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Sample records for italy cooperative oncology

  1. Adolescents with Cancer in Italy: Improving Access to National Cooperative Pediatric Oncology Group (AIEOP) Centers.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Andrea; Rondelli, Roberto; Pession, Andrea; Mascarin, Maurizio; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Mosso, Maria Luisa; Maule, Milena; Barisone, Elena; Bertolotti, Marina; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Jankovic, Momcilo; Fagioli, Franca; Biondi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    This analysis compared the numbers of patients treated at Italian pediatric oncology group (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica [AIEOP]) centers with the numbers of cases predicted according to the population-based registry. It considered 32,431 patients registered in the AIEOP database (1989-2012). The ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases was 0.79 for children (0-14 years old) and 0.15 for adolescents (15-19 years old). The proportion of adolescents increased significantly over the years, however, from 0.05 in the earliest period to 0.10, 0.18, and then 0.28 in the latest period of observation, suggesting a greater efficacy of local/national programs dedicated to adolescents.

  2. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  3. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  4. Puget sound oncology nursing education cooperative.

    PubMed

    Whipple, V T; Hogeland-Drummond, S; Purrier, M; Tofthagen, C

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Leadership & Professional Development feature is to provide readers with information, ideas, and exemplars of leadership competencies and professional roles in oncology nursing. Manuscripts submitted to the Leadership & Professional Development feature should be prepared according to the Information for Authors published in the Oncology Nursing Forum (ONF) but limited to six to eight double-spaced typed pages. Submit two copies of the manuscript using IBM-compatible software along with a computer disk copy, or submit a copy of the manuscript as an e-mail attachment to Joan Such Lockhart, PhD, RN, CORLN, ONF Associate Editor, 1365 Simona Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15201; lockhart /duq.edu (e-mail). Manuscripts should be referenced and include tables, figures, or illustrations as appropriate. Ideas for possible manuscripts are welcome.

  5. Organizing multicenter trials: lessons from the cooperative oncology groups.

    PubMed

    Carbone, P P; Tormey, D C

    1991-01-01

    The execution of cancer clinical therapy trials has evolved over the past 45 years and is centered in the Clinical Oncology Group mechanism. The organization, statistical and administrative support, protocol development, and quality control systems have been worked out well and can be described in detail through the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Prevention trials, on the other hand, are larger and fewer and take longer to complete. They involve people who are healthy or not as motivated to take pills or change lifestyle habits as those who are ill. The problems of compliance, toxicity, and costs become major issues. The practice of medicine is organized to take care of sick people and not healthy volunteers. We describe potential roles for Clinical Oncology Groups. These include preliminary tests of prevention agents for safety and toxicity much like Phase 1 trials with cytotoxic agents. A second important possible involvement would be to provide patients at high risk for developing second cancers, treatment- or non-treatment-induced, for prevention trials. A third set of individuals that can be recruited through current group resources are relatives of cancer patients who themselves might be highly motivated to participate in prevention trials. While the Clinical Oncology Groups may not have primary roles in prevention trials, they do represent a resource that has trial discipline and willingness and could facilitate the research efforts in chemoprevention.

  6. [Organization of cooperative oncologic immunological research in the RSFSR].

    PubMed

    Gorodilova, V V; Starinskiĭ, V V; Kovalev, B N; Popova, A A; Nevskaia, E A

    1982-01-01

    A number of medical establishments are conducting a joint study on Immunology of Tumors sponsored by CMEA. The study is carried out under the auspices of the P. A. Herzen Research Institute in the following directions: (1) Investigations in the diagnostic and prognostic value of immunologic tests in oncological clinic; (2) Establishment of basal immunological status of patients and its changes in relation to stages of cancer development; (3) Identification of immunological markers for tumors of different sites. This research is channeled into several programs. The success of the whole venture depends on active participation of all concerned. The results of the study will contribute to the clinical experience of application of immunological tests in examination of considerable groups of patients with tumors at different sites.

  7. Cooperation between medicine and sociology in head and neck oncology.

    PubMed

    Babin, Emmanuel; Grandazzi, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-first-century medicine is facing many challenges--knowledge and command of technical advances, research development, team management, knowledge transmission, and adaptation to economic constraints--without neglecting "human" aspects, via transformed carer-patient relationships, social change, and so on. The "modern" physicians know that simply treating disease is no longer enough. One of their essential missions lies in offering the individual patient overall care, which implies acknowledging the latter as an individual within a family, social, and professional environment. Indeed, medical practice requires pluridimensional knowledge of the patients' experience of their disease. Yet the contribution sociology can offer to health care remains largely unknown to many physicians, and medical training includes only limited instruction in the human sciences. On the basis of a few observations taken from sociological research, we would like to demonstrate how, in head and neck oncology, interdisciplinary collaboration between medicine and sociology can prove propitious to improving patient care and attention to their close relations.

  8. Cooperation between medicine and sociology in head and neck oncology.

    PubMed

    Babin, Emmanuel; Grandazzi, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-first-century medicine is facing many challenges--knowledge and command of technical advances, research development, team management, knowledge transmission, and adaptation to economic constraints--without neglecting "human" aspects, via transformed carer-patient relationships, social change, and so on. The "modern" physicians know that simply treating disease is no longer enough. One of their essential missions lies in offering the individual patient overall care, which implies acknowledging the latter as an individual within a family, social, and professional environment. Indeed, medical practice requires pluridimensional knowledge of the patients' experience of their disease. Yet the contribution sociology can offer to health care remains largely unknown to many physicians, and medical training includes only limited instruction in the human sciences. On the basis of a few observations taken from sociological research, we would like to demonstrate how, in head and neck oncology, interdisciplinary collaboration between medicine and sociology can prove propitious to improving patient care and attention to their close relations. PMID:24486781

  9. Response evaluation criteria for solid tumours in dogs (v1.0): a Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group (VCOG) consensus document.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, S M; Thamm, D H; Vail, D M; London, C A

    2015-09-01

    In veterinary medical oncology, there is currently no standardized protocol for assessing response to therapy in solid tumours. The lack of such a formalized guideline makes it challenging to critically compare outcome measures across various treatment protocols. The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group (VCOG) membership consensus document presented here is based on the recommendations of a subcommittee of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) board-certified veterinary oncologists. This consensus paper has used the human response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST v1.1) as a framework to establish standard procedures for response assessment in canine solid tumours that is meant to be easy to use, repeatable and applicable across a variety of clinical trial structures in veterinary oncology. It is hoped that this new canine RECIST (cRECIST v1.0) will be adopted within the veterinary oncology community and thereby facilitate the comparison of current and future treatment protocols used for companion animals with cancer.

  10. Docetaxel for malignant mesothelioma: phase II study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Belani, Chandra P; Adak, Sudeshna; Aisner, Seena; Stella, Philip J; Levitan, Nathan; Johnson, David H

    2004-07-01

    This Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group phase II trial was conducted to study the effectiveness of docetaxel in patients with malignant mesothelioma. Patients were treated with docetaxel 100 mg/m2 intravenously administered as a 1-hour infusion repeated every 3 weeks. The study accrued a total of 20 patients, 1 of whom was considered ineligible. Of the 19 eligible patients, 1 patient (5%) achieved a partial response, 3 patients (16%) had stable disease, 11 patients (58%) had progressive disease, and 4 patients (21%) were unevaluable. The study was terminated after the first accrual stage because of an insufficient number of complete or partial responses. To date, only 1 patient (with stable disease) has not relapsed. The estimated median survival time is 4 months and the estimated median time to treatment failure is 2.2 months. There were 3 early deaths associated with the treatment regimen: severe gastrointestinal toxicity, hemorrhage, and an acute pulmonary event. Docetaxel as a single agent does not demonstrate evidence of activity in malignant mesothelioma.

  11. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Rice Cultivation in Northwest Italy     View Larger Image The lowlands of Lombardy and Piedmont in northwest Italy are some of the most highly developed irrigation areas in the world. ...

  12. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  13. The Challenge of Access to Care for Adolescents with Cancer in Italy: National and Local Pediatric Oncology Programs. International Perspectives on AYAO, Part 2.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    This paper, summarizing the March 2012 presentation at the second international workshop of the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer, describes the situation in Italy concerning the inadequate access to optimal cancer services for adolescents, and the need to improve the quality of care for these patients while investing in more research on the diseases that afflict them. National actions to bridge the gap in care and implement specific programs tailored to these patients arose from the pediatric oncology community. These actions include creation of the national Committee on Adolescents of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP), founded with the mission of ensuring that Italian adolescents with cancer have prompt, adequate, and equitable access to the best care to optimize their treatment outcome and quality of life. Also developed was the Youth Project of the pediatric oncology unit at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, which is currently dedicated to adolescents aged 15-19 years old and may eventually serve young adults up to the age of 25 that are affected by pediatric-type tumors.

  14. Object-oriented business process analysis of the cooperative soft tissue sarcoma trial of the german society for paediatric oncology and haematology (GPOH).

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Knaup, P; Knietitg, R; Haux, R; Merzweiler, A; Mludek, V; Schilling, F H; Wiedemann, T

    2001-01-01

    The German Society for Paediatric Oncology and Haematology (GPOH) runs nation-wide multicentre clinical trials to improve the treatment of children suffering from malignant diseases. We want to provide methods and tools to support the centres of these trials in developing trial specific modules for the computer-based DOcumentation System for Paediatric Oncology (DOSPO). For this we carried out an object-oriented business process analysis for the Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Trial at the Olgahospital Stuttgart for Child and Adolescent Medicine. The result is a comprehensive business process model consisting of UML-diagrams and use case specifications. We recommend the object-oriented business process analysis as a method for the definition of requirements in information processing projects in the field of clinical trials in general. For this our model can serve as basis because it slightly can be adjusted to each type of clinical trial.

  15. Civil society, third sector, and healthcare: the case of social cooperatives in Italy.

    PubMed

    Borzaga, Carlo; Fazzi, Luca

    2014-12-01

    In many European countries, the third sector is considered an actor able to improve both the efficiency and the efficacy of public healthcare systems afflicted by the crisis of the welfare state. Attributed to third-sector organizations is the role of a hybrid actor tasked with the professional supply of services, not for profit but rather for mutualistic purposes, and to serve the public interest. However, empirical evidence on the capacity of the third sector to pursue objectives of social inclusion in a phase of withdrawal by the public sector is almost entirely lacking in the European countries. The article describes the results of research on the transformation of the Italian healthcare system and on the emergence of a new third sector in Italy. The results of the inquiry highlight the strategies, characteristics, and governance processes which enable third-sector organizations operating in the healthcare sector to pursue objectives of inclusion, and to serve the needs of disadvantaged groups by assuming the form of social enterprises.

  16. Oncologic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, D.G.; Rubin, P.; Youker, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear medicine. Topics considered include the classification of cancers, oncologic diagnosis, brain and spinal cord neoplasms, lymph node metastases, the larynx and hypopharynx, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, tumors of the skeletal system, pediatric oncology, computed tomography and radiation therapy treatment planning, and the impact of future technology on oncologic diagnosis.

  17. The `MOON Mapping' Project to Promote Cooperation Between Students of Italy and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaioni, M.; Giommi, P.; Brunetti, M. T.; Carli, C.; Cerroni, P.; Cremonese, G.; Forlani, G.; Gamba, P.; Lavagna, M.; Melis, M. T.; Massironi, M.; Ori, G.; Salese, F.; Zinzi, A.; Xie, G.; Kang, Z.; Shi, R.; Sun, Y.; Wu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The research project `Moon Mapping' has been established in 2014 between the Italian and Chinese Governments to promote cooperation and exchange between undergraduate students from both countries. The operational phase of the project started in early 2015, and will end in 2017, for a total length of three years. The main aim is to train new scholars to be able to work on different kinds of remotely-sensed data collected over the Moon surface by the Chinese space missions Chang'E-1/2. The project coordination has been assigned to the Italian Space Agency for the Italian side and to the Center of Space Exploration, China Ministry of Education, for the Chinese side. Several Chinese universities and Italian national research institutes and universities have been officially involved in this project. Six main research topics have been identified: (1) map of the solar wind ion; (2) geomorphological map of the Moon; (3) data preprocessing of Chang'E-1 mission; (4) map of element distribution; (5) establishment of 3D digital visualization system; and (6) compilation and publication of a tutorial on joint lunar mapping.

  18. Nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine as first-line palliative chemotherapy in a patient with metastatic pancreatic cancer with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2

    PubMed Central

    MARTÍN, ANDRÉS J. MUÑOZ; ALFONSO, PILAR GARCÍA; RUPÉREZ, ANA B.; JIMÉNEZ, MIGUEL MARTÍN

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC) has been associated with a considerably poor prognosis. Due to its toxicity, first-line combination chemotherapy is limited to patients with a good performance status (PS). Previously nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine has been demonstrated to improve the overall survival rate in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer with a good PS. The present study reports a case of a patient with metastatic PC with a poor PS (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 2) and a complex set of comorbidities treated with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine as a first-line palliative therapy. Adjusted doses of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine reached a favourable clinical, radiological and biochemical response in the present patient, which increased the quality of life for the patient. Eventually, the patient succumbed to acute cholangitis. Based on the results of the present study, nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine appears to be a favourable treatment as first-line palliative chemotherapy for patients with metastatic PC, comorbidities and poor PS. PMID:27347207

  19. Phase II trial of fluorouracil and recombinant interferon alfa-2a in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Wadler, S; Lembersky, B; Atkins, M; Kirkwood, J; Petrelli, N

    1991-10-01

    In a pilot clinical trial, treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma with the combination of fluorouracil (5FU) and recombinant interferon alfa-2a (IFN) resulted in objective tumor regression in 62% of patients. To confirm these findings in a multiinstitutional setting, a phase II clinical trial was initiated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) in 1989. The treatment regimen was identical to that used in the earlier study: 5FU 750 mg/m2/d for 5 days as a continuous infusion followed by weekly outpatient bolus therapy and IFN 9MU subcutaneously beginning day 1 and administered three times per week. Doses were modified for gastrointestinal, hematologic, and neurologic toxicity and for fatigue, similarly to those used in the previous pilot trial. Thirty-eight patients were registered; 36 are evaluable for response (one lost to follow-up and one with nonmeasurable disease). All patients had metastatic or locally recurrent disease beyond the scope of resection; 31 of 38 had liver metastases, and 20 of 38 had two or more sites of involvement. Eight patients had grade 4 toxicities, including sepsis (nonneutropenic) (one), watery diarrhea (two), and granulocytopenia (six). Grade 3 neurologic toxicities were observed in two (5%) patients and included slurred speech and gait disturbance. Objective response was 42% (95% confidence interval [Cl], 27% to 58%), including one clinical complete responder and 14 partial responders. Among the responding patients, the median time to treatment failure was 8 months. Two patients remain on treatment at 10+ and 16+ months: median survival has not been reached. The results of this multiinstitutional trial suggest that the addition of IFN to 5FU enhances the objective response rates achieved in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma and that the toxicities of this regimen are acceptable. PMID:1919631

  20. Genetic variation in DNA-repair pathways and response to radiochemotherapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma: a retrospective cohort study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent data in esophageal cancer suggests the variant allele of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in XRCC1 may be associated with resistance to radiochemotherapy. However, this SNP has not been assessed in a histologically homogeneous clinical trial cohort that has been treated with a uniform approach. In addition, whether germline DNA may serve as a surrogate for tumor genotype at this locus is unknown in this disease. Our objective was to assess this SNP in relation to the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in subjects with esophageal adenocarcinoma who received cisplatin-based preoperative radiochemotherapy in a multicenter clinical trial (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 1201). As a secondary aim, we investigated the rate of allelic imbalance between germline and tumor DNA. Methods Eighty-one eligible treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed resectable esophageal adenocarcinoma received radiotherapy (45 Gy) concurrent with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, with planned subsequent surgical resection. The primary endpoint was pCR, defined as complete absence of tumor in the surgical specimen after radiochemotherapy. Using germline DNA from 60 subjects, we examined the base-excision repair SNP, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, and 4 other SNPs in nucleotide excision (XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn, ERCC1 3' flank) and double-stranded break (XRCC2 5' flank) repair pathways, and correlated genotype with pCR rate. Paired tumor tissue was used to estimate the frequency of allelic imbalance at the XRCC1 SNP. Results The variant allele of the XRCC1 SNP (399Gln) was detected in 52% of subjects. Only 6% of subjects with the variant allele experienced a pCR, compared to 28% of subjects without the variant allele (odds ratio 5.37 for failing to achieve pCR, p = 0.062). Allelic imbalance at this locus was found in only 10% of informative subjects, suggesting that germline genotype may reflect tumor genotype at this locus. No significant association with pCR was noted

  1. Maternal Coping Strategies in Response to a Child’s Chronic and Oncological Disease: a Cross-Cultural Study in Italy and Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Perricone, Giovanna; Guerra, Marina Prista; Cruz, Orlanda; Polizzi, Concetta; Lima, Lígia; Morales, Maria Regina; de Lemos, Marina Serra; Fontana, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    A child’s oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the child’s wellbeing and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a child’s severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5) and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6). The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94)=6.32, P=0.014, ɳ2=0.065), Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=20.06, P=0.001, ɳ2=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers) and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94)=3.30, P=0.06, ɳ2=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers). Regarding child’s disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=7.49, P=0.007, ɳ2=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease). The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers’ coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a child’s care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support. PMID:23904966

  2. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    SciTech Connect

    Tokumaru, Sunao; Toita, Takafumi; Oguchi, Masahiko; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kato, Shingo; Niibe, Yuzuru; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kodaira, Takeshi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Shikama, Naoto; Kenjo, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Chikako; Suzuki, Osamu; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Teshima, Teruki; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; and others

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  3. Oncology in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Eav, S; Schraub, S; Dufour, P; Taisant, D; Ra, C; Bunda, P

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, a country of 14 million inhabitants, was devastated during the Khmer Rouge period and thereafter. The resources of treatment are rare: only one radiotherapy department, renovated in 2003, with an old cobalt machine; few surgeons trained to operate on cancer patients; no hematology; no facilities to use intensive chemotherapy; no nuclear medicine department and no palliative care unit. Cervical cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world, while in men liver cancer ranks first (20% of all male cancers). Cancers are seen at stage 3 or 4 for 70% of patients. There is no prevention program - only a vaccination program against hepatitis B for newborns - and no screening program for cervical cancer or breast cancer. In 2010, oncology, recognized as a full specialty, was created to train the future oncologists on site at the University of Phnom Penh. A new National Cancer Center will be built in 2013 with modern facilities for radiotherapy, medical oncology, hematology and nuclear medicine. Cooperation with foreign countries, especially France, and international organizations has been established and is ongoing. Progress is occurring slowly due to the shortage of money for Cambodian institutions and the lay public.

  4. Successful Coordination and Execution of Non-Therapeutic Studies in a Cooperative Group Setting: Lessons Learned from Children’s Oncology Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Andrea; Landier, Wendy; Schad, Amy; Moser, Allison; Schaible, Alexandra; Hanby, Cara; Kurian, Seira; Lennie Wong, F.; Villaluna, Doojduen; Bhatia, Smita

    2008-01-01

    The immense progress made in childhood cancer survival has been due to the systematic and efficient conduct of large multicenter therapeutic trials, utilizing the infrastructure developed by national cooperative groups. These therapeutic trials have been successful, in part due to the high participation rates by the participating member institutions. However, participation in non-therapeutic trials in the cooperative group setting has lagged behind that of therapeutic trials for a variety of reasons, such as lack of institutional resources, leading to low priority given to such activities. The purpose of this report is to share some of the methods developed and successfully implemented by a Coordinating Center (City of Hope National Medical Center) to maximize institutional participation and patient enrollment and to standardize data collection and quality control, in order to ensure successful execution of two large, extramurally funded, cooperative group non-therapeutic studies. To date, over 175 institutions have obtained regulatory approval for the protocols showcased here, accrual has been on target, and completeness and quality of the collected data has been excellent. The successful execution of these non-therapeutic studies demonstrates the advantages of diverse study publicity techniques, detailed standardized operating procedures, and effective utilization of technological resources. PMID:18628418

  5. Dose Specification and Quality Assurance of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 95-17; a Cooperative Group Study of Iridium-192 Breast Implants as Sole Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S. Hanson, W.F.; O'Meara, Elizabeth; Kuske, Robert R.; Arthur, Douglas; Rabinovitch, Rachel; White, Julia; Wilenzick, Raymond M.; Harris, Irene; Tailor, Ramesh C.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 95-17 was a Phase I/II trial to evaluate multicatheter brachytherapy as the sole method of adjuvant breast radiotherapy for Stage I/II breast carcinoma after breast-conserving surgery. Low- or high-dose-rate sources were allowed. Dose prescription and treatment evaluation were based on recommendations in the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), Report 58 and included the parameters mean central dose (MCD), average peripheral dose, dose homogeneity index (DHI), and the dimensions of the low- and high-dose regions. Methods and Materials: Three levels of quality assurance were implemented: (1) credentialing of institutions was required before entering patients into the study; (2) rapid review of each treatment plan was conducted before treatment; and (3) retrospective review was performed by the Radiological Physics Center in conjunction with the study chairman and RTOG dosimetry staff. Results: Credentialing focused on the accuracy of dose calculation algorithm and compliance with protocol guidelines. Rapid review was designed to identify and correct deviations from the protocol before treatment. The retrospective review involved recalculation of dosimetry parameters and review of dose distributions to evaluate the treatment. Specifying both central and peripheral doses resulted in uniform dose distributions, with a mean dose homogeneity index of 0.83 {+-} 0.06. Conclusions: Vigorous quality assurance resulted in a high-quality study with few deviations; only 4 of 100 patients were judged as representing minor variations from protocol, and no patient was judged as representing major deviation. This study should be considered a model for quality assurance of future trials.

  6. Report of a Phase I Evaluation of Dose and Schedule of Interleukin-1 Alpha and Cyclophosphamide in Patients with Advanced Tumors: An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study (PX990) and Review of IL-1-Based Studies of Hematopoietic Reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Neuberg, Donna; Atkins, Michael B.; Tester, William J.; Wadler, Scott; Stewart, James A.; Chachoua, Abraham; Schuchter, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine critical to inflammation, immunological activation, response to infection, and bone marrow hematopoiesis. Cyclophosphamide downmodulates immune suppressor cells and is cytotoxic to a variety of tumors. A phase I trial of IL-1 and cyclophosphamide was conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. This study evaluated 3 dose levels and 3 schedules in patients with solid tumors. The goal was to evaluate the hematopoietic supportive care effect and possible antitumor effect. Toxicity was fever, chills, hypotension, nausea/emesis, hepatic, and neutropenia. Toxicity increased with dose increases of interleukin-1. Treatment at all dose levels resulted in significant increases in total white blood cell (WBC) counts above baseline. Nadir WBC and nadir absolute neutrophil counts were not significantly different by dose level of IL-1 or schedule of IL-1. Toxicity due to IL-1 at higher doses prohibited further evaluation of this agent for hematopoietic support, particularly in view of the activity and tolerability of more lineage-specific hematopoietic cytokines. Therapeutic interventions in the role of IL-1 in inflammatory conditions and cancer may be further informed by our definition of its clinical and biological effects in this evaluation of dose and schedule. PMID:24433038

  7. Report of a phase I evaluation of dose and schedule of interleukin-1 alpha and cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced tumors: An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study (PX990) and review of IL-1-based studies of hematopoietic reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, Janice P; Neuberg, Donna; Atkins, Michael B; Tester, William J; Wadler, Scott; Stewart, James A; Chachoua, Abraham; Schuchter, Lynn M

    2014-05-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine critical to inflammation, immunological activation, response to infection, and bone marrow hematopoiesis. Cyclophosphamide downmodulates immune suppressor cells and is cytotoxic to a variety of tumors. A phase I trial of IL-1 and cyclophosphamide was conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. This study evaluated 3 dose levels and 3 schedules in patients with solid tumors. The goal was to evaluate the hematopoietic supportive care effect and possible antitumor effect. Toxicity was fever, chills, hypotension, nausea/emesis, hepatic, and neutropenia. Toxicity increased with dose increases of interleukin-1. Treatment at all dose levels resulted in significant increases in total white blood cell (WBC) counts above baseline. Nadir WBC and nadir absolute neutrophil counts were not significantly different by dose level of IL-1 or schedule of IL-1. Toxicity due to IL-1 at higher doses prohibited further evaluation of this agent for hematopoietic support, particularly in view of the activity and tolerability of more lineage-specific hematopoietic cytokines. Therapeutic interventions in the role of IL-1 in inflammatory conditions and cancer may be further informed by our definition of its clinical and biological effects in this evaluation of dose and schedule.

  8. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E

    2014-09-10

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology.

  9. Nanotechnology in Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Andrew Z.; Tepper, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. PMID:25113769

  10. Moral distress in nurses in oncology and haematology units.

    PubMed

    Lazzarin, Michela; Biondi, Andrea; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2012-03-01

    One of the difficulties nurses experience in clinical practice in relation to ethical issues in connection with young oncology patients is moral distress. In this descriptive correlational study, the Moral Distress Scale-Paediatric Version (MDS-PV) was translated from the original language and tested on a conventional sample of nurses working in paediatric oncology and haematology wards, in six north paediatric hospitals of Italy. 13.7% of the total respondents claimed that they had changed unit or hospital due to moral distress. The items with the highest mean intensity in the sample were almost all connected with medical and nursing competence and have considerably higher values than frequency. The instrument was found to be reliable. The results confirmed the validity of the MDS-PV (Cronbach's alpha = 0.959). This study represents the first small-scale attempt to validate MDS-PV for use in paediatric oncology-haematology nurses in Italy.

  11. Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring. PMID:27249776

  12. Global radiation oncology waybill

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garzón, Victor; Rovirosa, Ángeles; Ramos, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Radiation oncology covers many different fields of knowledge and skills. Indeed, this medical specialty links physics, biology, research, and formation as well as surgical and clinical procedures and even rehabilitation and aesthetics. The current socio-economic situation and professional competences affect the development and future or this specialty. The aim of this article was to analyze and highlight the underlying pillars and foundations of radiation oncology, indicating the steps implicated in the future developments or competences of each. Methods This study has collected data from the literature and includes highlights from discussions carried out during the XVII Congress of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR) held in Vigo in June, 2013. Most of the aspects and domains of radiation oncology were analyzed, achieving recommendations for the many skills and knowledge related to physics, biology, research, and formation as well as surgical and clinical procedures and even supportive care and management. Results Considering the data from the literature and the discussions of the XVII SEOR Meeting, the “waybill” for the forthcoming years has been described in this article including all the aspects related to the needs of radiation oncology. Conclusions Professional competences affect the development and future of this specialty. All the types of radio-modulation are competences of radiation oncologists. On the other hand, the pillars of Radiation Oncology are based on experience and research in every area of Radiation Oncology. PMID:24416572

  13. Identifying oncological emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guddati, Achuta K; Kumar, Nilay; Segon, Ankur; Joy, Parijat S; Marak, Creticus P; Kumar, Gagan

    2013-01-01

    Prompt identification and treatment of life-threatening oncological conditions is of utmost importance and should always be included in the differential diagnosis. Oncological emergencies can have a myriad of presentations ranging from mechanical obstruction due to tumor growth to metabolic conditions due to abnormal secretions from the tumor. Notably, hematologic and infectious conditions may complicate the presentation of oncological emergencies. Advanced testing and imaging is generally required to recognize these serious presentations of common malignancies. Early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions can significantly affect the patient's clinical outcome. PMID:23873016

  14. Radiation oncology residents' computer workstation.

    PubMed

    Zusag, T W; McDonald, S; Miller, A; Purdy, J A; Rubin, P

    1992-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of using the Macintosh computer as a workstation platform for radiation oncology residents because of its ease of use, graphics capability, and low cost. Hypercard was chosen as the programming environment because it easily mixes graphics, text, and control functions in an integrated screen display. Furthermore, it results in a system that can be relatively easily extended and customized by individual users with varying degrees of computer skills. We have developed several software modules in order to test the ability of this environment to support the demands of such a workstation. Modules created thus far include various clinical physics aids and tutorials, treatment planning guides, oncology databases, and others. The software runs on all Macintosh configurations, but calculation speeds are improved when a 68020 or greater processor is used. In general, we have been pleased with the implementation thus far. Graphics display capability is good, but design and entry of graphics have proved labor-intensive. Searching is fast and text is easily entered and manipulated. Finished modules can be customized with minimal computer training, but implementing complex new functions requires familiarity with Hypercard's programming language. New modules, once developed, are easily integrated into the workstation universe, suggesting that cooperative development of the workstation by multiple contributors is realistically achievable. PMID:1727112

  15. Radiation oncology residents' computer workstation.

    PubMed

    Zusag, T W; McDonald, S; Miller, A; Purdy, J A; Rubin, P

    1992-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of using the Macintosh computer as a workstation platform for radiation oncology residents because of its ease of use, graphics capability, and low cost. Hypercard was chosen as the programming environment because it easily mixes graphics, text, and control functions in an integrated screen display. Furthermore, it results in a system that can be relatively easily extended and customized by individual users with varying degrees of computer skills. We have developed several software modules in order to test the ability of this environment to support the demands of such a workstation. Modules created thus far include various clinical physics aids and tutorials, treatment planning guides, oncology databases, and others. The software runs on all Macintosh configurations, but calculation speeds are improved when a 68020 or greater processor is used. In general, we have been pleased with the implementation thus far. Graphics display capability is good, but design and entry of graphics have proved labor-intensive. Searching is fast and text is easily entered and manipulated. Finished modules can be customized with minimal computer training, but implementing complex new functions requires familiarity with Hypercard's programming language. New modules, once developed, are easily integrated into the workstation universe, suggesting that cooperative development of the workstation by multiple contributors is realistically achievable.

  16. Gaps in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

  17. A real time Teleconsultation System for Sharing an Oncologic Web-based Electronic Medical Record.

    PubMed

    Forti, Stefano; Galvagni, Michele; Galligioni, Enzo; Eccher, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    This poster presents an innovative real-time Teleconsultation System for synchronized navigation of the pages of a web-based Oncological Electronic Medical Record, designed to provide clinicians a cooperative work tool supporting the oncologic patient management between different hospitals. The system embeds additional tools supporting the discussion: digital whiteboard, chat and a digital audio channel.

  18. Oncological image analysis.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sir Michael; Highnam, Ralph; Irving, Benjamin; Schnabel, Julia A

    2016-10-01

    Cancer is one of the world's major healthcare challenges and, as such, an important application of medical image analysis. After a brief introduction to cancer, we summarise some of the major developments in oncological image analysis over the past 20 years, but concentrating those in the authors' laboratories, and then outline opportunities and challenges for the next decade.

  19. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Das, Prajnan

    2012-07-01

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  20. Oncology legislative update.

    PubMed

    Holmes, H

    2000-11-01

    This article reviews current legislative and regulatory issues of importance to the oncology community. Topics include patient protection, Medicare support of clinical trials, research data protection, the Medical Innovation Tax Credit, National Cancer Institute appropriations, and medical record privacy issues. Other topics discussed included funding for stem-cell research, genetic therapy oversight, and coverage for uninsured patients.

  1. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: nursing discipline.

    PubMed

    Landier, Wendy; Leonard, Marcia; Ruccione, Kathleen S

    2013-06-01

    Integration of the nursing discipline within cooperative groups conducting pediatric oncology clinical trials provides unique opportunities to maximize nursing's contribution to clinical care, and to pursue research questions that extend beyond cure of disease to address important gaps in knowledge surrounding the illness experience. Key areas of importance to the advancement of the nursing discipline's scientific knowledge are understanding the effective delivery of patient/family education, and reducing illness-related distress, both of which are integral to facilitating parental/child coping with the diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer, and to promoting resilience and well-being of pediatric oncology patients and their families.

  2. Postmarket policy considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Matthew J; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Weymann, Deirdre; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Oncology biological products are some of the most expensive drugs on the market and are a growing financial burden on patients and health-care systems. By 2020, numerous major biological cancer drugs will lose their patent protection allowing follow-on competitors, known as biosimilars, to enter the market. Clinical and regulatory considerations for biosimilars have begun to harmonise in Europe and the USA to help to define and streamline the pathway for biosimilar market authorisation. Yet, substantial international variation still exists in the pricing and market uptake of approved biosimilar oncology drugs. Differences in national postmarket policies for biosimilars might explain these disparities in pricing and uptake. In this Policy Review, policy approaches to competition between biosimilars and originators used by seven European countries--Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the UK--and the USA are discussed, chosen because these countries represent a variety of postmarket policies and build on conclusions from previous work. We discuss these policies within the context of interchangeability, physician prescribing, substitutability, pharmacist dispensing, hospital financing and tendering, and pricing. PMID:26758759

  3. Quality in radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlicki, Todd; Mundt, Arno J.

    2007-05-15

    A modern approach to quality was developed in the United States at Bell Telephone Laboratories during the first part of the 20th century. Over the years, those quality techniques have been adopted and extended by almost every industry. Medicine in general and radiation oncology in particular have been slow to adopt modern quality techniques. This work contains a brief description of the history of research on quality that led to the development of organization-wide quality programs such as Six Sigma. The aim is to discuss the current approach to quality in radiation oncology as well as where quality should be in the future. A strategy is suggested with the goal to provide a threshold improvement in quality over the next 10 years.

  4. [Biosimilars in oncology].

    PubMed

    Barroso, Sérgio; Coutinho, Jorge; Damasceno, Margarida; Dinis, José; Forjaz de Lacerda, João; Gervásio, Helena; Leal da Costa, Fernando; Marques Pereira, Ana; Parreira, António; Principe, Fernando; Rodrigues, Helena; Sá, Anabela; Teixeira, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    The development of biotechnology drugs represents one of the great advances in medical therapy and it was observed an exponential growth in its use. The resource to these drugs in Oncology and Hematology is no exception and it soon became an essential element of an integrated and directed therapy strategy. The expiry of the first biotechnology drugs patents has opened the door for the development and marketing of biosimilars, which entry in the Portuguese market was recently approved. This article was built on the analysis of the available state-of-the-art information on biotechnology drugs, biosimilars and current legislation and it expresses the opinion of Oncology and Hematology experts about the substituition of biological drugs by biosimilars in clinical practice.

  5. Integrative oncology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Integrative oncology, the diagnosis-specific field of integrative medicine, addresses symptom control with nonpharmacologic therapies. Known commonly as "complementary therapies" these are evidence-based adjuncts to mainstream care that effectively control physical and emotional symptoms, enhance physical and emotional strength, and provide patients with skills enabling them to help themselves throughout and following mainstream cancer treatment. Integrative or complementary therapies are rational and noninvasive. They have been subjected to study to determine their value, to document the problems they ameliorate, and to define the circumstances under which such therapies are beneficial. Conversely, "alternative" therapies typically are promoted literally as such; as actual antitumor treatments. They lack biologic plausibility and scientific evidence of safety and efficacy. Many are outright fraudulent. Conflating these two very different categories by use of the convenient acronym "CAM," for "complementary and alternative therapies," confuses the issue and does a substantial disservice to patients and medical professionals. Complementary and integrative modalities have demonstrated safety value and benefits. If the same were true for "alternatives," they would not be "alternatives." Rather, they would become part of mainstream cancer care. This manuscript explores the medical and sociocultural context of interest in integrative oncology as well as in "alternative" therapies, reviews commonly-asked patient questions, summarizes research results in both categories, and offers recommendations to help guide patients and family members through what is often a difficult maze. Combining complementary therapies with mainstream oncology care to address patients' physical, psychologic and spiritual needs constitutes the practice of integrative oncology. By recommending nonpharmacologic modalities that reduce symptom burden and improve quality of life, physicians also enable

  6. Introduction to pediatric oncology

    SciTech Connect

    McWhirter, W.R.; Masel, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book covers the varied and complex aspects of management in pediatric oncology. Emphasis is placed on a team approach and on establishing and maintaining an individualized, humanistic relationships with the patient. Numerous illustrations show modern imaging techniques that are proving most valuable in the investigation of suspected or confirmed childhood cancer. Physical and psychological side effects of short-term and long-term treatment are also discussed.

  7. [Factitious diseases in oncology].

    PubMed

    Reich, Michel; Clermont, Amélie; Amela, Éric; Kotecki, Nuria

    2015-12-01

    Factitious diseases and pathomimias and particularly Munchausen's syndrome, due to their rarity, are poorly diagnosed by medical teams working in oncology. Consequences can be serious and result in unadapted surgery or non justified implementation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. These patients simulate diseases in order to attract medical attention. They might become belligerent and are likely to promptly discharge themselves from hospital if they do not get the desired attention or are unmasked. With two following case reports and literature review, we would like to alert clinicians about difficulties encountered in diagnosis and management of factitious disorders. When faced with this diagnosis, the patient will tend to deny reality and break contact with the medical team who exposed him. Medical peregrinating behavior surrounded by conflicts with medical team, past psychiatric illness, history of working in the medical and paramedical field and social isolation can guide the diagnosis. Somaticians and especially surgeons working in the oncologic field must remain vigilant about this diagnosis and collaborate with either the psycho-oncologic team or the consultation-liaison psychiatric team. Some recommendations for medical professionals how to cope with these patients will be suggested. PMID:26597474

  8. Pediatric oncology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kebudi, Rejin

    2012-03-01

    The survival of children with cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, as a result of advances in diagnosis, treatment and supportive care. Each year in Turkey, 2500-3000 new childhood cancer cases are expected. According to the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group and Turkish Pediatric Hematology Societies Registry, about 2000 new pediatric cancer cases are reported each year. The population in Turkey is relatively young. One fourth of the population is younger than 15 years of age. According to childhood mortality, cancer is the fourth cause of death (7.2%) after infections, cardiac deaths and accidents. The major cancers in children in Turkey are leukemia (31%), lymphoma (19%), central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms (13%), neuroblastomas (7%), bone tumors (6.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (6%), followed by renal tumors, germ cell tumors, retinoblastoma, carcinomas-epithelial neoplasms, hepatic tumors and others. Lymphomas rank second in frequency as in many developing countries in contrast to West Europe or USA, where CNS neoplasms rank second in frequency. The seven-year survival rate in children with malignancies in Turkey is 65.8%. The history of modern Pediatric Oncology in Turkey dates back to the 1970's. Pediatric Oncology has been accepted as a subspecialty in Turkey since 1983. Pediatric Oncologists are all well trained and dedicated. All costs for the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer is covered by the government. Education and infrastructure for palliative care needs improvement.

  9. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Das, Prajnan

    2013-03-15

    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts.

  10. Report on the international colloquium on cardio-oncology (rome, 12-14 march 2014).

    PubMed

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T; Carver, Joseph R; Lipshultz, Steven E; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D; Darby, Sarah C; Force, Thomas L; Kremer, Leontien Cm; Lenihan, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Suter, Thomas M; Swain, Sandra M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of cardiovascular events. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was held in Rome, Italy, 12-14 March 2014, with the aim of illuminating controversial issues and unmet needs in modern cardio-oncology. This colloquium embraced contributions from different kind of disciplines (oncology and cardiology but also paediatrics, geriatrics, genetics, and translational research); in fact, cardio-oncology goes way beyond the merging of cardiology with oncology. Moreover, the colloquium programme did not review cardiovascular toxicity from one drug or the other, rather it looked at patients as we see them in their fight against cancer and eventually returning to everyday life. This represents the melting pot in which anti-cancer therapies, genetic backgrounds, and risk factors conspire in producing cardiovascular sequelae, and this calls for screening programmes and well-designed platforms of collaboration between one key professional figure and another. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was promoted by the Menarini International Foundation and co-chaired by Giorgio Minotti (Rome), Joseph R Carver (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States), and Steven E Lipshultz (Detroit, Michigan, United States). The programme was split into five sessions of broad investigational and clinical relevance (what is cardiotoxicity?, cardiotoxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults, cardiotoxicity in adults, cardiotoxicity in special populations, and the future of cardio-oncology). Here, the colloquium chairs and all the session chairs briefly summarised what was said at the colloquium. Topics and controversies were reported on behalf of all members of the working group of

  11. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan.

  12. Integrative Physical Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Hatzikirou, Haralampos; Chauviere, Arnaud; Bauer, Amy L.; Leier, André; Lewis, Michael T.; Macklin, Paul; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.; Bearer, Elaine L.; Cristini, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is arguably the ultimate complex biological system. Solid tumors are micro-structured soft matter that evolves as a consequence of spatio-temporal events at the intracellular (e.g., signaling pathways, macromolecular trafficking), intercellular (e.g., cell-cell adhesion/communication), and tissue (e.g., cell-extracellular matrix interactions, mechanical forces) scales. To gain insight, tumor and developmental biologists have gathered a wealth of molecular, cellular and genetic data, including immunohistochemical measurements of cell type-specific division and death rates, lineage tracing, and gain-of-function/loss-of-function mutational analyses. These data are empirically extrapolated to a diagnosis/prognosis of tissue-scale behavior, e.g., for clinical decision. Integrative Physical Oncology (IPO) is the science that develops physically consistent mathematical approaches to address the significant challenge of bridging the nano (nm)-micro (μm) to macro (mm, cm) scales with respect to tumor development and progression. In the current literature, such approaches are referred to as multiscale modeling. In the present review, we attempt to assess recent modeling approaches on each separate scale and critically evaluate the current “hybrid-multiscale” models used to investigate tumor growth in the context of brain and breast cancers. Finally, we provide our perspective on the further development and the impact of Integrative Physical Oncology. PMID:21853537

  13. [Dignity therapy in oncology].

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida

    2016-04-01

    In oncology, little is known about dignity, dignity-related distress and the issues that influence the sense of dignity for patients. Dignity is personal, subject to changes depending on the experience and the path of life. In oncology some patients feel that their dignity is directly related to the disease, to physical and emotional symptoms, to the highest level of physical and cognitive autonomy and to the continuity of the self. Patient dignity inventory (PDI) is a validate tool designed to measure various sources of dignity-related distress among patients nearing the end of life and serve as a screening tool to assess a broad range of issues that influence the sense of dignity. Dignity therapy is a novel focused psychotherapy consisting in a brief semi-structured interview, audio-recorded and transcribed in order to obtain the "generativity document". The patients are invited to tell about their life history, and to leave words of guidance and offer instructions to pass along to their son, daughters, husband, wife, parents, others. The generativity document is the result of process of emotional and existential care for the patients and a gift for everybody will receive it. PMID:27093325

  14. [Dignity therapy in oncology].

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida

    2016-04-01

    In oncology, little is known about dignity, dignity-related distress and the issues that influence the sense of dignity for patients. Dignity is personal, subject to changes depending on the experience and the path of life. In oncology some patients feel that their dignity is directly related to the disease, to physical and emotional symptoms, to the highest level of physical and cognitive autonomy and to the continuity of the self. Patient dignity inventory (PDI) is a validate tool designed to measure various sources of dignity-related distress among patients nearing the end of life and serve as a screening tool to assess a broad range of issues that influence the sense of dignity. Dignity therapy is a novel focused psychotherapy consisting in a brief semi-structured interview, audio-recorded and transcribed in order to obtain the "generativity document". The patients are invited to tell about their life history, and to leave words of guidance and offer instructions to pass along to their son, daughters, husband, wife, parents, others. The generativity document is the result of process of emotional and existential care for the patients and a gift for everybody will receive it.

  15. [Epidemiologic surveillance of pleural mesothelioma in Italy].

    PubMed

    Vetrugno, T; Comba, P; Savelli, D; Belli, S; Magnani, C

    1991-01-01

    A collaborative study has been performed in order to detect cases of pleural mesothelioma diagnosed or treated in Italy in the years 1984-88. Cases have been notified to ISS by 88 centres (clinics of thoracic surgery and respiratory diseases, oncologic centres, institutes of pathology), active in 14 Italian regions. Altogether, 575 cases (415 males and 160 females) have been included in the study. Information on occupation and/or on non occupational exposure to asbestos was available for 65% of the subjects, and the occurrence of definite or possible exposure to asbestos was estimated for 58% of them.

  16. Primary care psychiatry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Domenico; Ferrannini, Luigi; Menchetti, Marco; Vaggi, Marco

    2014-06-01

    In Italy, the importance of integrating primary care and mental health has only recently been grasped. Several reasons may explain this delay: a) until 2005, primary care physicians worked individually instead of in group practices, without any functional network or structured contacts with colleagues; b) community mental health centers with multiprofessional teams were well structured and widespread in several regions but focused on people with severe and persistent mental disorders; and c) specific national government health policies were lacking. Only two regions have implemented explicit policies on this issue. The "G. Leggieri" program started by the Emilia-Romagna region health government in 1999 aims to coordinate unsolicited bottom-up cooperation initiatives developing since the 1980s. In Liguria, a regional work group was established in 2010 to boost the strategic role of collaborative programs between primary care and mental health services. This article describes the most innovative experiences relating to primary care psychiatry in Italy.

  17. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  18. Perceived roles of oncology nursing.

    PubMed

    Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology (CANO) Standards of Care (2001) provides a framework that delineates oncology nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to explore how oncology nurses perceive their roles and responsibilities compared to the CANO Standards of Care. Six focus groups were conducted and 21 registered nurses (RNs) from a community-based hospital participated in this study. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Three themes were identified: (1) Oncology nurses perceive a gap between their defined roles and the reality of daily practice, as cancer care becomes more complex and as they provide advanced oncology care to more patients while there is no parallel adaptation to the health care system to support them, such as safe staffing; (2) Oncology nursing, as a specialty, requires sustained professional development and leadership roles; and (3) Oncology nurses are committed to providing continuous care as a reference point in the health care team by fostering interdisciplinary collaboration andfacilitating patient's navigation through the system. Organizational support through commitment to appropriate staffing and matching scope ofpractice to patient needs may lead to maximize the health and well-being of nurses, quality of patient care and organizational performance. PMID:26897865

  19. Multicriteria decision analysis in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Adunlin, Georges; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Montero, Alberto J.; Xiao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been a growing interest in the development and application of alternative decision-making frameworks within health care, including multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). Even though the literature includes several reviews on MCDA methods, applications of MCDA in oncology are lacking. Aim The aim of this paper is to discuss a rationale for the use of MCDA in oncology. In this context, the following research question emerged: How can MCDA be used to develop a clinical decision support tool in oncology? Methods In this paper, a brief background on decision making is presented, followed by an overview of MCDA methods and process. The paper discusses some applications of MCDA, proposes research opportunities in the context of oncology and presents an illustrative example of how MCDA can be applied to oncology. Findings Decisions in oncology involve trade-offs between possible benefits and harms. MCDA can help analyse trade-off preferences. A wide range of MCDA methods exist. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. Choosing the appropriate method varies depending on the source and nature of information used to inform decision making. The literature review identified eight studies. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was the most often used method in the identified studies. Conclusion Overall, MCDA appears to be a promising tool that can be used to assist clinical decision making in oncology. Nonetheless, field testing is desirable before MCDA becomes an established decision-making tool in this field. PMID:24635949

  20. Radiation oncology (Vol. 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.L.; Wara, W.

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the Radiation Oncology series features update reports on the current status of primary therapy for lung cancer and the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of hepatomas. Other articles describe the use of stereotaxic interstitial implantation in the treatment of malignant brain tumors and discuss the indications for and results of radiation as the primary or adjuvant treatment of large bowel cancer. Reports on new technological developments examine the biological basis and clinical potential of local-regional hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy. Included are reviews of the role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic evaluation of cancer and of three-dimensional treatment planning for high energy external beam radiotherapy.

  1. [Genomics medicine and oncology].

    PubMed

    Michielin, Olivier; Coukos, George

    2014-05-01

    Progress in genomics with, in particular, high throughput next generation sequencing is revolutionizing oncology. The impact of these techniques is seen on the one hand the identification of germline mutations that predispose to a given type of cancer, allowing for a personalized care of patients or healthy carriers and, on the other hand, the characterization of all acquired somatic mutation of the tumor cell, opening the door to personalized treatment targeting the driver oncogenes. In both cases, next generation sequencing techniques allow a global approach whereby the integrality of the genome mutations is analyzed and correlated with the clinical data. The benefits on the quality of care delivered to our patients are extremely impressive. PMID:24800772

  2. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1996-12-31

    Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, {sup 24}Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of {sup 89}Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the 1940s, there was increasing use of iodine therapy for thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer. Diagnostic {open_quotes}imaging{close_quotes} with radioisotopes was increasingly employed in the 1930s and 40s using probes and grew in importance and utility with the development of scintillation detectors with photorecording systems. Although coincidence counting to detect positron emissions was developed in 1953, the first medical center cyclotron was not installed until 1961. The 1960s saw the development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, emission reconstruction tomography [giving rise to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)], and {sup 64}Ga tumor imaging. Nuclear medicine was recognized as a medical specialty in 1971. Radiolabeled antibodies targeting human tumors in animals was reported in 1973; antibody tumor imaging in humans was reported in 1978. Technology has continued to advance, including the development of SPECT cameras with coincidence detection able to perform FDG/PET imaging. With this overview as as backdrop, this paper focuses on the role of nuclear medicine in oncology from three perspectives: nonspecific tumor imaging agents, specific tumor imaging agents, and radioisotopes for tumor therapy. In summary, while tumor diagnosis and treatment were among the first uses explored for radioactivity, these areas have yet to reach their full potential. Development of new radioisotopes and new radiopharmaceuticals, coupled with improvements in technology, make nuclear oncology an area of growth for nuclear medicine.

  3. A Study of Layered Learning in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Buie, Larry W.; Lyons, Kayley; Rao, Kamakshi; Pinelli, Nicole R.; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; Roth, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore use of pharmacy learners as a means to expand pharmacy services in a layered learning practice model (LLPM), to examine whether an LLPM environment precludes achievement of knowledge-based learning objectives, and to explore learner perception of the experience. Design. An acute care oncology pharmacy practice experience was redesigned to support the LLPM. Specifically, the redesign focused on micro discussion, standardized feedback (eg, rubrics), and cooperative learning to enhance educational gain through performing clinical activities. Assessment. Posttest scores evaluating knowledge-based learning objectives increased in mean percentage compared to pretest values. Learners viewed the newly designed practice experience positively with respect to perceived knowledge attainment, improved clinical time management skills, contributions to patient care, and development of clinical and self-management skills. A fifth theme among students, comfort with learning, was also noted. Conclusion. Layered learning in an oncology practice experience was well-received by pharmacy learners. Data suggest a practice experience in the LLPM environment does not preclude achieving knowledge-based learning objectives and supports further studies of the LLPM. PMID:27293235

  4. A Study of Layered Learning in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jill S; Buie, Larry W; Lyons, Kayley; Rao, Kamakshi; Pinelli, Nicole R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Roth, Mary T

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To explore use of pharmacy learners as a means to expand pharmacy services in a layered learning practice model (LLPM), to examine whether an LLPM environment precludes achievement of knowledge-based learning objectives, and to explore learner perception of the experience. Design. An acute care oncology pharmacy practice experience was redesigned to support the LLPM. Specifically, the redesign focused on micro discussion, standardized feedback (eg, rubrics), and cooperative learning to enhance educational gain through performing clinical activities. Assessment. Posttest scores evaluating knowledge-based learning objectives increased in mean percentage compared to pretest values. Learners viewed the newly designed practice experience positively with respect to perceived knowledge attainment, improved clinical time management skills, contributions to patient care, and development of clinical and self-management skills. A fifth theme among students, comfort with learning, was also noted. Conclusion. Layered learning in an oncology practice experience was well-received by pharmacy learners. Data suggest a practice experience in the LLPM environment does not preclude achieving knowledge-based learning objectives and supports further studies of the LLPM. PMID:27293235

  5. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  6. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  7. Quality and Learning: Perspectives from Development Co-Operation. A Report from the Meeting of the International Working Group on Education (IWGE) (Florence, Italy, June 13-16, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iredale, Roger

    The International Working Group on Education met in Florence, Italy, in June 2000. Participants came from 28 institutions representing 10 international agencies or institutions, 1 foundation, and 14 bilateral agencies. This publication is a summary of the proceedings of that meeting. Meeting participants reviewed progress on the Education for All…

  8. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care.

  9. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Holzhauer, Peter; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F; Adamietz, Irenäus A

    2016-03-01

    Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%-90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better-with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations-when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient's medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual's background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician. PMID:26985904

  10. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Holzhauer, Peter; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F.; Adamietz, Irenäus A.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better—with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations—when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient’s medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual’s background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician. PMID:26985904

  11. Foreign children with cancer in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP), which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608) were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538) were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%), whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p < 0.001) for immigrants and patients born in Italy, respectively. Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network. PMID:21923939

  12. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Cancer.gov

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  13. 75 FR 66773 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... were either recently approved by FDA or, are in late stage development for an adult oncology...

  14. 78 FR 63222 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... ] (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... relevance and potential use of such measures in the pediatric development plans of oncology products....

  15. 77 FR 57095 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... plans for four products that are in development for an adult oncology indication. The subcommittee...

  16. 76 FR 61713 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of..., are in late stage development for an adult oncology indication, or in late stage development...

  17. 78 FR 63224 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... late stage development for various adult oncology indications. The subcommittee will consider...

  18. Tissue Microarrays in Clinical Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Voduc, David; Kenney, Challayne; Nielsen, Torsten O.

    2008-01-01

    The tissue microarray is a recently-implemented, high-throughput technology for the analysis of molecular markers in oncology. This research tool permits the rapid assessment of a biomarker in thousands of tumor samples, using commonly available laboratory assays such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Although introduced less than a decade ago, the TMA has proven to be invaluable in the study of tumor biology, the development of diagnostic tests, and the investigation of oncological biomarkers. This review describes the impact of TMA-based research in clinical oncology and its potential future applications. Technical aspects of TMA construction, and the advantages and disadvantages inherent to this technology are also discussed. PMID:18314063

  19. Palliative medicine and medical oncology.

    PubMed

    Maltoni, M; Amadori, D

    2001-04-01

    Traditionally, medical oncology and palliative care have been considered two distinct and separate disciplines, both as regards treatment objectives and delivery times. Palliative care in terminal stages, aimed exclusively at evaluating and improving quality of life, followed antitumor therapies, which concentrated solely on quantitative results (cure, prolongation of life, tumoral mass shrinkage). Over the years, more modern concepts have developed on the subject. Medical oncology, dealing with the skills and strategic co-ordination of oncologic interventions from primary prevention to terminal phases, should also include assessment and treatment of patients' subjective needs. Anticancer therapies should be evaluated in terms of both the quantitative and qualititative impact on patients' lives. Hence, the traditional view of palliative care has to be modified: it constitutes a philosophical and methodological approach to be adopted from the early phases of illness. It is not the evident cultural necessity of integrating medical oncology with palliative medicine that may be a matter of argument, but rather the organizational models needed to put this combined care into practice: should continuous care be guaranteed by a single figure, the medical oncologist, or rather by an interdisciplinary providers' team, including full-time doctors well-equipped for palliative care? In this paper the needs of cancer patients and the part that a complete oncologist should play to deal with such difficult and far-reaching problems are firstly described. Then, as mild provocation, data and critical considerations on the ever increasing needs of palliative care, the present shortcomings in quality of life and pain assessment and management by medical oncologists, and the uncertain efficacy of interventional programmes to change clinical practice are described. Finally, a model of therapeutic continuity is presented. which in our view is realistic and feasible: an Oncologic

  20. Geriatric oncology in the Netherlands: a survey of medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists.

    PubMed

    Jonker, J M; Smorenburg, C H; Schiphorst, A H; van Rixtel, B; Portielje, J E A; Hamaker, M E

    2014-11-01

    To identify ways to improve cancer care for older patients, we set out to examine how older patients in the Netherlands are currently being evaluated prior to oncological treatment and to explore the potential obstacles in the incorporation of a geriatric evaluation, using a web-based survey sent to Dutch medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists. The response rate was 34% (183 out of 544). Two-thirds of respondents reported that a geriatric evaluation was being used, although primarily on an ad hoc basis only. Most respondents expressed a desire for a routine evaluation or more intensive collaboration with the geriatrician and 86% of respondents who were not using a geriatric evaluation expressed their interest to do so. The most important obstacles were a lack of time or personnel and insufficient availability of a geriatrician to perform the assessment. Thus, over 30% of oncology professionals in the Netherlands express an interest in geriatric oncology. Important obstacles to a routine implementation of a geriatric evaluation are a lack of time, or insufficient availability of geriatricians; this could be overcome with policies that acknowledge that quality cancer care for older patients requires the investment of time and personnel.

  1. Molecular imaging in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Dzik-Jurasz, A S K

    2004-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that manifests in loss of normal cellular homeostatic mechanisms. The biology and therapeutic modulation of neoplasia occurs at the molecular level. An understanding of these molecular processes is therefore required to develop novel prognostic and early biomarkers of response. In addition to clinical applications, increased impetus for the development of such technologies has been catalysed by pharmaceutical companies investing in the development of molecular therapies. The discipline of molecular imaging therefore aims to image these important molecular processes in vivo. Molecular processes, however, operate at short length scales and concentrations typically beyond the resolution of clinical imaging. Solving these issues will be a challenge to imaging research. The successful implementations of molecular imaging in man will only be realised by the close co-operation amongst molecular biologists, chemists and the imaging scientists. PMID:18250026

  2. Scientific activity and needs among medical oncology units in sicily: a survey of the italian association of medical oncology.

    PubMed

    Amadio, P; Bordonaro, R; Borsellino, N; Butera, A; Caruso, M; Ferraù, F; Russello, R; Savio, G; Valenza, R; Zerilli, F; Gebbia, V

    2010-02-01

    In the era of targeted therapies and combined modalities of treatment, scientific research plays a role of paramount importance in improving knowledge of cancer treatment. The aim of this survey was to review the scientific activity of medical oncology units in Sicily and to analyze their needs and possible pitfalls in order to improve future scientific cooperation.The regional section of the Italian Association of medical Oncology (AIOM) approved this survey in November, 2007. A systematic review of scientific activity produced by medical oncology units in Sicily during the last 5 years has been reviewed. papers dealing with solid tumors reported in the pubmed web site have been included in the analysis. Data were reported as absolute number of published papers and impact factor per medical oncology unit and also as a ratio between global impact factor and the number of personnel working in each single unit to analyze scientific production according to the workforce of each institution.We identified a total of 283 papers reported in pubmed between 2004 and march, 2009. The mean number of publications/unit was 10.9 with a range of 0-50. The mean number of publications/year was 11.7 with a range of 0.2-10. The 15 units included in the impact factor evaluation published 252 papers with a total impact factor of 1014.6 points in 5 years with a mean of 63.4 points per institution and a mean of 4.02 points/paper. However only four medical oncology units reported a cumulative 5-year impact factor >100 points.This survey has shown that a minority of medical oncology units in Sicily is constantly involved in clinical research although at different levels of activity. Overall the percentage of patients enrolled in clinical trials is very low. The main reasons for lack of participation in clinical trials include insufficient medical personnel, the absence of a specifically dedicated research unit inside the medical oncology structures and in some cases lack of research

  3. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    PubMed

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia. PMID:27296401

  4. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    PubMed

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia.

  5. [Oncologic gynecology and the Internet].

    PubMed

    Gizler, Robert; Bielanów, Tomasz; Kulikiewicz, Krzysztof

    2002-11-01

    The strategy of World Wide Web searching for medical sites was presented in this article. The "deep web" and "surface web" resources were searched. The 10 best sites connected with the gynecological oncology, according to authors' opinion, were presented. PMID:12722411

  6. Counseling in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  7. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... shook the eastern edge of Sicily and parts of mainland Italy during September and October. The eruption of Etna sent a thick blanket ... date:  Oct 27, 2002 Images:  Italy: Mt. Etna location:  Europe thumbnail:  ...

  8. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... the eastern coast of Sicily, to the southwest of mainland Italy. Major eruptions have been issuing from both summit and flank vents. Fine ... volcanism. For more information on Etna, refer to  Italy's Volcanoes  and to the  Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism ...

  9. Definition of standardized nutritional assessment and interventional pathways in oncology.

    PubMed

    Ottery, F D

    1996-01-01

    Weight loss and nutritional deterioration are associated with adverse outcomes in terms of cancer prognosis (response rate and survival) as well as increased complications, prolonged hospitalizations, increased risk of unplanned hospitalization, increased disability, and increased overall cost of care. The nutritional oncology service at Fox Chase Cancer Center defined a proactive, standardized assessment and interventional approach from 1987-1994. In 186 consecutive patients referred to the nutrition clinic and managed solely by oral intervention and aggressive symptom management, the team demonstrated a 50%-80% success rate in getting patients to maintain or gain weight during therapy, with a similar success in maintaining or improving visceral protein status as determined by serum transferrin and/or albumin. Evaluation of the home parenteral nutrition program (n = 65, from 1987-1993) demonstrated similar success when appropriate triaging was carried out, with 58% of patients able to be tapered off parenteral nutrition (PN) entirely or with transition to enteral tube feeding. The assessment of success for a nutritional intervention (e.g., a disease-specific nutritional supplement) requires the standardization of definitions, assessment tools, criteria for nutritional intervention, and appropriate end points for the assessment of outcomes. The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status is used in conjunction with the nutritional risk of planned cancer therapy to define a standardized interventional approach in oncology patients, which can be used in clinical practice, cooperative oncology group protocols, and clinical trials of nutritional intervention regimens. PMID:8850213

  10. [Oncological data elements in histopathology].

    PubMed

    Haroske, G; Kramm, T; Mörz, M; Oberholzer, M

    2010-09-01

    In order to cope with increasing demands to supply information to a variety of documentation systems outside pathology, pathologists need to set standards both for the content and the use of the information they generate. Oncological datasets based on a set vocabulary are urgently required for use both in pathology and in further processing. Data elements were defined according to German pathology report guidelines for colorectal cancers in line with ISO 11179 requirements for the relations between data element concepts and value domains, as well as for further formal conditions, which can be exported in XML together with metadata information. Tests on 100 conventionally written diagnoses showed their principal usability and an increasing degree of guideline conformity in diagnoses commensurate with training time. This set of oncological data elements is a valuable checklist tool for pathologists, enabling formatted information export for further use and saving documentation effort. PMID:20544201

  11. A Model for Rural Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Laurence J.; Christensen, Scott D.; deVere-White, Ralph W.; Meyers, Fredrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Small rural hospitals in the United States have had challenging issues developing sustainable oncology programs. This is a report on the development of a successful rural oncology program. In 2006, the Tahoe Forest Health System in Truckee, CA, a remote mountain resort town, started a cancer program that was focused on addressing patient and family fears that are common to all cancer patients but more frightening in the rural setting. Four years later, it is a thriving program with significant community support, a creative academic affiliation, and a central focus of the future of the hospital. The Tahoe Forest Cancer Center developed a sustainable model for high quality cancer care that overcomes geographic, cultural and financial barriers. This structure may serve as a model for national rural health care. PMID:21886498

  12. Cooperative Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Pam

    1989-01-01

    Describes "cooperative poetry," a group poetry-writing exercise combining brainstorming, rehearsing, choral reading, assisted reading, memorization, sequencing, and vocabulary development, as well as providing an opportunity for group cooperation. (MM)

  13. Integrative oncology in North America.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Stephen M

    2006-01-01

    Integrative oncology is an evolving evidence-based specialty that uses complementary therapies in concert with medical treatment to enhance its efficacy, improve symptom control, alleviate patient distress and reduce suffering. In North America the evolution of research into complementary therapies was delayed by the narrow focus of the Flexner Report. A government-funded research agenda and incorporation of complementary therapies into medical school curricula have been driven by early evidence of efficacy and patient demand. Integrative oncology focuses on the role of natural health products (botanicals, vitamins, and minerals), nutrition, acupuncture, meditation and other mind-body approaches, music therapy, touch therapies, fitness therapies, and more. Some natural health products, such as herbs and their constituent phytochemicals, may be biologic response modifiers that could increase cancer control. Current research stretches from the laboratory to health services. Institutions are exploring the effectiveness gap in their clinical services and are determining efficacy of complementary therapies through randomized controlled trials. Eventually, the goal is to establish practice guidelines through determining relative effectiveness and value through cost-utility studies. The aim of integrative oncology should be one medicine, not alternative; it should be patient-focused; it should be evidence-based; and it should provide the best care for cancer cure, prevention, symptom control, and quality of life.

  14. Major milestones in translational oncology.

    PubMed

    Dragani, Tommaso A; Castells, Antoni; Kulasingam, Vathany; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Earl, Helena; Iams, Wade T; Lovly, Christine M; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Schalken, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Translational oncology represents a bridge between basic research and clinical practice in cancer medicine. Today, translational research in oncology benefits from an abundance of knowledge resulting from genome-scale studies regarding the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis. In this Forum article, we highlight the state of the art of translational oncology in five major cancer types. We illustrate the use of molecular profiling to subtype colorectal cancer for both diagnosis and treatment, and summarize the results of a nationwide screening program for ovarian cancer based on detection of a tumor biomarker in serum. Additionally, we discuss how circulating tumor DNA can be assayed to safely monitor breast cancer over the course of treatment, and report on how therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors is proving effective in advanced lung cancer. Finally, we summarize efforts to use molecular profiling of prostate cancer biopsy specimens to support treatment decisions. Despite encouraging early successes, we cannot disregard the complex genetics of individual susceptibility to cancer nor the enormous complexity of the somatic changes observed in tumors, which urge particular attention to the development of personalized therapies. PMID:27469586

  15. Future vision for the quality assurance of oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Thomas J; Bishop-Jodoin, Maryann; Bosch, Walter R; Curran, Walter J; Followill, David S; Galvin, James M; Hanusik, Richard; King, Steven R; Knopp, Michael V; Laurie, Fran; O'Meara, Elizabeth; Michalski, Jeff M; Saltz, Joel H; Schnall, Mitchell D; Schwartz, Lawrence; Ulin, Kenneth; Xiao, Ying; Urie, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute clinical cooperative groups have been instrumental over the past 50 years in developing clinical trials and evidence-based process improvements for clinical oncology patient care. The cooperative groups are undergoing a transformation process as we further integrate molecular biology into personalized patient care and move to incorporate international partners in clinical trials. To support this vision, data acquisition and data management informatics tools must become both nimble and robust to support transformational research at an enterprise level. Information, including imaging, pathology, molecular biology, radiation oncology, surgery, systemic therapy, and patient outcome data needs to be integrated into the clinical trial charter using adaptive clinical trial mechanisms for design of the trial. This information needs to be made available to investigators using digital processes for real-time data analysis. Future clinical trials will need to be designed and completed in a timely manner facilitated by nimble informatics processes for data management. This paper discusses both past experience and future vision for clinical trials as we move to develop data management and quality assurance processes to meet the needs of the modern trial. PMID:23508883

  16. [The first 25 years of oncopsychology at the National Institute of Oncology: antecedents and events (1988-2013)].

    PubMed

    Riskó, Ágnes

    2015-09-01

    The first oncopsychological department was established in National Institute of Oncology by Sándor Eckhardt in 1988. At an early stage the specialists who were interested in mental hygiene made a united effort with Katalin Muszbek's oncopsychologic group. Ágnes Riskó was the first specialist who seceded from this group, and she became a permanent member of the onco-hematology group in 1992. Due to the universalized approach, the psyhcologist would become a permanent member of onco-team. The overhand and increasing multidisciplinary cooperation enable to use this accepted method in the daily medical treatment. When necessary, patients' relatives may come in for treatment and this method can help for medical stuff to avoid burnout. As a result of oncopsychology techniques and cooperation of oncologic teamwork the integration of psychosocial intervention into a complex oncologic treatment has already begun. The attendance of supervised onco-psychological specialists is being increased. Our activity contributes to improve our patients' psychosocial standard of living, their cooperation with the medical staff and the atmosphere of oncologic departments. The integration of the approach and methods of psychosocial rehabilitation into the new oncologic professional guideline has also begun. PMID:26339913

  17. Organisational design for an integrated oncological department

    PubMed Central

    Meiss-de Haas, Ch.L.; Falkmann, H.; Douma, J.; van Gassel, J.G.; Peters, W.G.; van Mierlo, R.; van Turnhout, J.M.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Objective The outcomes of a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT) analysis of three Integrated Oncological Departments were compared with their present situation three years later to define factors that can influence a successful implementation and development of an Integrated Oncological Department in- and outside (i.e. home care) the hospital. Research design Comparative Qualitative Case Study. Methods Auditing based on care-as-usual norms by an external, experienced auditing committee. Research setting Integrated Oncological Departments of three hospitals. Results Successful multidisciplinary care in an integrated, oncological department needs broad support inside the hospital and a well-defined organisational plan. PMID:16896411

  18. 76 FR 58520 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee...

  19. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Oncology Patients in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Sukran; Olmezoglu, Ali; Gozaydin, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the public-health issues worldwide. Approximately two billion people are infected with HBV, and about 350 million people are chronic carriers globally. About 3% of the world population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Oncology patients receiving packed red blood cell suspensions and other blood products usually are in the high-risk group for infections due to these viruses. The aim of the study was to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among chemotherapy patients at the Oncology Department of the Tepecik Education and Research Hospital. HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBc total and anti-HCV assays were studied by enzyme immunoassay method (Diasorin, Italy) in serum samples of patients (n=448) referred to the Department of Oncology of the Tepecik Education and Research Hospital during 1 June 2006–1 January 2007. Of the 448 patients, 19 (4.2%) were HBsAg-positive, and three (0.7%) had anti-HCV positivity. In this study, the seroprevalence of HBV was similar to previous data in Turkey. This could be due to widespread vaccination programmes. The seroprevalence of low anti-HCV may be because of controlled blood transfusion. Oncology patients should be monitored for their protective antibody levels against HBV, and they must be included in the vaccination programme. Their anti-HCV status should also be checked as well. PMID:22283040

  20. Quantitative radiology: applications to oncology.

    PubMed

    Herskovits, Edward H

    2014-01-01

    Oncologists, clinician-scientists, and basic scientists collect computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and positron emission tomography images in the process of caring for patients, managing clinical trials, and investigating cancer biology. As we have developed more sophisticated means for noninvasively delineating and characterizing neoplasms, these image data have come to play a central role in oncology. In parallel, the increasing complexity and volume of these data have necessitated the development of quantitative methods for assessing tumor burden, and by proxy, disease-free survival. PMID:25287685

  1. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. [The second opinion in oncology].

    PubMed

    Cifaldi, Luciano; Felicetti, Viviana; Cristina, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The medical second opinion (MSO) means the process through which it is possible to consult any available medical institution or a single physician, to compare, confirm and/or review a first diagnosis and/or a proposed treatment. The MSO is of the utmost importance when patients are suffering serious and disabling diseases or when risking their lives. Oncology is a really complex discipline in which, daily, doctors and patients have to deal with new clinical, managerial and sociological problems. Most patients are now better informed-often having gathered information from the Web, newspapers, magazines.This information is often very mixed and confusing and the number of MSO is increasing.

  3. New Technologies in Radiation Oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, Wolfgang; Bortfeld, Thomas; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in radiation oncology, many of which have originated from physics and engineering sciences. After an introductory section on basic aspects of 3D medical imaging, the role of 3D imaging in the context of radiotherapy is explored in a series of chapters on the various modern imaging techniques. A further major section addresses 3D treatment planning for conformal radiotherapy, with consideration of both external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Subsequently the modern techniques of 3D conformal radiotherapy are described, including stereotactic radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided and adaptive radiotherapy, and radiotherapy with charged particles.

  4. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  5. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future.

  6. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dancey, Janet E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Horvath, L. Elise; Perez, Edith A.; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M.; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a long-standing history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the U.S. based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the U.S., and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the U.S. or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the U.S. and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to U.S. policies that restrict drug distribution outside the U.S. This manuscript serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  7. [ASTRO 2006 : significant advances in urological oncology].

    PubMed

    Coquard, Régis

    2007-02-01

    The state of the art in radiation oncology has been recently updated at the ASTRO 2006 meeting. Innovating results have been reported in the field of urological oncology. This paper aims to summarize and to comment the studies presenting an important impact on the urologists' daily practice. Technological advances are also described.

  8. Nursing 436A: Pediatric Oncology for Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Cynthia L.

    A description is provided of "Pediatric Oncology for Nurses," the first in a series of three courses offered to fourth-year nursing students in pediatric oncology. The first section provides a course overview, discusses time assignments, and describes the target student population. Next, a glossary of terms, and lists of course goals, long-range…

  9. Perceptions of Oncology as a Medical Specialty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics and prestige associated with oncology and assessed shifts in medical students' perceptions as a result of participation in an oncology course are explored. Respondents were asked to rate the prestige of eight specialities and asked to select characteristics "that best describe each type of specialist." (MLW)

  10. Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilan, Barbara A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences is described, along with student reactions to the program. The summer elective program involves cancer lectures (one week) and clinical exposure (nine weeks) in medical, surgical, and pediatric oncology services, as well as self-directed learning…

  11. Art Therapy with an Oncology Care Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nainis, Nancy A.

    2005-01-01

    Oncology nurses are particularly vulnerable to "burnout" syndrome due to the intensity of their work and the ongoing losses they experience while providing oncology care to their patients. High levels of stress in the workplace left untended lead to high job turnover, poor productivity, and diminished quality of care for patients. Attention to…

  12. Report from the OECI Oncology Days 2014

    PubMed Central

    van Harten, WH; Stanta, G; Bussolati, G; Riegman, P; Hoefler, G; Becker, KF; Folprecht, G; Truini, M; Haybaeck, J; Buiga, R; Dono, M; Bagg, A; López Guerrero, JA; Zupo, S; Lemare, F; de Lorenzo, F; Goedbloed, N; Razavi, D; Lövey, J; Cadariu, PA; Rollandi, GA; Paparo, F; Pierotti, M; Ciuleanu, T; De Paoli, P; Weiner, G; Saghatchian, M; Lombardo, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 OECI Oncology Days was held at the ‘Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta’ Oncology Institute in Cluj, Romania, from 12 to 13 June. The focus of this year’s gathering was on developments in personalised medicine and other treatment advances which have made the cost of cancer care too high for many regions throughout Europe. PMID:25624877

  13. Expanding the role of the oncology nurse

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, A

    2008-01-01

    Oncology nursing continues to evolve in response to advances in cancer treatment, information and biotechnology. As new scientific and technological discoveries are integrated into cancer care, oncology nurses need to play a key role in the management of this patient population. The role of the oncology nurse has expanded significantly and can differ greatly across cultures. Sophisticated treatments and the growth of targeted therapies will create the challenge of ensuring that all nurses working in this arena are well-educated, independent thinkers. Thus the future success of oncology nurses will focus on enhancement of nursing practice through advanced education. The increased globalisation of healthcare offers exciting opportunities to accomplish this goal by allowing for collaborative relationships among oncology nurses across the globe. PMID:21611002

  14. Expanding the role of the oncology nurse.

    PubMed

    Quinn, A

    2008-07-01

    Oncology nursing continues to evolve in response to advances in cancer treatment, information and biotechnology. As new scientific and technological discoveries are integrated into cancer care, oncology nurses need to play a key role in the management of this patient population. The role of the oncology nurse has expanded significantly and can differ greatly across cultures. Sophisticated treatments and the growth of targeted therapies will create the challenge of ensuring that all nurses working in this arena are well-educated, independent thinkers. Thus the future success of oncology nurses will focus on enhancement of nursing practice through advanced education. The increased globalisation of healthcare offers exciting opportunities to accomplish this goal by allowing for collaborative relationships among oncology nurses across the globe.

  15. Decision making in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Lamb, B; Green, J S A; Vincent, C; Sevdalis, N

    2011-09-01

    Decisions in surgical oncology are increasingly being made by multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs). Although MDTs have been widely accepted as the preferred model for cancer service delivery, the process of decision making has not been well described and there is little evidence pointing to the ideal structure of an MDT. Performance in surgery has been shown to depend on non-technical skills, such as decision making, as well as patient factors and the technical skills of the healthcare team. Application of this systems approach to MDT working allows the identification of factors that affect the quality of decision making for cancer patients. In this article we review the literature on decision making in surgical oncology and by drawing from the systems approach to surgical performance we provide a framework for understanding the process of decision making in MDTs. Technical factors that affect decision making include the information about patients, robust ICT and video-conferencing equipment, a minimum dataset with expert review of radiological and pathological information, implementation and recording of the MDTs decision. Non-technical factors with an impact on decision making include attendance of team members at meetings, leadership, teamwork, open discussion, consensus on decisions and communication with patients and primary care. Optimising these factors will strengthen the decision making process and raise the quality of care for cancer patients.

  16. Decision making in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Lamb, B; Green, J S A; Vincent, C; Sevdalis, N

    2011-09-01

    Decisions in surgical oncology are increasingly being made by multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs). Although MDTs have been widely accepted as the preferred model for cancer service delivery, the process of decision making has not been well described and there is little evidence pointing to the ideal structure of an MDT. Performance in surgery has been shown to depend on non-technical skills, such as decision making, as well as patient factors and the technical skills of the healthcare team. Application of this systems approach to MDT working allows the identification of factors that affect the quality of decision making for cancer patients. In this article we review the literature on decision making in surgical oncology and by drawing from the systems approach to surgical performance we provide a framework for understanding the process of decision making in MDTs. Technical factors that affect decision making include the information about patients, robust ICT and video-conferencing equipment, a minimum dataset with expert review of radiological and pathological information, implementation and recording of the MDTs decision. Non-technical factors with an impact on decision making include attendance of team members at meetings, leadership, teamwork, open discussion, consensus on decisions and communication with patients and primary care. Optimising these factors will strengthen the decision making process and raise the quality of care for cancer patients. PMID:20719499

  17. Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Cooperative education programs, a nontraditional blending of practice and theory, have become an important feature of current higher education. Some educators estimate that by 1984 half of the higher education institutions in the United States will have developed some form of cooperative education. The Federal government's recent involvement in…

  18. Pharmacy Instruction in Medical Oncology: Results of a National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cersosimo, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey concerning oncology instruction in pharmacy schools found it taught primarily as part of a course in medicinal chemistry/pharmacology or therapeutics. Twenty-one schools offer an oncology course, with others planning them. Oncology clerkships are currently available in 42 schools. Increased emphasis on oncology instruction is encouraged.…

  19. Oncology Nursing as Ethical Practice.

    PubMed

    Barton-Burke, Margaret

    2015-05-01

    Many of us have patients we remember who left us with lasting memories. One such patient I cared for was a young man from Ghana. This young man had a wife, two children, and terminal cancer. He would not discuss the seriousness of his illness with his doctors, his nurses, his wife, or his community. However, from his hospital bed, he decided to go to Ghana to visit his mother. I was the clinical nurse specialist on the oncology unit at the time, and the nurses on the unit became upset with this man's plan because they knew that he would probably never return from Ghana. He would not die with his wife or his children surrounding his bedside, as in a U.S. healthcare setting. He would die with his mother in his country--in his own way.

  20. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.

  1. PET-Based Thoracic Radiation Oncology.

    PubMed

    Simone, Charles B; Houshmand, Sina; Kalbasi, Anusha; Salavati, Ali; Alavi, Abass

    2016-07-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET is increasingly being integrated into multiple aspects of oncology. PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become especially important in radiation oncology. With the increasing use of advanced techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy, PET/CT scans have played critical roles in the target delineation of tumors for radiation oncologists delivering conformal treatment techniques. Use of PET/CT is well established in lung cancer and several other thoracic malignancies. This article details the current uses of PET/CT in thoracic radiation oncology with a focus on lung cancer and describes expected future roles of PET/CT for thoracic tumors.

  2. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice.

  3. Beginning Reading in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel

    Teaching practices in Italy, where teachers combine three different methods for teaching reading, may provide insight into ways to improve methodologies in the United States. The first method is the natural method, which, unlike American methods, teaches reading and writing simultaneously with the emphasis on writing. The teacher writes as…

  4. Italy. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Ever since 1946, increased emigration in Italy has been paralleled by a slow but steady increase in educational activity. In 1971, Law No. 153 was adopted which provides for special educational arrangements to be made for migrant workers and their spouses adopted by the Italian Government are based on the need for Italian children to: (1) be…

  5. Marking Strategies in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattullo, Mario

    1987-01-01

    Three types of student evaluation strategies used in Italy are described: (1) teacher's free comments; (2) standardized adjectives used as rating scales; and (3) numeric scores based on tests and other evaluation criteria. Implications of the third approach, which was implemented according to legislation in 1977, are discussed. (GDC)

  6. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-05-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects.

  7. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  8. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  9. Prospective Clinical Study of Precision Oncology in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sohal, Davendra P S; Rini, Brian I; Khorana, Alok A; Dreicer, Robert; Abraham, Jame; Procop, Gary W; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Pennell, Nathan A; Stevenson, James P; Pelley, Robert; Estfan, Bassam; Shepard, Dale; Funchain, Pauline; Elson, Paul; Adelstein, David J; Bolwell, Brian J

    2015-11-09

    Systematic studies evaluating clinical benefit of tumor genomic profiling are lacking. We conducted a prospective study in 250 patients with select solid tumors at the Cleveland Clinic. Eligibility required histopathologic diagnosis, age of 18 years or older, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and written informed consent. Tumors were sequenced using FoundationOne (Cambridge, MA). Results were reviewed at the Cleveland Clinic Genomics Tumor Board. Outcomes included feasibility and clinical impact. Colorectal (25%), breast (18%), lung (13%), and pancreatobiliary (13%) cancers were the most common diagnoses. Median time from consent to result was 25 days (range = 3-140). Of 223 evaluable samples, 49% (n = 109) of patients were recommended a specific therapy, but only 11% (n = 24) received such therapy: 12 on clinical trials, nine off-label, three on-label. Lack of clinical trial access (n = 49) and clinical deterioration (n = 29) were the most common reasons for nonrecommendation/nonreceipt of genomics-driven therapy.

  10. Integrated telemedicine applications and services for oncological positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kontaxakis, George; Visvikis, Dimitris; Ohl, Roland; Sachpazidis, Ilias; Suarez, Juan Pablo; Selby, Peter; Cheze-Le Rest, Catherine; Santos, Andres; Ortega, Fernando; Diaz, Javier; Pan, Leyun; Strauss, Ludwig; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Sakas, Georgios; Pozo, Miguel Angel

    2006-01-01

    TENPET (Trans European Network for Positron Emission Tomography) aims to evaluate the provision of integrated teleconsultation and intelligent computer supported cooperative work services for clinical positron emission tomography (PET) in Europe at its current stage, as it is a multi-centre project financially supported by the European Commission (Information Society, eTEN Program). It addresses technological challenges by linking PET centres and developing supporting services that permit remote consultation between professionals in the field. The technological platform (CE-marked) runs on Win2000/NT/XP systems and incorporates advanced techniques for image visualization, analysis and fusion, as well as for interactive communication and message handling for off-line communications. Four PET Centres from Spain, France and Germany participate to the pilot system trials. The performance evaluation of the system is carried out via log files and user-filled questionnaires on the frequency of the teleconsultations, their duration and efficacy, quality of the images received, user satisfaction, as well as on privacy, ethical and security issues. TENPET promotes the co-operation and improved communication between PET practitioners that are miles away from their peers or on mobile units, offering options for second opinion and training and permitting physicians to remotely consult patient data if they are away from their centre. It is expected that TENPET will have a significant impact in the development of new skills by PET professionals and will support the establishment of peripheral PET units. To our knowledge, TENPET is the first telemedicine service specifically designed for oncological PET. This report presents the technical innovations incorporated in the TENPET platform and the initial pilot studies at real and diverse clinical environments in the field of oncology.

  11. Demystified … Molecular pathology in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, J

    2002-01-01

    In the past 10 years, molecular biology has found major applications in pathology, particularly in oncology. This has been a field of enormous expansion, where pure science has found a place in clinical practice and is now of everyday use in any academic unit. This demystified review will discuss the techniques used in molecular pathology and then provide examples of how these can be used in oncology. PMID:12456768

  12. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  13. Italy: pluralism takes root.

    PubMed

    Mori, Maurizio

    1987-06-01

    Mori gives an overview of biomedical ethics in Italy in one of four Hastings Center Report country reports. Public policy on issues like in vitro fertilization, sterilization and abortion, passive euthanasia, and organ transplantation reflects the declining influence of the Catholic Church and the increasing cultural pluralism of Italian society. The government has appointed advisory bodies on reproductive technologies and AIDS to study the issues and make recommendations. Bills regulating technologies such as in vitro fertilization or liberalizing restrictive laws such as those on contraception are introduced regularly in Parliament, if not always enacted. Mori concludes that general interest in and formal study and discussion of biomedical ethics is increasing in Italy. He sees a danger that the field of bioethics will develop a dual identity, with little progress made in resolving the issues, unless serious dialogue between Catholics and non-Catholics increases. PMID:11644031

  14. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  15. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem. PMID:24861043

  16. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Brawley, Otis W.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Michalski, Jeff M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Thomas, Charles R.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  17. Spirituality and religion in oncology.

    PubMed

    Peteet, John R; Balboni, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Despite the difficulty in clearly defining and measuring spirituality, a growing literature describes its importance in oncology and survivorship. Religious/spiritual beliefs influence patients' decision-making with respect to both complementary therapies and aggressive care at the end of life. Measures of spirituality and spiritual well-being correlate with quality of life in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and caregivers. Spiritual needs, reflective of existential concerns in several domains, are a source of significant distress, and care for these needs has been correlated with better psychological and spiritual adjustment as well as with less aggressive care at the end of life. Studies show that while clinicians such as nurses and physicians regard some spiritual care as an appropriate aspect of their role, patients report that they provide it infrequently. Many clinicians report that their religious/spiritual beliefs influence their practice, and practices such as mindfulness have been shown to enhance clinician self-care and equanimity. Challenges remain in the areas of conceptualizing and measuring spirituality, developing and implementing training for spiritual care, and coordinating and partnering with chaplains and religious communities.

  18. Emerging therapeutic aspects in oncology

    PubMed Central

    MacEwan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Cancer remains a peculiarly stubborn disease to treat. Some forms of cancer have seen tremendous advances in the effectiveness of their treatments, whereas other forms have remained resistant to pharmacological control. This lack of hope for success is in part due to the types of drugs that are used in the clinic, and the targeted biological system being based purely on cellular growth rates. However, recent drugs designed to affect specific signalling pathways or proteins have been showing much success. Thanks to the ingenuity of pharmacologists in understanding and targeting these processes, there have been real improvements in treatment. Here we are presented with some of the research into such critical systems that have to be understood, so that they can be conquered. We will also look at the challenges facing cancer pharmacologists and what the field may present to us all in the future. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23889318

  19. Comparative Effectiveness Research in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials represent the gold standard for comparative effective research (CER), a number of additional methods are available when randomized controlled trials are lacking or inconclusive because of the limitations of such trials. In addition to more relevant, efficient, and generalizable trials, there is a need for additional approaches utilizing rigorous methodology while fully recognizing their inherent limitations. CER is an important construct for defining and summarizing evidence on effectiveness and safety and comparing the value of competing strategies so that patients, providers, and policymakers can be offered appropriate recommendations for optimal patient care. Nevertheless, methodological as well as political and social challenges for CER remain. CER requires constant and sophisticated methodological oversight of study design and analysis similar to that required for randomized trials to reduce the potential for bias. At the same time, if appropriately conducted, CER offers an opportunity to identify the most effective and safe approach to patient care. Despite rising and unsustainable increases in health care costs, an even greater challenge to the implementation of CER arises from the social and political environment questioning the very motives and goals of CER. Oncologists and oncology professional societies are uniquely positioned to provide informed clinical and methodological expertise to steer the appropriate application of CER toward critical discussions related to health care costs, cost-effectiveness, and the comparative value of the available options for appropriate care of patients with cancer. PMID:23697601

  20. Targeted molecular imaging in oncology.

    PubMed

    Yang, David J; Kim, E Edmund; Inoue, Tomio

    2006-01-01

    Improvement of scintigraphic tumor imaging is extensively determined by the development of more tumor specific radiopharmaceuticals. Thus, to improve the differential diagnosis, prognosis, planning and monitoring of cancer treatment, several functional pharmaceuticals have been developed. Application of molecular targets for cancer imaging, therapy and prevention using generator-produced isotopes is the major focus of ongoing research projects. Radionuclide imaging modalities (positron emission tomography, PET; single photon emission computed tomography, SPECT) are diagnostic cross-sectional imaging techniques that map the location and concentration of radionuclide-labeled radiotracers. 99mTc- and 68Ga-labeled agents using ethylenedicysteine (EC) as a chelator were synthesized and their potential uses to assess tumor targets were evaluated. 99mTc (t1/2 = 6 hr, 140 keV) is used for SPECT and 68Ga (t1/2 = 68 min, 511 keV) for PET. Molecular targets labeled with Tc-99m and Ga-68 can be utilized for prediction of therapeutic response, monitoring tumor response to treatment and differential diagnosis. Molecular targets for oncological research in (1) cell apoptosis, (2) gene and nucleic acid-based approach, (3) angiogenesis (4) tumor hypoxia, and (5) metabolic imaging are discussed. Numerous imaging ligands in these categories have been developed and evaluated in animals and humans. Molecular targets were imaged and their potential to redirect optimal cancer diagnosis and therapeutics were demonstrated. PMID:16485568

  1. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793

  2. Food and Drug Administration process for development and approval of drugs and radiopharmaceuticals: treatments in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yang-Min; Maher, V Ellen

    2015-03-01

    Regulatory advice and assessment play an important role in the successful development of new drugs and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of urologic malignancies. Cooperation between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the pharmaceutical industry has led to the approval of more than 20 new urologic oncology products in the last 2 decades. Despite these advances, more effective treatments need to be developed and approved for the treatment of urologic malignancies. This review provides general information about the FDA's role in the development of investigational new drugs, with an emphasis on the regulatory process and the requirements for marketing approval. In addition, this review summarizes the products for the treatment of urologic malignancies that were approved by the FDA in the last 30 years and the key issues concerning urologic oncology products that were discussed publicly at Oncologic Drug Advisory Committee meetings in the past 10 years.

  3. [Up for Discussion: Using study registries for Oncology: StudyBox and the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS)].

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Christoph; Jena, Susanne; Kliemann, Denise; Antes, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Study registries serve various purposes. Primarily, they provide as complete an overview as possible on planned, ongoing and completed studies and are thus intended to contribute to transparency in research. As such, they are an instrument for identifying and reducing publication bias. Study registries can also help doctors and patients to identify suitable studies for them. The National Cancer Plan (NCP) calls for ensuring an efficient oncological treatment, which requires the knowledge derived from trials. Study registries can play an important role in their identification. This paper describes the purpose that study registries fulfil in oncology as well as their health policy rationale. It then discusses two registries relevant for oncology, i. e. StudyBox and the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS), against the backdrop of the National Cancer Plan and introduces the cooperation of the two registries.

  4. The National Oncology Working Group (NOW) initiative: payer and provider collaborations in oncology benefits management.

    PubMed

    Soper, Aileen M; Reeder, C E; Brown, Loreen M; Stojanovska, Ana; Lennert, Barbara J

    2010-04-01

    Payers recognize the need to expand benefits management for oncology but struggle to find effective solutions amid the complexity of available therapies and skepticism from oncologists, who are facing their own set of economic pressures. An effort called the National Oncology Working Group (NOW) Initiative is trying to change the sometimes adversarial relationship between payers and oncologists through a collaborative model. The group, which is supported by pharmaceutical manufacturer sanofi-aventis, is developing patient-centered strategies for successful and sustainable oncology benefits management. The focus includes finding consensus between payers and providers and devising solutions for oncology management such as decreasing variability of cancer care and improving end-of-life care for patients with terminal illness. NOW is designing tools that will be tested in small-scale regional demonstration projects, which NOW participants anticipate will set an example for successful oncology benefits management that can be replicated and expanded.

  5. Pediatric oncology in Morocco: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hessissen, Laila; Madani, Abdellah

    2012-03-01

    Cancer in children is quickly becoming one of the leading causes of non traumatic death among children. In pediatric oncology, palliative care is a primary component of the cancer control plan. In low income countries also known as emerging nations or developing countries access to adequate care remains a challenge for most pediatric oncology patients. In Morocco the situation has dramatically improved in the last few years as both the government and NGOs have become more aware of the importance and urgency of the issue. The incidence of cancer in patients under 15 years of age in Morocco is estimated to be 1000 new cases per year and the incidence of leukemia to be 100 new cases diagnosed per year. Pediatric cancer patients are mostly managed by public hospitals. Thus they are highly influenced by the Moroccan public health system, which is now considering cancer management a priority. Since health cover is very limited, most chemotherapy drugs were purchased by local parent associations. Recently, a new large Moroccan NGO (ALSC) provides anti-cancer drugs to all government-run oncology units. Despite all the progress, Morocco has witnessed in the pediatric oncology field, the palliative aspect of the care is not yet organized. Pediatric oncology is supported by the work of the National Society of Pediatric Oncolgy. The opioide therapy is available. However its use is strongly limited by the current restrictive and obsolete legislation which represents a major barrier to care. Despite the latest progress, pediatric oncology in Morocco still needs to improve in order to achieve performances comparable to those of the developed world. These improvements include better survival rates, less treatment abandonment, developing new techniques, improving quality of life and creating data collection teams. In order for this action to succeed all the stakeholders (government, NGOs, medical societies, oncology teams) must work together and coordinate their efforts.

  6. Precision oncology: origins, optimism, and potential.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vinay; Fojo, Tito; Brada, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Imatinib, the first and arguably the best targeted therapy, became the springboard for developing drugs aimed at molecular targets deemed crucial to tumours. As this development unfolded, a revolution in the speed and cost of genetic sequencing occurred. The result--an armamentarium of drugs and an array of molecular targets--set the stage for precision oncology, a hypothesis that cancer treatment could be markedly improved if therapies were guided by a tumour's genomic alterations. Drawing lessons from the biological basis of cancer and recent empirical investigations, we take a more measured view of precision oncology's promise. Ultimately, the promise is not our concern, but the threshold at which we declare success. We review reports of precision oncology alongside those of precision diagnostics and novel radiotherapy approaches. Although confirmatory evidence is scarce, these interventions have been widely endorsed. We conclude that the current path will probably not be successful or, at a minimum, will have to undergo substantive adjustments before it can be successful. For the sake of patients with cancer, we hope one form of precision oncology will deliver on its promise. However, until confirmatory studies are completed, precision oncology remains unproven, and as such, a hypothesis in need of rigorous testing.

  7. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    PubMed

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field.

  8. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    PubMed

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field. PMID:26399749

  9. Teacher Cooperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…

  10. Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert L.

    Cooperative education involves on-campus instruction and off-campus work experience. These programs can be referred to as work study, field work, or work experience. The student has the advantage of applying his knowledge in a work situation; the college gains financial benefits; and the employer has the opportunity to influence the student to…

  11. Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Small-group cooperative learning methods have improved achievement, low and high level cognitive learning, race relations and mutual student concern. Most of the research focuses on four approaches: Teams Games Tournament (DeVries), Student Teams Achievement Divisions (Slavin), Jigsaw (Aronson) and Small Group Teaching (Sharan). (Author/CP)

  12. Creating a unique, multi-stakeholder Paediatric Oncology Platform to improve drug development for children and adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Vassal, Gilles; Rousseau, Raphaël; Blanc, Patricia; Moreno, Lucas; Bode, Gerlind; Schwoch, Stefan; Schrappe, Martin; Skolnik, Jeffrey; Bergman, Lothar; Bradley-Garelik, Mary Brigid; Saha, Vaskar; Pearson, Andy; Zwierzina, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Seven years after the launch of the European Paediatric Medicine Regulation, limited progress in paediatric oncology drug development remains a major concern amongst stakeholders - academics, industry, regulatory authorities, parents, patients and caregivers. Restricted increases in early phase paediatric oncology trials, legal requirements and regulatory pressure to propose early Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs), missed opportunities to explore new drugs potentially relevant for paediatric malignancies, lack of innovative trial designs and no new incentives to develop drugs against specific paediatric targets are some unmet needs. Better access to new anti-cancer drugs for paediatric clinical studies and improved collaboration between stakeholders are essential. The Cancer Drug Development Forum (CDDF), previously Biotherapy Development Association (BDA), with Innovative Therapy for Children with Cancer Consortium (ITCC), European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) and European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) has created a unique Paediatric Oncology Platform, involving multiple stakeholders and the European Union (EU) Commission, with an urgent remit to improve paediatric oncology drug development. The Paediatric Oncology Platform proposes to recommend immediate changes in the implementation of the Regulation and set the framework for its 2017 revision; initiatives to incentivise drug development against specific paediatric oncology targets, and repositioning of drugs not developed in adults. Underpinning these changes is a strategy for mechanism of action and biology driven selection and prioritisation of potential paediatric indications rather than the current process based on adult cancer indications. Pre-competitive research and drug prioritisation, early portfolio evaluation, cross-industry cooperation and multi-compound/sponsor trials are being explored, from which guidance for innovative trial designs will be

  13. Potential role for metformin in urologic oncology

    PubMed Central

    Sayyid, Rashid Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is one of the most commonly used drugs worldwide. It is currently considered first-line pharmacological agent for management of diabetes mellitus type 2. Recent studies have suggested that metformin may have further benefits, especially in the field of urologic oncology. Use of metformin has been shown to be associated with decreased incidence and improved outcomes of prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. These studies suggest that metformin does have a future role in the prevention and management of urologic malignancies. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings in this field and its implications on the management of urologic oncology patients. PMID:27195314

  14. Integrative Oncology in Indian Subcontinent: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Janardhanan, Sunitha; Jeevakarunyam, Sathiyajeeva; Jeddy, Nadheem; Eagappan, Senthil

    2015-01-01

    Integrative oncology is a combination of one where complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with conventional cancer treatment modalities is used to manage symptoms, control side-effects and improve the state of mental wellbeing. The ancient Indian medicinal approach in cancer treatment and management has a wide array of herbs and practices. There is an increasing demand for traditional and natural medicine by the cancer patients. The conventional oncologic surgeons and physicians should be aware of the role of cCAM that are available in Indian subcontinent and provide a treatment that focuses on the physical and mental state of wellness in combating cancer. PMID:25954692

  15. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  16. Integrated biophotonics in endoscopic oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.

    2009-02-01

    endoscopic diagnosis is likely to be impacted by a combination of biomarkers and technology, and 'endoscopic molecular imaging' should be defined as "visualization of molecular characteristics with endoscopy". These innovations will allow us not only to locate a tumor or dysplastic lesion but also to visualize its molecular characteristics (e.g., DNA mutations and polymorphisms, gene and/or protein expression), and the activity of specific molecules and biological processes that affect tumor behavior and/or its response to therapy. In the near future, these methods should be promising technologies that will play a central role in gastrointestinal oncology.

  17. 75 FR 81283 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... of December 6, 2010 (75 FR 75680). On February 9, 2011, the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee was... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Oncologic Drugs...

  18. Cooperative pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Michael; Glaser, Steffen J.

    2010-11-01

    We introduce the concept of cooperative (COOP) pulses which are designed to compensate each other's imperfections. In multi-scan experiments, COOP pulses can cancel undesired signal contributions, complementing and generalizing phase cycles. COOP pulses can be efficiently optimized using an extended version of the optimal-control-based gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) algorithm. The advantage of the COOP approach is experimentally demonstrated for broadband and band-selective pulses.

  19. International cooperation.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    As the most densely populated country in the world, China actively conducts international exchanges and cooperation. It takes every opportunity to publicize its family planning policies and practices during international forums. Moreover, the country's State Family Planning Commission has been collaborating with the United Nations Population Fund in implementing health and family planning programs. This program covers public awareness campaigns, technical services, sex education for the youth, and social marketing. For years, China has also been cooperating with WHO in the area of family planning and reproductive health, and has established partnership with the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning. In addition, the State Family Planning Commission has worked with the Public Media Center of the US as well as with the Rockefeller Foundation and Ford Foundation in introducing "contraceptive methods by informed choice" and "male participation in family planning" in the rural areas of the country. China has also worked closely with many other developing countries on population issues. In October 1998, China collaborated with the Partners in Population and Development for a reporting mission that was attended by journalists from 11 countries.

  20. The Cooperative Groups: past and future.

    PubMed

    Comis, R L

    1998-01-01

    The Cooperative Group system of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been in existence since the 1950s and has evolved to comprise 11 groups, the membership of which includes universities, Community Clinical Oncology Programs, and Cooperative Group Outreach Programs. The Cooperative Groups serve as models for cancer clinical trials throughout the world. However, in today's changing healthcare environment in the USA the Cooperative Groups need to adjust how they operate to ensure the continuation of their leadership role in cancer clinical trials. Government funds, the main source of support for the Cooperative Groups' activities, are shrinking and currently funding is only 50% of the recommended level. If the Cooperative Groups are to remain at the forefront, adjustments must be made in several areas: the Cooperative Groups need to provide an efficient and rapid scientific and legal mechanism to execute large phase III studies of the increasingly important portfolio of compounds being developed by industry more effectively. Industry has come to rely on contract research organizations for expedited testing of their products due to perceived inefficiency in these areas in the Cooperative Group mechanism. The Cooperative Groups are uniquely situated to provide in-depth evaluation of the newest therapies for regulatory agencies and interested health insurers, as well as provide health outcomes data, which are now much sought after by the healthcare industry. Managed care is shaping medical practice, including cancer care, throughout the USA. Finally, the Cooperative Groups need to foster greater international cooperation to speed technology transfers. The leaders of the Cooperative Groups are discussing new approaches to address these deficiencies, while complementing the existing NCI structure and recognizing the independence of each group. The objectives of these new approaches would be: to establish a structure whereby better contracts with industry for

  1. Implementing Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) participation in a community oncology practice.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology's (ASCO's) Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) has been developed to assist medical oncology practices in implementing continuous quality improvement. In addition, starting in 2010, ASCO started including certification measures in the QOPI program enabling practices that participate in the QOPI data collection to seek QOPI certification. In spite of a desire to wait until an electronic medical record (EMR) had been implemented, Mid-Illinois Hematology and Oncology Associates, Ltd. (MIHOA) proceeded with implementing QOPI participation in late 2011. Through internal mini QOPI audits, multiple committee meetings, ongoing quality improvement efforts, participation in the spring 2012 QOPI data collection round and continual auditing and continuous quality improvement, MIHOA staff has worked to implement QOPI documentation requirements and to improve quality of care provided in the practice. As of this writing, MIHOA is waiting to participate in the second 2012 QOPI data collection round in September with hopes of achieving QOPI certification.

  2. Computers in Radiation Oncology: The Third Decade

    PubMed Central

    Sternick, Edward S.

    1978-01-01

    Computers have been used for the past 25 years in radiation oncology for such diverse activities as treatment planning, treatment machine verification, image processing, and tumor registry analysis. This paper reviews each of these areas, with examples of working systems, and outlines a computer hardware configuration most suitable for their implementation. ImagesFig. 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

  3. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses1

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Kely Regina; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Schmidtt, Pablo Henrique; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; da Rosa, Luciana Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Method: descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. Conclusion: for the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude. PMID:26626012

  4. Guidelines for treatment naming in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Denton, Travis R; Shields, Lisa B E; Hahl, Michael; Maudlin, Casey; Bassett, Mark; Spalding, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    Safety concerns may arise from a lack of standardization and ambiguity during the treatment planning and delivery process in radiation therapy. A standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention in radiation therapy was developed by a task force comprised of several Radiation Oncology Societies. We present a nested-survey approach in a community setting to determine the methodology for radiation oncology departments to standardize their practice. Our Institution's continuous quality improvement (CQI) committee recognized that, due to growth from one to three centers, significant variability existed within plan parameters specific to patients' treatment. A multidiscipline, multiclinical site consortium was established to create a guideline for standard naming. Input was gathered using anonymous, electronic surveys from physicians, physicists, dosimetrists, chief therapists, and nurse managers. Surveys consisted of several primary areas of interest: anatomical sites, course naming, treatment plan naming, and treatment field naming. Additional concepts included capitalization, specification of laterality, course naming in the event of multiple sites being treated within the same course of treatment, primary versus boost planning, the use of bolus, revisions for plans, image-guidance field naming, forbidden characters, and standard units for commonly used physical quantities in radiation oncology practice. Guidelines for standard treatment naming were developed that could be readily adopted. This multidisciplinary study provides a clear, straightforward, and easily implemented protocol for the radiotherapy treatment process. Standard nomenclature facilitates the safe means of communication between team members in radiation oncology. The guidelines presented in this work serve as a model for radiation oncology clinics to standardize their practices. PMID:27074449

  5. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic. PMID:26460989

  6. Evaluation of burnout syndrome in oncology employees.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Senem; Yildirim, Yasemin Kuzeyli; Ozsaran, Zeynep; Uslu, Ruchan; Yalman, Deniz; Aras, Arif B

    2010-09-01

    Burnout is an important occupational problem for health care workers. We aimed to assess the burnout levels among oncology employees and to evaluate the sociodemographic and occupational factors contributing to burnout levels. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, which is designed to measure the three stages of burnout-emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA), was used. The study sample consisted of 90 participants with a median age of 34 (range 23-56). The mean levels of burnout in EE, DP and PA stages were 23.80 +/- 10.98, 5.21 +/- 4.99, and 36.23 +/- 8.05, respectively, for the entire sample. Among the 90 participants, 42, 20, and 35.6% of the employees had high levels of burnout in the EE, DP, and PA substage, respectively. Sociodemographic and occupational factors associated with higher levels of burnout included age of less than 35, being unmarried, being childless, >40 work hours per week, working on night shifts, and <10 years experience in the medicine/oncology field. Within all oncology clinics, medical oncology employees had the highest levels of burnout. Furthermore, employees who are not pleased with working in oncology field, who would like to change their specialty if they have an opportunity, and whose family and social lives have been negatively affected by their work experienced higher levels of burnout. Burnout syndrome may influence physical and mental health of the employee and affects the quality of health care as well. Therefore, several individual or organizational efforts should be considered for dealing with burnout.

  7. Personalized oncology: recent advances and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Madhu

    2013-01-01

    Personalized oncology is evidence-based, individualized medicine that delivers the right care to the right cancer patient at the right time and results in measurable improvements in outcomes and a reduction on health care costs. Evolving topics in personalized oncology such as genomic analysis, targeted drugs, cancer therapeutics and molecular diagnostics will be discussed in this review. Biomarkers and molecular individualized medicine are replacing the traditional "one size fits all" medicine. In the next decade the treatment of cancer will move from a reactive to a proactive discipline. The essence of personalized oncology lies in the use of biomarkers. These biomarkers can be from tissue, serum, urine or imaging and must be validated. Personalized oncology based on biomarkers is already having a remarkable impact. Three different types of biomarkers are of particular importance: predictive, prognostic and early response biomarkers. Tools for implementing preemptive medicine based on genetic and molecular diagnostic and interventions will improve cancer prevention. Imaging technologies such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Positron Emitted Tomography (PET) are already influencing the early detection and management of the cancer patient. Future advances in imaging are expected to be in the field of molecular imaging, integrated diagnostics, biology driven interventional radiology and theranostics. Molecular diagnostics identify individual cancer patients who are more likely to respond positively to targeted chemotherapies. Molecular diagnostics include testing for genes, gene expression, proteins and metabolites. The use of companion molecular diagnostics is expected to grow significantly in the future and will be integrated into new cancer therapies a single (bundled) package which will provide greater efficiency, value and cost savings. This approach represents a unique opportunity for integration, increased value in personalized oncology.

  8. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.

  9. The Role of the Social Partners in Vocational Training in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, N.; And Others

    This document studies the role of unions, management, government, and education agencies (the social partners) in vocational training in Italy. Through an analysis of existing and historical structures governing cooperation and coordination between the social partners and the public bodies responsible for vocational education and training, an…

  10. Global social identity and global cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Brewer, Marilynn B; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick K; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This research examined the question of whether the psychology of social identity can motivate cooperation in the context of a global collective. Our data came from a multinational study of choice behavior in a multilevel public-goods dilemma conducted among samples drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. Results demonstrate that an inclusive social identification with the world community is a meaningful psychological construct that plays a role in motivating cooperation that transcends parochial interests. Self-reported identification with the world as a whole predicts behavioral contributions to a global public good beyond what is predicted from expectations about what other people are likely to contribute. Furthermore, global social identification is conceptually distinct from general attitudes about global issues, and has unique effects on cooperative behavior.

  11. Global social identity and global cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Brewer, Marilynn B; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick K; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This research examined the question of whether the psychology of social identity can motivate cooperation in the context of a global collective. Our data came from a multinational study of choice behavior in a multilevel public-goods dilemma conducted among samples drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. Results demonstrate that an inclusive social identification with the world community is a meaningful psychological construct that plays a role in motivating cooperation that transcends parochial interests. Self-reported identification with the world as a whole predicts behavioral contributions to a global public good beyond what is predicted from expectations about what other people are likely to contribute. Furthermore, global social identification is conceptually distinct from general attitudes about global issues, and has unique effects on cooperative behavior. PMID:21586763

  12. Establishing a Global Radiation Oncology Collaboration in Education (GRaCE): Objectives and priorities.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sandra; Eriksen, Jesper G; Trotter, Theresa; Verfaillie, Christine; Benstead, Kim; Giuliani, Meredith; Poortmans, Philip; Holt, Tanya; Brennan, Sean; Pötter, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Representatives from countries and regions world-wide who have implemented modern competency-based radiation- or clinical oncology curricula for training medical specialists, met to determine the feasibility and value of an ongoing international collaboration. In this forum, educational leaders from the ESTRO School, encompassing many European countries adopting the ESTRO Core Curriculum, and clinician educators from Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand considered the training and educational arrangements within their jurisdictions, identifying similarities and challenges between programs. Common areas of educational interest and need were defined, which included development of new competency statements and assessment tools, and the application of the latter. The group concluded that such an international cooperation, which might expand to include others with similar goals, would provide a valuable vehicle to ensure training program currency, through sharing of resources and expertise, and enhance high quality radiation oncology education. Potential projects for the Global Radiation Oncology Collaboration in Education (GRaCE) were agreed upon, as was a strategy designed to maintain momentum. This paper describes the rationale for establishing this collaboration, presents a comparative view of training in the jurisdictions represented, and reports early goals and priorities.

  13. Establishing a Global Radiation Oncology Collaboration in Education (GRaCE): Objectives and priorities.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sandra; Eriksen, Jesper G; Trotter, Theresa; Verfaillie, Christine; Benstead, Kim; Giuliani, Meredith; Poortmans, Philip; Holt, Tanya; Brennan, Sean; Pötter, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Representatives from countries and regions world-wide who have implemented modern competency-based radiation- or clinical oncology curricula for training medical specialists, met to determine the feasibility and value of an ongoing international collaboration. In this forum, educational leaders from the ESTRO School, encompassing many European countries adopting the ESTRO Core Curriculum, and clinician educators from Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand considered the training and educational arrangements within their jurisdictions, identifying similarities and challenges between programs. Common areas of educational interest and need were defined, which included development of new competency statements and assessment tools, and the application of the latter. The group concluded that such an international cooperation, which might expand to include others with similar goals, would provide a valuable vehicle to ensure training program currency, through sharing of resources and expertise, and enhance high quality radiation oncology education. Potential projects for the Global Radiation Oncology Collaboration in Education (GRaCE) were agreed upon, as was a strategy designed to maintain momentum. This paper describes the rationale for establishing this collaboration, presents a comparative view of training in the jurisdictions represented, and reports early goals and priorities. PMID:26381531

  14. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  15. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  16. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for

  17. Learning needs of Oncology Nursing Society members.

    PubMed

    Itano, J; Miller, C A

    1990-01-01

    The ONS mission is to promote excellence in oncology nursing. In its effort to carry out this mission, ONS has a responsibility to provide high-quality continuing education (CE) for cancer nurses. An important first step in the provision of quality CE is determining learners' needs. The ONS Continuing Education Provider Committee (CEPC) conducted a comprehensive educational needs assessment of the ONS membership during 1988. Preferred content (98 topics were included), level of content needed (basic versus advanced), preferred teaching-learning methods, and items related to the logistics of CE programs (i.e., preferred length, days of week, employer reimbursement) were assessed. Half of the 1988 ONS membership (6,500) was randomly surveyed, with a 30.8% (2,002) return rate. Analysis revealed the five topics of most interest to be oncologic emergencies, pain, critical care of the patient with cancer, legal issues, and advanced nursing practice roles.

  18. Improving patient safety in radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Hendee, William R.; Herman, Michael G.

    2011-01-15

    Beginning in the 1990s, and emphasized in 2000 with the release of an Institute of Medicine report, healthcare providers and institutions have dedicated time and resources to reducing errors that impact the safety and well-being of patients. But in January 2010 the first of a series of articles appeared in the New York Times that described errors in radiation oncology that grievously impacted patients. In response, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the American Society of Radiation Oncology sponsored a working meeting entitled ''Safety in Radiation Therapy: A Call to Action''. The meeting attracted 400 attendees, including medical physicists, radiation oncologists, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, hospital administrators, regulators, and representatives of equipment manufacturers. The meeting was cohosted by 14 organizations in the United States and Canada. The meeting yielded 20 recommendations that provide a pathway to reducing errors and improving patient safety in radiation therapy facilities everywhere.

  19. Value: a framework for radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Teckie, Sewit; McCloskey, Susan A; Steinberg, Michael L

    2014-09-10

    In the current health care system, high costs without proportional improvements in quality or outcome have prompted widespread calls for change in how we deliver and pay for care. Value-based health care delivery models have been proposed. Multiple impediments exist to achieving value, including misaligned patient and provider incentives, information asymmetries, convoluted and opaque cost structures, and cultural attitudes toward cancer treatment. Radiation oncology as a specialty has recently become a focus of the value discussion. Escalating costs secondary to rapidly evolving technologies, safety breaches, and variable, nonstandardized structures and processes of delivering care have garnered attention. In response, we present a framework for the value discussion in radiation oncology and identify approaches for attaining value, including economic and structural models, process improvements, outcome measurement, and cost assessment.

  20. Value: A Framework for Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Teckie, Sewit; McCloskey, Susan A.; Steinberg, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In the current health care system, high costs without proportional improvements in quality or outcome have prompted widespread calls for change in how we deliver and pay for care. Value-based health care delivery models have been proposed. Multiple impediments exist to achieving value, including misaligned patient and provider incentives, information asymmetries, convoluted and opaque cost structures, and cultural attitudes toward cancer treatment. Radiation oncology as a specialty has recently become a focus of the value discussion. Escalating costs secondary to rapidly evolving technologies, safety breaches, and variable, nonstandardized structures and processes of delivering care have garnered attention. In response, we present a framework for the value discussion in radiation oncology and identify approaches for attaining value, including economic and structural models, process improvements, outcome measurement, and cost assessment. PMID:25113759

  1. Mind-body therapies in integrative oncology.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary; Fisher, William; Johnson, Aimee

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in mind-body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients turn to these interventions for the control of emotional stress associated with cancer. Increased research funding has enabled many such interventions to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind-body interventions to reduce pain, anxiety, insomnia, anticipatory, and treatment-related nauseas, hot flashes, and improved mood. Mind-body treatments evaluated for their utility in oncology include relaxation therapies, biofeedback, meditation and hypnosis, yoga, art and music therapy, tai chi, and qigong. Although studies are not always methodologically sound and results mixed, a growing number of well-designed studies provide convincing evidence that mind-body techniques are beneficial adjuncts to cancer treatment. The evidence is sufficient to recommend further investigation and adoption of these techniques in mainstream oncology care.

  2. Plastic Surgery for the Oncological Patient

    PubMed Central

    Daigeler, Adrien; Harati, Kamran; Kapalschinski, Nicolai; Goertz, Ole; Hirsch, Tobias; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Kolbenschlag, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The therapy of oncological patients has seen tremendous progress in the last decades. For most entities, it has been possible to improve the survival as well as the quality of life of the affected patients. To supply optimal cancer care, a multidisciplinary approach is vital. Together with oncologists, radiotherapists and other physicians, plastic surgeons can contribute to providing such care in all stages of treatment. From biopsies to the resection of advanced tumors, the coverage of the resulting defects and even palliative care, plastic surgery techniques can help to improve survival and quality of life as well as mitigate negative effects of radiation or the problems arising from exulcerating tumors in a palliative setting. This article aims to present the mentioned possibilities by illustrating selected cases and reviewing the literature. Especially in oncological patients, restoring their quality of life with the highest patient safety possible is of utmost importance. PMID:25593966

  3. Mind-body therapies in integrative oncology.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary; Fisher, William; Johnson, Aimee

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in mind-body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients turn to these interventions for the control of emotional stress associated with cancer. Increased research funding has enabled many such interventions to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind-body interventions to reduce pain, anxiety, insomnia, anticipatory, and treatment-related nauseas, hot flashes, and improved mood. Mind-body treatments evaluated for their utility in oncology include relaxation therapies, biofeedback, meditation and hypnosis, yoga, art and music therapy, tai chi, and qigong. Although studies are not always methodologically sound and results mixed, a growing number of well-designed studies provide convincing evidence that mind-body techniques are beneficial adjuncts to cancer treatment. The evidence is sufficient to recommend further investigation and adoption of these techniques in mainstream oncology care. PMID:21116746

  4. [Geriatric intervention in oncology for elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Saint-Jean, O; LeGuen, J

    2015-10-01

    Half of all cancers occur in patients older than 70 years. National cancer plans in France promote the emergence of geriatric oncology, whose aim is that every elder cancer patient receives a pertinent treatment, according to his frailty. Geriatric intervention has been evaluated in various conditions or patients since 30 years. Meta-analysis has shown the benefits on autonomy and mortality. But benefits are related to the organization of geriatric care, especially when integrated care is provided. Literature on geriatric oncology is relatively poor. But it is certain that a geriatric comprehensive assessment provided a lot of important information for the care of cancer patients, leading to a modification of cancer treatment in many cases. Randomized trials will soon begin to evaluate the benefits of geriatric integrated care for elder cancer patients, in terms of mortality and quality of life. Actually, in oncogeriatic coordination units, pilot organizations are developed for the satisfaction of patients and professionals.

  5. Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology in the United States: A Specialty in Its Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Peter H; Reed, Damon R; Yeager, Nicholas; Zebrack, Bradley; Castellino, Sharon M; Bleyer, Archie

    2015-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, it has become apparent that oncology patients ages 15 to 39 have not reaped the same rewards of improved survival that we have seen in younger and older patients. As a result, in 2006 the Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology Progress Review Group convened and examined the factors that impact the care of the 70,000 new cases per year (approximately 7% of all new cases) in the United States and published their findings. The reasons for inferior survival gains are of course multiple and include the settings in which patients are cared for, clinical trial enrollment, insurance coverage, varied treatment of sarcomas, varied treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the psychosocial impact of cancer and cancer survivorship. A new area of a yet-to-be completely defined subspecialty was born out of this meeting: AYA oncology. As a medical community we realized that these patients do not fit neatly into the pediatric nor adult world and, therefore, require a unique approach which many individuals, oncology centers, advocacy groups, and cooperative trial groups have started to address. This group of dedicated providers and advocates has made strides but there is still much work to be done on the local, national, and international level to make up for shortcomings in the medical system and improve outcomes. We review key components of AYA cancer care in 2015 that all providers should be aware of, how far we have come, where this movement is headed, and the obstacles that continue to stand in the way of better cure rates and quality of life after cure for this unique group of patients. Like an adolescent maturing into adulthood, this movement has learned from the past and is focused on moving into the future to achieve its goals.

  6. [Multidisciplinary oncology teams: beware of endless discussions].

    PubMed

    Giard, Raimond W M

    2010-01-01

    The continual and increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment options in oncology demands careful communication, coordination and decision making. Cancer care could be improved by multidisciplinary teamwork. Although this sort of teamwork has many advantages in theory, we know very little about its effectiveness in practice. We have to answer questions such as how teams can accomplish their task most effectively and how we must manage organizations in such a way that team-based working contributes optimally to organizational effectiveness.

  7. [Photodynamic therapy: non-oncologic indications].

    PubMed

    Karrer, S; Szeimies, R-M

    2007-07-01

    While efficacy of topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of superficial non-melanoma skin cancer is already well-proven by several controlled clinical trials, there are only a few controlled studies showing efficacy of PDT for non-oncologic skin disorders. This report provides information on the use of PDT for inflammatory skin disorders, disorders of the pilosebaceous unit, infections of the skin, sclerotic skin diseases and cosmetic indications. PMID:17546432

  8. Emerging Treatment Paradigms in Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Le, Quynh-Thu; Shirato, Hiroki; Giaccia, Amato J.; Koong, Albert C.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advancements in radiotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies have resulted in the development of potential paradigm-shifting use of radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer. In this review, we will discuss some of the most promising therapeutic approaches in the field of radiation oncology. These strategies include the use of highly targeted stereotactic radiotherapy and particle therapy as well as combining radiotherapy with agents that modulate the DNA damage response, augment the immune response, or protect normal tissues. PMID:25991820

  9. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  10. Update on genomics in veterinary oncology.

    PubMed

    Breen, Matthew

    2009-08-01

    The release of an annotated human genome sequence assembly and the emergence of genomics technologies have led to significant advances in our understanding of many human diseases including cancers. As DNA sequencing technology has become less costly, the field of comparative genomics has progressed rapidly and attention has turned now to generating whole genome assemblies and dedicated genomics resources for veterinary species. Such progress brings a whole new series of opportunities to advance veterinary medicine. Many human and animal diseases share a pathogenetic basis, and although veterinary species need advances in biomedical research in their own right, the consideration of companion animals also as good comparative models for human disease saw the emergence of the "one medicine" concept. The future of many areas of human and veterinary biomedical research is very much interdependent, with one of the closest associations being in oncology. It is inevitable that veterinary oncology will benefit enormously from data derived from genomics and that this era will see a huge shift in the ways in which companion animal cancer patients are evaluated and subsequently treated. Here, we will review some of the advancements of genomics as they relate to veterinary oncology. PMID:19732729

  11. Uptake Carriers and Oncology Drug Safety

    PubMed Central

    Sprowl, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the solute carrier (SLC) family of transporters are responsible for the cellular influx of a broad range of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics in multiple tissues. Many of these transporters are highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney and are considered to be of particular importance in governing drug absorption, elimination, and cellular sensitivity of specific organs to a wide variety of oncology drugs. Although the majority of studies on the interaction of oncology drugs with SLC have been restricted to the use of exploratory in vitro model systems, emerging evidence suggests that several SLCs, including OCT2 and OATP1B1, contribute to clinically important phenotypes associated with those agents. Recent literature has indicated that modulation of SLC activity may result in drug-drug interactions, and genetic polymorphisms in SLC genes have been described that can affect the handling of substrates. Alteration of SLC function by either of these mechanisms has been demonstrated to contribute to interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics and toxicity associated with several oncology drugs. In this report, we provide an update on this rapidly emerging field. PMID:24378324

  12. Oncology Nurse Participation in Survivorship Care

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Marcia; Economou, Denice; Ferrell, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Oncology nurses are playing an important role in the provision of survivorship care. Their involvement includes educating and coordinating multidiscipline teams to initiate and provide care to patients and families. Oncology nurses participate in this evolving model of care in a variety of ways. Using the IOM report recommendations for the provision of quality cancer care nurses provide care based on the specific characteristics of individual health care settings and the populations they serve. Evaluating the settings resources and goals for desired survivorship activities as part of the planning process can be the difference between success and failure. Collaborating with local and national resources for cancer survivors can help expand services for a setting in an efficient and cost effective manner. Models of care vary and resources and communication differs among cancer care settings. Survivorship care differs as a result, across different models. Nurses are key to the dissemination and coordination of survivorship activities and are critical in facilitating communication between health care providers, the patients and caregivers. Nurses have a significant role in the dissemination and coordination of information between the patient and other health care providers. Oncology care does not end when treatment ends. PMID:21112849

  13. A clinician's guide to biosimilars in oncology.

    PubMed

    Rugo, Hope S; Linton, Kim M; Cervi, Paul; Rosenberg, Julie A; Jacobs, Ira

    2016-05-01

    Biological agents or "biologics" are widely used in oncology practice for cancer treatment and for the supportive management of treatment-related side effects. Unlike small-molecule generic drugs, exact copies of biologics are impossible to produce because these are large and highly complex molecules produced in living cells. The term "biosimilar" refers to a biological product that is highly similar to a licensed biological product (reference or originator product) with no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety, purity, or potency. Biosimilars have the potential to provide savings to healthcare systems and to make important biological therapies widely accessible to a global population. As biosimilars for rituximab, trastuzumab, and bevacizumab are expected to reach the market in the near future, clinicians will soon be faced with decisions to consider biosimilars as alternatives to existing reference products. The aim of this article is to inform oncology practitioners about the biosimilar development and evaluation process, and to offer guidance on how to evaluate biosimilar data in order to make informed decisions when integrating these drugs into oncology practice. We will also review several biosimilars that are currently in development for cancer treatment. PMID:27135548

  14. Nardo Ring, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Nardo Ring is a striking visual feature from space, and astronauts have photographed it several times. The Ring is a race car test track; it is 12.5 kilometers long and steeply banked to reduce the amount of active steering needed by drivers. The Nardo Ring lies in a remote area on the heel of Italy's 'boot,' 50 kilometers east of the naval port of Taranto. The Ring encompasses a number of active (green) and fallow (brown to dark brown) agricultural fields. In this zone of intensive agriculture, farmers gain access to their fields through the Ring via a series of underpasses. Winding features within the southern section of the Ring appear to be smaller, unused race tracks.

    The image covers an area of 18.8 x 16.4 km, was acquired on August 17. 2007, and is located at 49.3 degrees north latitude, 17.8 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. [Ambulatory care nursing sites in Italy: results of a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Rosaria; Venturini, Giulia; Tartaglini, Daniela; Vellone, Ercole; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to map existing ambulatory care nursing sites in Italy, compare operational and organizational methodologies used, and evaluate visibility of the sites in health institutions and the community. Nurses' level of satisfaction with this work experience was also evaluated. The American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing and American Nurses Association definition of ambulatory care nursing (1997) was used to select sites for the study. Two hundred fifty ambulatory care sites meeting this definition were listed, most of which provide clinical and educational services to oncology and cardiology patients. Surgical sites provide treatment of surgical wounds and stomas. Results of the study show that ambulatory care nursing sites are not uniformly distributed across Italy and a greater concentration of sites can be found in northern Italy with respect to central and southern Italy. Nurses report having greater professional autonomy and an excellent level of satisfaction. All interviewed nurses attend specific training and continuing education courses. Ambulatory care sites are managed by nurses; medical consultations are requested when necessary and home assistance is assured through coordination with general practitioners. PMID:19629150

  16. Radiation Oncology in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Kristopher E.B.; Duncan, Graeme

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To review the published literature pertaining to radiation oncology in undergraduate medical education. Methods and Materials: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update and EMBASE databases were searched for the 11-year period of January 1, 1998, through the last week of March 2009. A medical librarian used an extensive list of indexed subject headings and text words. Results: The search returned 640 article references, but only seven contained significant information pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates. One article described a comprehensive oncology curriculum including recommended radiation oncology teaching objectives and sample student evaluations, two described integrating radiation oncology teaching into a radiology rotation, two described multidisciplinary anatomy-based courses intended to reinforce principles of tumor biology and radiotherapy planning, one described an exercise designed to test clinical reasoning skills within radiation oncology cases, and one described a Web-based curriculum involving oncologic physics. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review of the literature pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates, and it demonstrates the paucity of published work in this area of medical education. Teaching radiation oncology should begin early in the undergraduate process, should be mandatory for all students, and should impart knowledge relevant to future general practitioners rather than detailed information relevant only to oncologists. Educators should make use of available model curricula and should integrate radiation oncology teaching into existing curricula or construct stand-alone oncology rotations where the principles of radiation oncology can be conveyed. Assessments of student knowledge and curriculum effectiveness are critical.

  17. Neuro-oncology: a selected review of ASCO 2016 abstracts.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-10-01

    ASCO 2016, 29 May-2 June 2016, Chicago, IL, USA The largest annual clinical oncology conference the American Society of Clinical Oncology is held in the USA and gives researchers and other key opinion leaders the opportunity to present new cancer clinical trials and research data. The CNS tumors section of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 covered various aspects of neuro-oncology including metastatic CNS diseases and primary brain tumors, presented via posters, oral talks and over 100 abstracts. This brief review selectively highlights presentations from this meeting in an organizational manner that reflects clinically relevant aspects of a large and multifaceted meeting. PMID:27616612

  18. Neuro-oncology: a selected review of ASCO 2016 abstracts.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-10-01

    ASCO 2016, 29 May-2 June 2016, Chicago, IL, USA The largest annual clinical oncology conference the American Society of Clinical Oncology is held in the USA and gives researchers and other key opinion leaders the opportunity to present new cancer clinical trials and research data. The CNS tumors section of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 covered various aspects of neuro-oncology including metastatic CNS diseases and primary brain tumors, presented via posters, oral talks and over 100 abstracts. This brief review selectively highlights presentations from this meeting in an organizational manner that reflects clinically relevant aspects of a large and multifaceted meeting.

  19. Italy seeks a strategy.

    PubMed

    Owen, M

    1988-01-01

    Italy now ranks 8th in the list of countries worst hit by AIDS. The relatively low figures for homosexual AIDS cases give no cause for complacency. It is not known yet if the message about 'safe sex' has got across to homosexuals, or if there has been underreporting and the numbers with AIDS will start soon to show the same rising curve as that for drug users. The Vatican, as was always expected, has said 'no' to the use of condoms to combat the spread of HIV, even though its use would not be to avoid conception but to prevent disease. Many doctors working in the field resent the lack of consultation and communication between Rome and the regions. But Italian health services are decentralized; the 21 regional health authorities are autonomous bodies. They have never looked to central government for specific directions, but they do desperately need extra funding. Their literature has been important as means of countering 'disinformation' from the press, often prone to sensationalism. Discrimination against children of parents infected with HIV has occured in schools and frequently seropositive employees have been fired. Local authorities are now making great efforts to impart the correct information. The Italian family planning association, UNICEMP, plays a supportive role in the education and information campaign. Many voluntary organizations provide counseling. The government national commission on AIDS set up a free telephone service where experts are available to answer questions from the public. But although 18,000 calls were made in the 1st 6 weeks of opening, hardly any inqueries at all came from those most at risk--the drug users. PMID:12281142

  20. Plant cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  1. Plant cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  2. 76 FR 71602 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), TeleManagement Forum... spa, Genova, ITALY; Etihad Atheeb Telecom Co., Riyadh, SAUDI ARABIA; Etisalat Nigeria, Banana...

  3. Incidence of colonization and bloodstream infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Desiree; Cesaro, Simone; Fagioli, Franca; Carraro, Francesca; Ziino, Ottavio; Zanazzo, Giulio; Meazza, Cristina; Colombini, Antonella; Castagnola, Elio

    2016-02-01

    Few data are available on the incidence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) infection or colonization in children receiving anticancer chemotherapy. We performed a nationwide survey among centers participating in the pediatric hematology-oncology cooperative study group (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica, AIEOP). During a 2-year observation period, we observed a threefold increase in the colonization rate, and a fourfold increase of bloodstream infection episodes, caused by CPE, with a 90-day mortality of 14%. This first nationwide Italian pediatric survey shows that the circulation of CPE strains in the pediatric hematology-oncology environment is increasing. Given the mortality rate, which is higher than for other bacterial strains, specific monitoring should be applied and the results should have implications for health-care practice in pediatric hematology-oncology.

  4. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation... services. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 18, 2012 (75 FR 23289). At the request of a company official, the Department reviewed the certification for workers of the subject firm....

  5. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    PubMed

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici).

  6. Pharmacological foundations of cardio-oncology.

    PubMed

    Minotti, Giorgio; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Menna, Pierantonio

    2010-07-01

    Anthracyclines and many other antitumor drugs induce cardiotoxicity that occurs "on treatment" or long after completing chemotherapy. Dose reductions limit the incidence of early cardiac events but not that of delayed sequelae, possibly indicating that any dose level of antitumor drugs would prime the heart to damage from sequential stressors. Drugs targeted at tumor-specific moieties raised hope for improving the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies; unfortunately, however, many such drugs proved unable to spare the heart, aggravated cardiotoxicity induced by anthracyclines, or were safe in selected patients of clinical trials but not in the general population. Cardio-oncology is the discipline aimed at monitoring the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies. Although popularly perceived as a clinical discipline that brings oncologists and cardiologists working together, cardio-oncology is in fact a pharmacology-oriented translational discipline. The cardiovascular performance of survivors of cancer will only improve if clinicians joined pharmacologists in the search for new predictive models of cardiotoxicity or mechanistic approaches to explain how a given drug might switch from causing systolic failure to inducing ischemia. The lifetime risk of cardiotoxicity from antitumor drugs needs to be reconciled with the identification of long-lasting pharmacological signatures that overlap with comorbidities. Research on targeted drugs should be reshaped to appreciate that the terminal ballistics of new "magic bullets" might involve cardiomyocytes as innocent bystanders. Finally, the concepts of prevention and treatment need to be tailored to the notion that late-onset cardiotoxicity builds on early asymptomatic cardiotoxicity. The heart of cardio-oncology rests with such pharmacological foundations.

  7. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    PubMed

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici). PMID:25282347

  8. Critical Evaluation of Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Reames, Bradley N.; Krell, Robert W.; Ponto, Sarah N.; Wong, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Significant concerns exist regarding the content and reliability of oncology clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report “Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust” established standards for developing trustworthy CPGs. By using these standards as a benchmark, we sought to evaluate recent oncology guidelines. Methods CPGs and consensus statements addressing the screening, evaluation, or management of the four leading causes of cancer-related mortality in the United States (lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers) published between January 2005 and December 2010 were identified. A standardized scoring system based on the eight IOM standards was used to critically evaluate the methodology, content, and disclosure policies of CPGs. All CPGs were given two scores; points were awarded for eight standards and 20 subcriteria. Results No CPG fully met all the IOM standards. The average overall scores were 2.75 of 8 possible standards and 8.24 of 20 possible subcriteria. Less than half the CPGs were based on a systematic review. Only half the CPG panels addressed conflicts of interest. Most did not comply with standards for inclusion of patient and public involvement in the development or review process, nor did they specify their process for updating. CPGs were most consistent with IOM standards for transparency, articulation of recommendations, and use of external review. Conclusion The vast majority of oncology CPGs fail to meet the IOM standards for trustworthy guidelines. On the basis of these results, there is still much to be done to make guidelines as methodologically sound and evidence-based as possible. PMID:23752105

  9. Recommendations for Radioembolization of Hepatic Malignancies Using Yttrium-90 Microsphere Brachytherapy: A Consensus Panel Report from the Radioembolization Brachytherapy Oncology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Andrew; Nag, Subir . E-mail: subir.nag@kp.org; Salem, Riad; Murthy, Ravi; McEwan, Alexander J.; Nutting, Charles; Benson, Al; Espat, Joseph; Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Sharma, Ricky A.; Thomas, James P.; Coldwell, Douglas

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To standardize the indications, techniques, multimodality treatment approaches, and dosimetry to be used for yttrium-90 (Y90) microsphere hepatic brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Members of the Radioembolization Brachytherapy Oncology Consortium met as an independent group of experts in interventional radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, medical oncology, and surgical oncology to identify areas of consensus and controversy and to issue clinical guidelines for Y90 microsphere brachytherapy. Results: A total of 14 recommendations are made with category 2A consensus. Key findings include the following. Sufficient evidence exists to support the safety and effectiveness of Y90 microsphere therapy. A meticulous angiographic technique is required to prevent complications. Resin microsphere prescribed activity is best estimated by the body surface area method. By virtue of their training, certification, and contribution to Y90 microsphere treatment programs, the disciplines of radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, and interventional radiology are all qualified to use Y90 microspheres. The panel strongly advocates the creation of a treatment registry with uniform reporting criteria. Initiation of clinical trials is essential to further define the safety and role of Y90 microspheres in the context of currently available therapies. Conclusions: Yttrium-90 microsphere therapy is a complex procedure that requires multidisciplinary management for safety and success. Practitioners and cooperative groups are encouraged to use these guidelines to formulate their treatment and dose-reporting policies.

  10. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  11. Applied Nanotechnology and Nanoscience in Orthopedic Oncology.

    PubMed

    Savvidou, Olga D; Bolia, Ioanna K; Chloros, George D; Goumenos, Stavros D; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Galanis, Evanthia C; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2016-09-01

    Nanomedicine is based on the fact that biological molecules behave similarly to nanomolecules, which have a size of less than 100 nm, and is now affecting most areas of orthopedics. In orthopedic oncology, most of the in vitro and in vivo studies have used osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma cell lineages. In this article, tumor imaging and treatment nanotechnology applications, including nanostructure delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, gene therapy, and the role of nano-selenium-coated implants, are outlined. Finally, the potential role of nanotechnology in addressing the challenges of drug and radiotherapy resistance is discussed. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):280-286.]. PMID:27636683

  12. Nanopharmacology in translational hematology and oncology

    PubMed Central

    Tomuleasa, Ciprian; Braicu, Cornelia; Irimie, Alexandra; Craciun, Lucian; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles have displayed considerable promise for safely delivering therapeutic agents with miscellaneous therapeutic properties. Current progress in nanotechnology has put forward, in the last few years, several therapeutic strategies that could be integrated into clinical use by using constructs for molecular diagnosis, disease detection, cytostatic drug delivery, and nanoscale immunotherapy. In the hope of bringing the concept of nanopharmacology toward a viable and feasible clinical reality in a cancer center, the present report attempts to present the grounds for the use of cell-free nanoscale structures for molecular therapy in experimental hematology and oncology. PMID:25092977

  13. The spirit of oncology nursing care.

    PubMed

    Post-White, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Cancer awakens the need to honour our spirit. The resiliency of the human spirit helps patients and families find strength and hope and move forward on their journey. As oncology nurses, we empower families by connecting with and sharing our own spirit, honouring and being present to their journey, and guiding them forward as they anticipate challenges ahead. Caring isn't about doing for, but being there and being the wind behind the sails. When we connect with our spirit, we stay open to the unfolding mystery of life. Allow mystery and discovery in your life to drive your spirit of caring and to remind you to look for the rainbows.

  14. [Bioinformatics: a key role in oncology].

    PubMed

    Olivier, Timothée; Chappuis, Pierre; Tsantoulis, Petros

    2016-05-18

    Bioinformatics is essential in clinical oncology and research. Combining biology, computer science and mathematics, bioinformatics aims to derive useful information from clinical and biological data, often poorly structured, at a large scale. Bioinformatics approaches have reclassified certain cancers based on their molecular and biological presentation, improving treatment selection. Many molecular signatures have been developed and, after validation, some are now usable in clinical practice. Other applications could facilitate daily practice, reduce the risk of error and increase the precision of medical decision-making. Bioinformatics must evolve in accordance with ethical considerations and requires multidisciplinary collaboration. Its application depends on a sound technical foundation that meets strict quality requirements.

  15. The Future of Precision Medicine in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Millner, Lori M; Strotman, Lindsay N

    2016-09-01

    Precision medicine in oncology focuses on identifying which therapies are most effective for each patient based on genetic characterization of the cancer. Traditional chemotherapy is cytotoxic and destroys all cells that are rapidly dividing. The foundation of precision medicine is targeted therapies and selecting patients who will benefit most from these therapies. One of the newest aspects of precision medicine is liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy includes analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acid, or exosomes obtained from a peripheral blood draw. These can be studied individually or in combination and collected serially, providing real-time information as a patient's cancer changes. PMID:27514468

  16. Semantic visualization of oncology knowledge sources.

    PubMed

    Cole, W G; Sherertz, D D; Tuttle, M S; Hsu, G T; Fagan, L M; Carlson, R W

    1995-01-01

    Visualization of knowledge sources can have a substantial impact on the use of such sources at the point of care. This is because barriers to use at the point of care include hours required to master the electronic interfaces to those sources, and minutes required to master the electronic interfaces to those sources, and minutes required to accomplish any one retrieval. For a system to be used regularly at the point of care, therefore, it must be intuitive and fast. This paper presents a three dimensional interface to oncology knowledge sources that aims to meet this challenge.

  17. [Bioinformatics: a key role in oncology].

    PubMed

    Olivier, Timothée; Chappuis, Pierre; Tsantoulis, Petros

    2016-05-18

    Bioinformatics is essential in clinical oncology and research. Combining biology, computer science and mathematics, bioinformatics aims to derive useful information from clinical and biological data, often poorly structured, at a large scale. Bioinformatics approaches have reclassified certain cancers based on their molecular and biological presentation, improving treatment selection. Many molecular signatures have been developed and, after validation, some are now usable in clinical practice. Other applications could facilitate daily practice, reduce the risk of error and increase the precision of medical decision-making. Bioinformatics must evolve in accordance with ethical considerations and requires multidisciplinary collaboration. Its application depends on a sound technical foundation that meets strict quality requirements. PMID:27424424

  18. Whole-body imaging modalities in oncology.

    PubMed

    Carty, Fiona; Shortt, Conor P; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; O'Connell, Martin J

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the expanding approaches to whole-body imaging in oncology focusing on whole-body MRI and comparing it to emerging applications of whole-body CT, scintigraphy, and above all PET CT imaging. Whole-body MRI is widely available, non-ionizing and rapidly acquired, and inexpensive relative to PET CT. While it has many advantages, WBMRI is non-specific and, when compared to PET CT, is less sensitive. This article expands each of these issues comparing individual modalities as they refer to specific cancers.

  19. The role of plastic surgery in reconstruction after oncological surgery.

    PubMed

    Vamadeva, S V; Curnier, A

    2016-06-01

    One in three people is affected by cancer in their lifetime. Surgical treatment commonly has the greatest impact on long-term survival, so a large proportion of patients undergo major oncological resection. This is the first in a symposium of four articles describing plastic surgical reconstruction after oncological resection. PMID:27269747

  20. 77 FR 63839 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... September 20, 2012 (77 FR 58399). The issues for which the FDA was seeking the scientific input of the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Oncologic Drugs...

  1. 75 FR 71450 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64314), FDA announced that a meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee... meeting was announced in the Federal Register of October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64314). The amendment is being... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of...

  2. Exercise-Based Oncology Rehabilitation: Leveraging the Cardiac Rehabilitation Model

    PubMed Central

    Dittus, Kim L.; Lakoski, Susan G.; Savage, Patrick D.; Kokinda, Nathan; Toth, Michael; Stevens, Diane; Woods, Kimberly; O’Brien, Patricia; Ades, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The value of exercise and rehabilitative interventions for cancer survivors is increasingly clear and oncology rehabilitation programs could provide these important interventions. However, a pathway to create oncology rehabilitation has not been delineated. Community-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs staffed by health care professionals with experience in providing rehabilitation and secondary prevention services to individuals with coronary heart disease are widely available and provide a potential model and location for oncology rehabilitation programs. Our purpose is to outline the rehabilitative needs of cancer survivors and demonstrate how oncology rehabilitation can be created using a cardiac rehabilitation model. METHODS We identify the impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that respond to rehabilitative interventions. Components of the CR model that would benefit cancer survivors are described. An example of an oncology rehabilitation program using a CR model is presented. RESULTS Cancer survivors have impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that improve with rehabilitation. Our experience demonstrates that effective rehabilitation services can be provided utilizing an existing CR infrastructure. Few adjustments to current cardiac rehabilitation models would be needed to provide oncology rehabilitation. Preliminary evidence suggests that cancer survivors participating in an oncology rehabilitation program experience improvements in psychological and physiologic parameters. CONCLUSIONS Utilizing the CR model of rehabilitative services and disease management provides a much needed mechanism to bring oncology rehabilitation to larger numbers of cancer survivors. PMID:25407596

  3. Medical oncology, history and its future in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzania, Mehrzad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Allahyari, Abolghasem; Rostami, Nematollah; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Ramzi, Mani; Nemanipour, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Systemic therapy is one of the cornerstones of cancer treatment. In 1972, following representations by American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) recognized medical oncology as a new subspecialty of internal medicine. Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology was emerged in Iran in 1983. In the past, modern medical treatments and education were started in Dar Al-fonun school and then in Tehran University; now six universities in Iran are training in Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology. There are also ten active hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers, thirty-one provincial medical schools use their specialized services. Future goals for Hematology and Medical Oncology in Iran include expansion and reinforcement of multidisciplinary teams across the country, early detection and prevention of cancer, providing educational program and conducting cancer researches. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to establish Cancer Hospitals in each province that link together through a network.

  4. Oncology and medical education—past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Cave, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Oncologists should contribute to the undergraduate curriculum whenever they can, and should teach communication skills, acute oncology, prescribing, and other transferable skills. Newly qualified doctors will care for many patients with cancer in their first years of work, and all doctors need to know when an urgent oncology referral is required and to be aware of the pace of change in oncology. Oncologists should involve their patients in teaching whenever it is appropriate. We should aim to inspire junior doctors to consider a career in oncology. The oncology education community should adopt new teaching methods, for example simulation, mock MDTs and student led clinics. CPD provided by honorable organisations, including online learning, is becoming more important for oncologists to keep up to date. PMID:27350792

  5. Italy's Intelligent Educational Training Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Educational Training Station has been developed in Italy to meet emerging school building needs. The project, for schools from the primary to upper secondary level, proposes flexible architecture for an "intelligent school" network, and was developed by CISEM, the Centre for Educational Innovation and Experimentation of Milan.

  6. Fatal Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Scaglia, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Italy, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results. PMID:15504272

  7. Fatal Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cogo, Paola E; Scagli, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-10-01

    We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Italy, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results.

  8. Canadian oncology nurse work environments: part II.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Debra; Conlon, Michael; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Olson, Karin; Cummings, Greta

    2012-03-01

    In the aftermath of healthcare restructuring, it is important to pay attention to nurses' perceptions of workplace and professional practice factors that attract nurses and influence their retention. Continuing constraints on cancer care systems make the issue of health human resources an ongoing priority. This paper presents the findings of a follow-up study of a cohort of Canadian oncology nurses that aimed to compare nurses' perceptions of their work environment, job satisfaction and retention over a two-year period. Participants of the follow-up survey represented 65% (397/615) of the initial cohort. Many similar perceptions about the work environment were found over two years; however, at follow-up a larger proportion of nurses reported an absence of enough RNs to provide quality care and a lack of support for innovative ideas. With respect to career status, only 6% (25/397) of the follow-up sample had left oncology nursing. However, the proportion of nurses declaring an intention to leave their current job increased from 6.4% (39/615) on the initial survey to 26% (102/397) on the follow-up survey. Findings suggest that decision-makers need to use both the growing body of workplace knowledge and the input from staff nurses to implement changes that positively influence nurse recruitment and retention. Future research should focus on the implementation and evaluation of strategies that address workplace issues such as nurse staffing adequacy, leadership and organizational commitment.

  9. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kristina M.; Neubauer, Nikki L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the field of obstetrics and gynecology as far back as the 1940s when culdoscopy was first introduced as a visualization tool. Gynecologists then began to employ minimally invasive surgery for adhesiolysis and obtaining biopsies but then expanded its use to include procedures such as tubal sterilization (Clyman (1963), L. E. Smale and M. L. Smale (1973), Thompson and Wheeless (1971), Peterson and Behrman (1971)). With advances in instrumentation, the first laparoscopic hysterectomy was successfully performed in 1989 by Reich et al. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology was being developed alongside its benign counterpart. In the 1975s, Rosenoff et al. reported using peritoneoscopy for pretreatment evaluation in ovarian cancer, and Spinelli et al. reported on using laparoscopy for the staging of ovarian cancer. In 1993, Nichols used operative laparoscopy to perform pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer patients. The initial goals of minimally invasive surgery, not dissimilar to those of modern medicine, were to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery and therefore improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. This review will summarize the history and use of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology and also highlight new minimally invasive surgical approaches currently in development. PMID:23997959

  10. Social Interaction and Collaboration among Oncology Nurses.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jane; Prentice, Dawn; McQuestion, Maurene

    2015-01-01

    Collaboration is a complex process influenced by organizational, professional, interpersonal, and personal factors. Research has demonstrated that collaboration may also be influenced by social factors. Nurses spend much of their time working in collaborative teams, yet little is known about how they socially interact in practice. This qualitative case study explored nurse perceptions of social interaction in relation to collaboration. Data were collected using telephone interviews and documentary reviews from fourteen oncology nurses employed at one cancer center in Canada. Thematic analysis revealed two themes: knowing you is trusting you and formal and informal opportunities. Nurses reported that social interaction meant getting to know someone personally as well as professionally. Social interaction was enacted inside of work during breaks/meals and outside of work at planned events. Social interaction was facilitated by having a long-term current and/or previous professional and personal relationship. The barriers to social interaction included a lack of time to get to know each other, workload issues, and poor interpersonal skills. Findings suggest that social interaction is an important factor in the collaborative relationship among oncology nurses. Nurse leaders need to promote social interaction opportunities and facilitate educational sessions to improve social and interpersonal skills.

  11. Maintenance of Certification for Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Kun, Larry E.; Ang, Kian; Erickson, Beth; Harris, Jay; Hoppe, Richard; Leibel, Steve; Davis, Larry; Hattery, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document professional development of American Board of Radiology (ABR) diplomates in the essential elements of quality care in Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. ABR MOC has been developed in accord with guidelines of the American Board of Medical Specialties. All Radiation Oncology certificates issued since 1995 are 10-year, time-limited certificates; diplomates with time-limited certificates who wish to maintain specialty certification must complete specific requirements of the American Board of Radiology MOC program. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate but are strongly encouraged to do so. Maintenance of Certification is based on documentation of participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Through these components, MOC addresses six competencies-medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Details of requirements for components 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are outlined along with aspects of the fourth component currently under development.

  12. [Blood stem cell transplantation in pediatric oncology].

    PubMed

    Mentkevich, G L; Dolgopolov, I S; Popa, A V; Boiarshinov, V K; Ravshanova, R S

    2001-01-01

    Large-dose chemotherapy (LDCT) with auto- and allogenic transplantation of blood stem cells (BSC) in pediatric oncology remains so far the last hope for many patients. The number of such procedures made in Europe increases by 10% every year. At the same time many issues of the place and role of transplantation in pediatric oncology remains unclear. Based on 240 sessions of cytopheresis, the author show that BSC can be sampled from severe pretreated patients despite the drug therapy regimen. The efficacy of G-KSF and GM-KSF used to stimulate BSC secretion is similar. After LDCT with BSC autotransplantation, the relapse-free survival rates in patients with Ewing's sarcoma and acute myeloblast-cell leukemia were 55.4 and 44.4%, respectively (in the first and second remissions). Consolidation as LDCT with BSC autotransplantation without cleansing the material from malignant cells is not a sufficient therapeutical measurement in disseminated neuroblastoma. Whether partial compatible related BSC transplantation can be possible made after non-myeloablative preparation regimens is shown.

  13. Antisense therapeutics in oncology: current status

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Rehman, Zia ur; Muntane, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing progress in translational oncology and tremendous breakthroughs have been made as evidenced by preclinical and clinical trials. Data obtained from high-throughput technologies are deepening our understanding about the molecular and gene network in cancer cells and rapidly emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence is highlighting the role of antisense agents as specific inhibitors of the expression of target genes, thus modulating the response of cancer cells to different therapeutic strategies. Much information is continuously being added into various facets of molecular oncology and it is now understood that overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenes, oncogenic microRNAs (miRNA), and fusion proteins make cancer cells difficult to target. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotides has remained a challenge and technological developments have helped in overcoming hurdles by improving the ability to penetrate cells, effective and targeted binding to gene sequences, and downregulation of target gene function. Different delivery systems, including stable nucleic acid lipid particles, have shown potential in enhancing the delivery of cargo to the target site. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current progress in the development of antisense therapeutics and their potential in medical research. We partition this multicomponent review into introductory aspects about recent breakthroughs in antisense therapeutics. We also discuss how antisense therapeutics have shown potential in resensitizing resistant cancer cells to apoptosis by targeted inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenic miRNAs, and BCR-ABL. PMID:25395862

  14. Computer-assisted surgery in orthopedic oncology

    PubMed Central

    Gerbers, Jasper G; Stevens, Martin; Ploegmakers, Joris JW; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Jutte, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — In orthopedic oncology, computer-assisted surgery (CAS) can be considered an alternative to fluoroscopy and direct measurement for orientation, planning, and margin control. However, only small case series reporting specific applications have been published. We therefore describe possible applications of CAS and report preliminary results in 130 procedures. Patients and methods — We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all oncological CAS procedures in a single institution from November 2006 to March 2013. Mean follow-up time was 32 months. We categorized and analyzed 130 procedures for clinical parameters. The categories were image-based intralesional treatment, image-based resection, image-based resection and reconstruction, and imageless resection and reconstruction. Results — Application to intralesional treatment showed 1 inadequate curettage and 1 (other) recurrence in 63 cases. Image-based resections in 42 cases showed 40 R0 margins; 16 in 17 pelvic resections. Image-based reconstruction facilitated graft creation with a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.9 mm in one case. Imageless CAS was helpful in resection planning and length- and joint line reconstruction for tumor prostheses. Interpretation — CAS is a promising new development. Preliminary results show a high number of R0 resections and low short-term recurrence rates for curettage. PMID:25140984

  15. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  16. The oncological patient in the palliative situation.

    PubMed

    Eychmueller, Steffen; Zwahlen, Diana; Fliedner, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care approaches the patient and his or her suffering with a biopsychosocial-spiritual model. Thus, it is the strength of palliative care to complement the diagnosis driven approach of medical cancer care by a problem and resources-based assessment, participatory care plan, and patient-directed interventions. Interventions need to reflect timely prognosis, target population (the patient, the family carer, the professional), and level of trust and remaining energy. In palliative care the relevance of psycho-oncological aspects in the care of the terminally ill is considerable in the understanding of the overall suffering of patients approaching death and their loved ones and in their care and support. There is little evidence to date in terms of clinical benefit of specific psycho-oncological interventions in the last months or weeks of life, but there is evidence on effects of stress reduction and reduced anxiety if locus of control can stay within the patient as long as possible. One major difficulty in psychosocial research at the end-of-life, however, is defining patient relevant outcomes. PMID:24305769

  17. Updates from the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology annual and World Federation for Neuro-Oncology quadrennial meeting.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Rimas V; Amidei, Christina

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of a number of key clinical studies in infiltrating gliomas presented at the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology and World Federation of Neuro-Oncology joint meeting. This review focuses on efficacy results, including quality of life studies, from larger clinical trials in both high- and low-grade infiltrating gliomas.

  18. Cooperative Group Trials in the Community Setting

    PubMed Central

    Wade, James Lloyd; Petrelli, Nicholas J.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 40 years the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has created a vibrant public-private partnership for the implementation of NCI sponsored cooperative group (Network) clinical trials throughout the United States and Canada. Over these four decades, the cancer clinical trials process has become more complex more precise and more resource intensive. During this same time period, financial resources to support the NCI community research initiative have become more constrained. The newest manifestation of NCI sponsored community based cancer clinical trial research, known as the National Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) began initial operation August 1st, 2014. This paper describes several key strategies that community sites may use to not only be successful, but to thrive in this new financially austere research environment. PMID:26433550

  19. The Growth of Academic Radiation Oncology: A Survey of Endowed Professorships in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, Todd H.; Smith, Steven M.; Powell, Simon N.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: The academic health of a medical specialty can be gauged by the level of university support through endowed professorships. Methods and Materials: We conducted a survey of the 86 academic programs in radiation oncology to determine the current status of endowed chairs in this discipline. Results: Over the past decade, the number of endowed chairs has more than doubled, and it has almost tripled over the past 13 years. The number of programs with at least one chair has increased from 31% to 65%. Conclusions: Coupled with other indicators of academic growth, such as the proportion of graduating residents seeking academic positions, there has been clear and sustained growth in academic radiation oncology.

  20. Actionable data analytics in oncology: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Barkley, Ronald; Greenapple, Rhonda; Whang, John

    2014-03-01

    To operate under a new value-based paradigm, oncology providers must develop the capability to aggregate, analyze, measure, and report their value proposition--that is, their outcomes and associated costs. How are oncology providers positioned currently to perform these functions in a manner that is actionable? What is the current state of analytic capabilities in oncology? Are oncology providers prepared? This line of inquiry was the basis for the 2013 Cancer Center Business Summit annual industry research survey. This article reports on the key findings and implications of the 2013 research survey with regard to data analytic capabilities in the oncology sector. The essential finding from the study is that only a small number of oncology providers (7%) currently possess the analytic tools and capabilities necessary to satisfy internal and external demands for aggregating and reporting clinical outcome and economic data. However there is an expectation that a majority of oncology providers (60%) will have developed such capabilities within the next 2 years.

  1. Use of electronic medical records in oncology outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Gena; Morimoto, Libby; Mowat, Fionna; O'Malley, Cynthia; Fryzek, Jon; Nordyke, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Oncology outcomes research could benefit from the use of an oncology-specific electronic medical record (EMR) network. The benefits and challenges of using EMR in general health research have been investigated; however, the utility of EMR for oncology outcomes research has not been explored. Compared to current available oncology databases and registries, an oncology-specific EMR could provide comprehensive and accurate information on clinical diagnoses, personal and medical histories, planned and actual treatment regimens, and post-treatment outcomes, to address research questions from patients, policy makers, the pharmaceutical industry, and clinicians/researchers. Specific challenges related to structural (eg, interoperability, data format/entry), clinical (eg, maintenance and continuity of records, variety of coding schemes), and research-related (eg, missing data, generalizability, privacy) issues must be addressed when building an oncology-specific EMR system. Researchers should engage with medical professional groups to guide development of EMR systems that would ultimately help improve the quality of cancer care through oncology outcomes research.

  2. Assessment of palliative care training in gynecologic oncology: A gynecologic oncology fellow research network study

    PubMed Central

    Eskander, Ramez N.; Osann, Kathryn; Dickson, Elizabeth; Holman, Laura L.; Rauh-Hain, J. Alejandro; Spoozak, Lori; Wu, Eijean; Krill, Lauren; Fader, Amanda Nickles; Tewari, Krishnansu S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Palliative care is recognized as an important component of oncologic care. We sought to assess the quality/quantity of palliative care education in gynecologic oncology fellowship. Methods A self-administered on-line questionnaire was distributed to current gynecologic oncology fellow and candidate members during the 2013 academic year. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Of 201 fellow and candidate members, 74.1% (n = 149) responded. Respondents were primarily women (75%) and white (76%). Only 11% of respondents participated in a palliative care rotation. Respondents rated the overall quality of teaching received on management of ovarian cancer significantly higher than management of patients at end of life (EOL), independent of level of training (8.25 vs. 6.23; p < 0.0005). Forty-six percent reported never being observed discussing transition of care from curative to palliative with a patient, and 56% never received feedback about technique regarding discussions on EOL care. When asked to recall their most recent patient who had died, 83% reported enrollment in hospice within 4 weeks of death. Fellows reporting higher quality EOL education were significantly more likely to feel prepared to care for patients at EOL (p < 0.0005). Mean ranking of preparedness increased with the number of times a fellow reported discussing changing goals from curative to palliative and the number of times he/she received feedback from an attending (p < 0.0005). Conclusions Gynecologic oncology fellow/candidate members reported insufficient palliative care education. Those respondents reporting higher quality EOL training felt more prepared to care for dying patients and to address complications commonly encountered in this setting. PMID:24887355

  3. Supportive care in pediatric oncology: oncologic emergencies and management of fever and neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Henry, Meret; Sung, Lillian

    2015-02-01

    Advancements in the care of children with cancer have, in part, been achieved through improvements in supportive care. Situations that require prompt care can occur at the time of presentation as well as during treatment. This article discusses the approach to children with fever and neutropenia, a complication encountered daily by care providers, as well as oncologic emergencies that can be seen at the time of a child's initial diagnosis: hyperleukocytosis, tumor lysis syndrome, superior vena cava syndrome, and spinal cord compression.

  4. Microfluidics for research and applications in oncology.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Parthiv Kant; Ebrahimi Warkiani, Majid; Jing, Tengyang; Kenry; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-01-21

    Cancer is currently one of the top non-communicable human diseases, and continual research and developmental efforts are being made to better understand and manage this disease. More recently, with the improved understanding in cancer biology as well as the advancements made in microtechnology and rapid prototyping, microfluidics is increasingly being explored and even validated for use in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. With inherent advantages such as small sample volume, high sensitivity and fast processing time, microfluidics is well-positioned to serve as a promising platform for applications in oncology. In this review, we look at the recent advances in the use of microfluidics, from basic research such as understanding cancer cell phenotypes as well as metastatic behaviors to applications such as the detection, diagnosis, prognosis and drug screening. We then conclude with a future outlook on this promising technology. PMID:26010996

  5. Future of clinical genomics in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Janeway, Katherine A; Place, Andrew E; Kieran, Mark W; Harris, Marian H

    2013-05-20

    The somatic genomic alterations in pediatric cancers to some extent overlap with those seen in adult cancers, but the exact distribution throughout the genome and the types and frequency of alterations differ. The ultimate goal of genomic research in children, as with adults, is translation to the clinic to achieve more accurate diagnosis, more precise risk stratification, and more effective, less toxic therapy. The genomic features of pediatric malignancies and pediatric-specific issues in clinical investigation may make translating genomic discoveries to the clinic more difficult. However, through large-scale molecular profiling of pediatric tumors, continued coordinated efforts to evaluate novel therapies in the pediatric population, thoughtful phase II and III trial design, and continued drug development, genomically based therapies will become more common in the pediatric oncology clinic in the future.

  6. Adaptive clinical trial designs in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Yong; Lee, J. Jack

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive designs have become popular in clinical trial and drug development. Unlike traditional trial designs, adaptive designs use accumulating data to modify the ongoing trial without undermining the integrity and validity of the trial. As a result, adaptive designs provide a flexible and effective way to conduct clinical trials. The designs have potential advantages of improving the study power, reducing sample size and total cost, treating more patients with more effective treatments, identifying efficacious drugs for specific subgroups of patients based on their biomarker profiles, and shortening the time for drug development. In this article, we review adaptive designs commonly used in clinical trials and investigate several aspects of the designs, including the dose-finding scheme, interim analysis, adaptive randomization, biomarker-guided randomization, and seamless designs. For illustration, we provide examples of real trials conducted with adaptive designs. We also discuss practical issues from the perspective of using adaptive designs in oncology trials. PMID:25811018

  7. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In patients with known malignant disease, 51% of liver lesions less than 1.5 cm turn out to be benign. Whether the probability of malignancy is high or low, further investigations are often necessary to definitely exclude malignancy. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography has a prominent role in lesion characterization with a diagnostic accuracy comparable with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Anti-angiogenic treatment is common in most oncological institutions and the response evaluation is a new challenge with a research focus on the change in tumour vasculature and perfusion. In planning biopsies, CEUS can identify necrotic and viable areas of tumours and improve the diagnostic accuracy. PMID:22186152

  8. GCOD - GeneChip Oncology Database

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA microarrays have become a nearly ubiquitous tool for the study of human disease, and nowhere is this more true than in cancer. With hundreds of studies and thousands of expression profiles representing the majority of human cancers completed and in public databases, the challenge has been effectively accessing and using this wealth of data. Description To address this issue we have collected published human cancer gene expression datasets generated on the Affymetrix GeneChip platform, and carefully annotated those studies with a focus on providing accurate sample annotation. To facilitate comparison between datasets, we implemented a consistent data normalization and transformation protocol and then applied stringent quality control procedures to flag low-quality assays. Conclusion The resulting resource, the GeneChip Oncology Database, is available through a publicly accessible website that provides several query options and analytical tools through an intuitive interface. PMID:21291543

  9. Minimally invasive training in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    Use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques continues to expand in the field of urologic oncology; however, proficiency in these techniques is subject to a learning curve. Current training paradigms have incorporated MIS, but in a non-standardized fashion. Residency work-hour restrictions and ethical concerns may influence efforts to deliver adequate training during a defined residency period. Post-residency fellowships or mini-courses may help urologists gain proficiency in these skills, but are time-consuming and may not provide adequate exposure. Surgical simulation with dry labs and augmentation with virtual reality are important adjuncts to operative training for MIS. The urologic oncologist must be familiar with open and MIS techniques to effectively treat cancer in the least morbid way possible and adapt to the ever-changing field of MIS with dynamic training paradigms. PMID:22155873

  10. Clinical oncology in Malaysia: 1914 to present.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gcc

    2006-01-01

    A narration of the development of staff, infrastructure and buildings in the various parts of the country is given in this paper. The role of universities and other institutions of learning, public health, palliative care, nuclear medicine and cancer registries is described together with the networking that has been developed between the government, non-governmental organisations and private hospitals. The training of skilled manpower and the commencement of the Master of Clinical Oncology in the University of Malaya is highlighted. Efforts taken to improve the various aspects of cancer control which includes prevention of cancer, early detection, treatment and palliative care are covered. It is vital to ensure that cancer care services must be accessible and affordable throughout the entire health system, from the primary care level up to the centres for tertiary care, throughout the whole country.

  11. [Treatment of anaemia in medical oncology].

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Tamás; Culine, Stéphane

    2012-06-24

    Development of cytotoxic chemotherapy, which has several side effects, has resulted in the development in supportive care as well. Two families of novel drugs have spread in the care of chemotherapy induced anaemia: human recombinant erythropoietin and intravenous iron. They were praised for the decreased transfusion demand and the increased quality of life. However, if we read the literature critically, our enthusiasm should be decreased. New data show an unfavourable impact of erythropoietin on life expectancy. Furthermore, the health care policy has changed since the introduction of erythropoietin 25 years ago. Transfusion control has improved and cost awareness in health care has increased. Recommendations of the American Societies of Haematology and Clinical Oncology reflect on these considerations. Erythropoietin is not recommended in adjuvant settings. The choice between erythropoietin and transfusion is conferred to the clinician in case of the development of metastases. No sufficient scientific argument was found to support the use of intravenous iron supplementation.

  12. Oncological hadrontherapy with laser ion accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Khoroshkov, V. S.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Pegoraro, F.

    2002-11-01

    === Effective ion acceleration during the interaction of an ultra short and ultra intense laser pulse with matter is one of the most important applications of the presently available compact laser systems with multi-terawatt and petawatt power. The use of an intense collimated beam of protons produced by a high-intensity laser pulse interacting with a plasma for the proton treatment of oncological diseases [1,2] is discussed. The fast proton beam is produced at the target by direct laser acceleration. An appropriately designed double-layer target scheme is proposed in order to achieve high-quality proton beams. The generation of high quality proton beams is proved with Particle in Cell simulations. === [1] S. V. Bulanov, V. S. Khoroshkov, Plasma Phys. Rep. 28, 453 (2002). [2] S. V. Bulanov, T. Zh. Esirkepov, V. S. Khoroshkov, A.V. Kuznetsov, F. Pegoraro, Phys. Lett. A 299, 240 (2002)

  13. Somatostatin and cancer: applying endocrinology to oncology.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Adda

    2004-08-01

    Somatostatin is a peptide hormone that normally suppresses growth hormone (GH), thyrotropin (TSH), insulin and gut hormone release, as well as affecting multiple aspects of gastrointestinal function. It achieves these pleiotropic effects by binding somatostatin receptors (SSTR), a family of five G-protein coupled membrane receptors. Somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide, lanreotide and vapreotide, are well-established treatments for tumors that over secrete these hormones. Recently, use of somatostatin analogs for treating nonendocrine malignancies are being explored. Hu et al. found progressive reduction in SSTR3 expression when comparing normal gastric mucosa versus well differentiated versus poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas; octreotide inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in vitro of those cells expressing SSTR3. Potential mechanisms by which somatostatin analogs may be useful in oncology include its endocrine actions, autocrine/paracrine effects, SSTR-mediated cell signaling and SSTR-mediated cell labeling.

  14. Protecting pediatric oncology patients from influenza.

    PubMed

    Kersun, Leslie S; Reilly, Anne F; Coffin, Susan E; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a common respiratory pathogen. Its severity can be unpredictable, but people with chronic illness are at increased risk of severe infection, complications, and death from influenza. This review examines evidence to support various strategies to protect pediatric oncology patients from influenza-related morbidity. Influenza vaccination should be considered standard. Additional evidence-supported measures include antiviral treatment, antiviral prophylaxis, cohorting of patients, and hospital infection control measures. Data from other high-risk populations support the vaccination of family members, double-dose or high-dose vaccination, and the use of barrier methods. These measures have the potential to optimize patient outcomes because there will be fewer treatment interruptions for acute illness. These strategies can also protect patients from prolonged hospitalizations and morbidity related to influenza.

  15. Positron emission tomography and radiation oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, PhD, Gary D.; Fox, MD, Peter; Phillips, MD, William T.

    2001-10-01

    Medical physics research is providing new avenues for addressing the fundamental problem of radiation therapy-how to provide a tumor-killing dose while reducing the dose to a non-lethal level for critical organs in adjacent portions of the patient anatomy. This talk reviews the revolutionary impact of Positron Emission Tomography on the practice of radiation oncology. The concepts of PET imaging and the development of "tumor" imaging methods using 18F-DG flouro-deoxyglucose are presented to provide the foundation for contemporary research and application to therapy. PET imaging influences radiation therapy decisions in multiple ways. Imaging of occult but viable tumor metastases eliminates misguided therapy attempts. The ability to distinguish viable tumor from scar tissue and necroses allows reduction of treatment portals and more selective treatments. Much research remains before the clinical benefits of these advances are fully realized.

  16. Clinical oncology in Malaysia: 1914 to present

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    A narration of the development of staff, infrastructure and buildings in the various parts of the country is given in this paper. The role of universities and other institutions of learning, public health, palliative care, nuclear medicine and cancer registries is described together with the networking that has been developed between the government, non-governmental organisations and private hospitals. The training of skilled manpower and the commencement of the Master of Clinical Oncology in the University of Malaya is highlighted. Efforts taken to improve the various aspects of cancer control which includes prevention of cancer, early detection, treatment and palliative care are covered. It is vital to ensure that cancer care services must be accessible and affordable throughout the entire health system, from the primary care level up to the centres for tertiary care, throughout the whole country. PMID:21614216

  17. Minimally invasive training in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    Use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques continues to expand in the field of urologic oncology; however, proficiency in these techniques is subject to a learning curve. Current training paradigms have incorporated MIS, but in a non-standardized fashion. Residency work-hour restrictions and ethical concerns may influence efforts to deliver adequate training during a defined residency period. Post-residency fellowships or mini-courses may help urologists gain proficiency in these skills, but are time-consuming and may not provide adequate exposure. Surgical simulation with dry labs and augmentation with virtual reality are important adjuncts to operative training for MIS. The urologic oncologist must be familiar with open and MIS techniques to effectively treat cancer in the least morbid way possible and adapt to the ever-changing field of MIS with dynamic training paradigms.

  18. The spirit of oncology nursing care.

    PubMed

    Post-White, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Cancer awakens the need to honour our spirit. The resiliency of the human spirit helps patients and families find strength and hope and move forward on their journey. As oncology nurses, we empower families by connecting with and sharing our own spirit, honouring and being present to their journey, and guiding them forward as they anticipate challenges ahead. Caring isn't about doing for, but being there and being the wind behind the sails. When we connect with our spirit, we stay open to the unfolding mystery of life. Allow mystery and discovery in your life to drive your spirit of caring and to remind you to look for the rainbows. PMID:12793155

  19. Requirements for radiation oncology physics in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Oliver, L; Fitchew, R; Drew, J

    2001-03-01

    This Position Paper reviews the role, standards of practice, education, training and staffing requirements for radiation oncology physics. The role and standard of practice for an expert in radiation oncology physics, as defined by the ACPSEM, are consistent with the IAEA recommendations. International standards of safe practice recommend that this physics expert be authorised by a Regulatory Authority (in consultation with the professional organization). In order to accommodate the international and AHTAC recommendations or any requirements that may be set by a Regulatory Authority, the ACPSEM has defined the criteria for a physicist-in-training, a base level physicist, an advanced level physicist and an expert radiation oncology physicist. The ACPSEM shall compile separate registers for these different radiation oncology physicist categories. What constitutes a satisfactory means of establishing the number of physicists and support physics staff that is required in radiation oncology continues to be debated. The new ACPSEM workforce formula (Formula 2000) yields similar numbers to other international professional body recommendations. The ACPSEM recommends that Australian and New Zealand radiation oncology centres should aim to employ 223 and 46 radiation oncology physics staff respectively. At least 75% of this workforce should be physicists (168 in Australia and 35 in New Zealand). An additional 41 registrar physicist positions (34 in Australia and 7 in New Zealand) should be specifically created for training purposes. These registrar positions cater for the present physicist shortfall, the future expansion of radiation oncology and the expected attrition of radiation oncology physicists in the workforce. Registrar physicists shall undertake suitable tertiary education in medical physics with an organised in-house training program. The rapid advances in the theory and methodology of the new technologies for radiation oncology also require a stringent approach

  20. The Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) Project

    PubMed Central

    Pantziarka, Pan; Bouche, Gauthier; Meheus, Lydie; Sukhatme, Vidula; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Vikas, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) Project seeks to repurpose well-known and well-characterised non-cancer drugs for new uses in oncology. The rationale for this project is presented, examining current issues in oncological drug development, challenges for health systems, and existing and future patient needs. In addition to discussing the advantages of repurposing, the paper also outlines some of the characteristics used in the selection of drug candidates by this project. Challenges in moving candidate drugs into clinical trial and subsequent practice are also discussed. PMID:25075216

  1. How to write an oncology manuscript.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, Rabab

    2005-09-01

    Publications may represent accomplishment in academic medicine, primary documentation of research data, evidence of expertise through writing an authoritative review paper or book chapter or a major determinant in achieving academic promotion and career development. Editors and reviewers appreciate receiving manuscripts that are easy to read and edit. Much of the information in journals instructions to authors is designed to accomplish that goal in ways that meet each journal's particular editorial needs. The CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trial (CONSORT) statement is an important research tool that takes an evidence-based approach to improve the quality of reports of randomized trials. The guidance that follows provides a general background and rationale for preparing oncology manuscripts for any journal. Many of these guidelines are based on feedback provided by actual peer reviewers. Even before you start writing, it is good practice to review the typical sections of a manuscript The text of observational and experimental articles is usually (but not necessarily) divided into sections with the headings Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. This so-called "IMRAD". The abstract of the manuscript is usually divided into background, purpose, patients and methods, results and conclusion. The section on patients and methods of an oncology manuscript should include the eligibility criteria for the patients, study design, treatment plan, baseline and treatment assessments and statistical analysis. The results include data on patient characteristics, tumor response, time to event measures, toxicity and dose administration. The conclusion must address the primary objective of the study. Authors will be able to address up front many issues regarding content, organization, presentation, and formatting, thereby increasing the likelihood of successful publication of their papers in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:16892095

  2. The Oncology Care Model: A Critique.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christian A; Ward, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly increasing national health care expenditures are a major area of concern as threats to the integrity of the health care system. Significant increases in the cost of care for patients with cancer are driven by numerous factors, most importantly the cost of hospital care and escalating pharmaceutical costs. The current fee-for-service system (FFS) has been identified as a potential driver of the increasing cost of care, and multiple stakeholders are interested in replacing FFS with a system that improves the quality of care while at the same time reducing cost. Several models have been piloted, including a Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation (CMMI)-sponsored medical home model (COME HOME) for patients with solid tumors that was able to generate savings by integrating a phone triage system, pathways, and seamless patient care 7 days a week to reduce overall cost of care, mostly by decreasing patient admissions to hospitals and referrals to emergency departments. CMMI is now launching a new pilot model, the Oncology Care Model (OCM), which differs from COME HOME in several important ways. It does not abolish FFS but provides an additional payment in 6-month increments for each patient on active cancer treatment. It also allows practices to participate in savings if they can decrease the overall cost of care, to include all chemotherapy and supportive care drugs, and fulfill certain quality metrics. A critical discussion of the proposed model, which is scheduled to start in 2016, will be provided at the 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting with practicing oncologists and a Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) representative. PMID:27249711

  3. It takes chutzpah: oncology nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Green, E

    1999-01-01

    Chutzpah, according to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1996) is a slang term from the Yiddish language which means shameless audacity. Chutzpah has been used to identify people with courage who take on situations that others avoid and somehow achieve the impossible. Tim Porter-O'Grady (1997) recently wrote that management is dead, and has been replaced by process leadership. Health care organizations have made shifts from hierarchical structures to process or program models where people have dual/multiple reporting/communication relationship. In this new orientation, management functions of controlling, directing, organizing and disciplining are replaced by process leadership functions of coordinating, facilitating, linking and sustaining (Porter O'Grady, 1997). Herein lies the challenge for oncology nurse leaders: "what lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us" (Ralph Waldo Emerson). Leadership is not a function of job title. The evidence for this is clear in current practice.... There are no/few positions of nurse leaders. Titles have changed to eliminate the professional discipline, and reflect a non-descript orientation. The new titles are process leaders, program leaders, professional practice leaders. Nurse leaders need new points of reference to take in the challenges of influencing, facilitating and linking. Those points of reference are: principle-centered leadership, integrity and chutzpah. This presentation will focus on examining current thinking, defining key characteristics and attributes, and using scenarios to illustrate the impact of leadership. We, as leaders in oncology nursing, must use chutzpah to make positive change and long-term gains for patient care and the profession of nursing. PMID:10232143

  4. It takes chutzpah: oncology nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Green, E

    1999-01-01

    Chutzpah, according to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1996) is a slang term from the Yiddish language which means shameless audacity. Chutzpah has been used to identify people with courage who take on situations that others avoid and somehow achieve the impossible. Tim Porter-O'Grady (1997) recently wrote that management is dead, and has been replaced by process leadership. Health care organizations have made shifts from hierarchical structures to process or program models where people have dual/multiple reporting/communication relationship. In this new orientation, management functions of controlling, directing, organizing and disciplining are replaced by process leadership functions of coordinating, facilitating, linking and sustaining (Porter O'Grady, 1997). Herein lies the challenge for oncology nurse leaders: "what lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us" (Ralph Waldo Emerson). Leadership is not a function of job title. The evidence for this is clear in current practice.... There are no/few positions of nurse leaders. Titles have changed to eliminate the professional discipline, and reflect a non-descript orientation. The new titles are process leaders, program leaders, professional practice leaders. Nurse leaders need new points of reference to take in the challenges of influencing, facilitating and linking. Those points of reference are: principle-centered leadership, integrity and chutzpah. This presentation will focus on examining current thinking, defining key characteristics and attributes, and using scenarios to illustrate the impact of leadership. We, as leaders in oncology nursing, must use chutzpah to make positive change and long-term gains for patient care and the profession of nursing.

  5. [Human biobank in uro-oncological research].

    PubMed

    Sacco, E; Pinto, F; Brescia, A; Pastore, G; Gardi, M; Volpe, A; Bassi, F P

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE. Uro-oncological translational research requires clinical data and human biological tissues collected within a biological tissue bank (BTB). We are hereby outlining ethic-legal, methodological and technical issues of a BTB establishment process, focusing particularly on prostate cancer and Italian setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Review of literature data, and national and international regulations and guidelines; direct field experience of urological BTB; counseling of the different professionals involved. RESULTS. Within a BTB establishment process, it is of utmost importance to protect the donors' privacy and rights through the programmatic adoption of the following procedures: 1) informed consent; 2) confidentiality protection thanks to anonymity of biological specimens and use of an "honest broker" method; 3) identification of a single responsible researcher; 4) dedicated and protected location; 5) approval of the Ethical Committee. There are two main organizational models of BTB: "systematic", i.e. collecting specimens from all patients and through the same methodology; "project-driven", i.e. prospectively selecting patients for a specific study and using the specific methods required by researchers. In the preliminary step it is necessary to establish detailed protocols of sampling and crioconservation techniques, and methods of validation and quality control. For prostate tissue sampling, several techniques have been described such as specimens of alternate slices, macro dissection, Tru-Cut. CONCLUSIONS. Today BTBs are necessary in order to support molecular and translational research in uro-oncology, and to overcome the limits of the research based only on clinicalpathological data. Ethic-legal and methodological issues related to BTBs are still requiring specific legislation and standardization of techniques.

  6. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery.

  7. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. PMID:26585723

  8. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

  9. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  10. E-oncology and health portals: instructions and standards for the evaluation, production organisation and use.

    PubMed

    Cognetti, G; Cecere, L

    2003-12-01

    In 2002 the Italian Ministry of Health promoted the institution of a network and a web portal, E-oncology (2), for the seven NHS research institutions specialising in oncology (Istituti di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico-IRCCS). One of the aims was to gather and provide information on tumoral pathologies to operators and the public. For an optimum organisation of a health web site it is necessary to comply with the standards internationally used. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has developed guidelines for accessibility and usability of the sites, implemented in Italy through governmental issues. Many international organisations adopt rules and codes of conduct to validate biomedical information and have organised quality portals such as NLM, OMNI, MEDCIRCLE, HON etc. Some terminological standards, such as the MESH thesaurus and UMLS, have been produced by the libraries for a correct management and an effective information retrieval, and are currently used by the most important biomedical web sites. The Dublin Core, metadata standard for the integration of information deriving from heterogeneous archives, has also been developed by the libraries. The easy access to information dims the complex architecture necessary for the construction of a web site. The contribution of different professionals is necessary to guarantee the production of quality medical/health web sites, among them librarians have always been involved with the management of knowledge and their skills are extremely valuable. Furthermore, the libraries' network is essential in order to guarantee universal access to health information, mostly still against payment, and to contribute to overcoming the 'digital divide' and 'second-level digital divide'.

  11. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  12. Implementing Cooperative Learning Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    This paper identifies the bases and rationale for the concept of cooperative learning; describes the dynamics of the cooperative learning approach; and proposes methods that college faculty can use to enhance student motivation and learning. Cooperative learning is defined and is reported to have positive effects on student achievement, human…

  13. Advising People about Cooperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, C. H., Jr.; Mohn, Paul O.

    This document provides background and references for educational programs on cooperatives. Seven major topics are covered: Cooperatives Are Distinctive Business Corporations, Types of Cooperatives (such as agricultural, credit, housing, crafts, health, memorial association, fishing, forestry, recreation, labor, buying clubs, consumer, student, and…

  14. Learning to Learn Cooperatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Anne Hammond

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative learning, put quite simply, is a type of instruction whereby students work together in small groups to achieve a common goal. Cooperative learning has become increasingly popular as a feature of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) with benefits that include increased student interest due to the quick pace of cooperative tasks,…

  15. Cooperative Agreements Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, R. E.; Magruder, D.

    During the 1983 meeting of the Florida Legislature, action was taken to begin a systematic study of the level of cooperation between the Florida public schools K-12 program and the community and junior colleges. The goals and objectives of the Cooperative Agreements Study were to review and compile a list of the cooperative agreements and identify…

  16. An Increase in Medical Student Knowledge of Radiation Oncology: A Pre-Post Examination Analysis of the Oncology Education Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Ariel E. Mulleady Bishop, Pauline; Dad, Luqman; Singh, Deeptej; Slanetz, Priscilla J.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p {<=} 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology.

  17. NEURO-ONCOLOGIC PHYSICAL THERAPY FOR THE OLDER PERSON.

    PubMed

    Ching, Willie; Luhmann, Melissa

    2011-07-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the course of diagnoses, patients with neuro-oncological malignancies present challenges to the physical therapist. At times, the presentation of impairments and disabilities of these patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses do not necessarily coincide with the involved area of the brain or spinal cord. It is our intention to provide guidance to the physical therapist who will be working with these patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses, in hopes that their encounters will be more productive and meaningful. This article describes a brief overview of common central nervous system malignancies, its medical treatment, as well as possible complications and side effects that would need to be considered in rehabilitating these patients. Special consideration is given to the elderly patients with neuro-oncological diagnoses. Pertinent physical therapy assessments and interventions are discussed.

  18. Oncology Nursing and Shared Decision Making for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tariman, Joseph D; Mehmeti, Enisa; Spawn, Nadia; McCarter, Sarah P; Bishop-Royse, Jessica; Garcia, Ima; Hartle, Lisa; Szubski, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the contemporary role of the oncology nurse throughout the entire cancer shared decision-making (SDM) process. Study participants consisted of 30 nurses and nurse practitioners who are actively involved in direct care of patients with cancer in the inpatient or outpatient setting. The major themes that emerged from the content analysis are: oncology nurses have various roles at different time points and settings of cancer SDM processes; patient education, advocacy, and treatment side effects management are among the top nursing roles; oncology nurses value their participation in the cancer SDM process; oncology nurses believe they have a voice, but with various degrees of influence in actual treatment decisions; nurses' level of disease knowledge influences the degree of participation in cancer SDM; and the nursing role during cancer SDM can be complicated and requires flexibility.
. PMID:27668378

  19. Ethics in oncology: an annotated bibliography of important literature.

    PubMed

    Tenner, Laura L; Helft, Paul R

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this annotated bibliography about important articles in the field of ethics and oncology is to provide the practicing hematologist/oncologist with a brief overview of some of the important literature in this crucial area.

  20. Cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Can; Kantar, Mehmet; Tuna, Arzu; Ertam, Ilgen; Aksoylar, Serap; Günaydın, Aslı; Çetingül, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric oncology patients can present with various skin lesions related to both primary disease and immunosuppressive treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients. Sixty-five pediatric oncology patients who were scheduled to undergo chemotherapy from May 2011 to May 2013 were included in the study. Three patients were excluded from the results, as 2 patients died during treatment and 1 patient withdrew from the study; therefore, a total of 62 patients were evaluated for mucocutaneous findings. Patients were grouped according to their oncological diagnoses and a statistical analysis was performed. There was no statistical significance in the incidence of cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy among the different diagnostic groups. Awareness among dermatologists of the possible cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric patients and their causes can promote early diagnosis and treatment in this patient population.

  1. [Oncological care according Alfred Schütz].

    PubMed

    Popim, Regina Célia; Boemer, Magali Roseira

    2005-01-01

    The study was realized among oncological nurses in their daily work routine and aimed to understand these professionals' subjective action, starting from their relation with patients, adopting a phenomenological reference framework based on the ideas of Alfred Schütz. The question: what does working in oncological care mean to you? Please describe, was used to collect statements, which were analyzed and clarified the typical action of a nurse caregiver in this daily routine. The study revealed that oncological care implies dealing with humans in a fragile situation; requires a relationship of affectivity; is care delivery that entails the genesis of professional burnout. Care delivery in oncology is highly complex, requiring a professional competence that goes beyond the technical-scientific sphere. Nursing professionals need to seek strategies which enable them to face the fatigue they are submitted to in their work. PMID:16308624

  2. Clinical Trials in the Era of Personalized Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Maitland, Michael L.; Schilsky, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid pace of discoveries in tumor biology, imaging technology, and human genetics hold promise for an era of personalized oncology care. The successful development of a handful of new targeted agents has generated much hope and hype about the delivery of safer and more effective new treatments for cancer. The design and conduct of clinical trials has not yet adjusted to a new era of personalized oncology and so we are more in transition to that era than in it. With the development of treatments for breast cancer as a model, we review the approaches to clinical trials and development of novel therapeutics in the prior era of population oncology, the current transitional era, and the future era of personalized oncology. PMID:22034206

  3. The white book of radiation oncology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, Ismael; Romero, Jesús; Palacios, Amalia; Mañas, Ana; Samper, Pilar; Bayo, Eloísa; Guedea, Ferran

    2011-06-01

    The White Book of Radiation Oncology provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the speciality of radiation oncology in Spain and is intended to be used as a reference for physicians, health care administrators and hospital managers. The present paper summarises the most relevant aspects of the book's 13 chapters in order to bring the message to a wider audience. Among the topics discussed are the epidemiology of cancer in Spain, the role of the radiation oncologist in cancer care, human and material resource needs, new technologies, training of specialists, clinical and cost management, clinical practice, quality control, radiological protection, ethics, relevant legislation, research & development, the history of radiation oncology in Spain and the origins of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR). PMID:21680299

  4. Radiation oncology physicists will need to better understand medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, X Allen; Hendee, William R

    2007-01-01

    Imaging is affecting radiation oncology at a dramatically advancing pace and scale and is likely to create a transformation to individualized, biologically conformal radiation therapy. Deploying and improving imaging technologies and ensuring their correct uses in treatment planning and delivery are the responsibilities of radiation oncology physicists. The potential magnitude of errors arising from the incorrect use of imaging may be far greater than that resulting from typical errors in dose calibration. A major effort is required for radiation oncology physicists to raise the quality assurance of image guidance to a level comparable with that achieved in the maintenance of dosimetric performance. Most radiation oncology physicists lack adequate knowledge to assume this emerging responsibility. Their knowledge of imaging must be enhanced, in most cases through on-the-job training and self-learning. Effective learning strategies include routine interactions with diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine physicists and physicians and the use of educational opportunities provided by professional organizations and vendors. PMID:17412223

  5. Regulatory and clinical considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Charles L; Chen, Brian; Hermanson, Terhi; Wyatt, Michael D; Schulz, Richard M; Georgantopoulos, Peter; Kessler, Samuel; Raisch, Dennis W; Qureshi, Zaina P; Lu, Z Kevin; Love, Bryan L; Noxon, Virginia; Bobolts, Laura; Armitage, Melissa; Bian, John; Ray, Paul; Ablin, Richard J; Hrushesky, William J; Macdougall, Iain C; Sartor, Oliver; Armitage, James O

    2015-01-01

    Biological oncology products are integral to cancer treatment, but their high costs pose challenges to patients, families, providers, and insurers. The introduction of biosimilar agents—molecules that are similar in structure, function, activity, immunogenicity, and safety to the original biological drugs—provide opportunities both to improve healthcare access and outcomes, and to reduce costs. Several international regulatory pathways have been developed to expedite entry of biosimilars into global marketplaces. The first wave of oncology biosimilar use was in Europe and India in 2007. Oncology biosimilars are now widely marketed in several countries in Europe, and in Australia, Japan, China, Russia, India, and South Korea. Their use is emerging worldwide, with the notable exception of the USA, where several regulatory and cost barriers to biosimilar approval exist. In this Review, we discuss oncology biosimilars and summarise their regulatory frameworks, clinical experiences, and safety concerns. PMID:25456378

  6. Ethics in Oncology: An Annotated Bibliography of Important Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tenner, Laura L.; Helft, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this annotated bibliography about important articles in the field of ethics and oncology is to provide the practicing hematologist/oncologist with a brief overview of some of the important literature in this crucial area. PMID:23942932

  7. The white book of radiation oncology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, Ismael; Romero, Jesús; Palacios, Amalia; Mañas, Ana; Samper, Pilar; Bayo, Eloísa; Guedea, Ferran

    2011-06-01

    The White Book of Radiation Oncology provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the speciality of radiation oncology in Spain and is intended to be used as a reference for physicians, health care administrators and hospital managers. The present paper summarises the most relevant aspects of the book's 13 chapters in order to bring the message to a wider audience. Among the topics discussed are the epidemiology of cancer in Spain, the role of the radiation oncologist in cancer care, human and material resource needs, new technologies, training of specialists, clinical and cost management, clinical practice, quality control, radiological protection, ethics, relevant legislation, research & development, the history of radiation oncology in Spain and the origins of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR).

  8. Regulatory and clinical considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Charles L; Chen, Brian; Hermanson, Terhi; Wyatt, Michael D; Schulz, Richard M; Georgantopoulos, Peter; Kessler, Samuel; Raisch, Dennis W; Qureshi, Zaina P; Lu, Z Kevin; Love, Bryan L; Noxon, Virginia; Bobolts, Laura; Armitage, Melissa; Bian, John; Ray, Paul; Ablin, Richard J; Hrushesky, William J; Macdougall, Iain C; Sartor, Oliver; Armitage, James O

    2014-12-01

    Biological oncology products are integral to cancer treatment, but their high costs pose challenges to patients, families, providers, and insurers. The introduction of biosimilar agents-molecules that are similar in structure, function, activity, immunogenicity, and safety to the original biological drugs-provide opportunities both to improve health-care access and outcomes, and to reduce costs. Several international regulatory pathways have been developed to expedite entry of biosimilars into global marketplaces. The first wave of oncology biosimilar use was in Europe and India in 2007. Oncology biosimilars are now widely marketed in several countries in Europe, and in Australia, Japan, China, Russia, India, and South Korea. Their use is emerging worldwide, with the notable exception of the USA, where several regulatory and cost barriers to biosimilar approval exist. In this Review, we discuss oncology biosimilars and summarise their regulatory frameworks, clinical experiences, and safety concerns.

  9. Designing a Metasynthesis Study in Pediatric Oncology Nursing Research.

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, Corey; Woodgate, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of qualitative evidence is called metasynthesis. The term metasynthesis describes both a group of methods used to integrate the findings of individual qualitative research studies and the end product of a metasynthesis research project. In this article, pediatric oncology nurses are encouraged to use metasynthesis research to facilitate the integration of the existing body of qualitative pediatric oncology nursing research into practice. For pediatric oncology nurses to be successful in metasynthesis research, they require practical guidance in navigating the terminology and methodology of this evolving research design. Misconceptions about metasynthesis research, types of metasynthesis research designs, steps involved in developing a metasynthesis study, and the benefits and challenges of using metasynthesis in pediatric oncology research are presented. Examples of studies that have used 2 distinct metasynthesis techniques are provided. PMID:25643970

  10. [The strategy of the Czech Society for Oncology of the Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyně for the organisation of oncological care in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Vorlíček, J

    2013-08-01

    The Czech Society for Oncology of the Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyně (ČOS ČLS JEP) builds on intensive collaboration at all levels of medical care during the organisation of oncological care. Over 77,000 malignant neoplasms are diagnosed in the Czech Republic annually. Every year, over 27,000 patients with a malignant tumour die in the Czech Republic. A total of over 450,000 patients with malignant tumours or patients with a history of an oncological disease are living in the Czech Republic. The specialised society analyses available data about the treatment history and offers them to the individual regions; it also plans population based treatment costs which are then discussed with the healthcare payers. The Czech National Cancer Control Programme (NOP) presents a strategic outline for the management and development of the treatment, and facilitates the communication with all stakeholders and the public. The ČOS ČLS JEP Society includes a specialised section responsible for data analysis, which provides a complex agenda of population based data, estimated numbers of treated patients, standards for reference of survival analysis and a system of collecting required clinical data. Even with a growing incidence, the Czech Republic shows a stabilised mortality in all cancer diagnoses. Screening programmes for breast, colorectal and cervical carcinoma are ongoing. We have a consolidated and cooperating network of oncology centres. We are able to actively plan diagnostic and treatment needs and we have a system of data collection that is able to respond to the needs of evaluation of cost efficiency. We are currently introducing a hospital care quality assessment.

  11. Quality and safety in pediatric hematology/oncology.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Brigitta U

    2014-06-01

    Many principles of quality of care and patient safety are at the foundation of pediatric hematology/oncology. However, we still see too many errors, continue to have problems with communication, and the culture in many of our areas is still one of worrying about retribution when mentioning a problem. This review explores why specialists in pediatric hematology/oncology should be leaders in the field of quality and safety in healthcare.

  12. The cancer registry: a clinical repository of oncology data.

    PubMed

    Hoyler, S S

    1997-02-01

    Health care institutions need complete and accurate data to plan, monitor, and evaluate their oncology programs. Although financial and discharge data are available, clinical repositories generally are not. For oncology, the cancer registry database serves as a clinical repository. The data in the registry are complete, accurate, and readily available. They can be used to plan new services, evaluate existing programs, and monitor patient care. PMID:10165382

  13. The Role of Inhibitory Control in Children's Cooperative Behaviors during a Structured Puzzle Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Burk, William J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of inhibitory control (measured by Stroop interference) in children's cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task. The sample consisted of 250 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (117 girls and 133 boys) attending classrooms in three primary schools in Northern Italy. Children individually completed an elaborated…

  14. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  15. Coping and resilience factors in pediatric oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Zander, Melissa; Hutton, Alison; King, Lindy

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that pediatric oncology is perceived as a setting that is personally and professionally demanding. Many sources acknowledge the development of conditions, such as burnout, compassion fatigue and vicarious traumatization, as a result of being continuously subjected to highly stressful circumstances in a professional capacity. There are a myriad of individual and collaborative factors that are known to mediate stress in the oncology setting. One such factor is resilience. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate what is known about coping and its relationship with resilience in assisting pediatric oncology nurses to manage work-related stressors. From the themes identified within the reviewed studies, it is clear that the applicability of resilience in pediatric oncology nursing has not been thoroughly investigated. The literature suggests that the presence of resilience among pediatric oncology nurses is possible. What is not known is whether there is a link between this resilience and ability to cope with the stressors of pediatric oncology.

  16. [Strategies for improving care of oncologic patients: SHARE Project results].

    PubMed

    Reñones Crego, María de la Concepción; Fernández Pérez, Dolores; Vena Fernández, Carmen; Zamudio Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment is a major burden for the patient and its family that requires an individualized management by healthcare professionals. Nurses are in charge of coordinating care and are the closest healthcare professionals to patient and family; however, in Spain, there are not standard protocols yet for the management of oncology patients. The Spanish Oncology Nursing Society developed between 2012 and 2014 the SHARE project, with the aim of establishing strategies to improve quality of life and nursing care in oncology patients. It was developed in 3 phases. First, a literature search and review was performed to identify nursing strategies, interventions and tools to improve cancer patients' care. At the second stage, these interventions were agreed within a group of oncology nursing experts; and at the third phase, a different group of experts in oncology care categorized the interventions to identify the ones with highest priority and most feasible to be implemented. As a result, 3 strategic actions were identified to improve nursing care during cancer treatment: To provide a named nurse to carry out the follow up process by attending to the clinic or telephonic consultation, develop therapeutic education with adapted protocols for each tumor type and treatment and ensure specific training for nurses on the management of the cancer patients. Strategic actions proposed in this paper aim to improve cancer patients' healthcare and quality of life through the development of advanced nursing roles based on a higher level of autonomy, situating nurses as care coordinators to assure an holistic care in oncology patients.

  17. Ethics in oncology: consulting for the investment industry.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Jordan; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Tannock, Ian F

    2007-02-01

    As Ethics Committee Chair, I am pleased to introduce the first in an ongoing series of ethics vignettes. These columns, which are based on true-to-life situations that arise in oncology research and practice, are intended to identify and explore important ethical issues and provide commentary that is specific to oncology. Please look for them periodically in both the Journal of Clinical Oncology and the Journal of Oncology Practice. The idea for publishing vignettes evolved through the joint efforts of the Ethics Committee and the Board of Directors. Rather than adopt a single set of ethical principles that applies vaguely to any situation and well to none, the Committee and the Board preferred to tackle ethical dilemmas individually, specifically, and directly. Because the Ethics Committee thought the ethical and legal implications of physician interactions with the investment industry were so important and timely, it chose to address this topic in both a position article, which was previously published in the January 20, 2007, issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology (J Clin Oncol 25:338-340, 2007) and in its first vignette column. The Ethics Committee hopes this column will be the first of several that ASCO members will find helpful as they grapple with the many ethical issues that arise in daily practice in the field of oncology. Because these columns are intended to address the concerns of ASCO members, the Committee welcomes suggestions for future topics at vignettes@asco.org. Martin D. Abeloff, MD, Chair, Ethics Committee.

  18. National Institutes of Health Funding in Radiation Oncology: A Snapshot

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Michael; McBride, William H.; Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Currently, pay lines for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants are at a historical low. In this climate of fierce competition, knowledge about the funding situation in a small field like radiation oncology becomes very important for career planning and recruitment of faculty. Unfortunately, these data cannot be easily extracted from the NIH's database because it does not discriminate between radiology and radiation oncology departments. At the start of fiscal year 2013 we extracted records for 952 individual grants, which were active at the time of analysis from the NIH database. Proposals originating from radiation oncology departments were identified manually. Descriptive statistics were generated using the JMP statistical software package. Our analysis identified 197 grants in radiation oncology. These proposals came from 134 individual investigators in 43 academic institutions. The majority of the grants (118) were awarded to principal investigators at the full professor level, and 122 principal investigators held a PhD degree. In 79% of the grants, the research topic fell into the field of biology, 13% in the field of medical physics. Only 7.6% of the proposals were clinical investigations. Our data suggest that the field of radiation oncology is underfunded by the NIH and that the current level of support does not match the relevance of radiation oncology for cancer patients or the potential of its academic work force.

  19. NIH funding in Radiation Oncology – A snapshot

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Michael; McBride, William H.; Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Currently, pay lines for NIH grants are at a historical low. In this climate of fierce competition knowledge about the funding situation in a small field like Radiation Oncology becomes very important for career planning and recruitment of faculty. Unfortunately, this data cannot be easily extracted from the NIH s database because it does not discriminate between Radiology and Radiation Oncology Departments. At the start of fiscal year 2013, we extracted records for 952 individual grants, which were active at the time of analysis from the NIH database. Proposals originating from Radiation Oncology Departments were identified manually. Descriptive statistics were generated using the JMP statistical software package. Our analysis identified 197 grants in Radiation Oncology. These proposals came from 134 individual investigators in 43 academic institutions. The majority of the grants (118) were awarded to PIs at the Full Professor level and 122 PIs held a PhD degree. In 79% of the grants the research topic fell into the field of Biology, in 13 % into the field of Medical Physics. Only 7.6% of the proposals were clinical investigations. Our data suggests that the field of Radiation Oncology is underfunded by the NIH, and that the current level of support does not match the relevance of Radiation Oncology for cancer patients or the potential of its academic work force. PMID:23523324

  20. Merging Children’s Oncology Group Data with an External Administrative Database Using Indirect Patient Identifiers: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yimei; Hall, Matt; Fisher, Brian T.; Seif, Alix E.; Huang, Yuan-Shung; Bagatell, Rochelle; Getz, Kelly D.; Alonzo, Todd A.; Gerbing, Robert B.; Sung, Lillian; Adamson, Peter C.; Gamis, Alan; Aplenc, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Clinical trials data from National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative oncology group trials could be enhanced by merging with external data sources. Merging without direct patient identifiers would provide additional patient privacy protections. We sought to develop and validate a matching algorithm that uses only indirect patient identifiers. Methods We merged the data from two Phase III Children’s Oncology Group (COG) trials for de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS). We developed a stepwise matching algorithm that used indirect identifiers including treatment site, gender, birth year, birth month, enrollment year and enrollment month. Results from the stepwise algorithm were compared against the direct merge method that used date of birth, treatment site, and gender. The indirect merge algorithm was developed on AAML0531 and validated on AAML1031. Results Of 415 patients enrolled on the AAML0531 trial at PHIS centers, we successfully matched 378 (91.1%) patients using the indirect stepwise algorithm. Comparison to the direct merge result suggested that 362 (95.7%) matches identified by the indirect merge algorithm were concordant with the direct merge result. When validating the indirect stepwise algorithm using the AAML1031 trial, we successfully matched 157 out of 165 patients (95.2%) and 150 (95.5%) of the indirectly merged matches were concordant with the directly merged matches. Conclusions These data demonstrate that patients enrolled on COG clinical trials can be successfully merged with PHIS administrative data using a stepwise algorithm based on indirect patient identifiers. The merged data sets can be used as a platform for comparative effectiveness and cost effectiveness studies. PMID:26606521

  1. Oncologic Outcomes After Transoral Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, J. Scott; Smith, Richard V.; Moore, Eric; Lawson, Georges; Remacle, Marc; Ganly, Ian; Kraus, Dennis H.; Teng, Marita S.; Miles, Brett A.; White, Hilliary; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Ferris, Robert L.; Mehta, Vikas; Kiyosaki, Krista; Damrose, Edward J.; Wang, Steven J.; Kupferman, Michael E.; Koh, Yoon Woo; Genden, Eric M.; Holsinger, F. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Large patient cohorts are necessary to validate the efficacy of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the management of head and neck cancer. OBJECTIVES To review oncologic outcomes of TORS from a large multi-institutional collaboration and to identify predictors of disease recurrence and disease-specific mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective review of records from 410 patients undergoing TORS for laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2012, was performed. Pertinent data were obtained from 11 participating medical institutions. INTERVENTIONS Select patients received radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy before or after TORS. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Locoregional control, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were calculated. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank testing to evaluate individual variable association with these outcomes, followed by multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression modeling to identify independent predictors. RESULTS Of the 410 patients treated with TORS in this study, 364 (88.8%) had oropharyngeal cancer. Of these 364 patients, information about post-operative adjuvant therapy was known about 338: 106 (31.3) received radiation therapy alone, and 72 (21.3%) received radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. Neck dissection was performed in 323 patients (78.8%). Mean follow-up time was 20 months. Local, regional, and distant recurrence occurred in 18 (4.4%), 15 (3.7%), and 10 (2.4%) of 410 patients, respectively. Seventeen (4.1%) died of disease, and 13 (3.2%) died of other causes. The 2-year locoregional control rate was 91.8% (95% CI, 87.6%-94.7%), disease-specific survival 94.5% (95% CI, 90.6%-96.8%), and overall survival 91% (95% CI, 86.5%-94.0%). Multivariate analysis identified improved survival among women (P = .05) and for patients with tumors arising in tonsil (P = .01). Smoking was associated with worse overall

  2. The American Society for Radiation Oncology's 2010 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Ying; De Amorim Bernstein, Karen; Chetty, Indrin J.; Eifel, Patricia; Hughes, Lesley; Klein, Eric E.; McDermott, Patrick; Prisciandaro, Joann; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Price, Robert A.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: In 2004, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) published its first physics education curriculum for residents, which was updated in 2007. A committee composed of physicists and physicians from various residency program teaching institutions was reconvened again to update the curriculum in 2009. Methods and Materials: Members of this committee have associations with ASTRO, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), and the American College of Radiology. Members reviewed and updated assigned subjects from the last curriculum. The updated curriculum was carefully reviewed by a representative from the ABR and other physics and clinical experts. Results: The new curriculum resulted in a recommended 56-h course, excluding initial orientation. Learning objectives are provided for each subject area, and a detailed outline of material to be covered is given for each lecture hour. Some recent changes in the curriculum include the addition of Radiation Incidents and Bioterrorism Response Training as a subject and updates that reflect new treatment techniques and modalities in a number of core subjects. The new curriculum was approved by the ASTRO board in April 2010. We anticipate that physicists will use this curriculum for structuring their teaching programs, and subsequently the ABR will adopt this educational program for its written examination. Currently, the American College of Radiology uses the ASTRO curriculum for their training examination topics. In addition to the curriculum, the committee updated suggested references and the glossary. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics education curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated. To ensure continued commitment to a current and relevant curriculum, the subject matter will be updated again in 2 years.

  3. Japanese Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guidelines 2010 for antiemesis in oncology: executive summary.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hideki; Saeki, Toshiaki; Aiba, Keisuke; Tamura, Kazuo; Aogi, Kenjiro; Eguchi, Kenji; Okita, Kenji; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Ryuhei; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Hirofumi; Boku, Narikazu; Wada, Makoto; Akechi, Tatsuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Okawa, Yutaka; Onozawa, Yusuke; Sasaki, Hidenori; Shima, Yasuo; Shimoyama, Naohito; Takeda, Masayuki; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Akifumi; Ikeda, Tadashi; Hirata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to disseminate the standard of antiemetic therapy for Japanese clinical oncologists. On the basis of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II instrument, which reflects evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, a working group of the Japanese Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO) reviewed clinical practice guidelines for antiemesis and performed a systematic review of evidence-based domestic practice guidelines for antiemetic therapy in Japan. In addition, because health-insurance systems in Japan are different from those in other countries, a consensus was reached regarding standard treatments for chemotherapy that induce nausea and vomiting. Current evidence was collected by use of MEDLINE, from materials from meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and from European Society of Medical Oncology/Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer guidelines for antiemesis. Initially, 21 clinical questions (CQ) were selected on the basis of CQs from other guidelines. Patients treated with highly emetic agents should receive a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. For patients with moderate emetic risk, 5HT3 receptor antagonists and dexamethasone were recommended, whereas for those receiving chemotherapy with low emetic risk dexamethasone only is recommended. Patients receiving high-emetic-risk radiation therapy should also receive a 5HT3 receptor antagonist. In this paper the 2010 JSCO clinical practice guidelines for antiemesis are presented in English; they reveal high concordance of Japanese medical circumstances with other antiemetic guidelines that are similarly based on evidence.

  4. Understanding the Differences Between Oncology Patients and Oncology Health Professionals Concerning Spirituality/Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Barroso, Eliane Marçon; Carneseca, Estela Cristina; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated whether spirituality/religiosity (S/R) plays an important role in the lives of cancer patients and in the work of health professionals who provide care for these patients. The correlations between spiritual quality of life (QOL) and the other QOL domain scores of patients and health professionals were also assessed. Moreover, QOL domain scores were compared between patients and health professionals. In this cross-sectional study, 1050 participants (525 oncology patients and 525 health professionals) were interviewed. Quality of life was assessed with the World Health Organization quality of life spiritual, religious, and personal beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB). To compare the groups with respect to the instruments’ domains, a quantile regression and an analysis of covariance model were used. The WHOQOL-Bref and WHOQOL-SRPB domains were correlated by performing Pearson and partial correlation tests. It was demonstrated that 94.1% of patients considered it important that health professionals addressed their spiritual beliefs, and 99.2% of patients relied on S/R to face cancer. Approximately, 99.6% of the patients reported that S/R support is necessary during cancer treatment; 98.3% of health professionals agreed that spiritual and religious support was necessary for oncology patients. Positive correlations between spiritual QOL and the other QOL domains were observed. When compared among themselves, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of spiritual QOL. In conclusion, S/R was an important construct in the minds of cancer patients and health professionals. Both groups often use S/R resources in their daily lives, which seems to positively affect their perceptions of QOL. Further studies are needed to determine how health professionals effectively address S/R during oncology practice. PMID:26632743

  5. Complementary and alternative medicine research initiatives in the Children's Oncology Group and the role of the pediatric oncology nurse.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Ria

    2006-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has emerged as a new area of investigation in cancer research and treatment. CAM modalities are widely used, but little is known about their efficacy. The Children's Oncology Group has made a major commitment to CAM research in childhood and adolescent cancer, beginning with studies of CAM in the area of supportive care. Pediatric oncology nurses, as implementing clinicians and collaborating researchers, are critical to the success of these studies.

  6. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  7. Results of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP) Survey of Radiation Oncology Residency Program Directors

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Eleanor Abdel-Wahab, May; Spangler, Ann E.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Amdur, Robert J.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To survey the radiation oncology residency program directors on the topics of departmental and institutional support systems, residency program structure, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements, and challenges as program director. Methods: A survey was developed and distributed by the leadership of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs to all radiation oncology program directors. Summary statistics, medians, and ranges were collated from responses. Results: Radiation oncology program directors had implemented all current required aspects of the ACGME Outcome Project into their training curriculum. Didactic curricula were similar across programs nationally, but research requirements and resources varied widely. Program directors responded that implementation of the ACGME Outcome Project and the external review process were among their greatest challenges. Protected time was the top priority for program directors. Conclusions: The Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs recommends that all radiation oncology program directors have protected time and an administrative stipend to support their important administrative and educational role. Departments and institutions should provide adequate and equitable resources to the program directors and residents to meet increasingly demanding training program requirements.

  8. [Novel quality assurance method in oncology: the two-level, multi-disciplinary and oncotherapy oncology team system].

    PubMed

    Mangel, László; Kövér, Erika; Szilágyi, István; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Bércesi, Eva; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Holcz, Tibor; Karádi, Oszkár; Farkas, Róbert; Csák, Szilvia; Csere, Tibor; Kásler, Miklós

    2012-12-16

    By now therapy decision taken by a multi-disciplinary oncology team in cancer care has become a routine method in worldwide. However, multi-disciplinary oncology team has to face more and more difficulties in keeping abreast with the fast development in oncology science, increasing expectations, and financial considerations. Naturally the not properly controlled decision mechanisms, the permanent lack of time and shortage of professionals are also hindering factors. Perhaps it would be a way out if the staff meetings and discussions of physicians in the oncology departments were transformed and provided with administrative, legal and decision credentials corresponding to those of multi-disciplinary oncology team. The new form of the oncotherapy oncoteam might be able to decide the optimal and particular treatment after previous consultation with the patient. The oncotherapy oncoteam is also suitable to carry out training and tasks of a cancer centre and by diminishing the psychological burden of the doctors it contributes to an improved patient care. This study presents the two-level multi-disciplinary and oncotherapy oncology team system at the University of Pécs including the detailed analysis of the considerations above.

  9. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Apte, Sachin M.; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  10. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology.

    PubMed

    Apte, Sachin M; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  11. A microchip platform for structural oncology applications

    PubMed Central

    Winton, Carly E; Gilmore, Brian L; Demmert, Andrew C; Karageorge, Vasilea; Sheng, Zhi; Kelly, Deborah F

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of functional materials offer new tools to dissect human health and disease mechanisms. The use of tunable surfaces is especially appealing as substrates can be tailored to fit applications involving specific cell types or tissues. Here we use tunable materials to facilitate the three-dimensional (3D) analysis of BRCA1 gene regulatory complexes derived from human cancer cells. We employed a recently developed microchip platform to isolate BRCA1 protein assemblies natively formed in breast cancer cells with and without BRCA1 mutations. The captured assemblies proved amenable to cryo-electron microscopy (EM) imaging and downstream computational analysis. Resulting 3D structures reveal the manner in which wild-type BRCA1 engages the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) core complex that contained K63-linked ubiquitin moieties—a putative signal for DNA repair. Importantly, we also determined that molecular assemblies harboring the BRCA15382insC mutation exhibited altered protein interactions and ubiquitination patterns compared to wild-type complexes. Overall, our analyses proved optimal for developing new structural oncology applications involving patient-derived cancer cells, while expanding our knowledge of BRCA1’s role in gene regulatory events. PMID:27583302

  12. Photodynamic therapy: a promising alternative in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelius, Thomas; de Riese, Werner T. W.; Filleur, Stephanie

    2004-07-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that is based on the administration of a photosensitizer and the following application of light in a wavelength range matching the absorption spectrum of the photosensitizer. Ideally the photosensitizer retains in the tumor tissue more than in normal tissue and thus allows targeted destruction of cancerous tissue. The use of PDT is slowly being accepted as a standard treatment for certain types of cancer. This includes mainly treatment strategies with only palliative intentions (obstructive esophageal cancer and advanced lung cancer) while for certain malignant conditions new applications exists that are already intended for cure (e.g. early stage of lung cancer). The main advantage of PDT is that the treatment can be repeated multiple times safely without major side effects. PDT can be safely combined with already established treatment options like surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A disadvantage of PDT is the only localized effect of the therapy, which usually cannot significantly alter the outcome of a systemic disease. In this paper we review the history of PDT as well as current clinical applications in oncology and future directions.

  13. Thyroid Disorders in the Oncology Patient

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid disease and cancer diagnoses are common conditions likely to coexist. Optimal management requires appropriate diagnostic testing and consideration of a number of factors, including overall health status and prognosis. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can lead to a number of symptoms that may affect not only quality of life but can interfere with the patient’s ability to tolerate cancer treatment. Imaging studies performed for cancer staging can identify incidental structural abnormalities in the thyroid, which should be assessed with dedicated neck ultrasonography and possibly fine-needle aspiration. Incidental thyroid cancer is most often less urgent than the patient’s presenting malignancy and can be addressed surgically when appropriate in the context of other treatments (i.e., chemotherapy). Providers working in an oncology setting, as well as primary care providers, should be aware of medications that are associated with hormonal abnormalities. Any patient with a history of neck or brain radiation therapy is at risk of developing hypothyroidism and possibly other endocrinopathies. Complex or very ill patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary approach that utilizes the experience of a knowledgeable endocrinologist. PMID:26649243

  14. Urological medical oncology: land of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Robert Jones speaks to Francesca Lake, Managing Commissioning Editor. Robert completed his PhD in molecular biology at the Beatson Institute for Cancer Research (Glasgow, UK) and is currently the senior lecturer in medical oncology at the University of Glasgow (UK) and a consultant at the Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre (Glasgow, UK). He is involved in the management of prostate, bladder and kidney cancers in the clinic and performs collaborative translational research with researchers from the Beatson Institute. He also manages Phase I, II and III trials in the urological cancer field, and is Chief Investigator of the TOUCAN and PLUTO trials (urothelial cancer), SAPROCAN and MAdCaP trials (prostate cancer), and the UK component of the ASPEN trial (renal cell carcinoma). Recently, he has been involved in the COMPARZ trial, which compared pazopanib with sunitinib in renal cell carcinoma patients. He is director of the Glasgow Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit and is an active member of the UK National Cancer Research Institute Clinical Studies Groups in urology. PMID:23414465

  15. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Gallamini, Andrea; Zwarthoed, Colette; Borra, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG). FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later. PMID:25268160

  16. Thyroid Disorders in the Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid disease and cancer diagnoses are common conditions likely to coexist. Optimal management requires appropriate diagnostic testing and consideration of a number of factors, including overall health status and prognosis. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can lead to a number of symptoms that may affect not only quality of life but can interfere with the patient's ability to tolerate cancer treatment. Imaging studies performed for cancer staging can identify incidental structural abnormalities in the thyroid, which should be assessed with dedicated neck ultrasonography and possibly fine-needle aspiration. Incidental thyroid cancer is most often less urgent than the patient's presenting malignancy and can be addressed surgically when appropriate in the context of other treatments (i.e., chemotherapy). Providers working in an oncology setting, as well as primary care providers, should be aware of medications that are associated with hormonal abnormalities. Any patient with a history of neck or brain radiation therapy is at risk of developing hypothyroidism and possibly other endocrinopathies. Complex or very ill patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary approach that utilizes the experience of a knowledgeable endocrinologist. PMID:26649243

  17. Clinical benefits of metformin in gynecologic oncology

    PubMed Central

    IMAI, ATSUSHI; ICHIGO, SATOSHI; MATSUNAMI, KAZUTOSHI; TAKAGI, HIROSHI; YASUDA, KEIGO

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has suggested that diabetes may contribute to the initiation and progression of specific types of cancer. Metformin, a biguanide, has become the preferred first-line therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is inexpensive, has a proven safety profile and is able to be safely combined with additional antidiabetic agents. In addition to the well-established antidiabetic effects of metformin, there has also been notable interest in its antitumor properties. The present review discusses the emerging role of metformin as an example of an existing drug, used worldwide in the treatment of diabetes, which has been demonstrated to exert significant in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities and has thus been investigated in clinical trials. In gynecologic oncology, metformin has been suggested to exhibit significant treatment efficacy against endometrial cancer. Three studies have demonstrated the potential therapeutic effects of metformin on the survival outcome of patients with ovarian cancer and in ovarian cancer prevention. However, this evidence was based on observational studies. Metformin has been shown to exert no statistically significant beneficial effect on cervical cancer incidence or mortality. By cancer site, the current limited insights highlight the need for clinical investigations and better-designed studies, along with evaluation of the effects of metformin on cancer at other sites. PMID:26622536

  18. Lean oncology: a new model for oncologists.

    PubMed

    Montesarchio, Vincenzo; Grimaldi, Antonio Maria; Fox, Bernard A; Rea, Antonio; Marincola, Francesco M; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2012-01-01

    The history of the term Lean is relatively recent and originates from the Toyota Production System (TPS). The term "Lean" means "thin", which refers to a mental process, operational, productive, no-frills, quick but not hasty, consequential to the previous event. The Lean process flows seamlessly into the result, eliminates unnecessary complications to the effect, prevents unnecessary equipment processes. The idea is to 'do more with less', like using the (few) available resources in the most productive way possible, through the elimination of all types of waste that inevitably accompanies every stage of a production process. Lean management is primarily a management philosophy, a system of values and behaviors that goes beyond the mere application of the instrument and that, once internalized, will form the nucleus of the corporate culture. "Lean Oncology" is a term coined to identify a methodology of care and treatment to cancer patients, consisting on process simplification, streamlining of the organizational and routes of drug treatment, detection and elimination of waste. Its main objective is the centrality of the patient. PMID:22533796

  19. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Debenham, Brock; Banerjee, Robyn; Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George; Trotter, Theresa; Yee, Don

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  20. Incidence of Legionella pneumophila infection in tourists: Italy.

    PubMed

    Passi, C; Maddaluno, R; Pastoris, M C

    1990-05-01

    Legionella pneumophila has frequently been recognised as a cause of infection in tourists. From 1973 to 1987, 117 cases of legionellosis were reported in tourists who spent one or more weeks in Italian summer resorts. 6 (5.1%) patients died. 42 (35.9%) were sporadic cases, and 75 (64.1%) were related to clusters or outbreaks. Among the 117 cases, 63 were reported to the Istituto Superiore di Sanità by the health authorities of other countries. Some travellers became ill while in Italy, others soon after they returned home. All tourists but two had stayed in hotels. L. pneumophila was isolated from the water system of 10 hotels, and in another hotel the same Legionella species was detected by direct immunofluorescence. Persistent and/or recurrent sources of infection seem to be present in some summer resorts on the Adriatic Coast and in the Lake Garda area in northern Italy. Some groups of cases were associated with particular hotels over a period of several months and sometimes years. Investigations have implicated potable water as the likely vehicle and the source of infection for tourists. The need of a greater awareness amongst clinicians that travel is a risk factor for legionellosis, and for better international surveillance and cooperation, is stressed.

  1. Attitudes of Chinese Oncology Physicians Toward Death with Dignity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-ping; Huang, Bo-yan; Yi, Ting-wu; Deng, Yao-Tiao; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yu-qing; Zhang, Zong-yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Death with dignity (DWD) refers to the refusal of life-prolonging measures for terminally ill patients by “living wills” forms in advance. More and more oncology physicians are receiving DWD requests from advance cancer patients in mainland China. Objective: The study objective was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese oncology physicians toward the legalization and implementation of DWD. Methods: A questionnaire investigating the understanding and attitudes toward DWD was administered to 257 oncology physicians from 11 hospitals in mainland China. Results: The effective response rate was 86.8% (223/257). The majority of oncology physicians (69.1%) had received DWD requests from patients. Half of the participants (52.5%) thought that the most important reason was the patients' unwillingness to maintain survival through machines. One-third of participants (33.0%) attributed the most important reason to suffering from painful symptoms. Most oncology physicians (78.9%) had knowledge about DWD. A fifth of respondents did not know the difference between DWD and euthanasia, and a few even considered DWD as euthanasia. The majority of oncology physicians supported the legalization (88.3%) and implementation (83.9%) of DWD. Conclusions: Many Chinese oncology physicians have received advanced cancer patients' DWD requests and think that DWD should be legalized and implemented. Chinese health management departments should consider the demands of physicians and patients. It is important to inform physicians about the difference between DWD and euthanasia, as one-fifth of them were confused about it. PMID:27022774

  2. Corporate culture assessments in integrative oncology: a qualitative case study of two integrative oncology centers.

    PubMed

    Mittring, Nadine; Pérard, Marion; Witt, Claudia M

    2013-01-01

    The offer of "integrative oncology" is one option for clinics to provide safe and evidence-based complementary medicine treatments to cancer patients. As known from merger theories, corporate culture and integration models have a strong influence on the success of such integration. To identify relevant corporate culture aspects that might influence the success in two highly visible integrative oncology clinics, we interviewed physicians, nurses, practitioners, and managers. All interviews (11 in a German breast cancer clinic and 9 in an integrative medicine cancer service in the USA) were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed with content analysis. According to the theoretical framework of mergers, each clinic selected a different integration type ("best of both worlds" and "linking"). Nonetheless, each developed a similar corporate culture that has a strong focus on research and safe and evidence-based treatments, and fosters a holistic and patient-centered approach. Structured communication within the team and with other departments had high relevance. Research was highlighted as a way to open doors and to facilitate a more general acceptance within the hospital. Conventional physicians felt unburdened by the provision of integrative medicine service but also saw problems in the time required for scheduled treatments, which often resulted in long waiting lists.

  3. Corporate culture assessments in integrative oncology: a qualitative case study of two integrative oncology centers.

    PubMed

    Mittring, Nadine; Pérard, Marion; Witt, Claudia M

    2013-01-01

    The offer of "integrative oncology" is one option for clinics to provide safe and evidence-based complementary medicine treatments to cancer patients. As known from merger theories, corporate culture and integration models have a strong influence on the success of such integration. To identify relevant corporate culture aspects that might influence the success in two highly visible integrative oncology clinics, we interviewed physicians, nurses, practitioners, and managers. All interviews (11 in a German breast cancer clinic and 9 in an integrative medicine cancer service in the USA) were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed with content analysis. According to the theoretical framework of mergers, each clinic selected a different integration type ("best of both worlds" and "linking"). Nonetheless, each developed a similar corporate culture that has a strong focus on research and safe and evidence-based treatments, and fosters a holistic and patient-centered approach. Structured communication within the team and with other departments had high relevance. Research was highlighted as a way to open doors and to facilitate a more general acceptance within the hospital. Conventional physicians felt unburdened by the provision of integrative medicine service but also saw problems in the time required for scheduled treatments, which often resulted in long waiting lists. PMID:23818923

  4. Futures for energy cooperatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  5. Synthetic Yeast Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

  6. Anti-mutagenicity Effects of Vitamin E on Oncology and Non-oncology Hospital Nurses by Ames Assay

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei-Basiri, Majid; Rezazadeh, Hassan; Aswadi-Kermani, Iraj; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to determine the anti-mutagenic effects of Vitamin E among nurses of oncology and non-oncology hospitals exposed to chemotherapy drugs. Several studies have demonstrated that nurses occupationally exposes to cytostatic drugs. Material and Methods: A total of 138 female nurses from oncology and non-oncology hospitals participated in the study. All urine samples of nurses before and after Vitamin E consumption (200 mg/day) were evaluated by Ames Salmonella typhimorium mutagenicity test using histidine negative of tester strain TA100 with and without S-9mix. In all steps the collected urine samples extracts were prepared using amberlit XAD-2 resins and examined for mutagenicity activity. The data of Ames assay were analyzed with Anova one way and t-test statistical. Results: In the present study 25% of oncology nursing staff excrete carcinogenic compounds in their urine and oral consumption of Vitamin E for two weeks showed significant anti-mutagenic effects. Discussion: It was appeared that the urinary mutagenic activity will decrease by receiving Vitamin E. However, after Vitamin E consumption there was significantly depletion of urinary mutagenic activity in urine extracts among the exposed nursing personnel. Conclusion: We conclude that mild effects of Vitamin E against poor safety and significant adverse events among nurses handling cytotoxic drugs. There is, therefore, a need to improve the safety of the work environment, make available protective equipment, develop standard practice guidelines for oncology nurses and higher therapeutic doses of Vitamin E may be a promising compound for reducing mutagenic effects of anti-neoplastic drugs among oncology hospital nurses. PMID:24551674

  7. Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2014 workforce census

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Philip L.; James, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This paper reports the key findings of the Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2014 workforce census and compares the results with earlier surveys. Methods The census was conducted in mid‐2014 with distribution to all radiation oncologists, educational affiliates and trainees listed on the college database. There were six email reminders and responses were anonymous. The overall response rate was 76.1%. Results The age range of fellows was 32–96 (mean = 49 years, median = 47 years). The majority of the radiation oncologists were male (n = 263, 63%). The minority of radiation oncologists were of Asian descent (n = 43, 13.4%). Radiation oncologists graduated from medical school on average 23 years ago (median = 22 years). A minority of fellows (n = 66, 20%) held another postgraduate qualification. Most radiation oncologists worked, on average, at two practices (median = 2, range 1–7). Practising radiation oncologists worked predominantly in the public sector (n = 131, 49%), but many worked in both the public and private sectors (n = 94, 37%), and a minority worked in the private sector only (n = 38, 14%). The largest proportion of the workforce was from New South Wales accounting for 29% of radiation oncologists. Radiation oncologists worked an average of 43 h/week (median = 43 h, range 6–80). Radiation oncologists who worked in the private sector worked less hours than their public sector or public/private sector colleagues. (38.3 vs. 42.9 vs. 44.3 h, P = 0.042). Victorians worked the fewest average hours per week at 38 h and West Australians the most at 46 h/week. Radiation oncologists averaged 48 min for each new case, 17 min per follow up and 11 min for a treatment review. Radiation oncologists averaged 246 new patients per year (median = 250, range = 20–600) with men (average = 268), Western Australians (average = 354) and those in private practice seeing

  8. 2016 AAHA Oncology Guidelines for Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Biller, Barb; Berg, John; Garrett, Laura; Ruslander, David; Wearing, Richard; Abbott, Bonnie; Patel, Mithun; Smith, Diana; Bryan, Christine

    2016-01-01

    All companion animal practices will be presented with oncology cases on a regular basis, making diagnosis and treatment of cancer an essential part of comprehensive primary care. Because each oncology case is medically unique, these guidelines recommend a patient-specific approach consisting of the following components: diagnosis, staging, therapeutic intervention, provisions for patient and personnel safety in handling chemotherapy agents, referral to an oncology specialty practice when appropriate, and a strong emphasis on client support. Determination of tumor type by histologic examination of a biopsy sample should be the basis for all subsequent steps in oncology case management. Diagnostic staging determines the extent of local disease and presence or absence of regional or distant metastasis. The choice of therapeutic modalities is based on tumor type, histologic grade, and stage, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and adjunctive therapies, such as nutritional support and pain management. These guidelines discuss the strict safety precautions that should be observed in handling chemotherapy agents, which are now commonly used in veterinary oncology. Because cancer is often a disease of older pets, the time of life when the pet-owner relationship is usually strongest, a satisfying outcome for all parties involved is highly dependent on good communication between the entire healthcare team and the client, particularly when death or euthanasia of the patient is being considered. These guidelines include comprehensive tables of common canine and feline cancers as a resource for case management and a sample case history. PMID:27259020

  9. [WINHO quality indicators for outpatient oncology care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hermes-Moll, Kerstin; Klein, Gudrun; Buschmann-Maiworm, Regina E; Baumann, Walter; Otremba, Burkhard; Lebahn, Herbert; Steinmetz, H Tilmann; Geraedts, Max; Kleeberg, Ulrich R; Schmitz, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the WINHO indicators project is to describe and enhance the quality of outpatient oncology care in Germany with indicators. This paper deals with the development of a set of evidence- and consensus-based meaningful indicators to assess the quality of outpatient oncology care in Germany. These indicators are intended to be applied in assessments of quality of patient care in oncology practices, in quality reports and in peer-to-peer benchmarking. A set of 272 already existing indicators was identified through internet and literature searches. After redundancy reduction and addition of newly developed indicators for areas of ambulatory oncology care that were not yet covered, a preliminary set of 67 indicators was established. The further development of the indicator set was based on a modified version of the two-step RAND/UCLA expert evaluation method, which has been internationally established for developing quality indicator sets. The indicators were modified after the first round of ratings. After completing and assessing the second round of ratings, a set of 46 homogeneously positively rated quality indicators is now available for outpatient oncology care in Germany.

  10. 1986 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Survey.

    PubMed

    Meredith, R F; Eisert, D R

    1987-12-01

    Two simultaneous surveys were conducted by the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO). A survey of all residents in Radiation Oncology was conducted to obtain information on trends in residency training. A simultaneous survey of Chief Residents was obtained to determine more specific information on current training programs. Over one-half of residents responded. Eighty-eight percent of respondents were graduates of a North American medical school. Most did at least an internship prior to entering Radiation Oncology and 3/4 of those who did not do a separate internship rotated through other areas at a later time to broaden their knowledge. One-half are Board certified or Board eligible in another specialty or hold a Masters or Ph.D. degree. Three-quarters of all residents had authorship of at least one paper during training and one-half were primary authors. Eighty percent felt adequately prepared for practice after residency. One-half plan at least an initial post-residency affiliation with an academic center. Many were concerned that Radiation Oncologists are not afforded respect equivalent to that of other specialties. Ninety-eight percent favored departmental status for Radiation Oncology. Resident recommendations for improving the image of Radiation Oncology are presented.

  11. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  12. Michigan Oncology Medical Home Demonstration Project: first-year results.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Gordon; Tozer, Jane M; Snegosky, Jeff; Fox, John; Neumann, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    Launched in May 2012, the Michigan Oncology Medical Home Demonstration Project is an innovative multipractice oncology medical home model supported by payment reform. In the first year of the project, four oncology practices (29 physicians) participated and enrolled 85 patients receiving chemotherapy for a cancer diagnosis (96 new chemotherapy starts). By creating an oncology medical home for patients, the project reduced costs associated with unnecessary emergency room visits and inpatient admissions, with an average estimated cost savings of $550 per patient, while also enhancing payments to providers. The total estimated cost savings for year 1 was $46,228. In addition to the financial savings realized through reductions in emergency room visits and hospitalizations, the program also demonstrated that participating practices had high adherence to national and practice-selected guidelines, instituted advance care planning, and provided effective and standardized symptom management. The results are promising and provide evidence that community oncology practices will embrace the transformation to a patient-centered model with properly aligned incentives and administrative assistance.

  13. [Therapeutic advances of nuclear medicine in oncology].

    PubMed

    Valdés Olmos, R A; Hoefnagel, C A; Bais, E; Boot, H; Taal, B; de Kraker, J; Vote, P A

    2001-12-01

    III studies as well as the planning of multicenter trials following the guidelines and criteria of clinical oncology will determine the future advances in this field.

  14. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Aneja, Sanjay; Smith, Benjamin D.; Gross, Cary P.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Roberts, Kenneth; Yu, James B.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  15. PET/CT in radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Tinsu; Mawlawi, Osama

    2008-11-15

    PET/CT is an effective tool for the diagnosis, staging and restaging of cancer patients. It combines the complementary information of functional PET images and anatomical CT images in one imaging session. Conventional stand-alone PET has been replaced by PET/CT for improved patient comfort, patient throughput, and most importantly the proven clinical outcome of PET/CT over that of PET and that of separate PET and CT. There are over two thousand PET/CT scanners installed worldwide since 2001. Oncology is the main application for PET/CT. Fluorine-18 deoxyglucose is the choice of radiopharmaceutical in PET for imaging the glucose uptake in tissues, correlated with an increased rate of glycolysis in many tumor cells. New molecular targeted agents are being developed to improve the accuracy of targeting different disease states and assessing therapeutic response. Over 50% of cancer patients receive radiation therapy (RT) in the course of their disease treatment. Clinical data have demonstrated that the information provided by PET/CT often changes patient management of the patient and/or modifies the RT plan from conventional CT simulation. The application of PET/CT in RT is growing and will become increasingly important. Continuing improvement of PET/CT instrumentation will also make it easier for radiation oncologists to integrate PET/CT in RT. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the current PET/CT technology, to project the future development of PET and CT for PET/CT, and to discuss some issues in adopting PET/CT in RT and potential improvements in PET/CT simulation of the thorax in radiation therapy.

  16. Sport and oxidative stress in oncological patients.

    PubMed

    Knop, K; Schwan, R; Bongartz, M; Bloch, W; Brixius, K; Baumann, F

    2011-12-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to be an important factor in the onset, progression and recurrence of cancer. In order to investigate how it is influenced by physical activity, we measured oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity (aoC) in 12 women with breast cancer and 6 men with prostate cancer, before and after long hiking trips. Before the hike, the men had a ROS-concentration of 1.8±0.6 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 0.7±0.6 mM Trolox-equivalent (Tro), while the women had a ROS-concentration of 3.1±0.7 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 1.2±0.2 mM Tro. After the hike, women showed no significant change in ROS and a significant increase in aoC (1.3±0.2 mM Tro), while the ROS concentration in men increased significantly (2.1±0.3 mM H2O2) and their aoC decreased (0.25±0.1 mM Tro). After a regenerative phase, the ROS concentration of the men decreased to 1.7±0.4 mM H2O2 and their aoC recovered significantly (1.2±0.4 mM Tro), while the women presented no significant change in the concentration of H2O2 but showed an ulterior increase in antioxidant capacity (2.05±0.43 mM Tro). From this data we conclude that physical training programs as for example long distance hiking trips can improve the aoC in the blood of oncological patients.

  17. Genetic Testing and Tissue Banking for Personalized Oncology: Analytical and Institutional Factors

    PubMed Central

    Miles, George; Rae, James; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Pfeifer, John

    2016-01-01

    Personalized oncology, or more aptly precision oncogenomics, refers to the identification and implementation of clinically actionable targets tailored to an individual patient’s cancer genomic information. Banking of human tissue and other biospecimens establishes a framework to extract and collect the data essential to our understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment. Cancer cooperative groups in the United States have led the way in establishing robust biospecimen collection mechanisms to facilitate translational research, and combined with technological advances in molecular testing, tissue banking has expanded from its traditional base in academic research and is assuming an increasingly pivotal role in directing the clinical care of cancer patients. Comprehensive screening of tumors by DNA sequencing and the ability to mine and interpret these large data sets from well-organized tissue banks have defined molecular subtypes of cancer. Such stratification by genomic criteria has revolutionized our perspectives on cancer diagnosis and treatment, offering insight into prognosis, progression, and susceptibility or resistance to known therapeutic agents. In turn, this has enabled clinicians to offer treatments tailored to patients that can greatly improve their chances of survival. Unique challenges and opportunities accompany the rapidly evolving interplay between tissue banking and genomic sequencing, and are the driving forces underlying the revolution in precision medicine. Molecular testing and precision medicine clinical trials are now becoming the major thrust behind the cooperative groups’ clinical research efforts. PMID:26433552

  18. Genetic Testing and Tissue Banking for Personalized Oncology: Analytical and Institutional Factors.

    PubMed

    Miles, George; Rae, James; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Pfeifer, John

    2015-10-01

    Personalized oncology, or more aptly precision oncogenomics, refers to the identification and implementation of clinically actionable targets tailored to an individual patient's cancer genomic information. Banking of human tissue and other biospecimens establishes a framework to extract and collect the data essential to our understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment. Cancer cooperative groups in the United States have led the way in establishing robust biospecimen collection mechanisms to facilitate translational research, and combined with technological advances in molecular testing, tissue banking has expanded from its traditional base in academic research and is assuming an increasingly pivotal role in directing the clinical care of cancer patients. Comprehensive screening of tumors by DNA sequencing and the ability to mine and interpret these large data sets from well-organized tissue banks have defined molecular subtypes of cancer. Such stratification by genomic criteria has revolutionized our perspectives on cancer diagnosis and treatment, offering insight into prognosis, progression, and susceptibility or resistance to known therapeutic agents. In turn, this has enabled clinicians to offer treatments tailored to patients that can greatly improve their chances of survival. Unique challenges and opportunities accompany the rapidly evolving interplay between tissue banking and genomic sequencing, and are the driving forces underlying the revolution in precision medicine. Molecular testing and precision medicine clinical trials are now becoming the major thrust behind the cooperative groups' clinical research efforts.

  19. Educational Cooperatives. PREP-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    Dr. Larry W. Hughes and Dr. C. M. Achilles of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, conducted a national survey for the Office of Education on educational cooperatives--studying and reporting on the nature and kind of cooperative endeavors, their organization, governance, financial arrangements, services, and personnel. Their study focused upon…

  20. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  1. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  2. Montana Cooperative Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    This revised handbook was developed to help teachers and administrators in Montana conduct cooperative education programs. The handbook is organized in 13 sections. In narrative style, the first 11 sections cover the following topics: introduction to cooperative education, advisory committees, related instruction, coordination of activities,…

  3. Cooperative Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Cooperative education, said to be a "sleeping giant" in vocational education, received special authorization in Public Law 90 576 and was made a priority in vocational education. This publication summarizes information to assist the states in planning development of cooperative vocational education: definitions, funding sources, program content,…

  4. Evaluating Cooperative Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvir, Howard P.

    This document defines cooperative education as any form of occupational or professional activity that required the cooperation of both school and the labor market. In some cases, this might be the school and industry or business. In this process, evaluation is defined as the improvement of learner success through measurement of program components.…

  5. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  6. The cooperative brain.

    PubMed

    Stallen, Mirre; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-06-01

    Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neuroimaging techniques with simple but realistic tasks adapted from experimental economics, this approach allows for the discrimination and modeling of processes that are important in cooperative behavior. Here, we review evidence demonstrating that many of the processes underlying cooperation overlap with rather fundamental brain mechanisms, such as, for example, those involved in reward, punishment and learning. In addition, we review how social expectations induced by an interactive context and the experience of social emotions may influence cooperation and its associated underlying neural circuitry, and we describe factors that appear important for generating cooperation, such as the provision of incentives. These findings illustrate how cognitive neuroscience can contribute to the development of more accurate, brain-based, models of cooperative decision making.

  7. The cooperative brain.

    PubMed

    Stallen, Mirre; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-06-01

    Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neuroimaging techniques with simple but realistic tasks adapted from experimental economics, this approach allows for the discrimination and modeling of processes that are important in cooperative behavior. Here, we review evidence demonstrating that many of the processes underlying cooperation overlap with rather fundamental brain mechanisms, such as, for example, those involved in reward, punishment and learning. In addition, we review how social expectations induced by an interactive context and the experience of social emotions may influence cooperation and its associated underlying neural circuitry, and we describe factors that appear important for generating cooperation, such as the provision of incentives. These findings illustrate how cognitive neuroscience can contribute to the development of more accurate, brain-based, models of cooperative decision making. PMID:23300215

  8. Managing Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Labor Committee, New York, NY.

    This manual presents concepts, tools, and techniques that are useful in the management of cooperative education programs at the state department of education, school district, and secondary school levels. Section I is a general discussion of the management role in cooperative education. In section II focus is on the nature of the internal and…

  9. Readings in Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Jerome I.

    Twenty-three journal articles on cooperative education were selected in a review of the literature by two Temple University graduate classes in the fall of 1975 and the spring of 1976 for those interested in the role of coordinating cooperative education programs. The journal readings consist of articles on theory/planning (6), implementation…

  10. Helping Children Cooperate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  11. Improving outcomes for children with cancer in low-income countries in Latin America: a report on the recent meetings of the Monza International School of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (MISPHO)-Part I.

    PubMed

    Howard, Scott C; Marinoni, Marco; Castillo, Luis; Bonilla, Miguel; Tognoni, Gianni; Luna-Fineman, Sandra; Antillon, Federico; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Pui, Ching-Hon; Ribeiro, Raul C; Sala, Alessandra; Barr, Ronald D; Masera, Giuseppe

    2007-03-01

    The difference in survival for children diagnosed with cancer between high- and low-income countries (LIC) continues to widen as curative therapies are developed in the former but not implemented in the latter. In 1996, the Monza International School of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (MISPHO) was founded in an attempt to narrow this survival gap. During its sixth and seventh meetings, members recognized the problem of lack of affordability of essential drugs to treat childhood cancer in many LIC, and initiated an advocacy program. In 1998, MISPHO spawned a collaboration of Central American pediatric oncology centers: the Asociación de Hemato-Oncología Pediátrica Centroamericana (AHOPCA). AHOPCA members reported preliminary findings from several of the 10 cooperative protocols that are currently in progress. In 2003, a second regional collaborative group was formed that includes seven centers in South America. Twinning programs between MISPHO centers and centers in high-income countries (HIC) have proven invaluable to harness the resources of these centers to improve pediatric oncology care in LIC. MISPHO educational efforts include oncology nursing, supportive care, cancer-specific updates, epidemiology, and clinical research methods. Educational efforts are facilitated by educational content and online conferencing via www.cure4kids.org. Identifying preventable causes of abandonment of therapy and documenting the nutritional status of patients treated at MISPHO centers are areas of active research. PMID:16883601

  12. Improving outcomes for children with cancer in low-income countries in Latin America: a report on the recent meetings of the Monza International School of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (MISPHO)-Part I.

    PubMed

    Howard, Scott C; Marinoni, Marco; Castillo, Luis; Bonilla, Miguel; Tognoni, Gianni; Luna-Fineman, Sandra; Antillon, Federico; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Pui, Ching-Hon; Ribeiro, Raul C; Sala, Alessandra; Barr, Ronald D; Masera, Giuseppe

    2007-03-01

    The difference in survival for children diagnosed with cancer between high- and low-income countries (LIC) continues to widen as curative therapies are developed in the former but not implemented in the latter. In 1996, the Monza International School of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (MISPHO) was founded in an attempt to narrow this survival gap. During its sixth and seventh meetings, members recognized the problem of lack of affordability of essential drugs to treat childhood cancer in many LIC, and initiated an advocacy program. In 1998, MISPHO spawned a collaboration of Central American pediatric oncology centers: the Asociación de Hemato-Oncología Pediátrica Centroamericana (AHOPCA). AHOPCA members reported preliminary findings from several of the 10 cooperative protocols that are currently in progress. In 2003, a second regional collaborative group was formed that includes seven centers in South America. Twinning programs between MISPHO centers and centers in high-income countries (HIC) have proven invaluable to harness the resources of these centers to improve pediatric oncology care in LIC. MISPHO educational efforts include oncology nursing, supportive care, cancer-specific updates, epidemiology, and clinical research methods. Educational efforts are facilitated by educational content and online conferencing via www.cure4kids.org. Identifying preventable causes of abandonment of therapy and documenting the nutritional status of patients treated at MISPHO centers are areas of active research.

  13. Culture and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

  14. Culture and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  15. Provider practice models in ambulatory oncology practice: analysis of productivity, revenue, and provider and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Buswell, Lori A; Ponte, Patricia Reid; Shulman, Lawrence N

    2009-07-01

    Physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants often work in teams to deliver cancer care in ambulatory oncology practices. This is likely to become more prevalent as the demand for oncology services rises, and the number of providers increases only slightly.

  16. Quality Oncology Practice Initiative Certification Program: measuring implementation of chemotherapy administration safety standards in the outpatient oncology setting.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Terry R; Schulmeister, Lisa; Jacobson, Joseph O

    2013-03-01

    The Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) Certification Program (QCP) evaluates individual outpatient oncology practice performance in areas that affect patient care and safety and builds on the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) QOPI by assessing the compliance of a practice with certification standards based on the ASCO/Oncology Nursing Society standards for safe chemotherapy administration. To become certified, a practice must attain a benchmark quality score on certification measures in QOPI and attest that it complies with 17 QCP standards. Structured on-site reviews, initially performed in randomly selected practices, became mandatory beginning in September 2011. Of 111 practices that have undergone on-site review, only two were fully concordant with all of the standards (median, 11; range, seven to 17). Most practices were subsequently able to modify practice to become QOPI certified. The QCP addresses the call from the Institute of Medicine to close the quality gap by aligning evidence-based guidelines and consensus-driven standards with requirements for oncology practices to develop and maintain structural safety components, such as policies and procedures that ensure practice performance. On-site practice evaluation is a high-impact component of the program.

  17. Restricted mouth opening and trismus in oral oncology.

    PubMed

    Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Jacob, Jayan

    2014-06-01

    Restricted mouth opening (RMO) and trismus are terms commonly used in oral oncology in instances where there is difficulty in mouth opening. The term trismus in oral oncology is mainly used to indicate the radiation-induced fibrosis of the muscles of mastication. The treatment given for RMO as reported in the literature is given for muscular dysfunction trismus, whereas RMO in oral oncology can occur owing to various reasons other than muscular dysfunction. RMO occurs in various conditions of the oral cavity; in posterior pharyngeal infection, where it is termed reflectory trismus; in oral submucous fibrosis; in oral mucosal disorders; in the use of certain drugs; and in minor dental procedures of the posterior oral cavity. The usage of the term trismus in all RMO cases would complicate the treatment; thus, the word should not be used in all RMO cases.

  18. Understanding and surviving the transition to value-based oncology.

    PubMed

    Cox, John V; Sprandio, John D; Barkley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This paper and the three presentations it supports are drawn from the theme of the 2012 Cancer Center Business Summit (CCBS): "Transitioning to Value-Based Oncology: Strategies to Survive and Thrive." The CCBS is a forum on oncology business innovation, and the principal question the organizers address each year is "What are the creative, innovative, and best business models and practices that are being conceived or piloted today that may provide a responsible and sustainable platform for the delivery of cancer care tomorrow?" At this moment in health care-when so much is in flux and new business models and solutions abound-the oncology sector has a solemn responsibility: to forge the business models and relationships that will help to define a new cancer care value proposition and a sustainable health care system of tomorrow for the benefit of the patients it serves to get it "right."

  19. Understanding and surviving the transition to value-based oncology.

    PubMed

    Cox, John V; Sprandio, John D; Barkley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This paper and the three presentations it supports are drawn from the theme of the 2012 Cancer Center Business Summit (CCBS): "Transitioning to Value-Based Oncology: Strategies to Survive and Thrive." The CCBS is a forum on oncology business innovation, and the principal question the organizers address each year is "What are the creative, innovative, and best business models and practices that are being conceived or piloted today that may provide a responsible and sustainable platform for the delivery of cancer care tomorrow?" At this moment in health care-when so much is in flux and new business models and solutions abound-the oncology sector has a solemn responsibility: to forge the business models and relationships that will help to define a new cancer care value proposition and a sustainable health care system of tomorrow for the benefit of the patients it serves to get it "right." PMID:23714548

  20. Audit of pediatric hematology-oncology outpatients in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Menon, Bina Sharine; Juraida, Eni; Ibrahim, Hishamshah; Mohamed, Mahfuzah; Ho, Caroline; Khuzaiah, Raja

    2008-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the types of cancers and hematological disorders in patients attending a pediatric hematology-oncology clinic. This was a prospective study at the Pediatric Institute, General Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from June 2005-November 2006. During the 18-month study, 803 patients attended the clinic, 730 had oncological problems and 73 had hematological problems. The age range was from 2 months to 28 years (median 6 years). The patients were Malay (66%), Chinese (23%), Indian (10%) and other races (1%). Of the oncological patients, 51% had either leukemia (n=293) or lymphoma (n=77). The other most common diagnoses were retinoblastoma, followed by Wilm's tumor and germ cell tumors. Six patients (0.8%) developed a second malignant neoplasm. Of the hematological patients, 60% had platelet disorders, most commonly chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Twenty-four per cent had bone marrow failure and 16% had red cell disorders.

  1. Using big data for quality assessment in oncology.

    PubMed

    Broughman, James R; Chen, Ronald C

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing attention in the US healthcare system on the delivery of high-quality care, an issue central to oncology. In the report 'Crossing the Quality Chasm', the Institute of Medicine identified six aims for improving healthcare quality: safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient and equitable. This article describes how current big data resources can be used to assess these six dimensions, and provides examples of published studies in oncology. Strengths and limitations of current big data resources for the evaluation of quality of care are also discussed. Finally, this article outlines a vision where big data can be used not only to retrospectively assess the quality of oncologic care, but help physicians deliver high-quality care in real time.

  2. Overview of Accountable Care Organizations for Oncology Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish J.; Macklis, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) are poised to become major components of health care delivery in the United States. The practice of oncology, often laden with high charges, is likely to undergo major shifts as ACOs become widespread. In this article, we review the economic factors leading to the growth of ACOs and discuss some elements of the current ACO model proposed in the Affordable Care Act. Oncology specialists—in medicine, surgery, and radiation oncology—will have important roles in determining the place of specialty care in an ACO framework and will have to take the lead in educating patients, primary care physicians, and administrators on the value propositions related to their activities. We also describe how oncology specialists may participate in the model to ensure success for physicians and patients. PMID:23942925

  3. Exploratory survey of patients' needs and perceptions of psychosocial oncology.

    PubMed

    Preyde, Michele; Macdonald, Janice; Seegmiller, Merle

    2014-03-01

    Cancer is a major disease that affects a significant proportion of the population worldwide. With a decrease in mortality due to advancements in oncology treatment, there is an expanding role for psychosocial oncology. A satellite clinic for medical treatment (only chemotherapy) of cancer is available at the Guelph General Hospital (GGH). Patients accessing the chemotherapy clinic at GGH have minimal access to psychosocial or supportive care and it is not known if the existing services are addressing the psychosocial symptoms of cancer patients. Participants were asked to complete an anonymous survey which included self-report measures of depression, symptom severity, quality of life, and social support while receiving treatment at this facility. There was a great deal of variability in the patients' emotional symptoms at this satellite clinic, though many patients reported emotional difficulties. Greater social work presence may lead to better identification of patients who would benefit from psychosocial oncology services. PMID:24193219

  4. [Strategies for improving care of oncologic patients: SHARE Project results].

    PubMed

    Reñones Crego, María de la Concepción; Fernández Pérez, Dolores; Vena Fernández, Carmen; Zamudio Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment is a major burden for the patient and its family that requires an individualized management by healthcare professionals. Nurses are in charge of coordinating care and are the closest healthcare professionals to patient and family; however, in Spain, there are not standard protocols yet for the management of oncology patients. The Spanish Oncology Nursing Society developed between 2012 and 2014 the SHARE project, with the aim of establishing strategies to improve quality of life and nursing care in oncology patients. It was developed in 3 phases. First, a literature search and review was performed to identify nursing strategies, interventions and tools to improve cancer patients' care. At the second stage, these interventions were agreed within a group of oncology nursing experts; and at the third phase, a different group of experts in oncology care categorized the interventions to identify the ones with highest priority and most feasible to be implemented. As a result, 3 strategic actions were identified to improve nursing care during cancer treatment: To provide a named nurse to carry out the follow up process by attending to the clinic or telephonic consultation, develop therapeutic education with adapted protocols for each tumor type and treatment and ensure specific training for nurses on the management of the cancer patients. Strategic actions proposed in this paper aim to improve cancer patients' healthcare and quality of life through the development of advanced nursing roles based on a higher level of autonomy, situating nurses as care coordinators to assure an holistic care in oncology patients. PMID:27237729

  5. Community oncology in an era of payment reform.

    PubMed

    Cox, John V; Ward, Jeffery C; Hornberger, John C; Temel, Jennifer S; McAneny, Barbara L

    2014-01-01

    Patients and payers (government and private) are frustrated with the fee-for-service system (FFS) of payment for outpatient health services. FFS rewards volume and highly valued services, including expensive diagnostics and therapeutics, over lesser valued cognitive services. Proposed payment schemes would incent collaboration and coordination of care among providers and reward quality. In oncology, new payment schemes must address the high costs of all services, particularly drugs, while preserving the robust distribution of sites of service available to patients in the United States. Information technology and personalized cancer care are changing the practice of oncology. Twenty-first century oncology will require increasing cognitive work and shared decision making, both of which are not well regarded in the FFS model. A high proportion of health care dollars are consumed in the final months of life. Effective delivery of palliative and end-of-life care must be addressed by practice and by new models of payment. Value-based reimbursement schemes will require oncology practices to change how they are structured. Lessons drawn from the principles of primary care's Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) will help oncology practice to prepare for new schemes. PCMH principles place a premium on proactively addressing toxicities of therapies, coordinating care with other providers, and engaging patients in shared decision making, supporting the ideal of value defined in the triple aim-to measurably improve patient experience and quality of care at less cost. Payment reform will be disruptive to all. Oncology must be engaged in policy discussions and guide rational shifts in priorities defined by new payment models.

  6. Mentoring in Pediatric Oncology: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group Young Investigator Committee

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Adam S.; Pyke-Grimm, Kimberly A.; Lee, Dean A.; Palla, Shana L.; Naranjo, Arlene; Sholler, Giselle Saulnier; Gratias, Eric; Maloney, Kelly; Parshankar, Farzana; Lee-Scott, Michelle; Beierle, Elizabeth A.; Gow, Kenneth; Kim, Grace E.; Hunger, Stephen; Smith, Franklin O.; Horton, Terzah M.

    2013-01-01

    A formal Mentorship Program within the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) was established to pair young investigators (mentees) with established COG members (mentors). Despite the AAP policy statement promoting mentorship programs, there are no publications describing and evaluating national mentorship programs in pediatric subspecialties. In this study, a series of internal program evaluations were performed using surveys of both mentors and mentees. Responses were de-identified and analyzed to determine the utility of the program by both participant satisfaction and self-reported academic productivity. Results indicated that mentees were generally satisfied with the program. Mentor-mentee pairs that met at least quarterly demonstrated greater academic productivity than pairings that met less frequently. This formal mentorship program appeared to have subjective and objective utility for the development of academic pediatric subspecialists. PMID:23892351

  7. Mentoring in pediatric oncology: a report from the Children's Oncology Group Young Investigator Committee.

    PubMed

    Levy, Adam S; Pyke-Grimm, Kimberly A; Lee, Dean A; Palla, Shana L; Naranjo, Arlene; Saulnier Sholler, Giselle; Gratias, Eric; Maloney, Kelly; Parshankar, Farzana; Lee-Scott, Michelle; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Gow, Kenneth; Kim, Grace E; Hunger, Stephen; Smith, Frank O; Horton, Terzah M

    2013-08-01

    A formal Mentorship Program within the Children's Oncology Group (COG) was established to pair young investigators (mentees) with established COG members (mentors). Despite the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement promoting mentorship programs, there are no publications describing and evaluating national mentorship programs in pediatric subspecialties. In this study, a series of internal program evaluations were performed using surveys of both mentors and mentees. Responses were deidentified and analyzed to determine the utility of the program by both participant satisfaction and self-reported academic productivity. Results indicated that mentees were generally satisfied with the program. Mentor-mentee pairs that met at least quarterly demonstrated greater academic productivity than pairings that met less frequently. This formal mentorship program appeared to have subjective and objective utility for the development of academic pediatric subspecialists. PMID:23892351

  8. Mentoring in pediatric oncology: a report from the Children's Oncology Group Young Investigator Committee.

    PubMed

    Levy, Adam S; Pyke-Grimm, Kimberly A; Lee, Dean A; Palla, Shana L; Naranjo, Arlene; Saulnier Sholler, Giselle; Gratias, Eric; Maloney, Kelly; Parshankar, Farzana; Lee-Scott, Michelle; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Gow, Kenneth; Kim, Grace E; Hunger, Stephen; Smith, Frank O; Horton, Terzah M

    2013-08-01

    A formal Mentorship Program within the Children's Oncology Group (COG) was established to pair young investigators (mentees) with established COG members (mentors). Despite the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement promoting mentorship programs, there are no publications describing and evaluating national mentorship programs in pediatric subspecialties. In this study, a series of internal program evaluations were performed using surveys of both mentors and mentees. Responses were deidentified and analyzed to determine the utility of the program by both participant satisfaction and self-reported academic productivity. Results indicated that mentees were generally satisfied with the program. Mentor-mentee pairs that met at least quarterly demonstrated greater academic productivity than pairings that met less frequently. This formal mentorship program appeared to have subjective and objective utility for the development of academic pediatric subspecialists.

  9. Medical Student Knowledge of Oncology and Related Disciplines: a Targeted Needs Assessment.

    PubMed

    Oskvarek, Jonathan; Braunstein, Steve; Farnan, Jeanne; Ferguson, Mark K; Hahn, Olwen; Henderson, Tara; Hong, Susan; Levine, Stacie; Rosenberg, Carol A; Golden, Daniel W

    2016-09-01

    Despite increasing numbers of cancer survivors, non-oncology physicians report discomfort and little training regarding oncologic and survivorship care. This pilot study assesses medical student comfort with medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology, hospice/palliative medicine, and survivorship care. A survey was developed with input from specialists in various fields of oncologic care at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. The survey included respondent demographics, reports of experience with oncology, comfort ratings with oncologic care, and five clinical vignettes. Responses were yes/no, multiple choice, Likert scale, or free response. The survey was distributed via email to medical students (MS1-4) at two US medical schools. The 105 respondents were 34 MS1s (32 %), 15 MS2s and MD/PhDs (14 %), 26 MS3s (25 %), and 30 MS4s (29 %). Medical oncology, surgical oncology, and hospice/palliative medicine demonstrated a significant trend for increased comfort from MS1 to MS4, but radiation oncology and survivorship care did not. MS3s and MS4s reported the least experience with survivorship care and radiation oncology. In the clinical vignettes, students performed the worst on the long-term chemotherapy toxicity and hospice/palliative medicine questions. Medical students report learning about components of oncologic care, but lack overall comfort with oncologic care. Medical students also fail to develop an increased self-assessed level of comfort with radiation oncology and survivorship care. These pilot results support development of a formalized multidisciplinary medical school oncology curriculum at these two institutions. An expanded national survey is being developed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  10. The role of thoracoscopic surgery in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Malkan, Alpin D; Loh, Amos H P; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Sandoval, John A

    2014-11-01

    The application of thoracoscopic surgical techniques to pediatric solid tumors represents an important adjunctive tool for the surgical management of childhood cancer. Nearly four decades has passed since the introduction of minimally invasive chest surgery in children, and although the adoption of minimally invasive surgery in general pediatric surgical practice is better recognized, its role in pediatric oncology is still considered a developing field. As no consensus exists regarding the use of thoracoscopy for pediatric thoracic solid tumors, the purpose of this article is to review the current literature surrounding the use of thoracoscopic interventions in pediatric oncology and examine established indications, procedures, and technologic advances.

  11. Appropriateness criteria of FDG PET/CT in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Archi; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    18Fluorine-2-fluoro-2-Deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) is a well-established functional imaging method widely used in oncology. In this article, we have incorporated the various indications for 18FDG PET/CT in oncology based on available evidence and current guidelines. Growing body of evidence for use of 18FDG PET/CT in select tumors is also discussed. This article attempts to give the reader an overview of the appropriateness of using 18F-FDG PET/CT in various malignancies. PMID:25969632

  12. Implementing effective and sustainable multidisciplinary clinical thoracic oncology programs.

    PubMed

    Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Freeman, Richard K; Krasna, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Three models of care are described, including two models of multidisciplinary care for thoracic malignancies. The pros and cons of each model are discussed, the evidence supporting each is reviewed, and the need for more (and better) research into care delivery models is highlighted. Key stakeholders in thoracic oncology care delivery outcomes are identified, and the need to consider stakeholder perspectives in designing, validating and implementing multidisciplinary programs as a vehicle for quality improvement in thoracic oncology is emphasized. The importance of reconciling stakeholder perspectives, and identify meaningful stakeholder-relevant benchmarks is also emphasized. Metrics for measuring program implementation and overall success are proposed. PMID:26380186

  13. Communication Skills Training in Pediatric Oncology: Moving Beyond Role Modeling.

    PubMed

    Feraco, Angela M; Brand, Sarah R; Mack, Jennifer W; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Block, Susan D; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology.

  14. Oncological Safety of Breast Conservation Surgery in Young Females.

    PubMed

    Muralee, Madhu; Mathew, Arun Peter; Cherian, Kurian; Chandramohan, K; Augustine, Paul; Prabhakar, Jem; Ahamed, Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Breast conservation surgery (BCS) is the standard of care in early breast cancer. The oncological safety of this procedure has been proven beyond doubt in several randomised control trials. But there are concerns regarding the safety of this procedure in young females. The concern is regarding increased risk of local recurrence. This issue has not been addressed in any major trial. In this prospective study we intend to look into the oncological safety of BCS in young patients who are less than forty years of age. PMID:27651695

  15. Periodontium destruction associated with oncology therapy. Five case reports

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.E.

    1987-08-01

    Radiation treatment to the head and neck and cytotoxic chemotherapy can produce deleterious side effects to the periodontium that are generally transient in nature, reversible, and do not result in permanently visible defects. However, combinations of the malignant disease itself, the direct and indirect effects of medical therapy and associated oral infections, along with local trauma can lead to periodontal tissue destruction with resulting permanent architectural defects. Five case reports illustrate destructive alterations of the periodontium that were associated with oncology therapy. Proposed guidelines for periodontal treatment of compromised individuals undergoing oncology therapies are suggested.

  16. Evidence-based integrative medicine in clinical veterinary oncology.

    PubMed

    Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology.

  17. Implementing effective and sustainable multidisciplinary clinical thoracic oncology programs

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Richard K.; Krasna, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Three models of care are described, including two models of multidisciplinary care for thoracic malignancies. The pros and cons of each model are discussed, the evidence supporting each is reviewed, and the need for more (and better) research into care delivery models is highlighted. Key stakeholders in thoracic oncology care delivery outcomes are identified, and the need to consider stakeholder perspectives in designing, validating and implementing multidisciplinary programs as a vehicle for quality improvement in thoracic oncology is emphasized. The importance of reconciling stakeholder perspectives, and identify meaningful stakeholder-relevant benchmarks is also emphasized. Metrics for measuring program implementation and overall success are proposed. PMID:26380186

  18. Communication, Documentation, and Training Standards in Pediatric Psychosocial Oncology.

    PubMed

    Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Pelletier, Wendy; Bingen, Kristin

    2015-12-01

    As part of a larger effort to create standards for psychosocial care of children with cancer, we document consensus and evidence-based data on interprofessional communication, documentation, and training for professionals providing psycho-oncology services. Six databases were searched. Sixty-five articles and six guidelines and consensus-based documents were identified; 35 met inclusion criteria. Data support strong recommendations for standards of care in communication/collaboration, documentation of patient information, and training in pediatric psycho-oncology. These are areas where extensive research is unlikely to be conducted; however, professional expectations and qualifications may be further clarified and strengthened with time.

  19. Current Status of Hybrid PET/MRI in Oncologic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Friedman, Kent; Chandarana, Hersh; Melsaether, Amy; Moy, Linda; Ding, Yu-Shin; Jhaveri, Komal; Beltran, Luis; Jain, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This review article explores recent advancements in PET/MRI for clinical oncologic imaging. CONCLUSION Radiologists should understand the technical considerations that have made PET/MRI feasible within clinical workflows, the role of PET tracers for imaging various molecular targets in oncology, and advantages of hybrid PET/MRI compared with PET/CT. To facilitate this understanding, we discuss clinical examples (including gliomas, breast cancer, bone metastases, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, gynecologic malignancy, and lymphoma) as well as future directions, challenges, and areas for continued technical optimization for PET/MRI. PMID:26491894

  20. Metals as radio-enhancers in oncology: The industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Pottier, Agnés; Borghi, Elsa; Levy, Laurent

    2015-12-18

    Radio-enhancers, metal-based nanosized agents, could play a key role in oncology. They may unlock the potential of radiotherapy by enhancing the radiation dose deposit within tumors when the ionizing radiation source is 'on', while exhibiting chemically inert behavior in cellular and subcellular systems when the radiation beam is 'off'. Important decision points support the development of these new type of therapeutic agents originated from nanotechnology. Here, we discuss from an industry perspective, the interest of developing radio-enhancer agents to improve tumor control, the relevance of nanotechnology to achieve adequate therapeutic attributes, and present some considerations for their development in oncology. PMID:26362175

  1. Postoperative adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Oncology Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Postoperative chemotherapy; Postoperative radiotherapy; Postoperative hormone therapy; Postoperative immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy; Postoperative multimodal therapy; Prognostic factors in postoperative adjuvant therapy.

  2. The role of inhibitory control in children's cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task.

    PubMed

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Burk, William J; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the role of inhibitory control (measured by Stroop interference) in children's cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task. The sample consisted of 250 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (117 girls and 133 boys) attending classrooms in three primary schools in Northern Italy. Children individually completed an elaborated Stroop task, were paired with classmates into 125 dyads, and were observed during a 10-min puzzle task. Results confirmed that interaction partners exhibited similar levels of cooperative behaviors, and the cooperative behaviors of children predicted changes in the cooperative behaviors of their partners throughout the puzzle task. Cooperative behaviors of each interaction partner were predicted by the child's own inhibitory control as well as the inhibitory control of the partner. Findings are discussed within a developmental contextual framework. PMID:21645907

  3. Oncological and functional outcome of periosteal osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Gulia, Ashish; Puri, Ajay; Pruthi, Manish; Desai, Saral

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periosteal osteosarcoma is an uncommon variant of osteosarcoma which constitutes less than 2% of all osteosarcomas. Whereas adequate surgical excision remains the cornerstone of treatment, the role of chemotherapy in this tumor is still unclear. Existing literature contains very few single center studies on the outcomes for periosteal osteosarcomas and any additional information will help in better understanding of these uncommon lesions. This study aims to evaluate the oncologic and functional outcomes of treatment of periosteal osteosarcoma treated at our institute. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 18 cases of periosteal osteosarcoma treated between January 2001 and December 2010 was carried out. There were 12 males and 6 females. The mean age at presentation was 16.3 years (range 5-26 years). Tibia and femur were the most common sites (n = 8). 16 of 18 patients received chemotherapy, 16 had limb sparing resection, one had an amputation and one had rotationplasty. Of the 16 patients with limb salvage, conventional wide excision was done in 11 cases. In 5 cases tumor was excised with hemicortical excision. Of the 11 cases treated with wide excisions, 4 patients underwent an osteoarticular resection and in 7 patients a joint preserving segmental intercalary resection was done. Results: All patients were available for followup. Surgical margins were free in all patients. A good response to chemotherapy was seen in 4/11 cases and poor in 6/11 cases. In one case the histological response was not discernible due to predominant chondromyxoid nature of the tumor. The median followup was 61 months (range: 18-130 months). There were two local recurrences (11%) at 9 and 18 months postsurgery. Pulmonary metastasis subsequently occurred in 4 cases (22%). Fourteen patients are currently alive and continuously disease free. Disease free survival at 5 years was 77.8% and overall survival (OVS) was 83.3%. Patients without marrow involvement had a

  4. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  5. Clinical oncology and palliative medicine as a combined specialty--a unique model in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Rebecca; Wong, Kam-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Keung; Wong, Ka-Yan; Yau, Yvonne; Lo, Sing-Hung; Liu, Rico

    2015-07-01

    The importance of early integration of palliative care (PC) into oncology treatment is increasingly being recognized. However, there is no consensus on what is the optimal way of integration. This article describes a unique model in Hong Kong where clinical oncology and palliative medicine (PM) is integrated through the development of PM as a subspecialty under clinical oncology.

  6. Improvement of Oncology Education at the University of Washington School of Medicine, 1984-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleyer, W. Archie; And Others

    1990-01-01

    After development and implementation of a revised oncology curriculum at the University of Washington School of Medicine student performance on oncology related questions on the National Board of Medical Examiners examination indicated substantial improvement relative to student performance in non-oncology areas and to the national average. (DB)

  7. Persistent cooperators in nature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinsheng; Guo, Wanlin

    2010-12-21

    The evolution and maintenance of cooperation fascinated researchers for several decades. Recently, theoretical models and experimental evidence show that costly punishment may facilitate cooperation in human societies. The puzzle how the costly punishment behaviour evolves can be solved under voluntary participation. Could the punishers emerge if participation is compulsory? Is the punishment inevitably a selfish behaviour or an altruistic behaviour? The motivations behind punishment are still an enigma. Based on public goods interactions, we present a model in which just a certain portion of the public good is divided equally among all members. The other portion is distributed to contributors when paying a second cost. The contributors who are willing to pay a second cost are called the persistent cooperators (PC), indicating their desire to retrieve the proportion of the payoff derived from their own contributions with persistent efforts. We show that the persistent cooperators can be costly punishers, which may account for the origin of human costly punishment behaviour under compulsory participation. In this sense our models may show theoretically that the original motivation behind punishment is to retrieve deserved payoff from their own contributions, a selfish incentive. But the persistent cooperators can also flourish or dominate the population in other situations. We list many real examples in which contributors are the persistent cooperators, and they benefit. This indicates a simple norm promoting cooperation: contributing more and gaining more.

  8. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  9. Ethical issues of clinical trials in paediatric oncology from 2003 to 2013: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Jean-Claude K; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Doz, François

    2016-05-01

    A state-of-the art approach to the debates on ethical issues is key in order to gain guidance on research practices involving sick children and adolescents, as well as to identify research avenues in which it might be worth cooperating, to generate better or supplementary evidence. Based on a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, we report the main ethical developments in paediatric oncology clinical trials from 2003-13. The present knowledge about normative and empirical ethical demands in this setting is quantified and summarised in a list of 46 issues. This list primarily aims to provide readers with a comprehensive account of the main decision nodes and professional attitudes that enable families to make a safe, competent, and satisfactory decision about their child's enrolment, or non-participation, in cancer clinical trials. Our systematic Review shows how important it is for professionals to engage in a constant reflection on optimum trial designs, on the effect of offering trial participation on key family dynamics, and on the ways to understand families' needs and values accurately. In view of present scientific developments, we further emphasise the need to enhance societal awareness about research in children and adolescents, to prevent so-called research fatigue in small populations due to multiple solicitations or inadequate legal demands, and to reassess longstanding ethical certainties in the strictest view of promoting sick children's interests. This systematic Review allows a series of questions to be drawn to guide and encourage collective and individual endeavours that should lead to constant improvements in our research practices in paediatric clinical oncology research. PMID:27301046

  10. Comparison of Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) Measure Adherence Between Oncology Fellows, Advanced Practice Providers, and Attending Physicians.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jason; Zhang, Tian; Shah, Radhika; Kamal, Arif H; Kelley, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Quality improvement measures are uniformly applied to all oncology providers, regardless of their roles. Little is known about differences in adherence to these measures between oncology fellows, advance practice providers (APP), and attending physicians. We investigated conformance across Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) measures for oncology fellows, advance practice providers, and attending physicians at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC). Using data collected from the Spring 2012 and 2013 QOPI cycles, we abstracted charts of patients and separated them based on their primary provider. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were calculated for each QOPI measure between fellows, advanced practice providers (APPs), and attending physicians. A total of 169 patients were reviewed. Of these, 31 patients had a fellow, 39 had an APP, and 99 had an attending as their primary oncology provider. Fellows and attending physicians performed similarly on 90 of 94 QOPI metrics. High-performing metrics included several core QOPI measures including documenting consent for chemotherapy, recommending adjuvant chemotherapy when appropriate, and prescribing serotonin antagonists when prescribing emetogenic chemotherapies. Low-performing metrics included documentation of treatment summary and taking action to address problems with emotional well-being by the second office visit. Attendings documented the plan for oral chemotherapy more often (92 vs. 63%, P=0.049). However, after the chart audit, we found that fellows actually documented the plan for oral chemotherapy 88% of the time (p=0.73). APPs and attendings performed similarly on 88 of 90 QOPI measures. The quality of oncology care tends to be similar between attendings and fellows overall; some of the significant differences do not remain significant after a second manual chart review, highlighting that the use of manual data collection for QOPI analysis is an imperfect system, and there may

  11. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  12. [Rosenfeld in Italy (1978 to 1985)].

    PubMed

    de Masi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I try to throw some light on Rosenfeld's thought and his way of working when he came to Italy. I would like to show, in a sketchy way, the evolution of his thought and in particular the new way he looked at clinical practice at that time. My point is that the Rosenfeld we met in Italy was able to open new horizons in clinical practice, implicitly questioning some of his own or his circle's previous viewpoints. PMID:26595987

  13. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  14. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)

  15. Cooperative processing data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  16. Cooperative Education: Industry Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Geoffrey; McClelland, Alan L.

    1980-01-01

    Contains information from three large chemical companies having a long-standing interest in cooperative education with chemistry students. Questions and answers are provided for specific information regarding DuPont, 3M, and Dow Chemical. (CS)

  17. How Myxobacteria Cooperate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengbo; Dey, Arup; Vassallo, Christopher N; Wall, Daniel

    2015-11-20

    Prokaryotes often reside in groups where a high degree of relatedness has allowed the evolution of cooperative behaviors. However, very few bacteria or archaea have made the successful transition from unicellular to obligate multicellular life. A notable exception is the myxobacteria, in which cells cooperate to perform group functions highlighted by fruiting body development, an obligate multicellular function. Like all multicellular organisms, myxobacteria face challenges in how to organize and maintain multicellularity. These challenges include maintaining population homeostasis, carrying out tissue repair and regulating the behavior of non-cooperators. Here, we describe the major cooperative behaviors that myxobacteria use: motility, predation and development. In addition, this review emphasizes recent discoveries in the social behavior of outer membrane exchange, wherein kin share outer membrane contents. Finally, we review evidence that outer membrane exchange may be involved in regulating population homeostasis, thus serving as a social tool for myxobacteria to make the cyclic transitions from unicellular to multicellular states. PMID:26254571

  18. Cooperative Education Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Asa S.

    1978-01-01

    Although cooperative education may be uniquely American, other nations place great importance on relating work and education. Types of programs, calendars and schedules are reviewed, and global patterns are described. (Author/LBH)

  19. Cooperative Learning in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

  20. In Brief: European cooperation in polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    A new European Polar Framework agreement aims to increase research cooperation, streamline links between many European national research programs in the Arctic and Antarctic, and possibly create international research teams similar to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The new framework includes commitments to collaborate on new multinational research initiatives and to have national polar programs converge where appropriate. “Recent environmental shifts in the poles have been large and rapid. By linking together Europe's polar research more closely we can get a better grasp on the wide-ranging series of changes taking place,” said Paul Egerton, executive director of the European Science Foundation's European Polar Board, which aims to facilitate cooperation among various organizations. The agreement was signed on 24 June by 26 European scientific institutions, including the British Antarctic Survey; the Agency of Culture, Education, Research and the Church Affairs, Greenland; the Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Germany; Italy's Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide; Norway's Norsk Polarinstitutt; and the Romanian Antarctic Foundation.

  1. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  2. Bluetongue in Italy: Part II.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, A; Calistri, P; Nannini, D; Paladini, C; Santucci, U; Patta, C; Caporale, V

    2004-01-01

    In summer 2000, bluetongue (BT) infection was reported in Italy and caused a widespread epidemic involving a total of ten southern and central regions and is still in progress after three years. From the date of the first case (18 August 2000) to 14 May 2001, when the lowpoint in the first epidemic curve was reached, a total of 310,234 animals in 6,869 flocks of three regions had been involved. From 15 May 2001 to 14 April 2002, when a second epidemic wave swept through central and southern Italy, a total of 323,635 animals in 6,807 flocks in seven regions were involved. During 2000 and 2001 virtually no susceptible ruminants were vaccinated. On 11 May 2001, the Italian Ministry of Health ordered the vaccination of all susceptible domestic ruminant species (i.e. sheep, goats, cattle and water buffalo) in the infected and surrounding areas. The vaccination strategy stemmed from a risk assessment that demonstrated the possibility of such a strategy preventing most of the direct economic losses and decreasing the level of virus circulation. Vaccination of the target populations commenced in January 2002. In July 2002, when the new epidemic peak was reached, the percentage of vaccinated populations varied between the regions with direct consequences on the spread of BT. The relationship between vaccination coverage of the target populations and animal losses due to disease and virus circulation, and as detected by the sentinel surveillance system, was analysed. The effectiveness of the vaccination campaign in limiting virus circulation and consequently indirect losses due to animal movement restrictions was analysed and evaluated. At the end of 2002, a second risk assessment led to the authorization of the movement of vaccinated animals from infected areas (where at least 80% of the susceptible population was vaccinated) directly to slaughter in unvaccinated areas free from infection. This risk assessment also generated new criteria to define zones where animal

  3. The role of resilience and mindful leadership in oncology nursing.

    PubMed

    Rishel, Cindy J

    2015-03-01

    When oncology nurses think of the word resilient, they often describe the term in the context of the patients and families they care for each day. When patients face a diagnosis of cancer, their lives have suddenly been altered in a frightening manner. Everything changes, and they must find a way to navigate the troubled waters ahead. 
. PMID:25806887

  4. Spirituality as experienced by Muslim oncology nurses in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khorami Markani, Abdolah; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Khodayari Fard, Mohammad

    Spirituality, as an essential part of holistic care, is concerned with faith and meaning, and is usually conceptualised as a 'higher' experience or a transcendence of oneself. A resurgence of interest in this area is evident in post modern culture because of the effects that spirituality and religious beliefS may have on health. Up until the last two decades, spirituality and spiritual care, although vital, were invisible aspects of nursing. However, now that these concepts have made their way into the mainstream, literature in this area has burgeoned. In addition, modern nursing grew out of spiritual roots, and spiritual care is a component of holistic care. In the Islamic Republic of Iran,little information exists documenting the expressed spirituality of nurses in general and of oncology nurses in particular. This article presents spirituality as it is experienced by Muslim oncology nurses.The investigation involved a qualitative analysis of the spirituality of 24 participants, using semi-structured interviews. Participants were oncology nurses at 12 hospitals in two educational universities of medical sciences in Tehran. The main categories of spirituality as experienced by oncology nurses included religious and existential dimensions in an Iranian Muslim context. Findings are consistent with the holistic view of Islam, that considers all dimensions of personhood simultaneously. This study is important to transcultural nursing because of the benefits of increasing nursing knowledge through research that examines nurses' spirituality in diverse cultures.

  5. 76 FR 35451 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and...

  6. Vitamin-B12 deficiency following therapy in gynecologic oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, L.C.; Clarke-Pearson, D.L.; Creasman, W.T.

    1984-03-01

    Vitamin-B12 deficiency results from inadequate absorption of the vitamin by the distal ileum and depletion of available stores. Both radiotherapy and intestinal resection can contribute to development of this condition. The significance of this problem in gynecologic oncology is discussed and two patients are described.

  7. Dynamic optical projection of acquired luminescence for aiding oncologic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarder, Pinaki; Gullicksrud, Kyle; Mondal, Suman; Sudlow, Gail P.; Achilefu, Samuel; Akers, Walter J.

    2013-12-01

    Optical imaging enables real-time visualization of intrinsic and exogenous contrast within biological tissues. Applications in human medicine have demonstrated the power of fluorescence imaging to enhance visualization in dermatology, endoscopic procedures, and open surgery. Although few optical contrast agents are available for human medicine at this time, fluorescence imaging is proving to be a powerful tool in guiding medical procedures. Recently, intraoperative detection of fluorescent molecular probes that target cell-surface receptors has been reported for improvement in oncologic surgery in humans. We have developed a novel system, optical projection of acquired luminescence (OPAL), to further enhance real-time guidance of open oncologic surgery. In this method, collected fluorescence intensity maps are projected onto the imaged surface rather than via wall-mounted display monitor. To demonstrate proof-of-principle for OPAL applications in oncologic surgery, lymphatic transport of indocyanine green was visualized in live mice for intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes. Subsequently, peritoneal tumors in a murine model of breast cancer metastasis were identified using OPAL after systemic administration of a tumor-selective fluorescent molecular probe. These initial results clearly show that OPAL can enhance adoption and ease-of-use of fluorescence imaging in oncologic procedures relative to existing state-of-the-art intraoperative imaging systems.

  8. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of cancer care investigators, providers, academia, and other organizations that care for diverse populations in health systems. View the list of publications from NCORP. | Clinical Trials network of cancer care professionals who care for diverse populations across the U.S.

  9. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  10. Expert Consensus Panel Guidelines on Geriatric Assessment in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, A.; Mohile, S.G.; Leech, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite consensus guidelines on best practice in the care of older patients with cancer, geriatric assessment (GA) has yet to be optimally integrated into the field of oncology in most countries. There is a relative lack of consensus in the published literature as to the best approach to take, and there is a degree of uncertainty as to how integration of geriatric medicine principles might optimally predict patient outcomes. The aim of the current study was to obtain consensus on GA in oncology to inform the implementation of a geriatric oncology programme. Methods A four round Delphi process was employed. The Delphi method is a structured group facilitation process, using multiple iterations in order to gain consensus on a given topic Results Consensus was reached on the optimal assessment method and interventions required for the commonly employed domains of GA. Other aspects of GA, such as screening methods and age cutoff for assessment represented a higher degree of disagreement. Discussion The expert panel employed in this study clearly identified the criteria that should be included in a clinical geriatric oncology programme. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines, this may prove useful in the care of older cancer patients. PMID:25757457

  11. 77 FR 25184 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  12. 77 FR 5813 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  13. 77 FR 37911 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... announced in the Federal Register of May 31, 2012 (77 FR 32125-32126). The amendment is being made to... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  14. 76 FR 65736 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  15. 77 FR 31025 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  16. 76 FR 11489 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  17. 77 FR 58399 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  18. 75 FR 75680 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  19. 78 FR 13348 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  20. 75 FR 9419 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... meeting originally announced in the Federal Register of December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66986) to take place on... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of...

  1. 76 FR 82310 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  2. 76 FR 82309 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  3. [Autologous fat grafting in the breast: oncological implications].

    PubMed

    Nizet, J-L; Gonzalez, A; Peulen, O; Castronovo, V

    2011-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting for breast is increasing dramatically. This fat injection needs accurate technical conditions, and shows very good and long-lasting clinical results. Nevertheless, in breast conservative treatment sequellae, fat injection could lead to difficulties in breast imaging, but also there is some concerns about the potential oncologic risks of these procedures.

  4. Continuing Education Needs of the Office Oncology Nurse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Miriam P.

    1999-01-01

    A study determined the learning needs of office oncology nurses (n=290)as a critical first step in planning education programs. Participants ranked cancer-care topics similarly, regardless of age, background, or experience. The highest-ranked needs were clustered in the areas of cancer nursing practice, major cancers, and cancer treatment.…

  5. Oncology Social Workers' Attitudes toward Hospice Care and Referral Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Janet E.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…

  6. Medical Oncology Pharmacy: A New Role for the Clinical Pharmacist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carl R.; Hickman, Mary Johne

    1977-01-01

    The University of Tennessee has established a training program for clinical pharmacists dealing with cancer chemotherapy patients. Health-care settings are described in which these individuals can contribute as unique health-care team members in oncology. (Author/LBH)

  7. 75 FR 64314 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  8. Improving oncology nurses' communication skills for difficult conversations.

    PubMed

    Baer, Linda; Weinstein, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    When oncology nurses have strong communication skills, they play a pivotal role in influencing patient satisfaction, adherence to plans of care, and overall clinical outcomes. However, research studies indicate that nurses tend to keep communication with patients and families at a superficial, nontherapeutic level. Processes for teaching goals-of-care communication skills and for implementing skills into clinical practice are not clearly defined. Nurses at a large comprehensive cancer center recognized the need for help with this skill set and sought out communication experts to assist in providing the needed education. An educational project was developed to improve therapeutic communication skills in oncology nurses during goals-of-care discussions and giving bad news. The program was tailored to nurses and social workers providing care to patients in a busy, urban, academic, outpatient oncology setting. Program topics included exploring the patient's world, eliciting hopes and concerns, and dealing with conflict about goals. Sharing and discussing specific difficult questions and scenarios were encouraged throughout the program. The program was well attended and well received by oncology nurses and social workers. Participants expressed interest in the continuation of communication programs to further enhance skills.

  9. Privacy and Security in an Oncology Information System

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Bruce I.; Lenhard, Raymond E.

    1978-01-01

    The growing number of automated medical data bases has focused attention upon the problems associated with privacy and security of patient data. This paper briefly reviews some of the approaches to data base protection and then describes the solution to these problems which have been implemented in the Johns Hopkins Oncology Center Clinical Information System.

  10. Nine-year change in statistical design, profile, and success rates of Phase II oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Paul, Barry; Marchenko, Olga; Song, Guochen; Patel, Neerali; Moschos, Stergios J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated nine-year trends in statistical design and other features of Phase II oncology clinical trials published in 2005, 2010, and 2014 in five leading oncology journals: Cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, and Lancet Oncology. The features analyzed included cancer type, multicenter vs. single-institution, statistical design, primary endpoint, number of treatment arms, number of patients per treatment arm, whether or not statistical methods were well described, whether the drug was found effective based on rigorous statistical testing of the null hypothesis, and whether the drug was recommended for future studies.

  11. Technology evaluation: SAGE, Genzyme molecular oncology.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J

    2001-02-01

    Genzyme Molecular Oncology (GMO) is using its SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) combinatorial chemistry technology to screen compound libraries. SAGE is a high-throughput, high-efficiency method to simultaneously detect and measure the expression levels of genes expressed in a cell at a given time, including rare genes. SAGE can be used in a wide variety of applications to identify disease-related genes, to analyze the effect of drugs on tissues and to provide insights into disease pathways. It works by isolating short fragments of genetic information from the expressed genes that are present in the cell being studied. These short sequences, called SAGE tags, are linked together for efficient sequencing. The sequence data are then analyzed to identify each gene expressed in the cell and the levels at which each gene is expressed. This information forms a library that can be used to analyze the differences in gene expression between cells [293437]. By December 1999, GMO had identified a set of 40 genes from 3.5 million transcripts that were expressed at elevated levels in all cancer tissue but not seen in normal tissue. The company hope these may provide diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. The studies also provided data furthering the understanding of the way cells use their genome [349968]. GMO has signed a collaborative agreement with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to search for new drug candidates in the field of cancer chemotherapy. The collaboration combines GMO's SAGE technology with the NCI's extensive array of 60 cell-based cancer screens. Under the agreement, the NCI will evaluate Genzyme's library consisting of one million compounds against selected cancer screens to identify compounds with anticancer properties [255082]. Xenometrix granted a license agreement for gene expression profiling to GMO in February 1999, giving company access to claims covered in issued US and European patents. The license is non-exclusive and covers the

  12. The Seeds Left in Italy by the E&O Program of the Andrill Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, M.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main purposes of the ARISE program, the educational initiative by the ANDRILL research, was to “integrate polar geoscience content into a range of learning environments”. In the range of this program, an Italian science teacher created and developed through 2006 and 2007 a specific project called progettosmilla.it (www.progettosmilla.it). With the services consequently created, this initiative managed to involve more then 2000 students and 100 teachers across the Italian territory. Though, what is left of that experience four years later? This contribution focuses on the description of the long-term effects of that event on the earth system science education in Italy. It offers the chance to analyze some of the most significant educational projects rooted in the network of (local and national) institutions which supported the progettosmilla.it-ANDRILL program. Among these: - the Ortles project: an E&O initiative developed in the range of an international paleoclimatic research on the biggest ice-cap of the Eastern Alps (by Italian and U.S. universities and centers of research); - the I-CLEEN (Inquiring on Climate & ENergy) project: an information gateway collecting educational resources, which promotes an enquiry-based approach and is managed by science teachers (by the Natural Science Museum of Trento- Italy); - the SPEs (Summer Polar School for Teachers): a summer class where research, researchers and teachers illustrate polar themes and lectures to be introduced in scholastic programs (by the National Museum of Antarctica- Italy); - the first European edition of IESO (International Earth Science Olympiad), initiative to be held in Italy in 2011 (by University of Modena and Reggio Emilia - Italy). Through the analysis of these projects it will be possible to gain useful clues and answer more complex questions, such as: Which are the key factors for the success of such a project, aimed to the cooperation between scientists and teachers? Why an

  13. Interventional oncology in multidisciplinary cancer treatment in the 21(st) century.

    PubMed

    Adam, Andreas; Kenny, Lizbeth M

    2015-02-01

    Interventional oncology is an evolving branch of interventional radiology, which relies on rapidly evolving, highly sophisticated treatment tools and precise imaging guidance to target and destroy malignant tumours. The development of this field has important potential benefits for patients and the health-care system, but as a new discipline, interventional oncology has not yet fully established its place in the wider field of oncology; its application does not have a comprehensive evidence base, or a clinical or quality-assurance framework within which to operate. In this regard, radiation oncology, a cornerstone of modern cancer care, has a lot of important information to offer to interventional oncologists. A strong collaboration between radiation oncology and interventional oncology, both of which aim to cure or control tumours or to relieve symptoms with as little collateral damage to normal tissue as possible, will have substantial advantages for both disciplines. A close relationship with radiation oncology will help facilitate the development of a robust quality-assurance framework and accumulation of evidence to support the integration of interventional oncology into multidisciplinary care. Furthermore, collaboration between interventional oncology and radiation oncology fields will have great benefits to practitioners, people affected by cancer, and to the wider field of oncology.

  14. [Psychological stress in oncology: the role of glucocorticoids].

    PubMed

    Ronson, Alain

    2006-07-01

    During the last years, the correlations between biological processes, psychological adjustment and stress disorders have received increasing attention and a growing body of research results has been published in the general literature. In the realm of psycho-oncology, however, conceptual models on this topic and studies aimed at their validation have remained relatively scanty. On the basis of our observations and available literature in the field of post-traumatic and depressive stress disorders in oncology, we have proposed to apply the concept of allostatic load to the study and understanding of the psychological experience of cancer. This strategy has led us to the formulation of a novel classification of adjustment disorders in oncology and the creation of the clinical entity named "cancer-specific stress syndrome". Depending on clinical presentation of the syndrome, one distinguishes three subtypes, namely the depressive, post-traumatic and "dysallostatic" (mixed) forms. In the present paper, we examine the role of glucocorticoids and their relationships with one of the basic components of allostatic load--a failure to counter-regulate the immune system by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis--in the physiopathology of stress disorders in oncology. Conflicting theories are presented--glucocorticoid cascade versus insufficient glucocorticoid signal transmission--and studies measuring potential correlations between stress and cortisol in oncology are critically reviewed. The results of this process provide substantial support for the application of the allostatic load model and post-traumatic phenomenology, but important advances have yet to be achieved before definitive conclusions can be established in this field. Such advances could lead to profound changes in the way we understand and treat psychological distress in patients with cancer, both pharmacologically and psychotherapeutically.

  15. The optimal organization of gynecologic oncology services: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fung-Kee-Fung, M.; Kennedy, E.B.; Biagi, J.; Colgan, T.; D’Souza, D.; Elit, L.M.; Hunter, A.; Irish, J.; McLeod, R.; Rosen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background A system-level organizational guideline for gynecologic oncology was identified by a provincial cancer agency as a key priority based on input from stakeholders, data showing more limited availability of multidisciplinary or specialist care in lower-volume than in higher-volume hospitals in the relevant jurisdiction, and variable rates of staging for ovarian and endometrial cancer patients. Methods A systematic review assessed the relationship of the organization of gynecologic oncology services with patient survival and surgical outcomes. The electronic databases medline and embase (ovid: 1996 through 9 January 2015) were searched using terms related to gynecologic malignancies combined with organization of services, patterns of care, and various facility and physician characteristics. Outcomes of interest included overall or disease-specific survival, short-term survival, adequate staging, and degree of cytoreduction or optimal cytoreduction (or both) for ovarian cancer patients by hospital or physician type, and rate of discrepancy in initial diagnoses and intraoperative consultation between non-specialist pathologists and gyne-oncology–specialist pathologists. Results One systematic review and sixteen additional primary studies met the inclusion criteria. The evidence base as a whole was judged to be of lower quality; however, a trend toward improved outcomes with centralization of gynecologic oncology was found, particularly with respect to the gynecologic oncology care of patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Conclusions Improvements in outcomes with centralization of gynecologic oncology services can be attributed to a number of factors, including access to specialist care and multidisciplinary team management. Findings of this systematic review should be used with caution because of the limitations of the evidence base; however, an expert consensus process made it possible to create recommendations for implementation. PMID:26300679

  16. CBRN mobile laboratories in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Giorgio; Giraudi, Giampaolo; Bellino, Mariarosa; Pazienza, Michele; Garibaldi, Claudio; Lancia, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    The paper describes the experiences in Italy with the CBRN (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear) defense mobile laboratories. These laboratories were constructed by the Italian Army and the Italian Fire Brigades. The purpose of these mobile laboratories is to allow quick transport of the labs to the area of crisis in order to support emergency response in case of CBRN events. The differences between two alternative solutions will be developed in the paper. The first solution is when the lab is to be located in the "dangerous area" (this solution was chosen by the Italian Army) and the alternative approach is to place the mobile lab just outside the dangerous area (this approach was selected by the Italian Fire Brigades). One of the most important devices inside the lab is the isolator (also called "glove box") which allows safe ingress and handling of the "suspicious" samples from the external environment. The isolator has a special chamber for transfer of the sample from the outside. The pressure of the isolator is permanently kept below the air pressure inside the lab by means of one (or more) fan. The operators perform the sample preparations or part of the analysis by handling the sample with the gloves. The material flow inside the lab will be described depending on the kind of identification analysis to be done on the samples. Other devices installed on the mobile CBRN laboratories are: biohazard hood (UE regulation, containment level 2); autoclave; freezer; cleaning skid (tanks, pumps, etc.).

  17. New CALLISTO Station in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, Chr.

    2013-10-01

    A new CALLISTO station is now active in Triest/Italy at the Astronomical Observatory premises located in Basovizza. It has been recently installed and set into operation on the 6th September 2013. The antenna has been installed on an old bunker named "Sissi" and is based on a commercial log-periodic antenna from RKB(http://www.rkb./articoli.asp?id=26), operating frequency 130-1000 MHz, gain of about 6-7 dBi. Beam&-width is of 103 degrees in the V plane and of 61 degrees in the H plane. Considering the site location, sun path variations during the year and beam-width, the antenna is installed fixed-mounted pointing towards South with an angle of 45 degrees in the V plane. This should cover all declination of solar path throughout the year with about 7 hours observation time centered around 12.00, local time. The front-end aerial is connected to a low noise preamplifier Mini-Circuits ZX60-33LN with 20dB of gain and 1.1dB of noise figure.

  18. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-12-01

    The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern.

  19. Paediatric radiation oncology in the care of childhood cancer: A position paper by the International Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS).

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Freeman, Carolyn; Marcus, Karen; Claude, Line; Dieckmann, Karin; Halperin, Edward; Esiashvili, Natia; Paulino, Arnold; Mahajan, Anita; Seiersen, Klaus; Ahern, Verity; Ricardi, Umberto; Carrie, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Paediatric malignancies are a challenge for the radiation oncologist due to their rarity, the great variety of histological types, and the complexity of treatment concepts that evolve over time. The Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS) is the only internationally operating society for paediatric radiation oncology. The objectives of PROS are to set a world-wide standard of excellence with respect to radiation oncology aspects in curing children and adolescents with cancer, to provide a forum for communication between radiation oncologists, and to exchange information with all professionals involved in the management of paediatric and adolescent cancer. Challenges include the need to promote education and support practice in low and middle income countries (LMIC) as well as the cost and availability of modern treatment technologies for all but most especially these countries. Collaborations with other societies that include for example the education programmes provided jointly with ESTRO, and the upgraded technical platform of the PROS web site offer new possibilities to enhance the efficacy of PROS in education and support of paediatric radiation oncology practice world-wide. PROS has made an important contribution to the management of childhood malignancies over the past decade and new and developing collaborations between PROS and other societies or organizations will ultimately lead to a reduction in world-wide health care inequalities. PMID:27106553

  20. Oncological outcome after lung metastasis in patients presenting with localized chondrosarcoma at extremities: Tokai Musculoskeletal Oncology Consortium study

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomoki; Matsumine, Akihiko; Yamada, Satoshi; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Ohno, Takatoshi; Katagiri, Hirohisa; Sugiura, Hideshi; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Sudo, Akihiro; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The oncological outcome after lung metastasis in patients with chondrosarcoma of the extremities has not been reported. Between June 2000 and June 2013, 179 patients with chondrosarcoma in the extremities were treated at eleven hospitals. Twenty consecutive patients (11.2%) developed lung metastases after initial treatment of primary chondrosarcoma in the extremities. We investigated the oncological outcome of 20 chondrosarcoma patients with lung metastasis. There were 14 males and six females with a mean age of 49 years. The mean duration between primary surgery and appearance of lung metastases was 34 months. The mean follow-up period was 48 months. We excluded patients with lung metastasis at the time of presentation from this study. At the final follow-up, four of 20 patients had no evidence of disease, four were alive with disease, and twelve had died of disease. The 3- and 5-year survival rates after lung metastasis were 51.5% and 45.7%, respectively. Tumor grade, extrapulmonary metastasis, and treatment for lung metastases including metastasectomy and radiofrequency ablation were identified by univariate analysis to be significant prognostic factors for oncological analysis. In conclusion, this study evaluated the oncological outcome in patients with chondrosarcoma of the extremities with lung metastasis. Although a large-scale study might be required to confirm the results of this study, we suggest that metastasectomy and/or radiofrequency ablation should be considered to improve postmetastatic survival. PMID:27536136

  1. Oncology Nurses' Use of the Internet for Continuing Education: A Survey of Oncology Nursing Society Congress Attendees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Susan C.; Baird, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    A survey to determine whether oncology nurses (n=670) use the Internet and for what purpose revealed that they use it for drug information, literature searches, academic information, patient education, and continuing education. Results suggest that continuing-education providers should pursue the Internet as a means of meeting the need for quick,…

  2. Assessment of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies in Oncology: Summary of the Oncology Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Frame, James N.; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Vogel, Wendy H.; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L.; Bialecki, Alison M.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Allen, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. The workshop identified several unintended consequences resulting from current oncology REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored—and therefore not accessible—to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication. PMID:23814522

  3. Grade Inflation in Medical Student Radiation Oncology Clerkships: Missed Opportunities for Feedback?

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Sosnowicz, Stasha; Li, Jiaqi; Mitra, Nandita; Berman, Abigail T.; Baffic, Cordelia; Vapiwala, Neha; Freedman, Gary M.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that medical student radiation oncology elective rotation grades are inflated and cannot be used to distinguish residency applicants. Methods and Materials: The records of 196 applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program in 2011 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The grades for each rotation in radiation oncology were collected and converted to a standardized 4-point grading scale (honors, high pass, pass, fail). Pass/fail grades were scored as not applicable. The primary study endpoint was to compare the distribution of applicants' grades in radiation oncology with their grades in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology core clerkships. Results: The mean United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score of the applicants was 237 (range, 188-269), 43% had additional Masters or PhD degrees, and 74% had at least 1 publication. Twenty-nine applicants were graded for radiation oncology rotations on a pass/fail basis and were excluded from the final analysis. Of the remaining applicants (n=167), 80% received the highest possible grade for their radiation oncology rotations. Grades in radiation oncology were significantly higher than each of the other 4 clerkships studied (P<.001). Of all applicants, 195 of 196 matched into a radiation oncology residency. Higher grades in radiation oncology were associated with significantly higher grades in the pediatrics core clerkship (P=.002). However, other medical school performance metrics were not significantly associated with higher grades in radiation oncology. Conclusions: Although our study group consists of a selected group of radiation oncology applicants, their grades in radiation oncology clerkships were highly skewed toward the highest grades when compared with grades in other core clerkships. Student grading in radiation oncology clerkships should be re-evaluated to incorporate more objective and detailed performance metrics to allow for

  4. Establishing Chinese medicine characteristic tumor response evaluation system is the key to promote internationalization of Chinese medicine oncology.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Lei; Liu, Rui; Lin, Hong-sheng

    2012-10-01

    The features and advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) in cancer comprehensive treatment have been in the spotlight of experts both at home and abroad. However, how to evaluate the effect of CM more objectively, scientifically and systematically is still the key problem of clinical trial, and also a limitation to the development and internationalization of CM oncology. The change of tumor response evaluation system in conventional medicine is gradually consistent with the features of CM clinical effect, such as they both focus on a combination of soft endpoints (i.e. quality of life, clinical benefit, etc.) and hard endpoints (i.e. tumor remission rate, time to progress, etc.). Although experts have proposed protocols of CM tumor response evaluation criteria and come to an agreement in general, divergences still exist in the importance, quantification and CM feature of the potential endpoints. Thus, establishing a CM characteristic and wildly accepted tumor response evaluation system is the key to promote internationalization of CM oncology, and also provides a more convenient and scientific platform for CM international cooperation and communication.

  5. Tuberculosis and leprosy in Italy: new skeletal evidence.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Roberts, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy are infections caused by Mycobacteria. This paper documents new skeletal evidence in Italy from the Iron Age site of Corvaro (Central Italy; 5th century BCE) and the Roman site of Palombara (Central Italy; 4th-5th century CE), and briefly reviews the extant evidence for these infections in Italy. The skeletal evidence for TB in Italy is more ancient than for leprosy, and is more common. The oldest evidence for both mycobacterial diseases is in the North of Italy, but this could be by chance, even if biomolecular models suggest a land route from the East to central Europe, especially for leprosy.

  6. Vice President Biden Announces New Cancer Moonshot International Cooperation and Investments - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    This week, Vice President Joe Biden announced progress on his global vision for the Cancer Moonshot. Announced were 10 new Memoranda of Understanding or Memoranda of Cooperation for international cancer research and care, as well as new efforts in the emerging scientific areas of precision oncology, the funding of collaborative research centers to address cancer disparities in low- and middle- income (LMIC) countries, and a strengthening of existing U.S. bilateral science and technology engagements around cancer.

  7. INvolvement of breast CAncer patients during oncological consultations: a multicentre randomised controlled trial—the INCA study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Claudia; Ghilardi, Alberto; Deledda, Giuseppe; Buizza, Chiara; Bottacini, Alessandro; Del Piccolo, Lidia; Rimondini, Michela; Chiodera, Federica; Mazzi, Maria Angela; Ballarin, Mario; Bighelli, Irene; Strepparava, Maria Grazia; Molino, Annamaria; Fiorio, Elena; Nortilli, Rolando; Caliolo, Chiara; Zuliani, Serena; Auriemma, Alessandra; Maspero, Federica; Simoncini, Edda Lucia; Ragni, Fulvio; Brown, Richard; Zimmermann, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies on patient involvement show that physicians make few attempts to involve their patients who ask few questions if not facilitated. On the other hand, the patients who participate in the decision-making process show greater treatment adherence and have better health outcomes. Different methods to encourage the active participation during oncological consultation have been described; however, similar studies in Italy are lacking. The aims of the present study are to (1) assess the effects of a preconsultation intervention to increase the involvement of breast cancer patients during the consultation, and (2) explore the role of the attending companions in the information exchange during consultation. Methods and analysis All female patients with breast cancer who attend the Oncology Out-patient Services for the first time will provide an informed consent to participate in the study. They are randomly assigned to the intervention or to the control group. The intervention consists of the presentation of a list of relevant illness-related questions, called a question prompt sheet. The primary outcome measure of the efficacy of the intervention is the number of questions asked by patients during the consultation. Secondary outcomes are the involvement of the patient by the oncologist; the patient's perceived achievement of her information needs; the patient's satisfaction and ability to cope; the quality of the doctor–patient relationship in terms of patient-centeredness; and the number of questions asked by the patient's companions and their involvement during the consultation. All outcome measures are supposed to significantly increase in the intervention group. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of the Hospital Trust of Verona. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01510964 PMID:23645911

  8. International Cooperation at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawney, Timothy; Feldstein, Karen

    International cooperation is a cornerstone principle of NASA’s activities, especially within the activities of the Science Mission Directorate. Nearly two thirds of the flight missions in which NASA leads or participates involve international cooperation. Numerous ground based activities also rely on international cooperation, whether because of unique expertise, unique geography, or the need for a global response. Going forward, in an era of tighter budgets and a more integrated global perspective, NASA and the rest of the space agencies around the world will be forced to work more closely together, in a broader array of activities than ever before, in order to be able to afford to push the boundaries of space exploration. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of NASA’s current international science cooperative activities. It will include a discussion of why NASA conducts international cooperation and look at the mechanisms through which international cooperation can occur at NASA, including peer-to-peer development of relationships. It will also discuss some of the limiting factors of international cooperation, such as export control, and ways in which to manage those constraints. Finally, the presentation would look at some of the present examples where NASA is working to increase international cooperation and improve coordination. Case studies will be used to demonstrate these mechanisms and concepts. For example, NASA continues to participate in international coordination groups such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) and International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), but is expanding into new areas as well. NASA is one of the leaders in expanding and improving international coordination in the area of Near-Earth Object detection, characterization, and mitigation. Having participated in the first meetings of such groups as the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Missions Planning

  9. Cooper Pair Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James

    One of the recent advances in the field of the Superconductor to Insulator Transition (SIT) has been the discovery and characterization of the Cooper Pair Insulator phase. This bosonic insulator, which consists of localized Cooper pairs, exhibits activated transport and a giant magneto-resistance peak. These features differ markedly from the weakly localized transport that emerges as pairs break at a ``fermionic'' SIT. I will describe how our experiments on films nano-patterned with a nearly triangular array of holes have enabled us to 1) distinguish bosonic insulators from fermionic insulators, 2) show that Cooper pairs, rather than quasi-particles dominate the transport in the Cooper Pair insulator phase, 3) demonstrate that very weak, sub nano-meter thickness inhomogeneities control whether a bosonic or fermionic insulator forms at an SIT and 4) reveal that Cooper pairs disintegrate rather than becoming more tightly bound deep in the localized phase. We have also developed a method, using a magnetic field, to tune flux disorder reversibly in these films. I will present our latest results on the influence of magnetic flux disorder and random gauge fields on phenomena near bosonic SITs. This work was performed in collaboration with M. D. Stewart, Jr., Hung Q. Nguyen, Shawna M. Hollen, Jimmy Joy, Xue Zhang, Gustavo Fernandez, Jeffrey Shainline and Jimmy Xu. It was supported by NSF Grants DMR 1307290 and DMR-0907357.

  10. Pollen-related allergy in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Dal Bo, S; Bonini, S

    1992-05-01

    Pollen-related allergies are very common in Italy and pollinosis is the commonest allergic disease. The type of allergenic plants and the prevalence of hay fever varies among regions. In the Mediterranean area there are characteristic climatic conditions (mildness of winter, summer dryness) that facilitate the growth of a typical vegetation with its associated various types of allergenic pollen grains, some of them very different from those of central and northern Europe. Italy has a central position in the Mediterranean basin, but because of its geographic characteristics, there are different climatic aspects with different vegetation between northern, central, and southern areas. Gramineae are the most common allergenic plants in northern and central Italy, where more than 60% of patients with pollinosis are grass-pollen sensitive. Parietaria is the most important pollinating plant in southern Italy and Liguria. Olea europaea, the olive tree with cultivation widespread in the whole Mediterranean basin, is responsible for frequently severe pollinosis, particularly in some regions of the southern Italy.

  11. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?!

    SciTech Connect

    James Valles

    2008-07-23

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions. 

  12. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?!

    ScienceCinema

    James Valles

    2016-07-12

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions. 

  13. A national radiation oncology medical student clerkship survey: Didactic curricular components increase confidence in clinical competency

    PubMed Central

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S.; Raleigh, David R.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.; Golden, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete one or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials An anonymous, internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012–2013 academic year. The survey was composed of three main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results The survey response rate was 37% (70/188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. 27% of respondents (19/70) completed at least one clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent’s confidence to function as a first- year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank-sum p = 0.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman’s rho p = 0.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman’s rho p = 0.43). Conclusions Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation

  14. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S.; Raleigh, David R.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.; Golden, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ρ P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ρ P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results

  15. The incidence of fragility fractures in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ratti, Chiara; Vulcano, Ettore; La Barbera, Giuseppe; Canton, Gianluca; Murena, Luigi; Cherubino, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Osteoporosis can significantly impact on the risk of developing a fracture. Thus, fragility fractures represent a challenge for health professionals and decision makers of the twenty-first century. The aim of this work is to review the literature concerning osteoporotic fractures in Italy in terms of incidence, rate of hospitalization, relative risk of a new fragility fracture, and costs for the national health system. It was estimated that the costs of treating proximal femur fragility fractures in 2002 summed up to 1 billion Euros. The number of fragility fractures in Italy was calculated as follows: 91.494 hip fractures, 61.009 clinical vertebral fractures, 57.401 humeral fragility fractures, and 94.045 forearm/wrist fragility fractures. The incidence of fragility fractures in Italy is very high, and osteoporosis is the leading cause of morbidity in the Italian population. PMID:24046040

  16. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.

  17. Neural basis of conditional cooperation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Niki, Kazuhisa; Fujisaki, Syoken; Akiyama, Eizo

    2011-06-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals is a fundamental aspect of society, but it has been a longstanding puzzle in biological and social sciences. Recently, theoretical studies in biology and economics showed that conditional cooperation-cooperating only with those who have exhibited cooperative behavior-can spread over a society. Furthermore, experimental studies in psychology demonstrated that people are actually conditional cooperators. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural system underlying conditional cooperation by scanning participants during interaction with cooperative, neutral and non-cooperative opponents in prisoner's dilemma games. The results showed that: (i) participants cooperated more frequently with both cooperative and neutral opponents than with non-cooperative opponents; and (ii) a brain area related to cognitive inhibition of pre-potent responses (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) showed greater activation, especially when participants confronted non-cooperative opponents. Consequently, we suggest that cognitive inhibition of the motivation to cooperate with non-cooperators drives the conditional behavior.

  18. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  19. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  20. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner’s dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  1. The importance of pharmacist providing patient education in oncology.

    PubMed

    Avery, Mia; Williams, Felecia

    2015-02-01

    The world's increasing diversity requires health care professionals to adjust delivery methods of teaching to accommodate different cultural values and beliefs. The ability to communicate effectively across languages and various cultural practices directly affects patient education outcomes. Pharmacist should be aware of varying modalities and considerations when counseling a patient diagnosed with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy. In more recent years, the medical profession has seen an increase in patient outcomes due to using the multidisciplinary team approach and has benefited by implementing Medication Therapy Management (MTM) programs at various institutions. For the clinical pharmacist, this would mean documentation for these services should be precise and accurate based on the specific patients needs. There are several factors involved in the care and therapy of the patient with cancer. Clinical oncology pharmacist should be aware of the ever-changing role in oncology and be able to implement new practices at their facility for better patient outcomes.

  2. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

  3. Toward an integrated knowledge environment to support modern oncology.

    PubMed

    Blake, Patrick M; Decker, David A; Glennon, Timothy M; Liang, Yong Michael; Losko, Sascha; Navin, Nicholas; Suh, K Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Around the world, teams of researchers continue to develop a wide range of systems to capture, store, and analyze data including treatment, patient outcomes, tumor registries, next-generation sequencing, single-nucleotide polymorphism, copy number, gene expression, drug chemistry, drug safety, and toxicity. Scientists mine, curate, and manually annotate growing mountains of data to produce high-quality databases, while clinical information is aggregated in distant systems. Databases are currently scattered, and relationships between variables coded in disparate datasets are frequently invisible. The challenge is to evolve oncology informatics from a "systems" orientation of standalone platforms and silos into an "integrated knowledge environments" that will connect "knowable" research data with patient clinical information. The aim of this article is to review progress toward an integrated knowledge environment to support modern oncology with a focus on supporting scientific discovery and improving cancer care.

  4. The impact of industry on oncology research and practice.

    PubMed

    Moy, Beverly; Jagsi, Reshma; Gaynor, Richard B; Ratain, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Public scrutiny has increased over potential conflicts of interest among oncology researchers and providers. Given the increased prevalence and complexity of industry relationships, oncologists are increasingly faced with ethical challenges when navigating their financial relationships with industry. Oncologists are continually dealing with changing conflict of interest policies within academic centers and professional societies. With the recent passage of The Sunshine Act, oncologists are beginning to understand the repercussions of this new law. The consequences of the increasing use of direct-to-consumer advertising on patients with cancer are also unclear. Finally, industry's perspective on the evolution of these relationships is not clearly understood. This manuscript discusses issues related to industry's influence on oncology practice and research.

  5. Statistical Methods for Establishing Personalized Treatment Rules in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junsheng; Hobbs, Brian P.; Stingo, Francesco C.

    2015-01-01

    The process for using statistical inference to establish personalized treatment strategies requires specific techniques for data-analysis that optimize the combination of competing therapies with candidate genetic features and characteristics of the patient and disease. A wide variety of methods have been developed. However, heretofore the usefulness of these recent advances has not been fully recognized by the oncology community, and the scope of their applications has not been summarized. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods for establishing optimal treatment rules for personalized medicine and discuss specific examples in various medical contexts with oncology as an emphasis. We also point the reader to statistical software for implementation of the methods when available. PMID:26446492

  6. A nurse practitioner patient care team: implications for pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Golden, Julia Rose

    2014-01-01

    The role of the pediatric advanced practice registered nurse continues to evolve within the ever-changing field of health care. In response to increased demand for health care services and because of a variety of changes in the health care delivery system, nurse practitioner patient care teams are an emerging trend in acute care settings. Care provided by nurse practitioner teams has been shown to be effective, efficient, and comprehensive. In addition to shorter hospital stays and reduced costs, nurse practitioner teams offer increased quality and continuity of care, and improved patient satisfaction. Nurse practitioner patient care teams are well suited to the field of pediatric oncology, as patients would benefit from care provided by specialized clinicians with a holistic focus. This article provides health care professionals with information about the use of nurse practitioner patient care teams and implications for use in pediatric oncology.

  7. Drug repurposing in pediatrics and pediatric hematology oncology.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Julie; Corey, Seth J

    2013-01-01

    Drug 'repurposing', that is, using old drugs for new indications, has been proposed as a more efficient strategy for drug development than the current standard of beginning with novel agents. In this review, we explore the scope of drug repurposing in pediatric hematology oncology and in pediatrics in general. Drugs commonly used in children were identified using the Harriet Lane Handbook (HLH) and searched in PubMed for different uses. Additional drugs were identified by searching PubMed and Google.com for 'drug repurposing' or 'drug repositioning'. Almost 10% of drugs with primary uses in pediatrics have been repurposed in pediatric hematology oncology or pediatrics. The observant clinician, pharmacologist and translational bioinformatician, as well as structural targeting, will have a role in discovering new repurposing opportunities.

  8. A CD-ROM database product for oncology.

    PubMed

    Schipma, P B

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a vertically oriented CD-ROM database product in the medical subdiscipline of oncology. Called OncoDisc, the CD-ROM is mastered by ISG. It contains three major information collections: (1) PDQ (a system of a series of files and a set of relationships; the user accesses the data through those relationships); (2) Cancerlit (the research literature that underlies the treatment information contained in PDQ), and (3) full-text articles. SearchLITE, the retrieval system, is written in C language and has been implemented on the the DEC VAX family and the IBM PC/XT and PC/AT. The disc provides a personal library of oncology information for immediate local use by the health professional; it requires no subscription to an online service, no telecommunications, and no online search charges. PMID:10302065

  9. The impact of industry on oncology research and practice.

    PubMed

    Moy, Beverly; Jagsi, Reshma; Gaynor, Richard B; Ratain, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Public scrutiny has increased over potential conflicts of interest among oncology researchers and providers. Given the increased prevalence and complexity of industry relationships, oncologists are increasingly faced with ethical challenges when navigating their financial relationships with industry. Oncologists are continually dealing with changing conflict of interest policies within academic centers and professional societies. With the recent passage of The Sunshine Act, oncologists are beginning to understand the repercussions of this new law. The consequences of the increasing use of direct-to-consumer advertising on patients with cancer are also unclear. Finally, industry's perspective on the evolution of these relationships is not clearly understood. This manuscript discusses issues related to industry's influence on oncology practice and research. PMID:25993151

  10. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care.

  11. Endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle injection for oncological therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Jeremy; Khalid, Amaara; Cosgrove, Natalie; Soomro, Ayesha; Mazhar, Syed Mohsin; Siddiqui, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    The minimal invasiveness and precision of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has lead to both its widespread use as a diagnostic and staging modality for gastrointestinal and pancreaticobiliary malignancies, and to its expanding role as a therapeutic modality. EUS-guided celiac plexus neurolysis is now a well-accepted modality for palliation of pain in patients with pancreatic cancer. EUS-guided ablation, brachytherapy, fiducial marker placement, and antitumor agent injection have been described as methods of performing minimally invasive oncological therapy. EUS-fine needle injection may be performed as adjunctive, alternative, or palliative treatment. This review summarizes the studies to date that have described these methods. A literature search using the PubMed/MEDLINE databases was performed. While most published studies to date are limited with disappointing outcomes, the concept of a role of EUS in oncological therapy seems promising. PMID:26691224

  12. Soft Tissue Coverage of the Lower Limb following Oncological Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Christine; Panzica, Martin; Dastagir, Khaled; Krettek, Christian; Vogt, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of lower limb tumors has been shifted by advancements in adjuvant treatment protocols and microsurgical reconstruction from limb amputation to limb salvage. Standard approaches include oncological surgery by a multidisciplinary team in terms of limb sparing followed by soft tissue reconstruction and adjuvant therapy when indicated. For the development of a comprehensive surgical plan, the identity of the tumor should first be determined by histology after biopsy. Then the surgical goal and comprehensive treatment concept should be developed by a multidisciplinary tumor board and combined with soft tissue reconstruction. In this article, plastic surgical reconstruction options for soft coverage of the lower extremity following oncological surgery will be described along with the five clinical cases. PMID:26793620

  13. [Sedation using ketamine for pain procedures in Pediatric Oncology.].

    PubMed

    Ricard, C; Tichit, R; Troncin, R; Bernard, F

    2009-09-01

    Procedural sedation and analgesia for children is widely practiced. Since 2005 to 2007, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of ketamine to control pain induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. Eight hundred fifty procedures were carried out in 125 patients aged 2 to 16 years. We associated EMNO (inhaled equimolar mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen), atropin (oral or rectal), midazolam (oral or rectal) and ketamin (intravenous). An anesthesiologist injected ketamin. Average dose of ketamine was 0.33 to 2 mg/kg depending on number and invasiveness of procedures. This method requires careful monitoring and proper precautions. With these conditions, no complication was observed. All patients were effectively sedated. These results indicate that ketamine - in association with EMNO, atropine and midazolam - is safe and effective in pain management induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. The sedative regimen of intravenous ketamine has greatly reduced patient, family and practitioners anxiety for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  14. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care. PMID:25643971

  15. Overview of pediatric oncology and hematology in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Jay; Khaing, Aye Aye

    2014-01-01

    Myanmar is a country in southeast Asia in political, economic and healthcare transition. There are currently only two pediatric oncology centers serving a population of almost 19 million children. An estimated 85-92% of children with cancer are undiagnosed or not receiving treatment. Abandonment of treatment is as high as 60%. Although a number of chemotherapy agents are available, difficulties remain concerning treatment costs, quality control and the availability of supportive care. Radiotherapy services are also limited and not usually included in pediatric protocols. Healthcare professional training, improved diagnostics, strategies to tackle abandonment of treatment and the development of a parents’ support group are major priorities. Local and international partnerships including a recent partnership with world child cancer are essential in the interim to support the development of pediatric oncology and hematology in Myanmar. A unique opportunity exists to support the development of preventive, diagnostic, curative and palliative care for children's cancer in Myanmar from the outset. PMID:24665454

  16. Precision medicine in oncology drug development: a pharma perspective.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Simon J

    2015-12-01

    A rapid expansion in precision medicine founded on the potential for durable clinical benefit through matching a drug to a predictive marker used to select patients has driven the development of targeted drugs with accompanied companion diagnostics for patient selection. Oncology has been at the forefront, with the improvements in patient survival notable. Increasing numbers of molecular subgroups require an equally increasing number (and new generation) of highly selective agents targeting inevitably lower incidence molecular segments, posing significant challenges for drug development. Innovative trial designs (umbrella or basket studies) are emerging as patient-centric approaches and public-private partnerships, cross-industry, government and non-profit sector collaborations are enabling implementation. Success will require continued innovation, new paradigms in oncology drug development and market approval and continued collaboration.

  17. The roots of modern oncology: from discovery of new antitumor anthracyclines to their clinical use.

    PubMed

    Cassinelli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    In May 1960, the Farmitalia CEO Dr. Bertini and the director of the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan Prof. Bucalossi (talent scout and city's Mayor) signed a research agreement for the discovery and development up to clinical trials of new natural antitumor agents. This agreement can be considered as a pioneering and fruitful example of a translational discovery program with relevant transatlantic connections. Owing to an eclectic Streptomyces, found near Castel del Monte (Apulia), and to the skilled and motivated participants of both institutions, a new natural antitumor drug, daunomycin, was ready for clinical trials within 3 years. Patent interference by the Farmitalia French partner was overcome by the good quality of the Italian drug and by the cooperation between Prof. Di Marco, director of the Istituto Ricerche Farmitalia Research Laboratories for Microbiology and Chemotherapy, and Prof. Karnofsky, head of the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute of New York, leading to the first transatlantic clinical trials. The search for daunomycin's sister anthracyclines led to the discovery and development of adriamycin, one of the best drugs born in Milan. This was the second act prologue of the history of Italian antitumor discovery and clinical oncology, which started in July 1969 when Prof. Di Marco sent Prof. Bonadonna the first vials of adriamycin (doxorubicin) to be tested in clinical trials. This article reviews the Milan scene in the 1960s, a city admired and noted for the outstanding scientific achievements of its private and public institutions in drugs and industrial product discovery.

  18. The roots of modern oncology: from discovery of new antitumor anthracyclines to their clinical use.

    PubMed

    Cassinelli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    In May 1960, the Farmitalia CEO Dr. Bertini and the director of the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan Prof. Bucalossi (talent scout and city's Mayor) signed a research agreement for the discovery and development up to clinical trials of new natural antitumor agents. This agreement can be considered as a pioneering and fruitful example of a translational discovery program with relevant transatlantic connections. Owing to an eclectic Streptomyces, found near Castel del Monte (Apulia), and to the skilled and motivated participants of both institutions, a new natural antitumor drug, daunomycin, was ready for clinical trials within 3 years. Patent interference by the Farmitalia French partner was overcome by the good quality of the Italian drug and by the cooperation between Prof. Di Marco, director of the Istituto Ricerche Farmitalia Research Laboratories for Microbiology and Chemotherapy, and Prof. Karnofsky, head of the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute of New York, leading to the first transatlantic clinical trials. The search for daunomycin's sister anthracyclines led to the discovery and development of adriamycin, one of the best drugs born in Milan. This was the second act prologue of the history of Italian antitumor discovery and clinical oncology, which started in July 1969 when Prof. Di Marco sent Prof. Bonadonna the first vials of adriamycin (doxorubicin) to be tested in clinical trials. This article reviews the Milan scene in the 1960s, a city admired and noted for the outstanding scientific achievements of its private and public institutions in drugs and industrial product discovery. PMID:27103205

  19. John Ray in Italy: lost manuscripts rediscovered

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of Italy in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations … made in a journey through … the Low-countries, Germany, Italy and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book. PMID:24921104

  20. The radiation oncology workforce: A focus on medical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Gregg F.; Mobile, Katherine; Yu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    The 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce survey was conducted to assess the current state of the entire workforce, predict its future needs and concerns, and evaluate quality improvement and safety within the field. This article describes the dosimetrist segment results. The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Workforce Subcommittee, in conjunction with other specialty societies, conducted an online survey targeting all segments of the radiation oncology treatment team. The data from the dosimetrist respondents are presented in this article. Of the 2573 dosimetrists who were surveyed, 890 responded, which resulted in a 35% segment response rate. Most respondents were women (67%), whereas only a third were men (33%). More than half of the medical dosimetrists were older than 45 years (69.2%), whereas the 45 to 54 years age group represented the highest percentage of respondents (37%). Most medical dosimetrists stated that their workload was appropriate (52%), with respondents working a reported average of 41.7 ± 4 hours per week. Overall, 86% of medical dosimetrists indicated that they were satisfied with their career, and 69% were satisfied in their current position. Overall, 61% of respondents felt that there was an oversupply of medical dosimetrists in the field, 14% reported that supply and demand was balanced, and the remaining 25% felt that there was an undersupply. The medical dosimetrists' greatest concerns included documentation/paperwork (78%), uninsured patients (80%), and insufficient reimbursement rates (87%). This survey provided an insight into the dosimetrist perspective of the radiation oncology workforce. Though an overwhelming majority has conveyed satisfaction concerning their career, the study allowed a spotlight to be placed on the profession's current concerns, such as insufficient reimbursement rates and possible oversupply of dosimetrists within the field.

  1. A scoping review of the nurse practitioner workforce in oncology.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Lorinda A; Hunt, Lauren; Cataldo, Janine

    2016-08-01

    The quality of cancer care may be compromised in the near future because of work force issues. Several factors will impact the oncology health provider work force: an aging population, an increase in the number of cancer survivors, and expansion of health care coverage for the previously uninsured. Between October 2014 and March 2015, an electronic literature search of English language articles was conducted using PubMed(®) , the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Sciences (CINAHL(®) ), Web of Science, Journal Storage (JSTOR(®) ), Google Scholar, and SCOPUS(®) . Using the scoping review criteria, the research question was identified "How much care in oncology is provided by nurse practitioners (NPs)?" Key search terms were kept broad and included: "NP" AND "oncology" AND "workforce". The literature was searched between 2005 and 2015, using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 studies were identified, further review resulted in 10 relevant studies that met all criteria. Results demonstrated that NPs are utilized in both inpatient and outpatient settings, across all malignancy types and in a variety of roles. Academic institutions were strongly represented in all relevant studies, a finding that may reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty work hour limitations. There was no pattern associated with state scope of practice and NP representation in this scoping review. Many of the studies reviewed relied on subjective information, or represented a very small number of NPs. There is an obvious need for an objective analysis of the amount of care provided by oncology NPs. PMID:27264203

  2. A scoping review of the nurse practitioner workforce in oncology.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Lorinda A; Hunt, Lauren; Cataldo, Janine

    2016-08-01

    The quality of cancer care may be compromised in the near future because of work force issues. Several factors will impact the oncology health provider work force: an aging population, an increase in the number of cancer survivors, and expansion of health care coverage for the previously uninsured. Between October 2014 and March 2015, an electronic literature search of English language articles was conducted using PubMed(®) , the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Sciences (CINAHL(®) ), Web of Science, Journal Storage (JSTOR(®) ), Google Scholar, and SCOPUS(®) . Using the scoping review criteria, the research question was identified "How much care in oncology is provided by nurse practitioners (NPs)?" Key search terms were kept broad and included: "NP" AND "oncology" AND "workforce". The literature was searched between 2005 and 2015, using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 studies were identified, further review resulted in 10 relevant studies that met all criteria. Results demonstrated that NPs are utilized in both inpatient and outpatient settings, across all malignancy types and in a variety of roles. Academic institutions were strongly represented in all relevant studies, a finding that may reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty work hour limitations. There was no pattern associated with state scope of practice and NP representation in this scoping review. Many of the studies reviewed relied on subjective information, or represented a very small number of NPs. There is an obvious need for an objective analysis of the amount of care provided by oncology NPs.

  3. The electromagnetic spectrum: current and future applications in oncology.

    PubMed

    Allison, Ron R

    2013-05-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum is composed of waves of various energies that interact with matter. When focused upon and directed at tumors, these energy sources can be employed as a means of lesion ablation. While the use of x-rays is widely known in this regard, a growing body of evidence shows that other members of this family can also achieve oncologic success. This article will review therapeutic application of the electromagnetic spectrum in current interventions and potential future applications.

  4. [Ophthalmic oncology: achievements over the last two decades].

    PubMed

    Brovkina, A F; Panova, I E; Saakian, S V

    2014-01-01

    The article describes current trends in scientific research, especially those that concern treatment of the most common cancers. The latter include malignant eyelid and conjunctiva tumors, retinoblastoma and choroidal melanoma. Relevant publications in Russian and foreign journals demonstrate a progressive advance in treatment approaches: from radical methods associated with surrounding tissue damage to local tumor destruction. Comparative analysis of the methods and their effectiveness suggest that Russian ophthalmic oncology meets state-of-the-art international criteria. PMID:25715547

  5. Big Data and Pharmacovigilance: The Role of Oncology Nurses.

    PubMed

    Glenn, David G

    2016-10-01

    When new anticancer medications are approved, their safety profiles are often not fully understood. Oncology nurses have a responsibility to file reports of adverse drug events with safety registries such as MedWatch. If these registries receive prompt, complete, and accurate data from clinicians, agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will have a stronger ability to detect hazards and to issue safety recommendations.
.

  6. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Thomas, Charles R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  7. Development of an Integrated Subspecialist Multidisciplinary Neuro-oncology Service.

    PubMed

    Price, Stephen J; Guilfoyle, Mathew; J Jefferies, Sarah; Harris, Fiona; Oberg, Ingela; G Burnet, Neil; Santarius, Thomas; Watts, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the poor outcome for patients with malignant brain tumours led to therapeutic nihilism. In turn, this resulted in lack of interest in neurosurgical oncology subspecialisation, and less than ideal patient pathways. One problem of concern was the low rate of tumour resection. Between 1997 and 2006, 685 treated glioblastomas were identified. In the first four years only 40% of patients underwent tumour resection, rising to 55% in the last four years. Before revision of the pathway, the median length of hospital stay was 8 days, and 35% of patients received the results of their histology outside of a clinic setting. A pathway of care was established, in which all patients were discussed pre-operatively in an MDT meeting and then directed into a new surgical neuro-oncology clinic providing first point of contact. This limited the number of surgeons operating on adult glioma patients and aided recruitment into research studies. Now, three consultant neurosurgeons run this service, easily fulfilling IOG requirement to spend >50% of programmed activities in neuro-oncology. Nursing support has been critical to provide an integrated service. This model has allowed increased recruitment to clinical trials. The introduction of this service led to an increase in patients discussed pre-operatively in an MDT (66% rising to 87%; P=0.027), an increase in the rate of surgical resection (from 40% to 80%) and more patients being admitted electively (from 25% to 80%; P<0.001). There was a reduction in the median length of stay (8 days reduced to 4.5 days; P<0.001). For the cohort of GBM patients that went on to have chemoradiotherapy we improved median survival to 18 months, with 35% of patients alive at two years, comparable to international outcomes. Implementing a specialist neurosurgical oncology service begins with understanding the patient care pathway. Our patients have benefitted from the culture of subspecialisation and the excellent inter-disciplinary working

  8. Big Data and Pharmacovigilance: The Role of Oncology Nurses.

    PubMed

    Glenn, David G

    2016-10-01

    When new anticancer medications are approved, their safety profiles are often not fully understood. Oncology nurses have a responsibility to file reports of adverse drug events with safety registries such as MedWatch. If these registries receive prompt, complete, and accurate data from clinicians, agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will have a stronger ability to detect hazards and to issue safety recommendations.
. PMID:27668367

  9. Anesthesia considerations for robotic surgery in gynecologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Mohamed; Béïque, François; Al-Halal, Hani; Azar, Tania; Akkour, Khalid; Lau, Susie K; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2011-12-01

    Robot-assisted gynecologic surgery is performed with a pneumoperitoneum and prolonged maximum Trendelenburg position which can result in adverse physiologic effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of robot-assisted gynecologic oncology procedures and to identify anesthesia-related peri-operative adverse events. This is a case series performed on the first 133 patients who underwent a robot-assisted gynecologic oncology procedure at a tertiary care facility. Data was collected from electronically archived patient charts and from a prospective surgical database. Patient demographics were recorded and significant intra-operative and post-operative adverse events were reviewed. Robot-assisted surgery for gynecologic oncologic surgery with the use of extreme Trendelenburg in all patients was safely and successfully performed across a wide range of ages, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores and body mass indices. Although most patients developed various degree of facial edema, only 5% of patients had a delayed extubation. Transient intra-operative hypoxemia (O2 saturation < 90%) occurred in 3.75% (5/133) of patients and hypercapnia (CO2 > 45 mmHg) in 18% (24/133). The mean duration of surgery was 254 min and median hospital stay was 1 day. Anesthetic and peri-operative complications are rare for patients undergoing robot-assisted gynecologic oncology surgeries despite the prolonged use of maximum Trendelenburg positioning and pneumoperitoneum. Although there are new anesthetic challenges, these surgeries were safely performed in a wide range of patients with minimal blood loss, short hospital stay and no significant cardiopulmonary complications. PMID:27628112

  10. The Power of Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In "The Power of Cooperation," Tony Nevin tells how the townspeople of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, are attempting to replicate a successful alternative-energy project in Samso, Denmark, where thinking about ways to reduce fossil-fuel use "became a kind of sport." Nevin says that thinking and acting locally helps people to identify and pursue…

  11. Cooperative Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauber, Dick T.

    In order to investigate the feasibility of adding a cooperative education option to the curricular offerings of Moraine Park Technical Institute (MPTI), interviews were conducted with randomly selected representatives of 12 industries and 17 employers in the marketing and merchandising businesses located in the MPTI service area. In addition,…

  12. Superpower cooperation often overlooked

    SciTech Connect

    Jamgotch, N. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    At the conclusion of the Geneva summit in November 1985, President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev signed an Agreement on Contacts and Exchanges in Scientific, Educational, and Cultural Fields. Since details of the agreements must still be worked out, it remains to be seen whether these statements signal a new era of US-Soviet cooperation. Still, the lack of media or even official attention to these broad areas of agreement repeats a pattern that has contributed to the continuing pervasive hostility and mistrust between the two nations. There are understandable reasons for the tendency to concentrate on conflict and crises rather than cooperation. While a cooperative agreement may be noted by an occasional news story, it is outshone be the more flash newsworthiness of political confrontation. The author points to the considerable successes of past US/USSR wide-ranging agreements, and notes that cooperative activities must be reported and analyzed more fully to counteract distrust and to overcome outmoded ideologies. 6 references.

  13. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  14. Combat or Cooperation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    The best intentioned efforts of adults are often sabotaged by coercive climates of bullying among peers and conflict with adults. The solution is to create cultures where youth cooperate with authority and treat one another with respect. In this article, the authors stress the task of the staff to create a condition in which students see more…

  15. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Nay, John J; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation. PMID:27171417

  16. Predicting Human Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner’s Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner’s Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner’s Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation. PMID:27171417

  17. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  18. International Cooperation in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenbrock, F. Karl

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) into various relationships in engineering that the United States has with countries that have comparable or superior levels of technology. Discusses competition, cooperation, information flow, symmetry, language and cultural barriers, research opportunities, and professional…

  19. Cooper Egressing 'Faith 7'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper is assisted in backing out of his Mecury capsule 'Faith 7' after a 600,000 mile, 22.9 orbit journey around the Earth. He elected to remain in the spacecraft until it was hoisted to the deck of the Kearsarge, as did Astronaut Walter Schirra during the previous mission.

  20. To Cooperate or Not to Cooperate: Why Behavioural Mechanisms Matter

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mutualistic cooperation often requires multiple individuals to behave in a coordinated fashion. Hence, while the evolutionary stability of mutualistic cooperation poses no particular theoretical difficulty, its evolutionary emergence faces a chicken and egg problem: an individual cannot benefit from cooperating unless other individuals already do so. Here, we use evolutionary robotic simulations to study the consequences of this problem for the evolution of cooperation. In contrast with standard game-theoretic results, we find that the transition from solitary to cooperative strategies is very unlikely, whether interacting individuals are genetically related (cooperation evolves in 20% of all simulations) or unrelated (only 3% of all simulations). We also observe that successful cooperation between individuals requires the evolution of a specific and rather complex behaviour. This behavioural complexity creates a large fitness valley between solitary and cooperative strategies, making the evolutionary transition difficult. These results reveal the need for research on biological mechanisms which may facilitate this transition. PMID:27148874