment trends and the push toward cost effective educational programs are considered, and it is suggested that the important issue is often overlooked: the need to clarify the role of higher education institutions, or what society demands from the…

  13. Color on emergency mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  14. Emergent geometry, emergent forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selesnick, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    We give a brief account of some aspects of Finkelstein’s quantum relativity, namely an extension of it that derives elements of macroscopic geometry and the Lagrangians of the standard model including gravity from a presumed quantum version of spacetime. These emerge as collective effects in this quantal substrate. Our treatment, which is largely self-contained, differs mathematically from that originally given by Finkelstein. Dedicated to the memory of David Ritz Finkelstein

  15. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraception are available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD).Emergency contraceptive pills include ... for emergency use, talk to your doctor.The copper-containing IUD (brand name: Paragard) is a small, ...

  16. Chemical Emergency

    MedlinePlus

    ... listen to a local Emergency Alert System (EAS) station for emergency instructions from county or state officials. ... and your family. Listen to your emergency broadcast stations on radio and TV. Use your phone only ...

  17. Lightweighting Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-27

    Lightweighting Issues "Need to be faster, more agile, less bureaucratic - Need to Fight this everyday" Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lightweighting Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas Mathes 5d...practices • Designed for force-on-force engagement • Cumbersome logistics tail • Basic situational awareness • Lightweight armor • Structure plus armor (A

  18. Concluding remarks: Emerging topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret-Gallix, D.

    2006-04-01

    In summing up this workshop, we would like to open a broad discussion on additional emerging topics that may contribute to shape the future of physics research computing activities. To initiate this global discussion let me address in this short contribution some of these issues: distributed public computing, social or collaborative software, web computing, high precision numerical computation, common development platforms and languages issues. We welcome contributions to this discussion on the ACAT Twiki web site.

  19. The future of emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sandra M; Gardner, Angela F; Weiss, Larry D; Wood, Joseph P; Ybarra, Michael; Beck, Dennis M; Stauffer, Arlen R; Wilkerson, Dean; Brabson, Thomas; Jennings, Anthony; Mitchell, Mark; McGrath, Roland B; Christopher, Theodore A; King, Brent; Muelleman, Robert L; Wagner, Mary J; Char, Douglas M; McGee, Douglas L; Pilgrim, Randy L; Moskovitz, Joshua B; Zinkel, Andrew R; Byers, Michele; Briggs, William T; Hobgood, Cherri D; Kupas, Douglas F; Kruger, Jennifer; Stratford, Cary J; Jouriles, Nicholas

    2010-07-01

    Physician shortages are being projected for most medical specialties. The specialty of emergency medicine continues to experience a significant workforce shortage in the face of increasing demand for emergency care. The limited supply of emergency physicians, emergency nurses, and other resources is creating an urgent, untenable patient care problem. In July 2009, representatives of the leading emergency medicine organizations met in Dallas, TX, for the Future of Emergency Medicine Summit. This consensus document, agreed to and cowritten by all participating organizations, describes the substantive issues discussed and provides a foundation for the future of the specialty.

  20. Workforce Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  1. Newspaper Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Thomas A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This special issue includes "The Microfilming of Newspapers: An Overview" (Thomas Bourke); "United States Newspaper Program: Progress and Propsects" (Larry Sullivan); "The Preservation of Canadian Newspapers" (Mary Jane Starr); "Current Filming of the New York Times at UMI" (Kenneth Tillman); and "The…

  2. Unaddressed Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, J. Martin

    2005-01-01

    Walter Parker's January article, "Teaching Against Idiocy," raises important and fascinating issues relating to the proper role and function of the K-12 social studies classroom. Although J. Martin Rochester, the author of this article, agrees with his basic premise that schools obviously have an obligation to help promote citizenship education,…

  3. Unaddressed Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, J. Martin

    2005-01-01

    Walter Parker's January article, "Teaching Against Idiocy," raises important and fascinating issues relating to the proper role and function of the K-12 social studies classroom. Although J. Martin Rochester, the author of this article, agrees with his basic premise that schools obviously have an obligation to help promote citizenship education,…

  4. Zoological pharmacology: current status, issues, and potential.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Robert P; Isaza, Ramiro

    2002-10-04

    Lack of approved pharmaceutical agents and/or pharmacokinetic data in the literature for exotic, wildlife, and zoo species is a major issue for veterinarians. These practitioners must take approved agents (veterinary or human) and extrapolate their use to non-approved species with little or no scientific basis to support this decision. There is little information concerning pharmacokinetic parameters for drugs in non-domestic species. Zoo veterinarians often have to formulate the medication(s) into a meal, hoping that the animal will ingest it. Due to lack of patient compliance, the veterinarian may have to resort to other means of drug administration. Additionally, due to the value of these animals, the traditional method of 'trial and error' for treatment selection and resulting compliance is often inappropriate, and lends itself to a mentality where no zoo veterinarian wants to be the first to administer an agent/formulation in an untested species. This review intends to present the current state of zoological pharmacology and the direction it may be heading.

  5. Emerging Presidential Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Thomas C.; Pitsvada, Bernard T.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the state of the college presidency revealed that five broad management issues have emerged: conflict resolution, coping with change, achieving continuity, need for increased collaboration, and justice and ethics in the education enterprise. Implications for managerial practice in the future are analyzed. (MSE)

  6. Emergency Nursing Review Questions: July 2017.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Tracy

    2017-07-01

    The review questions that are featured in each of issue of JEN are based on the Emergency Nursing Core Curriculum and other pertinent resources to emergency nursing practice, pediatric and adult. These questions offer emergency nurses an opportunity to test their knowledge about their practice. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergency Nursing Review Questions: November 2016.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Tracy

    2016-11-01

    The review questions that are featured in each of issue of JEN are based on the Emergency Nursing Core Curriculum and other pertinent resources to emergency nursing practice, pediatric and adult. These questions offer emergency nurses an opportunity to test their knowledge about their practice. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 18 CFR 806.34 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... emergency action (purpose). (iii) Location map and schematic of proposed project. (iv) Desired term of... APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Terms and Conditions of Approval § 806.34 Emergencies. (a) Emergency certificates. The... issue an emergency certificate authorizing a project sponsor to take such action as the Executive...

  9. Environmental Issues are Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary Allaire

    The extensive social-scientific interest and continuing relevance of environmental study assure its immediate and long-range importance in the social studies. But the crisis atmosphere surrounding this issue threatens a thoughtful, systematic approach to the subject, and poses the danger of a careless rush to activity. As social studies educators,…

  10. Theoretical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  11. Past Emergencies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These activities, some of national significance requiring coordination with other agencies, demonstrate the emergency response program and provide valuable experience so that EPA can better prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies in the future.

  12. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePlus

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing or delaying the release of ...

  13. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... against STDs even when using another method of birth control. If a condom breaks (or a couple has ... Emergency contraception is not recommended as a regular birth control method . Instead, it is used for emergencies only. ...

  14. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ114 CONTRACEPTION Emergency Contraception • What is emergency contraception (EC)? • How does EC work? • What are the different types of EC? • What is the most ...

  15. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  16. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  17. Digital Media and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisrich, Katy; Blanchard, Jay

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses digital media and its potential effects on emergent literacy skills development for young children. While the impact of digital media exposure on children's emergent literacy development is largely unknown, it is becoming a significant issue, as more and more young children throughout the world observe and use various forms…

  18. Digital Media and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisrich, Katy; Blanchard, Jay

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses digital media and its potential effects on emergent literacy skills development for young children. While the impact of digital media exposure on children's emergent literacy development is largely unknown, it is becoming a significant issue, as more and more young children throughout the world observe and use various forms…

  19. Emergency medicine in space.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight.

  20. Other issues before Congress.

    PubMed

    1999-09-03

    Issues awaiting congressional action cover work incentives, patients' bill of rights, and hate crimes. The work incentive bill would allow States to enact Medicaid buy-in programs so people with HIV or other disabilities can obtain health services necessary to become or remain employed. A limited version of a patient's bill of rights, passing from the Senate to the House, would ensure that patients in health maintenance organizations have access to emergency room care and specialists, and can get doctor referrals outside their networks. A Senate bill involving hate crimes would prosecute violent hate crimes against people because of their disabilities, sexual orientation or gender.

  1. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  2. ERCMExpress, Volume 2, Issue 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of ERCMExpress presents food safety and food defense for schools. Many schools and school districts across the country have established emergency management plans; however, these plans are often not comprehensive, practiced regularly or written in collaboration with the local community. It is recommended that schools adopt a…

  3. Commentary: Indigenous Health Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…

  4. Privacy Issues and New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Issues of privacy, anonymity, and computer security emerging with advancing information technology are outlined, and implications for universities are discussed. Emphasis is on the Australian context and on Australian government and international initiatives concerning privacy. Sensitive information categories are identified, and measures…

  5. The Issue of Mandatory Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L.

    1978-01-01

    The emerging issue will center on costs to the total economy of early retirement for a growing population whose life expectancy is continuing to rise. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; $18.00 annually. (Author/IRT)

  6. Commentary: Indigenous Health Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…

  7. ERCMExpress. Volume 2, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress" introduces the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF), a free public service that provides information on planning, designing, funding, building, improving and maintaining safe, healthy, high-performance schools. NCEF is…

  8. Critical Issues in Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    Five issues that emerge in most evaluation processes and that have direct consequences for use of results are identified: the dilemma of multiple purposes, the value of criteria, overscheduling, the linkage between evaluation and decision-making, and evaluating process effectiveness. (Author/MLW)

  9. Elementary School Literacy: Critical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreher, Mariam Jean, Ed.; Slater, Wayne H., Ed.

    Providing a thorough grounding on important topics in elementary school literacy for experienced teachers and graduate students early in their programs, this book addresses a number of critical issues such as grouping and reading instruction, emergent literacy, learning to read and write with at-risk children, developing vocabulary, learning in…

  10. Transgender Issues in Counselor Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Lynne; Gilroy, Paula J.

    2002-01-01

    The emergent consciousness and political activism emanating from the transgender community have important implications for counselor education. Treatment issues include exploring alternative gender identifications and options. Counselor educators and supervisors need to model for their students a "trans-positive" approach to counseling…

  11. The Emerging Information Infrastructure: Players, Issues, Technology, and Strategies. Proceedings of Part I of the Meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (123rd, Arlington, Virginia, October 20-22, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogge, Dru, Ed.; And Others

    The topic of the 123rd meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) is the information infrastructure. The ARL is seeking to influence the policies that will form the backbone of the emerging information infrastructure. The first session concentrated on government roles and initiatives and included the following papers: "Opening…

  12. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Despite significant declines over the past 2 decades, the United States continues to have teen birth rates that are significantly higher than other industrialized nations. Use of emergency contraception can reduce the risk of pregnancy if used up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure and is most effective if used in the first 24 hours. Indications for the use of emergency contraception include sexual assault, unprotected intercourse, condom breakage or slippage, and missed or late doses of hormonal contraceptives, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring (ie, improper placement or loss/expulsion), and injectable contraception. Adolescents younger than 17 years must obtain a prescription from a physician to access emergency contraception in most states. In all states, both males and females 17 years or older can obtain emergency contraception without a prescription. Adolescents are more likely to use emergency contraception if it has been prescribed in advance of need. The aim of this updated policy statement is to (1) educate pediatricians and other physicians on available emergency contraceptive methods; (2) provide current data on safety, efficacy, and use of emergency contraception in teenagers; and (3) encourage routine counseling and advance emergency-contraception prescription as 1 part of a public health strategy to reduce teen pregnancy. This policy focuses on pharmacologic methods of emergency contraception used within 120 hours of unprotected or underprotected coitus for the prevention of unintended pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive medications include products labeled and dedicated for use as emergency contraception by the US Food and Drug Administration (levonorgestrel and ulipristal) and the "off-label" use of combination oral contraceptives.

  13. 18 CFR 806.34 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and the commissioner from the affected member state, may issue an emergency certificate authorizing a... state, issue an emergency certificate for a term not to extend beyond the next regular business meeting... are responsible for any necessary restoration or mitigation of environmental damage or...

  14. Contextual Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    The concept of contextual emergence has been proposed as a nonreductive, yet well-defined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels in an overall consistent fashion. This will be discussed for the contextual emergence of mental states from a neural level of description.

  15. Dermatologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Sica, P A

    1986-03-01

    Being able to recognize and treat a dermatologic emergency is extremely important to the primary care physician. This ability is very rewarding for the patient and gratifying to the physician. In this article, some of the more commonly encountered emergencies are discussed.

  16. Psychiatric Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Bayrakal, Sadi

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Bayrakal believes that the time has come for the family physician to deal with minor psychiatric disturbances in his office as well as psychiatric emergencies in the emergency department. The newly emerging medico-social philosophy of both the federal and provincial governments, he says, is giving greater responsibility and authority to the family physician in every area of medicine, including psychiatry. The author discusses major psychiatric emergencies (suicide, suicidal attempt, homicide, social scandal, as well as other psychiatric emergencies) on the ward including adolescent psychiatry. (The descriptions and treatment procedures are given on a concrete clinical level without theoretical overload.) In the family physician's work, psychological understanding is of profound importance. Giving him the added scope of psychiatric consideration to see the patient in bio-psycho-social totality will enable him to practice a more humanized form of medicine. PMID:20468779

  17. National Emergency Powers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Virginia, and the Carolinas began forcefully opposing the collection of a federal excise tax on whiskey . Anticipating rebellious activity, Congress...On August 17, 1794 , President Washington issued such a proclamation. The insurgency continued. The President then took command of the forces...organized to put down the rebellion .18 Here was the beginning of a pattern of policy expression and implementation regarding emergency powers. Congress

  18. Educating for Citizenship: Teaching Public Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Janet

    1990-01-01

    Argues for the teaching public issues in the forum of business communication classes. Describes how students tracked presidential election campaigns and emerged with an understanding of underlying political, economic, and social realities that affect the way America does business. (RS)

  19. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Van Look, P F; von Hertzen, H

    1993-01-01

    The term 'emergency contraception', as employed in this paper, refers to methods that are used as emergency procedures to prevent pregnancy following unprotected intercourse. Alternative, less appropriate, terms are postcoital and 'morning-after' contraception. References to postcoital preparations can be found as far back as 1500 BC in Egyptian papyri, but it was not until fairly recently that contraceptive research has been able to at least partially fulfill that need. The development of hormonal methods of emergency contraception goes back to the 1960s when the first human trials of postcoitally administered high-dose oestrogens were undertaken. Combined oestrogen- progestogen combination therapy (the so-called Yuzpe regimen) was introduced in the early 1970s, while the postcoital insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for emergency contraception was first reported in 1976. Other compounds that have been tested more recently include levonorgestrel, the antiprogestogen mifepristone, and danazol. Although there is some debate about the magnitude of the protective effect, few people question the important role that emergency contraception can play in preventing unwanted pregnancy and hence maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from unsafe abortion. Given that the most often used methods of emergency contraception, namely the Yuzpe regimen and postcoital insertion of an IUD, rely on technology that has been available for some 30 years, family planning programmes that claim to be concerned with improving women's reproductive health, cannot really be excused if they do not provide emergency contraception as part of their routine services.

  20. Swimming Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Beerman, Stephen B.

    1988-01-01

    Persons who have undergone swimming emergencies are seen in emergency departments everywhere. They are frequently young healthy citizens. In some instances they will receive better care in large specialized referral hospitals. Other problems can be managed well at local facilities. This article attempts to equip all family physicians with some knowledge and management guidelines for dealing with swimming emergencies, submersion injuries including near-drowning, accidental hypothermia, and triathalon hypothermia. The unique problems of hot tub near-drowning, infant water intoxication, and spinal injuries caused by diving are presented. PMID:21253260

  1. 40 CFR 147.2906 - Emergency permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency permits. 147.2906 Section 147.2906 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...-Class II Wells § 147.2906 Emergency permits. (a) An emergency permit may be issued if: (1) There will...

  2. 40 CFR 147.2906 - Emergency permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency permits. 147.2906 Section 147.2906 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...-Class II Wells § 147.2906 Emergency permits. (a) An emergency permit may be issued if: (1) There will...

  3. Emergency Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information for first responders, industry, federal, state and local governments on EPA's role and available resources for response to oil spills, chemical, biological, radiological releases, and large-scale national emergencies.

  4. Rheumatologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-González, Luis Arturo

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatological conditions can sometimes present as emergencies. These can occur due to the disease process or infection; contrary to what many people think, rheumatologic emergencies like a pain, rheumatic crisis, or attack gout do not compromise the patient's life. This article mentioned only true emergencies: catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (cAPS), kidney-lung syndrome, central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis, anti-Ro syndrome (neonatal lupus), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The management of above emergencies includes critical care, immunosuppression when indicated, and use of a diagnostic flowchart as well as fast laboratory profile for making decisions. Anticoagulants have to be used in the management of antiphospholipid syndrome. A good understanding of these conditions is of paramount importance for proper management.

  5. Corneal Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Belknap, Ellen B

    2015-09-01

    Corneal emergencies can be due to a number of different causes and may be vision threatening if left untreated. In an attempt to stabilize the cornea, it is of benefit to place an Elizabethan collar on the patient to prevent further corneal damage. This article discusses the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of corneal emergencies in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Editorial: Newly launched activity in JMMM - Critical focused issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Samuel D.

    2016-10-01

    The Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials is pleased to announce a new category called Critical Focused Issues. Critical Focused Issues will consist of single articles on controversial or emerging topics of interest.

  7. Anorectal emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-07-14

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up.

  8. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Raymond, Elizabeth G

    2002-08-06

    Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after a coital act not adequately protected by a regular method of contraception. In contrast to early medical abortion, emergency contraception prevents a pregnancy from starting and does not disrupt an established pregnancy. The most commonly used approaches consist of two oral doses of contraceptive steroids. The levonorgestrel-only regimen (levonorgestrel, 0.75 mg, repeated in 12 hours) appears to be more effective and better tolerated than the Yuzpe regimen (ethinyl estradiol, 100 microg, and levonorgestrel, 0.5 mg, repeated in 12 hours). In the largest randomized, controlled trial to date, levonorgestrel prevented about 85% of pregnancies that would have occurred without its use. Hormonal emergency contraception has no known medical contraindications, although it is not indicated for suspected or confirmed pregnancy. However, if hormonal emergency contraception is inadvertently taken in early pregnancy, neither the woman nor the fetus will be harmed. Nausea and vomiting associated with the Yuzpe regimen can be reduced by prophylactic use of meclizine. A strong medical and legal case exists for making hormonal emergency contraception available over the counter, as has happened in countries other than the United States. Easier access to and wider use of emergency contraception could dramatically lower the high rates of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in the United States.

  9. Anorectal emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  10. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Two oral postcoital contraceptive agents are currently available. The first is a 2 x 2 pill; the second is a 5 x 5. Both release a higher dose of hormones than conventional contraceptive pills. Success rates range between 96% and 99%. They must be taken within 72 hours of intercourse. Side effects include nausea and vomiting. Contraindications are the same as for the common oral contraceptives. The contraceptive mode of action can be any of the following: 1) by making the lining of the uterus unreceptive; 2) by slowing the movement of the egg in the fallopian tube; or 3) by affecting the release of the egg. Emergency contraceptive pills have no effect once implantation takes place. The IUD can be used as an emergency postcoital contraceptive method if placed within 10 days of coitus. They are usually placed within 5-7 days because of laws regarding when birth control becomes abortion. One failure has been reported in Great Britain (December, 1993). Side effects are the same as with regular use. RU486/PG may be used in the future as an emergency contraceptive agent. Research is in progress on success rates and side effects. This agent could potentially be used at any time. Currently, emergency contraception can only be obtained by prescription. Limited hours and interrogating staff are obstacles in such emergencies. British women's groups are asking that emergency oral contraceptive pills be made available over the counter with advice from the pharmacist.

  11. Literacy.CA. Issue #19, Winter 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Fiona, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The "literacy.ca" newsletter is a vehicle for literacy workers and supporters to share information, ideas, resources and research on emerging literacy issues. This issue of "literacy.ca" contains the following articles: (1) Riding The Wave: How will the federal election affect progress on a pan-Canadian literacy agenda?; (2)…

  12. Teachers' Beliefs about Pedagogy and Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Vicki E.; Roehl, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study explores teachers' beliefs about pedagogical issues as well as related educational and professional issues. Six hundred K-12 teachers in three Midwestern states received surveys and 60% returned them. Results of the survey indicated that teachers were relatively unified in their beliefs, and few differences emerged around demographic…

  13. K-12 Issues Will Await President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.; Klein, Alyson

    2008-01-01

    At the end of a presidential campaign in which education received some attention but never emerged as a top-tier issue, analysts were trying to look beyond the week's election to the K-12 issues awaiting the next president and gauge where they might fit as a new administration prepares to grapple with a global economic crisis. While education…

  14. K-12 Issues Will Await President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.; Klein, Alyson

    2008-01-01

    At the end of a presidential campaign in which education received some attention but never emerged as a top-tier issue, analysts were trying to look beyond the week's election to the K-12 issues awaiting the next president and gauge where they might fit as a new administration prepares to grapple with a global economic crisis. While education…

  15. Systems With Emergent Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Ian

    2002-09-01

    Evolutionary biologists often reject deterministic models of evolutionary processes because they equate `deterministic' with `goal-seeking', and have learned the hard way not to trust goal-seeking explanations of evolutionary adaptations. On the other hand, the general theory of dynamical systems potentially has much to offer for evolutionary biology— for example, as a resolution of the conflict between gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. The concept of a system with emergent dynamics retains the deterministic nature of dynamical systems, while eliminating any goal-seeking interpretation. Define an emergent property of a complex system to be a property whose computation from the entity-level rules of the system is intractable (in some reasonable sense). Say that a dynamical system has emergent dynamics if the computation of trajectories is intractable. Then systems with emergent dynamics are deterministic but not goal-seeking. As such, they offer a sensible way to use dynamical systems as models for evolutionary processes in biology, and in other areas. We discuss these issues and examine a few simple aspects of emergence in dynamical systems.

  16. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    PubMed

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  17. Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. Can the emerging domain of behavioral addictions bring a new reflection for the field of addictions, by stressing the issue of the context of addiction development?

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Philippot, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    This paper is a commentary to the article entitled: "Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research", by Billieux, Schimmenti, Khazaal, Maurage and Heeren (2015). In this manuscript, we commented on two aspects developed by the authors. Billieux et al. (2015) propose that the recent development of propositions of behavioral addiction is driven by an unwise application of an addiction model to excessive behaviors and rests on a confirmatory research strategy that does not question the psychological processes underlying the development of the conduct. They also show that applying a process driven strategy leads to a more appropriate description of the reality of the behavior and conduct, in particular by describing a variety of motivations for the excessive behavior, which is central to understanding the nature of the conduct. We believe that this new approach, which is fruitful to the emerging domain of behavioral addictions, could also apply to the domain of addictions in general. The latter is characterized by the application of a generic biological model, largely influenced by animal models, focusing on neurophysiological determinants of addiction. This approach may have decreased the attention paid to dimensions of addictions that are more specifically human. We will firstly briefly argue on the limitation of this neurophysiological addiction model for the field of excessive behavioral conducts. Secondly, we will argue for an approach centered on the differentiation of motivations and on the adaptive dimension of the behavior when it first developed and on the evocation of a transition where the conduct became independent of its original function. The emerging domain of behavioral addictions, where no animal model has been developed so far, may bring a new reflection that may apply to the domain of addictions in general, with a specific attention to human questions.

  18. ATR theory issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.

    2004-09-01

    Issues in ATR Theory emerge by considering three levels of the ATR problem. The term "monolithic architecture (MA)-ATR" is used for problems of standard classification theory. The MA-ATR level has seen recent unification of theories that should be aggressively applied. Modern ATR systems include standard classification theoretic subsystems (e.g., feature extraction, matching, and discrimination); however they also add modeling within a search paradigm. These "aggregate architecture (AA)-ATRs" allow more direct inclusion of application-specific prior (non-sample) knowledge. Greater theoretical support is needed for analyzing AA-ATRs at the system level and integrating the strong MA-ATR theories. The third level of the ATR problem returns to the MA-ATR problem and below. The strongest elements of the MA-ATR theories deal with the stochastic aspects of the ATR problem. Structural aspects of ATRs are an important weak link in the MA-ATR theories. Function decomposition provides an "atom" towards a structural theory. Decomposition provides robustness by constructing the MA-ATR's structure from samples, but is intractable. Standard MA-ATR design is tractable, but is brittle because of an ad hoc structure selection. The key issue in either case is to make explicit use of non-sample (typically structural) knowledge in selecting or, better yet, constructing the MA-ATR's structure.

  19. [DEONTOLOGICAL ISSUES IN RAILWAY HYGIENE].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the main ethical and deontological problems encountered in practice and research activities of the hygienist in transport. There is shown the importance of strict compliance with hygienic standards, disregard for the principle of "technical attainability", the necessity of continuous training, improvement of skills of sanitary-educational activity and readiness to solve emerging ethical issues in connection with the development of scientific and technical progress.

  20. Emerging Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

  1. Emerging Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

  2. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Ellertson, C; Trussell, J; Stewart, F; Koenig, J; Raymond, E G; Shochet, T

    2001-12-01

    Emergency contraceptives are methods that prevent pregnancy when used shortly after unprotected sex. Three different emergency contraceptive methods are safe, simple, and widely available in the United States. These are: (1) ordinary combined oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel taken in a higher dose for a short period of time and started within a few days after unprotected intercourse; (2) levonorgestrel-only tablets used similarly; and (3) copper-bearing intrauterine devices inserted within approximately 1 week after unprotected intercourse. Emergency contraceptive use is best known for women who have been raped, but the methods are also appropriate for women who have experienced condom breaks, women who did not use any method because they were not planning on having sex, or women who had unprotected intercourse for any other reason. Unfortunately, few women know about emergency contraceptives, and few clinicians think to inform their patients routinely about the option. A nationwide toll-free hotline (1-888-NOT-2-LATE) and a website (http://not-2-late.com) can help women learn about these options. Sharing "family planning's best-kept secret" widely with women could prevent as many as a million unwanted pregnancies annually in the United States.

  3. [Outpatient emergencies].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel; Le Nagard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The outpatient monitoring of patients sometimes involves emergency situations. In their practice, the nurses who visit the patient's home are confronted with the limits of their intervention. Faced with these delicate situations team coordination is a strength and the reactivity of the caregivers often contributes to a satisfactory outcome for the patient.

  4. Coital emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A.

    1996-01-01

    The act of heterosexual coitus is associated with morbidity due to a variety of conditions as well as with a small risk of sudden death. Awareness of the presentation of coital emergencies is essential to allow appropriate medical management and sexual counselling. PMID:8944205

  5. Neurologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Piecuch, J F; Lieblich, S E

    1995-07-01

    Neurologic emergencies are rare, and they usually occur in easily identifiable patients, provided that a thorough medical history has been previously obtained. Rare as these may be, however, they occur without warning and are potentially life threatening. Consequently, the dentist should be prepared by virtue of knowledge of the pathophysiology and therapy and by formal training and certification in basic life support.

  6. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... a prescription, regardless of a person's age. The copper intrauterine device (IUD) can sometimes be used as a form of ... days after unprotected sex. It works because the copper prevents sperm from ... than ECPs, an IUD is the most effective type of emergency contraception. ...

  7. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... agents such as sarin and VX. Many hazardous chemicals are used in industry - for example, chlorine, ammonia, and benzene. Some can be made from everyday items such as household cleaners. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  8. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  9. Communication as care at end of life: an emerging issue from an exploratory action research study of renal end-of-life care for ethnic minorities in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Emma; Randhawa, Gurch; Brown, Edwina A; Da Silva Gane, Maria; Stoves, John; Warwick, Graham; Akhtar, Tahira; Magee, Regina; Sharman, Sue; Farrington, Ken

    2014-09-01

    South Asian people have a higher risk of developing kidney disease, are disproportionately represented in the patient population requiring renal replacement therapy and wait longer to receive a kidney transplant, compared with white Europeans. As a result, there is a demand for end-of-life care, which meets the needs of this group of patients. Providing end-of-life care to patients from different cultures is a challenge for renal services as there can be barriers to communication in the form of language, delegated decision-making within families and reluctance to discuss death. To explore end-of-life care for South Asians with kidney disease, 16 interviews with patients and 14 focus groups with care providers were conducted at four research sites in the UK with large South Asian populations. Using an action research design the data were analysed thematically and fed back to inform the research in a cyclical manner. If patients are not fully aware of their condition or of what end-of-life care is, it is less likely that they will be able to be involved in decision-making about their care and this is compounded where there are communication barriers. Variations in care provider awareness and experience of providing end-of-life care to South Asian patients, in turn, contributes to lack of patient awareness of end-of-life care. Communication as care at the end of life should be explored further. Researching the South Asian patient experience of end of life highlights many relevant and generalisable issues.

  10. General Language Proficiency Revisited: Current and Future Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a number of key issues that emerged during the panel discussion that followed the General Language Proficiency Symposium at the Language Testing Forum (LTF) 2010, celebrating the 30th anniversary of the LTF. The key issues that emerged during the discussion should be of interest to a wider audience, as they express current…

  11. Emergency cricothyrotomy.

    PubMed

    Hart, Kristopher L; Thompson, Stevan H

    2010-03-01

    Establishment of an unobstructed airway and adequate oxygenation is a basic tenet of life support. Mechanical or anatomic airway obstructions can arise secondary to trauma, pathology, foreign bodies, and infection. The oral and maxillofacial surgeon is uniquely trained to provide surgical and anesthetic care, and must be prepared to provide emergency airway management. This article reviews the indications, contraindications, and techniques of surgical and needle cricothyrotomy. Fortunately, with advances in airway techniques and equipment, emergency cricothyrotomy is not a common procedure. However, in the event that a surgeon has no other means of securing an airway, this procedure may avert a catastrophe. If such a situation does occur, quick and decisive action can best be carried out if there is a thorough understanding of the anatomy and techniques involved.

  12. Ethical issues faced by nursing editors.

    PubMed

    Freda, Margaret Comerford; Kearney, Margaret H

    2005-06-01

    This study reports on ethical issues faced by editors of nursing journals, a topic which has not appeared in the nursing literature. A survey of nursing editors (n = 88)was conducted via e-mail; this article is the content analysis of survey questions about ethics. Eight categories of ethical issues emerged: problems with society/association/publisher; decisions about inflammatory submissions; informed consent or IRB issues; conflicts of interest; advertising pressures; duplicate publications and/or plagiarism; difficult interactions with authors; and authorship. Some issues were similar to those published about medical editors; however, others were unique. This study can assist authors to better understand some of the ethical issues in publishing, can help editors to view their issues in the context of what others experience, and can assist societies and publishers to work toward avoiding these ethical issues in the future. Professional discussions about ethics in nursing publications should be the subject of ongoing research and scientific inquiry.

  13. Dental Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Symington, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with dental emergencies sometimes present to their physician. This article outlines the role of the physician in the management of dental patients who have suffered traumatic injuries, postoperative hemorrhage, pain, and infection. It deals with those difficulties for which the physician may easily prescribe treatment and outlines the treatment that would be undertaken by a dentist who receives such a patient on referral. PMID:21253249

  14. Cardiac emergencies.

    PubMed

    Barata, Isabel Araujo

    2013-08-01

    The diagnosis and management of pediatric cardiac emergencies can be challenging and complicated. Early presentations are usually the result of ductal-dependent lesions and appear with cyanosis and shock. Later presentations are the result of volume overload or pump failure and present with signs of congestive heart failure. Acquired diseases also present as congestive heart failure or arrhythmias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  16. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River fall Chinook salmon ESU, 1/1/2012 – 12/31/2013: Annual report, 1991-029-00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; St. John, Scott J.; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2014-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2014 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other Federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2014, consumption of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass was highest in the upper reach which had the highest abundance of Bass. With a few exceptions, predation tended to decrease seasonally from April through early July. A release of hatchery fish in mid-May significantly increased subyearling consumption by the following day. We estimated that over 600,000 subyearling fall Chinook Salmon were lost to Smallmouth Bass predation along the free-flowing Snake River in 2014. More information on predation is presented in Appendix A.3 (page 51). These findings coupled with stock-recruitment analyses presented in this report provide evidence for density-dependence in the Snake River reaches and in Lower Granite Reservoir that was

  17. 76 FR 75950 - Hazardous Materials: Emergency Restriction/Prohibition Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Hazardous Materials: Emergency Restriction/Prohibition Order AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION..., including Rainbow of Hope. This Emergency Order was issued by the Office of Hazardous Materials Safety...

  18. Helicopter emergency medical service scene communications made easy.

    PubMed

    Koval, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Narrowbanding has caused numerous communication issues. The solution is to use a mutual aid frequency like 123.025. That frequency is 155.3400, and every helicopter emergency medical service operator and emergency medical service agency should name this frequency as "EMS [Emergency Medical Services] Mutual Aid" and preset this frequency for all helicopter emergency medical service scene operations.

  19. Nationwide Survey of Local Emergency Planning Committees

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These 2008 and 1999 surveys track the progress of LEPCs by assessing their current activity; and probe current practices and preferences regarding issues such as communication, accident prevention, and Office of Emergency Management products and services.

  20. Rethinking our pressure-packed emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Haugh, Richard

    2003-06-01

    With overcrowding the single-most difficult issue now confronting emergency departments, innovative hospitals are experimenting with everything from new technology to redeploying staff to redesigning processes and work areas.

  1. Crisis-Management Plans Are Untested, Survey Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2007-01-01

    Newly released survey results reveal that many colleges are focusing more than ever on preparing for a crisis since the massacre at Virginia Tech, but that they may not be well equipped to handle one. The online survey was conducted by SimpsonScarborough, a consulting firm that focuses on colleges and universities. It invited 546 people who are…

  2. Testing the Untestable: A Vision Screening Program for Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Virginia E.; Godolphin, Vivienne

    Based on a longitudinal study of vision screening techniques for handicapped children at the Chester County (Pennsylvania) Child Development Center, the paper reports on the development of a battery of effective vision screening methods for children with low functioning handicapped children. Specific tests are described, including the Sheridan…

  3. Crisis-Management Plans Are Untested, Survey Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2007-01-01

    Newly released survey results reveal that many colleges are focusing more than ever on preparing for a crisis since the massacre at Virginia Tech, but that they may not be well equipped to handle one. The online survey was conducted by SimpsonScarborough, a consulting firm that focuses on colleges and universities. It invited 546 people who are…

  4. Debating with Untested Assumptions: The Need to Understand School Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Henry S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The use of assumptions and language which liken school rule-breakers to criminal defendants does not accurately reflect the way the discipline system functions. In addition, there is no understanding among teachers and administrators of the Supreme Court's decisions in the area of school discipline. (Author/RLV)

  5. Recruitment and Retention of Patients into Emergency Medicine Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Cofield, Stacey; Conwit, Robin; Barsan, William; Quinn, James

    2010-01-01

    The emergency medicine and pre-hospital environments are unlike any other clinical environments and require special consideration to allow the successful implementation of clinical trials. This article reviews the specific issues involved in Emergency Medicine Clinical Trials (EMCT), and provides strategies from emergency medicine and non-emergency medicine trials to maximize recruitment and retention. While the evidence supporting some of these strategies is deficient, addressing recruitment and retention issues with specific strategies will help researchers deal with these issues in their funding applications and in turn develop the necessary infrastructure to participate in emergency medicine clinical trials. PMID:21040112

  6. Emergency Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A lighting system originally developed for NASA's Apollo and Skylab manned spacecraft resulted in a industrial spinoff and creation of a whole new company to produce and market the product line. The company is UDEC Corp., Waltham, Mass. UDEC's "Multi-Mode" electronic lighting systems are designed for plant emergency and supplemental use, such as night lighting, "always-on" stairwell lights and illuminated exit signs. Their advantages stem from the qualities demanded for spacecraft installation: extremely high fight output with very low energy drain, compactness, light weight, and high reliability. The Multi-Mode system includes long-life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed battery that needs no maintenance for 10 years, and a solid-state battery charger. A typical emergency installation consists of a master module with battery and an eight watt lamp, together with four remote "Satellight" modules powered by the master's battery. As a night lighting system for maintenance or I security, UDEC fixtures can bypass the battery and 1 operate on normal current at a fraction of the energy 1 demand of conventional night lighting. Industrial customers have realized savings of better than ninety percent with UDEC night lights. UDEC started as a basement industry in 1972 but the company has already sold more than 1,000 lighting systems to building operators.

  7. Animal Interactions and the Emergence of Territoriality

    PubMed Central

    Giuggioli, Luca; Potts, Jonathan R.; Harris, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Inferring the role of interactions in territorial animals relies upon accurate recordings of the behaviour of neighbouring individuals. Such accurate recordings are rarely available from field studies. As a result, quantification of the interaction mechanisms has often relied upon theoretical approaches, which hitherto have been limited to comparisons of macroscopic population-level predictions from un-tested interaction models. Here we present a quantitative framework that possesses a microscopic testable hypothesis on the mechanism of conspecific avoidance mediated by olfactory signals in the form of scent marks. We find that the key parameters controlling territoriality are two: the average territory size, i.e. the inverse of the population density, and the time span during which animal scent marks remain active. Since permanent monitoring of a territorial border is not possible, scent marks need to function in the temporary absence of the resident. As chemical signals carried by the scent only last a finite amount of time, each animal needs to revisit territorial boundaries frequently and refresh its own scent marks in order to deter possible intruders. The size of the territory an animal can maintain is thus proportional to the time necessary for an animal to move between its own territorial boundaries. By using an agent-based model to take into account the possible spatio-temporal movement trajectories of individual animals, we show that the emerging territories are the result of a form of collective animal movement where, different to shoaling, flocking or herding, interactions are highly heterogeneous in space and time. The applicability of our hypothesis has been tested with a prototypical territorial animal, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). PMID:21423708

  8. 40 CFR 231.7 - Emergency procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency procedure. 231.7 Section 231.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(c) PROCEDURES § 231.7 Emergency procedure. Where a permit has already been issued, and the Administrator...

  9. 40 CFR 231.7 - Emergency procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency procedure. 231.7 Section 231.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(c) PROCEDURES § 231.7 Emergency procedure. Where a permit has already been issued, and the Administrator has...

  10. 50 CFR 402.05 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.05 Emergencies. (a) Where emergency circumstances... endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The Service will evaluate such information and issue a...

  11. 50 CFR 402.05 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.05 Emergencies. (a) Where emergency circumstances... endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The Service will evaluate such information and issue a...

  12. 50 CFR 402.05 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.05 Emergencies. (a) Where emergency circumstances... endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The Service will evaluate such information and issue a...

  13. 50 CFR 402.05 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.05 Emergencies. (a) Where emergency circumstances... endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The Service will evaluate such information and issue a...

  14. 50 CFR 402.05 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.05 Emergencies. (a) Where emergency circumstances... endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The Service will evaluate such information and issue a...

  15. Emergency Procedures Manual. McConnell Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford Univ., VA.

    This manual is a looseleaf guide to handling emergency situations within the McConnell Library of Radford University (Virginia). It provides instructions for identifying, monitoring, and addressing issues of the safety of patrons and employees at the library, describing emergency procedures, safety equipment, and the evacuation process, and…

  16. An Operational Definition of the Emergence Criterion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallotti, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    Although acquisition criteria are a fundamental issue for SLA research, they have not always been adequately defined or elaborated in the literature. This article critically scrutinizes one such criterion, the emergence criterion, proposing an explicit, operational definition. After discussing emergence as a theoretical construct, the article…

  17. 33 CFR 337.7 - Emergency actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the procedures of this regulation to the maximum degree practicable. The district engineer will issue..., as necessary, an environmental assessment, if this is practicable in view of the emergency situation... measures to modify the emergency operation to reduce, avoid, or minimize adverse environmental impacts....

  18. 33 CFR 337.7 - Emergency actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the procedures of this regulation to the maximum degree practicable. The district engineer will issue..., as necessary, an environmental assessment, if this is practicable in view of the emergency situation... measures to modify the emergency operation to reduce, avoid, or minimize adverse environmental impacts....

  19. 33 CFR 337.7 - Emergency actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the procedures of this regulation to the maximum degree practicable. The district engineer will issue..., as necessary, an environmental assessment, if this is practicable in view of the emergency situation... measures to modify the emergency operation to reduce, avoid, or minimize adverse environmental impacts....

  20. Anaesthesia for vascular emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ellard, L; Djaiani, G

    2013-01-01

    Patients presenting with vascular emergencies including acute aortic syndrome, ruptured thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysms, thoracic aortic trauma and acute lower limb ischaemia have a high risk of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Although anatomical suitability is not universal, endovascular surgery may improve mortality and the results of ongoing randomised controlled trials are awaited. Permissive hypotension pre-operatively should be the standard of care with the systolic blood pressure kept to 50-100 mmHg as long as consciousness is maintained. The benefit of local anaesthesia over general anaesthesia is not definitive and this decision should be tailored for a given patient and circumstance. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage for prevention of paraplegia is often impractical in the emergency setting and is not backed by strong evidence; however, it should be considered postoperatively if symptoms develop. We discuss the pertinent anaesthetic issues when a patient presents with a vascular emergency and the impact that endovascular repair has on anaesthetic management. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Christine F; Long, Carol O

    2006-01-01

    The Boy Scout motto is "be prepared," but can your home health agency abide by this standard? The post-9/11 days of 2001 and the natural disasters that have threatened people and plagued our home and countries abroad illustrate the heightened level of awareness and preparedness home healthcare agencies must achieve to satisfactorily meet emergency preparedness standards. Community-based nurses often are on the front line of response to a man-made, biological, or naturally occurring event. You may have been assigned to work on a plan for your agency's response or have had questions asked about preparedness by your clients and family members. Here are six Web sites to get you started on the answers to those questions and concerns.

  2. Emerging holography

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, Joshua; Kribs, Graham D.; Low, Ian

    2006-05-01

    We rederive AdS/CFT predictions for infrared two-point functions by an entirely four-dimensional approach, without reference to holography. This approach, originally due to Migdal in the context of QCD, utilizes an extrapolation from the ultraviolet to the infrared using a Pade approximation of the two-point function. We show that the Pade approximation and AdS/CFT give the same leading order predictions, and we discuss including power corrections such as those due to condensates of gluons and quarks in QCD. At finite order the Pade approximation provides a gauge invariant regularization of a higher dimensional gauge theory in the spirit of deconstructed extra dimensions. The radial direction of anti-de Sitter space emerges naturally in this approach.

  3. SURGICAL EMERGENCIES

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Felix R.

    1950-01-01

    Action according to preconceived plans may be life-saving at the scene of accidents involving serious injury to several persons. Severe hemorrhage and respiratory obstruction must be dealt with immediately. As the latter may not be apparent at a glance, it should be looked for specifically. Artificial respiration may be necessary. Spinal puncture is a procedure in first aid which should be carried out at the site of an accident if there are symptoms of cerebral edema or of increased cerebral pressure. Routine plans should be laid to meet the emergency of cardiac arrest on the operating table. The surgeon must be prepared to begin cardiac massage within three minutes in such instances. PMID:18731685

  4. Emerging anxiolytics.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Nirvana S; Stein, Dan J

    2007-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common of the psychiatric disorders and are also associated with significant economic costs and impaired work productivity. The first-line pharmacotherapy of pharmatherapy for a number of anxiety disorders comprises selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Benzodiazepines are still widely used for the treatment of several anxiety disorders. Although these agents are effective, many patients are treatment-refractory and more effective, better tolerated medications are required. This paper discusses the understandings of mechanisms involved in the anxiety disorders and reviews emerging medications. Mechanisms underlying the use of d-cycloserine, second generation antipsychotics and beta-blockers are particularly exciting.

  5. Critical Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Richard; Robertson, Bill

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Critical Issues Forum, a multidisciplinary program designed to encompass computer technology, current global issues, and effective teaching and learning practices. Features open-ended, collaborative activities that deal with current, real-world issues. Discusses analysis of the issues and integrating technology. (JRH)

  6. Current IT Issues, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Donald Z.; Deblois, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    This article features the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. Administered by the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Committee, whose members review and recommend the set of issues to be presented each year, the survey identifies the issues that leaders in higher education information technology see as their most critical IT challenges. The Top-Ten current IT…

  7. Current IT Issues, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Donald Z.; Deblois, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    This article features the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. Administered by the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Committee, whose members review and recommend the set of issues to be presented each year, the survey identifies the issues that leaders in higher education information technology see as their most critical IT challenges. The Top-Ten current IT…

  8. Emergency Health Preparedness: Expectations for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelman, Jack L.

    Specific issues relevant to the emergency health preparedness of schools and the key roles and expectations applicable to teachers are outlined. It is noted that, while issues of legal liability relevant to teachers are complex, teachers are expected to: (1) anticipate possible risk or harm involved in activities; (2) give adequate warning of…

  9. The emergence of complexity and restricted pleiotropy in adapting networks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of organismal complexity has been a difficult subject for researchers because it is not readily amenable to investigation by experimental approaches. Complexity has a myriad of untested definitions and our understanding of its evolution comes primarily from static snapshots gleaned from organisms ranked on an intuitive scale. Fisher's geometric model of adaptation, which defines complexity as the number of phenotypes an organism exposes to natural selection, provides a theoretical framework to study complexity. Yet investigations of this model reveal phenotypic complexity as costly and therefore unlikely to emerge. Results We have developed a computational approach to study the emergence of complexity by subjecting neural networks to adaptive evolution in environments exacting different levels of demands. We monitored complexity by a variety of metrics. Top down metrics derived from Fisher's geometric model correlated better with the environmental demands than bottom up ones such as network size. Phenotypic complexity was found to increase towards an environment-dependent level through the emergence of restricted pleiotropy. Such pleiotropy, which confined the action of mutations to only a subset of traits, better tuned phenotypes in challenging environments. However, restricted pleiotropy also came at a cost in the form of a higher genetic load, as it required the maintenance by natural selection of more independent traits. Consequently, networks of different sizes converged in complexity when facing similar environment. Conclusions Phenotypic complexity evolved as a function of the demands of the selective pressures, rather than the physical properties of the network architecture, such as functional size. Our results show that complexity may be more predictable, and understandable, if analyzed from the perspective of the integrated task the organism performs, rather than the physical architecture used to accomplish such tasks. Thus, top

  10. Emergency medicine ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Michael Y.; Nussbaum, Chris; Lee, A. Curtis

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To survey program directors of family medicine–emergency medicine (CCFP[EM]) training programs regarding current and future emergency medicine ultrasonography (EMUS) training. DESIGN A Web-based survey using a modified Dillman method. Two academic emergency physicians reviewed the validity and reliability of the survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS Program directors of all 17 Canadian CCFP(EM) residency training programs in 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Characteristics of EMUS training currently offered and program directors’ perceptions of needs for future EMUS training. RESULTS The survey, performed in 2006, had a response rate of 100% (17/17), although not all respondents answered all questions. At the time of the study, 82.4% of respondents’ programs used EMUS. Although all program directors recommended that residents attend introductory EMUS courses, only 71.4% (10/14) of programs offered such courses; 60.0% (9/15) of those were mandatory. In one-third of the programs, more than 75% of the attending staff used EMUS. A total of 76.5% of program directors thought that introductory courses in EMUS should be mandatory; 62.5% (10/16) believed that residents were able to acquire sufficient experience to use EMUS independently to make practice decisions before completion of their residency; and 88.2% believed that EMUS should be a part of the scope of practice for emergency medicine physicians. Only 58.8% believed that there should be questions about EMUS on the CCFP(EM) Certification examination. Open responses indicated that funding, resources, and standardization were issues that needed to be addressed. CONCLUSION Formal EMUS training for CCFP(EM) programs is being introduced in Canada. Quality assurance needs to be strengthened. Most program directors thought that an introductory course in EMUS should be mandatory. Fewer directors, however, believed EMUS should be on the CCFP(EM) Certification examination until further funding, resources

  11. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    PubMed

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Psychiatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, S V

    1986-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common in medical inpatient and outpatient populations. As a result, internists commonly are the first to see psychiatric emergencies. As with all medical problems, a good history, including a collateral history from relatives and friends, physical and mental status examination, and appropriate laboratory tests help establish a preliminary diagnosis and treatment plan. Patients with suicidal ideation usually have multiple stressors in the environment and/or a psychiatric disorder (i.e., a major affective disorder, dysthymic disorder, anxiety or panic disorder, psychotic disorder, alcohol or drug abuse, a personality disorder, and/or an adjustment disorder). Of all patients who commit suicide, 70% have a major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, psychotic organic mental disorder, alcoholism, drug abuse, and borderline personality disorder. Patients who are at great risk have minimal supports, a history of previous suicide attempts, a plan with high lethality, hopelessness, psychosis, paranoia, and/or command self-destructive hallucinations. Treatment is directed toward placing the patient in a protected environment and providing psychotropic medication and/or psychotherapy for the underlying psychiatric problem. Other psychiatric emergencies include psychotic and violent patients. Psychotic disorders fall into two categories etiologically: those that have an identifiable organic factor causing the psychosis and those that have an underlying psychiatric disorder. Initially, it is essential to rule out organic pathology that is life-threatening or could cause irreversible brain damage. After such organic causes are ruled out, neuroleptic medication is indicated. If the patient is not agitated or combative, he or she may be placed on oral divided doses of neuroleptics in the antipsychotic range. Patients who are agitated or psychotic need rapid tranquilization with an intramuscular neuroleptic every half hour to 1 hour until the agitation and

  13. [Diabetic emergencies].

    PubMed

    Berger, W

    1997-02-18

    Based on case reports pathogenesis and treatment of the following diabetic emergencies were discussed: 1. The hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma without or with only modest ketosis occurring mainly in type II diabetics and the severe ketoacidosis with or without disturbed consciousness occurring mainly in type I diabetics are the two forms of severe metabolic decompensation of diabetes mellitus. 2. Severe hypoglycaemia may be caused by treatment with sulfonylureas and insulin. 3. The most dangerous life threatening adverse effect of biguanides is lactic acidosis. The incidence of ketoacidosis is about 1-5% in type I diabetics with a mortality of 3-9%. Mortality rates of hyperosmolar non-ketotic comas are much higher, approaching 20-40%, and are explained by severe concomitant complications and older age. The most important triggering factors of diabetic coma are infections, insulin dispensing errors and non-compliance. Carefully instructing patients about the risks of loosing appetite and vomiting as early signs of ketoacidosis is essential. Adequate replacement of fluid, electrolyte and water are the most important therapeutical aspects of ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of infection by antibiotics are important. Complication of therapy (hypokalemia, hypovolemia and rapid full of oncotic pressure) should be avoided by clinical and laboratory monitoring. Treatment of acidosis with bicarbonate has been found more dangerous than useful. Severe hypoglycaemia is the most important and most dangerous side effect of sulfonylurea and insulin. The incidence of severe hypoglycaemia under glibenclamide ist 3-5 fold higher than under treatment with tolbutamide or glibornurid. Glibenclamide should not be recommended anymore. Longterm experience of the therapeutic security of new sulfonylurea derivates like glimepirid is lacking. Blood-glucose-measurements in the afternoon are important for recognizing disposition to

  14. Academic emergency medicine in India.

    PubMed

    Pothiawala, Sohil; Anantharaman, Venkataraman

    2013-08-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) was recognized as a specialty by the Medical Council of India (MCI) in July 2009. As India undergoes urbanisation, cost-effective transition from managing infectious diseases to emergency management of trauma and cardio-respiratory diseases is crucial. Trained emergency healthcare workers are needed to respond effectively to these challenges. The objective was to determine the current status of academic EM training and related issues in India, and to discuss those that need to be addressed. The authors conducted electronic literature searches for articles published over an 18 year period from January 1994 to February 2013 using PubMed, Google and Yahoo databases. The references listed in the publications identified from these databases were also reviewed. Electronic literature searches revealed a multitude of 1 to 3 year training programmes, many affiliated with various foreign universities. The majority of these training programmes are offered in private healthcare institutions. MCI recognition has opened the doors for medical colleges to set up Indian specialty training programmes. Two separate Academic Councils are currently looking at EM training. The variety of programmes and separate efforts on academic development begets a need to address the issues of short-term courses being passed off as specialty training programmes, and a need for working together on national curriculum development, certification, accreditation systems and common examinations. The different organisations and academic councils could collaborate to give EM a unified scope for development. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  15. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  16. Emerging memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  17. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, C.O.; Williams, D.

    1996-07-01

    Among the emerging technologies for air, hazardous waste and water come new ways of looking at pollution, in both the figurative and quite literal sense. The use of microbes for remediation and pollution control is a component in many of the technologies in this report and is the focus of environmental research at many university and industry labs. Bacteria are the engines driving one featured emissions control technology: the air biofilter. Biofilters are probably more acceptable to most engineers as a soil remediation technology--such as the innovative method described in the hazardous waste section--rather than as means of cleaning off-gases, but in many cases bugs can perform the function inexpensively. The authors give the basics on this available technology. A more experimental application of microbes is being investigated as a potential quantum leap in heavy metals removal technology: bio-engineered, metal consuming plants. The effort to genetically engineer a green remediation tool is detailed in the hazardous waste section.

  18. Afghanistan: Key Oversight Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    of Defense Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities DOJ Department of Justice ERMA Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance ESF...cHumanitarian assistance includes Migration and Refugee Assistance (MRA); Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance ( ERMA ); International Disaster

  19. The Emergency Landing Planner Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nocolas F.; Neukom, Christian; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.; Smith, Tristan B.

    2011-01-01

    In previous work, we described an Emergency Landing Planner (ELP) designed to assist pilots in choosing the best emergency landing site when damage or failures occur in an aircraft. In this paper, we briefly describe the system, but focus on the integration of this system into the cockpit of a 6 DOF full-motion simulator and a study designed to evaluate the ELP. We discuss the results of this study, the lessons learned, and some of the issues involved in advancing this work further.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...